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Sample records for cms drift tube

  1. Phase 1 upgrade of the CMS drift tubes read-out system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Tobar, Á.; Triossi, A.; Fernández-Bedoya, C.; Redondo, I.; Redondo, D.; Sastre, J.; Cela-Ruiz, J. M.; Esteban, L.

    2017-03-01

    In order to cope with up to two times the nominal LHC luminosity, the second level of the readout system of the CMS Drift Tubes (DT) electronics needs to be redesigned to minimize event processing time and remove present bottlenecks. The μ ROS boards are μ TCA modules, which include a Xilinx Virtex-7 FPGA and are equipped with up to 6 12-channel optical receivers of the 240 Mbps input links. Each board collects the information from up to 72 input links (3 DT sectors), requiring a total of 25 boards. The design of the system and the first validation tests will be described.

  2. Status and future prospects of the Muon Drift Tubes System of CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masetti, G.

    2017-01-01

    A key component of the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiment is its muon system. The tracking and triggering of muons in the central part relies on Drift Tube (DT) chambers. In 2013 and 2014 a number of improvements and upgrades were implemented, in particular concerning the readout and trigger electronics. The increase of luminosity expected by LHC will impose several constraints for rate reduction while maintaining high efficiency in the CMS Level 1 trigger system. In order to exploit the muon detector redundancy, a new trigger system has been designed. The TwinMux system is the early layer of the muon barrel region that combines the primitives information from different subdetectors: DT, Resistive Plate Chambers (RPC) and Outer Hadron Calorimeter (HO). Regarding the long term operation of the DT system, in order to cope with up to a factor 2 nominal LHC luminosity, several improvements will be implemented. The in-chamber local electronics will be modified to cope with the new rate and radiation environment. This paper will present, along with the main system improvements implemented in the system, the first performance results from data collected at 13 TeV center-of-mass energy during 2016, confirming the satisfactory operation of both DT performance and the TwinMux system. A review of the present status and plans for the DT system upgrades will be also described.

  3. FPGA-based algorithms for the new trigger system for the phase 2 upgrade of the CMS drift tubes detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cela-Ruiz, J.-M.

    2017-01-01

    The new luminosity conditions imposed after the LHC upgrade will require a dedicated upgrade of several subdetectors. To cope with the new requirements, CMS drift tubes subdetector electronics will be redesigned in order to achieve the new foreseen response speed. In particular, it is necessary to enhance the first stage of the trigger system (L1A). In this document we present the development of a software algorithm, based on the mean timer paradigm, capable of reconstructing muon trajectories and rejecting spurious signals. It has been initially written in C++ programming language, but designed with its portability to a FPGA VHDL code in mind.

  4. A Proposal for the Upgrade of the Muon Drift Tubes Trigger for the CMS Experiment at the HL-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pozzobon, Nicola; Zotto, Pierluigi; Montecassiano, Fabio

    2016-11-01

    A major upgrade of the readout and trigger electronics of the CMS Drift Tubes muon detector is foreseen in order to allow its efficient operation at the High Luminosity LHC. A proposal for a new L1 Trigger Primitives Generator for this detector is presented, featuring an algorithm operating on the time of charge collection measurements provided by the asynchronous readout of the new TDC system being developed. The algorithm is being designed around the implementation in state-of-the-art FPGA devices of the original development of a Compact Hough Transform (CHT) algorithm combined with a Majority Mean-Timer, to identify both the parent bunch crossing and the muon track parameters. The current state of the design is presented along with the performance requirements, focusing on the future developments.

  5. Construction and test of the final CMS Barrel Drift Tube Muon Chamber prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar-Benítez, M.; Alberdi, J.; Arneodo, M.; Banicz, K.; Benettoni, M.; Benvenuti, A.; Bethke, S.; Cerrada, M.; Cirio, R.; Colino, N.; Conti, E.; Dallavalle, M.; Daniel, M.; Dattola, D.; Daudo, F.; De Giorgi, M.; Dosselli, U.; Fanfani, A.; Fanin, C.; Fouz, M. C.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Giacomelli, P.; Giordano, V.; Gonella, F.; Grandi, C.; Guaita, P.; Guerzoni, M.; Lacaprara, S.; Lippi, I.; Marcellini, S.; Marín, J.; Martinelli, R.; Maselli, S.; Meneguzzo, A.; Migliore, E.; Mocholí, J.; Monaco, V.; Montanari, A.; Montanari, C.; Odorici, F.; Oller, J. C.; Paoletti, S.; Passaseo, M.; Pegoraro, M.; Peroni, C.; Puerta, J.; Reithler, H.; Romero, A.; Romero, L.; Ronchese, P.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Sacchi, R.; Salicio, J. M.; Staiano, A.; Steinbeck, T.; Torassa, E.; Travaglini, R.; Ventura, L.; Ventura, S.; Vitelli, A.; Voetee, F.; Wegner, M.; Willmott, C.; Zotto, P.; Zumerle, G.

    2002-03-01

    A prototype of the CMS Barrel Muon Detector incorporating all the features of the final chambers was built using the mass production assembly procedures and tools. The performance of this prototype was studied in a muon test beam at CERN and the results obtained are presented in this paper.

  6. Pulsed Drift Tube Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Faltens, A.

    2004-10-25

    The pulsed drift-tube accelerator (DTA) concept was revived by Joe Kwan and John Staples and is being considered for the HEDP/WDM application. It could be used to reach the full energy or as an intermediate accelerator between the diode and a high gradient accelerator such as multi-beam r.f. In the earliest LBNL HIF proposals and conceptual drivers it was used as an extended injector to reach energies where an induction linac with magnetic quadrupoles is the best choice. For HEDP, because of the very short pulse duration, the DTA could provide an acceleration rate of about 1MV/m. This note is divided into two parts: the first, a design based on existing experience; the second, an optimistic extrapolation. The first accelerates 16 parallel K{sup +} beams at a constant line charge density of 0.25{micro} C/m per beam to 10 MeV; the second uses a stripper and charge selector at around 4MeV followed by further acceleration to reach 40 MeV. Both benefit from more compact sources than the present 2MV injector source, although that beam is the basis of the first design and is a viable option. A pulsed drift-tube accelerator was the first major HIF experiment at LBNL. It was designed to produce a 2{micro}s rectangular 1 Ampere C{sub s}{sup +} beam at 2MeV. It ran comfortably at 1.6MeV for several years, then at lower voltages and currents for other experiments, and remnants of that experiment are in use in present experiments, still running 25 years later. The 1A current, completely equivalent to 1.8A K{sup +}, was chosen to be intermediate between the beamlets appropriate for a multi-beam accelerator, and a single beam of, say, 10A, at injection energies. The original driver scenarios using one large beam on each side of the reactor rapidly fell out of favor because of the very high transverse and longitudinal fields from the beam space charge, circa 1MV/cm and 250 kV/cm respectively, near the chamber and because of aberrations in focusing a large diameter beam down to a 1

  7. Self-shielding flex-circuit drift tube, drift tube assembly and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Jones, David Alexander

    2016-04-26

    The present disclosure is directed to an ion mobility drift tube fabricated using flex-circuit technology in which every other drift electrode is on a different layer of the flex-circuit and each drift electrode partially overlaps the adjacent electrodes on the other layer. This results in a self-shielding effect where the drift electrodes themselves shield the interior of the drift tube from unwanted electro-magnetic noise. In addition, this drift tube can be manufactured with an integral flex-heater for temperature control. This design will significantly improve the noise immunity, size, weight, and power requirements of hand-held ion mobility systems such as those used for explosive detection.

  8. Conductive PVC for drift tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartl, W.

    1991-07-01

    For the construction of wire chambers conductive PVC has been developed. The extrusion of profiles with thin walls is possible and surface resistivities between 100 ω and 500 kω have been achieved with a variation of about ± 30%. This material is used for streamer tubes in the forward region of the LEP-DELPHI experiment at CERN.

  9. Coupled-cavity drift-tube linac

    DOEpatents

    Billen, James H.

    1996-01-01

    A coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) combines features of the Alvarez drift-tube linac (DTL) and the .pi.-mode coupled-cavity linac (CCL). In one embodiment, each accelerating cavity is a two-cell, 0-mode DTL. The center-to-center distance between accelerating gaps is .beta..lambda., where .lambda. is the free-space wavelength of the resonant mode. Adjacent accelerating cavities have oppositely directed electric fields, alternating in phase by 180 degrees. The chain of cavities operates in a .pi./2 structure mode so the coupling cavities are nominally unexcited. The CCDTL configuration provides an rf structure with high shunt impedance for intermediate velocity charged particles, i.e., particles with energies in the 20-200 MeV range.

  10. Coupled-cavity drift-tube linac

    DOEpatents

    Billen, J.H.

    1996-11-26

    A coupled-cavity drift-tube linac (CCDTL) combines features of the Alvarez drift-tube linac (DTL) and the {pi}-mode coupled-cavity linac (CCL). In one embodiment, each accelerating cavity is a two-cell, 0-mode DTL. The center-to-center distance between accelerating gaps is {beta}{lambda}, where {lambda} is the free-space wavelength of the resonant mode. Adjacent accelerating cavities have oppositely directed electric fields, alternating in phase by 180 degrees. The chain of cavities operates in a {pi}/2 structure mode so the coupling cavities are nominally unexcited. The CCDTL configuration provides an rf structure with high shunt impedance for intermediate velocity charged particles, i.e., particles with energies in the 20-200 MeV range. 5 figs.

  11. Adjustable rare earth quadrupole drift tube magnets

    SciTech Connect

    Feinberg, B.; Tanabe, J.; Halbach, K.; Koehler, G.; Green, M.I.

    1987-03-01

    A prototype permanent-magnet drift tube quadrupole with adjustable field strength has been constructed and tested. The magnet uses iron pole pieces to provide the required field shape along with rare earth permanent-magnet material (samarium cobalt) to energize the magnet. A unique feature of the configuration is the adjustability of the field, accomplished by rotating the outer rings consisting of permanent magnets and iron. In contrast with a previous prototype magnet, this new design uses ball bearings in place of slide bearings to eliminate potential failures. The rotation is now achieved with a bevel gear mechanism. The prototype design also incorporates a new drift tube shell vacuum seal to allow easy disassembly. Tests were made of the magnetic properties and the mechanical performance of this magnet. Field errors are extremely small, and the magnet passed an accelerated ten year lifetime test. It is planned to use this type of magnet to replace 24 of the SuperHILAC prestripper drift tubes.

  12. Effects of grids in drift tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Okamura M.; Yamauchi, H.

    2012-05-20

    In 2011, we upgraded a 201 MHz buncher in the proton injector for the alternating gradient synchrotron (AGS) - relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) complex. In the buncher we installed four grids made of tungsten to improve the transit time factor. The grid installed drift tubes have 32 mm of inner diameter and the each grid consists of four quadrants. The quadrants were cut out precisely from 1mm thick tungsten plates by a computerized numerically controlled (CNC) wire cutting electrical discharge machining (EDM). The 3D electric field of the grid was simulated.

  13. Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators

    DOEpatents

    Liska, D.J.; Schamaun, R.G.; Clark, D.C.; Potter, R.C.; Frank, J.A.

    1980-03-11

    The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder.

  14. Drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators

    DOEpatents

    Liska, Donald J.; Schamaun, Roger G.; Clark, Donald C.; Potter, R. Christopher; Frank, Joseph A.

    1982-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a drift tube suspension for high intensity linear accelerators. The system comprises a series of box-sections girders independently adjustably mounted on a linear accelerator. A plurality of drift tube holding stems are individually adjustably mounted on each girder.

  15. Variable-energy drift-tube linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, Donald A.; Boyd, Jr., Thomas J.; Potter, James M.; Stovall, James E.

    1984-01-01

    A linear accelerator system includes a plurality of post-coupled drift-tubes wherein each post coupler is bistably positionable to either of two positions which result in different field distributions. With binary control over a plurality of post couplers, a significant accumlative effect in the resulting field distribution is achieved yielding a variable-energy drift-tube linear accelerator.

  16. Variable-energy drift-tube linear accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Swenson, D.A.; Boyd, T.J. Jr.; Potter, J.M.; Stovall, J.E.

    A linear accelerator system includes a plurality of post-coupled drift-tubes wherein each post coupler is bistably positionable to either of two positions which result in different field distributions. With binary control over a plurality of post couplers, a significant accumlative effect in the resulting field distribution is achieved yielding a variable-energy drift-tube linear accelerator.

  17. Tracking chamber made of 15-mm mylar drift tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhin, A.; Borisov, A.; Bozhko, N.; Fakhrutdinov, R.; Plotnikov, I.

    2017-05-01

    We are presenting a drift chamber composed from three layers of mylar drift tubes with outer diameter 15 mm. The pipe is made of strip of mylar film 125 micrometers thick covered with aluminium from the both sides. A strip of mylar is wrapped around the mandrel. Pipe is created by ultrasonic welding. A single drift tube is self-supported structure withstanding 350 g wire tension without supports and internal overpressure. About 400 such tubes were assembled. Design, quality control procedures of the drift tubes are described. Seven chambers were glued from these tubes of 560 mm length. Each chamber consists of 3 layers, 16 tubes per layer. Several chambers were tested with cosmic rays. Results of the tests, counting rate plateau and coordinate resolution are presented.

  18. Proportional drift tubes for large area muon detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, C.; Higashi, S.; Hiraoka, N.; Maruyama, A.; Okusawa, T.; Sato, T.; Suwada, T.; Takahashi, T.; Umeda, H.

    1985-01-01

    A proportional drift chamber which consists of eight rectangular drift tubes with cross section of 10 cm x 5 cm, a sense wire of 100 micron phi gold-plated tungsten wire and the length of 6 m, was tested using cosmic ray muons. Spatial resolution (rms) is between 0.5 and 1 mm over drift space of 50 mm, depending on incident angle and distance from sense wire.

  19. Thirty-five years of drift-tube linac experience

    SciTech Connect

    Knowles, H.B.

    1984-10-01

    The history of the drift-tube linear accelerator (linac) for the first 35 years of its existence is briefly reviewed. Both US and foreign experience is included. Particular attention is given to technological improvements, operational reliability, capital investment, and number of personnel committed to drift-tube linac (DTL) development. Preliminary data indicate that second- and third-generation (post-1960) DTLs have, in the US alone, operated for a combined total period of more than 75 machine-years and that very high reliability (>90%) has been achieved. Existing US drift-tube linacs represent a capital investment of at least $250 million (1983). Additional statistical evidence, derived from the proceedings of the last 11 linear accelerator conferences, supports the view that the DTL has achieved a mature technological base. The report concludes with a discussion of important recent advances in technology and their applications to the fourth generation of DTLs, many of which are now becoming operational.

  20. Field stability in two-stem drift-tube linacs

    SciTech Connect

    Billen, J.H.; Spalek, G.; Shapiro, A.H.

    1988-01-01

    Drift tubes supported by two stems have been considered for cryogenic drift-tube linacs (DTLs) to reduce vibrations and to minimize drift-tube deflections upon cool down. We investigated rf properties of two-stem DTL structures at room temperature and low power. Even apart is inherently more stable against tuning errors than a similar structure with single stems. The increased stability is higher for DTLs with shorter drift tubes. Ordinary quarter-wavelength-long post couplers actually destabilize the two-stem DTL fields; the extra stem raises the post coupler frequency compared to the frequency of the same post coupler extended beyond the tank wall into coaxial stub tuners. Adjustment of the stub lengths tunes the post-coupler frequencies, but post-coupler lengths in the tank have no effect, which suggests a field pattern different from traditional post couplers. The stabilized DTL resembles multiple-stem DTLs in which the angle between stems is varied to achieve stabilization. Adjusting the coaxial stub length is mechanically simpler than changing the stem azimuth angle. 5 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Compact Toroid Propagation in a Magnetized Drift Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horton, Robert D.; Baker, Kevin L.; Hwang, David Q.; Evans, Russell W.

    2000-10-01

    Injection of a spheromak-like compact toroid (SCT) plasma into a toroidal plasma confinement device may require the SCT to propagate through a drift tube region occupied by a pre-existing magnetic field. This field is expected to extert a retarding force on the SCT, but may also result in a beneficial compression. The effects of transverse and longitudinal magnetic fields will be measured using the CTIX compact-toroid injector, together with a fast framing camera with an axial view of the formation, coaxial, and drift-tube regions. In the case of longitudinal magnetic field, comparisons will be made with the predictions of two-dimensional numerical simulation. The use of localized magnetic field to reduce plasma bridging of the insulating gap will also be investigated.

  2. Alignment methods for the OPERA drift tube detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büttner, B.; Ebert, J.; Ferber, T.; Göllnitz, C.; Goloubkov, D.; Hagner, C.; Hierholzer, M.; Hollnagel, A.; Lenkeit, J.; Rostovtseva, I.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Wonsak, B.; Zaitsev, Y.

    2014-05-01

    The goal of the OPERA experiment is to give the first direct evidence for neutrino oscillations in the channel νμ→ντ. The OPERA detector is designed to observe the appearance of tau neutrinos in the originally pure muon neutrino CNGS beam. An important part of the magnetic spectrometer is the Precision Tracker (PT), a drift tube detector consisting of 9504 drift tubes. Its main task is the determination of the muon charge and momentum. The alignment strategy for the PT consists of two parts: the hardware measurement by theodolite and the software alignment using long muon tracks. In this paper, the hardware and the software alignment are described, and the track-based alignment methods are explained in detail. Results of the software alignment are presented with a focus on the analysis of cosmic particles.

  3. The Measurement of Microforce-Sensor Thermal Drift Measured by Balance in Cms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Sheau-Shi; Lin, Yi-Ching; Huang, Jian-Lin; Chen, Sheng-Jui

    The micro-force sensors were widely used in the areas of micro-assembly, micro-factories, micro-robotics, MEMS characterization, Nano-manipulation, Biological and biomedical research, Material properties, etc. It was also used as a transfer standard in micro-force machine or instrument. The capacitance-type force sensor was used to sense forces with micro-Newton (sub-milligram) resolution. And it was used as a transducer for the micro-force instrument in CMS. In this paper, we will report the preliminary results of thermal drift properties in capacitance-type force sensor.

  4. Aging and Rejuvenation of Drift Tubes Under High Irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Yue

    2005-04-01

    The ATLAS spectrometer of the LHC (CERN) consists of 6x10^5 Monitored Drift Tubes(MDT) in its muon chambers. The performance of detector tubes under high radiation is critical. We measured MDT gain performance such as 1)gain deterioration (aging) with the accumulation of charge and Si deposits on anode wire, and 2)gain dependence on gas tube pressure and high voltage. The pressure and anode voltage behavior is fitted to the Diethorn model, from which the effective field of the start of avalanche is found to be 29500 (±800)V/cm. The effective potential for one ionization in Ar is found to be 30.0(±0.9) V. Using an UV arc lamp source, a tube was aged to ˜73% signal height after accumulating 21C/cm of wire charge. The wire surface was scanned with an Scanning Electron Microscope to differentiate aged and non- aged section with respect to substrate content e.g. Si. An aged tube was then reanimated with 1% O2 in gas and reverse wire potential (sputtering).

  5. Pressurized drift tubes scintillating fiber hadron calorimetry. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bromberg, C.; Huston, J.; Miller, R.

    1995-03-22

    Under this contract members of the MSU high energy physics group constructed a full-scale Pressurized Drift Tube Chamber intended for the GEM muon system at the SSC. They achieved a position resolution of <90 {mu} over the full 5 m{sup 2} area of the detector. This resolution satisfied the GEM resolution requirements of <100 {mu} by a comfortable margin. Based on their SSC work they developed a new technique for creating wire supports in drift tubes with an overall placement accuracy of <20 {mu}. This technique requires only simple jigging and can be duplicated and operated at low cost. Also, they participated in the design and testing of a hadron calorimeter prototype for GEM. This work lead the authors to develop a semi-automatic welding machine to fuse together two plastic optical fibers. Copies of this machine are currently in use in the CDF endplug upgrade at Fermilab and additional copies are used widely in calorimeter and fiber-tracker construction.

  6. Ion behavior and interelectrode breakdown voltage of a drift tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Hao; Zhao, Zhong-Jun; Duan, Yi-Xiang

    2015-05-01

    We experimentally studied ion behavior and interelectrode breakdown voltage. The ion behavior of a drift tube directly influences the detection of ion intensity, and then influences the detection sensitivity of a system. Interelectrode voltage and pressure directly influence the ion behavior. Gas discharge between electrodes influences the adjustments required for interelectrode voltage. The experimental results show: ion intensity increases exponentially with the increment of voltage between drift electrodes; ion intensity decreases exponentially as pressure increases; with the increment of pressure, the breakdown voltage at first decreases, and then increases; ion injection has a significant influence on breakdown voltage, and this influence depends on the pressure and shapes of the electrodes. We explain the results above through assumptions and by mathematical methods. Supported by Financial Support from the National Major Scientific Instruments and Equipment Development Special Funds (2011YQ030113), National Recruitment Program of Global Experts (NRPGE), the Hundred Talents Program of Sichuan Province (HTPSP) and the Startup Funding of Sichuan University for Setting up the Research Center of Analytical Instrumentation

  7. LANSCE Drift Tube Linac Water Control System Refurbishment

    SciTech Connect

    Marroquin, Pilar S.

    2011-01-01

    There are several refurbishment projects underway at the Los Alamos National Laboratory LANSCE linear accelerator. Systems involved are: RF, water cooling, networks, diagnostics, timing, controls, etc. The Drift Tube Linac (DTL) portion of the accelerator consists of four DTL tanks, each with three independent water control systems. The systems are about 40 years old, use outdated and non-replaceable equipment and NIM bin control modules, are beyond their design life and provide unstable temperature control. Insufficient instrumentation and documentation further complicate efforts at maintaining system performance. Detailed design of the replacement cooling systems is currently in progress. Previous design experience on the SNS accelerator water cooling systems will be leveraged, see the SNS DTL FDR. Plans call for replacement of water piping, manifolds, pumps, valves, mix tanks, instrumentation (flow, pressure and temperature) and control system hardware and software. This presentation will focus on the control system design with specific attention on planned use of the National Instruments Compact RIO platform with the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control system (EPICS) software toolkit.

  8. Track chambers based on precision drift tubes housed inside 30 mm mylar pipe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, A.; Bozhko, N.; Fakhrutdinov, R.; Kozhin, A.; Leontiev, B.; Levin, A.

    2014-06-01

    We describe drift chambers consisting of 3 layers of 30 mm (OD) drift tubes made of double sided aluminized mylar film with thickness 0.125 mm. A single drift tube is self-supported structure withstanding 350 g tension of 50 microns sense wire located in the tube center with 10 microns precision with respect to end-plug outer surface. Such tubes allow to create drift chambers with small amount of material, construction of such chambers doesn't require hard frames. Twenty six chambers with working area from 0.8 × 1.0 to 2.5 × 2.0 m2 including 4440 tubes have been manufactured for experiments at 70-GeV proton accelerator at IHEP(Protvino).

  9. Drift of a flat particle at longitudinal oscillations of gas in an open tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaripov, R. G.; Tkachenko, L. A.; R, Shaydullin L.

    2014-11-01

    The particle motion is experimentally investigated at nonlinear oscillations of gas in the tube and in the external field near the open end in the shock-free mode. Dependence is obtained for the coordinates of the particle along the tube from time for various frequencies and amplitudes of displacement of the piston. Drift is set for a particle from the open end of the tube to the piston. It is determined that the particle moves into an external field at the open end outside the tube without appreciable oscillations. Detected position of the particle at the open end, wherein the particle does not perform drift towards the inside and outside of the tube.

  10. Pulsed electron beam propagation in gases under pressure of 6.6 kPa in drift tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholodnaya, G. E.; Sazonov, R. V.; Ponomarev, D. V.; Remnev, G. E.; Poloskov, A. V.

    2017-02-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation of pulsed electron beam transport propagated in a drift tube filled with different gases (He, H2, N2, Ar, SF6, and CO2). The total pressure in the drift tube was 6.6 kPa. The experiments were carried out using a TEA-500 pulsed electron accelerator. The electron beam was propagated in the drift tube composed of two sections equipped with reverse current shunts. Under a pressure of 6.6 kPa, the maximum value of the electron beam charge closed on the walls of the drift tube was recorded when the beam was propagated in hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The minimum value of the electron beam charge closed on the walls of the drift tube was recorded for sulfur hexafluoride. The visualization of the pulsed electron beam energy losses onto the walls of the drift chamber was carried out using radiation-sensitive film.

  11. New high-precision drift-tube detectors for the ATLAS muon spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroha, H.; Fakhrutdinov, R.; Kozhin, A.

    2017-06-01

    Small-diameter muon drift tube (sMDT) detectors have been developed for upgrades of the ATLAS muon spectrometer. With a tube diameter of 15 mm, they provide an about an order of magnitude higher rate capability than the present ATLAS muon tracking detectors, the MDT chambers with 30 mm tube diameter. The drift-tube design and the construction methods have been optimised for mass production and allow for complex shapes required for maximising the acceptance. A record sense wire positioning accuracy of 5 μm has been achieved with the new design. In the serial production, the wire positioning accuracy is routinely better than 10 μm. 14 new sMDT chambers are already operational in ATLAS, further 16 are under construction for installation in the 2019-2020 LHC shutdown. For the upgrade of the barrel muon spectrometer for High-Luminosity LHC, 96 sMDT chambers will be contructed between 2020 and 2024.

  12. Electron motion of an annular beam in a low-magnetic-field drift tube

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Ping; Ye, Hu; Tan, Weibing; Sun, Jun; Hu, Chengbao

    2014-12-15

    Foil-less diodes and annular electron beams are widely adopted in high power microwave systems, and the electron beam is usually constrained by a guiding magnetic field to pass through the downstream drift tube and beam-wave interaction region. The electron beam, however, will present obvious radial motion when a low magnetic field is adopted, which will prominently influence the beam transmission and beam-wave interaction. This paper focuses on the radial motion of the electron beam in a low-magnetic-field drift tube. A spatial period is demonstrated with methods of theoretical analysis, single-particle calculations, particle-in-cell simulations, and experiments. The results obtained with different methods show good coherency, indicating that the real spatial period of the electron beam can be predicted by a simple formula which is based on single-particle motion regardless of space-charge effect.

  13. Analysis of Higher Order Modes Damping Techniques in 9 Cell Cavity with Modified Drift Tubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shashkov, Ya. V.; Mitrofanov, A. A.; Sobenin, N. P.; Zvyagintsev, V. L.

    Electrodynamic characteristics (EDC) of higher order modes (HOM) were calculated for a superconducting 9-cell accelerating cavity of eLinac accelerator with operating frequency of 1300 MHz. Several HOM damping techniques including damping with grooved, fluted and ridged beam pipes were analyzed and compared. The influence of the parameters of the drift tube on the HOM damping and on the parameters of the fundamental wave was analyzed.

  14. Construction and test of new precision drift-tube chambers for the ATLAS muon spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroha, H.; Kortner, O.; Schmidt-Sommerfeld, K.; Takasugi, E.

    2017-02-01

    ATLAS muon detector upgrades aim for increased acceptance for muon triggering and precision tracking and for improved rate capability of the muon chambers in the high-background regions of the detector with increasing LHC luminosity. The small-diameter Muon Drift Tube (sMDT) chambers have been developed for these purposes. With half of the drift-tube diameter of the MDT chambers and otherwise unchanged operating parameters, sMDT chambers share the advantages of the MDTs, but have an order of magnitude higher rate capability and can be installed in detector regions where MDT chambers do not fit in. The chamber assembly methods have been optimized for mass production, minimizing construction time and personnel. Sense wire positioning accuracies of 5 μm have been achieved in serial production for large-size chambers comprising several hundred drift tubes. The construction of new sMDT chambers for installation in the 2016/17 winter shutdown of the LHC and the design of sMDT chambers in combination with new RPC trigger chambers for replacement of the inner layer of the barrel muon spectrometer are in progress.

  15. Drift tube soft-landing for the production and characterization of materials: Applied to Cu clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila, Stephen J.; Birdwell, David O.; Verbeck, Guido F.

    2010-03-01

    We have recently developed a soft-landing (SL) instrument that is capable of depositing ions onto substrates for preparative and developmental research of new materials using a laser ablation source. This instrument was designed with a custom drift tube and a split-ring ion optic for the isolation of selected ions. The drift tube allows for the separation and thermalization of ions formed after laser ablation through collisions with an inert bath gas. These collisions allow the ions to be landed at energies below 1 eV onto substrates. The split-ring ion optic is capable of directing ions toward the detector or a landing substrate for selected components. Experiments will be shown ablating Cu using an Nd:YAG (1064 and 532 nm) for cluster formation and landing onto a muscovite (mica) surface. The laser ablation of Cu in 8 Torr of He gas gives a spectrum that contains multiple peaks corresponding to Cun, CunOm clusters, and their corresponding isomers. Atomic force microscopy and drift tube measurements were performed to characterize the performance characteristics of the instrument.

  16. LANSCE 201.25 MHz drift tube linac RF power status

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, J.T.M.; Friedrichs, C.C., Jr.

    1996-09-01

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center linac provides high power proton beams for neutron science, tritium target development, nuclear physics, material science, isotope production, and weapons research. Number of simultaneous beam users places heavy demands on the RF powerplant, espcially the 201.25 MHz power amplifiers (PA) driving four drift tube linac cavities. Designed nearly 30 years ago, these amplifiers have operated at up to 3 Megawatts with duty factors of 12%. The number of power tubes, age of cooling and control subsystems, tube manufacturing problems, and operation near maximum PA tube ratings have all affected system reliability. By monitoring final power amplifier plate dissipation and tube vcauum, improved operating procedures have raised RF system reliability above 95% for operation periods in 1993-95. Higher beam current for a proposed Long Pulse Spallation Source (LPSS) cannot be delivered simultaneously with other beams at high duty factor, however. Plans are underway to develop a new final power amplifier which can use low-level RF modulations for amplitude control. With only a few power tubes, the system will deliver high peak power and duty factor, with improved DC to RF efficiency, and a simplified cooling system.

  17. A scanning drift tube apparatus for spatiotemporal mapping of electron swarms

    SciTech Connect

    Korolov, I.; Vass, M.; Donkó, Z.; Bastykova, N. Kh.

    2016-06-15

    A “scanning” drift tube apparatus, capable of mapping of the spatiotemporal evolution of electron swarms, developing between two plane electrodes under the effect of a homogeneous electric field, is presented. The electron swarms are initiated by photoelectron pulses and the temporal distributions of the electron flux are recorded while the electrode gap length (at a fixed electric field strength) is varied. Operation of the system is tested and verified with argon gas; the measured data are used for the evaluation of the electron bulk drift velocity. The experimental results for the space-time maps of the electron swarms — presented here for the first time — also allow clear observation of deviations from hydrodynamic transport. The swarm maps are also reproduced by particle simulations.

  18. Crossbar H-mode drift-tube linac design with alternative phase focusing for muon linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otani, M.; Futatsukawa, K.; Hasegawa, K.; Kitamura, R.; Kondo, Y.; Kurennoy, S.

    2017-07-01

    We have developed a Crossbar H-mode (CH) drift-tube linac (DTL) design with an alternative phase focusing (APF) scheme for a muon linac, in order to measure the anomalous magnetic moment and electric dipole moment (EDM) of muons at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). The CH-DTL accelerates muons from β = v/c = 0.08 to 0.28 at an operational frequency of 324 MHz. The design and results are described in this paper.

  19. Comparison of conventional and novel quadrupole drift tube magnets inspired by Klaus Halbach

    SciTech Connect

    Feinberg, B.

    1995-02-01

    Quadrupole drift tube magnets for a heavy-ion linac provide a demanding application of magnet technology. A comparison is made of three different solutions to the problem of providing an adjustable high-field-strength quadrupole magnet in a small volume. A conventional tape-wound electromagnet quadrupole magnet (conventional) is compared with an adjustable permanent-magnet/iron quadrupole magnet (hybrid) and a laced permanent-magnet/iron/electromagnet (laced). Data is presented from magnets constructed for the SuperHILAC heavy-ion linear accelerator, and conclusions are drawn for various applications.

  20. Interdigital H -mode drift-tube linac design with alternative phase focusing for muon linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otani, M.; Mibe, T.; Yoshida, M.; Hasegawa, K.; Kondo, Y.; Hayashizaki, N.; Iwashita, Y.; Iwata, Y.; Kitamura, R.; Saito, N.

    2016-04-01

    We have developed an interdigital H-mode (IH) drift-tube linac (DTL) design with an alternative phase focusing (APF) scheme for a muon linac, in order to measure the anomalous magnetic moment and electric dipole moment (EDM) of muons at the Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex (J-PARC). The IH-DTL accelerates muons from β =v /c =0.08 to 0.28 at an operational frequency of 324 MHz. The output beam emittances are calculated as 0.315 π and 0.195 π mm mrad in the horizontal and vertical directions, respectively, which satisfies the experimental requirement.

  1. Selected Ion Flow-Drift Tube Mass Spectrometry: Quantification of Volatile Compounds in Air and Breath.

    PubMed

    Spesyvyi, Anatolii; Smith, David; Španěl, Patrik

    2015-12-15

    A selected ion flow-drift tube mass spectrometric analytical technique, SIFDT-MS, is described that extends the established selected ion flow tube mass spectrometry, SIFT-MS, by the inclusion of a static but variable E-field along the axis of the flow tube reactor in which the analytical ion-molecule chemistry occurs. The ion axial speed is increased in proportion to the reduced field strength E/N (N is the carrier gas number density), and the residence/reaction time, t, which is measured by Hadamard transform multiplexing, is correspondingly reduced. To ensure a proper understanding of the physics and ion chemistry underlying SIFDT-MS, ion diffusive loss to the walls of the flow-drift tube and the mobility of injected H3O(+) ions have been studied as a function of E/N. It is seen that the derived diffusion coefficient and mobility of H3O(+) ions are consistent with those previously reported. The rate coefficient has been determined at elevated E/N for the association reaction of the H3O(+) reagent ions with H2O molecules, which is the first step in the production of H3O(+)(H2O)1,2,3 reagent hydrate ions. The production of hydrated analyte ion was also experimentally investigated. The analytical performance of SIFDT-MS is demonstrated by the quantification of acetone and isoprene in exhaled breath. Finally, the essential features of SIFDT-MS and SIFT-MS are compared, notably pointing out that a much lower speed of the flow-drive pump is required for SIFDT-MS, which facilitates the development of smaller cost-effective analytical instruments for real time breath and fluid headspace analyses.

  2. The development of magnetic field measurement system for drift-tube linac quadrupole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jianxin; Kang, Wen; Yin, Baogui; Peng, Quanling; Li, Li; Liu, Huachang; Gong, Keyun; Li, Bo; Chen, Qiang; Li, Shuai; Liu, Yiqin

    2015-06-01

    In the China Spallation Neutron Source (CSNS) linac, a conventional 324 MHz drift-tube linac (DTL) accelerating an H- ion beam from 3 MeV to 80 MeV has been designed and manufactured. The electromagnetic quadrupoles (EMQs) are widely used in a DTL accelerator. The main challenge of DTLQ's structure is to house a strong gradient EMQ in the much reduced space of the drift-tube (DT). To verify the DTLQ's design specifications and fabrication quality, a precision harmonic coil measurement system has been developed, which is based on the high precision movement platform, the harmonic coil with ceramic frame and the special method to make the harmonic coil and the quadrupoles coaxial. After more than one year's continuous running, the magnetic field measurement system still performs accurately and stably. The field measurement of more than one hundred DTLQ has been finished. The components and function of the measurement system, the key point of the technology and the repeatability of the measurement results are described in this paper.

  3. New high power 200 MHz RF system for the LANSCE drift tube linac

    SciTech Connect

    Lyles, J.; Friedrichs, C.; Lynch, M.

    1998-12-31

    The Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) linac provides an 800 MeV direct H{sup +} proton beam, and injects H{sup {minus}} to the upgraded proton storage ring for charge accumulation for the Short Pulse Spallation Source. Accelerating these interlaced beams requires high average power from the 201.25 MHz drift tube linac (DTL) RF system. Three power amplifiers have operated at up to three Megawatts with 12% duty factor. The total number of electron power tubes in the RF amplifiers and their modulators has been reduced from fifty-two to twenty-four. The plant continues to utilize the original design of a tetrode driving a super power triode. Further increases in the linac duty factor are limited, in part, by the maximum dissipation ratings of the triodes. A description of the system modifications proposed to overcome these limitations includes new power amplifiers using low-level RF modulation for tank field control. The first high power Diacrode{reg_sign} is being delivered and a new amplifier cavity is being designed. With only eight power tubes, the new system will deliver both peak power and high duty factor, with lower mains power and cooling requirements. The remaining components needed for the new RF system will be discussed.

  4. The response of drift tubes to variations in wire diameter and gas filling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, David M.; Bilskie, James R.; Sanders, Gary H.

    1987-05-01

    A systematic study of the response of single-wire drift tubes to variations in the wire diameter and gas fillings has been conducted. Gas gain as a function of applied voltage and pulse-shape characteristics were measured for both the proportional and streamer modes. Argon gas fillings with mixtures of ethane, methane, isobutane, and carbon dioxide were studied. Ethanol and isopropyl alcohol admixtures were added to determine effects on stability. Additional studies were conducted on nonstandard gas mixtures such as Freon and neon fillings, and "magic gas". Wire diameters included in the study were 20, 25, 50, and 100 μm. The results demonstrate that streamer operation can be achieved with most gases and wire diameters. However, in most cases, admixtures of alcohol were necessary to obtain adequate streamer mode plateaus for the smaller diameter wires.

  5. First acceleration of a proton beam in a side coupled drift tube linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronsivalle, C.; Picardi, L.; Ampollini, A.; Bazzano, G.; Marracino, F.; Nenzi, P.; Snels, C.; Surrenti, V.; Vadrucci, M.; Ambrosini, F.

    2015-07-01

    We report the first experiment aimed at the demonstration of low-energy protons acceleration by a high-efficiency S-band RF linear accelerator. The proton beam has been accelerated from 7 to 11.6 MeV by a 1 meter long SCDTL (Side Coupled Drift Tube Linac) module powered with 1.3 MW. The experiment has been done in the framework of the Italian TOP-IMPLART (Oncological Therapy with Protons-Intensity Modulated Proton Therapy Linear Accelerator for Radio-Therapy) project devoted to the realization of a proton therapy centre based on a proton linear accelerator for intensity modulated cancer treatments to be installed at IRE-IFO, the largest oncological hospital in Rome. It is the first proton therapy facility employing a full linear accelerator scheme based on high-frequency technology.

  6. Commissioning of the first drift tube linac module in the Ground Test Accelerator

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.F.; Sander, O.R.; Atkins, W.H.; Bolme, G.O.; Bowling, S.; Cole, R.; Connolly, R.; Denney, P.; Erickson, J.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Ingalls, W.B.; Kersteins, D.; Kraus, R.; Lysenko, W.P.; McMurry, D.; Mottershead, C.T.; Power, J.; Rose, C.; Rusthoi, D.P.; Sandoval, D.P.; Schneider, J.D.; Smith, M.; Vaughn, G.; Wadlinger, E.A.; Weiss, R.; Yuan, V.

    1993-06-01

    The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) has the objective of verifying much of the technology required for producing high-brightness, high-current H{sup {minus}} beams. GTA commissioning is staged to verify the beam-dynamics design of each major accelerator component as it is brought on-line. The major components are the 35-keV H{sup {minus}} injector, the 2.5-MeV radio-frequency quadrupole (RFQ), the intertank matching section (IMS), the 3.2 MeV first 2{beta}{lambda} drift tube linac (DTL-1) module, and the 24-MeV GTA with 10 DTL modules. Results from the DTL-1 beam experiments will be presented.

  7. Restoring contaminated wires, removing gas contaminants, and aging studies of drift tube chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, Thomas

    2003-12-01

    The original muon detection system of the Fermilab D0 colliding beam experiment contained 12,000 drift cells 10 cm×5 cm in cross-section and up to 580 cm in length. The gas mixture used was Ar/CF 4/CO 2 (90:6:4). There was one recycling gas system for all the chambers. During the first year of operation, it was discovered that inefficient cells, all in regions of high radiation, had a contaminating shell of crud coating their wires. The source of the contaminant was outgassing of the cathode pads, which were made from a laminate of fiberglass and epoxy/polyester resin, with a copper cladding on one surface. The vapor formed a brittle sheath on the wires, but only in regions of high current discharge due to radiation from the accelerator and colliding beams. A method for cleaning wires in place was devised. By heating the wire quickly to a temperature close to the melting temperature of gold, the sheath was ripped to shreds and blown away. The procedure for "zapping" wires and for removing the contaminating vapor is presented. The upgraded D0 experiment now uses Iarocci-type mini-drift tubes for the forward muon system. The results of aging tests for these chambers are also presented.

  8. Electron transport parameters in CO2: scanning drift tube measurements and kinetic computations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vass, M.; Korolov, I.; Loffhagen, D.; Pinhão, N.; Donkó, Z.

    2017-06-01

    This work presents the transport coefficients of electrons (bulk drift velocity, longitudinal diffusion coefficient, and effective ionization frequency) in CO2 measured under time-of-flight conditions over a wide range of the reduced electric field, 15 {Td}≤slant E/N≤slant 2660 {Td}, in a scanning drift tube apparatus. The data obtained in the experiments are also applied to determine the effective steady-state Townsend ionization coefficient. These parameters are compared to the results of previous experimental studies, as well as to the results of various kinetic computations: solutions of the electron Boltzmann equation under different approximations (multiterm and density gradient expansions) and Monte Carlo simulations. The experimental data extend the range of E/N compared with previous measurements and are consistent with most of the transport parameters obtained in these earlier studies. The computational results point out the range of applicability of the respective approaches to determine the different measured transport properties of electrons in CO2. They also demonstrate the need for further improvement of the electron collision cross section data for CO2 taking into account the present experimental data.

  9. Space-charge saturation and current limits in cylindrical drift tubes and planar sheaths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, Kenneth Frank, II

    2000-12-01

    Space-charge effects play a dominant role in many areas of physics. In high-power microwave devices using high-current, relativistic electron beams, it places a limit on the amount of radiation a device can produce. Because the beam's space-charge can actually reflect a portion of the beam, the ability to accurately predict the amount of current a device can carry is needed. This current value is known as the space-charge limited current. Because of the mathematical difficulties, this limit is typically estimated from a one-dimensional theory. This work presents a two-dimensional theory for calculating an upper-bound for the space-charge limited current of relativistic electron beams propagating in grounded coaxial drift tubes. Applicable to annular beams of arbitrary radius and thickness, the theory includes the effect introduced by a finite-length drift tube of circular cross-section. Using Green's second identity, the need to solve Poisson's equation is transferred to solving a Sturm-Liouville eigenvalue problem, which is easily solved by elementary methods. In general, the resulting eigenvalue, which is required to estimate the limiting current, must be numerically determined. However, analytic expressions can be found for frequently encountered limiting cases. Space-charge effects also produce the fundamental collective behavior found in plasmas, especially in plasma sheaths. A plasma sheath is the transition region between a bulk plasma and an adjacent plasma-facing surface. The sheath controls the loss of particles from the plasma in order to maintain neutrality. Using a fully kinetic theory, the problem of a planar sheath with a single-minimum electric potential profile is investigated. Appropriate for single charge-state ions of arbitrary temperature, the theory includes the emission of warm electrons from the surface as well as a net current through the sheath and is compared to particle-in-cell simulations. Approximate expressions are developed for

  10. Straightforward and accurate technique for post-coupler stabilization in drift tube linac structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khalvati, Mohammad Reza; Ramberger, Suitbert

    2016-04-01

    The axial electric field of Alvarez drift tube linacs (DTLs) is known to be susceptible to variations due to static and dynamic effects like manufacturing tolerances and beam loading. Post-couplers are used to stabilize the accelerating fields of DTLs against tuning errors. Tilt sensitivity and its slope have been introduced as measures for the stability right from the invention of post-couplers but since then the actual stabilization has mostly been done by tedious iteration. In the present article, the local tilt-sensitivity slope TSn' is established as the principal measure for stabilization instead of tilt sensitivity or some visual slope, and its significance is developed on the basis of an equivalent-circuit diagram of the DTL. Experimental and 3D simulation results are used to analyze its behavior and to define a technique for stabilization that allows finding the best post-coupler settings with just four tilt-sensitivity measurements. CERN's Linac4 DTL Tank 2 and Tank 3 have been stabilized successfully using this technique. The final tilt-sensitivity error has been reduced from ±100 %/MHz down to ±3 %/MHz for Tank 2 and down to ±1 %/MHz for Tank 3. Finally, an accurate procedure for tuning the structure using slug tuners is discussed.

  11. Numerical studies and measurements on the side-coupled drift tube linac (SCDTL) accelerating structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Picardi, L.; Ronsivalle, C.; Spataro, B.

    2000-09-01

    The 3 GHz linac section designed for the low energy (7-65 MeV) part of TOP (therapy oncological protons) linac (Picardi et al., 1997, 1996), operating at 3 GHz frequency and in π/2 mode, consists of eight modules of the structure SCDTL (side-coupled drift tube linac). The first module is designed to accelerate 7 MeV protons up to 13.4 MeV, and a prototype is presently under construction. Electromagnetic field calculations of the non-axisymmetric cavities carried out by using MAFIA 3D code (Weiland, 1986) gave the RF wall losses and the full mode spectrum. Two prototypes, an aluminium model of the first quintuplet and a copper model of the last triplet of the module, were built in order to check the complex 3D properties of the structure, and to refine the tuning procedure. This paper reports the results of the 3D numerical simulations about the RF properties of the first module and of some RF measurements on the prototypes. The beam dynamics study results in the SCDTL section are discussed as well.

  12. A capture-gated neutron calorimeter using plastic scintillators and 3He drift tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Zhehui; Morris, Christopher L; Spaulding, Randy J; Bacon, Jeffrey D; Borozdin, Konstantin N; Chung, Kiwhan; Clark, Deborah J; Green, Jesse A; Greene, Steven J; Hogan, Gary E; Jason, Andrew; Lisowski, Paul W; Makela, Mark F; Mariam, Fessaha G; Miyadera, Haruo; Murray, Matthew M; Saunders, Alexander; Wysocki, Frederick J; Gray, Frederick E

    2010-01-01

    A segmented neutron calorimeter using nine 4-inch x 4-inch x 48-inch plastic scintillators and sixteen 2-inch-diameter 48-inch-long 200-mbar-{sup 3}He drift tubes is described. The correlated scintillator and neutron-capture events provide a means for n/{gamma} discrimination, critical to the neutron calorimetry when the {gamma} background is substantial and the {gamma} signals are comparable in amplitude to the neutron signals. A single-cell prototype was constructed and tested. It can distinguish between a {sup 17}N source and a {sup 252}Cf source when the {gamma} and the thermal neutron background are sufficiently small. The design and construction of the nine-cell segmented detector assembly follow the same principle. By recording the signals from individual scintillators, additional {gamma}-subtraction schemes, such as through the time-of-flight between two scintillators, may also be used. The variations of the light outputs from different parts of a scintillator bar are less than 10%.

  13. Analysis of measured post-coupler fields in a ramped-gradient drift-tube linac

    SciTech Connect

    Billen, J.H.

    1988-01-01

    Post couplers longitudinally stabilize the axial electric field in a drift-tube linac (DTL) against tuning errors. Displacing the post couplers toward one end of the structure results in a ramped field that increases toward the other end. Such a ramped-gradient DTL is also stable, but some of the cavity power is dissipated on the post couplers to maintain the ramp. This paper reports bead-perturbation measurements of the post-coupler magnetic fields near the tank well. A simple physical model reproduces the measured fields with an accuracy of about 2% and yields current-density distributions on the post couplers in terms of the current density on the cavity wall. The peak power density occurs on the sides of the post couplers where the TM/sub 010/ magnetic field adds to the post-coupler magnetic field. In the Los Alamos Ramped-Gradient DTL (RGDTL), the peak power densities on post couplers located in the steepest part of the ramp exceed by more than 10 times the maximum power density on the tank wall far from any post couplers. Methods to reduce such power losses to levels comparable to a flat-gradient DTL will be discussed. 2 refs. , 6 figs., 1 tab.

  14. A Separated Function Drift-Tube Linac for the ISAC Project at TRIUMF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laxdal, R. E.; Bricault, P. G.; Ries, T.; Gorelov, D. V.

    1997-05-01

    The ISAC radioactive ion beam facility under construction at TRIUMF combines an isotope-separator-on-line with a post accelerator. Required in the accelerator chain is a drift tube linac (DTL) capable of accelerating, in cw mode, unstable nuclei with A/q >= 1/6 from E=0.15 MeV/u to a final energy fully variable up to 1.5 MeV/u. A novel separated function DTL concept has been developed. Five independent interdigital H-type structures, each operating at 105 MHz and 0^circ synchronous phase, provide the acceleration, while quadrupole triplets and triple-gap spiral resonators placed between IH tanks provide periodic transverse and longitudinal focussing respectively. A square field computational model has been used to design and study the concept. In specific cases the model was verified by comparison with particle motion through computed three-dimensional realistic fields. Beam simulations show that the DTL can accelerate beams with little or no emittance growth over the complete energy range. MAFIA has been used to optimize the rf characteristics of the IH tanks. Design and fabrication of the first IH tank is underway. Results of the beam dynamics and MAFIA studies, as well as the final linac specifications are presented. In addition, the status of the DTL engineering is summarized.

  15. Matching the laser generated p bunch into a crossbar-H drift tube linac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almomani, A.; Droba, M.; Ratzinger, U.; Hofmann, I.

    2012-05-01

    Proton bunches with energies up to 30 MeV have been measured at the PHELIX laser. Because of the laser-plasma interactions at a power density of about 4×1019W/cm2, a total yield of 1.5×1013protons was produced. For the reference energy of 10 MeV, the yield within ±0.5MeV was exceeding 1010protons. The important topic for a further acceleration of the laser generated bunch is the matching into the acceptance of an rf accelerator stage. With respect to the high space charge forces and the transit energy range, only drift tube linacs seem adequate for this purpose. A crossbar H-type (CH) cavity was chosen as the linac structure. Optimum emittance values for the linac injection are compared with the available laser generated beam parameters. Options for beam matching into a CH structure by a pulsed magnetic solenoid and by using the simulation codes LASIN and LORASR are presented.

  16. New type of drift tubes for gas-discharge detectors operating in vacuum: Production technology and quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azorskii, N. I.; Gusakov, Yu. V.; Elsha, V. V.; Enik, T. L.; Ershov, Yu. V.; Kekelidze, V. D.; Kislov, E. M.; Kolesnikov, A. O.; Madigozhin, D. T.; Movchan, S. A.; Polenkevich, I. A.; Potrebenikov, Yu. K.; Samsonov, V. A.; Shkarovskiy, S. N.; Sotnikov, A. N.; Volkov, A. D.; Zinchenko, A. I.

    2017-01-01

    A device for fabricating thin-wall (straw) drift tubes using polyethylene terephthalate film 36 μm thick by ultrasonic welding is described together with the technique for controlling their quality. The joint width amounts to 0.4-1.0 mm. The joint breaking strength is 31.9 kg/mm2. The argon leakage from a tube of volume 188.6 cm3 under a pressure gradient of 1.0 atm does not exceed 0.3 × 10-3 cm3/min, which is mainly related to the absence of metallization in the joint vicinity. The high strength, the low tensile creep due to the absence of glued layers, the small value of gas leakage makes the new tubes capable of reliable and long-term operation in vacuum, which is confirmed by the operation of 7168 straw tubes for two years in the NA62 experiment.

  17. Drift tube measurements on Na+ ions and clusters using the 24mNa+ tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasuya, A.; Abmayr, B.; Ohtsuki, T.; Masumoto, K.; Kotajima, H.; Huenges, E.; Morinaga, H.

    1997-06-01

    Mobilities of sodium ions and their clusters in different gases have been measured by gamma-ray spectrometry using the 20 ms isomeric state of 24Na as tracer. This isomer is obtained through the β-decay of 24Ne, which was produced by bombarding 22Ne with the 7 MeV triton beam of a cyclotron. This new technique of measurement allows us to determine the mobility of sodium ions in non-reacting gases of a pressure above 1 mbar. Measurements have been carried out in gases of pressures ranging from 6 mbar to 1000 mbar under an electric field up to 250 V/cm at room temperature. The measured mobility of 24Na+ in pure neon gas at 1000 mbar was determined to be 3.2 cm2/Vs. This value is lower than the zero field mobility of about 8.5 cm2/Vs measured by Tyndall and Akridge. A small amount of polar molecules such as water or ethanol introduced into the drift tube causes their clustering with the sodium ions through monopole-dipole interaction, resulting in a strong decrease in the mobility. This clustering effect has been studied for various combinations of polar molecules and inert gases. The usable pressure range from 1 mbar to high pressures in the range of some hundred bars is interesting because most other methods for cluster studies cannot be done at such high pressures. With this method it is possible to measure the mobility change of sodium ions towards the condensation point and eventually even towards the critical point.

  18. Effects of drift gas on collision cross sections of a protein standard in linear drift tube and traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jurneczko, Ewa; Kalapothakis, Jason; Campuzano, Iain D G; Morris, Michael; Barran, Perdita E

    2012-10-16

    There has been a significant increase in the use of ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS) to investigate conformations of proteins and protein complexes following electrospray ionization. Investigations which employ traveling wave ion mobility mass spectrometry (TW IM-MS) instrumentation rely on the use of calibrants to convert the arrival times of ions to collision cross sections (CCS) providing "hard numbers" of use to structural biology. It is common to use nitrogen as the buffer gas in TW IM-MS instruments and to calibrate by extrapolating from CCS measured in helium via drift tube (DT) IM-MS. In this work, both DT and TW IM-MS instruments are used to investigate the effects of different drift gases (helium, neon, nitrogen, and argon) on the transport of multiply charged ions of the protein myoglobin, frequently used as a standard in TW IM-MS studies. Irrespective of the drift gas used, recorded mass spectra are found to be highly similar. In contrast, the recorded arrival time distributions and the derived CCS differ greatly. At low charge states (7 ≤ z ≤ 11) where the protein is compact, the CCS scale with the polarizability of the gas; this is also the case for higher charge states (12 ≤ z ≤ 22) where the protein is more unfolded for the heavy gases (neon, argon, and nitrogen) but not the case for helium. This is here interpreted as a different conformational landscape being sampled by the lighter gas and potentially attributable to increased field heating by helium. Under nanoelectrospray ionization (nESI) conditions, where myoglobin is sprayed from an aqueous solution buffered to pH 6.8 with 20 mM ammonium acetate, in the DT IM-MS instrument, each buffer gas can yield a different arrival time distribution (ATD) for any given charge state.

  19. Scanning drift tube measurements of electron transport parameters in different gases: argon, synthetic air, methane and deuterium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korolov, I.; Vass, M.; Donkó, Z.

    2016-10-01

    Measurements of transport coefficients of electrons in a scanning drift tube apparatus are reported for different gases: argon, synthetic air, methane and deuterium. The experimental system allows the spatio-temporal development of the electron swarms (‘swarm maps’) to be recorded and this information, when compared with the profiles predicted by theory, makes it possible to determine the ‘time-of-flight’ transport coefficients: the bulk drift velocity, the longitudinal diffusion coefficient and the effective ionization coefficient, in a well-defined way. From these data, the effective Townsend ionization coefficient is determined as well. The swarm maps provide, additionally, direct, unambiguous information about the hydrodynamic/non-hydrodynamic regimes of the swarms, aiding the selection of the proper regions applicable for the determination of the transport coefficients.

  20. Direct analysis in real time coupled to multiplexed drift tube ion mobility spectrometry for detecting toxic chemicals.

    PubMed

    Harris, Glenn A; Kwasnik, Mark; Fernández, Facundo M

    2011-03-15

    Current and future chemical threats to homeland security motivate the need for new chemical detection systems to provide border, transportation, and workplace security. We present the first successful coupling of a commercial direct analysis in real time (DART) ion source to a resistive glass monolithic drift tube ion mobility spectrometer (DTIMS) as the basis for a low maintenance, versatile, and robust chemical monitoring system. in situ ionization within the electric field gradient of the instrument enhances sensitivity and provides a safe sampling strategy. The instrument uses nitrogen as both the DART discharge and DTIMS drift gases, allowing for a high electric field to be used for ion separation while keeping cost-of-use low. With the use of a traditional signal averaging acquisition mode, the 95% probability of detection (POD) for analytes sampled from melting point capillary tubes was 11.81% v/v for DMMP, 1.13% v/v for 2-CEES, and 10.61 mM for methamidophos. Sensitivity was improved via a prototype transmission-mode geometry interface, resulting in an almost 2 orders of magnitude decrease in the POD level for DMMP (0.28% v/v). As an alternative to transmission mode operation, digital multiplexing of the DTIMS ion injection step was also implemented, finding a 3-fold improvement in signal-to-noise ratios for 200 μs gate injections and a 4.5-fold for 400 μs gate injections.

  1. Benchmarking Particle-in-Cell drift wave simulations with Eulerian simulations in a flux-tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Parker, Scott; Wan, Weigang; Bravenec, Ronald; Wang, Eric; Candy, Jeff

    2012-10-01

    We present the implementation of a flux-tube option in the global turbulence code GEM.footnotetextY. Chen and S. E. Parker, J. Comp. Phys. 220, 839 (2007) This is necessary for benchmarking purposes because of the immense complexity involved in comparing global simulations. The global GEM assumes the magnetic equilibrium to be completely given. Our initial flux-tube implementation simply selects a radial location as the center of the flux-tube and a radial size of the flux-tube, sets all equilibrium quantities (B, ∇B, T, ∇T, the Jacobian etc.) to be equal to their values at the center of the flux-tube, and retains only a linear radial profile of the safety factor needed for boundary conditions. We found good agreement between GEM and GYRO/GS2 for the mode frequency/growth rate in the case of adiabatic electrons, but a difference of ˜15% in the growth rates when kinetic electrons are included. Our goal is to understand the origin of this moderate disagreement. An alternative local geometry model based on a local solution of the Grad-Shafranov equationfootnotetextJ. Candy, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 51, 105009 (2009) has been implemented and new benchmarking results from this model will be presented.

  2. Drift flux model as approximation of two fluid model for two phase dispersed and slug flow in tube

    SciTech Connect

    Nigmatulin, R.I.

    1995-09-01

    The analysis of one-dimensional schematizing for non-steady two-phase dispersed and slug flow in tube is presented. Quasi-static approximation, when inertia forces because of the accelerations of the phases may be neglected, is considered. Gas-liquid bubbly and slug vertical upward flows are analyzed. Non-trivial theoretical equations for slip velocity for these flows are derived. Juxtaposition of the derived equations for slip velocity with the famous Zuber-Findlay correlation as cross correlation coefficients is criticized. The generalization of non-steady drift flux Wallis theory taking into account influence of wall friction on the bubbly or slug flows for kinematical waves is considered.

  3. Note: Buffer gas temperature inhomogeneities and design of drift-tube ion mobility spectrometers: Warnings for real-world applications by non-specialists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Maestre, R.

    2017-09-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) separates gas phase ions moving under an electric field according to their size-to-charge ratio. IMS is the method of choice to detect illegal drugs and explosives in customs and airports making accurate determination of reduced ion mobilities (K0) important for national security. An ion mobility spectrometer with electrospray ionization coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer was used to study uncertainties in buffer gas temperatures during mobility experiments. Differences up to 16°C were found in the buffer gas temperatures in different regions of the drift tube and up to 42°C between the buffer gas and the drift tube temperatures. The drift tube temperature is used as an approximation to the buffer gas temperature for the calculation of K0 because the buffer gas temperature is hard to measure. This is leading to uncertainties in the determination of K0 values. Inaccurate determination of K0 values yields false positives that delay the cargo and passengers in customs and airports. Therefore, recommendations are issued for building mobility tubes to assure a homogeneous temperature of the buffer gas. Because the temperature and other instrumental parameters are difficult to measure in IMS, chemical standards should always be used when calculating K0. The difference of 42°C between the drift tube and buffer gas temperatures found in these experiments produces a 10.5% error in the calculation of K0. This large inaccuracy in K0 shows the importance of a correct temperature measurement in IMS.

  4. Note: Buffer gas temperature inhomogeneities and design of drift-tube ion mobility spectrometers: Warnings for real-world applications by non-specialists.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Maestre, R

    2017-09-01

    Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) separates gas phase ions moving under an electric field according to their size-to-charge ratio. IMS is the method of choice to detect illegal drugs and explosives in customs and airports making accurate determination of reduced ion mobilities (K0) important for national security. An ion mobility spectrometer with electrospray ionization coupled to a quadrupole mass spectrometer was used to study uncertainties in buffer gas temperatures during mobility experiments. Differences up to 16°C were found in the buffer gas temperatures in different regions of the drift tube and up to 42°C between the buffer gas and the drift tube temperatures. The drift tube temperature is used as an approximation to the buffer gas temperature for the calculation of K0 because the buffer gas temperature is hard to measure. This is leading to uncertainties in the determination of K0 values. Inaccurate determination of K0 values yields false positives that delay the cargo and passengers in customs and airports. Therefore, recommendations are issued for building mobility tubes to assure a homogeneous temperature of the buffer gas. Because the temperature and other instrumental parameters are difficult to measure in IMS, chemical standards should always be used when calculating K0. The difference of 42°C between the drift tube and buffer gas temperatures found in these experiments produces a 10.5% error in the calculation of K0. This large inaccuracy in K0 shows the importance of a correct temperature measurement in IMS.

  5. Tuning of RF amplitude and phase for the separate-type drift tube linac in J-PARC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Guobao; Ikegami, Masanori

    2009-01-01

    It is important to accurately adjust the amplitude and the phase of RF power sources for a high intensity proton linac. J-PARC (Japan proton accelerator research complex) linac is one of those high-intensity linacs. J-PARC linac has 30 SDTL (separate-type drift tube linac) tanks to accelerate the negative hydrogen ions from 50 to 181 MeV. Two neighboring SDTL tanks are driven by one klystron, where the phase and the amplitude of these two tanks are controlled in terms of the vector sum. The target-value of the vector sum control should be determined with a beam-based tuning for each klystron. During the beam commissioning, the RF tuning has been performed with a phase scan method introducing a concept of phase signature matching. In the tuning, the output beam energy from the SDTL module is monitored while scanning the RF phase. Comparing the obtained phase dependence of the output beam energy with those from a numerical model, the target-values for the low-level RF control system has been tuned within the required accuracy of 1° in phase and 1% in amplitude. The same tuning procedure has successfully been applied to the RF tuning of buncher and debuncher cavities.

  6. An Effective Approach for Coupling Direct Analysis in Real Time with Atmospheric Pressure Drift Tube Ion Mobility Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keelor, Joel D.; Dwivedi, Prabha; Fernández, Facundo M.

    2014-09-01

    Drift tube ion mobility spectrometry (DTIMS) has evolved as a robust analytical platform routinely used for screening small molecules across a broad suite of chemistries ranging from food and pharmaceuticals to explosives and environmental toxins. Most modern atmospheric pressure IM detectors employ corona discharge, photoionization, radioactive, or electrospray ion sources for efficient ion production. Coupling standalone DTIMS with ambient plasma-based techniques, however, has proven to be an exceptional challenge. Device sensitivity with near-ground ambient plasma sources is hindered by poor ion transmission at the source-instrument interface, where ion repulsion is caused by the strong electric field barrier of the high potential ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) inlet. To overcome this shortfall, we introduce a new ion source design incorporating a repeller point electrode used to shape the electric field profile and enable ion transmission from a direct analysis in real time (DART) plasma ion source. Parameter space characterization studies of the DART DTIMS setup were performed to ascertain the optimal configuration for the source assembly favoring ion transport. Preliminary system capabilities for the direct screening of solid pharmaceuticals are briefly demonstrated.

  7. Phase-scan analysis results for the first drift tube linac module in the ground test accelerator: Data reproducibility and comparison to simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K.F.; Sander, O.R.; Bolme, G.O.

    1995-05-01

    The Ground Test Accelerator (GTA) had the objective of producing a high-brightness, high-current H- beam. The major accelerator components were a 35 keV injector, a Radio Frequency Quadrupole, an intertank matching section, and a drift tube linac (DTL), consisting of 10 modules. This paper discusses the phase-scan technique which was used to experimentally determine the rf operating parameters for the commissioning and routine operation of the first DTL module.

  8. Conformational Ordering of Biomolecules in the Gas Phase: Nitrogen Collision Cross Sections Measured on a Prototype High Resolution Drift Tube Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometer

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Ion mobility-mass spectrometry measurements which describe the gas-phase scaling of molecular size and mass are of both fundamental and pragmatic utility. Fundamentally, such measurements expand our understanding of intrinsic intramolecular folding forces in the absence of solvent. Practically, reproducible transport properties, such as gas-phase collision cross-section (CCS), are analytically useful metrics for identification and characterization purposes. Here, we report 594 CCS values obtained in nitrogen drift gas on an electrostatic drift tube ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) instrument. The instrument platform is a newly developed prototype incorporating a uniform-field drift tube bracketed by electrodynamic ion funnels and coupled to a high resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The CCS values reported here are of high experimental precision (±0.5% or better) and represent four chemically distinct classes of molecules (quaternary ammonium salts, lipids, peptides, and carbohydrates), which enables structural comparisons to be made between molecules of different chemical compositions for the rapid “omni-omic” characterization of complex biological samples. Comparisons made between helium and nitrogen-derived CCS measurements demonstrate that nitrogen CCS values are systematically larger than helium values; however, general separation trends between chemical classes are retained regardless of the drift gas. These results underscore that, for the highest CCS accuracy, care must be exercised when utilizing helium-derived CCS values to calibrate measurements obtained in nitrogen, as is the common practice in the field. PMID:24446877

  9. Conformational ordering of biomolecules in the gas phase: nitrogen collision cross sections measured on a prototype high resolution drift tube ion mobility-mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    May, Jody C; Goodwin, Cody R; Lareau, Nichole M; Leaptrot, Katrina L; Morris, Caleb B; Kurulugama, Ruwan T; Mordehai, Alex; Klein, Christian; Barry, William; Darland, Ed; Overney, Gregor; Imatani, Kenneth; Stafford, George C; Fjeldsted, John C; McLean, John A

    2014-02-18

    Ion mobility-mass spectrometry measurements which describe the gas-phase scaling of molecular size and mass are of both fundamental and pragmatic utility. Fundamentally, such measurements expand our understanding of intrinsic intramolecular folding forces in the absence of solvent. Practically, reproducible transport properties, such as gas-phase collision cross-section (CCS), are analytically useful metrics for identification and characterization purposes. Here, we report 594 CCS values obtained in nitrogen drift gas on an electrostatic drift tube ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) instrument. The instrument platform is a newly developed prototype incorporating a uniform-field drift tube bracketed by electrodynamic ion funnels and coupled to a high resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The CCS values reported here are of high experimental precision (±0.5% or better) and represent four chemically distinct classes of molecules (quaternary ammonium salts, lipids, peptides, and carbohydrates), which enables structural comparisons to be made between molecules of different chemical compositions for the rapid "omni-omic" characterization of complex biological samples. Comparisons made between helium and nitrogen-derived CCS measurements demonstrate that nitrogen CCS values are systematically larger than helium values; however, general separation trends between chemical classes are retained regardless of the drift gas. These results underscore that, for the highest CCS accuracy, care must be exercised when utilizing helium-derived CCS values to calibrate measurements obtained in nitrogen, as is the common practice in the field.

  10. Theoretical evaluation of peak capacity improvements by use of liquid chromatography combined with drift tube ion mobility-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Causon, Tim J; Hann, Stephan

    2015-10-16

    In the domain of liquid phase separations, the quality of separation obtainable is most readily gauged by consideration of classical chromatographic peak capacity theory. Column-based multidimensional strategies for liquid chromatography remain the most attractive and practical route for increasing the number of spatially resolved components in order to reduce stress on necessary mass spectrometric detection. However, the stress placed on a chromatographic separation step as a second dimension in a comprehensive online methodology (i.e. online LC×LC) is rather high. As an alternative to online LC×LC combinations, coupling of HPLC with ion mobility spectrometry hyphenated to mass spectrometry (IMS-MS) has emerged as an attractive approach to permit comprehensive sampling of first dimension chromatographic peaks and subsequent introduction to an orthogonal IMS separation prior to measurement of ions by a mass spectrometer. In the present work, utilization of classical peak capacity and ion mobility theory allows theoretical assessment of the potential of two- (LC×IMS-MS) or even three-dimensional (LC×LC×IMS-MS) experimental setups to enhance peak capacity and, therefore, the number of correctly annotated features within the framework of complex, non-targeted analysis problems frequently addressed using HPLC-MS strategies. Theoretical calculations indicate that newly-available drift tube IMS-MS instrumentation can yield peak capacities of between 10 and 40 using nitrogen drift gas for typical non-targeted metabolomic, lipidomic and proteomic applications according to the expected reduced mobilities of components in the respective samples. Theoretically, this approach can significantly improve the overall peak capacity of conventional HPLC-(MS) methodologies to in excess of 10(4) depending upon the column length and gradient time employed. A more elaborate combination of LC×LC×IMS-MS would improve the ion suppression limitation and possibly allow access to

  11. Enhancing Biological Analyses with Three Dimensional Field Asymmetric Ion Mobility, Low Field Drift Tube Ion Mobility and Mass Spectrometry (μFAIMS/IMS-MS) Separations

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xing; Ibrahim, Yehia M.; Chen, Tsung-Chi; Kyle, Jennifer E.; Norheim, Randolph V.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Smith, Richard D.; Baker, Erin S.

    2015-01-01

    Multidimensional high throughput separations are ideal for analyzing distinct ion characteristics simultaneously in one analysis. We report on the first evaluation of a platform coupling a high speed field asymmetric ion mobility spectrometry microchip (μFAIMS) with drift tube ion mobility and mass spectrometry (IMS-MS). The μFAIMS/IMS-MS platform was used to analyze biological samples and simultaneously acquire multidimensional FAIMS compensation fields, IMS drift times, and accurate ion masses for the detected features. These separations thereby increased the overall measurement separation power, resulting in greater information content and more complete characterization of the complex samples. The separation conditions were optimized for sensitivity and resolving power by the selection of gas compositions and pressures in the FAIMS and IMS separation stages. The resulting performance provided three dimensional separations, benefitting both broad complex mixture studies and targeted analyses by improving isomeric separations and allowing detection of species obscured by interfering peaks. PMID:26140287

  12. A study of the performance of an ion shutter for drift tubes in atmospheric pressure ion mobility spectrometry: Computer models and experimental findings

    SciTech Connect

    Tadjimukhamedov, Fatkhulla K.; Eiceman, Gary A.; Puton, Jaroslaw; Stone, John A.

    2009-10-15

    Ion mobility spectra are initiated when ions, derived from a sample, are pulsed or injected through ion shutters into a drift region. The effect on signal intensity from electric fields arising from the shutter grids (E{sub s}) and a superimposed electric field of the drift tube (E{sub d}) was determined experimentally and simulated computationally for ion motion at ambient pressure. The combination of these two fields influenced shutter performance in three ways: (1) intensity of an ion peak was suppressed by increased current in the baseline due to continuous leakage of ions into the drift region from insufficient E{sub s} to block ion motion when needed, at a given value of E{sub d}; (2) the ion shutter provided maximum peak intensity with some optimal ratio of E{sub s}/E{sub d} when ions were fully blocked except using the injection time; (c) the signal intensity was reduced when the blocking voltage of the ion shutter exceeded this optimal E{sub s}/E{sub d} ratio from ion depletion at the shutter grids. The optimal ratio from the computer models was equal to 1.50, whereas a value of 2.50 was obtained from the experimental findings. This difference was attributed to nonideal geometry with the grids of the shutter and the conducting elements in the drift tube establishing both E{sub s} and E{sub d}. As both the experimental and modeling results demonstrated, a mobility dependence of ion yield from the ionization source was found to cause a mobility dependent ion signal at the collector electrode.

  13. Output beam energy measurement of a 100-MeV KOMAC drift tube linac by using a stripline beam position monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Han-Sung

    2015-10-01

    The 100-MeV proton linac at the KOMAC (Korea Multi-purpose Accelerator Complex) is composed of a 50-keV proton injector, a 3-MeV RFQ (radio-frequency quadrupole) and a 100-MeV DTL (drift tube linac). The proton beam is accelerated from 3 MeV to 100 MeV through 11 DTL tanks. The precise measurement of the proton-beam's energy at the output of each DTL tank is important for the longitudinal beam dynamics and can be performed by using a time-of-flight method with a BPM (beam position monitor), which is installed between each DTL tank. The details of the output beam energy measurement of the KOMAC DTL with stripline-type BPM and BPM signal processing, along with a comparison with the simulation results, will be presented in this paper.

  14. High-throughput screening and quantitation of guanidino and ureido compounds using liquid chromatography-drift tube ion mobility spectrometry-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Fan, Ruo-Jing; Zhang, Fang; Chen, Xiu-Ping; Qi, Wan-Shu; Guan, Qing; Sun, Tuan-Qi; Guo, Yin-Long

    2017-04-08

    The present work focused on the high-throughput screening and quantitation of guanidino compounds (GCs) and ureido compounds (UCs) in human thyroid tissues. The strategy employed benzylic rearrangement stable isotope labeling (BRSIL) for the sample preparation and then detection using liquid chromatography-drift tube ion mobility spectrometry-quadrupole time of flight mass spectrometry (LC-DTIMS-QTOF MS). A short reversed-phase LC realized an on-line desalting and a measurement cycle of 5.0 min. DTIMS separation enhanced the better specificity and selectivity for the benzil labeled GCs and UCs. The elevated mass resolution of QTOF MS enabled measure of the characteristic ions at accurate mass in MS and tandem MS spectra. Collision cross section (CCS) from DTIMS and accurate mass from QTOF MS were used as two qualifiers for the profiling and identification of GCs and UCs. In addition, an integral abundance arising from 3-D ion features (retention time, drift time, m/z) was applied to quantify the GCs and UCs in human thyroid tissues. The quantitative validation indicated good linearity (coefficient values ≥ 0.9981), good precision (1.0%-12.3% for intra-day and 0.9%-7.8% for inter-day) and good accuracy (91%-109%). The results demonstrated that the developed BRSIL coupled with LC-DTIMS-QTOF MS can be a powerful analysis platform to investigate GCs and UCs in human thyroid tissues. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. WATER PURITY DEVELOPMENT FOR THE COUPLED CAVITY LINAC (CCL) AND DRIFT TUBE LINAC (DTL) STRUCTURES OF THE SPALLATION NEUTRON SOURCE (SNS) LINAC

    SciTech Connect

    D. KATONAK; J. BERNARDIN; S. HOPKINS

    2001-06-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) is a facility being designed for scientific and industrial research and development. SNS will generate and use neutrons as a diagnostic tool for medical purposes, material science, etc. The neutrons will be produced by bombarding a heavy metal target with a high-energy beam of protons, generated and accelerated with a linear particle accelerator, or linac. The low energy end of the linac consists of two room temperature copper structures, the drift tube linac (DTL), and the coupled cavity linac (CCL). Both of these accelerating structures use large amounts of electrical energy to accelerate the proton beam. Approximately 60-80% of the electrical energy is dissipated in the copper structure and must be removed. This is done using specifically designed water cooling passages within the linac's copper structure. Cooling water is supplied to these cooling passages by specially designed resonance control and water cooling systems. One of the primary components in the DTL and CCL water cooling systems, is a water purification system that is responsible for minimizing erosion, corrosion, scaling, biological growth, and hardware activation. The water purification system consists of filters, ion exchange resins, carbon beds, an oxygen scavenger, a UV source, and diagnostic instrumentation. This paper reviews related issues associated with water purification and describes the mechanical design of the SNS Linac water purification system.

  16. Electron motion analysis of a radial-radiated electron beam in a radial-line drift tube with finite magnetic field conducted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dang, Fangchao; Zhang, Xiaoping; Zhong, Huihuang

    2017-02-01

    Radial-radiated electron beam is widely employed in radial-line structure microwave devices. The quality of the electron beam has a crucial effect on the operating performance of these devices. This paper analyzes theoretically this electron motion in a radial-line drift tube with finite magnetic field conducted. The beam width, spatial period, and fluctuation amplitude are quantitatively analyzed with different beam current parameters. By the particle-in-cell simulation, we examine the theoretical analysis under the condition of a designed realistic coil configuration. It indicates that the derived beam envelope function is capable of predicting the radial-radiated beam trajectory approximately. Meanwhile, it is found that the off-axial z-direction magnetic field, in spite of its greatly slight amplitude, is also one necessary consideration for the propagation characteristic of the radial-radiated electron beam. Furthermore, the presented electron motion analysis may be instructive for the design of the electronic optical system of the radial-line structure microwave devices.

  17. First results of CMS RPC performance at 13 TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedraza-Morales, M. I.; Shah, M. A.; Shopova, M.

    2016-12-01

    The muon spectrometer of the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is equipped with a redundant system made of Resistive Plate Chambers (RPCs) and Drift Tube (DT) chambers in the barrel, RPC and Cathode Strip Chambers (CSCs) in the endcap region. In this paper, the first results of the performance of the RPC system during 2015 with the LHC running at 13 TeV is presented. The stability of the RPC performance, in terms of efficiency, cluster size and noise, is reported.

  18. CMS-Wave

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-27

    2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CMS -Wave 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...Program CMS -Wave CMS -Wave is a two-dimensional spectral wind-wave generation and transformation model that employs a forward-marching, finite...difference method to solve the wave action conservation equation. Capabilities of CMS -Wave include wave shoaling, refraction, diffraction, reflection

  19. CMS-Wave

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-30

    Coastal Inlets Research Program CMS-Wave CMS-Wave is a two-dimensional spectral wind -wave generation and transformation model that employs a forward...estimates. The model can be coupled to the Boussinesq wave model BOUSS-2D for port and harbor applications. CMS-Wave, a phase-averaged spectral wind -wave

  20. Stepwise formation of H3O(+)(H2O)n in an ion drift tube: Empirical effective temperature of association/dissociation reaction equilibrium in an electric field.

    PubMed

    Nakai, Yoichi; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Naoki; Kojima, Takao M

    2016-06-14

    We measured equilibrium constants for H3O(+)(H2O)n-1 + H2O↔H3O(+)(H2O)n (n = 4-9) reactions taking place in an ion drift tube with various applied electric fields at gas temperatures of 238-330 K. The zero-field reaction equilibrium constants were determined by extrapolation of those obtained at non-zero electric fields. From the zero-field reaction equilibrium constants, the standard enthalpy and entropy changes, ΔHn,n-1 (0) and ΔSn,n-1 (0), of stepwise association for n = 4-8 were derived and were in reasonable agreement with those measured in previous studies. We also examined the electric field dependence of the reaction equilibrium constants at non-zero electric fields for n = 4-8. An effective temperature for the reaction equilibrium constants at non-zero electric field was empirically obtained using a parameter describing the electric field dependence of the reaction equilibrium constants. Furthermore, the size dependence of the parameter was thought to reflect the evolution of the hydrogen-bond structure of H3O(+)(H2O)n with the cluster size. The reflection of structural information in the electric field dependence of the reaction equilibria is particularly noteworthy.

  1. Stepwise formation of H3O+(H2O)n in an ion drift tube: Empirical effective temperature of association/dissociation reaction equilibrium in an electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakai, Yoichi; Hidaka, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Naoki; Kojima, Takao M.

    2016-06-01

    We measured equilibrium constants for H3O+(H2O)n-1 + H2O↔H3O+(H2O)n (n = 4-9) reactions taking place in an ion drift tube with various applied electric fields at gas temperatures of 238-330 K. The zero-field reaction equilibrium constants were determined by extrapolation of those obtained at non-zero electric fields. From the zero-field reaction equilibrium constants, the standard enthalpy and entropy changes, Δ Hn , n - 1 0 and Δ Sn , n - 1 0 , of stepwise association for n = 4-8 were derived and were in reasonable agreement with those measured in previous studies. We also examined the electric field dependence of the reaction equilibrium constants at non-zero electric fields for n = 4-8. An effective temperature for the reaction equilibrium constants at non-zero electric field was empirically obtained using a parameter describing the electric field dependence of the reaction equilibrium constants. Furthermore, the size dependence of the parameter was thought to reflect the evolution of the hydrogen-bond structure of H3O+(H2O)n with the cluster size. The reflection of structural information in the electric field dependence of the reaction equilibria is particularly noteworthy.

  2. Forward Physics at CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Solano, Ada

    2009-03-23

    A rich program of forward physics, including very low-x QCD dynamics, photon-induced processes, underlying event and energy flow distributions, diffraction in the presence of a hard scale and even the Higgs boson search in central exclusive production, is being studied by the CMS Collaboration, taking advantage of the forward detector instrumentation around the CMS interaction point at the LHC.

  3. The CMS Beam Halo Monitor electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosi, N.; Dabrowski, A. E.; Fabbri, F.; Grassi, T.; Hughes, E.; Mans, J.; Montanari, A.; Orfanelli, S.; Rusack, R.; Torromeo, G.; Stickland, D. P.; Stifter, K.

    2016-02-01

    The CMS Beam Halo Monitor has been successfully installed in the CMS cavern in LHC Long Shutdown 1 for measuring the machine induced background for LHC Run II. The system is based on 40 detector units composed of synthetic quartz Cherenkov radiators coupled to fast photomultiplier tubes (PMTs). The readout electronics chain uses many components developed for the Phase 1 upgrade to the CMS Hadronic Calorimeter electronics, with dedicated firmware and readout adapted to the beam monitoring requirements. The PMT signal is digitized by a charge integrating ASIC (QIE10), providing both the signal rise time, with few nanosecond resolution, and the charge integrated over one bunch crossing. The backend electronics uses microTCA technology and receives data via a high-speed 5 Gbps asynchronous link. It records histograms with sub-bunch crossing timing resolution and is read out via IPbus using the newly designed CMS data acquisition for non-event based data. The data is processed in real time and published to CMS and the LHC, providing online feedback on the beam quality. A dedicated calibration monitoring system has been designed to generate short triggered pulses of light to monitor the efficiency of the system. The electronics has been in operation since the first LHC beams of Run II and has served as the first demonstration of the new QIE10, Microsemi Igloo2 FPGA and high-speed 5 Gbps link with LHC data.

  4. Drift reduction with drift control adjuvants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Numerous drift reduction adjuvants and spray deposition aids are available to applicators of crop production and protection chemicals. Performance of many of the newly introduced drift control adjuvants has not been well documented for aerial application. Five new drift control adjuvants were sele...

  5. Drift reduction with drift control adjuvants

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Numerous drift reduction adjuvants and spray deposition aids are available to applicators of crop production and protection chemicals. Performance of many of the newly introduced drift control adjuvants has not been well documented for aerial application. Four new drift control adjuvants were sele...

  6. CMS workload management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiga, D.; CMS Collaboration

    2007-10-01

    From september 2007 the LHC accelerator will start its activity and CMS, one of the four experiments, will begin to take data. The CMS computing model is based on the the Grid paradigm where data is deployed and accessed on a number of geographically distributed computing centers. In addition to real data events, a large number of simulated ones will be produced in a similar, distributed manner. Both real and simulated data will be analyzed by physicist, at an expected rate of 100000 jobs per day submitted to the Grid infrastructure. In order to reach these goals, CMS is developing two tools for the workload management (plus a set of services): ProdAgent and CRAB. The ProdAgent deals with MonteCarlo production system: it creates and configures jobs, interacts with the Framework, merges outputs to a reasonable filesize and publishes the simulated data back into CMS data bookkeeping and data location services. CRAB (Cms Remote Analysis Builder) is the tool deployed ad hoc by CMS to access those remote data. CRAB allows a generic user, without specific knowledge of the Grid infrastructure, to access data and perform its analysis as simply as in a local environment. CRAB takes care to interact with all Data Management services, from data discovery and location to output file management. An overview of the current implementation of the components of the CMS workload management is presented in this work.

  7. CMS Analysis School Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, S.; Shipsey, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Bloom, K.; Chan, Kai-Feng; D'Hondt, J.; Klima, B.; Narain, M.; Palla, F.; Rolandi, G.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.

    2014-06-01

    To impart hands-on training in physics analysis, CMS experiment initiated the concept of CMS Data Analysis School (CMSDAS). It was born over three years ago at the LPC (LHC Physics Centre), Fermilab and is based on earlier workshops held at the LPC and CLEO Experiment. As CMS transitioned from construction to the data taking mode, the nature of earlier training also evolved to include more of analysis tools, software tutorials and physics analysis. This effort epitomized as CMSDAS has proven to be a key for the new and young physicists to jump start and contribute to the physics goals of CMS by looking for new physics with the collision data. With over 400 physicists trained in six CMSDAS around the globe, CMS is trying to engage the collaboration in its discovery potential and maximize physics output. As a bigger goal, CMS is striving to nurture and increase engagement of the myriad talents, in the development of physics, service, upgrade, education of those new to CMS and the career development of younger members. An extension of the concept to the dedicated software and hardware schools is also planned, keeping in mind the ensuing upgrade phase.

  8. CMS Analysis School Model

    SciTech Connect

    Malik, S.; Shipsey, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Bloom, K.; Chan, Kai-Feng; D'Hondt, J.; Klima, B.; Narain, M.; Palla, F.; Rolandi, G.; Schörner-Sadenius, T.

    2014-01-01

    To impart hands-on training in physics analysis, CMS experiment initiated the concept of CMS Data Analysis School (CMSDAS). It was born over three years ago at the LPC (LHC Physics Centre), Fermilab and is based on earlier workshops held at the LPC and CLEO Experiment. As CMS transitioned from construction to the data taking mode, the nature of earlier training also evolved to include more of analysis tools, software tutorials and physics analysis. This effort epitomized as CMSDAS has proven to be a key for the new and young physicists to jump start and contribute to the physics goals of CMS by looking for new physics with the collision data. With over 400 physicists trained in six CMSDAS around the globe, CMS is trying to engage the collaboration in its discovery potential and maximize physics output. As a bigger goal, CMS is striving to nurture and increase engagement of the myriad talents, in the development of physics, service, upgrade, education of those new to CMS and the career development of younger members. An extension of the concept to the dedicated software and hardware schools is also planned, keeping in mind the ensuing upgrade phase.

  9. CMS tracker visualization tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mennea, M. S.; Osborne, I.; Regano, A.; Zito, G.

    2005-08-01

    This document will review the design considerations, implementations and performance of the CMS Tracker Visualization tools. In view of the great complexity of this sub-detector (more than 50 millions channels organized in 16540 modules each one of these being a complete detector), the standard CMS visualization tools (IGUANA and IGUANACMS) that provide basic 3D capabilities and integration within CMS framework, respectively, have been complemented with additional 2D graphics objects. Based on the experience acquired using this software to debug and understand both hardware and software during the construction phase, we propose possible future improvements to cope with online monitoring and event analysis during data taking.

  10. CMS RATFOR System Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    CMS RATFOR SYSTEM MANUAL.(U) U 79 S M CHOQUETTE, R J ORGASS AFOSR-79-O021 NCLASSIFIED VPI/SU-TM-79- AFOSR -TR-80-0277 NI MEhLlllllElIIIIIIII...GRADUATE PROGRAM IN NORTHERN VIRGINIA FAtheqsow, AC 20041 (703) 471-4600 CMS RATFOR SYSTEM MANUAL*t Stephen M. Choquette and Richard J. Orgass DTIO...the System Manual for the RATFOR preprocessor on the IBM CMS timesharing system . Included in this paper is a language description of RATPOR, an

  11. Neutron tubes

    DOEpatents

    Leung, Ka-Ngo; Lou, Tak Pui; Reijonen, Jani

    2008-03-11

    A neutron tube or generator is based on a RF driven plasma ion source having a quartz or other chamber surrounded by an external RF antenna. A deuterium or mixed deuterium/tritium (or even just a tritium) plasma is generated in the chamber and D or D/T (or T) ions are extracted from the plasma. A neutron generating target is positioned so that the ion beam is incident thereon and loads the target. Incident ions cause D-D or D-T (or T-T) reactions which generate neutrons. Various embodiments differ primarily in size of the chamber and position and shape of the neutron generating target. Some neutron generators are small enough for implantation in the body. The target may be at the end of a catheter-like drift tube. The target may have a tapered or conical surface to increase target surface area.

  12. CMS Space Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratnikova, N.; Huang, C.-H.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Wildish, T.; Zhang, X.

    2014-06-01

    During the first LHC run, CMS stored about one hundred petabytes of data. Storage accounting and monitoring help to meet the challenges of storage management, such as efficient space utilization, fair share between users and groups and resource planning. We present a newly developed CMS space monitoring system based on the storage metadata dumps produced at the sites. The information extracted from the storage dumps is aggregated and uploaded to a central database. A web based data service is provided to retrieve the information for a given time interval and a range of sites, so it can be further aggregated and presented in the desired format. The system has been designed based on the analysis of CMS monitoring requirements and experiences of the other LHC experiments. In this paper, we demonstrate how the existing software components of the CMS data placement system, PhEDEx, have been re-used, dramatically reducing the development effort.

  13. Diffraction with CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Antonio Vilela

    2011-07-15

    The observation of diffraction at LHC with the CMS detector at {radical}(s) = 900 and 2360 GeV is presented, along with a comparison of the data with the predictions of the PYTHIA and PHOJET generators.

  14. CMS Space Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Ratnikova, N.; Huang, C.-H.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Wildish, T.; Zhang, X.

    2014-01-01

    During the first LHC run, CMS stored about one hundred petabytes of data. Storage accounting and monitoring help to meet the challenges of storage management, such as efficient space utilization, fair share between users and groups and resource planning. We present a newly developed CMS space monitoring system based on the storage metadata dumps produced at the sites. The information extracted from the storage dumps is aggregated and uploaded to a central database. A web based data service is provided to retrieve the information for a given time interval and a range of sites, so it can be further aggregated and presented in the desired format. The system has been designed based on the analysis of CMS monitoring requirements and experiences of the other LHC experiments. In this paper, we demonstrate how the existing software components of the CMS data placement system, PhEDEx, have been re-used, dramatically reducing the development effort.

  15. RIA Superconducting Drift Tube Linac R & D

    SciTech Connect

    J. Popielarski; J. Bierwagen; S. Bricker; C. Compton; J. DeLauter; P. Glennon; T. Grimm; W. Hartung; D. Harvell; M. Hodek; M. Johnson; F. Marti; P. Miller; A. Moblo; D. Norton; L. Popielarski; J. Wlodarczak; R. C. York; A. Zeller

    2009-05-22

    Cavity and cryomodule development work for a superconducting ion linac has been underway for several years at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory. The original application of the work was the proposed Rare Isotope Accelerator. At present, the work is being continued for use with the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). The baseline linac for FRIB requires 4 types of superconducting cavities to cover the velocity range needed to accelerate an ion beam to 200 MeV/u: 2 types of quarter-wave resonator (QWR) and 2 types of half-wave resonator (HWR). Superconducting solenoids are used for focussing. Active and passive shielding is required to ensure that the solenoids’ field does not degrade the cavity performance. First prototypes of both QWR types and one HWR type have been fabricated and tested. A prototype solenoid has been procured and tested. A test cryomodule has been fabricated and tested. The test cryomodule contains one QWR, one HWR, one solenoid, and one super-ferric quadrupole. This report covers the design, fabrication, and testing of this cryomodule

  16. Phase 1 upgrade of the CMS forward hadronic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noonan, D.

    2017-02-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN is upgrading the photo-detection and readout system of the forward hadronic calorimeter. The phase 1 upgrade of the CMS forward calorimeter requires the replacement of the current photomultiplier tubes, as well as the installation of a new front-end readout system. The new photomultiplier tubes contain a thinner window as well as multi-anode readout. The front-end electronics will use the QIE10 ASIC which combines signal digitization with timing information. The major components of the upgrade as well as the current status are described in this paper.

  17. Repository Drift Backfilling Demonstrator

    SciTech Connect

    Londe, I.; Dubois, J.Ph.; Bauer, C.

    2008-07-01

    The 'Backfilling Demonstrator' is one of the technological demonstrators developed by ANDRA in the framework of the feasibility studies for a geological repository for high-level long-lived (HL-LL waste) within a clay formation. The demonstrator concerns the standard and supporting backfills as defined in Andra's 2005 design. The standard backfill is intended to fill up almost all drifts of the underground repository in order to limit any deformation of the rock after the degradation of the drift lining. The supporting backfill only concerns a small portion of the volume to be backfilled in order to counter the swelling pressure of the swelling clay contained in the sealing structures. The first objective of the demonstrator was to show the possibility of manufacturing a satisfactory backfill, in spite of the exiguity of the underground structures, and of reusing as much as possible the argillite muck. For the purpose of this experiment, the argillite muck was collected on Andra's work-site for the implementation of an underground research laboratory. Still ongoing, the second objective is to follow up the long-term evolution of the backfill. Approximately 200 m{sup 3} of compacted backfill material have been gathered in a large concrete tube simulating a repository drift. The standard backfill was manufactured exclusively with argillite. The supporting backfill was made by forming a mixture of argillite and sand. Operations were carried out mostly at Richwiller, close to Mulhouse, France. The objectives of the demonstrator were met: an application method was tested and proven satisfactory. The resulting dry densities are relatively high, although the moduli of deformation do not always reach the set goal. The selected objective for the demonstrator was a dry density corresponding to a relatively high compaction level (95% of the standard Proctor optimum [SPO]), for both pure argillite and the argillite-sand mixture. The plate-percussion compaction technique was

  18. Analysis environments for CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, C. D.; Luca, L.; Hegner, B.

    2008-07-01

    The CMS offline software suite uses a layered approach to provide several different environments suitable for a wide range of analysis styles. At the heart of all the environments is the ROOT-based event data model file format. The simplest environment uses 'bare' ROOT to read files directly, without the use of any CMS-specific supporting libraries. This is useful for performing simple checks on a file or plotting simple distributions (such as the momentum distribution of tracks). The second environment supports use of the CMS framework's smart pointers that read data on demand, as well as automatic loading of the libraries holding the object interfaces. This environment fully supports interactive ROOT sessions in either CINT or PyROOT. The third environment combines ROOT's TSelector with the data access API of the full CMS framework, facilitating sharing of code between the ROOT environment and the full framework. The final environment is the full CMS framework that is used for all data production activities as well as full access to all data available on the Grid. By providing a layered approach to analysis environments, physicists can choose the environment that most closely matches their individual work style.

  19. Higgs Physics at CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donato, Silvio; CMS Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    The discovery of the Standard Model Higgs boson performed by the CMS and ATLAS collaborations during the LHC Run 1 has been an important success. This document is a short review of the search for the Higgs boson performed by the CMS collaboration during the LHC Run 1 and Run 2. In the first part, after a brief description of the Higgs boson production and decay channels, the Run-1 results are presented emphasizing the possible hints of New Physics. The main part of this document is devoted to the search for the Higgs boson with the 13-TeV data collected by the CMS experiment in 2015 and 2016, including the Standard Model searches as well as the Beyond Standard Model searches, such as the search for additional Higgs bosons and for resonant and non-resonant double Higgs boson production.

  20. Automating the CMS DAQ

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, G.; et al.

    2014-01-01

    We present the automation mechanisms that have been added to the Data Acquisition and Run Control systems of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment during Run 1 of the LHC, ranging from the automation of routine tasks to automatic error recovery and context-sensitive guidance to the operator. These mechanisms helped CMS to maintain a data taking efficiency above 90% and to even improve it to 95% towards the end of Run 1, despite an increase in the occurrence of single-event upsets in sub-detector electronics at high LHC luminosity.

  1. Measurement of Lorentz Angle for the CMS Pixel Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ashish

    2010-02-01

    At the core of the CMS all-silicon tracking system is the silicon pixel detector, comprising three barrel layers and two pixel disks in the forward and backward regions, accounting for a total of 66 million channels. The pixel detector will provide high-resolution 3D coordinates of the tracks produced in high energy pp collisions. Under the combined action of electric and magnetic fields, the charged carriers traversing the pixel sensors experience the Lorentz force. It causes charge sharing among neighboring pixels which is crucial in enhancing the spatial resolution. In the barrel pixels, the electric and magnetic fields are perpendicular resulting in maximum Lorentz drift, while, in the disks, the fields are oriented at 20 degrees resulting in much smaller Lorentz drift. We present the results of Lorentz angle measurement for the pixel detector using CMS data taken with cosmic runs. )

  2. Exotica in CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wulz, Claudia-Elisabeth

    2016-11-01

    Selected results on exotica searches with the CMS detector are presented. The main topics are dark matter, boosted objects, long-lived particles and classic narrow resonance searches. Most of the analyses were performed with data recorded at at centre of-mass energy of 8 TeV, but first results obtained at 13 TeV are also shown.

  3. Photodetectors for the CMS hadron calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elias, J. E.; CMS Hadron Calorimeter Readout Group

    1997-02-01

    Hadronic energy measurements in the central and end cap regions of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector will be made using sampling calorimeter techniques with plastic scintillator tiles as the sensitive layers. Plastic fibers doped with wavelength shifting fluors embedded in each tile are used to extract the scintillation light. Clear plastic wave guide fibers carry the shifted light to photodetectors located on the outer surface of the calorimeter structure. Environmental constraints and physics performance requirements for these photodetectors are presented. Candidate photodetector technologies are discussed, and the hybrid photomultiplier tube technology is identified as most promising.

  4. 42 CFR 405.800 - Appeals of CMS or a CMS contractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Appeals of CMS or a CMS contractor. 405.800 Section... Part B Program § 405.800 Appeals of CMS or a CMS contractor. A CMS contractor's (that is, a carrier... supplier enrollment application. If CMS or a CMS contractor denies a provider's or supplier's...

  5. 42 CFR 405.800 - Appeals of CMS or a CMS contractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Appeals of CMS or a CMS contractor. 405.800 Section... Part B Program § 405.800 Appeals of CMS or a CMS contractor. A CMS contractor's (that is, a carrier... supplier enrollment application. If CMS or a CMS contractor denies a provider's or supplier's...

  6. 42 CFR 405.874 - Appeals of CMS or a CMS contractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Appeals of CMS or a CMS contractor. 405.874 Section... Part B Program § 405.874 Appeals of CMS or a CMS contractor. A CMS contractor's (that is, a carrier... supplier enrollment application. If CMS or a CMS contractor denies a provider's or supplier's...

  7. 42 CFR 405.874 - Appeals of CMS or a CMS contractor.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Appeals of CMS or a CMS contractor. 405.874 Section... Part B Program § 405.874 Appeals of CMS or a CMS contractor. A CMS contractor's (that is, a carrier... supplier enrollment application. If CMS or a CMS contractor denies a provider's or supplier's...

  8. Calculated nighttime eastward plasma drift velocities at low latitudes and their solar cycle dependence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, D. N.; Heelis, R. A.; Mcclure, J. P.

    1987-01-01

    After calculating ambient electron densities as a function of altitude, latitude and local time, a simplified expression is used to calculate F-region eastward plasma drifts given a zonal neutral wind model. The derived eastward plasma drift on a magnetic flux tube is examined as a function of the flux tube apex height. If the neutral wind is assumed to be independent of latitude the plasma drift maximizes along the flux tube which intercepts the F-region peak concentration at the Appleton anomaly. Above this altitude the velocity decreases to reflect a decrease in the flux tube integrated F-region Pedersen conductivity. For a latitude dependent wind the plasma drift tends to maximize along the flux tube which intercepts the F-peak at the dip equator. Above this altitude the drift decreases to reflect the latitude distribution of the wind.

  9. Dike/Drift Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    E. Gaffiney

    2004-11-23

    This report presents and documents the model components and analyses that represent potential processes associated with propagation of a magma-filled crack (dike) migrating upward toward the surface, intersection of the dike with repository drifts, flow of magma in the drifts, and post-magma emplacement effects on repository performance. The processes that describe upward migration of a dike and magma flow down the drift are referred to as the dike intrusion submodel. The post-magma emplacement processes are referred to as the post-intrusion submodel. Collectively, these submodels are referred to as a conceptual model for dike/drift interaction. The model components and analyses of the dike/drift interaction conceptual model provide the technical basis for assessing the potential impacts of an igneous intrusion on repository performance, including those features, events, and processes (FEPs) related to dike/drift interaction (Section 6.1).

  10. Higgs physics at CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzner, André G.

    2016-12-01

    This article reviews recent measurements of the properties of the standard model (SM) Higgs boson using data recorded with the CMS detector at the LHC: its mass, width and couplings to other SM particles. We also summarise highlights from searches for new physical phenomena in the Higgs sector as they are proposed in many extensions of the SM: flavour violating and invisible decay modes, resonances decaying into Higgs bosons and searches for additional Higgs bosons.

  11. Free Drifting Buoys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Information was exchanged between people directly involved with the development, use, and/or potential use of free drifting buoys. Tracking systems and techniques, where methods and accuracy of optical, radio, radar, satellite, and sonic tracking of free-drifting buoys were discussed. Deployment and retrieval covering methods currently used or planned in the deployment and retrieval of free-drifting buoys from boats, ships, helicopters, fixed platforms, and fixed-wing aircraft were reported. Simulation, sensors, and data emphasizing the status of water circulation modeling, and sensors useful on free-drifting buoys, and data display and analysis were described.

  12. Tube support

    DOEpatents

    Mullinax, Jerry L.

    1988-01-01

    A tube support for supporting horizontal tubes from an inclined vertical support tube passing between the horizontal tubes. A support button is welded to the vertical support tube. Two clamping bars or plates, the lower edges of one bearing on the support button, are removably bolted to the inclined vertical tube. The clamping bars provide upper and lower surface support for the horizontal tubes.

  13. Booktalking: Avoiding Summer Drift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whittingham, Jeff; Rickman, Wendy A.

    2015-01-01

    Summer drift, otherwise known as loss of reading comprehension skills or reading achievement, has been a well-known and well-documented phenomenon of public education for decades. Studies from the late twentieth century to the present have demonstrated a slowdown in summer drift attributed to specific summer reading programs addressing motivation…

  14. Status of RDMS CMS computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavrilov, V.; Golutvin, I.; Kodolova, O.; Korenkov, V.; Levchuk, L.; Shmatov, S.; Tikhonenko, E.; Zhiltsov, V.

    2016-09-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a high-performance general-purpose detector at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. More than twenty institutes from Russia and Joint Institute for Nuclear Research (JINR) are involved in Russia and Dubna Member States (RDMS) CMS Collaboration. A proper computing grid-infrastructure has been constructed at the RDMS institutes for the participation in the running phase of the CMS experiment. Current status of RDMS CMS computing and plans of its development to the next LHC start are presented.

  15. Using fullscreen CMS at CERN

    SciTech Connect

    White, B.

    1991-05-01

    Fullscreen CMS is an optional console environment introduced in Release 5 of CMS which maintains the context of a VM session across invocations of full screen commands like XEDIT, FILELIST or MAIL. In addition it allows limited scrolling and windowing capabilities. This write-up provides CERNVM users who are interested in Fullscreen CMS with an overview of the concepts and operations which are involved. In that it is an optional environment, this write-up does not constitute an endorsement of Fullscreen CMS.

  16. Hadron Correlations in CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maguire, Charles F.

    2013-08-01

    The measurements of the anisotropic flow of single particles and particle pairs have provided some of the most compelling evidence for the creation of a strongly interacting quark-gluon plasma (sQGP) in relativistic heavy ion collisions, first at RHIC, and more recently at the LHC. Using PbPb collision data taken in the 2010 and 2011 heavy ion runs at the LHC, the CMS experiment has investigated a broad scope of these flow phenomena. The v2 elliptic flow coefficient has been extracted with four different methods to cross-check contributions from initial state fluctuations and non-flow correlations. The measurements of the v2 elliptic anisotropy have been extended to a transverse momentum of 60 GeV/c, which will enable the placement of new quantitative constraints on parton energy loss models as a function of path length in the sQGP medium. Additionally, for the first time at the LHC, the CMS experiment has extracted precise elliptic anisotropy coefficients for the π0 meson in the centrality range 20-80% and over a transverse momentum range 1.6 to 8 GeV/c. These results are compared with both the π0 results reported by the PHENIX detector at RHIC, and with the inclusive charged particle anisotropy results reported from the LHC. Finally, the CMS experiment has mounted an extensive study of charged hadron pair azimuthal correlations using a Fourier harmonic decomposition to fit the data. The relationship between these pair coefficients and the single particle harmonic flow coefficients can be explored for its insight into the early dynamics of this viscous medium.

  17. Abstraction of Drift Seepage

    SciTech Connect

    J.T. Birkholzer

    2004-11-01

    This model report documents the abstraction of drift seepage, conducted to provide seepage-relevant parameters and their probability distributions for use in Total System Performance Assessment for License Application (TSPA-LA). Drift seepage refers to the flow of liquid water into waste emplacement drifts. Water that seeps into drifts may contact waste packages and potentially mobilize radionuclides, and may result in advective transport of radionuclides through breached waste packages [''Risk Information to Support Prioritization of Performance Assessment Models'' (BSC 2003 [DIRS 168796], Section 3.3.2)]. The unsaturated rock layers overlying and hosting the repository form a natural barrier that reduces the amount of water entering emplacement drifts by natural subsurface processes. For example, drift seepage is limited by the capillary barrier forming at the drift crown, which decreases or even eliminates water flow from the unsaturated fractured rock into the drift. During the first few hundred years after waste emplacement, when above-boiling rock temperatures will develop as a result of heat generated by the decay of the radioactive waste, vaporization of percolation water is an additional factor limiting seepage. Estimating the effectiveness of these natural barrier capabilities and predicting the amount of seepage into drifts is an important aspect of assessing the performance of the repository. The TSPA-LA therefore includes a seepage component that calculates the amount of seepage into drifts [''Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA) Model/Analysis for the License Application'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 168504], Section 6.3.3.1)]. The TSPA-LA calculation is performed with a probabilistic approach that accounts for the spatial and temporal variability and inherent uncertainty of seepage-relevant properties and processes. Results are used for subsequent TSPA-LA components that may handle, for example, waste package corrosion or radionuclide transport.

  18. Method for producing a tube

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, Kenneth A.; Rohde, Steven B.; Pfeifer, Kent B.; Turner, Timothy S.

    2007-01-02

    A method is described for producing tubular substrates having parallel spaced concentric rings of electrical conductors that can be used as the drift tube of an Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS). The invention comprises providing electrodes on the inside of a tube that are electrically connected to the outside of the tube through conductors that extend between adjacent plies of substrate that are combined to form the tube. Tubular substrates are formed from flexible polymeric printed wiring board materials, ceramic materials and material compositions of glass and ceramic, commonly known as Low Temperature Co-Fired Ceramic (LTCC). The adjacent plies are sealed together around the electrode.

  19. Photon reconstruction in CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nysten, J.

    2004-11-01

    If the mass of the Higgs boson is less than 150 GeV/ c2, the H→γγ channel will provide a clear signature at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). An overview of the general design of photon reconstruction in the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment is given. The handling of converted photons and rejection of neutral pions pose an additional challenge to triggering and measuring. Topics related to photon reconstruction are presented, such as an algorithm for track building of the electron and the positron coming from the photon conversion.

  20. Photon Physics at CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Hollar, J J

    2009-10-20

    The Large Hadron Collider will allow studies of {gamma}{gamma} and photoproduction interactions at energies significantly higher than previous experiments, in both pp and heavy ion collisions. In this article, studies of the feasibility of measuring {gamma}{gamma} {yields} {ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}, {gamma}p {yields} {Upsilon}p {yields} {ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}p, and {gamma}A {yields} {Upsilon}A {yields} {ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}A processes in early LHC data with the CMS detector are presented.

  1. Quaternary Contourite Drifts of the Western Spitsbergen Margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laberg, J. S.; Rebesco, M.; Wahlin, A.; Schauer, U.; Beszczynska-Möller, A.; Lucchi, R. G.; Noormets, R.; Accettella, D.; Zarayskaya, Y.; Diviacco, P.

    2014-12-01

    The study of contourite drifts is an increasingly used tool for understanding the climate history of the oceans. In this paper we analyse two contourite drifts along the continental margin west of Spitsbergen, just south of the Fram Strait where significant water mass exchanges impact the Arctic climate. We detail the internal geometry and the morphologic characteristics of the two drifts on the base of multichannel seismic reflection data, sub-bottom profiles and bathymetry. These mounded features, that we propose to name Isfjorden and Bellsund drifts, are located on the continental slope between 1200 and 1800 m depth, whereas the upper slope is characterized by reduced- or non-deposition. The more distinct Isfjorden Drift is about 25 km wide and 45 km long, and over 200 ms TWT thick. We revise the 13 years-long time series of velocity, temperature, and salinity obtained from a mooring array across the Fram Strait. Two distinct current cores are visible in the long-term average. The shallower current core has an average northward velocity of about 20 cm/s, while the deeper bottom current core at about 1450 m depth has an average northward velocity of about 9 cm/s. We consider Norwegian Sea Deep Water episodically ventilated by relatively dense and turbid shelf water from the Barents Sea responsible for the accumulation of the contourites. The onset of the drift growth west of Spitsbergen is inferred to be about 1.3 Ma and related to the Early Pleistocene glacial expansion recorded in the area. The lack of mounded contouritic deposits on the continental slope of the Storfjorden is related to consecutive erosion by glacigenic debris flows. The Isfjorden and Bellsund drifts are inferred to contain the record of the regional palaeoceanography and glacial history and may constitute an excellent target of future scientific drilling.

  2. Quaternary contourite drifts of the Western Spitsbergen margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebesco, Michele; Wåhlin, Anna; Laberg, Jan Sverre; Schauer, Ursula; Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Lucchi, Renata Giulia; Noormets, Riko; Accettella, Daniela; Zarayskaya, Yulia; Diviacco, Paolo

    2013-09-01

    The study of contourite drifts is an increasingly used tool for understanding the climate history of the oceans. In this paper we analyse two contourite drifts along the continental margin west of Spitsbergen, just south of the Fram Strait where significant water mass exchanges impact the Arctic climate. We detail the internal geometry and the morphologic characteristics of the two drifts on the base of multichannel seismic reflection data, sub-bottom profiles and bathymetry. These mounded features, that we propose to name Isfjorden and Bellsund drifts, are located on the continental slope between 1200 and 1800 m depth, whereas the upper slope is characterized by reduced- or non-deposition. The more distinct Isfjorden Drift is about 25 km wide and 45 km long, and over 200 ms TWT thick. We revise the 13 years-long time series of velocity, temperature, and salinity obtained from a mooring array across the Fram Strait. Two distinct current cores are visible in the long-term average. The shallower current core has an average northward velocity of about 20 cm/s, while the deeper bottom current core at about 1450 m depth has an average northward velocity of about 9 cm/s. We consider Norwegian Sea Deep Water episodically ventilated by relatively dense and turbid shelf water from the Barents Sea responsible for the accumulation of the contourites. The onset of the drift growth west of Spitsbergen is inferred to be about 1.3 Ma and related to the Early Pleistocene glacial expansion recorded in the area. The lack of mounded contouritic deposits on the continental slope of the Storfjorden is related to consecutive erosion by glacigenic debris flows. The Isfjorden and Bellsund drifts are inferred to contain the record of the regional palaeoceanography and glacial history and may constitute an excellent target of future scientific drilling.

  3. Ear Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Ear Tubes Ear Tubes Patient Health Information News media ... and throat specialist) may be considered. What are ear tubes? Ear tubes are tiny cylinders placed through ...

  4. The CMS trigger system

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2017-01-24

    This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, tau lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during datamore » taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.« less

  5. The CMS trigger system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Flechl, M.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; De Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; Van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; Damiao, D. De Jesus; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; De Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Assran, Y.; El Sawy, M.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Merlin, J. A.; Skovpen, K.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Bernet, C.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Courbon, B.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Lagarde, F.; Laktineh, I. B.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Pequegnot, A. L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Toriashvili, T.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heister, A.; Kiesel, M. K.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Ostapchuk, A.; Preuten, M.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schulte, J. F.; Verlage, T.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Endres, M.; Erdmann, M.; Erdweg, S.; Esch, T.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pook, T.; Radziej, M.; Reithler, H.; Rieger, M.; Scheuch, F.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nehrkorn, A.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Pistone, C.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behnke, O.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. J.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Campbell, A.; Choudhury, S.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dolinska, G.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Gallo, E.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gizhko, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Karacheban, O.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Korol, I.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I.-A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Roland, B.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Saxena, P.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Trippkewitz, K. D.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Gonzalez, D.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Junkes, A.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Kovalchuk, N.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Marconi, D.; Meyer, M.; Nowatschin, D.; Ott, J.; Pantaleo, F.; Peiffer, T.; Perieanu, A.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Scharf, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Schwandt, J.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Tholen, H.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Vormwald, B.; Akbiyik, M.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; Colombo, F.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Fink, S.; Frensch, F.; Friese, R.; Giffels, M.; Gilbert, A.; Haitz, D.; Hartmann, F.; Heindl, S. M.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Maier, B.; Mildner, H.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, T.; Müller, Th.; Plagge, M.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Röcker, S.; Roscher, F.; Sieber, G.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weber, M.; Weiler, T.; Wöhrmann, C.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Tziaferi, E.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Loukas, N.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Strologas, J.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hazi, A.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Molnar, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Bartók, M.; Makovec, A.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Mal, P.; Mandal, K.; Sahoo, D. K.; Sahoo, N.; Swain, S. K.; Bansal, S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Chawla, R.; Gupta, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, A.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mehta, A.; Mittal, M.; Singh, J. B.; Walia, G.; Kumar, Ashok; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Garg, R. B.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Nishu, N.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, R.; Sharma, V.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dey, S.; Dutta, S.; Jain, Sa.; Majumdar, N.; Modak, A.; Mondal, K.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukhopadhyay, S.; Roy, A.; Roy, D.; Chowdhury, S. Roy; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Chudasama, R.; Dutta, D.; Jha, V.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Dugad, S.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Mahakud, B.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mitra, S.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sarkar, T.; Sur, N.; Sutar, B.; Wickramage, N.; Chauhan, S.; Dube, S.; Kothekar, K.; Sharma, S.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Behnamian, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Goldouzian, R.; Khakzad, M.; Najafabadi, M. Mohammadi; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Calabria, C.; Caputo, C.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; Cristella, L.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Miniello, G.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Ranieri, A.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Verwilligen, P.; Abbiendi, G.; Battilana, C.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Chhibra, S. S.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Travaglini, R.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Di Mattia, A.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Gonzi, S.; Gori, V.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Viliani, L.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Primavera, F.; Calvelli, V.; Ferro, F.; Lo Vetere, M.; Monge, M. R.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Brianza, L.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Gerosa, R.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Marzocchi, B.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Di Guida, S.; Esposito, M.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lanza, G.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Sciacca, C.; Thyssen, F.; Bacchetta, N.; Bellato, M.; Benato, L.; Bisello, D.; Boletti, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dall'Osso, M.; Dosselli, U.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Gozzelino, A.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Montecassiano, F.; Passaseo, M.; Pazzini, J.; Pegoraro, M.; Pozzobon, N.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Vanini, S.; Ventura, S.; Zanetti, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Braghieri, A.; Magnani, A.; Montagna, P.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vai, I.; Vitulo, P.; Alunni Solestizi, L.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell'Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fedi, G.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; D'imperio, G.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Gelli, S.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Preiato, F.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Traczyk, P.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Costa, M.; Covarelli, R.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Kiani, B.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Monteil, E.; Obertino, M. M.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Ravera, F.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Tamponi, U.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; La Licata, C.; Marone, M.; Schizzi, A.; Zanetti, A.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Nam, S. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, M. S.; Kong, D. J.; Lee, S.; Oh, Y. D.; Sakharov, A.; Son, D. C.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Kim, H.; Kim, T. J.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Go, Y.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Lee, B.; Lee, K.; Lee, K. S.; Lee, S.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Yoo, H. D.; Choi, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, J. H.; Lee, J. S. H.; Park, I. C.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M. S.; Choi, Y.; Goh, J.; Kim, D.; Kwon, E.; Lee, J.; Yu, I.; Dudenas, V.; Juodagalvis, A.; Vaitkus, J.; Ahmed, I.; Ibrahim, Z. A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Ali, M. A. B. Md; Mohamad Idris, F.; Abdullah, W. A. T. Wan; Yusli, M. N.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-De La Cruz, I.; Hernandez-Almada, A.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Pedraza, I.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Byszuk, A.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Kierzkowski, K.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Oklinski, W.; Olszewski, M.; Pozniak, K.; Walczak, M.; Zabolotny, W.; Bargassa, P.; Silva, C. Beirão Da Cruz E.; Di Francesco, A.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Leonardo, N.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Nguyen, F.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Seixas, J.; Toldaiev, O.; Vadruccio, D.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Afanasiev, S.; Bunin, P.; Gavrilenko, M.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Konoplyanikov, V.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Shmatov, S.; Shulha, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Zarubin, A.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Kuznetsova, E.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Karneyeu, A.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Pozdnyakov, I.; Safronov, G.; Spiridonov, A.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Bylinkin, A.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. V.; Baskakov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Gribushin, A.; Kaminskiy, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Myagkov, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Petrushanko, S.; Savrin, V.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Domínguez Vázquez, D.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Navarro De Martino, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Santaolalla, J.; Soares, M. S.; Albajar, C.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Missiroli, M.; Moran, D.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Palencia Cortezon, E.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Castiñeiras De Saa, J. R.; De Castro Manzano, P.; Duarte Campderros, J.; Fernandez, M.; Garcia-Ferrero, J.; Gomez, G.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Munoz Sanchez, F. J.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Trevisani, N.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Benaglia, A.; Bendavid, J.; Benhabib, L.; Benitez, J. F.; Berruti, G. M.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Castello, R.; Cerminara, G.; D'Alfonso, M.; d'Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; Daponte, V.; David, A.; De Gruttola, M.; De Guio, F.; De Roeck, A.; De Visscher, S.; Di Marco, E.; Dobson, M.; Dordevic, M.; Dorney, B.; du Pree, T.; Dünser, M.; Dupont, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Franzoni, G.; Funk, W.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Girone, M.; Glege, F.; Guida, R.; Gundacker, S.; Guthoff, M.; Hammer, J.; Harris, P.; Hegeman, J.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kirschenmann, H.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Kousouris, K.; Krajczar, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lourenço, C.; Lucchini, M. T.; Magini, N.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Martelli, A.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moortgat, F.; Morovic, S.; Mulders, M.; Nemallapudi, M. V.; Neugebauer, H.; Orfanelli, S.; Orsini, L.; Pape, L.; Perez, E.; Peruzzi, M.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Piparo, D.; Racz, A.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Ruan, M.; Sakulin, H.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Seidel, M.; Sharma, A.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Steggemann, J.; Stieger, B.; Stoye, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Treille, D.; Triossi, A.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Wardle, N.; Wöhri, H. K.; Zagozdzinska, A.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bianchini, L.; Casal, B.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Eller, P.; Grab, C.; Heidegger, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Kasieczka, G.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marionneau, M.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Masciovecchio, M.; Meister, D.; Micheli, F.; Musella, P.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pata, J.; Pauss, F.; Perrozzi, L.; Quittnat, M.; Rossini, M.; Starodumov, A.; Takahashi, M.; Tavolaro, V. R.; Theofilatos, K.; Wallny, R.; Aarrestad, T. K.; Amsler, C.; Caminada, L.; Canelli, M. F.; Chiochia, V.; De Cosa, A.; Galloni, C.; Hinzmann, A.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Lange, C.; Ngadiuba, J.; Pinna, D.; Robmann, P.; Ronga, F. J.; Salerno, D.; Yang, Y.; Cardaci, M.; Chen, K. H.; Doan, T. H.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Konyushikhin, M.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Yu, S. S.; Kumar, Arun; Bartek, R.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Dietz, C.; Fiori, F.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W.-S.; Hsiung, Y.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R.-S.; Miñano Moya, M.; Petrakou, E.; Tsai, J. f.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Asavapibhop, B.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Singh, G.; Srimanobhas, N.; Suwonjandee, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Demiroglu, Z. S.; Dozen, C.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Guler, Y.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Polatoz, A.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, M.; Zorbilmez, C.; Akin, I. V.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Isildak, B.; Karapinar, G.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Yetkin, E. A.; Yetkin, T.; Cakir, A.; Cankocak, K.; Sen, S.; Vardarlı, F. I.; Grynyov, B.; Levchuk, L.; Sorokin, P.; Aggleton, R.; Ball, F.; Beck, L.; Brooke, J. J.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Jacob, J.; Kreczko, L.; Lucas, C.; Meng, Z.; Newbold, D. M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Sakuma, T.; Seif El Nasr-storey, S.; Senkin, S.; Smith, D.; Smith, V. J.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Calligaris, L.; Cieri, D.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Williams, T.; Womersley, W. J.; Worm, S. D.; Baber, M.; Bainbridge, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Bundock, A.; Burton, D.; Casasso, S.; Citron, M.; Colling, D.; Corpe, L.; Cripps, N.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; De Wit, A.; Della Negra, M.; Dunne, P.; Elwood, A.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Kenzie, M.; Lane, R.; Lucas, R.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A.-M.; Malik, S.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Raymond, D. M.; Richards, A.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Tapper, A.; Uchida, K.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Borzou, A.; Call, K.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Liu, H.; Pastika, N.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Arcaro, D.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Gastler, D.; Lawson, P.; Rankin, D.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; St. John, J.; Sulak, L.; Zou, D.; Alimena, J.; Berry, E.; Bhattacharya, S.; Cutts, D.; Dhingra, N.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Hakala, J.; Heintz, U.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Mao, Z.; Narain, M.; Piperov, S.; Sagir, S.; Syarif, R.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Saltzberg, D.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Ivova PANEVA, M.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Malberti, M.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Shrinivas, A.; Wei, H.; Wimpenny, S.; Yates, B. R.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D'Agnolo, R. T.; Derdzinski, M.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Klein, D.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Tadel, M.; Vartak, A.; Wasserbaech, S.; Welke, C.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Zevi Della Porta, G.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Flowers, K.; Sevilla, M. Franco; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Gran, J.; Incandela, J.; Mccoll, N.; Mullin, S. D.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; Suarez, I.; West, C.; Yoo, J.; Anderson, D.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Pierini, M.; Spiropulu, M.; Vlimant, J. R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Andrews, M. B.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carlson, B.; Ferguson, T.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Sun, M.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Jensen, F.; Johnson, A.; Krohn, M.; Mulholland, T.; Nauenberg, U.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Chaves, J.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Eggert, N.; Mirman, N.; Kaufman, G. Nicolas; Patterson, J. R.; Rinkevicius, A.; Ryd, A.; Skinnari, L.; Soffi, L.; Sun, W.; Tan, S. M.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Wittich, P.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Apollinari, G.; Banerjee, S.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hasegawa, S.; Hirschauer, J.; Hu, Z.; Jayatilaka, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Jung, A. W.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Kwan, S.; Lammel, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lopes De Sá, R.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V. I.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O'Dell, V.; Pedro, K.; Prokofyev, O.; Rakness, G.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vernieri, C.; Verzocchi, M.; Vidal, R.; Weber, H. A.; Whitbeck, A.; Yang, F.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Carnes, A.; Carver, M.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Field, R. D.; Furic, I. K.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Hugon, J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Low, J. F.; Ma, P.; Matchev, K.; Mei, H.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Rank, D.; Rossin, R.; Shchutska, L.; Snowball, M.; Sperka, D.; Terentyev, N.; Thomas, L.; Wang, J.; Wang, S.; Yelton, J.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Ackert, A.; Adams, J. R.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Khatiwada, A.; Prosper, H.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Bhopatkar, V.; Colafranceschi, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Noonan, D.; Roy, T.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Kurt, P.; O'Brien, C.; Sandoval Gonzalez, I. D.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Wu, Z.; Zakaria, M.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Durgut, S.; Gandrajula, R. P.; Haytmyradov, M.; Khristenko, V.; Merlo, J.-P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Snyder, C.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yi, K.; Anderson, I.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Eminizer, N.; Fehling, D.; Feng, L.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Osherson, M.; Roskes, J.; Sady, A.; Sarica, U.; Swartz, M.; Xiao, M.; Xin, Y.; You, C.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Kenny, R. P., III; Majumder, D.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Sanders, S.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Ivanov, A.; Kaadze, K.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Mohammadi, A.; Saini, L. K.; Skhirtladze, N.; Toda, S.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Anelli, C.; Baden, A.; Baron, O.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Ferraioli, C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Jabeen, S.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Kunkle, J.; Lu, Y.; Mignerey, A. C.; Shin, Y. H.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Baty, A.; Bierwagen, K.; Brandt, S.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Demiragli, Z.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Iiyama, Y.; Innocenti, G. M.; Klute, M.; Kovalskyi, D.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y.-J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Marini, A. C.; Mcginn, C.; Mironov, C.; Narayanan, S.; Niu, X.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sumorok, K.; Varma, M.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, T. W.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Evans, A.; Finkel, A.; Gude, A.; Hansen, P.; Kalafut, S.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Lesko, Z.; Mans, J.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Ruckstuhl, N.; Rusack, R.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Fangmeier, C.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kamalieddin, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Meier, F.; Monroy, J.; Ratnikov, F.; Siado, J. E.; Snow, G. R.; Alyari, M.; Dolen, J.; George, J.; Godshalk, A.; Harrington, C.; Iashvili, I.; Kaisen, J.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Roozbahani, B.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Hortiangtham, A.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Teixeira De Lima, R.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R.-J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Trovato, M.; Velasco, M.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Dev, N.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Meng, F.; Mueller, C.; Musienko, Y.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Reinsvold, A.; Ruchti, R.; Smith, G.; Taroni, S.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Ji, W.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Liu, B.; Luo, W.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Winer, B. L.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hardenbrook, J.; Hebda, P.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Palmer, C.; Piroué, P.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Zuranski, A.; Malik, S.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; Gutay, L.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Sun, J.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Chen, Z.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Guilbaud, M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Northup, M.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Rorie, J.; Tu, Z.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Galanti, M.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Hindrichs, O.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Petrillo, G.; Tan, P.; Verzetti, M.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Hughes, E.; Kaplan, S.; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R.; Lath, A.; Nash, K.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Sheffield, D.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Foerster, M.; Riley, G.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Dalchenko, M.; De Mattia, M.; Delgado, A.; Dildick, S.; Eusebi, R.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Krutelyov, V.; Mueller, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Patel, R.; Perloff, A.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Tatarinov, A.; Ulmer, K. A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kunori, S.; Lamichhane, K.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Undleeb, S.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Janjam, R.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Ni, H.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Xu, Q.; Arenton, M. W.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Sun, X.; Wang, Y.; Wolfe, E.; Wood, J.; Xia, F.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Gomber, B.; Grothe, M.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Levine, A.; Long, K.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ruggles, T.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Sharma, A.; Smith, N.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Woods, N.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the CMS trigger system and its performance during Run 1 of the LHC. The trigger system consists of two levels designed to select events of potential physics interest from a GHz (MHz) interaction rate of proton-proton (heavy ion) collisions. The first level of the trigger is implemented in hardware, and selects events containing detector signals consistent with an electron, photon, muon, τ lepton, jet, or missing transverse energy. A programmable menu of up to 128 object-based algorithms is used to select events for subsequent processing. The trigger thresholds are adjusted to the LHC instantaneous luminosity during data taking in order to restrict the output rate to 100 kHz, the upper limit imposed by the CMS readout electronics. The second level, implemented in software, further refines the purity of the output stream, selecting an average rate of 400 Hz for offline event storage. The objectives, strategy and performance of the trigger system during the LHC Run 1 are described.

  6. Opportunistic Resource Usage in CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Kreuzer, Peter; Hufnagel, Dirk; Dykstra, D.; Gutsche, O.; Tadel, M.; Sfiligoi, I.; Letts, J.; Wuerthwein, F.; McCrea, A.; Bockelman, B.; Fajardo, E.; Linares, L.; Wagner, R.; Konstantinov, P.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bradley, D.

    2014-01-01

    CMS is using a tiered setup of dedicated computing resources provided by sites distributed over the world and organized in WLCG. These sites pledge resources to CMS and are preparing them especially for CMS to run the experiment's applications. But there are more resources available opportunistically both on the GRID and in local university and research clusters which can be used for CMS applications. We will present CMS' strategy to use opportunistic resources and prepare them dynamically to run CMS applications. CMS is able to run its applications on resources that can be reached through the GRID, through EC2 compliant cloud interfaces. Even resources that can be used through ssh login nodes can be harnessed. All of these usage modes are integrated transparently into the GlideIn WMS submission infrastructure, which is the basis of CMS' opportunistic resource usage strategy. Technologies like Parrot to mount the software distribution via CVMFS and xrootd for access to data and simulation samples via the WAN are used and will be described. We will summarize the experience with opportunistic resource usage and give an outlook for the restart of LHC data taking in 2015.

  7. Opportunistic Resource Usage in CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreuzer, Peter; Hufnagel, Dirk; Dykstra, D.; Gutsche, O.; Tadel, M.; Sfiligoi, I.; Letts, J.; Wuerthwein, F.; McCrea, A.; Bockelman, B.; Fajardo, E.; Linares, L.; Wagner, R.; Konstantinov, P.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bradley, D.; Cms Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    CMS is using a tiered setup of dedicated computing resources provided by sites distributed over the world and organized in WLCG. These sites pledge resources to CMS and are preparing them especially for CMS to run the experiment's applications. But there are more resources available opportunistically both on the GRID and in local university and research clusters which can be used for CMS applications. We will present CMS' strategy to use opportunistic resources and prepare them dynamically to run CMS applications. CMS is able to run its applications on resources that can be reached through the GRID, through EC2 compliant cloud interfaces. Even resources that can be used through ssh login nodes can be harnessed. All of these usage modes are integrated transparently into the GlideIn WMS submission infrastructure, which is the basis of CMS' opportunistic resource usage strategy. Technologies like Parrot to mount the software distribution via CVMFS and xrootd for access to data and simulation samples via the WAN are used and will be described. We will summarize the experience with opportunistic resource usage and give an outlook for the restart of LHC data taking in 2015.

  8. The CMS online manual system.

    PubMed

    2008-07-01

    The U.S. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) explains how health care providers can use the Web-based CMS Online Manual System to learn about the Medicare program and stay up to date with the latest program changes.

  9. Continental drift before 1900.

    PubMed

    Rupke, N A

    1970-07-25

    The idea that Francis Bacon and other seventeenth and eighteenth century thinkers first conceived the notion of continental drift does not stand up to close scrutiny. The few authors who expressed the idea viewed the process as a catastrophic event.

  10. Lithium drifted germanium system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fjarlie, E. J.

    1969-01-01

    General characteristics of the lithium-drifted germanium photodiode-Dewar-preamplifier system and particular operating instructions for the device are given. Information is included on solving operational problems.

  11. Drift Scale THM Model

    SciTech Connect

    J. Rutqvist

    2004-10-07

    This model report documents the drift scale coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical (THM) processes model development and presents simulations of the THM behavior in fractured rock close to emplacement drifts. The modeling and analyses are used to evaluate the impact of THM processes on permeability and flow in the near-field of the emplacement drifts. The results from this report are used to assess the importance of THM processes on seepage and support in the model reports ''Seepage Model for PA Including Drift Collapse'' and ''Abstraction of Drift Seepage'', and to support arguments for exclusion of features, events, and processes (FEPs) in the analysis reports ''Features, Events, and Processes in Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport and Features, Events, and Processes: Disruptive Events''. The total system performance assessment (TSPA) calculations do not use any output from this report. Specifically, the coupled THM process model is applied to simulate the impact of THM processes on hydrologic properties (permeability and capillary strength) and flow in the near-field rock around a heat-releasing emplacement drift. The heat generated by the decay of radioactive waste results in elevated rock temperatures for thousands of years after waste emplacement. Depending on the thermal load, these temperatures are high enough to cause boiling conditions in the rock, resulting in water redistribution and altered flow paths. These temperatures will also cause thermal expansion of the rock, with the potential of opening or closing fractures and thus changing fracture permeability in the near-field. Understanding the THM coupled processes is important for the performance of the repository because the thermally induced permeability changes potentially effect the magnitude and spatial distribution of percolation flux in the vicinity of the drift, and hence the seepage of water into the drift. This is important because a sufficient amount of water must be available within a

  12. CMS Software Notebook. First Edition.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    For example, one of my file managing procedures will permit a user to enter the CMS subset to look for a missing file when it is not possible to...Box 17186 Washington, D.C. 20041 CMS userid: ORGASS Please specify if you want the user’s manual or the systems manual. The latter is designed for...8217 CMS SOFTWARE NOTEBOOK*t (First Edition) edited by Richard J. Orgass DT ’ Technical Memorandum No. 79-6 K. July 31, 1979 . ABSTRACT A brief description

  13. Drift Degradation Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    D. Kicker

    2004-09-16

    Degradation of underground openings as a function of time is a natural and expected occurrence for any subsurface excavation. Over time, changes occur to both the stress condition and the strength of the rock mass due to several interacting factors. Once the factors contributing to degradation are characterized, the effects of drift degradation can typically be mitigated through appropriate design and maintenance of the ground support system. However, for the emplacement drifts of the geologic repository at Yucca Mountain, it is necessary to characterize drift degradation over a 10,000-year period, which is well beyond the functional period of the ground support system. This document provides an analysis of the amount of drift degradation anticipated in repository emplacement drifts for discrete events and time increments extending throughout the 10,000-year regulatory period for postclosure performance. This revision of the drift degradation analysis was developed to support the license application and fulfill specific agreement items between the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The earlier versions of ''Drift Degradation Analysis'' (BSC 2001 [DIRS 156304]) relied primarily on the DRKBA numerical code, which provides for a probabilistic key-block assessment based on realistic fracture patterns determined from field mapping in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) at Yucca Mountain. A key block is defined as a critical block in the surrounding rock mass of an excavation, which is removable and oriented in an unsafe manner such that it is likely to move into an opening unless support is provided. However, the use of the DRKBA code to determine potential rockfall data at the repository horizon during the postclosure period has several limitations: (1) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply dynamic loads due to seismic ground motion. (2) The DRKBA code cannot explicitly apply loads due to thermal stress. (3) The DRKBA

  14. SAA drift: Experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, O. R.; Romashova, V. V.; Petrov, A. N.

    According to the paleomagnetic analysis there are variations of Earth’s magnetic field connected with magnetic moment changing. These variations affect on the South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) location. Indeed different observations approved the existence of the SAA westward drift rate (0.1 1.0 deg/year) and northward drift rate (approximately 0.1 deg/year). In this work, we present the analysis of experimental results obtained in Scobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics, Moscow State University (SINP MSU) onboard different Earth’s artificial satellites (1972 2003). The fluxes of protons with energy >50 MeV, gamma quanta with energy >500 keV and neutrons with energy 0.1 1.0 MeV in the SAA region have been analyzed. The mentioned above experimental data were obtained onboard the orbital stations Salut-6 (1979), MIR (1991, 1998) and ISS (2003) by the similar experimental equipment. The comparison of the data obtained during these two decades of investigations confirms the fact that the SAA drifts westward. Moreover the analysis of fluxes of electrons with energy about hundreds keV (Cosmos-484 (1972) and Active (Interkosmos-24, 1991) satellites) verified not only the SAA westward drift but northward drift also.

  15. Spiral silicon drift detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Rehak, P.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Holl, P.; Lutz, G.; Kemmer, J.; Prechtel, U.; Ziemann, T.

    1988-01-01

    An advanced large area silicon photodiode (and x-ray detector), called Spiral Drift Detector, was designed, produced and tested. The Spiral Detector belongs to the family of silicon drift detectors and is an improvement of the well known Cylindrical Drift Detector. In both detectors, signal electrons created in silicon by fast charged particles or photons are drifting toward a practically point-like collection anode. The capacitance of the anode is therefore kept at the minimum (0.1pF). The concentric rings of the cylindrical detector are replaced by a continuous spiral in the new detector. The spiral geometry detector design leads to a decrease of the detector leakage current. In the spiral detector all electrons generated at the silicon-silicon oxide interface are collected on a guard sink rather than contributing to the detector leakage current. The decrease of the leakage current reduces the parallel noise of the detector. This decrease of the leakage current and the very small capacities of the detector anode with a capacitively matched preamplifier may improve the energy resolution of Spiral Drift Detectors operating at room temperature down to about 50 electrons rms. This resolution is in the range attainable at present only by cooled semiconductor detectors. 5 refs., 10 figs.

  16. CMS multicore scheduling strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Perez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio; Hernandez, Jose; Holzman, Burt; Majewski, Krista; McCrea, Alison

    2014-01-01

    In the next years, processor architectures based on much larger numbers of cores will be most likely the model to continue 'Moore's Law' style throughput gains. This not only results in many more jobs in parallel running the LHC Run 1 era monolithic applications, but also the memory requirements of these processes push the workernode architectures to the limit. One solution is parallelizing the application itself, through forking and memory sharing or through threaded frameworks. CMS is following all of these approaches and has a comprehensive strategy to schedule multicore jobs on the GRID based on the glideinWMS submission infrastructure. The main component of the scheduling strategy, a pilot-based model with dynamic partitioning of resources that allows the transition to multicore or whole-node scheduling without disallowing the use of single-core jobs, is described. This contribution also presents the experiences made with the proposed multicore scheduling schema and gives an outlook of further developments working towards the restart of the LHC in 2015.

  17. The CMS dataset bookkeeping service

    SciTech Connect

    Afaq, Anzar,; Dolgert, Andrew; Guo, Yuyi; Jones, Chris; Kosyakov, Sergey; Kuznetsov, Valentin; Lueking, Lee; Riley, Dan; Sekhri, Vijay; /Fermilab

    2007-10-01

    The CMS Dataset Bookkeeping Service (DBS) has been developed to catalog all CMS event data from Monte Carlo and Detector sources. It provides the ability to identify MC or trigger source, track data provenance, construct datasets for analysis, and discover interesting data. CMS requires processing and analysis activities at various service levels and the DBS system provides support for localized processing or private analysis, as well as global access for CMS users at large. Catalog entries can be moved among the various service levels with a simple set of migration tools, thus forming a loose federation of databases. DBS is available to CMS users via a Python API, Command Line, and a Discovery web page interfaces. The system is built as a multi-tier web application with Java servlets running under Tomcat, with connections via JDBC to Oracle or MySQL database backends. Clients connect to the service through HTTP or HTTPS with authentication provided by GRID certificates and authorization through VOMS. DBS is an integral part of the overall CMS Data Management and Workflow Management systems.

  18. TUBE TESTER

    DOEpatents

    Gittings, H.T. Jr.; Kalbach, J.F.

    1958-01-14

    This patent relates to tube testing, and in particular describes a tube tester for automatic testing of a number of vacuum tubes while in service and as frequently as may be desired. In it broadest aspects the tube tester compares a particular tube with a standard tube tarough a difference amplifier. An unbalanced condition in the circuit of the latter produced by excessive deviation of the tube in its characteristics from standard actuates a switch mechanism stopping the testing cycle and indicating the defective tube.

  19. Tube supports

    SciTech Connect

    Cannon, K.A.

    1989-01-10

    This patent describes an apparatus consisting of parallel tubes arranged in the form of a tube bundle having a first plurality of parallel tube rows with lanes between adjacent rows and a second plurality of parallel tube rows with lanes between adjacent rows and support structure for supporting the tubes. The support structure consists of at least a first baffle and a second baffle, wherein each baffle comprises an outer ring surrounding the tube bundle and at least one slat attached to the outer ring as a chord and extending through the tube bundle between adjacent rows in one of the parallel tube rows. At least one slat is characterized by corrugations or folds extending along its length for point contact with the tubes of the bundle, the slat in the first baffle extending in lanes between the first plurality of parallel tube rows, and the slat in the second baffle extending in lanes between the second plurality of parallel tube rows.

  20. IN DRIFT CORROSION PRODUCTS

    SciTech Connect

    D.M. Jolley

    1999-12-02

    As directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M&O 1999a), a conceptual model for steel and corrosion products in the engineered barrier system (EBS) is to be developed. The purpose of this conceptual model is to assist Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department in modeling the geochemical environment within a repository drift, thus allowing PAO to provide a more detailed and complete in-drift geochemical model abstraction and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). This document provides the conceptual framework for the in-drift corrosion products sub-model to be used in subsequent PAO analyses including the EBS physical and chemical model abstraction effort. This model has been developed to serve as a basis for the in-drift geochemical analyses performed by PAO. However, the concepts discussed within this report may also apply to some near and far-field geochemical processes and may have conceptual application within the unsaturated zone (UZ) and saturated zone (SZ) transport modeling efforts.

  1. High resolution drift chambers

    SciTech Connect

    Va'vra, J.

    1985-07-01

    High precision drift chambers capable of achieving less than or equal to 50 ..mu..m resolutions are discussed. In particular, we compare so called cool and hot gases, various charge collection geometries, several timing techniques and we also discuss some systematic problems. We also present what we would consider an ''ultimate'' design of the vertex chamber. 50 refs., 36 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Dike Propagation Near Drifts

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2002-03-04

    The purpose of this Analysis and Model Report (AMR) supporting the Site Recommendation/License Application (SR/LA) for the Yucca Mountain Project is the development of elementary analyses of the interactions of a hypothetical dike with a repository drift (i.e., tunnel) and with the drift contents at the potential Yucca Mountain repository. This effort is intended to support the analysis of disruptive events for Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA). This AMR supports the Process Model Report (PMR) on disruptive events (CRWMS M&O 2000a). This purpose is documented in the development plan (DP) ''Coordinate Modeling of Dike Propagation Near Drifts Consequences for TSPA-SR/LA'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b). Evaluation of that Development Plan and the work to be conducted to prepare Interim Change Notice (ICN) 1 of this report, which now includes the design option of ''Open'' drifts, indicated that no revision to that DP was needed. These analyses are intended to provide reasonable bounds for a number of expected effects: (1) Temperature changes to the waste package from exposure to magma; (2) The gas flow available to degrade waste containers during the intrusion; (3) Movement of the waste package as it is displaced by the gas, pyroclasts and magma from the intruding dike (the number of packages damaged); (4) Movement of the backfill (Backfill is treated here as a design option); (5) The nature of the mechanics of the dike/drift interaction. These analyses serve two objectives: to provide preliminary analyses needed to support evaluation of the consequences of an intrusive event and to provide a basis for addressing some of the concerns of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) expressed in the Igneous Activity Issue Resolution Status Report.

  3. CMS@home: Enabling Volunteer Computing Usage for CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Field, L.; Borras, H.; Spiga, D.; Riahi, H.

    2015-12-01

    Volunteer computing remains a largely untapped opportunistic resource for the LHC experiments. The use of virtualization in this domain was pioneered by the Test4Theory project and enabled the running of high energy particle physics simulations on home computers. This paper describes the model for CMS to run workloads using a similar volunteer computing platform. It is shown how the original approach is exploited to map onto the existing CMS workflow and identifies missing functionality along with the components and changes that are required. The final implementation of the prototype is detailed along with the identification of areas that would benefit from further development.

  4. The Recent Results from CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Tae Jeong

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN sitting astride the Franco-Swiss border near Geneva has accumulated the proton and proton collision data corresponding to an integrated luminosity of around 5 fb-1 at the center of mass energy 7 TeV in 2011 and around 20 fb-1 at 8 TeV in 2012 with the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector. The CMS detector is designed to investigate the wide range of particle physics including testing perturbative QCD and searching for Brout-Englert-Higgs (BEH) boson as well as new physics phenomena beyond the Standard Model. Observation of a new boson has moved the phase from hunting for the SM BEH boson to evaluating the consistency of this new particle with the SM expectation. The latest results from the CMS collaboration will be presented.

  5. Upgrades for the CMS simulation

    SciTech Connect

    Lange, D. J.; Hildreth, M.; Ivantchenko, V. N.; Osborne, I.

    2015-05-22

    Over the past several years, the CMS experiment has made significant changes to its detector simulation application. The geometry has been generalized to include modifications being made to the CMS detector for 2015 operations, as well as model improvements to the simulation geometry of the current CMS detector and the implementation of a number of approved and possible future detector configurations. These include both completely new tracker and calorimetry systems. We have completed the transition to Geant4 version 10, we have made significant progress in reducing the CPU resources required to run our Geant4 simulation. These have been achieved through both technical improvements and through numerical techniques. Substantial speed improvements have been achieved without changing the physics validation benchmarks that the experiment uses to validate our simulation application for use in production. As a result, we will discuss the methods that we implemented and the corresponding demonstrated performance improvements deployed for our 2015 simulation application.

  6. Effects of Drift Degradation on Environmental Conditions in Drifts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manepally, C.; Fedors, R. W.; Adams, G. R.; Green, S. T.

    2003-12-01

    Drift degradation is anticipated to significantly influence the environment inside waste emplacement drifts at the proposed repository for high level waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. This poster presents the calculated effects of drift degradation on the waste package and drip shield temperatures. Natural backfilling caused by degradation of the fractured tuff wallrock may occur gradually throughout the repository drifts, with all drifts estimated to be backfilled within 1,000 years after closure. Model results indicate prominent increases in waste package and drip shield temperatures due to the insulating effect of the backfill material. An algorithm linking drift degradation to estimates of waste package and drip shield temperature will be presented. Components of the different in-drift heat-transfer processes-including, conduction, convection and thermal radiation-are analyzed for relative importance. The results indicate that thermal radiation and convection dominate the in-drift heat transfer in the absence of drift degradation effects. In the case where drift degradation created a natural backfill, conduction through the backfill was the dominant heat transfer process. Furthermore, sensitivity analyses showed that the in-drift temperatures were very sensitive to the assumed thermal properties of the natural backfill. Ongoing numerical modeling that incorporates hydrologic effects on environmental conditions will also be discussed. This poster is an independent product of the CNWRA and does not necessarily reflect the view or regulatory position of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  7. Diogene pictorial drift chamber

    SciTech Connect

    Gosset, J.

    1984-01-01

    A pictorial drift chamber, called DIOGENE, has been installed at Saturne in order to study central collisions of high energy heavy ions. It has been adapted from the JADE internal detector, with two major differences to be taken into account. First, the center-of-mass of these collisions is not identical to the laboratory reference frame. Second, the energy loss and the momentum ranges of the particles to be detected are different from the ones in JADE. It was also tried to keep the cost as small as possible, hence the choice of minimum size and minimum number of sensitive wires. Moreover the wire planes are shifted from the beam axis: this trick helps very much to quickly reject the bad tracks caused by the ambiguity of measuring drift distances (positive or negative) through times (always positive).

  8. Mesoscopic simulations of accelerated polymer drift in microfluidic capillaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkenbos, A.; Lowe, C. P.

    2007-10-01

    We use a mesoscopic simulation technique to study the transport of polymers in dilute solution flowing through a cylindrical tube. The simulations use an explicit solvent model to include all the relevant hydrodynamic couplings and a coarse grained ideal chain model for the polymers (appropriate for systems near the theta temperature). For the interactions between the solvent and the tube wall we use a novel method that ensures continuity of the stress at the interface. We show that the results for the polymer drift velocity are independent of the degree of coarse graining. Further, for the case where the size of the chains is small but not negligible compared to the tube radius, our results are in excellent agreement with experiment. However, they also show that in this regime, the "accelerated" drift, relative to the average solvent flow velocity, is described by the steric effect of the tube wall excluding the polymer center of mass from sampling the full cross section of the tube. Hydrodynamic interactions have a negligible influence in this regime. Consequently, the agreement between experiment and theories that approximates the former but includes the latter is fortunate. When the undisturbed polymer radius approaches or exceeds the tube radius, the hydrodynamic interactions do have a significant effect. They reduce the drift velocity, in qualitative agreement with theoretical predictions. The accelerated drift still approaches the maximum value, one would expect based on a Poiseuille flow but more slowly than if one neglects hydrodynamics. Finally, we propose an empirical fit that accurately describes data in the intermediate regime.

  9. Emplacement Drift System Description Document

    SciTech Connect

    Eric Loros

    2001-07-31

    The Emplacement Drift System is part of the Engineered Barrier System and provides the interface between the various waste package (WP) systems and the Ground Control System. In conjunction with the various WPs, the Emplacement Drift System limits the release and transport of radionuclides from the WP to the Natural Barrier following waste emplacement. Collectively, the Emplacement Drift System consists of the structural support hardware (emplacement drift invert and WP emplacement pallet) and any performance-enhancing barriers (drip shields and invert ballast) installed or placed in the emplacement drifts. The Emplacement Drift System is entirely located within the emplacement drifts in the subsurface portion of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR); specifically, it is physically bounded by the Subsurface Facility System, the Ground Support System, and the Natural Barrier. The Emplacement Drift System supports the key MGR functions of limiting radionuclide release to the Natural Barrier, minimizing the likelihood of a criticality external to the WPs, limiting natural and induced environmental effects, and providing WP support. The Emplacement Drift System limits radionuclide release to the Natural Barrier by controlling the movement of radionuclides within the emplacement drift and to the Natural Barrier, and by limiting water contact with the WPs. The Emplacement Drift System provides physical support and barriers for emplaced WPs that reduce water contact. The Emplacement Drift WP spacing supports the thermal loading performance by complimenting drift layout and orientation as described in the system description document for the Subsurface Facility System. The Emplacement Drift System supports the WP and also provides an environment that aids in enhancing WP confinement performance. As part of the Engineered Barrier System, the Emplacement Drift System interfaces with the WP systems. The Emplacement Drift System also interfaces with the Natural Barrier

  10. CMS-2 to Ada Translator Evaluation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1997-09-01

    these translators, and to provide information to CMS -2 project managers to assist them in the evaluation of costs and risks of translating CMS -2 to Ada....The objective of this evaluation was to determine the maturity of the CMS -2 to Ada translators and associated tools, to determine the capabilities of

  11. 42 CFR 401.108 - CMS rulings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false CMS rulings. 401.108 Section 401.108 Public Health... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Confidentiality and Disclosure § 401.108 CMS rulings. (a) After... regulations, but which has been adopted by CMS as having precedent, may be published in the Federal...

  12. 42 CFR 401.108 - CMS rulings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false CMS rulings. 401.108 Section 401.108 Public Health... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Confidentiality and Disclosure § 401.108 CMS rulings. (a) After... regulations, but which has been adopted by CMS as having precedent, may be published in the Federal...

  13. 42 CFR 401.108 - CMS rulings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false CMS rulings. 401.108 Section 401.108 Public Health... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Confidentiality and Disclosure § 401.108 CMS rulings. (a) After... regulations, but which has been adopted by CMS as having precedent, may be published in the Federal...

  14. 42 CFR 401.108 - CMS rulings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false CMS rulings. 401.108 Section 401.108 Public Health... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Confidentiality and Disclosure § 401.108 CMS rulings. (a) After... regulations, but which has been adopted by CMS as having precedent, may be published in the Federal...

  15. 42 CFR 401.108 - CMS rulings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CMS rulings. 401.108 Section 401.108 Public Health... GENERAL ADMINISTRATIVE REQUIREMENTS Confidentiality and Disclosure § 401.108 CMS rulings. (a) After... regulations, but which has been adopted by CMS as having precedent, may be published in the Federal...

  16. The CMS DBS query language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, Valentin; Riley, Daniel; Afaq, Anzar; Sekhri, Vijay; Guo, Yuyi; Lueking, Lee

    2010-04-01

    The CMS experiment has implemented a flexible and powerful system enabling users to find data within the CMS physics data catalog. The Dataset Bookkeeping Service (DBS) comprises a database and the services used to store and access metadata related to CMS physics data. To this, we have added a generalized query system in addition to the existing web and programmatic interfaces to the DBS. This query system is based on a query language that hides the complexity of the underlying database structure by discovering the join conditions between database tables. This provides a way of querying the system that is simple and straightforward for CMS data managers and physicists to use without requiring knowledge of the database tables or keys. The DBS Query Language uses the ANTLR tool to build the input query parser and tokenizer, followed by a query builder that uses a graph representation of the DBS schema to construct the SQL query sent to underlying database. We will describe the design of the query system, provide details of the language components and overview of how this component fits into the overall data discovery system architecture.

  17. The CMS central hadron calorimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.; E892 Collaboration

    1996-12-31

    The CMS central hadron calorimeter is a copper absorber/ scintillator sampling structure. We describe design choices that led us to this concept, details of the mechanical and optical structure, and test beam results. We discuss calibration techniques, and finally the anticipated construction schedule.

  18. 45 CFR 150.203 - Circumstances requiring CMS enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Circumstances requiring CMS enforcement. 150.203... CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS CMS Enforcement Processes for... requiring CMS enforcement. CMS enforces HIPAA requirements to the extent warranted (as determined by CMS)...

  19. 45 CFR 150.203 - Circumstances requiring CMS enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Circumstances requiring CMS enforcement. 150.203... CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS CMS Enforcement Processes for... requiring CMS enforcement. CMS enforces HIPAA requirements to the extent warranted (as determined by CMS)...

  20. Feeding Tubes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Tubes Health Information Sheet Q & A with Experts Patient Stories Social Security Disability Application Process For Kids ... Feeding Tubes Health Information Sheet Q & A with Experts Patient Stories Social Security Disability Application Process For Kids ...

  1. ABSTRACTION OF DRIFT SEEPAGE

    SciTech Connect

    Michael L. Wilson

    2001-02-08

    Drift seepage refers to flow of liquid water into repository emplacement drifts, where it can potentially contribute to degradation of the engineered systems and release and transport of radionuclides within the drifts. Because of these important effects, seepage into emplacement drifts is listed as a ''principal factor for the postclosure safety case'' in the screening criteria for grading of data in Attachment 1 of AP-3.15Q, Rev. 2, ''Managing Technical Product Inputs''. Abstraction refers to distillation of the essential components of a process model into a form suitable for use in total-system performance assessment (TSPA). Thus, the purpose of this analysis/model is to put the information generated by the seepage process modeling in a form appropriate for use in the TSPA for the Site Recommendation. This report also supports the Unsaturated-Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report. The scope of the work is discussed below. This analysis/model is governed by the ''Technical Work Plan for Unsaturated Zone Flow and Transport Process Model Report'' (CRWMS M&O 2000a). Details of this activity are in Addendum A of the technical work plan. The original Work Direction and Planning Document is included as Attachment 7 of Addendum A. Note that the Work Direction and Planning Document contains tasks identified for both Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and Natural Environment Program Operations (NEPO). Only the PAO tasks are documented here. The planning for the NEPO activities is now in Addendum D of the same technical work plan and the work is documented in a separate report (CRWMS M&O 2000b). The Project has been reorganized since the document was written. The responsible organizations in the new structure are the Performance Assessment Department and the Unsaturated Zone Department, respectively. The work plan for the seepage abstraction calls for determining an appropriate abstraction methodology, determining uncertainties in seepage, and providing

  2. Status of CMS and B-physics with CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemoigne, Yves; CMS Collaboration

    2000-07-01

    The present status of CMS, one of the major experimental facilities at the future LHC is presented. After a short description of the detector and its constituents, the main physics goals and performances of the experiment (Higgs, Supersymmetry, B-Physics) is presented with emphasis on B-physics. Detailed examples are given on sin2β measurement in B-physics, using the channel Bdo, ( overlineBdo) → {J}/{ψ}K So and tagging strategies are reviewed.

  3. Fingermark ridge drift.

    PubMed

    De Alcaraz-Fossoul, Josep; Roberts, Katherine A; Feixat, Carme Barrot; Hogrebe, Gregory G; Badia, Manel Gené

    2016-01-01

    Distortions of the fingermark topography are usually considered when comparing latent and exemplar fingerprints. These alterations are characterized as caused by an extrinsic action, which affects entire areas of the deposition and alters the overall flow of a series of contiguous ridges. Here we introduce a novel visual phenomenon that does not follow these principles, named fingermark ridge drift. An experiment was designed that included variables such as type of secretion (eccrine and sebaceous), substrate (glass and polystyrene), and degrees of exposure to natural light (darkness, shade, and direct light) indoors. Fingermarks were sequentially visualized with titanium dioxide powder, photographed and analyzed. The comparison between fresh and aged depositions revealed that under certain environmental conditions an individual ridge could randomly change its original position regardless of its unaltered adjacent ridges. The causes of the drift phenomenon are not well understood. We believe it is exclusively associated with intrinsic natural aging processes of latent fingermarks. This discovery will help explain the detection of certain dissimilarities at the minutiae/ridge level; determine more accurate "hits"; identify potentially erroneous corresponding points; and rethink identification protocols, especially the criteria of "no single minutiae discrepancy" for a positive identification. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Tracheostomy tubes.

    PubMed

    Hess, Dean R; Altobelli, Neila P

    2014-06-01

    Tracheostomy tubes are used to administer positive-pressure ventilation, to provide a patent airway, and to provide access to the lower respiratory tract for airway clearance. They are available in a variety of sizes and styles from several manufacturers. The dimensions of tracheostomy tubes are given by their inner diameter, outer diameter, length, and curvature. Differences in dimensions between tubes with the same inner diameter from different manufacturers are not commonly appreciated but may have important clinical implications. Tracheostomy tubes can be cuffed or uncuffed and may be fenestrated. Some tracheostomy tubes are designed with an inner cannula. It is important for clinicians caring for patients with a tracheostomy tube to appreciate the nuances of various tracheostomy tube designs and to select a tube that appropriately fits the patient. The optimal frequency of changing a chronic tracheostomy tube is controversial. Specialized teams may be useful in managing patients with a tracheostomy. Speech can be facilitated with a speaking valve in patients with a tracheostomy tube who are breathing spontaneously. In mechanically ventilated patients with a tracheostomy, a talking tracheostomy tube, a deflated cuff technique with a speaking valve, or a deflated cuff technique without a speaking valve can be used to facilitate speech. Copyright © 2014 by Daedalus Enterprises.

  5. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    SciTech Connect

    J. Houseworth

    2004-09-22

    The purpose of this model report is to document the drift scale radionuclide transport model, taking into account the effects of emplacement drifts on flow and transport in the vicinity of the drift, which are not captured in the mountain-scale unsaturated zone (UZ) flow and transport models ''UZ Flow Models and Submodels'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169861]), ''Radionuclide Transport Models Under Ambient Conditions'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 164500]), and ''Particle Tracking Model and Abstraction of Transport Process'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170041]). The drift scale radionuclide transport model is intended to be used as an alternative model for comparison with the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport model ''EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 169868]). For that purpose, two alternative models have been developed for drift-scale radionuclide transport. One of the alternative models is a dual continuum flow and transport model called the drift shadow model. The effects of variations in the flow field and fracture-matrix interaction in the vicinity of a waste emplacement drift are investigated through sensitivity studies using the drift shadow model (Houseworth et al. 2003 [DIRS 164394]). In this model, the flow is significantly perturbed (reduced) beneath the waste emplacement drifts. However, comparisons of transport in this perturbed flow field with transport in an unperturbed flow field show similar results if the transport is initiated in the rock matrix. This has led to a second alternative model, called the fracture-matrix partitioning model, that focuses on the partitioning of radionuclide transport between the fractures and matrix upon exiting the waste emplacement drift. The fracture-matrix partitioning model computes the partitioning, between fractures and matrix, of diffusive radionuclide transport from the invert (for drifts without seepage) into the rock water. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of the

  6. The CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trocino, Daniele

    2014-06-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a two-level trigger system: the Level-1 Trigger, implemented in custom-designed electronics, and the High-Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. A software trigger system requires a tradeoff between the complexity of the algorithms running with the available computing power, the sustainable output rate, and the selection efficiency. We present the performance of the main triggers used during the 2012 data taking, ranging from simple single-object selections to more complex algorithms combining different objects, and applying analysis-level reconstruction and selection. We discuss the optimisation of the trigger and the specific techniques to cope with the increasing LHC pile-up, reducing its impact on the physics performance.

  7. Virtual data in CMS production

    SciTech Connect

    Arbree, A. et al.

    2004-08-26

    Initial applications of the GriPhyN Chimera Virtual Data System have been performed within the context of CMS Production of Monte Carlo Simulated Data. The GriPhyN Chimera system consists of four primary components: (1) a Virtual Data Language, which is used to describe virtual data products, (2) a Virtual Data Catalog, which is used to store virtual data entries, (3) an Abstract Planner, which resolves all dependencies of a particular virtual data product and forms a location and existence independent plan, (4) a Concrete Planner, which maps an abstract, logical plan onto concrete, physical grid resources accounting for staging in/out files and publishing results to a replica location service. A CMS Workflow Planner, MCRunJob, is used to generate virtual data products using the Virtual Data Language. Subsequently, a prototype workflow manager, known as WorkRunner, is used to schedule the instantiation of virtual data products across a grid.

  8. CMS Web-Based Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Badgett, William; Lopez-Perez, Juan Antonio; Maeshima, Kaori; Soha, Aron; Sulmanas, Balys; Wan, Zongru

    2010-01-01

    With the growth in size and complexity of High Energy Physics experiments, and the accompanying increase in the number of collaborators spread across the globe, the importance of widely relaying timely monitoring and status information has grown. To this end, we present online Web Based Monitoring solutions from the CMS experiment at CERN. The web tools developed present data to the user from many underlying heterogeneous sources, from real time messaging system to relational databases. We provide the power to combine and correlate data in both graphical and tabular formats of interest to the experimentalist, with data such as beam conditions, luminosity, trigger rates, detector conditions and many others, allowing for flexibility on the user side. We also present some examples of how this system has been used during CMS commissioning and early beam collision running at the Large Hadron Collider.

  9. Upgrade of the CMS tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tricomi, A.

    2014-03-01

    The LHC machine is planning an upgrade program which will smoothly bring the luminosity up to or above 5 × 1034 cm-2s-1 sometimes after 2020, to possibly reach an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1 at the end of that decade. The foreseen increases of both the instantaneous and the integrated luminosity by the LHC during the next ten years will necessitate a stepwise upgrade of the CMS tracking detector. During the extended end-of-year shutdown 2016-2017 the pixel detector will be exchanged with a new one. The so-called Phase1 Pixel foresees one additional barrel layer and one additional end-cap disk, a new readout chip, reduction of material, and the installation of more efficient cooling and powering systems. In the so-called Phase2, when LHC will reach the High Luminosity (HL-LHC) phase, CMS will need a completely new Tracker detector, in order to fully exploit the high-demanding operating conditions and the delivered luminosity. The new Tracker should have also trigger capabilities. To achieve such goals, R&D activities are ongoing to explore options and develop solutions that would allow including tracking information at Level-1. The design choices for the CMS pixel and outer tracker upgrades are discussed along with some highlights of the R&D activities.

  10. Upgrades for the CMS simulation

    DOE PAGES

    Lange, D. J.; Hildreth, M.; Ivantchenko, V. N.; ...

    2015-05-22

    Over the past several years, the CMS experiment has made significant changes to its detector simulation application. The geometry has been generalized to include modifications being made to the CMS detector for 2015 operations, as well as model improvements to the simulation geometry of the current CMS detector and the implementation of a number of approved and possible future detector configurations. These include both completely new tracker and calorimetry systems. We have completed the transition to Geant4 version 10, we have made significant progress in reducing the CPU resources required to run our Geant4 simulation. These have been achieved throughmore » both technical improvements and through numerical techniques. Substantial speed improvements have been achieved without changing the physics validation benchmarks that the experiment uses to validate our simulation application for use in production. As a result, we will discuss the methods that we implemented and the corresponding demonstrated performance improvements deployed for our 2015 simulation application.« less

  11. The CMS integration grid testbed

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, Gregory E.

    2004-08-26

    The CMS Integration Grid Testbed (IGT) comprises USCMS Tier-1 and Tier-2 hardware at the following sites: the California Institute of Technology, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, the University of California at San Diego, and the University of Florida at Gainesville. The IGT runs jobs using the Globus Toolkit with a DAGMan and Condor-G front end. The virtual organization (VO) is managed using VO management scripts from the European Data Grid (EDG). Gridwide monitoring is accomplished using local tools such as Ganglia interfaced into the Globus Metadata Directory Service (MDS) and the agent based Mona Lisa. Domain specific software is packaged and installed using the Distribution After Release (DAR) tool of CMS, while middleware under the auspices of the Virtual Data Toolkit (VDT) is distributed using Pacman. During a continuous two month span in Fall of 2002, over 1 million official CMS GEANT based Monte Carlo events were generated and returned to CERN for analysis while being demonstrated at SC2002. In this paper, we describe the process that led to one of the world's first continuously available, functioning grids.

  12. Characterization of 1800 Hamamatsu R7600-M4 PMTs for CMS HF Calorimeter upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akgun, U.; Funk, G.; Corso, J.; Jia, Z.; Southwick, D.; Adams, L.; Kingyon, J.; Tiras, E.; Munhollon, T.; Troendle, E.; Bruecken, P.; Khristenko, V.; Onel, Y.

    2014-06-01

    The Hadronic Forward calorimeters of the CMS experiment are Cherenkov calorimeters that use quartz fibers and 1728 photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) for readout. The CMS detector upgrade project requires the current Hamamatsu R7525 PMTs to be replaced with 4-anode, high quantum efficiency R7600-M4 PMTs. The new PMTs will improve the detector resolution, as well as the capability of removing fake events due to signal created in the glass window of the PMT. Here, we report the dark current, anode gain, transit time, transit time spread, pulse width, rise time, and linearity measurements performed on 1800 Hamamatsu R7600-200-M4 PMTs.

  13. Drift scintillation meter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1984-03-01

    This is the final report for the subject contract under which The University of Texas at Dallas (UTD) built, tested and delivered an engineering model and three flight versions of the Drift Scintillation Meter (DSM) to the Air Force Geophysics Laboratory for flight on the Air Force DMSP satellites. The report is divided into three sections. Section 1 contains the instrument description and theory of operation. Section 2 contains a description of planned spacecraft-level instrument testing, stimulation requirements and instrument handling and safety. Section 3 contains an instrument interconnection diagram and a list of the schematics, drawings, parts lists and wiring lists that describe the as-built configuration of the instrument. This documentation is available in the R&D Equipment Information Reports that were submitted to AFGL after each instrument delivery.

  14. Progress in semiconductor drift detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Rehak, P.; Walton, J.; Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sanpietro, M.; Kemmer, J.; Dietl, H.; Holl, P.; Klanner, R.; Lutz, G.

    1985-01-01

    Progress in testing semiconductor drift detectors is reported. Generally better position and energy resolutions were obtained than resolutions published previously. The improvement is mostly due to new electronics better matched to different detectors. It is shown that semiconductor drift detectors are becoming versatile and reliable detectors for position and energy measurements.

  15. Drift Velocity of Electrons in Hot and Moist Air mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abner, Douglas

    1999-10-01

    The drift velocity of electrons in hot and moist air is presented. The apparatus consisted of a pulsed Townsend-type drift tube with an oil-free vacuum system and employed a temperature controller and heating system to regulate the temperature of the gas mixture and chamber to within 0.1 deg. C. over a range of ambient to 200 deg C. The drift tube is equipped with a movable anode allowing the anode-cathode separation to be varied from 0.8 to 7.4 cm. Water vapor concentration in the air mixture ranged from 0.7510.0Temperature was varied from ambient to 150 deg C. E/N (electric field normalized to gas density) ranged from 1.0 to 16 Td (1 Td = 10-17 V-cm2). Comparisons of data collected at elevated temperature, data collected at ambient temperature, and Boltzmann transport equation calculations show the effects of enhanced rotational and vibrational populations on the drift velocity.

  16. CTF Void Drift Validation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Salko, Robert K.; Gosdin, Chris; Avramova, Maria N.; Gergar, Marcus

    2015-10-26

    This milestone report is a summary of work performed in support of expansion of the validation and verification (V&V) matrix for the thermal-hydraulic subchannel code, CTF. The focus of this study is on validating the void drift modeling capabilities of CTF and verifying the supporting models that impact the void drift phenomenon. CTF uses a simple turbulent-diffusion approximation to model lateral cross-flow due to turbulent mixing and void drift. The void drift component of the model is based on the Lahey and Moody model. The models are a function of two-phase mass, momentum, and energy distribution in the system; therefore, it is necessary to correctly model the ow distribution in rod bundle geometry as a first step to correctly calculating the void distribution due to void drift.

  17. Enabling opportunistic resources for CMS Computing Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Hufnagel, Dick

    2015-11-19

    With the increased pressure on computing brought by the higher energy and luminosity from the LHC in Run 2, CMS Computing Operations expects to require the ability to utilize “opportunistic” resources — resources not owned by, or a priori configured for CMS — to meet peak demands. In addition to our dedicated resources we look to add computing resources from non CMS grids, cloud resources, and national supercomputing centers. CMS uses the HTCondor/glideinWMS job submission infrastructure for all its batch processing, so such resources will need to be transparently integrated into its glideinWMS pool. Bosco and parrot wrappers are used to enable access and bring the CMS environment into these non CMS resources. Here we describe our strategy to supplement our native capabilities with opportunistic resources and our experience so far using them.

  18. Enabling opportunistic resources for CMS Computing Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hufnagel, D.; CMS Collaboration

    2015-12-01

    With the increased pressure on computing brought by the higher energy and luminosity from the LHC in Run 2, CMS Computing Operations expects to require the ability to utilize opportunistic resources resources not owned by, or a priori configured for CMS to meet peak demands. In addition to our dedicated resources we look to add computing resources from non CMS grids, cloud resources, and national supercomputing centers. CMS uses the HTCondor/glideinWMS job submission infrastructure for all its batch processing, so such resources will need to be transparently integrated into its glideinWMS pool. Bosco and parrot wrappers are used to enable access and bring the CMS environment into these non CMS resources. Here we describe our strategy to supplement our native capabilities with opportunistic resources and our experience so far using them.

  19. Enabling opportunistic resources for CMS Computing Operations

    SciTech Connect

    Hufnagel, Dirk

    2015-12-23

    With the increased pressure on computing brought by the higher energy and luminosity from the LHC in Run 2, CMS Computing Operations expects to require the ability to utilize opportunistic resources resources not owned by, or a priori configured for CMS to meet peak demands. In addition to our dedicated resources we look to add computing resources from non CMS grids, cloud resources, and national supercomputing centers. CMS uses the HTCondor/glideinWMS job submission infrastructure for all its batch processing, so such resources will need to be transparently integrated into its glideinWMS pool. Bosco and parrot wrappers are used to enable access and bring the CMS environment into these non CMS resources. Finally, we describe our strategy to supplement our native capabilities with opportunistic resources and our experience so far using them.

  20. Enabling opportunistic resources for CMS Computing Operations

    DOE PAGES

    Hufnagel, Dirk

    2015-12-23

    With the increased pressure on computing brought by the higher energy and luminosity from the LHC in Run 2, CMS Computing Operations expects to require the ability to utilize opportunistic resources resources not owned by, or a priori configured for CMS to meet peak demands. In addition to our dedicated resources we look to add computing resources from non CMS grids, cloud resources, and national supercomputing centers. CMS uses the HTCondor/glideinWMS job submission infrastructure for all its batch processing, so such resources will need to be transparently integrated into its glideinWMS pool. Bosco and parrot wrappers are used to enablemore » access and bring the CMS environment into these non CMS resources. Finally, we describe our strategy to supplement our native capabilities with opportunistic resources and our experience so far using them.« less

  1. Beam dynamics design for uranium drift tube linear accelerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dou, Wei-Ping; He, Yuan; Lu, Yuan-Rong

    2014-07-01

    KONUS beam dynamics design of uranium DTL with LORASR code is presented. The 238U34+ beam, whose current is 5.0 emA, is accelerated from injection energy of 0.35 MeV/u to output energy of 1.30 MeV/u by IH-DTL operated at 81.25 MHz in HIAF project at IMP of CAS. It achieves a transmission efficiency of 94.95% with a cavity length of 267.8 cm. The optimization aims are the reduction of emittance growth, beam loss and project costs. Because of the requirements of CW mode operation, the designed average acceleration gradient is about 2.48 MV/m. The maximum axial field is 10.2 MV/m, meanwhile the Kilpatrick breakdown field is 10.56 MV/m at 81.25 MHz.

  2. Superconducting drift-tube cavity development for the RIA driver.

    SciTech Connect

    Shepard, K. W.; Kelly, M. P.; Fuerst, J. D.

    2002-09-23

    This paper reports the design and development of two intermediate-velocity superconducting cavities and design of an associated cryomodule for the RIA driver linac. The two cavity types are a 115 MHz, {beta}{sub GEOM} = 0.15 quarter-wave resonant (QWR) cavity, and a 173 MHz, {beta}{sub GEOM} = 0.26 half-wave loaded cavity. Both cavities are well-corrected for dipole and quadrupole asymmetries in the accelerating field. The cryomodule is being designed to incorporate a separate vacuum system for cavity vacuum to provide a particulate-free environment for the superconducting cavities.

  3. Coastal Modeling System (CMS) Users Manuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    AD-A268 830 , INSTRUCTION REPORT CERC-91-1 COASTAL MODELING SYSTEM ( CMS ) USER’S MANUAL by Mary A. Cialone, David J. Mark, Lucia W. Chou, David A...THE COASTAL MODELING SYSTEM USER’S MANUAL Supplement 1 Issued August 1992 Enclosed are additions and corrections to the Coastal Modeling System ( CMS ...COVERED1 August 1992 Supplement I to September 1991 Manual 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE S. FUNDING NUMBERS Coastal Modeling System ( CMS ) User’s Manual WU

  4. The CMS Journey to LHC Physics

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    An overview of the design, the construction and physics of CMS will be given. A history of construction, encompassing the R&D; and challenges faced over the last decade and a half, will be recalled using selected examples. CMS is currently in the final stages of installation and commissioning is gathering pace. After a short status report of where CMS stands today some of the expected (great) physics to come will be outlined. * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00.

  5. The CMS Journey to LHC Physics

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-09

    An overview of the design, the construction and physics of CMS will be given. A history of construction, encompassing the R&D; and challenges faced over the last decade and a half, will be recalled using selected examples. CMS is currently in the final stages of installation and commissioning is gathering pace. After a short status report of where CMS stands today some of the expected (great) physics to come will be outlined. * Tea & coffee will be served at 16:00.

  6. Feeding tube insertion - gastrostomy

    MedlinePlus

    ... tube insertion; G-tube insertion; PEG tube insertion; Stomach tube insertion; Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube insertion ... and down the esophagus, which leads to the stomach. After the endoscopy tube is inserted, the skin ...

  7. 42 CFR 422.510 - Termination of contract by CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Termination of contract by CMS. 422.510 Section 422... Medicare Advantage Organizations § 422.510 Termination of contract by CMS. (a) Termination by CMS. CMS may at any time terminate a contract if CMS determines that the MA organization meets any of...

  8. 42 CFR 422.510 - Termination of contract by CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Termination of contract by CMS. 422.510 Section 422... Medicare Advantage Organizations § 422.510 Termination of contract by CMS. (a) Termination by CMS. CMS may at any time terminate a contract if CMS determines that the MA organization meets any of...

  9. 45 CFR 150.203 - Circumstances requiring CMS enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Circumstances requiring CMS enforcement. 150.203... CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS CMS Enforcement Processes for... requiring CMS enforcement. CMS enforces PHS Act requirement to the extent warranted (as determined by...

  10. 45 CFR 150.203 - Circumstances requiring CMS enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Circumstances requiring CMS enforcement. 150.203... CARE ACCESS CMS ENFORCEMENT IN GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL INSURANCE MARKETS CMS Enforcement Processes for... requiring CMS enforcement. CMS enforces PHS Act requirement to the extent warranted (as determined by...

  11. MACSYMA at CMS. Version 309.3.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    these examples are quite complicated. 1.1 Invoking Macsyma To use Macsvma on the CMS VAX you must first log in to the computer (see the System Manager ...1.8 C MICROCOPY RESOLUTION TEST CHART NATIONAL BUREAU OF STANOARDS-1963-A % JoI *ur~FILE LJ2 rCMS Technical Summary Report #88-3 f% MACSYMA AT CMS ...MACSYMA AT CMS . VERSION 309.3 Distribution/ W. Hereman, Y. Nagel and J. Strikwerda AvaIlcblflty Cces Technical Summary Report #88-3 ’Dist Sr~ci

  12. 3-dimensional Oil Drift Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wettre, C.; Reistad, M.; Hjøllo, B.Å.

    Simulation of oil drift has been an ongoing activity at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute since the 1970's. The Marine Forecasting Centre provides a 24-hour service for the Norwegian Pollution Control Authority and the oil companies operating in the Norwegian sector. The response time is 30 minutes. From 2002 the service is extended to simulation of oil drift from oil spills in deep water, using the DeepBlow model developed by SINTEF Applied Chemistry. The oil drift model can be applied both for instantaneous and continuous releases. The changes in the mass of oil and emulsion as a result of evaporation and emulsion are computed. For oil spill at deep water, hydrate formation and gas dissolution are taken into account. The properties of the oil depend on the oil type, and in the present version 64 different types of oil can be simulated. For accurate oil drift simulations it is important to have the best possible data on the atmospheric and oceanic conditions. The oil drift simulations at the Norwegian Meteorological Institute are always based on the most updated data from numerical models of the atmosphere and the ocean. The drift of the surface oil is computed from the vectorial sum of the surface current from the ocean model and the wave induced Stokes drift computed from wave energy spectra from the wave prediction model. In the new model the current distribution with depth is taken into account when calculating the drift of the dispersed oil droplets. Salinity and temperature profiles from the ocean model are needed in the DeepBlow model. The result of the oil drift simulations can be plotted on sea charts used for navigation, either as trajectory plots or particle plots showing the situation at a given time. The results can also be sent as data files to be included in the user's own GIS system.

  13. Hemoglobin Drift after Cardiac Surgery

    PubMed Central

    George, Timothy J.; Beaty, Claude A.; Kilic, Arman; Haggerty, Kara A.; Frank, Steven M.; Savage, William J.; Whitman, Glenn J.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Recent literature suggests that a restrictive approach to red blood cell transfusions is associated with improved outcomes in cardiac surgery (CS) patients. Even in the absence of bleeding, intravascular fluid shifts cause hemoglobin levels to drift postoperatively, possibly confounding the decision to transfuse. We undertook this study to define the natural progression of hemoglobin levels in postoperative CS patients. Methods We included all CS patients from 10/10-03/11 who did not receive a postoperative transfusion. Primary stratification was by intraoperative transfusion status. Change in hemoglobin was evaluated relative to the initial postoperative hemoglobin. Maximal drift was defined as the maximum minus the minimum hemoglobin for a given hospitalization. Final drift was defined as the difference between initial and discharge hemoglobin. Results Our final cohort included 199 patients, 71(36%) received an intraoperative transfusion while 128(64%) did not. The average initial and final hemoglobin for all patients were 11.0±1.4g/dL and 9.9±1.3g/dL, respectively, an final drift of 1.1±1.4g/dL. The maximal drift was 1.8±1.1g/dL and was similar regardless of intraoperative transfusion status(p=0.9). Although all patients’ hemoglobin initially dropped, 79% of patients reached a nadir and experienced a mean recovery of 0.7±0.7g/dL by discharge. On multivariable analysis, increasing CPB time was significantly associated with total hemoglobin drift(Coefficient/hour: 0.3[0.1–0.5]g/dL, p=0.02). Conclusions In this first report of hemoglobin drift following CS, although all postoperative patients experienced downward hemoglobin drift, 79% of patients exhibited hemoglobin recovery prior to discharge. Physicians should consider the eventual upward hemoglobin drift prior to administering red cell transfusions. PMID:22609121

  14. About the Drift Reduction Technology Program

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The new voluntary Drift Reduction Technology (DRT) Program will encourage the manufacture, marketing, and use of safer spray technology and equipment scientifically verified to reduce pesticide drift.

  15. Gastrostomy Tube (G-Tube)

    MedlinePlus

    ... warmth at the tube site; discharge that's yellow, green, or foul-smelling; fever) excessive bleeding or drainage from the tube site severe abdominal pain persistent vomiting or diarrhea trouble passing gas or having a bowel movement pink-red tissue (called granulation tissue) coming out ...

  16. The CMS tracker control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dierlamm, A.; Dirkes, G. H.; Fahrer, M.; Frey, M.; Hartmann, F.; Masetti, L.; Militaru, O.; Shah, S. Y.; Stringer, R.; Tsirou, A.

    2008-07-01

    The Tracker Control System (TCS) is a distributed control software to operate about 2000 power supplies for the silicon modules of the CMS Tracker and monitor its environmental sensors. TCS must thus be able to handle about 104 power supply parameters, about 103 environmental probes from the Programmable Logic Controllers of the Tracker Safety System (TSS), about 105 parameters read via DAQ from the DCUs in all front end hybrids and from CCUs in all control groups. TCS is built on top of an industrial SCADA program (PVSS) extended with a framework developed at CERN (JCOP) and used by all LHC experiments. The logical partitioning of the detector is reflected in the hierarchical structure of the TCS, where commands move down to the individual hardware devices, while states are reported up to the root which is interfaced to the broader CMS control system. The system computes and continuously monitors the mean and maximum values of critical parameters and updates the percentage of currently operating hardware. Automatic procedures switch off selected parts of the detector using detailed granularity and avoiding widespread TSS intervention.

  17. Time-dependent drift Hamiltonian

    SciTech Connect

    Boozer, A.H.

    1983-03-01

    The lowest-order drift equations are given in a canonical magnetic coordinate form for time-dependent magnetic and electric fields. The advantages of the canonical Hamiltonian form are also discussed.

  18. CMS: Present status, limitations, and upgrade plans

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, H.W.K.; /Fermilab

    2011-09-01

    An overview of the CMS upgrade plans will be presented. A brief status of the CMS detector will be given, covering some of the issues we have so far experienced. This will be followed by an overview of the various CMS upgrades planned, covering the main motivations for them, and the various R&D efforts for the possibilities under study. The CMS detector has been working extremely well since the start of data-taking at the LHC as is evidenced by the numerous excellent results published by CMS and presented at this workshop and recent conferences. Less well documented are the various issues that have been encountered with the detector. In the spirit of this workshop I will cover some of these issues with particular emphasis on problems that motivate some of the upgrades to the CMS detector for this decade of data-taking. Though the CMS detector has been working extremely well and expectations are great for making the most of the LHC luminosity, there have been a number of issues encountered so far. Some of these have been described and while none currently presents a problem for physics performance, some of them are expected to become more problematic, especially at the highest Phase 1 luminosities for which the majority of the integrated luminosity will be collected. These motivate upgrades for various parts of the CMS detector so that the current excellent physics performance can be maintained or even surpassed in the realm of the highest Phase 1 luminosities.

  19. The Status of the Cms Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Dan

    The CMS experiment was completely assembled in the fall of 2008 after a decade of design, construction and installation. During the last two years, cosmic ray data were taken on a regular basis. These data have enabled CMS to align the detector components, both spatially and temporally. Initial use of muons has also established the relative alignment of the CMS tracking and muon systems. In addition, the CMS calorimetry has been crosschecked with test beam data, thus providing an initial energy calibration of CMS calorimetry to about 5%. The CMS magnet has been powered and field mapped. The trigger and data acquisition systems have been installed and run at full speed. The tiered data analysis system has been exercised at full design bandwidth for Tier0, Tier1 and Tier2 sites. Monte Carlo simulation of the CMS detector has been constructed at a detailed geometric level and has been tuned to test beam and other production data to provide a realistic model of the CMS detector prior to first collisions.

  20. The diverse use of clouds by CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Andronis, Anastasios; Bauer, Daniela; Chaze, Olivier; Colling, David; Dobson, Marc; Fayer, Simon; Girone, Maria; Grandi, Claudio; Huffman, Adam; Hufnagel, Dirk; Khan, Farrukh Aftab; Lahiff, Andrew; McCrae, Alison; Rand, Duncan; Sgaravatto, Massimo; Tiradani, Anthony; Zhang, Xiaomei

    2015-12-23

    The resources CMS is using are increasingly being offered as clouds. In Run 2 of the LHC the majority of CMS CERN resources, both in Meyrin and at the Wigner Computing Centre, will be presented as cloud resources on which CMS will have to build its own infrastructure. This infrastructure will need to run all of the CMS workflows including: Tier 0, production and user analysis. In addition, the CMS High Level Trigger will provide a compute resource comparable in scale to the total offered by the CMS Tier 1 sites, when it is not running as part of the trigger system. During these periods a cloud infrastructure will be overlaid on this resource, making it accessible for general CMS use. Finally, CMS is starting to utilise cloud resources being offered by individual institutes and is gaining experience to facilitate the use of opportunistically available cloud resources. Lastly, we present a snap shot of this infrastructure and its operation at the time of the CHEP2015 conference.

  1. The diverse use of clouds by CMS

    DOE PAGES

    Andronis, Anastasios; Bauer, Daniela; Chaze, Olivier; ...

    2015-12-23

    The resources CMS is using are increasingly being offered as clouds. In Run 2 of the LHC the majority of CMS CERN resources, both in Meyrin and at the Wigner Computing Centre, will be presented as cloud resources on which CMS will have to build its own infrastructure. This infrastructure will need to run all of the CMS workflows including: Tier 0, production and user analysis. In addition, the CMS High Level Trigger will provide a compute resource comparable in scale to the total offered by the CMS Tier 1 sites, when it is not running as part of themore » trigger system. During these periods a cloud infrastructure will be overlaid on this resource, making it accessible for general CMS use. Finally, CMS is starting to utilise cloud resources being offered by individual institutes and is gaining experience to facilitate the use of opportunistically available cloud resources. Lastly, we present a snap shot of this infrastructure and its operation at the time of the CHEP2015 conference.« less

  2. Final Technical Report CMS fast optical calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, David R.

    2012-07-12

    This is the final report of CMS FAST OPTICAL CALORIMETRY, a grant to Fairfield University for development, construction, installation and operation of the forward calorimeter on CMS, and for upgrades of the forward and endcap calorimeters for higher luminosity and radiation damage amelioration.

  3. The status of the CMS experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Green, Dan; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The CMS experiment was completely assembled in the fall of 2008 after a decade of design, construction and installation. During the last two years, cosmic ray data were taken on a regular basis. These data have enabled CMS to align the detector components, both spatially and temporally. Initial use of muons has also established the relative alignment of the CMS tracking and muon systems. In addition, the CMS calorimetry has been crosschecked with test beam data, thus providing an initial energy calibration of CMS calorimetry to about 5%. The CMS magnet has been powered and field mapped. The trigger and data acquisition systems have been installed and run at full speed. The tiered data analysis system has been exercised at full design bandwidth for Tier0, Tier1 and Tier2 sites. Monte Carlo simulation of the CMS detector has been constructed at a detailed geometric level and has been tuned to test beam and other production data to provide a realistic model of the CMS detector prior to first collisions.

  4. CMS: The Midwife of Instruction and Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Valerie

    1989-01-01

    Gifted students may exhibit a deficit in ability to follow a sequence of verbal instructions, termed Cognition of SeMantic Systems (CMS). Three types of low-CMS students are described, and counseling strategies are outlined. Achievement of academic success and emotional health calls for teachers to build students' self-esteem and be patient. (JDD)

  5. Getting Started with Drupal WebCMS

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Drupal WebCMS is accessible to EPA employees, and to onsite and offsite contractors. There are several roles in Drupal WebCMS and each allows a certain set of actions in the system. Users can have different roles in different web areas.

  6. SKIROC2_CMS an ASIC for testing CMS HGCAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borg, J.; Callier, S.; Coko, D.; Dulucq, F.; de La Taille, C.; Raux, L.; Sculac, T.; Thienpont, D.

    2017-02-01

    SKIROC2_CMS is a chip derived from CALICE SKIROC2 that provides 64 channels of low noise charge preamplifiers optimized for 50 pF pin diodes and 10 pC dynamic range. They are followed by high gain and low gain 25 ns shapers, a 13-deep 40 MHz analog memory used as a waveform sampler at 40 MHz. and 12-bit ADCs. A fast shaper followed by discriminator and TDC provide timing information to an accuracy of 50 ps, in order to test TOT and TOA techniques at system level and in test-beam. The chip was sent to fabrication in January 2016 in AMS SiGe 0,35 μm and was received in May. It was tested in the lab during the summer and will be mounted on sensors for beam-tests in the fall.

  7. Drift analysis for integer IDCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinds, Arianne T.; Reznik, Yuriy A.; Yu, Lu; Ni, Zhibo; Zhang, Cixun

    2007-09-01

    This paper analyzes the drift phenomenon that occurs between video encoders and decoders that employ different implementations of the Inverse Discrete Cosine Transform (IDCT). Our methodology utilizes MPEG-2, MPEG-4 Part 2, and H.263 encoders and decoders to measure drift occurring at low QP values for CIF resolution video sequences. Our analysis is conducted as part of the effort to define specific implementations for the emerging ISO/IEC 23002-2 Fixed-Point 8x8 IDCT and DCT standard. Various IDCT implementations submitted as proposals for the new standard are used to analyze drift. Each of these implementations complies with both the IEEE Standard 1180 and the new MPEG IDCT precision specification ISO/IEC 23002-1. Reference implementations of the IDCT/DCT, and implementations from well-known video encoders/decoders are also employed. Our results indicate that drift is eliminated entirely only when the implementations of the IDCT in both the encoder and decoder match exactly. In this case, the precision of the IDCT has no influence on drift. In cases where the implementations are not identical, then the use of a highly precise IDCT in the decoder will reduce drift in the reconstructed video sequence only to the extent that the IDCT used in the encoder is also precise.

  8. Protective tubes for sodium heated water tubes

    DOEpatents

    Essebaggers, Jan

    1979-01-01

    A heat exchanger in which water tubes are heated by liquid sodium which minimizes the results of accidental contact between the water and the sodium caused by failure of one or more of the water tubes. A cylindrical protective tube envelopes each water tube and the sodium flows axially in the annular spaces between the protective tubes and the water tubes.

  9. The Drifting Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2008-04-01

    By studying in great detail the 'ringing' of a planet-harbouring star, a team of astronomers using ESO's 3.6-m telescope have shown that it must have drifted away from the metal-rich Hyades cluster. This discovery has implications for theories of star and planet formation, and for the dynamics of our Milky Way. ESO PR Photo 09a/08 ESO PR Photo 09a/08 Iota Horologii The yellow-orange star Iota Horologii, located 56 light-years away towards the southern Horologium ("The Clock") constellation, belongs to the so-called "Hyades stream", a large number of stars that move in the same direction. Previously, astronomers using an ESO telescope had shown that the star harbours a planet, more than 2 times as large as Jupiter and orbiting in 320 days (ESO 12/99). But until now, all studies were unable to pinpoint the exact characteristics of the star, and hence to understand its origin. A team of astronomers, led by Sylvie Vauclair from the University of Toulouse, France, therefore decided to use the technique of 'asteroseismology' to unlock the star's secrets. "In the same way as geologists monitor how seismic waves generated by earthquakes propagate through the Earth and learn about the inner structure of our planet, it is possible to study sound waves running through a star, which forms a sort of large, spherical bell," says Vauclair. The 'ringing' from this giant musical instrument provides astronomers with plenty of information about the physical conditions in the star's interior. And to 'listen to the music', the astronomers used one of the best instruments available. The observations were conducted in November 2006 during 8 consecutive nights with the state-of-the-art HARPS spectrograph mounted on the ESO 3.6-m telescope at La Silla. Up to 25 'notes' could be identified in the unique dataset, most of them corresponding to waves having a period of about 6.5 minutes. These observations allowed the astronomers to obtain a very precise portrait of Iota Horologii: its

  10. CMS results on multijet correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Safronov, Grigory

    2015-04-10

    We present recent CMS measurements on multijet correlations using forward and low-p{sub T} jets, focusing on searches for BFKL and saturation phenomena. In pp collisions at √(s)=7 TeV, azimuthal correlations in dijets separated in rapidity by up to 9.4 units were measured. The results are compared to BFKL- and DGLAP-based predictions. In pp collisions at √(s)=8 TeV, cross sections for jets with p{sub T} > 21 GeV and |y| < 4.7, and for track-jets with p{sub T} > 1 GeV (minijets) are presented. The minijet results are sensitive to the bound imposed by the total inelastic cross section, and are compared to various models for taming the growth of the 2 → 2 cross section at low p{sub T}.

  11. Multiple tube premixing device

    DOEpatents

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Naidu, Balachandar; Ziminksy, Willy Steve; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin; Stevenson, Christian; Felling, David

    2013-08-13

    The present application provides a premixer for a combustor. The premixer may include a fuel plenum with a number of fuel tubes and a burner tube with a number of air tubes. The fuel tubes extend about the air tubes.

  12. Multiple tube premixing device

    DOEpatents

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Varatharajan, Balachandar; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Kraemer, Gilbert Otto; Yilmaz, Ertan; Lacy, Benjamin; Stevenson, Christian; Felling, David

    2012-12-11

    The present application provides a premixer for a combustor. The premixer may include a fuel plenum with a number of fuel tubes and a burner tube with a number of air tubes. The fuel tubes extend about the air tubes.

  13. CMS centres worldwide: A new collaborative infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Lucas; Gottschalk, Erik; /Fermilab

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Experiment at the LHC is establishing a global network of inter-connected 'CMS Centres' for controls, operations and monitoring. These support: (1) CMS data quality monitoring, detector calibrations, and analysis; and (2) computing operations for the processing, storage and distribution of CMS data. We describe the infrastructure, computing, software, and communications systems required to create an effective and affordable CMS Centre. We present our highly successful operations experiences with the major CMS Centres at CERN, Fermilab, and DESY during the LHC first beam data-taking and cosmic ray commissioning work. The status of the various centres already operating or under construction in Asia, Europe, Russia, South America, and the USA is also described. We emphasise the collaborative communications aspects. For example, virtual co-location of experts in CMS Centres Worldwide is achieved using high-quality permanently-running 'telepresence' video links. Generic Web-based tools have been developed and deployed for monitoring, control, display management and outreach.

  14. Behavior of Flotsam in the California Current System Utilizing Surface Drift of RAFOS Floats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-01

    illustrates approximate water level when floating on the ocean surface. Float is constructed from a 0.08 m by 1.52 m glass tube...such as the “ Great Pacific Garbage Patch” (Howell et al. 2012) or possibly washed ashore (Maximenko et al. 2012). Flotsam drifts in the surface...is constructed from a 0.08 m by 1.52 m glass tube, which houses the electronics required for operation. 4 Figure 1. RAFOS Float (Woods Hole

  15. Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport

    SciTech Connect

    P.R. Dixon

    2004-02-17

    The purpose of this Model Report is to document two models for drift-scale radionuclide transport. This has been developed in accordance with ''Technical Work Plan for: Performance Assessment Unsaturated Zone'' (Bechtel SAIC Company, LLC (BSC) 2002 [160819]), which includes planning documents for the technical work scope, content, and management of this Model Report in Section 1.15, Work Package AUZM11, ''Drift-Scale Radionuclide Transport.'' The technical work scope for this Model Report calls for development of a process-level model and an abstraction model representing diffusive release from the invert to the rocks, partitioned between fracture and matrix, as compared to the fracture-release approach used in the Site Recommendation. The invert is the structure constructed in a drift to provide the floor of that drift. The plan for validation of the models documented in this Model Report is given in Section I-5 of Attachment I in BSC (2002 [160819]). Note that the model validation presented in Section 7 deviates from the technical work plan (BSC 2002 [160819], Section I-5) in that an independent technical review specifically for model validation has not been conducted, nor publication in a peer-reviewed journal. Model validation presented in Section 7 is based on corroboration with alternative mathematical models, which is also called out by the technical work plan (BSC 2002 [160819], Section I-5), and is sufficient based on the requirements of AP-SIII.10Q for model validation. See Section 7 for additional discussion. The phenomenon of flow and transport in the vicinity of the waste emplacement drift are evaluated in this model report under ambient thermal, chemical, and mechanical conditions. This includes the effects of water diversion around an emplacement drift and the flow and transport behavior expected in a fractured rock below the drift. The reason for a separate assessment of drift-scale transport is that the effects of waste emplacement drifts on flow

  16. Atlas of Dutch drift sands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riksen, Michel; Jungerius, Pieter

    2013-04-01

    The Netherlands is well known for its aeolian landscapes. Frequent storms during the High Middle Ages (1000-1300 AD) reactivated Pleistocene coversands and river dunes and are responsible for the formation of the Holocene drift sands at a scale which is unique for Europe. A hypothesized relationship with farmer practices for making plaggensoils has recently been refuted, because drift sand formation began centuries earlier. The coastal dune belt with their parabolic dunes dates from the same period as the drift sand. An estimate of the extent of drift sands can be made from soil maps: drift sands are too young to show much profile development (Regosols). With this method Koster estimated the maximum extent of Holocene drift sands in the Netherlands to be about 800 km2 (Koster 2005). Laser altimetry allows a more precise estimate of the total surface affected by wind from the characteristic relief patterns produced by the Holocene wind, which is different from the smooth surface of cover sand deposits. Laser altimetry has been used before to investigate the mechanism of drift sand formation (Jungerius & Riksen 2010). Most of the surface affected by wind is not active anymore, but the tell-tale rough surface survived ages of different landuse. The total affected surface amounts to 825 km2. It is noteworthy that both methods give comparable results. We recorded a total number of 367 of affected areas of varying shapes, ranging in size from 1.6 ha to a large complex of drif sands of 7,119.5 ha. As is to be expected from their mode of origin, most occurrences are associated with cover sands, and with river dunes along the river Meuse and smaller rivers in other parts of the country. Particularly the final phases of cover sand and river dunes that show more relief as parabolic dunes were affected. There are also small aeolian deposits at the lee side blown from fallow agricultural fields but they are (sub)recent. Most of the relief is irregular, but the larger

  17. SAA drift:experimental results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryan, O. R.; Kudela, K.; Romashova, V. V.; Drozdov, A. Yu.

    According to the paleomagnetic analysis there are variations of Earth's magnetic field connected with magnetic momentum changing. Besides these variations affects on the trapped belt South Atlantic Anomaly (SAA) location. Indeed different observations including Space Shuttle short-time flights approved the existence SAA westward drift with speed 0.1-1.0 (deg/year) and northward drift with speed approximately 0.1 (deg/year). In this work we present the analysis of experimental results obtained in SINP MSU in 1972-2003 from different satellites. There were analyzed the fluxes of protons with energy > 50 MeV, gamma quanta with energy > 500 keV and neutrons with energy 0.1-1.0 MeV in SAA area and their maxima location. The data about fluxes were obtained onboard the orbital stations ``Salut-6'' (1979), MIR (1991, 1998) and ISS (2003) by the identical experimental equipment. The comparison of the data obtained during these two decades of investigations confirms the fact of the SAA westward drift. Moreover the same analysis of maximum flux location of electrons with hundreds keV energy (satellites ``Kosmos-484'' (1972), ``Interkosmos-17'' (1977) and ``Activny'' (``Interkosmos-24'', 1991)) confirmed not only the SAA westward drift but northward drift also.

  18. In-Drift Microbial Communities

    SciTech Connect

    D. Jolley

    2000-11-09

    As directed by written work direction (CRWMS M and O 1999f), Performance Assessment (PA) developed a model for microbial communities in the engineered barrier system (EBS) as documented here. The purpose of this model is to assist Performance Assessment and its Engineered Barrier Performance Section in modeling the geochemical environment within a potential repository drift for TSPA-SR/LA, thus allowing PA to provide a more detailed and complete near-field geochemical model and to answer the key technical issues (KTI) raised in the NRC Issue Resolution Status Report (IRSR) for the Evolution of the Near Field Environment (NFE) Revision 2 (NRC 1999). This model and its predecessor (the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document, CRWMS M and O 1998a) was developed to respond to the applicable KTIs. Additionally, because of the previous development of the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998a), the M and O was effectively able to resolve a previous KTI concern regarding the effects of microbial processes on seepage and flow (NRC 1998). This document supercedes the in-drift microbial communities model as documented in Chapter 4 of the TSPA-VA Technical Basis Document (CRWMS M and O 1998a). This document provides the conceptual framework of the revised in-drift microbial communities model to be used in subsequent performance assessment (PA) analyses.

  19. The CMS Masterclass and Particle Physics Outreach

    SciTech Connect

    Cecire, Kenneth; Bardeen, Marjorie; McCauley, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The CMS Masterclass enables high school students to analyse authentic CMS data. Students can draw conclusions on key ratios and particle masses by combining their analyses. In particular, they can use the ratio of W^+ to W^- candidates to probe the structure of the proton, they can find the mass of the Z boson, and they can identify additional particles including, tentatively, the Higgs boson. In the United States, masterclasses are part of QuarkNet, a long-term program that enables students and teachers to use cosmic ray and particle physics data for learning with an emphasis on data from CMS.

  20. CMS for digital photography: a case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Robert Y.; Sa-areddee, Darunee

    2002-06-01

    The objectives of the study was to compare image quality from digital photography to RGB-printer under two digital imaging workflows: legacy-based and CMS-based. Due to the difference in judging criteria, the study shows that legacy- based digital imaging workflow can produce pleasing images as good as CMS-based workflow. But ICC-based CMS out performs legacy-based workflow in matching the color appearance of the source images. This is a welcome feature in direct mail catalogs whereby printed images need to match the appearance of the merchandise closely.

  1. Phase I Upgrade of the CMS Hadron Calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Seth I.; CMS Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    In preparation for Run 2 (2015) and Run 3 of the LHC (2019), the CMS hadron calorimeter has begun a series of ambitious upgrades. These include new photodetectors in addition to improved front-end and back-end readout electronics. In the hadron forward calorimeter, the existing photomultiplier tubes are being replaced with thinner window, multi-anode readout models, while in the central region, the hybrid photodiodes will be replaced with silicon photomultipliers. The front-end electronics will include high precision timing readout, and the back-end electronics will handle the increased data bandwidth. The barrel and endcap longitudinal segmentation will also be increased. This report will describe the motivation for the upgrade, its major components, and its current status.

  2. The CLAS drift chamber system

    SciTech Connect

    Mestayer, M.D.; Carman, D.S.; Asavaphibhop, B.

    1999-04-01

    Experimental Hall B at Jefferson Laboratory houses the CEBAF Large Acceptance Spectrometer, the magnetic field of which is produced by a superconducting toroid. The six coils of this toroid divide the detector azimuthally into six sectors, each of which contains three large multi-layer drift chambers for tracking charged particles produced from a fixed target on a toroidal axis. Within the 18 drift chambers are a total of 35,148 individually instrumented hexagonal drift cells. The novel geometry of these chambers provides for good tracking resolution and efficiency, along with large acceptance. The design and construction challenges posed by these large-scale detectors are described, and detailed results are presented from in-beam measurements.

  3. 42 CFR 426.517 - CMS' statement regarding new evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false CMS' statement regarding new evidence. 426.517... COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.517 CMS' statement regarding new evidence. (a) CMS may... clinical experts; and (5) Presented during any hearing. (b) CMS may submit a statement regarding...

  4. 42 CFR 489.53 - Termination by CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Termination by CMS. 489.53 Section 489.53 Public... Reinstatement After Termination § 489.53 Termination by CMS. (a) Basis for termination of agreement with any provider. CMS may terminate the agreement with any provider if CMS finds that any of the following...

  5. 42 CFR 489.53 - Termination by CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Termination by CMS. 489.53 Section 489.53 Public... Reinstatement After Termination § 489.53 Termination by CMS. (a) Basis for termination of agreement with any provider. CMS may terminate the agreement with any provider if CMS finds that any of the following...

  6. 42 CFR 460.20 - Notice of CMS determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notice of CMS determination. 460.20 Section 460.20... ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Organization Application and Waiver Process § 460.20 Notice of CMS determination. (a... application to CMS, CMS takes one of the following actions: (1) Approves the application. (2) Denies...

  7. 42 CFR 426.517 - CMS' statement regarding new evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false CMS' statement regarding new evidence. 426.517... DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.517 CMS' statement regarding new evidence. (a) CMS may review any new... experts; and (5) Presented during any hearing. (b) CMS may submit a statement regarding whether the...

  8. 42 CFR 489.53 - Termination by CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Termination by CMS. 489.53 Section 489.53 Public... Reinstatement After Termination § 489.53 Termination by CMS. (a) Basis for termination of agreement with any provider. CMS may terminate the agreement with any provider if CMS finds that any of the following...

  9. 42 CFR 460.20 - Notice of CMS determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notice of CMS determination. 460.20 Section 460.20... ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Organization Application and Waiver Process § 460.20 Notice of CMS determination. (a... application to CMS, CMS takes one of the following actions: (1) Approves the application. (2) Denies...

  10. 42 CFR 426.517 - CMS' statement regarding new evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false CMS' statement regarding new evidence. 426.517... COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.517 CMS' statement regarding new evidence. (a) CMS may... clinical experts; and (5) Presented during any hearing. (b) CMS may submit a statement regarding...

  11. 42 CFR 460.20 - Notice of CMS determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notice of CMS determination. 460.20 Section 460.20... ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Organization Application and Waiver Process § 460.20 Notice of CMS determination. (a... application to CMS, CMS takes one of the following actions: (1) Approves the application. (2) Denies...

  12. 42 CFR 426.517 - CMS' statement regarding new evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CMS' statement regarding new evidence. 426.517... DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.517 CMS' statement regarding new evidence. (a) CMS may review any new... experts; and (5) Presented during any hearing. (b) CMS may submit a statement regarding whether the...

  13. 42 CFR 426.517 - CMS' statement regarding new evidence.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false CMS' statement regarding new evidence. 426.517... COVERAGE DETERMINATIONS Review of an NCD § 426.517 CMS' statement regarding new evidence. (a) CMS may... clinical experts; and (5) Presented during any hearing. (b) CMS may submit a statement regarding...

  14. 42 CFR 489.53 - Termination by CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Termination by CMS. 489.53 Section 489.53 Public... Reinstatement After Termination § 489.53 Termination by CMS. (a) Basis for termination of agreement with any provider. CMS may terminate the agreement with any provider if CMS finds that any of the following...

  15. 42 CFR 460.20 - Notice of CMS determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notice of CMS determination. 460.20 Section 460.20... ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Organization Application and Waiver Process § 460.20 Notice of CMS determination. (a... application to CMS, CMS takes one of the following actions: (1) Approves the application. (2) Denies...

  16. Status of the construction of the Gluex Forward Drift Chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Simon

    2013-04-01

    Currently under construction at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Virginia, the full GlueX detector is designed to study gluonic degrees of freedom through the production of ``hybrid'' mesons with exotic quantum numbers. To accomplish this task the detector requires high acceptance and reasonably good resolution for both charged and neutral particles. The core of the detector is housed within the bore of a 2.0 Tesla solenoidal magnet. Charged particles emanating from the target for angles greater than about 20 degrees with respect to the beam line will be tracked with a straw-tube detector (the Central Drift Chamber). Forward-going charged particles will be detected using the Forward Drift Chambers (FDC). I will describe the design and construction of the FDC and present preliminary resolution measurements.

  17. Results from CMS on Higgs boson physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzurri, Paolo; CMS Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    A selection of measurements and results of Higgs physics obtained by the CMS experiment are presented, obtained with proton collision data collected in 2015 and 2016 at the center-of-mass energy of 13 TeV.

  18. Predicting dataset popularity for the CMS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, V.; Li, T.; Giommi, L.; Bonacorsi, D.; Wildish, T.

    2016-10-01

    The CMS experiment at the LHC accelerator at CERN relies on its computing infrastructure to stay at the frontier of High Energy Physics, searching for new phenomena and making discoveries. Even though computing plays a significant role in physics analysis we rarely use its data to predict the system behavior itself. A basic information about computing resources, user activities and site utilization can be really useful for improving the throughput of the system and its management. In this paper, we discuss a first CMS analysis of dataset popularity based on CMS meta-data which can be used as a model for dynamic data placement and provide the foundation of data-driven approach for the CMS computing infrastructure.

  19. The CMS central hadron calorimeter: Update

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, J.

    1998-06-01

    The CMS central hadron calorimeter is a brass absorber/ scintillator sampling structure. We describe details of the mechanical and optical structure. We also discuss calibration techniques, and finally the anticipated construction schedule.

  20. Tube Feedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy

    This module on tube feedings is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who work in long-term care. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then provided. A brief discussion follows…

  1. Tube Feedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plummer, Nancy

    This module on tube feedings is intended for use in inservice or continuing education programs for persons who work in long-term care. Instructor information, including teaching suggestions and a listing of recommended audiovisual materials and their sources appear first. The module goal and objectives are then provided. A brief discussion follows…

  2. File level provenance tracking in CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.D.; Kowalkowski, J.; Paterno, M.; Sexton-Kennedy, L.; Tanenbaum, W.; Riley, D.S.; /Cornell U., LEPP

    2009-05-01

    The CMS off-line framework stores provenance information within CMS's standard ROOT event data files. The provenance information is used to track how each data product was constructed, including what other data products were read to do the construction. We will present how the framework gathers the provenance information, the efforts necessary to minimize the space used to store the provenance in the file and the tools that will be available to use the provenance.

  3. Virtual data in CMS analysis

    SciTech Connect

    A. Arbree et al.

    2003-10-01

    The use of virtual data for enhancing the collaboration between large groups of scientists is explored in several ways: by defining ''virtual'' parameter spaces which can be searched and shared in an organized way by a collaboration of scientists in the course of their analysis; by providing a mechanism to log the provenance of results and the ability to trace them back to the various stages in the analysis of real or simulated data; by creating ''check points'' in the course of an analysis to permit collaborators to explore their own analysis branches by refining selections, improving the signal to background ratio, varying the estimation of parameters, etc.; by facilitating the audit of an analysis and the reproduction of its results by a different group, or in a peer review context. We describe a prototype for the analysis of data from the CMS experiment based on the virtual data system Chimera and the object-oriented data analysis framework ROOT. The Chimera system is used to chain together several steps in the analysis process including the Monte Carlo generation of data, the simulation of detector response, the reconstruction of physics objects and their subsequent analysis, histogramming and visualization using the ROOT framework.

  4. CRAB: Distributed analysis tool for CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sala, Leonardo; CMS Collaboration

    2012-12-01

    CMS has a distributed computing model, based on a hierarchy of tiered regional computing centers and adopts a data driven model for the end user analysis. This model foresees that jobs are submitted to the analysis resources where data are hosted. The increasing complexity of the whole computing infrastructure makes the simple analysis work flow more and more complicated for the end user. CMS has developed and deployed a dedicated tool named CRAB (CMS Remote Analysis Builder) in order to guarantee the physicists an efficient access to the distributed data whilst hiding the underlying complexity. This tool is used by CMS to enable the running of physics analysis jobs in a transparent manner over data distributed across sites. It factorizes out the interaction with the underlying batch farms, grid infrastructure and CMS data management tools, allowing the user to deal only with a simple and intuitive interface. We present the CRAB architecture, as well as the current status and lessons learnt in deploying this tool for use by the CMS collaboration. We also present the future development of the CRAB system.

  5. Forecast of iceberg ensemble drift

    SciTech Connect

    El-Tahan, M.S.; El-Tahan, H.W.; Venkatesh, S.

    1983-05-01

    The objectives of the study are to gain a better understanding of the characteristics of iceberg motion and the factors controlling iceberg drift, and to develop an iceberg ensemble drift forecast system to be operated by the Canadian Atmospheric Environment Service. An extensive review of field and theoretical studies on iceberg behaviour, and the factors controlling iceberg motion has been carried out. Long term and short term behaviour of icebergs are critically examined. A quantitative assessment of the effects of the factors controlling iceberg motion is presented. The study indicated that wind and currents are the primary driving forces. Coriolis Force and ocean surface slope also have significant effects. As for waves, only the higher waves have a significant effect. Iceberg drift is also affected by iceberg size characteristics. Based on the findings of the study a comprehensive computerized forecast system to predict the drift of iceberg ensembles off Canada's east coast has been designed. The expected accuracy of the forecast system is discussed and recommendations are made for future improvements to the system.

  6. Does the geoid drift west?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Backus, G. E.; Parker, R. L.; Zumberge, M. A.

    1985-01-01

    In 1970 Hide and Malin noted a correlation of about 0.8 between the geoid and the geomagnetic potential at the Earth's surface when the latter is rotated eastward in longitude by about 160 degrees and the spherical harmonic expansions of both functions are truncated at degree 4. From a century of magnetic observatory data, Hide and Malin inferred an average magnetic westward drift rate of about 0.27 degrees/year. They attributed the magnetic-gravitational correlation to a core event at about 1350 A.D. which impressed the mantle's gravity pattern at long wavelengths onto the core motion and the resulting magnetic field. The impressed pattern was then carried westward 160 degrees by the nsuing magnetic westward drift. An alternative possibility is some sort of steady physical coupling between the magnetic and gravitational fields (perhaps migration of Hide's bumps on the core-mantle interface). This model predicts that the geoid will drift west at the magnetic rate. On a rigid earth, the resulting changes in sea level would be easily observed, but they could be masked by adjustment of the mantle if it has a shell with viscosity considerably less than 10 to the 21 poise. However, steady westward drift of the geoid also predicts secular changes in g, the local acceleration of gravity, at land stations. These changes are now ruled out by recent independent high-accuracy absolute measurements of g made by several workers at various locations in the Northern Hemisphere.

  7. Drift Hamiltonian in magnetic coordinates

    SciTech Connect

    White, R.B.; Boozer, A.H.; Hay, R.

    1982-02-01

    A Hamiltonian formulation of the guiding-center drift in arbitrary, steady state, magnetic and electric fields is given. The canonical variables of this formulation are simply related to the magnetic coordinates. The modifications required to treat ergodic magnetic fields using magnetic coordinates are explicitly given in the Hamiltonian formulation.

  8. GARFIELD Computer Program Simulation of the COMPASS Drift Chamber 5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Seung Joon

    2014-09-01

    COMPASS is a nuclear physics experiment at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN. The purpose of COMPASS is the study of hadron structure and hadron spectroscopy with high intensity muon and hadron beams. To further study the Drell-Yan process in scattering pion beams off polarized proton targets, COMPASS requires sophisticated tracking devices to determine the trajectory of scattered charged muon pairs. The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign is currently constructing the Drift Chamber 5 (DC5) to replace old straw-tube tracking detectors in the COMPASS spectrometer. DC5 is composed of 8 layers of anode and 13 layers of cathode frames made out of G10, a fiberglass-epoxy composite. The high rates for the Drell-Yan measurement require a small drift cell and precise mechanical tolerances have to meet in order to achieve good position resolution. GARFIELD simulations were carried out to study the impact of mechanical tolerances on the drift chamber performance in particular the position resolution that can be reached. The details of the DC5 GARFIELD simulation and results for signal development and position resolution will be presented. COMPASS is a nuclear physics experiment at the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS) at CERN. The purpose of COMPASS is the study of hadron structure and hadron spectroscopy with high intensity muon and hadron beams. To further study the Drell-Yan process in scattering pion beams off polarized proton targets, COMPASS requires sophisticated tracking devices to determine the trajectory of scattered charged muon pairs. The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign is currently constructing the Drift Chamber 5 (DC5) to replace old straw-tube tracking detectors in the COMPASS spectrometer. DC5 is composed of 8 layers of anode and 13 layers of cathode frames made out of G10, a fiberglass-epoxy composite. The high rates for the Drell-Yan measurement require a small drift cell and precise mechanical tolerances have to meet in order to

  9. CMS-Wave Model: Part 4. An Automated Procedure for CMS-Wave in Resource-Demanding Applications

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    user’s manual for CMS -Wave are available (Lin et al. 2008, 2006; Demirbilek et al. 2007). CMS -Wave is part of the Coastal Modeling System developed...at the same level as the subfolders. Figure 2 shows the contents of the Visser_1991 example subfolder, including two CMS -Wave simulations, named as...and the surrounding area (red line denotes the CMS domain). The Coastal Modeling System ( CMS ) was applied to evaluate current and sedimentation

  10. QUANTIZING TUBE

    DOEpatents

    Jensen, A.S.; Gray, G.W.

    1958-07-01

    Beam deflection tubes are described for use in switching or pulse amplitude analysis. The salient features of the invention reside in the target arrangement whereby outputs are obtained from a plurality of collector electrodes each correspondlng with a non-overlapping range of amplitudes of the input sigmal. The tube is provded with mcans for deflecting the electron beam a1ong a line in accordance with the amplitude of an input signal. The target structure consists of a first dymode positioned in the path of the beam wlth slots spaced a1ong thc deflection line, and a second dymode posltioned behind the first dainode. When the beam strikes the solid portions along the length of the first dymode the excited electrons are multiplied and collected in separate collector electrodes spaced along the beam line. Similarly, the electrons excited when the beam strikes the second dynode are multiplied and collected in separate electrodes spaced along the length of the second dyode.

  11. Electron tube

    DOEpatents

    Suyama, Motohiro [Hamamatsu, JP; Fukasawa, Atsuhito [Hamamatsu, JP; Arisaka, Katsushi [Los Angeles, CA; Wang, Hanguo [North Hills, CA

    2011-12-20

    An electron tube of the present invention includes: a vacuum vessel including a face plate portion made of synthetic silica and having a surface on which a photoelectric surface is provided, a stem portion arranged facing the photoelectric surface and made of synthetic silica, and a side tube portion having one end connected to the face plate portion and the other end connected to the stem portion and made of synthetic silica; a projection portion arranged in the vacuum vessel, extending from the stem portion toward the photoelectric surface, and made of synthetic silica; and an electron detector arranged on the projection portion, for detecting electrons from the photoelectric surface, and made of silicon.

  12. The agricultural dispersal-valley drift spray drift modeling system compared with pesticide drift data.

    PubMed

    Allwine, K Jerry; Thistle, Harold W; Teske, Milton E; Anhold, John

    2002-05-01

    The coupling of the valley drift (VALDRIFT) atmospheric dispersion/deposition model with the agricultural dispersal (AGDISP) aircraft wake model generates a modeling system for predicting the off-target drift of pesticides sprayed in a mountain valley. The approach uses the AGDISP near-field spray model to estimate the mass fraction of pesticide remaining airborne after initial application, then the VALDRIFT complex terrain model to estimate the drift of pesticide from the target area. The modeling system inputs include detailed spray information, a measure (or estimate) of winds in the valley, and the valley topographic characteristics; the results are pesticide concentrations throughout the valley atmosphere and pesticide deposition to the valley surface. The AGDISP and VALDRIFT models are operated independently, with the results from AGDISP being used as input to VALDRIFT through user-created data files. The modeling system was evaluated using pesticide drift data from spray trials conducted in the Mill Creek Canyon of Utah's Wasatch Mountains, USA, during the late spring of 1993. The predicted deposition compared within a factor of three of the observations (70% of the time) at all sampling locations extending several kilometers down-valley from the spray treatment block. The overall average ratio of predicted-to-observed deposition was 0.9.

  13. Chest tube insertion

    MedlinePlus

    Chest drainage tube insertion; Insertion of tube into chest; Tube thoracostomy; Pericardial drain ... When your chest tube is inserted, you will lie on your side or sit partly upright, with one arm over your head. Sometimes, ...

  14. Aerial spray adjuvants for herbicidal drift control.

    Treesearch

    Gratkowski H.; Stewart R.

    1973-01-01

    Increased public concern about pesticides requires that foresters reduce drift and insure precise application of herbicides to the areas requiring treatment. Drift control is necessary near waterways and other ecologically sensitive areas. This publication discusses available drift control adjuvants for herbicidal sprays. These include invert emulsions, thickening...

  15. Jejunostomy feeding tube

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - jejunostomy tube; G-J tube; J-tube; Jejunum tube ... Q-tip to clean the skin around the J-tube 1 to 3 times a day with ... To flush the J-tube, follow the instructions your nurse gave you. You will use the syringe to slowly push warm water into ...

  16. Nasogastric feeding tube

    MedlinePlus

    Feeding - nasogastric tube; NG tube; Bolus feeding; Continuous pump feeding; Gavage tube ... If your child has an NG tube, try to keep your child from touching or pulling on the tube. After your nurse teaches you how to flush the tube ...

  17. A Pascalian lateral drift sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jansen, H.

    2016-09-01

    A novel concept of a layer-wise produced semiconductor sensor for precise particle tracking is proposed herein. In contrast to common semiconductor sensors, local regions with increased doping concentration deep in the bulk termed charge guides increase the lateral drift of free charges on their way to the read-out electrode. This lateral drift enables charge sharing independent of the incident position of the traversing particle. With a regular grid of charge guides the lateral charge distribution resembles a normalised Pascal's triangle for particles that are stopped in depths lower than the depth of the first layer of the charge guides. For minimum ionising particles a sum of binomial distributions describes the lateral charge distribution. This concept decouples the achievable sensor resolution from the pitch size as the characteristic length is replaced by the lateral distance of the charge guides.

  18. Generalized banana-drift transport

    SciTech Connect

    Mynick, H.E.

    1985-10-01

    The theory of tokamak ripple transport in the banana-drift and ripple-plateau regimes is extended in a number of directions. The theory is valid for small values of the toroidal periodicity number n of the perturbation, as well as for the moderate values (n approx. 10 to 20) previously assumed. It is shown that low-n perturbations can produce much greater transport than the larger-n perturbations usually studied. In addition, the ripple perturbation is allowed arbitrary values of poloidal mode number m and frequency ..omega.., making it applicable to the transport induced by MHD modes. Bounce averaging is avoided, so the theory includes the contributions to transport from all harmonics of the bounce frequency, providing a continuous description of the transition from the banana drift to the ripple-plateau regime. The implications of the theory for toroidal rotation in tokamaks are considered.

  19. Drift waves in stellarator geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Persson, M.; Nadeem, M.; Lewandowski, J.L.V.; Gardner, H.J.

    2000-02-07

    Drift waves are investigated in a real three-dimensional stellarator geometry. A linear system, based on the cold ion fluid model and a ballooning mode formalism, is solved numerically in the geometry of the stellarator H1-NF. The spectra of stable and unstable modes, as well as localization, are discussed. The dependence of the spectrum of the unstable modes on the wavevector, plasma density variation, and the location in the plasma is presented.

  20. Random drift and culture change.

    PubMed Central

    Bentley, R. Alexander; Hahn, Matthew W.; Shennan, Stephen J.

    2004-01-01

    We show that the frequency distributions of cultural variants, in three different real-world examples--first names, archaeological pottery and applications for technology patents--follow power laws that can be explained by a simple model of random drift. We conclude that cultural and economic choices often reflect a decision process that is value-neutral; this result has far-reaching testable implications for social-science research. PMID:15306315

  1. Abstraction of Seepage into Drifts

    SciTech Connect

    M.L. Wilson; C.K. Ho

    2000-09-26

    A total-system performance assessment (TSPA) for a potential nuclear-waste repository requires an estimate of the amount of water that might contact waste. This paper describes the model used for part of that estimation in a recent TSPA for the Yucca Mountain site. The discussion is limited to estimation of how much water might enter emplacement drifts; additional considerations related to flow within the drifts, and how much water might actually contact waste, are not addressed here. The unsaturated zone at Yucca Mountain is being considered for the potential repository, and a drift opening in unsaturated rock tends to act as a capillary barrier and divert much of the percolating water around it. For TSPA, the important questions regarding seepage are how many waste packages might be subjected to water flow and how much flow those packages might see. Because of heterogeneity of the rock and uncertainty about the future (how the climate will evolve, etc.), it is not possible to predict seepage amounts or locations with certainty. Thus, seepage is treated as a stochastic quantity in TSPA simulations, with the magnitude and spatial distribution of seepage sampled from uncertainty distributions. The distillation of the essential components of process modeling into a form suitable for use in TSPA simulations is referred to as abstraction. In the following sections, seepage process models and abstractions will be summarized and then some illustrative results are presented.

  2. Shear wall ultimate drift limits

    SciTech Connect

    Duffey, T.A.; Goldman, A.; Farrar, C.R.

    1994-04-01

    Drift limits for reinforced-concrete shear walls are investigated by reviewing the open literature for appropriate experimental data. Drift values at ultimate are determined for walls with aspect ratios ranging up to a maximum of 3.53 and undergoing different types of lateral loading (cyclic static, monotonic static, and dynamic). Based on the geometry of actual nuclear power plant structures exclusive of containments and concerns regarding their response during seismic (i.e.,cyclic) loading, data are obtained from pertinent references for which the wall aspect ratio is less than or equal to approximately 1, and for which testing is cyclic in nature (typically displacement controlled). In particular, lateral deflections at ultimate load, and at points in the softening region beyond ultimate for which the load has dropped to 90, 80, 70, 60, and 50 percent of its ultimate value, are obtained and converted to drift information. The statistical nature of the data is also investigated. These data are shown to be lognormally distributed, and an analysis of variance is performed. The use of statistics to estimate Probability of Failure for a shear wall structure is illustrated.

  3. Exotic quarkonium states in CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cristella, Leonardo

    2017-03-01

    The studies of the production of the X(3872), either prompt or from B hadron decays, and of the J/ψϕ mass spectrum in B hadron decays have been carried out by using pp collisions at √s = 7 TeV collected with the CMS detector at the LHC. The cross-section ratio of the X(3872) with respect to the ψ(2S ) in the J/ψπ+π- decay channel and the fraction of X(3872) coming from B-hadron decays are measured as a function of transverse momentum (pT), covering unprecedentedly high values of pT. For the first time, the prompt production cross section for the X(3872) times the unknown branching fraction for the decay of X(3872) →J/ψπ+π- is extracted differentially in pT and compared to theoretical predictions based on the Non-Relativistic QCD (NRQCD) factorization approach. The dipion invariant-mass spectrum of the J/ψπ+π- system in the X(3872) decay is also investigated. A peaking structure in the J/ψϕ mass spectrum near threshold is observed in B± → J/ψϕK± decays. The data sample, selected on the basis of the dimuon decay mode of the J/ψ, corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 5.2 fb-1. Fitting the structure to an S-wave relativistic Breit-Wigner lineshape above a three-body phase-space nonresonant component gives a signal statistical significance exceeding five standard deviations. The fitted mass and width values are m = 4148.0 ± 2.4(stat.) ± 6.3(syst.) MeV and Γ = 28-11+15 (stat.) ± 19(syst.) MeV, respectively. Evidence for an additional peaking structure at higher J/ψϕ mass is also reported. The search for resonance-like structures in the Bs0π± invariant mass spectrum do not show any unexpected result. An upper limit on the relative production of the claimed X(5568) and Bs multiplied by the unknown branching fraction of the decay X(5568) → Bsπ± is estimated to be 3.9% at 95% CL in the most conservative case.

  4. Grain Size of the North-Atlantic Drifts Sediments: is the Gloria Drift a Contourite Drift?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorokhova, E.; Sivkov, V.; Bashirova, L.

    2015-12-01

    Mean size of mineral particles of 10-63 fraction, so-called sortable silt mean size (SS) (McCave, 1995) and modes of grain-size distribution were used as proxies for reconstruction of paleocurrents intensity variations in the North Atlantic. It was assumed that the first mode (3-8 μm) is formed as the result of normal pelagic sedimentation and the second mode (10-30 μm) appears under the bottom currents influence. The sediments with bimodal grain-size distribution (the second mode varies from 10 to 28 μm) correlate with increased SS (up to 18-23 μm) in the Hatton and Snorry Drifts, indicating an increase in contour currents intensity during MIS 1, 3 and 5e. In contrast, there are no any relationships between grain size distribution (high SS values, appearance of bimodal distributions) and climatic cyclicity of variations in contour currents intensity at the Gloria Drift. Moreover, the Gloria Drift sediments differ from the contourite sediments of the Snorry and Hatton Drifts by shifting of the second mode toward the coarse particles (25-40 μm), higher sedimentation rates and higher IRD content. This evidence puts in doubt the contourite origin of the Gloria Drift. At the same time, we have identified the similarity between the Gloria Drift sediments and IRD-containing hemiturbidites of Labrador Sea (Hesse and Khodabakhsh, 2006). Fine-grained sediment lofting has been inferred for ice marginal regions of the northwest Labrador Sea. Sediment failure on the Labrador Slope predominantly produces muddy turbidity currents, because the slope sediments are mud-dominated. Their deposits are the indicative muddy spill-over turbidites of the NAMOC levees and the levees of the tributaries to the NAMOC. Dispersal of the IRD throughout the graded mud layers is evidence that the two processes, ice rafting and the delivery of the fines by lofting, occurred simultaneously. This work was supported by Russian Scientific Fund (grant No. 14-50-00095).

  5. Tube furnace

    DOEpatents

    Foster, Kenneth G.; Frohwein, Eugene J.; Taylor, Robert W.; Bowen, David W.

    1991-01-01

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  6. Tube furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, K.G.; Frohwein, E.J.; Taylor, R.W.; Bowen, D.W.

    1990-12-31

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  7. Tube furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, K.G.; Frohwein, E.J.; Taylor, R.W.; Bowen, D.W.

    1990-01-01

    A vermiculite insulated tube furnace is heated by a helically-wound resistance wire positioned within a helical groove on the surface of a ceramic cylinder, that in turn is surroundingly disposed about a doubly slotted stainless steel cylindrical liner. For uniform heating, the pitch of the helix is of shorter length over the two end portions of the ceramic cylinder. The furnace is of large volume, provides uniform temperature, offers an extremely precise programmed heating capability, features very rapid cool-down, and has a modest electrical power requirement.

  8. CMS HF calorimeter PMTs and Ξ$+\\atop{c}$ lifetime measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Akgun, Ugur

    2003-12-01

    This thesis consists of two parts: In the first part we describe the Photomultiplier Tube (PMT) selection and testing processes for the Hadronic Forward (HF) calorimeter of the CMS, a Large Hadron Collier (LHC) experiment at CERN. We report the evaluation process of the candidate PMTs from three different manufacturers, the complete tests performed on the 2300 Hamamatsu PMTs which will be used in the HF calorimeter, and the details of the PMT Test Station that is in University of Iowa CMS Laboratories. In the second part we report the Ξ$+\\atop{c}$ lifetime measurement from SELEX, the charm hadro-production experiment at Fermilab. Based upon 301 ± 31 events from three di.erent decay channels, by using the binned maximum likelihood technique, we observe the lifetime of Ξ$+\\atop{c}$ as 427 ± 31 ± 13 fs.

  9. Calorimeter Simulation with Hadrons in CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Piperov, Stefan; /Sofiya, Inst. Nucl. Res. /Fermilab

    2008-11-01

    CMS is using Geant4 to simulate the detector setup for the forthcoming data from the LHC. Validation of physics processes inside Geant4 is a major concern in view of getting a proper description of jets and missing energy for signal and background events. This is done by carrying out an extensive studies with test beam using the prototypes or real detector modules of the CMS calorimeter. These data are matched with Geant4 predictions using the same framework that is used for the entire CMS detector. Tuning of the Geant4 models is carried out and steps to be used in reproducing detector signals are defined in view of measurements of energy response, energy resolution, transverse and longitudinal shower profiles for a variety of hadron beams over a broad energy spectrum between 2 to 300 GeV/c. The tuned Monte Carlo predictions match many of these measurements within systematic uncertainties.

  10. The Physics of the CMS Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Sanabria, J. C.

    2007-10-26

    The Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN will start running 2008 producing proton-proton collisions with a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV. Four large experiments will operate together with this accelerator: ALICE, ATLAS, CMS and LHCb. The main scientific goal of this project is to understand in detail the mechanism for electro-weak symmetry breaking and to search for physics beyond the standard model of particles. ATLAS and CMS are general purpose detectors designed for search and discovery of new physics, and optimized to search for Higgs and signals of supersymmetric matter (SUSY). In this paper the main features of the CMS detector will be presented and its potential for Higgs and SUSY discoveries will be discussed.

  11. Plans for Jet Energy Corrections at CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Kalanand

    2009-05-01

    We present a plan for Jet Energy Corrections at CMS. Jet corrections at CMS will come initially from simulation tuned on test beam data, directly from collision data when available, and ultimately from a simulation tuned on collision data. The corrections will be factorized into a fixed sequence of sub-corrections associated with different detector and physics effects. The following three factors are minimum requirements for most analysis: offset corrections for pile-up and noise; correction for the response of the calorimeter as a function of jet pseudorapidity relative to the barrel; correction for the absolute response as a function of transverse momentum in the barrel. The required correction gives a jet Lorentz vector equivalent to the sum of particles in the jet cone emanating from a QCD hard collision. We discuss the status of these corrections, the planned data-driven techniques for their derivation, and their anticipated evolution with the stages of the CMS experiment.

  12. Fireworks: A physics event display for CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalskyi, D.; Tadel, M.; Mrak-Tadel, A.; Bellenot, B.; Kuznetsov, V.; Jones, C.D.; Bauerdick, L. Case, M.; Mulmenstadt, J.; Yagil, A.; /UC, San Diego

    2010-01-01

    Fireworks is a CMS event display which is specialized for the physics studies case. This specialization allows us to use a stylized rather than 3D-accurate representation when appropriate. Data handling is greatly simplified by using only reconstructed information and ideal geometry. Fireworks provides an easy-to-use interface which allows a physicist to concentrate only on the data in which he is interested. Data is presented via graphical and textual views. Fireworks is built using the Eve subsystem of the CERN ROOT project and CMS's FWLite project. The FWLite project was part of CMS's recent code redesign which separates data classes into libraries separate from algorithms producing the data and uses ROOT directly for C++ object storage, thereby allowing the data classes to be used directly in ROOT.

  13. Power Studies for the CMS Pixel Tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Todri, A.; Turqueti, M.; Rivera, R.; Kwan, S.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The Electronic Systems Engineering Department of the Computing Division at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is carrying out R&D investigations for the upgrade of the power distribution system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Pixel Tracker at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Among the goals of this effort is that of analyzing the feasibility of alternative powering schemes for the forward tracker, including DC to DC voltage conversion techniques using commercially available and custom switching regulator circuits. Tests of these approaches are performed using the PSI46 pixel readout chip currently in use at the CMS Tracker. Performance measures of the detector electronics will include pixel noise and threshold dispersion results. Issues related to susceptibility to switching noise will be studied and presented. In this paper, we describe the current power distribution network of the CMS Tracker, study the implications of the proposed upgrade with DC-DC converters powering scheme and perform noise susceptibility analysis.

  14. Power distribution studies for CMS forward tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Todri, A.; Turqueti, M.; Rivera, R.; Kwan, S.; /Fermilab

    2009-01-01

    The Electronic Systems Engineering Department of the Computing Division at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory is carrying out R&D investigations for the upgrade of the power distribution system of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) Pixel Tracker at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Among the goals of this effort is that of analyzing the feasibility of alternative powering schemes for the forward tracker, including DC to DC voltage conversion techniques using commercially available and custom switching regulator circuits. Tests of these approaches are performed using the PSI46 pixel readout chip currently in use at the CMS Tracker. Performance measures of the detector electronics will include pixel noise and threshold dispersion results. Issues related to susceptibility to switching noise will be studied and presented. In this paper, we describe the current power distribution network of the CMS Tracker, study the implications of the proposed upgrade with DC-DC converters powering scheme and perform noise susceptibility analysis.

  15. Remote Operations for LHC and CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Gottschalk, E.E.; /Fermilab

    2007-04-01

    Commissioning the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and its experiments will be a vital part of the worldwide high energy physics program beginning in 2007. A remote operations center has been built at Fermilab to contribute to commissioning and operations of the LHC and the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment, and to develop new capabilities for real-time data analysis and monitoring for LHC, CMS, and grid computing. Remote operations will also be essential to a future International Linear Collider with its multiple, internationally distributed control rooms. In this paper we present an overview of Fermilab's LHC@FNAL remote operations center for LHC and CMS, describe what led up to the development of the center, and describe noteworthy features of the center.

  16. Tapered pulse tube for pulse tube refrigerators

    DOEpatents

    Swift, Gregory W.; Olson, Jeffrey R.

    1999-01-01

    Thermal insulation of the pulse tube in a pulse-tube refrigerator is maintained by optimally varying the radius of the pulse tube to suppress convective heat loss from mass flux streaming in the pulse tube. A simple cone with an optimum taper angle will often provide sufficient improvement. Alternatively, the pulse tube radius r as a function of axial position x can be shaped with r(x) such that streaming is optimally suppressed at each x.

  17. Beyond the discovery: Higgs results from CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mankel, Rainer

    2016-11-01

    The observation of a Higgs boson at a mass near 125 GeV in the year 2012 has been a milestone for elementary particle physics. Since this fundamental discovery, the CMS collaboration has scrutinized the complete LHC Run I dataset in depth, and studied the properties of the observed state in full detail. This includes investigations of more elusive production and decay modes, as well as searches for first indications of an extended Higgs sector, which would represent very likely a promising gateway to new physics. This article summarizes recent Higgs results from the CMS experiment.

  18. Experience with the CMS Event Data Model

    SciTech Connect

    Elmer, P.; Hegner, B.; Sexton-Kennedy, L.; /Fermilab

    2009-06-01

    The re-engineered CMS EDM was presented at CHEP in 2006. Since that time we have gained a lot of operational experience with the chosen model. We will present some of our findings, and attempt to evaluate how well it is meeting its goals. We will discuss some of the new features that have been added since 2006 as well as some of the problems that have been addressed. Also discussed is the level of adoption throughout CMS, which spans the trigger farm up to the final physics analysis. Future plans, in particular dealing with schema evolution and scaling, will be discussed briefly.

  19. Physics with CMS and Electronic Upgrades

    SciTech Connect

    Rohlf, James W.

    2016-08-01

    The current funding is for continued work on the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) at the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) as part of the Energy Frontier experimental program. The current budget year covers the first year of physics running at 13 TeV (Run 2). During this period we have concentrated on commisioning of the μTCA electronics, a new standard for distribution of CMS trigger and timing control signals and high bandwidth data aquistiion as well as participating in Run 2 physics.

  20. Tube-in-tube thermophotovoltaic generator

    DOEpatents

    Ashcroft, John; Campbell, Brian; DePoy, David

    1998-01-01

    A thermophotovoltaic device includes at least one thermal radiator tube, a cooling tube concentrically disposed within each thermal radiator tube and an array of thermophotovoltaic cells disposed on the exterior surface of the cooling tube. A shell having a first end and a second end surrounds the thermal radiator tube. Inner and outer tubesheets, each having an aperture corresponding to each cooling tube, are located at each end of the shell. The thermal radiator tube extends within the shell between the inner tubesheets. The cooling tube extends within the shell through the corresponding apertures of the two inner tubesheets to the corresponding apertures of the two outer tubesheets. A plurality of the thermal radiator tubes can be arranged in a staggered or an in-line configuration within the shell.

  1. Tube-in-tube thermophotovoltaic generator

    DOEpatents

    Ashcroft, J.; Campbell, B.; DePoy, D.

    1998-06-30

    A thermophotovoltaic device includes at least one thermal radiator tube, a cooling tube concentrically disposed within each thermal radiator tube and an array of thermophotovoltaic cells disposed on the exterior surface of the cooling tube. A shell having a first end and a second end surrounds the thermal radiator tube. Inner and outer tubesheets, each having an aperture corresponding to each cooling tube, are located at each end of the shell. The thermal radiator tube extends within the shell between the inner tubesheets. The cooling tube extends within the shell through the corresponding apertures of the two inner tubesheets to the corresponding apertures of the two outer tubesheets. A plurality of the thermal radiator tubes can be arranged in a staggered or an in-line configuration within the shell. 8 figs.

  2. A Double Take at 'Serpent' Drift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this microscopic imager picture of the drift dubbed 'Serpent' on Spirit's 73rd martian day on Mars after successfully digging into the side of the drift. The image is the first-ever microscopic look inside a drift. It captures only the scuffed interior of the Serpent drift and is dominated by larger pea-shaped particles. These grains are not natural to the inside of the drift, but are crust particles that have tumbled into the scuffed area as a result of the digging. These grains lost their dust cover in the process of falling into the scuff, giving scientists clues about the strength -- or lack of strength -- of the bond between the dust and sand particles.

    Most interesting to scientists are the fine grains making up the interior of Serpent drift. The grains of sand found within drifts or dunes on Earth are usually about 200 micrometers (.008 inches) in diameter -- much like sand on a beach. On Earth, dunes are formed when sand particles of this size are bounced across a surface by wind and collect together as drifts. Smaller particles, like the ones making up Serpent drift, would not necessarily collect into a dune on Earth, but would more likely be distributed across the surface like dust. The fine grains making up the interior of Serpent drift are no larger than 50 or 60 micrometers (.002 inches) and can be compared to silt on Earth.

    How did this very fine material manage to accumulate into a drift? Earth-based tests that simulate the wind speed and atmospheric density of Mars have found it difficult to reproduce dunes with grain particles as small as those found in the Serpent drift. However, Earth-based tests cannot duplicate the gravity of Mars, which is one-third that of the gravity on Earth. This environmental factor is a likely contributor to the diminutive material making up Serpent drift.

  3. A Double Take at 'Serpent' Drift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit took this microscopic imager picture of the drift dubbed 'Serpent' on Spirit's 73rd martian day on Mars after successfully digging into the side of the drift. The image, which has a black box at the top caused by missing data, captures a transition part of the drift where lighter, undisturbed material meets disturbed, darker material. The microscopic view of the undisturbed material reveals sphere-like grains with diameters between one and two millimeters (.04 and .08 inches), which are similar to the grains Spirit observed in other drift areas near Spirit's landing site, Gusev Crater. These larger grains form a single layer or crust on the surface of the drift and are covered in a fine layer of martian dust.

    Most interesting to scientists are the fine grains making up the interior of Serpent drift. The grains of sand found within drifts or dunes on Earth are usually about 200 micrometers (.008 inches) in diameter--much like sand on a beach. On Earth, dunes are formed when sand particles of this size are bounced across a surface by wind and collect together as drifts. Smaller particles, like the ones making up Serpent drift, would not necessarily collect into a dune on Earth, but would more likely be distributed across the surface like dust. The fine grains making up the interior of Serpent drift are no larger than 50 or 60 micrometers (.002 inches) and can be compared to silt on Earth.

    How did this very fine material managed to accumulate into a drift? Earth-based tests that simulate the wind speed and atmospheric density of Mars have found it difficult to reproduce dunes with grain particles as small as those found in the Serpent drift. However, Earth-based tests cannot duplicate the gravity of Mars, which is one-third that of the gravity on Earth. This environmental factor is a likely contributor to the diminutive material making up Serpent drift.

  4. 42 CFR 438.724 - Notice to CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notice to CMS. 438.724 Section 438.724 Public...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.724 Notice to CMS. (a) The State must give the CMS Regional Office written notice whenever it imposes or lifts a sanction for one of the...

  5. 42 CFR 425.200 - Agreement with CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Agreement with CMS. 425.200 Section 425.200 Public... Agreement § 425.200 Agreement with CMS. (a) General. In order to participate in the Shared Savings Program, an ACO must enter into a participation agreement with CMS for a period of not less than three...

  6. 42 CFR 422.210 - Assurances to CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Assurances to CMS. 422.210 Section 422.210 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... to CMS. (a) Assurances to CMS. Each organization will provide assurance satisfactory to the...

  7. 42 CFR 457.1003 - CMS review of waiver requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false CMS review of waiver requests. 457.1003 Section 457.1003 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Waivers: General Provisions § 457.1003 CMS review of waiver requests. CMS will review the waiver...

  8. 42 CFR 460.18 - CMS evaluation of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false CMS evaluation of applications. 460.18 Section 460... ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Organization Application and Waiver Process § 460.18 CMS evaluation of applications. CMS evaluates an application for approval as a PACE organization on the basis of the...

  9. 42 CFR 411.386 - CMS's advisory opinions as exclusive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false CMS's advisory opinions as exclusive. 411.386... Relationships Between Physicians and Entities Furnishing Designated Health Services § 411.386 CMS's advisory... described in § 411.370. CMS has not and does not issue a binding advisory opinion on the subject matter...

  10. 42 CFR 411.379 - When CMS accepts a request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When CMS accepts a request. 411.379 Section 411.379... Physicians and Entities Furnishing Designated Health Services § 411.379 When CMS accepts a request. (a) Upon receiving a request for an advisory opinion, CMS promptly makes an initial determination of whether...

  11. 42 CFR 411.386 - CMS's advisory opinions as exclusive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false CMS's advisory opinions as exclusive. 411.386... Relationships Between Physicians and Entities Furnishing Designated Health Services § 411.386 CMS's advisory... described in § 411.370. CMS has not and does not issue a binding advisory opinion on the subject matter...

  12. 42 CFR 405.1834 - CMS reviewing official procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CMS reviewing official procedure. 405.1834 Section... Determinations and Appeals § 405.1834 CMS reviewing official procedure. (a) Scope. A provider that is a party to... Administrator by a designated CMS reviewing official who considers whether the decision of the...

  13. 42 CFR 438.724 - Notice to CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notice to CMS. 438.724 Section 438.724 Public...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.724 Notice to CMS. (a) The State must give the CMS Regional Office written notice whenever it imposes or lifts a sanction for one of the...

  14. 42 CFR 411.379 - When CMS accepts a request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When CMS accepts a request. 411.379 Section 411.379... Physicians and Entities Furnishing Designated Health Services § 411.379 When CMS accepts a request. (a) Upon receiving a request for an advisory opinion, CMS promptly makes an initial determination of whether...

  15. 42 CFR 411.386 - CMS's advisory opinions as exclusive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CMS's advisory opinions as exclusive. 411.386... Relationships Between Physicians and Entities Furnishing Designated Health Services § 411.386 CMS's advisory... described in § 411.370. CMS has not and does not issue a binding advisory opinion on the subject matter...

  16. 42 CFR 460.18 - CMS evaluation of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false CMS evaluation of applications. 460.18 Section 460... ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Organization Application and Waiver Process § 460.18 CMS evaluation of applications. CMS evaluates an application for approval as a PACE organization on the basis of the...

  17. 42 CFR 457.1003 - CMS review of waiver requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false CMS review of waiver requests. 457.1003 Section 457.1003 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Waivers: General Provisions § 457.1003 CMS review of waiver requests. CMS will review the waiver...

  18. 42 CFR 425.200 - Agreement with CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Agreement with CMS. 425.200 Section 425.200 Public... Agreement § 425.200 Agreement with CMS. (a) General. In order to participate in the Shared Savings Program, an ACO must enter into a participation agreement with CMS for a period of not less than three...

  19. 42 CFR 405.1834 - CMS reviewing official procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false CMS reviewing official procedure. 405.1834 Section... Determinations and Appeals § 405.1834 CMS reviewing official procedure. (a) Scope. A provider that is a party to... Administrator by a designated CMS reviewing official who considers whether the decision of the...

  20. 42 CFR 403.248 - Administrative review of CMS determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Administrative review of CMS determinations. 403... Certification Program: General Provisions § 403.248 Administrative review of CMS determinations. (a) This section provides for administrative review if CMS determines— (1) Not to certify a policy; or (2) That...

  1. 42 CFR 422.210 - Assurances to CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Assurances to CMS. 422.210 Section 422.210 Public...) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Relationships With Providers § 422.210 Assurances to CMS. (a) Assurances to CMS. Each organization will provide assurance satisfactory to the Secretary that...

  2. 42 CFR 411.386 - CMS's advisory opinions as exclusive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false CMS's advisory opinions as exclusive. 411.386... Relationships Between Physicians and Entities Furnishing Designated Health Services § 411.386 CMS's advisory... described in § 411.370. CMS has not and does not issue a binding advisory opinion on the subject matter...

  3. 42 CFR 438.724 - Notice to CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notice to CMS. 438.724 Section 438.724 Public...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.724 Notice to CMS. (a) The State must give the CMS Regional Office written notice whenever it imposes or lifts a sanction for one of the...

  4. 42 CFR 411.386 - CMS's advisory opinions as exclusive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false CMS's advisory opinions as exclusive. 411.386... Relationships Between Physicians and Entities Furnishing Designated Health Services § 411.386 CMS's advisory... described in § 411.370. CMS has not and does not issue a binding advisory opinion on the subject matter...

  5. 42 CFR 433.320 - Procedures for refunds to CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Procedures for refunds to CMS. 433.320 Section 433... Overpayments to Providers § 433.320 Procedures for refunds to CMS. (a) Basic requirements. (1) The agency must refund the Federal share of overpayments that are subject to recovery to CMS through a credit on...

  6. 42 CFR 425.200 - Agreement with CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Agreement with CMS. 425.200 Section 425.200 Public... Agreement § 425.200 Agreement with CMS. (a) General. In order to participate in the Shared Savings Program, an ACO must enter into a participation agreement with CMS for a period of not less than three...

  7. 42 CFR 405.1834 - CMS reviewing official procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false CMS reviewing official procedure. 405.1834 Section... Determinations and Appeals § 405.1834 CMS reviewing official procedure. (a) Scope. A provider that is a party to... Administrator by a designated CMS reviewing official who considers whether the decision of the...

  8. 42 CFR 403.248 - Administrative review of CMS determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Administrative review of CMS determinations. 403... Certification Program: General Provisions § 403.248 Administrative review of CMS determinations. (a) This section provides for administrative review if CMS determines— (1) Not to certify a policy; or (2) That...

  9. 42 CFR 422.210 - Assurances to CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Assurances to CMS. 422.210 Section 422.210 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... to CMS. (a) Assurances to CMS. Each organization will provide assurance satisfactory to the...

  10. 42 CFR 433.320 - Procedures for refunds to CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Procedures for refunds to CMS. 433.320 Section 433... Overpayments to Providers § 433.320 Procedures for refunds to CMS. (a) Basic requirements. (1) The agency must refund the Federal share of overpayments that are subject to recovery to CMS through a credit on...

  11. 42 CFR 411.379 - When CMS accepts a request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When CMS accepts a request. 411.379 Section 411.379... Physicians and Entities Furnishing Designated Health Services § 411.379 When CMS accepts a request. (a) Upon receiving a request for an advisory opinion, CMS promptly makes an initial determination of whether...

  12. 42 CFR 460.18 - CMS evaluation of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false CMS evaluation of applications. 460.18 Section 460... ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Organization Application and Waiver Process § 460.18 CMS evaluation of applications. CMS evaluates an application for approval as a PACE organization on the basis of the...

  13. 42 CFR 422.210 - Assurances to CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Assurances to CMS. 422.210 Section 422.210 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... to CMS. (a) Assurances to CMS. Each organization will provide assurance satisfactory to the...

  14. 42 CFR 433.320 - Procedures for refunds to CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Procedures for refunds to CMS. 433.320 Section 433... Overpayments to Providers § 433.320 Procedures for refunds to CMS. (a) Basic requirements. (1) The agency must refund the Federal share of overpayments that are subject to recovery to CMS through a credit on...

  15. 42 CFR 405.1834 - CMS reviewing official procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false CMS reviewing official procedure. 405.1834 Section... Determinations and Appeals § 405.1834 CMS reviewing official procedure. (a) Scope. A provider that is a party to... Administrator by a designated CMS reviewing official who considers whether the decision of the...

  16. 42 CFR 411.379 - When CMS accepts a request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When CMS accepts a request. 411.379 Section 411.379... Physicians and Entities Furnishing Designated Health Services § 411.379 When CMS accepts a request. (a) Upon receiving a request for an advisory opinion, CMS promptly makes an initial determination of whether...

  17. 42 CFR 460.18 - CMS evaluation of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false CMS evaluation of applications. 460.18 Section 460... ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Organization Application and Waiver Process § 460.18 CMS evaluation of applications. CMS evaluates an application for approval as a PACE organization on the basis of the...

  18. 42 CFR 433.320 - Procedures for refunds to CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Procedures for refunds to CMS. 433.320 Section 433... Overpayments to Providers § 433.320 Procedures for refunds to CMS. (a) Basic requirements. (1) The agency must refund the Federal share of overpayments that are subject to recovery to CMS through a credit on...

  19. 42 CFR 422.210 - Assurances to CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assurances to CMS. 422.210 Section 422.210 Public...) MEDICARE PROGRAM MEDICARE ADVANTAGE PROGRAM Relationships With Providers § 422.210 Assurances to CMS. (a) Assurances to CMS. Each organization will provide assurance satisfactory to the Secretary that...

  20. 42 CFR 438.724 - Notice to CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notice to CMS. 438.724 Section 438.724 Public...) MEDICAL ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS MANAGED CARE Sanctions § 438.724 Notice to CMS. (a) The State must give the CMS Regional Office written notice whenever it imposes or lifts a sanction for one of the...

  1. 42 CFR 411.379 - When CMS accepts a request.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When CMS accepts a request. 411.379 Section 411.379... Physicians and Entities Furnishing Designated Health Services § 411.379 When CMS accepts a request. (a) Upon receiving a request for an advisory opinion, CMS promptly makes an initial determination of whether...

  2. 42 CFR 457.1003 - CMS review of waiver requests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false CMS review of waiver requests. 457.1003 Section 457.1003 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Waivers: General Provisions § 457.1003 CMS review of waiver requests. CMS will review the waiver...

  3. 42 CFR 403.248 - Administrative review of CMS determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Administrative review of CMS determinations. 403... Certification Program: General Provisions § 403.248 Administrative review of CMS determinations. (a) This section provides for administrative review if CMS determines— (1) Not to certify a policy; or (2) That...

  4. 42 CFR 405.1834 - CMS reviewing official procedure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false CMS reviewing official procedure. 405.1834 Section... Determinations and Appeals § 405.1834 CMS reviewing official procedure. (a) Scope. A provider that is a party to... Administrator by a designated CMS reviewing official who considers whether the decision of the...

  5. Commissioning of the CMS High Level Trigger

    SciTech Connect

    Agostino, Lorenzo; et al.

    2009-08-01

    The CMS experiment will collect data from the proton-proton collisions delivered by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at a centre-of-mass energy up to 14 TeV. The CMS trigger system is designed to cope with unprecedented luminosities and LHC bunch-crossing rates up to 40 MHz. The unique CMS trigger architecture only employs two trigger levels. The Level-1 trigger is implemented using custom electronics, while the High Level Trigger (HLT) is based on software algorithms running on a large cluster of commercial processors, the Event Filter Farm. We present the major functionalities of the CMS High Level Trigger system as of the starting of LHC beams operations in September 2008. The validation of the HLT system in the online environment with Monte Carlo simulated data and its commissioning during cosmic rays data taking campaigns are discussed in detail. We conclude with the description of the HLT operations with the first circulating LHC beams before the incident occurred the 19th September 2008.

  6. The CMS Remote Analysis Builder (CRAB)

    SciTech Connect

    Spiga, D.; Cinquilli, M.; Servoli, L.; Lacaprara, S.; Fanzago, F.; Dorigo, A.; Merlo, M.; Farina, F.; Fanfani, A.; Codispoti, G.; Bacchi, W.; /INFN, Bologna /Bologna U /CERN /INFN, CNAF /INFN, Trieste /Fermilab

    2008-01-22

    The CMS experiment will produce several Pbytes of data every year, to be distributed over many computing centers geographically distributed in different countries. Analysis of this data will be also performed in a distributed way, using grid infrastructure. CRAB (CMS Remote Analysis Builder) is a specific tool, designed and developed by the CMS collaboration, that allows a transparent access to distributed data to end physicist. Very limited knowledge of underlying technicalities are required to the user. CRAB interacts with the local user environment, the CMS Data Management services and with the Grid middleware. It is able to use WLCG, gLite and OSG middleware. CRAB has been in production and in routine use by end-users since Spring 2004. It has been extensively used in studies to prepare the Physics Technical Design Report (PTDR) and in the analysis of reconstructed event samples generated during the Computing Software and Analysis Challenge (CSA06). This involved generating thousands of jobs per day at peak rates. In this paper we discuss the current implementation of CRAB, the experience with using it in production and the plans to improve it in the immediate future.

  7. 23 CFR 500.109 - CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... provides accurate, up-to-date information on transportation system operations and performance and assesses... SYSTEMS Management Systems § 500.109 CMS. (a) For purposes of this part, congestion means the level at which transportation system performance is unacceptable due to excessive travel times and delays...

  8. Top quark properties measurements in CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazgan, E.; CMS Collaboration

    2017-07-01

    Recent top quark properties measurements made with the CMS detector at the LHC are presented. The measurements summarized include spin correlation of top quark pairs, asymmetries, top quark mass, and the underlying event in top quark pair events. The results are compared to the standard model predictions and new physics models.

  9. CMS results on exclusive and diffractive production

    SciTech Connect

    Alves, Gilvan A.

    2015-04-10

    We present recent CMS measurements of diffractive and exclusive processes, using data collected at 7 TeV at the LHC. Measurements of soft single- and double-diffractive cross sections are presented, as well as measurements of photon-induced processes including studies of exclusive WW production via photon-photon exchange.

  10. Monte Carlo Production Management at CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudoul, G.; Franzoni, G.; Norkus, A.; Pol, A.; Srimanobhas, P.; Vlimant, J.-R.

    2015-12-01

    The analysis of the LHC data at the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment requires the production of a large number of simulated events. During the RunI of LHC (20102012), CMS has produced over 12 Billion simulated events, organized in approximately sixty different campaigns each emulating specific detector conditions and LHC running conditions (pile up). In order to aggregate the information needed for the configuration and prioritization of the events production, assure the book-keeping of all the processing requests placed by the physics analysis groups, and to interface with the CMS production infrastructure, the web- based service Monte Carlo Management (McM) has been developed and put in production in 2013. McM is based on recent server infrastructure technology (CherryPy + AngularJS) and relies on a CouchDB database back-end. This contribution covers the one and half year of operational experience managing samples of simulated events for CMS, the evolution of its functionalities and the extension of its capability to monitor the status and advancement of the events production.

  11. Commissioning of the CMS Forward Pixel Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Ashish; /SUNY, Buffalo

    2008-12-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment is scheduled for physics data taking in summer 2009 after the commissioning of high energy proton-proton collisions at Large Hadron Collider (LHC). At the core of the CMS all-silicon tracker is the silicon pixel detector, comprising three barrel layers and two pixel disks in the forward and backward regions, accounting for a total of 66 million channels. The pixel detector will provide high-resolution, 3D tracking points, essential for pattern recognition and precise vertexing, while being embedded in a hostile radiation environment. The end disks of the pixel detector, known as the Forward Pixel detector, has been assembled and tested at Fermilab, USA. It has 18 million pixel cells with dimension 100 x 150 {micro}m{sup 2}. The complete forward pixel detector was shipped to CERN in December 2007, where it underwent extensive system tests for commissioning prior to the installation. The pixel system was put in its final place inside the CMS following the installation and bake out of the LHC beam pipe in July 2008. It has been integrated with other sub-detectors in the readout since September 2008 and participated in the cosmic data taking. This report covers the strategy and results from commissioning of CMS forward pixel detector at CERN.

  12. Spiral biasing adaptor for use in Si drift detectors and Si drift detector arrays

    DOEpatents

    Li, Zheng; Chen, Wei

    2016-07-05

    A drift detector array, preferably a silicon drift detector (SDD) array, that uses a low current biasing adaptor is disclosed. The biasing adaptor is customizable for any desired geometry of the drift detector single cell with minimum drift time of carriers. The biasing adaptor has spiral shaped ion-implants that generate the desired voltage profile. The biasing adaptor can be processed on the same wafer as the drift detector array and only one biasing adaptor chip/side is needed for one drift detector array to generate the voltage profiles on the front side and back side of the detector array.

  13. Quantitative proteomic analysis of CMS-related changes in Honglian CMS rice anther.

    PubMed

    Sun, Qingping; Hu, Chaofeng; Hu, Jun; Li, Shaoqing; Zhu, Yingguo

    2009-10-01

    Honglian (HL) cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) is one of the rice CMS types and has been widely used in hybrid rice production in China. The CMS line (Yuetai A, YTA) has a Yuetai B (maintainer line, YTB) nuclear genome, but has a rearranged mitochondrial (mt) genome consisting of Yuetai B. The fertility of hybrid (HL-6) was restored by restorer gene in nuclear genome of restorer line (9311). We used isotope-code affinity tag (ICAT) technology to perform the protein profiling of uninucleate stage rice anther and identify the CMS-HL related proteins. Two separate ICAT analyses were performed in this study: (1) anthers from YTA versus anthers from YTB, and (2) anthers from YTA versus anthers from HL-6. Based on the two analyses, a total of 97 unique proteins were identified and quantified in uninucleate stage rice anther under the error rate of less than 10%, of which eight proteins showed abundance changes of at least twofold between YTA and YTB. Triosephosphate isomerase, fructokinase II, DNA-binding protein GBP16 and ribosomal protein L3B were over-expressed in YTB, while oligopeptide transporter, floral organ regulator 1, kinase and S-adenosyl-L: -methionine synthetase were over-expressed in YTA. Reduction of the proteins associated with energy production and lesser ATP equivalents detected in CMS anther indicated that the low level of energy production played an important role in inducing CMS-HL.

  14. Investigations of SPS Orbit Drifts

    SciTech Connect

    Drøsdal, Lene; Bracco, Chiara; Cornelis, Karel; Goddard, Brennan; Kain, Verena; Meddahi, Malika; Wenninger, Jorg; Gianfelice-Wendt, Eliana

    2014-07-01

    The LHC is filled from the last pre-injector, the Super Proton Synchrotron (SPS), via two 3 km long transfer lines, TI 2 and TI 8. Over the LHC injection processes, a drift of the beam trajectories has been observed in TI 2 and TI 8, requiring regular correction of the trajectories, in order to ensure clean injection into the LHC. Investigations of the trajectory variations in the transfer lines showed that the main source of short term trajectory drifts are current variations of the SPS extraction septa (MSE). The stability of the power converters has been improved, but the variations are still present and further improvements are being investigated. The stability over a longer period of time cannot be explained by this source alone. The analysis of trajectory variations shows that there are also slow variations in the SPS closed orbit at extraction. A set of SPS orbit measurements has been saved and analysed. These observations will be used together with simulations and observed field errors to locate the second source of variations.

  15. Blobs and drift wave dynamics

    DOE PAGES

    Zhang, Yanzeng; Krasheninnikov, S. I.

    2017-09-29

    The modified Hasegawa-Mima equation retaining all nonlinearities is investigated from the point of view of the formation of blobs. The linear analysis shows that the amplitude of the drift wave packet propagating in the direction of decreasing background plasma density increases and eventually saturates due to nonlinear effects. Nonlinear modification of the time averaged plasma density profile results in the formation of large amplitude modes locked in the radial direction, but still propagating in the poloidal direction, which resembles the experimentally observed chain of blobs propagating in the poloidal direction. Such specific density profiles, causing the locking of drift waves,more » could form naturally at the edge of tokamak due to a neutral ionization source. Thus, locked modes can grow in situ due to plasma instabilities, e.g., caused by finite resistivity. Furthermore, the modulation instability (in the poloidal direction) of these locked modes can result in a blob-like burst of plasma density.« less

  16. Simulation of the DRIFT Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyatt, Matt; Ayad, Rachid; Hanson-Hart, Zach; Katz-Hyman, Moshe; Posner, Aaron; Martoff, C. J.

    2003-04-01

    The DRIFT Experiment [1] is an underground search for WIMP Dark Matter using a novel detector invented for this purpose: the Negative Ion TPC (NITPC). To aid in interpreting the results, a simulation code system has been developed. The system uses the CERNLIB program GEANT [2] and the NRC package EGS4 [3] to simulate particle interactions in the detector. These are linked directly to the CERNLIB program GARFIELD, which simulates signal production in the NITPC. Finally the GARFIELD output is converted into the format of the DRIFT DAQ for presentation to the analysis code. The physics and software issues dealt with in this development will be discussed. [1] Low Pressure Negative Ion TPC for Dark Matter Search. D. P. Snowden-Ifft, C. J. Martoff, J. M. Burwell, Phys Rev. D. Rapid Comm. 61, 101301 (2000) [2] GEANT Manual, CERN Program Library Long Writeup W5013, Copyright CERN, Geneva, 1993 . [3] EGS4, National Research Council, Canada. Note PIRS-701. http://www.irs.inms.nrc.ca/inms/irs/EGS4/get_egs4.html . [4] GARFIELD Manual, version 7.04, CERN Program Library Long Writeup W5050, Copyright CERN, Geneva, 2001 .

  17. The Fallacy of Drifting Snow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreas, Edgar L.

    2011-12-01

    A common parametrization over snow-covered surfaces that are undergoing saltation is that the aerodynamic roughness length for wind speed ( z 0) scales as {α u_ast^2/g}, where u * is the friction velocity, g is the acceleration of gravity, and α is an empirical constant. Data analyses seem to support this scaling: many published plots of z 0 measured over snow demonstrate proportionality to {u_ast^2 }. In fact, I show similar plots here that are based on two large eddy-covariance datasets: one collected over snow-covered Arctic sea ice; another collected over snow-covered Antarctic sea ice. But in these and in most such plots from the literature, the independent variable, u *, was used to compute z 0 in the first place; the plots thus suffer from fictitious correlation that causes z 0 to unavoidably increase with u * without any intervening physics. For these two datasets, when I plot z 0 against u * derived from a bulk flux algorithm—and thus minimize the fictitious correlation— z 0 is independent of u * in the drifting snow region, u * ≥ 0.30 ms-1. I conclude that the relation {z_0 = α u_ast^2/g} when snow is drifting is a fallacy fostered by analyses that suffer from fictitious correlation.

  18. Channel control ASIC for the CMS hadron calorimeter front end readout module

    SciTech Connect

    Ray Yarema et al.

    2002-09-26

    The Channel Control ASIC (CCA) is used along with a custom Charge Integrator and Encoder (QIE) ASIC to digitize signals from the hybrid photo diodes (HPDs) and photomultiplier tubes (PMTs) in the CMS hadron calorimeter. The CCA sits between the QIE and the data acquisition system. All digital signals to and from the QIE pass through the CCA chip. One CCA chip interfaces with two QIE channels. The CCA provides individually delayed clocks to each of the QIE chips in addition to various control signals. The QIE sends digitized PMT or HPD signals and time slice information to the CCA, which sends the data to the data acquisition system through an optical link.

  19. Electron injection in semiconductor drift detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Rehak, P. ); Gatti, E.; Longoni, A.; Sampietro, M.; Castoldi, A. ); Vacchi, A. )

    1990-01-01

    The paper reports the first successful results of a simple MOS structure to inject electrons at a given position in Silicon Drift Detectors. The structure allows on-line calibration of the drift velocity of electrons within the detector. The calibration is a practical method to trace the temperature dependence of the electron mobility. Several of these injection structures can be implemented in silicon drift detectors without additional steps in the fabrication process. 5 refs., 11 figs.

  20. Drift chamber tracking with neural networks

    SciTech Connect

    Lindsey, C.S.; Denby, B.; Haggerty, H.

    1992-10-01

    We discuss drift chamber tracking with a commercial log VLSI neural network chip. Voltages proportional to the drift times in a 4-layer drift chamber were presented to the Intel ETANN chip. The network was trained to provide the intercept and slope of straight tracks traversing the chamber. The outputs were recorded and later compared off line to conventional track fits. Two types of network architectures were studied. Applications of neural network tracking to high energy physics detector triggers is discussed.

  1. WORLD SURFACE CURRENTS FROM SHIP'S DRIFT OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, C.P.; Schladow, S.G.

    1980-11-01

    Over 4 million observations of ship's drift are on file at the U.S. National Oceanographic Data Centre, in Washington, D. C., representing a vast amount of information on ocean surface currents. The observed drift speeds are dependent on the frequency of occurence of the particular current speeds and the frequency of observation. By comparing frequency of observation with the drift speeds observed it is possible to confirm known current patterns and detect singularities in surface currents.

  2. Tracheostomy tube - eating

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000464.htm Tracheostomy tube - eating To use the sharing features on this ... you swallow foods or liquids. Eating and Tracheostomy Tubes When you get your tracheostomy tube, or trach, ...

  3. Neural Tube Defects

    MedlinePlus

    ... Birth defects & other health conditions > Neural tube defects Neural tube defects E-mail to a friend Please ... this page It's been added to your dashboard . Neural tube defects (NTDs) are birth defects of the ...

  4. THERMAL EVALUATION OF DIFFERENT DRIFT DIAMETER SIZES

    SciTech Connect

    H.M. Wade

    1999-01-04

    The purpose of this calculation is to estimate the thermal response of a repository-emplaced waste package and its corresponding drift wall surface temperature with different drift diameters. The case examined is that of a 21 pressurized water reactor (PWR) uncanistered fuel (UCF) waste package loaded with design basis spent nuclear fuel assemblies. This calculation evaluates a 3.5 meter to 6.5 meter drift diameter range in increments of 1.0 meters. The time-dependent temperatures of interest, as determined by this calculation, are the spent nuclear fuel cladding temperature, the waste package surface temperature, and the drift wall surface temperature.

  5. Biology Undergraduates’ Misconceptions about Genetic Drift

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, T. M.; Price, R. M.; Mead, L. S.; McElhinny, T. L.; Thanukos, A.; Perez, K. E.; Herreid, C. F.; Terry, D. R.; Lemons, P. P.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores biology undergraduates’ misconceptions about genetic drift. We use qualitative and quantitative methods to describe students’ definitions, identify common misconceptions, and examine differences before and after instruction on genetic drift. We identify and describe five overarching categories that include 16 distinct misconceptions about genetic drift. The accuracy of students’ conceptions ranges considerably, from responses indicating only superficial, if any, knowledge of any aspect of evolution to responses indicating knowledge of genetic drift but confusion about the nuances of genetic drift. After instruction, a significantly greater number of responses indicate some knowledge of genetic drift (p = 0.005), but 74.6% of responses still contain at least one misconception. We conclude by presenting a framework that organizes how students’ conceptions of genetic drift change with instruction. We also articulate three hypotheses regarding undergraduates’ conceptions of evolution in general and genetic drift in particular. We propose that: 1) students begin with undeveloped conceptions of evolution that do not recognize different mechanisms of change; 2) students develop more complex, but still inaccurate, conceptual frameworks that reflect experience with vocabulary but still lack deep understanding; and 3) some new misconceptions about genetic drift emerge as students comprehend more about evolution. PMID:22949422

  6. Drift and separation in collisionality gradients

    DOE PAGES

    Ochs, I. E.; Rax, J. M.; Gueroult, R.; ...

    2017-07-20

    Here we identify a single-particle drift resulting from collisional interactions with a background species, in the presence of a collisionality gradient and background net flow. We also analyze this drift in different limits, showing how it reduces to the well known impurity pinch for high-Zi impurities. We find that in the low-temperature, singly ionized limit, the magnitude of the drift becomes mass-dependent and energy-dependent. Furthermore, by solving for the resulting diffusion-advection motion, we propose a mass-separation scheme that takes advantage of this drift, and analyze the separative capability as a function of collisionally dissipated energy.

  7. Drift and separation in collisionality gradients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochs, I. E.; Rax, J. M.; Gueroult, R.; Fisch, N. J.

    2017-08-01

    We identify a single-particle drift resulting from collisional interactions with a background species, in the presence of a collisionality gradient and background net flow. We analyze this drift in different limits, showing how it reduces to the well known impurity pinch for high-Zi impurities. We find that in the low-temperature, singly ionized limit, the magnitude of the drift becomes mass-dependent and energy-dependent. By solving for the resulting diffusion-advection motion, we propose a mass-separation scheme that takes advantage of this drift, and analyze the separative capability as a function of collisionally dissipated energy.

  8. Heat exchanger tube mounts

    DOEpatents

    Wolowodiuk, W.; Anelli, J.; Dawson, B.E.

    1974-01-01

    A heat exchanger in which tubes are secured to a tube sheet by internal bore welding is described. The tubes may be moved into place in preparation for welding with comparatively little trouble. A number of segmented tube support plates are provided which allow a considerable portion of each of the tubes to be moved laterally after the end thereof has been positioned in preparation for internal bore welding to the tube sheet. (auth)

  9. Tube-shape verifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, A. N.; Christ, C. R.

    1980-01-01

    Inexpensive apparatus checks accuracy of bent tubes. Assortment of slotted angles and clamps is bolted down to flat aluminum plate outlining shape of standard tube bent to desired configuration. Newly bent tubes are then checked against this outline. Because parts are bolted down, tubes can be checked very rapidly without disturbing outline. One verifier per tube-bending machine can really speed up production in tube-bending shop.

  10. On the onset of surface wind drift at short fetches as observed in a wind wave flume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.; Branger, Hubert; Osuna, Pedro; Robles, Lucia

    2014-05-01

    Ocean surface drift is of great relevance to properly model wind waves and specially the early stages of surface waves development and ocean-atmosphere fluxes during incipient wind events and storms. In particular, wave models are not so accurate predicting wave behaviour at short fetches, where wind drift onset might be very important. The onset of surface drift induced by wind and waves is being studied through detailed laboratory measurements in a large wind-wave flume. Wind stress over the water surface, waves and surface drift are measured in the 40m long wind-wave tank at IRPHE, Marseille. While momentum fluxes are estimated directly through the eddy correlation method in a station about the middle of the tank, they provide reference information to the corresponding surface drift onset recorded at rather short non-dimensional fetches. At each experimental run very low wind was on (about 1m/s) for a certain period and suddenly it was constantly accelerated to reach about 13 m/s (as well as 8 and 5 m/s during different runs) in about 15 sec to as long as 600 sec. The wind was kept constant at that high speed for 2 to 10 min, and then suddenly and constantly decelerate to 0. Surface drift values were up to 0.5 cm/s for the highest wind while very distinctive shear was detected in the upper 1.5 cm. Rather linear variation of surface drift was observed with depth. Evolution of the surface drift velocity is analysed and onset behaviour is addressed with particular emphasis in accelerated winds. This work represents a RugDiSMar Project (CONACYT 155793) contribution. The support from ANUIES-ECOS M09-U01 project, CONACYT-187112 Estancia Sabática, and Institute Carnot, is greatly acknowledged.

  11. Scalability, Scintillation Readout and Charge Drift in a Kilogram Scale Solid Xenon Particle Detector

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, J.; Cease, H.; Jaskierny, W. F.; Markley, D.; Pahlka, R. B.; Balakishiyeva, D.; Saab, T.; Filipenko, M.

    2014-10-23

    We report a demonstration of the scalability of optically transparent xenon in the solid phase for use as a particle detector above a kilogram scale. We employ a liquid nitrogen cooled cryostat combined with a xenon purification and chiller system to measure the scintillation light output and electron drift speed from both the solid and liquid phases of xenon. Scintillation light output from sealed radioactive sources is measured by a set of high quantum efficiency photomultiplier tubes suitable for cryogenic applications. We observed a reduced amount of photons in solid phase compared to that in liquid phase. We used a conventional time projection chamber system to measure the electron drift time in a kilogram of solid xenon and observed faster electron drift speed in the solid phase xenon compared to that in the liquid phase.

  12. The Genetic Drift Inventory: A Tool for Measuring What Advanced Undergraduates Have Mastered about Genetic Drift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Rebecca M.; Andrews, Tessa C.; McElhinny, Teresa L.; Mead, Louise S.; Abraham, Joel K.; Thanukos, Anna; Perez, Kathryn E.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding genetic drift is crucial for a comprehensive understanding of biology, yet it is difficult to learn because it combines the conceptual challenges of both evolution and randomness. To help assess strategies for teaching genetic drift, we have developed and evaluated the Genetic Drift Inventory (GeDI), a concept inventory that measures…

  13. The Genetic Drift Inventory: A Tool for Measuring What Advanced Undergraduates Have Mastered about Genetic Drift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Rebecca M.; Andrews, Tessa C.; McElhinny, Teresa L.; Mead, Louise S.; Abraham, Joel K.; Thanukos, Anna; Perez, Kathryn E.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding genetic drift is crucial for a comprehensive understanding of biology, yet it is difficult to learn because it combines the conceptual challenges of both evolution and randomness. To help assess strategies for teaching genetic drift, we have developed and evaluated the Genetic Drift Inventory (GeDI), a concept inventory that measures…

  14. The spaced antenna drift method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hocking, W. K.

    1983-01-01

    The spaced antenna drift method is a simple and relatively inexpensive method for determination of atmospheric wind velocities using radars. The technique has been extensively tested in the mesosphere at high and medium frequencies, and found to give reliable results. Recently, the method has also been applied to VHF observations of the troposphere and stratosphere, and results appear to be reliable. This paper discusses briefly the principle of the method, and investigates both its strengths and weaknesses. Some discussions concerning criticisms of the technique are also given, and it is concluded that while these criticisms may be of some concern at times, appropriate care can ensure that the method is at least as viable as any other method of remote wind measurement. At times, the technique has definite advantages.

  15. Single wire drift chamber design

    SciTech Connect

    Krider, J.

    1987-03-30

    This report summarizes the design and prototype tests of single wire drift chambers to be used in Fermilab test beam lines. The goal is to build simple, reliable detectors which require a minimum of electronics. Spatial resolution should match the 300 ..mu..m rms resolution of the 1 mm proportional chambers that they will replace. The detectors will be used in beams with particle rates up to 20 KHz. Single track efficiency should be at least 99%. The first application will be in the MT beamline, which has been designed for calibration of CDF detectors. A set of four x-y modules will be used to track and measure the momentum of beam particles.

  16. The ARGUS microvertex drift chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, E.; Schmidt-Parzefall, W.; Appuhn, R. D.; Buchmüller, J.; Kolanoski, H.; Kreimeier, B.; Lange, A.; Siegmund, T.; Walther, A.; Edwards, K. W.; Fernholz, R. C.; Kapitza, H.; MacFarlane, D. B.; O'Neill, M.; Parsons, J. A.; Prentice, J. D.; Seidel, S. C.; Tsipolitis, G.; Ball, S.; Babaev, A.; Danilov, M.; Tichomirov, I.

    1989-11-01

    The ARGUS collaboration is currently building a new microvertex drift chamber (μVDC) as an upgrade of their detector. The μVDC is optimized for B-meson physics at DORIS energies. Important design features are minimal multiple scattering for low-momentum particles and three-dimensional reconstruction of decay vertices with equal resolutions in r- φ and r- z. Vertex resolutions of 15-25 μm are expected. Prototypes of the μVDC have been tested with different gas mixtures at various pressures. Spatial resolutions as small as 20 μm were obtained using CO 2/propane at 4 bar and DME at 1 bar. New readout electronics have been developed for the μVDC aiming at low thresholds for the TDC measurements. Employing a novel idea for noise and cross-talk suppression, which is based on a discrimination against short pulses, very low threshold settings are possible.

  17. Autoresonant control of drift waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shagalov, A. G.; Rasmussen, J. Juul; Naulin, V.

    2017-03-01

    The control of nonlinear drift waves in a magnetized plasmas column has been investigated. The studies are based on the Hasegawa–Mima model, which is solved on a disk domain with radial inhomogeneity of the plasma density. The system is forced by a rotating potential with varying frequency defined on the boundary. To excite and control the waves we apply the autoresonant effect, taking place when the amplitude of the forcing exceeds a threshold value and the waves are phase-locked with the forcing. We demonstrate that the autoresonant approach is applicable for excitation of a range of steady nonlinear waves of the lowest azimuthal mode numbers and for controlling their amplitudes and phases. We also demonstrate the excitation of zonal flows (m = 0 modes), which are controlled via the forced modes.

  18. Transient-induced climate drift

    SciTech Connect

    Johansson, A.; Reinhold, B.; Saha, S. )

    1993-05-01

    The climate drift of various quantities associated with deep, planetary-scale, equilibrated, transient Rossby waves are estimated for the Southern Hemisphere extratropical summer as revealed by the DERF II (Dynamical Extended Range Forecasting) dataset. It is found that the vertical structures of these waves systematically become too baroclinic during the course of integration. There are two time scales associated with this climate drift. There is one very short time scale, estimated to be of the order of one day, when the waves become more barotropic. It is followed by a period when the wave baroclinicity monotonically increases, and after roughly 10 days the model structures appear to have reached their statistically equilibrated state. In the meantime, the kinetic energy of the transient waves decreases substantially to roughly half the observed value. After this initial drop, however, the transient kinetic energy increases again, and it is not clear if an equilibrium value has been reached after 30 days, which is the limit of the DERF II dataset. This third time scale is not found in the quantities directly associated with the vertical structures per se, but it is hypothesized to be a consequence of these errors. A theory is utilized that in a simplified way takes into account the processes that determine the vertical structure of baroclinic waves as well as their robustness as a means of understanding the processes leading to these errors. The implications from this theory are that the formulation and magnitude of the dissipative and diffusive processes in the model are the most likely problem, but there are other possibilities. 37 refs., 10 figs.

  19. Phase-2 Upgrade of the CMS Tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mersi, Stefano; CMS Collaboration

    2016-04-01

    An upgrade program is planned for the LHC which will smoothly bring the luminosity up to or above 5 ×1034 cm-2 s-1 sometimes after 2020, to possibly reach an integrated luminosity of 3000 fb-1 at the end of that decade. In this ultimate scenario, called Phase-2, when LHC will reach the High Luminosity phase (HL-LHC), CMS will need a completely new Tracker detector, in order to fully exploit the highly-demanding operating conditions and the delivered luminosity. The new Tracker should have also trigger capabilities. To achieve such goals, R&D activities are ongoing to explore options and develop solutions that would allow including tracking information at Level-1. The design choices for the CMS pixel and outer tracker upgrades are discussed along with some highlights of the R&D activities and expected detector performance.

  20. DRIFT: a directionally sensitive dark matter detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, Ben; Drift; Uk Dark Matter Collaborations

    2003-11-01

    Directional Recoil Identification From Tracks-I (DRIFT) is the world's first WIMP dark matter detector with sensitivity to the directions of nuclear recoils. The distribution of WIMP induced nuclear recoil directions offers the most powerful way of positively identifying a WIMP signal. This paper discusses the DRIFT-I detector and considers future high spatial resolution readout schemes.

  1. Propeller wash effects on spray drift

    Treesearch

    Steven J. Thompson; Alvin R. Womac; Joseph Mulrooney; Sidney Deck

    2005-01-01

    for aerial spray application, there is some question if off-target drift (both near and far) is influenced by which boom is spraying and the direction of propeller wash rotation. This information may be useful when switching off one boom close to a field boundary. The effect of alternate boom switching and propeller wash direction on aerial spray drift from a turbine-...

  2. Iceberg drift modelling in the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panasenkova, Irina; Gusev, Anatoly; Fomin, Vladimir; Diansky, Nikolay; Korshenko, Evgeniya; Marchenko, Aleksey

    2017-04-01

    Iceberg drift model is developed in the N.N.Zubov State Oceanographic Institute (SOI) of the Roshydromet. The model is forced by atmospheric reanalysis data from the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) and by ocean and sea ice data from the Institute of Numerical Mathematics Ocean Model (INMOM). The iceberg drift model is validated using observations of iceberg drift trajectory obtained during the annual expedition of RV Lance in the beginning of May 2009 in the Barents Sea. Field data collected in this expedition are also used for the modelling of iceberg drift. Verification tests with hindcast data from selected atmospheric and oceanic models and data from field studies were carried out to compare model predictions with field observations. Two different approaches are used to simulate iceberg drift. The first approach is a variation of wind and water drag coefficients in order to simulate the observed iceberg drift trajectory. High uncertainties in environmental driving forces and in iceberg shape and mass resulted in using ensemble forecast technique, which is the second approach to simulate the iceberg trajectory. The presented iceberg drift model shows a good capability of reproducing the observed iceberg drift.

  3. Resistive Drift Waves in a Bumpy Torus

    SciTech Connect

    J.L.V. Lewandowski

    2004-01-12

    A computational study of resistive drift waves in the edge plasma of a bumpy torus is presented. The magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium is obtained from a three-dimensional local equilibrium model. The use of a local magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium model allows for a computationally efficient systematic study of the impact of the magnetic field structure on drift wave stability.

  4. Biology Undergraduates' Misconceptions about Genetic Drift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, T. M.; Price, R. M.; Mead, L. S.; McElhinny, T. L.; Thanukos, A.; Perez, K. E.; Herreid, C. F.; Terry, D. R.; Lemons, P. P.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores biology undergraduates' misconceptions about genetic drift. We use qualitative and quantitative methods to describe students' definitions, identify common misconceptions, and examine differences before and after instruction on genetic drift. We identify and describe five overarching categories that include 16 distinct…

  5. Banana drift transport in tokamaks with ripple

    SciTech Connect

    Linsker, R.; Boozer, A.H.

    1982-01-01

    Ripple transport in tokamaks is discussed for the ''banana drift'' collisionality regime, which lies below the ripple plateau regime treated earlier. The physical mechanisms that dominate banana drift transport are found to differ from those considered in previous work on this regime, and consequently the resulting transport coefficients can differ by several orders of magnitude.

  6. Banana drift transport in tokamaks with ripple

    SciTech Connect

    Linsker, R.; Boozer, A.H.

    1981-04-01

    Ripple transport in tokamaks is discussed for the banana drift collisionality regime, which lies below the ripple plateau regime treated earlier. The physical mechanisms that dominate banana drift transport are found to differ from those considered in previous work on this regime, and the resulting transport coefficients can consequently differ by several orders of magnitude.

  7. The high momentum spectrometer drift chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbott, D.; Baker, O. K.; Beaufait, J.; Bennett, C.; Bryant, E.; Carlini, R.; Kross, B.; McCauley, A.; Naing, W.; Shin, T.; Vulcan, W.

    1992-12-01

    The High Momentum Spectrometer in Hall C will use planar drift chambers for charged particle track reconstruction. The chambers are constructed using well understood technology and a conventional gas mixture. Two (plus one spare) drift chambers will be constructed for this spectrometers. Each chamber will contain 6 planes of readout channels. This paper describes the chamber design and gas handling system used.

  8. 40 CFR 1065.672 - Drift correction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drift correction. 1065.672 Section 1065.672 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Calculations and Data Requirements § 1065.672 Drift correction. (a) Scope...

  9. Biology Undergraduates' Misconceptions about Genetic Drift

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, T. M.; Price, R. M.; Mead, L. S.; McElhinny, T. L.; Thanukos, A.; Perez, K. E.; Herreid, C. F.; Terry, D. R.; Lemons, P. P.

    2012-01-01

    This study explores biology undergraduates' misconceptions about genetic drift. We use qualitative and quantitative methods to describe students' definitions, identify common misconceptions, and examine differences before and after instruction on genetic drift. We identify and describe five overarching categories that include 16 distinct…

  10. Evolution: drift will tear us apart.

    PubMed

    Maderspacher, Florian

    2012-11-06

    That the widely scattered geographical distribution of some animals could be due to continental drift is a neat idea. Now, cave animals provide evidence for extreme long-term persistence on continents drifting apart. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Spray drift reduction test method correlation

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    ASTM Standard E609 Terminology Relating to Pesticides defines drift as “The physical movement of an agrochemical through the air at the time of application or soon thereafter to any non or off target site.” Since there are many commercial tank mix adjuvants designed to reduce spray drift, ASTM esta...

  12. Lustre filesystem for CMS storage element (SE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Kim, B.; Avery, P.; Fu, Y.; Bourilkov, D.; Taylor, C.; Prescott, C.; Rodriguez, J.

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents our effort to integrate the Lustre filesystem with BeStMan, GridFTP and Ganglia to make it a fully functional WLCG SE (Storage Element). We first describe the configuration of our Lustre filesystem at the University of Florida and our integration process. We then present benchmark performance figures and IO rates from the CMS analysis jobs and the WAN data transfer performance that are conducted on the Lustre SE.

  13. Regional CMS Modeling: Southwest Florida Gulf Coast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-05-01

    Island , the City of Sarasota SPP at Lido Key, Sarasota County SPP at Venice Beach, and a number of federally authorized channels. Local projects exist...approximately 24.9 miles from the throat of Big Sarasota Pass and extends approximately 53.4 miles in the alongshore from Treasure Island to South Venice Inlet...regional CMS modeling framework that has been used to determine the morphologic change in multiple barrier -inlet systems along the Gulf Coast of

  14. CMS RATFOR User’s Manual.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-07-01

    timesharing system . Included in this paper is a language description of RATFOR, a discussion of how to use RATFOR on CMS , sample terminal sessions and a...character constants. There is an include facility so that large programs can be constructed out of a mul- titude of small files without using the system ...second author at the above address. \\ * Research sponsored by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research . Air Force Systems Command, under Grant No

  15. CMS memo OKs use of standing orders.

    PubMed

    2008-12-01

    The Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) has reversed course and clarified the use of standing orders in a manner that is much more favorable to EDs. Initiation of standing orders or protocols no longer requires prior authorization by a physician. Documentation still is required, and it must be entered into the medical record, but it can be entered following implementation of the standing order. Nurses can administer drugs if approved by protocol and if it is within their nursing scope of practice.

  16. Long-drift calorimeter modules for the Soudan 2 nucleon decay detector

    SciTech Connect

    Hoftiezer, J.

    1985-01-01

    The first full size 5-ton detector modules for the Soudan 2 nucleon decay experiment have been assembled and operated. Modules consist of a hexagonal array of drift tubes and corrugated steel, instrumented to read out three-dimensional track positions and pulse height. These will be assembled to form an isotropic, continuously sensitive, self-triggering detector. Details of the design, construction, operation and performance of the modules are discussed. 7 refs., 10 figs.

  17. FIELD INVESTIGATION OF THE DRIFT SHADOW

    SciTech Connect

    G.W. Su; T.J. Kneafsey

    2006-02-01

    A drift shadow is an area immediately beneath an underground void that, in theory, will be relatively drier than the surrounding rock mass. Numerical and analytical models of water flow through unsaturated rock predict the existence of a drift shadow, but field tests confirming the existence of the drift shadow have yet to be performed. Proving the existence of drift shadows and understanding their hydrologic and transport characteristics could provide a better understanding of how contaminants move in the subsurface if released from waste emplacement drifts such as the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. We describe the field program that will be used to investigate the existence of a drift shadow--and the corresponding hydrological process at the Hazel-Atlas silica-sand mine located at the Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve in Antioch, California. The location and configuration of this mine makes it an excellent site to observe and measure drift shadow characteristics. The mine is located in a porous sandstone unit of the Domengine formation, an approximately 230 meter thick series of interbedded Eocene-age shales, coals, and massive-bedded sandstones. The mining method used at the mine required the development of two parallel drifts, one above the other, driven along the strike of the mined sandstone stratum. This configuration provides the opportunity to introduce water into the rock mass in the upper drift and to observe and measure its flow around the underlying drift. The passive and active hydrologic tests to be performed are described. In the passive method, cores will be obtained in a radial pattern around a drift and will be sectioned and analyzed for in-situ water content using a gravimetric technique, as well as analyzed for chemistry. With the active hydrologic test, water will be introduced into the upper drift of the two parallel drifts and the flow of the water will be tracked as it passes near the bottom drift

  18. Operation of the CMS silicon strip tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuri, Gotra; CMS Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The CMS Silicon Strip Tracker (SST), comprising 9.6 million readout channels from 15148 modules covering an area of about 200 m², needs to be precisely calibrated in order to correctly interpret and reconstruct the events recorded from the detector, ensuring that the SST performance fully meets the physics research program of the CMS experiment. Calibration constants may be derived from promptly reconstructed events as well as from pedestal runs gathered just before the acquisition of physics runs. These calibration procedures were exercised in summer and winter 2009, when the CMS detector was commissioned using cosmic muons and proton-proton collisions at a center-of-mass energies of 900 GeV and 2.36 TeV. During these data taking periods the performance of the SST was carefully studied: the noise of the detector, the data integrity, the signal-to-noise ratio, the hit reconstruction efficiency, the calibration workflows have been all checked for stability and for different conditions, at the module level. The calibration procedures and the detector performance results from recent physics runs are described.

  19. Monitoring the CMS data acquisition system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, G.; Behrens, U.; Biery, K.; Branson, J.; Cano, E.; Cheung, H.; Ciganek, M.; Cittolin, S.; Coarasa, J. A.; Deldicque, C.; Dusinberre, E.; Erhan, S.; Fortes Rodrigues, F.; Gigi, D.; Glege, F.; Gomez-Reino, R.; Gutleber, J.; Hatton, D.; Laurens, J. F.; Lopez Perez, J. A.; Meijers, F.; Meschi, E.; Meyer, A.; Mommsen, R.; Moser, R.; O'Dell, V.; Oh, A.; Orsini, L. B.; Patras, V.; Paus, C.; Petrucci, A.; Pieri, M.; Racz, A.; Sakulin, H.; Sani, M.; Schieferdecker, P.; Schwick, C.; Shpakov, D.; Simon, S.; Sumorok, K.; Zanetti, M.

    2010-04-01

    The CMS data acquisition system comprises O(20000) interdependent services that need to be monitored in near real-time. The ability to monitor a large number of distributed applications accurately and effectively is of paramount importance for robust operations. Application monitoring entails the collection of a large number of simple and composed values made available by the software components and hardware devices. A key aspect is that detection of deviations from a specified behaviour is supported in a timely manner, which is a prerequisite in order to take corrective actions efficiently. Given the size and time constraints of the CMS data acquisition system, efficient application monitoring is an interesting research problem. We propose an approach that uses the emerging paradigm of Web-service based eventing systems in combination with hierarchical data collection and load balancing. Scalability and efficiency are achieved by a decentralized architecture, splitting up data collections into regions of collections. An implementation following this scheme is deployed as the monitoring infrastructure of the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. All services in this distributed data acquisition system are providing standard web service interfaces via XML, SOAP and HTTP [15,22]. Continuing on this path we adopted WS-* standards implementing a monitoring system layered on top of the W3C standards stack. We designed a load-balanced publisher/subscriber system with the ability to include high-speed protocols [10,12] for efficient data transmission [11,13,14] and serving data in multiple data formats.

  20. The CMS experiment at the CERN LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    CMS Collaboration; Chatrchyan, S.; Hmayakyan, G.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Adam, W.; Bauer, T.; Bergauer, T.; Bergauer, H.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Glaser, P.; Hartl, C.; Hoermann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Hänsel, S.; Jeitler, M.; Kastner, K.; Krammer, M.; Magrans de Abril, I.; Markytan, M.; Mikulec, I.; Neuherz, B.; Nöbauer, T.; Oberegger, M.; Padrta, M.; Pernicka, M.; Porth, P.; Rohringer, H.; Schmid, S.; Schreiner, T.; Stark, R.; Steininger, H.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Uhl, D.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Widl, E.; Wulz, C.-E.; Petrov, V.; Prosolovich, V.; Chekhovsky, V.; Dvornikov, O.; Emeliantchik, I.; Litomin, A.; Makarenko, V.; Marfin, I.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Solin, A.; Stefanovitch, R.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Tikhonov, A.; Fedorov, A.; Korzhik, M.; Missevitch, O.; Zuyeuski, R.; Beaumont, W.; Cardaci, M.; DeLanghe, E.; DeWolf, E. A.; Delmeire, E.; Ochesanu, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Van Mechelen, P.; D'Hondt, J.; DeWeirdt, S.; Devroede, O.; Goorens, R.; Hannaert, S.; Heyninck, J.; Maes, J.; Mozer, M. U.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Lancker, L.; Van Mulders, P.; Villella, I.; Wastiels, C.; Yu, C.; Bouhali, O.; Charaf, O.; Clerbaux, B.; DeHarenne, P.; DeLentdecker, G.; Dewulf, J. P.; Elgammal, S.; Gindroz, R.; Hammad, G. H.; Mahmoud, T.; Neukermans, L.; Pins, M.; Pins, R.; Rugovac, S.; Stefanescu, J.; Sundararajan, V.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wickens, J.; Tytgat, M.; Assouak, S.; Bonnet, J. L.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, J.; DeCallatay, B.; DeFavereau DeJeneret, J.; DeVisscher, S.; Demin, P.; Favart, D.; Felix, C.; Florins, B.; Forton, E.; Giammanco, A.; Grégoire, G.; Jonckman, M.; Kcira, D.; Keutgen, T.; Lemaitre, V.; Michotte, D.; Militaru, O.; Ovyn, S.; Pierzchala, T.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Roberfroid, V.; Rouby, X.; Schul, N.; Van der Aa, O.; Beliy, N.; Daubie, E.; Herquet, P.; Alves, G.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Vaz, M.; DeJesus Damiao, D.; Oguri, V.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; DeMoraes Gregores, E.; Iope, R. L.; Novaes, S. F.; Tomei, T.; Anguelov, T.; Antchev, G.; Atanasov, I.; Damgov, J.; Darmenov, N.; Dimitrov, L.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Marinov, A.; Piperov, S.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Trayanov, R.; Vankov, I.; Cheshkov, C.; Dimitrov, A.; Dyulendarova, M.; Glushkov, I.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Makariev, M.; Marinova, E.; Markov, S.; Mateev, M.; Nasteva, I.; Pavlov, B.; Petev, P.; Petkov, P.; Spassov, V.; Toteva, Z.; Velev, V.; Verguilov, V.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Jiang, C. H.; Liu, B.; Shen, X. Y.; Sun, H. S.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Yang, M.; Zhang, Z.; Zhao, W. R.; Zhuang, H. L.; Ban, Y.; Cai, J.; Ge, Y. C.; Liu, S.; Liu, H. T.; Liu, L.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, Q.; Xue, Z. H.; Yang, Z. C.; Ye, Y. L.; Ying, J.; Li, P. J.; Liao, J.; Xue, Z. L.; Yan, D. S.; Yuan, H.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Puljak, I.; Soric, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Dzelalija, M.; Marasovic, K.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Morovic, S.; Fereos, R.; Nicolaou, C.; Papadakis, A.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Tsiakkouri, D.; Zinonos, Z.; Hektor, A.; Kadastik, M.; Kannike, K.; Lippmaa, E.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Aarnio, P. A.; Anttila, E.; Banzuzi, K.; Bulteau, P.; Czellar, S.; Eiden, N.; Eklund, C.; Engstrom, P.; Heikkinen, A.; Honkanen, A.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Katajisto, H. M.; Kinnunen, R.; Klem, J.; Kortesmaa, J.; Kotamäki, M.; Kuronen, A.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lefébure, V.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P. R.; Michal, S.; Moura Brigido, F.; Mäenpää, T.; Nyman, T.; Nystén, J.; Pietarinen, E.; Skog, K.; Tammi, K.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Ungaro, D.; Vanhala, T. P.; Wendland, L.; Williams, C.; Iskanius, M.; Korpela, A.; Polese, G.; Tuuva, T.; Bassompierre, G.; Bazan, A.; David, P. Y.; Ditta, J.; Drobychev, G.; Fouque, N.; Guillaud, J. P.; Hermel, V.; Karneyeu, A.; LeFlour, T.; Lieunard, S.; Maire, M.; Mendiburu, P.; Nedelec, P.; Peigneux, J. P.; Schneegans, M.; Sillou, D.; Vialle, J. P.; Anfreville, M.; Bard, J. P.; Besson, P.; Bougamont, E.; Boyer, M.; Bredy, P.; Chipaux, R.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Descamps, J.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ganjour, S.; Gentit, F. X.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Jeanney, C.; Kircher, F.; Lemaire, M. C.; Lemoigne, Y.; Levesy, B.; Locci, E.; Lottin, J. P.; Mandjavidze, I.; Mur, M.; Pansart, J. P.; Payn, A.; Rander, J.; Reymond, J. M.; Rolquin, J.; Rondeaux, F.; Rosowsky, A.; Rousse, J. Y. A.; Sun, Z. H.; Tartas, J.; Van Lysebetten, A.; Venault, P.; Verrecchia, P.; Anduze, M.; Badier, J.; Baffioni, S.; Bercher, M.; Bernet, C.; Berthon, U.; Bourotte, J.; Busata, A.; Busson, P.; Cerutti, M.; Chamont, D.; Charlot, C.; Collard, C.; Debraine, A.; Decotigny, D.; Dobrzynski, L.; Ferreira, O.; Geerebaert, Y.; Gilly, J.; Gregory, C.; Guevara Riveros, L.; Haguenauer, M.; Karar, A.; Koblitz, B.; Lecouturier, D.; Mathieu, A.; Milleret, G.; Miné, P.; Paganini, P.; Poilleux, P.; Pukhaeva, N.; Regnault, N.; Romanteau, T.; Semeniouk, I.; Sirois, Y.; Thiebaux, C.; Vanel, J. C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J. L.; Albert, A.; Anckenmann, L.; Andrea, J.; Anstotz, F.; Bergdolt, A. M.; Berst, J. D.; Blaes, R.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J. M.; Cailleret, J.; Charles, F.; Christophel, E.; Claus, G.; Coffin, J.; Colledani, C.; Croix, J.; Dangelser, E.; Dick, N.; Didierjean, F.; Drouhin, F.; Dulinski, W.; Ernenwein, J. P.; Fang, R.; Fontaine, J. C.; Gaudiot, G.; Geist, W.; Gelé, D.; Goeltzenlichter, T.; Goerlach, U.; Graehling, P.; Gross, L.; Hu, C. Guo; Helleboid, J. M.; Henkes, T.; Hoffer, M.; Hoffmann, C.; Hosselet, J.; Houchu, L.; Hu, Y.; Huss, D.; Illinger, C.; Jeanneau, F.; Juillot, P.; Kachelhoffer, T.; Kapp, M. R.; Kettunen, H.; Lakehal Ayat, L.; LeBihan, A. C.; Lounis, A.; Maazouzi, C.; Mack, V.; Majewski, P.; Mangeol, D.; Michel, J.; Moreau, S.; Olivetto, C.; Pallarès, A.; Patois, Y.; Pralavorio, P.; Racca, C.; Riahi, Y.; Ripp-Baudot, I.; Schmitt, P.; Schunck, J. P.; Schuster, G.; Schwaller, B.; Sigward, M. H.; Sohler, J. L.; Speck, J.; Strub, R.; Todorov, T.; Turchetta, R.; Van Hove, P.; Vintache, D.; Zghiche, A.; Ageron, M.; Augustin, J. E.; Baty, C.; Baulieu, G.; Bedjidian, M.; Blaha, J.; Bonnevaux, A.; Boudoul, G.; Brunet, P.; Chabanat, E.; Chabert, E. C.; Chierici, R.; Chorowicz, V.; Combaret, C.; Contardo, D.; Della Negra, R.; Depasse, P.; Drapier, O.; Dupanloup, M.; Dupasquier, T.; El Mamouni, H.; Estre, N.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Giraud, N.; Girerd, C.; Guillot, G.; Haroutunian, R.; Ille, B.; Lethuillier, M.; Lumb, N.; Martin, C.; Mathez, H.; Maurelli, G.; Muanza, S.; Pangaud, P.; Perries, S.; Ravat, O.; Schibler, E.; Schirra, F.; Smadja, G.; Tissot, S.; Trocme, B.; Vanzetto, S.; Walder, J. P.; Bagaturia, Y.; Mjavia, D.; Mzhavia, A.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Roinishvili, V.; Adolphi, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Brauer, R.; Braunschweig, W.; Esser, H.; Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Khomich, A.; Klein, K.; Kukulies, C.; Lübelsmeyer, K.; Olzem, J.; Ostaptchouk, A.; Pandoulas, D.; Pierschel, G.; Raupach, F.; Schael, S.; Schultz von Dratzig, A.; Schwering, G.; Siedling, R.; Thomas, M.; Weber, M.; Wittmer, B.; Wlochal, M.; Adamczyk, F.; Adolf, A.; Altenhöfer, G.; Bechstein, S.; Bethke, S.; Biallass, P.; Biebel, O.; Bontenackels, M.; Bosseler, K.; Böhm, A.; Erdmann, M.; Faissner, H.; Fehr, B.; Fesefeldt, H.; Fetchenhauer, G.; Frangenheim, J.; Frohn, J. H.; Grooten, J.; Hebbeker, T.; Hermann, S.; Hermens, E.; Hilgers, G.; Hoepfner, K.; Hof, C.; Jacobi, E.; Kappler, S.; Kirsch, M.; Kreuzer, P.; Kupper, R.; Lampe, H. R.; Lanske, D.; Mameghani, R.; Meyer, A.; Meyer, S.; Moers, T.; Müller, E.; Pahlke, R.; Philipps, B.; Rein, D.; Reithler, H.; Reuter, W.; Rütten, P.; Schulz, S.; Schwarthoff, H.; Sobek, W.; Sowa, M.; Stapelberg, T.; Szczesny, H.; Teykal, H.; Teyssier, D.; Tomme, H.; Tomme, W.; Tonutti, M.; Tsigenov, O.; Tutas, J.; Vandenhirtz, J.; Wagner, H.; Wegner, M.; Zeidler, C.; Beissel, F.; Davids, M.; Duda, M.; Flügge, G.; Giffels, M.; Hermanns, T.; Heydhausen, D.; Kalinin, S.; Kasselmann, S.; Kaussen, G.; Kress, T.; Linn, A.; Nowack, A.; Perchalla, L.; Poettgens, M.; Pooth, O.; Sauerland, P.; Stahl, A.; Tornier, D.; Zoeller, M. H.; Behrens, U.; Borras, K.; Flossdorf, A.; Hatton, D.; Hegner, B.; Kasemann, M.; Mankel, R.; Meyer, A.; Mnich, J.; Rosemann, C.; Youngman, C.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bechtel, F.; Buhmann, P.; Butz, E.; Flucke, G.; Hamdorf, R. H.; Holm, U.; Klanner, R.; Pein, U.; Schirm, N.; Schleper, P.; Steinbrück, G.; Van Staa, R.; Wolf, R.; Atz, B.; Barvich, T.; Blüm, P.; Boegelspacher, F.; Bol, H.; Chen, Z. Y.; Chowdhury, S.; DeBoer, W.; Dehm, P.; Dirkes, G.; Fahrer, M.; Felzmann, U.; Frey, M.; Furgeri, A.; Gregoriev, E.; Hartmann, F.; Hauler, F.; Heier, S.; Kärcher, K.; Ledermann, B.; Mueller, S.; Müller, Th; Neuberger, D.; Piasecki, C.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Sabellek, A.; Scheurer, A.; Schilling, F. P.; Simonis, H. J.; Skiba, A.; Steck, P.; Theel, A.; Thümmel, W. H.; Trunov, A.; Vest, A.; Weiler, T.; Weiser, C.; Weseler, S.; Zhukov, V.; Barone, M.; Daskalakis, G.; Dimitriou, N.; Fanourakis, G.; Filippidis, C.; Geralis, T.; Kalfas, C.; Karafasoulis, K.; Koimas, A.; Kyriakis, A.; Kyriazopoulou, S.; Loukas, D.; Markou, A.; Markou, C.; Mastroyiannopoulos, N.; Mavrommatis, C.; Mousa, J.; Papadakis, I.; Petrakou, E.; Siotis, I.; Theofilatos, K.; Tzamarias, S.; Vayaki, A.; Vermisoglou, G.; Zachariadou, A.; Gouskos, L.; Karapostoli, G.; Katsas, P.; Panagiotou, A.; Papadimitropoulos, C.; Aslanoglou, X.; Evangelou, I.; Kokkas, P.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Triantis, F. A.; Bencze, G.; Boldizsar, L.; Debreczeni, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Kovesarki, P.; Laszlo, A.; Odor, G.; Patay, G.; Sikler, F.; Veres, G.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zalan, P.; Fenyvesi, A.; Imrek, J.; Molnar, J.; Novak, D.; Palinkas, J.; Szekely, G.; Beni, N.; Kapusi, A.; Marian, G.; Radics, B.; Raics, P.; Szabo, Z.; Szillasi, Z.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Zilizi, G.; Bawa, H. S.; Beri, S. B.; Bhandari, V.; Bhatnagar, V.; Kaur, M.; Kohli, J. M.; Kumar, A.; Singh, B.; Singh, J. B.; Arora, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterji, S.; Chauhan, S.; Choudhary, B. C.; Gupta, P.; Jha, M.; Ranjan, K.; Shivpuri, R. K.; Srivastava, A. K.; Choudhury, R. K.; Dutta, D.; Ghodgaonkar, M.; Kailas, S.; Kataria, S. K.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, Sunanda; Bose, S.; Chendvankar, S.; Deshpande, P. V.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Nayak, A.; Patil, M. R.; Sharma, S.; Sudhakar, K.; Acharya, B. S.; Banerjee, Sudeshna; Bheesette, S.; Dugad, S.; Kalmani, S. D.; Lakkireddi, V. R.; Mondal, N. K.; Panyam, N.; Verma, P.; Arfaei, H.; Hashemi, M.; Najafabadi, M. Mohammadi; Moshaii, A.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abadjiev, K.; Abbrescia, M.; Barbone, L.; Cariola, P.; Chiumarulo, F.; Clemente, A.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; DeFilippis, N.; DePalma, M.; DeRobertis, G.; Donvito, G.; Ferorelli, R.; Fiore, L.; Franco, M.; Giordano, D.; Guida, R.; Iaselli, G.; Lacalamita, N.; Loddo, F.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; Manna, N.; Marangelli, B.; Mennea, M. S.; My, S.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Papagni, G.; Pinto, C.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Ranieri, A.; Romano, F.; Roselli, G.; Sala, G.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Trentadue, R.; Tupputi, S.; Zito, G.; Abbiendi, G.; Bacchi, W.; Battilana, C.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Boldini, M.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Cafaro, V. D.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Ciocca, C.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; D'Antone, I.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Finelli, S.; Giacomelli, P.; Giordano, V.; Giunta, M.; Grandi, C.; Guerzoni, M.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Odorici, F.; Paolucci, A.; Pellegrini, G.; Perrotta, A.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Torromeo, G.; Travaglini, R.; Veronese, G. P.; Albergo, S.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Galanti, M.; Gatto Rotondo, G.; Giudice, N.; Guardone, N.; Noto, F.; Potenza, R.; Saizu, M. A.; Salemi, G.; Sutera, C.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Bellucci, L.; Brianzi, M.; Broccolo, G.; Catacchini, E.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D'Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Frosali, S.; Genta, C.; Landi, G.; Lenzi, P.; Macchiolo, A.; Maletta, F.; Manolescu, F.; Marchettini, C.; Masetti, L.; Mersi, S.; Meschini, M.; Minelli, C.; Paoletti, S.; Parrini, G.; Scarlini, E.; Sguazzoni, G.; Benussi, L.; Bertani, M.; Bianco, S.; Caponero, M.; Colonna, D.; Daniello, L.; Fabbri, F.; Felli, F.; Giardoni, M.; La Monaca, A.; Ortenzi, B.; Pallotta, M.; Paolozzi, A.; Paris, C.; Passamonti, L.; Pierluigi, D.; Ponzio, B.; Pucci, C.; Russo, A.; Saviano, G.; Fabbricatore, P.; Farinon, S.; Greco, M.; Musenich, R.; Badoer, S.; Berti, L.; Biasotto, M.; Fantinel, S.; Frizziero, E.; Gastaldi, U.; Gulmini, M.; Lelli, F.; Maron, G.; Squizzato, S.; Toniolo, N.; Traldi, S.; Banfi, S.; Bertoni, R.; Bonesini, M.; Carbone, L.; Cerati, G. B.; Chignoli, F.; D'Angelo, P.; DeMin, A.; Dini, P.; Farina, F. M.; Ferri, F.; Govoni, P.; Magni, S.; Malberti, M.; Malvezzi, S.; Mazza, R.; Menasce, D.; Miccio, V.; Moroni, L.; Negri, P.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Pullia, A.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Rovere, M.; Sala, L.; Sala, S.; Salerno, R.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Tancini, V.; Taroni, S.; Boiano, A.; Cassese, F.; Cassese, C.; Cimmino, A.; D'Aquino, B.; Lista, L.; Lomidze, D.; Noli, P.; Paolucci, P.; Passeggio, G.; Piccolo, D.; Roscilli, L.; Sciacca, C.; Vanzanella, A.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Barcellan, L.; Bellato, M.; Benettoni, M.; Bisello, D.; Borsato, E.; Candelori, A.; Carlin, R.; Castellani, L.; Checchia, P.; Ciano, L.; Colombo, A.; Conti, E.; Da Rold, M.; Dal Corso, F.; DeGiorgi, M.; DeMattia, M.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Fanin, C.; Galet, G.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Giraldo, A.; Giubilato, P.; Gonella, F.; Gresele, A.; Griggio, A.; Guaita, P.; Kaminskiy, A.; Karaevskii, S.; Khomenkov, V.; Kostylev, D.; Lacaprara, S.; Lazzizzera, I.; Lippi, I.; Loreti, M.; Margoni, M.; Martinelli, R.; Mattiazzo, S.; Mazzucato, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Modenese, L.; Montecassiano, F.; Neviani, A.; Nigro, M.; Paccagnella, A.; Pantano, D.; Parenti, A.; Passaseo, M.; Pedrotta, R.; Pegoraro, M.; Rampazzo, G.; Reznikov, S.; Ronchese, P.; Sancho Daponte, A.; Sartori, P.; Stavitskiy, I.; Tessaro, M.; Torassa, E.; Triossi, A.; Vanini, S.; Ventura, S.; Ventura, L.; Verlato, M.; Zago, M.; Zatti, F.; Zotto, P.; Zumerle, G.; Baesso, P.; Belli, G.; Berzano, U.; Bricola, S.; Grelli, A.; Musitelli, G.; Nardò, R.; Necchi, M. M.; Pagano, D.; Ratti, S. P.; Riccardi, C.; Torre, P.; Vicini, A.; Vitulo, P.; Viviani, C.; Aisa, D.; Aisa, S.; Ambroglini, F.; Angarano, M. M.; Babucci, E.; Benedetti, D.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Bizzaglia, S.; Brunetti, M. T.; Caponeri, B.; Checcucci, B.; Covarelli, R.; Dinu, N.; Fanò, L.; Farnesini, L.; Giorgi, M.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Moscatelli, F.; Passeri, D.; Piluso, A.; Placidi, P.; Postolache, V.; Santinelli, R.; Santocchia, A.; Servoli, L.; Spiga, D.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Balestri, G.; Basti, A.; Bellazzini, R.; Benucci, L.; Bernardini, J.; Berretta, L.; Bianucci, S.; Boccali, T.; Bocci, A.; Borrello, L.; Bosi, F.; Bracci, F.; Brez, A.; Calzolari, F.; Castaldi, R.; Cazzola, U.; Ceccanti, M.; Cecchi, R.; Cerri, C.; Cucoanes, A. S.; Dell'Orso, R.; Dobur, D.; Dutta, S.; Fiori, F.; Foà, L.; Gaggelli, A.; Gennai, S.; Giassi, A.; Giusti, S.; Kartashov, D.; Kraan, A.; Latronico, L.; Ligabue, F.; Linari, S.; Lomtadze, T.; Lungu, G. A.; Magazzu, G.; Mammini, P.; Mariani, F.; Martinelli, G.; Massa, M.; Messineo, A.; Moggi, A.; Palla, F.; Palmonari, F.; Petragnani, G.; Petrucciani, G.; Profeti, A.; Raffaelli, F.; Rizzi, D.; Sanguinetti, G.; Sarkar, S.; Segneri, G.; Sentenac, D.; Serban, A. T.; Slav, A.; Spagnolo, P.; Spandre, G.; Tenchini, R.; Tolaini, S.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Vos, M.; Zaccarelli, L.; Baccaro, S.; Barone, L.; Bartoloni, A.; Borgia, B.; Capradossi, G.; Cavallari, F.; Cecilia, A.; D'Angelo, D.; Dafinei, I.; DelRe, D.; Di Marco, E.; Diemoz, M.; Ferrara, G.; Gargiulo, C.; Guerra, S.; Iannone, M.; Longo, E.; Montecchi, M.; Nuccetelli, M.; Organtini, G.; Palma, A.; Paramatti, R.; Pellegrino, F.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Safai Tehrani, F.; Zullo, A.; Alampi, G.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bellan, R.; Benotto, F.; Biino, C.; Bolognesi, S.; Borgia, M. A.; Botta, C.; Brasolin, A.; Cartiglia, N.; Castello, R.; Cerminara, G.; Cirio, R.; Cordero, M.; Costa, M.; Dattola, D.; Daudo, F.; Dellacasa, G.; Demaria, N.; Dughera, G.; Dumitrache, F.; Farano, R.; Ferrero, G.; Filoni, E.; Kostyleva, G.; Larsen, H. E.; Mariotti, C.; Marone, M.; Maselli, S.; Menichetti, E.; Mereu, P.; Migliore, E.; Mila, G.; Monaco, V.; Musich, M.; Nervo, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Panero, R.; Parussa, A.; Pastrone, N.; Peroni, C.; Petrillo, G.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Scalise, M.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Trapani, P. P.; Trocino, D.; Vaniev, V.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Zampieri, A.; Belforte, S.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; Kavka, C.; Penzo, A.; Kim, Y. E.; Nam, S. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, J. C.; Kong, D. J.; Ro, S. R.; Son, D. C.; Park, S. Y.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, J. Y.; Lim, I. T.; Pac, M. Y.; Lee, S. J.; Jung, S. Y.; Rhee, J. T.; Ahn, S. H.; Hong, B. S.; Jeng, Y. K.; Kang, M. H.; Kim, H. C.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, T. J.; Lee, K. S.; Lim, J. K.; Moon, D. H.; Park, I. C.; Park, S. K.; Ryu, M. S.; Sim, K.-S.; Son, K. J.; Hong, S. J.; Choi, Y. I.; Castilla Valdez, H.; Sanchez Hernandez, A.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Aerts, A.; Van der Stok, P.; Weffers, H.; Allfrey, P.; Gray, R. N. C.; Hashimoto, M.; Krofcheck, D.; Bell, A. J.; Bernardino Rodrigues, N.; Butler, P. H.; Churchwell, S.; Knegjens, R.; Whitehead, S.; Williams, J. C.; Aftab, Z.; Ahmad, U.; Ahmed, I.; Ahmed, W.; Asghar, M. I.; Asghar, S.; Dad, G.; Hafeez, M.; Hoorani, H. R.; Hussain, I.; Hussain, N.; Iftikhar, M.; Khan, M. S.; Mehmood, K.; Osman, A.; Shahzad, H.; Zafar, A. R.; Ali, A.; Bashir, A.; Jan, A. M.; Kamal, A.; Khan, F.; Saeed, M.; Tanwir, S.; Zafar, M. A.; Blocki, J.; Cyz, A.; Gladysz-Dziadus, E.; Mikocki, S.; Rybczynski, M.; Turnau, J.; Wlodarczyk, Z.; Zychowski, P.; Bunkowski, K.; Cwiok, M.; Czyrkowski, H.; Dabrowski, R.; Dominik, W.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Kierzkowski, K.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Kudla, I. M.; Pietrusinski, M.; Pozniak, K.; Zabolotny, W.; Zych, P.; Gokieli, R.; Goscilo, L.; Górski, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Traczyk, P.; Wrochna, G.; Zalewski, P.; Pozniak, K. T.; Romaniuk, R.; Zabolotny, W. M.; Alemany-Fernandez, R.; Almeida, C.; Almeida, N.; Araujo Vila Verde, A. S.; Barata Monteiro, T.; Bluj, M.; Da Mota Silva, S.; Tinoco Mendes, A. David; Freitas Ferreira, M.; Gallinaro, M.; Husejko, M.; Jain, A.; Kazana, M.; Musella, P.; Nobrega, R.; Rasteiro Da Silva, J.; Ribeiro, P. Q.; Santos, M.; Silva, P.; Silva, S.; Teixeira, I.; Teixeira, J. P.; Varela, J.; Varner, G.; Vaz Cardoso, N.; Altsybeev, I.; Babich, K.; Belkov, A.; Belotelov, I.; Bunin, P.; Chesnevskaya, S.; Elsha, V.; Ershov, Y.; Filozova, I.; Finger, M.; Finger, M., Jr.; Golunov, A.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbounov, N.; Gramenitski, I.; Kalagin, V.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Khabarov, S.; Khabarov, V.; Kiryushin, Y.; Konoplyanikov, V.; Korenkov, V.; Kozlov, G.; Kurenkov, A.; Lanev, A.; Lysiakov, V.; Malakhov, A.; Melnitchenko, I.; Mitsyn, V. V.; Moisenz, K.; Moisenz, P.; Movchan, S.; Nikonov, E.; Oleynik, D.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Petrosyan, A.; Rogalev, E.; Samsonov, V.; Savina, M.; Semenov, R.; Sergeev, S.; Shmatov, S.; Shulha, S.; Smirnov, V.; Smolin, D.; Tcheremoukhine, A.; Teryaev, O.; Tikhonenko, E.; Urkinbaev, A.; Vasil'ev, S.; Vishnevskiy, A.; Volodko, A.; Zamiatin, N.; Zarubin, A.; Zarubin, P.; Zubarev, E.; Bondar, N.; Gavrikov, Y.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Kozlov, V.; Lebedev, V.; Makarenkov, G.; Moroz, F.; Neustroev, P.; Obrant, G.; Orishchin, E.; Petrunin, A.; Shcheglov, Y.; Shchetkovskiy, A.; Sknar, V.; Skorobogatov, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Tarakanov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Velichko, G.; Volkov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Chmelev, D.; Druzhkin, D.; Ivanov, A.; Kudinov, V.; Logatchev, O.; Onishchenko, S.; Orlov, A.; Sakharov, V.; Smetannikov, V.; Tikhomirov, A.; Zavodthikov, S.; Andreev, Yu; Anisimov, A.; Duk, V.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Gorbunov, D.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Matveev, V.; Pashenkov, A.; Pastsyak, A.; Postoev, V. E.; Sadovski, A.; Skassyrskaia, A.; Solovey, Alexander; Solovey, Anatoly; Soloviev, D.; Toropin, A.; Troitsky, S.; Alekhin, A.; Baldov, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Ilina, N.; Kaftanov, V.; Karpishin, V.; Kiselevich, I.; Kolosov, V.; Kossov, M.; Krokhotin, A.; Kuleshov, S.; Oulianov, A.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Safronov, G.; Semenov, S.; Stepanov, N.; Stolin, V.; Vlasov, E.; Zaytsev, V.; Boos, E.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Ershov, A.; Eyyubova, G.; Gribushin, A.; Ilyin, V.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Kruglov, N. A.; Kryukov, A.; Lokhtin, I.; Malinina, L.; Mikhaylin, V.; Petrushanko, S.; Sarycheva, L.; Savrin, V.; Shamardin, L.; Sherstnev, A.; Snigirev, A.; Teplov, K.; Vardanyan, I.; Fomenko, A. M.; Konovalova, N.; Kozlov, V.; Lebedev, A. I.; Lvova, N.; Rusakov, S. V.; Terkulov, A.; Abramov, V.; Akimenko, S.; Artamonov, A.; Ashimova, A.; Azhgirey, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Chikilev, O.; Datsko, K.; Filine, A.; Godizov, A.; Goncharov, P.; Grishin, V.; Inyakin, A.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Khmelnikov, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Korablev, A.; Krychkine, V.; Krinitsyn, A.; Levine, A.; Lobov, I.; Lukanin, V.; Mel'nik, Y.; Molchanov, V.; Petrov, V.; Petukhov, V.; Pikalov, V.; Ryazanov, A.; Ryutin, R.; Shelikhov, V.; Skvortsov, V.; Slabospitsky, S.; Sobol, A.; Sytine, A.; Talov, V.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Zelepoukine, S.; Lukyanov, V.; Mamaeva, G.; Prilutskaya, Z.; Rumyantsev, I.; Sokha, S.; Tataurschikov, S.; Vasilyev, I.; Adzic, P.; Anicin, I.; Djordjevic, M.; Jovanovic, D.; Maletic, D.; Puzovic, J.; Smiljkovic, N.; Aguayo Navarrete, E.; Aguilar-Benitez, M.; Ahijado Munoz, J.; Alarcon Vega, J. M.; Alberdi, J.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J. M.; Berdugo, J.; Blanco Ramos, C. L.; Burgos Lazaro, C.; Caballero Bejar, J.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Chercoles Catalán, J. J.; Colino, N.; Daniel, M.; DeLa Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Ferrando, A.; Fouz, M. C.; Francia Ferrero, D.; Garcia Romero, J.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Marin, J.; Merino, G.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J. J.; Oller, J. C.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Puras Sanchez, J. C.; Ramirez, J.; Romero, L.; Villanueva Munoz, C.; Willmott, C.; Yuste, C.; Albajar, C.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Jimenez, I.; Macias, R.; Teixeira, R. F.; Cuevas, J.; Fernández Menéndez, J.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Lopez-Garcia, J.; Naves Sordo, H.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Cano Fernandez, D.; Diaz Merino, I.; Duarte Campderros, J.; Fernandez, M.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Figueroa, C.; Garcia Moral, L. A.; Gomez, G.; Gomez Casademunt, F.; Gonzalez Sanchez, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Jorda, C.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Lopez Garcia, A.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Matorras, F.; Orviz Fernandez, P.; Patino Revuelta, A.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodriguez Gonzalez, D.; Ruiz Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Sobron Sanudo, M.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Barbero, M.; Goldin, D.; Henrich, B.; Tauscher, L.; Vlachos, S.; Wadhwa, M.; Abbaneo, D.; Abbas, S. M.; Ahmed, I.; Akhtar, S.; Akhtar, M. I.; Albert, E.; Alidra, M.; Ashby, S.; Aspell, P.; Auffray, E.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A.; Bally, S. L.; Bangert, N.; Barillère, R.; Barney, D.; Beauceron, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benelli, G.; Benetta, R.; Benichou, J. L.; Bialas, W.; Bjorkebo, A.; Blechschmidt, D.; Bloch, C.; Bloch, P.; Bonacini, S.; Bos, J.; Bosteels, M.; Boyer, V.; Branson, A.; Breuker, H.; Bruneliere, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Campi, D.; Camporesi, T.; Caner, A.; Cano, E.; Carrone, E.; Cattai, A.; Chatelain, J. P.; Chauvey, M.; Christiansen, T.; Ciganek, M.; Cittolin, S.; Cogan, J.; Conde Garcia, A.; Cornet, H.; Corrin, E.; Corvo, M.; Cucciarelli, S.; Curé, B.; D'Enterria, D.; DeRoeck, A.; de Visser, T.; Delaere, C.; Delattre, M.; Deldicque, C.; Delikaris, D.; Deyrail, D.; Di Vincenzo, S.; Domeniconi, A.; Dos Santos, S.; Duthion, G.; Edera, L. M.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Eppard, M.; Fanzago, F.; Favre, M.; Foeth, H.; Folch, R.; Frank, N.; Fratianni, S.; Freire, M. A.; Frey, A.; Fucci, A.; Funk, W.; Gaddi, A.; Gagliardi, F.; Gastal, M.; Gateau, M.; Gayde, J. C.; Gerwig, H.; Ghezzi, A.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Giolo-Nicollerat, A. S.; Girod, J. P.; Glege, F.; Glessing, W.; Gomez-Reino Garrido, R.; Goudard, R.; Grabit, R.; Grillet, J. P.; Gutierrez Llamas, P.; Gutierrez Mlot, E.; Gutleber, J.; Hall-wilton, R.; Hammarstrom, R.; Hansen, M.; Harvey, J.; Hervé, A.; Hill, J.; Hoffmann, H. F.; Holzner, A.; Honma, A.; Hufnagel, D.; Huhtinen, M.; Ilie, S. D.; Innocente, V.; Jank, W.; Janot, P.; Jarron, P.; Jeanrenaud, M.; Jouvel, P.; Kerkach, R.; Kloukinas, K.; Kottelat, L. J.; Labbé, J. C.; Lacroix, D.; Lagrue, X.; Lasseur, C.; Laure, E.; Laurens, J. F.; Lazeyras, P.; LeGoff, J. M.; Lebeau, M.; Lecoq, P.; Lemeilleur, F.; Lenzi, M.; Leonardo, N.; Leonidopoulos, C.; Letheren, M.; Liendl, M.; Limia-Conde, F.; Linssen, L.; Ljuslin, C.; Lofstedt, B.; Loos, R.; Lopez Perez, J. A.; Lourenco, C.; Lyonnet, A.; Machard, A.; Mackenzie, R.; Magini, N.; Maire, G.; Malgeri, L.; Malina, R.; Mannelli, M.; Marchioro, A.; Martin, J.; Meijers, F.; Meridiani, P.; Meschi, E.; Meyer, T.; Meynet Cordonnier, A.; Michaud, J. F.; Mirabito, L.; Moser, R.; Mossiere, F.; Muffat-Joly, J.; Mulders, M.; Mulon, J.; Murer, E.; Mättig, P.; Oh, A.; Onnela, A.; Oriunno, M.; Orsini, L.; Osborne, J. A.; Paillard, C.; Pal, I.; Papotti, G.; Passardi, G.; Patino-Revuelta, A.; Patras, V.; Perea Solano, B.; Perez, E.; Perinic, G.; Pernot, J. F.; Petagna, P.; Petiot, P.; Petit, P.; Petrilli, A.; Pfeiffer, A.; Piccut, C.; Pimiä, M.; Pintus, R.; Pioppi, M.; Placci, A.; Pollet, L.; Postema, H.; Price, M. J.; Principe, R.; Racz, A.; Radermacher, E.; Ranieri, R.; Raymond, G.; Rebecchi, P.; Rehn, J.; Reynaud, S.; Rezvani Naraghi, H.; Ricci, D.; Ridel, M.; Risoldi, M.; Rodrigues Simoes Moreira, P.; Rohlev, A.; Roiron, G.; Rolandi, G.; Rumerio, P.; Runolfsson, O.; Ryjov, V.; Sakulin, H.; Samyn, D.; Santos Amaral, L. C.; Sauce, H.; Sbrissa, E.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieferdecker, P.; Schlatter, W. D.; Schmitt, B.; Schmuecker, H. G.; Schröder, M.; Schwick, C.; Schäfer, C.; Segoni, I.; Sempere Roldán, P.; Sgobba, S.; Sharma, A.; Siegrist, P.; Sigaud, C.; Sinanis, N.; Sobrier, T.; Sphicas, P.; Spiropulu, M.; Stefanini, G.; Strandlie, A.; Szoncsó, F.; Taylor, B. G.; Teller, O.; Thea, A.; Tournefier, E.; Treille, D.; Tropea, P.; Troska, J.; Tsesmelis, E.; Tsirou, A.; Valls, J.; Van Vulpen, I.; Vander Donckt, M.; Vasey, F.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Veillet, L.; Vichoudis, P.; Waurick, G.; Wellisch, J. P.; Wertelaers, P.; Wilhelmsson, M.; Willers, I. M.; Winkler, M.; Zanetti, M.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Dick, P.; Erdmann, W.; Feichtinger, D.; Gabathuler, K.; Hochman, Z.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Kotlinski, D.; König, S.; Poerschke, P.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Sakhelashvili, T.; Starodumov, A.; Aleksandrov, V.; Behner, F.; Beniozef, I.; Betev, B.; Blau, B.; Brett, A. M.; Caminada, L.; Chen, Z.; Chivarov, N.; Da Silva Di Calafiori, D.; Dambach, S.; Davatz, G.; Delachenal, V.; Della Marina, R.; Dimov, H.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Djambazov, L.; Dröge, M.; Eggel, C.; Ehlers, J.; Eichler, R.; Elmiger, M.; Faber, G.; Freudenreich, K.; Fuchs, J. F.; Georgiev, G. M.; Grab, C.; Haller, C.; Herrmann, J.; Hilgers, M.; Hintz, W.; Hofer, Hans; Hofer, Heinz; Horisberger, U.; Horvath, I.; Hristov, A.; Humbertclaude, C.; Iliev, B.; Kastli, W.; Kruse, A.; Kuipers, J.; Langenegger, U.; Lecomte, P.; Lejeune, E.; Leshev, G.; Lesmond, C.; List, B.; Luckey, P. D.; Lustermann, W.; Maillefaud, J. D.; Marchica, C.; Maurisset, A.; Meier, B.; Milenovic, P.; Milesi, M.; Moortgat, F.; Nanov, I.; Nardulli, A.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Panev, B.; Pape, L.; Pauss, F.; Petrov, E.; Petrov, G.; Peynekov, M. M.; Pitzl, D.; Punz, T.; Riboni, P.; Riedlberger, J.; Rizzi, A.; Ronga, F. J.; Roykov, P. 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E.; Connolly, J. F.; Coughlan, J. A.; Flower, P. S.; Ford, P.; Francis, V. B.; French, M. J.; Galagedera, S. B.; Gannon, W.; Gay, A. P. R.; Geddes, N. I.; Greenhalgh, R. J. S.; Halsall, R. N. J.; Haynes, W. J.; Hill, J. A.; Jacob, F. R.; Jeffreys, P. W.; Jones, L. L.; Kennedy, B. W.; Lintern, A. L.; Lodge, A. B.; Maddox, A. J.; Morrissey, Q. R.; Murray, P.; Patrick, G. N.; Pattison, C. A. X.; Pearson, M. R.; Quinton, S. P. H.; Rogers, G. J.; Salisbury, J. G.; Shah, A. A.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Smith, B. J.; Sproston, M.; Stephenson, R.; Taghavi, S.; Tomalin, I. R.; Torbet, M. J.; Williams, J. H.; Womersley, W. J.; Worm, S. D.; Xing, F.; Apollonio, M.; Arteche, F.; Bainbridge, R.; Barber, G.; Barrillon, P.; Batten, J.; Beuselinck, R.; Brambilla Hall, P. M.; Britton, D.; Cameron, W.; Clark, D. E.; Clark, I. W.; Colling, D.; Cripps, N.; Davies, G.; Della Negra, M.; Dewhirst, G.; Dris, S.; Foudas, C.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Graham, D. J.; Greder, S.; Greenwood, S.; Hall, G.; Hassard, J. F.; Hays, J.; Iles, G.; Kasey, V.; Khaleeq, M.; Leaver, J.; Lewis, P.; MacEvoy, B. C.; Maroney, O.; McLeod, E. M.; Miller, D. G.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Noah Messomo, E.; Noy, M.; Papageorgiou, A.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Price, D. R.; Qu, X.; Raymond, D. M.; Rose, A.; Rutherford, S.; Ryan, M. J.; Sciacca, F.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Sidiropoulos, G.; Stettler, M.; Stoye, M.; Striebig, J.; Takahashi, M.; Tallini, H.; Tapper, A.; Timlin, C.; Toudup, L.; Virdee, T.; Wakefield, S.; Walsham, P.; Wardrope, D.; Wingham, M.; Zhang, Y.; Zorba, O.; Da Via, C.; Goitom, I.; Hobson, P. R.; Imrie, D. C.; Reid, I.; Selby, C.; Sharif, O.; Teodorescu, L.; Watts, S. J.; Yaselli, I.; Hazen, E.; Heering, A.; Heister, A.; Lawlor, C.; Lazic, D.; Machado, E.; Rohlf, J.; Sulak, L.; Varela Rodriguez, F.; Wu, S. X.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Christofek, L.; Cutts, D.; Esen, S.; Hooper, R.; Landsberg, G.; Narain, M.; Nguyen, D.; Speer, T.; Tsang, K. V.; Breedon, R.; Case, M.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Cox, P. T.; Dolen, J.; Erbacher, R.; Fisyak, Y.; Friis, E.; Grim, G.; Holbrook, B.; Ko, W.; Kopecky, A.; Lander, R.; Lin, F. C.; Lister, A.; Maruyama, S.; Pellett, D.; Rowe, J.; Searle, M.; Smith, J.; Soha, A.; Squires, M.; Tripathi, M.; Vasquez Sierra, R.; Veelken, C.; Andreev, V.; Arisaka, K.; Bonushkin, Y.; Chandramouly, S.; Cline, D.; Cousins, R.; Erhan, S.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Jarvis, C.; Lisowski, B.; Matthey, C.; Mohr, B.; Mumford, J.; Otwinowski, S.; Pischalnikov, Y.; Rakness, G.; Schlein, P.; Shi, Y.; Tannenbaum, B.; Tucker, J.; Valuev, V.; Wallny, R.; Wang, H. G.; Yang, X.; Zheng, Y.; Andreeva, J.; Babb, J.; Campana, S.; Chrisman, D.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Fortin, D.; Gary, J. W.; Gorn, W.; Hanson, G.; Jeng, G. Y.; Kao, S. C.; Layter, J. G.; Liu, F.; Liu, H.; Luthra, A.; Pasztor, G.; Rick, H.; Satpathy, A.; Shen, B. C.; Stringer, R.; Sytnik, V.; Tran, P.; Villa, S.; Wilken, R.; Wimpenny, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Branson, J. G.; Coarasa Perez, J. A.; Dusinberre, E.; Kelley, R.; Lebourgeois, M.; Letts, J.; Lipeles, E.; Mangano, B.; Martin, T.; Mojaver, M.; Muelmenstaedt, J.; Norman, M.; Paar, H. P.; Petrucci, A.; Pi, H.; Pieri, M.; Rana, A.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; White, A.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Affolder, A.; Allen, A.; Campagnari, C.; D'Alfonso, M.; Dierlamm, A.; Garberson, J.; Hale, D.; Incandela, J.; Kalavase, P.; Koay, S. A.; Kovalskyi, D.; Krutelyov, V.; Kyre, S.; Lamb, J.; Lowette, S.; Nikolic, M.; Pavlunin, V.; Rebassoo, F.; Ribnik, J.; Richman, J.; Rossin, R.; Shah, Y. S.; Stuart, D.; Swain, S.; Vlimant, J. R.; White, D.; Witherell, M.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, J.; Denis, G.; Galvez, P.; Gataullin, M.; Legrand, I.; Litvine, V.; Ma, Y.; Mao, R.; Nae, D.; Narsky, I.; Newman, H. B.; Orimoto, T.; Rogan, C.; Shevchenko, S.; Steenberg, C.; Su, X.; Thomas, M.; Timciuc, V.; van Lingen, F.; Veverka, J.; Voicu, B. R.; Weinstein, A.; Wilkinson, R.; Xia, Y.; Yang, Y.; Zhang, L. Y.; Zhu, K.; Zhu, R. Y.; Ferguson, T.; Jang, D. W.; Jun, S. Y.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Terentyev, N.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Bunce, M.; Cumalat, J. P.; Dinardo, M. E.; Drell, B. R.; Ford, W. T.; Givens, K.; Heyburn, B.; Johnson, D.; Nauenberg, U.; Stenson, K.; Wagner, S. R.; Agostino, L.; Alexander, J.; Blekman, F.; Cassel, D.; Das, S.; Duboscq, J. E.; Gibbons, L. K.; Heltsley, B.; Jones, C. D.; Kuznetsov, V.; Patterson, J. R.; Riley, D.; Ryd, A.; Stroiney, S.; Sun, W.; Thom, J.; Vaughan, J.; Wittich, P.; Beetz, C. P.; Cirino, G.; Podrasky, V.; Sanzeni, C.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Afaq, M. A.; Albrow, M.; Amundson, J.; Apollinari, G.; Atac, M.; Badgett, W.; Bakken, J. A.; Baldin, B.; Banicz, K.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Baumbaugh, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Binkley, M.; Bloch, I.; Borcherding, F.; Boubekeur, A.; Bowden, M.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chevenier, G.; Chlebana, F.; Churin, I.; Cihangir, S.; Dagenhart, W.; Demarteau, M.; Dykstra, D.; Eartly, D. P.; Elias, J. E.; Elvira, V. D.; Evans, D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gaines, I.; Gartung, P.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Giacchetti, L.; Glenzinski, D. A.; Gottschalk, E.; Grassi, T.; Green, D.; Grimm, C.; Guo, Y.; Gutsche, O.; Hahn, A.; Hanlon, J.; Harris, R. M.; Hesselroth, T.; Holm, S.; Holzman, B.; James, E.; Jensen, H.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Klima, B.; Kossiakov, S.; Kousouris, K.; Kowalkowski, J.; Kramer, T.; Kwan, S.; Lei, C. M.; Leininger, M.; Los, S.; Lueking, L.; Lukhanin, G.; Lusin, S.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Miao, T.; Moccia, S.; Mokhov, N.; Mrenna, S.; Murray, S. J.; Newman-Holmes, C.; Noeding, C.; O'Dell, V.; Paterno, M.; Petravick, D.; Pordes, R.; Prokofyev, O.; Ratnikova, N.; Ronzhin, A.; Sekhri, V.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Sfiligoi, I.; Shaw, T. M.; Skup, E.; Smith, R. P.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Stavrianakou, M.; Stiehr, G.; Stone, A. L.; Suzuki, I.; Tan, P.; Tanenbaum, W.; Temple, L. E.; Tkaczyk, S.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Wands, R.; Wenzel, H.; Whitmore, J.; Wicklund, E.; Wu, W. M.; Wu, Y.; Yarba, J.; Yarba, V.; Yumiceva, F.; Yun, J. C.; Zimmerman, T.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Barashko, V.; Bartalini, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Cavanaugh, R.; Dolinsky, S.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Field, R. D.; Fu, Y.; Furic, I. K.; Gorn, L.; Holmes, D.; Kim, B. J.; Klimenko, S.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kotov, K.; Levchenko, P.; Madorsky, A.; Matchev, K.; Mitselmakher, G.; Pakhotin, Y.; Prescott, C.; Ramond, L.; Ramond, P.; Schmitt, M.; Scurlock, B.; Stasko, J.; Stoeck, H.; Wang, D.; Yelton, J.; Gaultney, V.; Kramer, L.; Lebolo, L. M.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Atramentov, O.; Bertoldi, M.; Dharmaratna, W. G. D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gleyzer, S. V.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Jenkins, C. J.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Simek, D.; Thomaston, J.; Baarmand, M.; Baksay, L.; Guragain, S.; Hohlmann, M.; Mermerkaya, H.; Ralich, R.; Vodopiyanov, I.; Adams, M. R.; Anghel, I. M.; Apanasevich, L.; Barannikova, O.; Bazterra, V. E.; Betts, R. R.; Dragoiu, C.; Garcia-Solis, E. J.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R.; Iordanova, A.; Khalatian, S.; Mironov, C.; Shabalina, E.; Smoron, A.; Varelas, N.; Akgun, U.; Albayrak, E. A.; Ayan, A. S.; Briggs, R.; Cankocak, K.; Clarida, W.; Cooper, A.; Debbins, P.; Duru, F.; Fountain, M.; McCliment, E.; Merlo, J. P.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Miller, M. J.; Moeller, A.; Newsom, C. R.; Norbeck, E.; Olson, J.; Onel, Y.; Perera, L.; Schmidt, I.; Wang, S.; Yetkin, T.; Anderson, E. W.; Chakir, H.; Hauptman, J. M.; Lamsa, J.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Chien, C. Y.; Giurgiu, G.; Gritsan, A.; Kim, D. W.; Lae, C. K.; Maksimovic, P.; Swartz, M.; Tran, N.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Chen, J.; Coppage, D.; Grachov, O.; Murray, M.; Radicci, V.; Wood, J. S.; Zhukova, V.; Bandurin, D.; Bolton, T.; Kaadze, K.; Kahl, W. E.; Maravin, Y.; Onoprienko, D.; Sidwell, R.; Wan, Z.; Dahmes, B.; Gronberg, J.; Hollar, J.; Lange, D.; Wright, D.; Wuest, C. R.; Baden, D.; Bard, R.; Eno, S. C.; Ferencek, D.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kirn, M.; Kunori, S.; Lockner, E.; Ratnikov, F.; Santanastasio, F.; Skuja, A.; Toole, T.; Wang, L.; Wetstein, M.; Alver, B.; Ballintijn, M.; Bauer, G.; Busza, W.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Hahn, K. A.; Harris, P.; Klute, M.; Kravchenko, I.; Li, W.; Loizides, C.; Ma, T.; Nahn, S.; Paus, C.; Pavlon, S.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Rudolph, M.; Stephans, G.; Sumorok, K.; Vaurynovich, S.; Wenger, E. A.; Wyslouch, B.; Bailleux, D.; Cooper, S.; Cushman, P.; DeBenedetti, A.; Dolgopolov, A.; Dudero, P. R.; Egeland, R.; Franzoni, G.; Gilbert, W. J.; Gong, D.; Grahl, J.; Haupt, J.; Klapoetke, K.; Kronkvist, I.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Rusack, R.; Sengupta, S.; Sherwood, B.; Singovsky, A.; Vikas, P.; Zhang, J.; Booke, M.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Godang, R.; Kroeger, R.; Reep, M.; Reidy, J.; Sanders, D. A.; Sonnek, P.; Summers, D.; Watkins, S.; Bloom, K.; Bockelman, B.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Eads, M.; Furukawa, M.; Keller, J.; Kelly, T.; Lundstedt, C.; Malik, S.; Snow, G. R.; Swanson, D.; Ecklund, K. M.; Iashvili, I.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Strang, M.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Boeriu, O.; Eulisse, G.; McCauley, T.; Musienko, Y.; Muzaffar, S.; Osborne, I.; Reucroft, S.; Swain, J.; Taylor, L.; Tuura, L.; Gobbi, B.; Kubantsev, M.; Kubik, A.; Ofierzynski, R. A.; Schmitt, M.; Spencer, E.; Stoynev, S.; Szleper, M.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Andert, K.; Baumbaugh, B.; Beiersdorf, B. A.; Castle, L.; Chorny, J.; Goussiou, A.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kolberg, T.; Marchant, J.; Marinelli, N.; McKenna, M.; Ruchti, R.; Vigneault, M.; Wayne, M.; Wiand, D.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Gilmore, J.; Gu, J.; Killewald, P.; Ling, T. Y.; Rush, C. J.; Sehgal, V.; Williams, G.; Adam, N.; Chidzik, S.; Denes, P.; Elmer, P.; Garmash, A.; Gerbaudo, D.; Halyo, V.; Jones, J.; Marlow, D.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Wildish, T.; Wynhoff, S.; Xie, Z.; Huang, X. T.; Lopez, A.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Zatserklyaniy, A.; Apresyan, A.; Arndt, K.; Barnes, V. E.; Bolla, G.; Bortoletto, D.; Bujak, A.; Everett, A.; Fahling, M.; Garfinkel, A. F.; Gutay, L.; Ippolito, N.; Kozhevnikov, Y.; Laasanen, A. T.; Liu, C.; Maroussov, V.; Medved, S.; Merkel, P.; Miller, D. H.; Miyamoto, J.; Neumeister, N.; Pompos, A.; Roy, A.; Sedov, A.; Shipsey, I.; Cuplov, V.; Parashar, N.; Bargassa, P.; Lee, S. J.; Liu, J. H.; Maronde, D.; Matveev, M.; Nussbaum, T.; Padley, B. P.; Roberts, J.; Tumanov, A.; Bodek, A.; Budd, H.; Cammin, J.; Chung, Y. S.; DeBarbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Ginther, G.; Gotra, Y.; Korjenevski, S.; Miner, D. C.; Sakumoto, W.; Slattery, P.; Zielinski, M.; Bhatti, A.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Hatakeyama, K.; Mesropian, C.; Bartz, E.; Chuang, S. H.; Doroshenko, J.; Halkiadakis, E.; Jacques, P. F.; Khits, D.; Lath, A.; Macpherson, A.; Plano, R.; Rose, K.; Schnetzer, S.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Watts, T. L.; Cerizza, G.; Hollingsworth, M.; Lazoflores, J.; Ragghianti, G.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Aurisano, A.; Golyash, A.; Kamon, T.; Nguyen, C. N.; Pivarski, J.; Safonov, A.; Toback, D.; Weinberger, M.; Akchurin, N.; Berntzon, L.; Carrell, K. W.; Gumus, K.; Jeong, C.; Kim, H.; Lee, S. W.; McGonagill, B. G.; Roh, Y.; Sill, A.; Spezziga, M.; Thomas, R.; Volobouev, I.; Washington, E.; Wigmans, R.; Yazgan, E.; Bapty, T.; Engh, D.; Florez, C.; Johns, W.; Keskinpala, T.; Luiggi Lopez, E.; Neema, S.; Nordstrom, S.; Pathak, S.; Sheldon, P.; Andelin, D.; Arenton, M. W.; Balazs, M.; Buehler, M.; Conetti, S.; Cox, B.; Hirosky, R.; Humphrey, M.; Imlay, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Phillips, D., II; Powell, H.; Ronquest, M.; Yohay, R.; Anderson, M.; Baek, Y. W.; Bellinger, J. N.; Bradley, D.; Cannarsa, P.; Carlsmith, D.; Crotty, I.; Dasu, S.; Feyzi, F.; Gorski, T.; Gray, L.; Grogg, K. S.; Grothe, M.; Jaworski, M.; Klabbers, P.; Klukas, J.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Leonard, J.; Loveless, R.; Magrans de Abril, M.; Mohapatra, A.; Ott, G.; Smith, W. H.; Weinberg, M.; Wenman, D.; Atoian, G. S.; Dhawan, S.; Issakov, V.; Neal, H.; Poblaguev, A.; Zeller, M. E.; Abdullaeva, G.; Avezov, A.; Fazylov, M. I.; Gasanov, E. M.; Khugaev, A.; Koblik, Y. N.; Nishonov, M.; Olimov, K.; Umaraliev, A.; Yuldashev, B. S.

    2008-08-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) detector is described. The detector operates at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. It was conceived to study proton-proton (and lead-lead) collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 14 TeV (5.5 TeV nucleon-nucleon) and at luminosities up to 1034 cm-2 s-1 (1027 cm-2 s-1). At the core of the CMS detector sits a high-magnetic-field and large-bore superconducting solenoid surrounding an all-silicon pixel and strip tracker, a lead-tungstate scintillating-crystals electromagnetic calorimeter, and a brass-scintillator sampling hadron calorimeter. The iron yoke of the flux-return is instrumented with four stations of muon detectors covering most of the 4π solid angle. Forward sampling calorimeters extend the pseudorapidity coverage to high values (|η| <= 5) assuring very good hermeticity. The overall dimensions of the CMS detector are a length of 21.6 m, a diameter of 14.6 m and a total weight of 12500 t.

  1. Low latitude electrodynamic plasma drifts - A review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fejer, B. G.

    1991-01-01

    The characteristics and driving mechanisms of low latitude ExB plasma drifts and electric fields particularly at F-region heights are reviewed. It is concluded that the general characteristics of the quiet-time plasma can be explained as resulting from E- and F-region dynamo and interhemispheric coupling processes. The disturbance dynamo effects are found to be responsible for the drift perturbations following the periods of enhanced magnetic activity. The prompt penetration of high-latitude electric fields to lower latitudes produces large perturbations on the upward/poleward drifts, but has no significant effect on the low-latitude and the equatorial zonal drifts. Detailed low-latitude and global numerical models for studying the characteristics of plasma drifts are capable of reproducing the latitudinal variation of the perturbation electric fields and their diurnal variations.

  2. Ground Control for Emplacement Drifts for LA

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Sun

    2004-07-09

    The purpose of this calculation is to analyze the stability of repository emplacement drifts during the preclosure period, and to provide a final ground support method for emplacement drifts for the License Application (LA). The scope of the work includes determination of input parameter values and loads, selection of appropriate process and methods for the calculation, application of selected methods, such as empirical or analytical, to the calculation, development and execution of numerical models, and evaluation of results. Results from this calculation are limited to use for design of the emplacement drifts and the final ground support system installed in these drifts. The design of non-emplacement openings and their ground support systems is covered in the ''Ground Control for Non-Emplacement Drifts for LA'' (BSC 2004c).

  3. New laser tracheal tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ungemach, Josef; Foth, Hans-Jochen; Hoermann, Karl; Preponis, E.

    1996-09-01

    The complication of a laser induced tube fire during surgery was first published in 1979. The protection of tracheal tubes against ignition is necessary to enable a safe laser surgery of the upper airway. in an experimental study a new compound tube was tested: this tube had a higher laser resistance than a pure metal tube. The damage threshold of this tube was tested against the emission of various lasers as CO2. The metal tube was damaged within seconds at CO2 laser power densities of 103 W/cm2 whereas the damage threshold of the compound tube was 3.106 W/cm2. We compared the compound laser tube to the so far used metal tube in a prospective clinical trial in our department of ENT in patients undergoing CO2-laser surgery of the upper airway. 66 patients were included into the study: 33 received the compound tube, 33 the metal tube. During endotracheal intubation the handling of the compound tube was better. During laser surgery high airway pressures occured more often with the metal tube. Whereas kinking was the problem of the compound tubes. Destruction of cuffs occured in both groups but did not cause any complications. No tube or cuff fire was noticed.

  4. EC Tube Fits

    SciTech Connect

    Kurita, C.H.; /Fermilab

    1987-03-03

    In the design of the EC, the beam tube, through which the beam line travels, can be found in the IH tube which is centrally located in the IH module. However, also between the beam tube and the IH tube lie both the vacuum and inner tubes of the vacuum and inner vessels. It is the vacuum between these vessels which provides insulation between the ambient beam tube and liquid argon in the cryostat. while the vacuum tube is supported along its length with the inner tube as best as possible, the inner tube will only be supported at the ends. The beam tube will also be end-supported, but it will be allowed to rest directly on the inner surface of the vacuum tube. It is required that the beam tube be able to slide in and out of the vacuum tube with relative ease in order that the EC's can be moved away from the CC when necessary (repair work, etc.). Although the frequency of such a move is not known, it is hoped to be low, and it would therefore be desirable, for cost reasons, to be able to use stock tubing for the vacuum and beam tubes instead of using specially machined tubing.

  5. Practical acoustic thermometry with twin-tube and single-tube sensors

    SciTech Connect

    De Podesta, M.; Sutton, G.; Edwards, G.; Stanger, L.; Preece, H.

    2015-07-01

    Accurate measurement of high temperatures in a nuclear environment presents unique challenges. All secondary techniques inevitably drift because the thermometric materials in thermocouples and resistance sensors are sensitive not just to temperature, but also their own chemical and physical composition. The solution is to use primary methods that rely on fundamental links between measurable physical properties and temperature. In the nuclear field the best known technique is the measurement of Johnson Noise in a resistor (See Paper 80 at this conference). In this paper we describe the measurement of temperature in terms of the speed of sound in a gas confined in a tube - an acoustic waveguide. Acoustic thermometry is the most accurate technique of primary thermometry ever devised with the best uncertainty of measurement below 0.001 C. In contrast, the acoustic technique described in this work has a much larger uncertainty, approximately 1 deg. C. But the cost and ease of use are improved by several orders of magnitude, making implementation eminently practical. We first describe the basic construction and method of operation of thermometers using twin-tubes and single tubes. We then present results using a twin-tube design showing that showing long term stability (i.e. no detectable drift) at 700 deg. C over periods of several weeks. We then outline how the technique may be developed for different nuclear applications. (authors)

  6. Field investigation of the drift shadow

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Grace W.; Kneafsey, Timothy J.; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Marshall, Brian D.; Cook, Paul J.

    2005-09-08

    A drift shadow is an area immediately beneath an undergroundvoidthat, in theory, will be relatively drier than the surrounding rockmass. Numerical and analytical models of water flow through unsaturatedrock predict the existence of a drift shadow, but field tests confirmingits existence have yet to be performed. Proving the existence of driftshadows and understanding their hydrologic and transport characteristicscould provide a better understanding of how contaminants move in thesubsurface if released from waste emplacement drifts such as the proposednuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. We describe the fieldprogram that will be used to investigate the existence of a drift shadowand the corresponding hydrological process at the Hazel-Atlas silica-sandmine located at the Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve in Antioch,California. The location and configuration of this mine makes it anexcellent site to observe and measure drift shadow characteristics. Themine is located in a porous sandstone unit of the Domengine Formation, anapproximately 230 meter thick series of interbedded Eocene-age shales,coals, and massive-bedded sandstones. The mining method used at the minerequired the development of two parallel drifts, one above the other,driven along the strike of the mined sandstone stratum. Thisconfiguration provides the opportunity to introduce water into the rockmass in the upper drift and to observe and measure its flow around theunderlying drift. The passive and active hydrologic tests to be performedare described. In the passive method, cores will be obtained in a radialpattern around a drift and will be sectioned and analyzed for in-situwater content and chemical constituents. With the active hydrologic test,water will be introduced into the upper drift of the two parallel driftsand the flow of the water will be tracked as it passes near the bottomdrift. Tensiometers, electrical resistance probes, neutron probes, andground penetrating radar may be

  7. Bender/Coiler for Tubing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoltzfus, J. M.

    1983-01-01

    Easy-to-use tool makes coils of tubing. Tubing to be bend clamped with stop post. Die positioned snugly against tubing. Operator turns handle to slide die along tubing, pushing tubing into spiral groove on mandrel.

  8. A drift chamber with a new type of straws for operation in vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azorskiy, N.; Glonti, L.; Gusakov, Yu.; Elsha, V.; Enik, T.; Kakurin, S.; Kekelidze, V.; Kislov, E.; Kolesnikov, A.; Madigozhin, D.; Movchan, S.; Polenkevich, I.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Samsonov, V.; Shkarovskiy, S.; Sotnikov, S.; Zinchenko, A.; Danielsson, H.; Bendotti, J.; Degrange, J.; Dixon, N.; Lichard, P.; Morant, J.; Palladino, V.; Gomez, F. Perez; Ruggiero, G.; Vergain, M.

    2016-07-01

    A 2150×2150 mm2 registration area drift chamber capable of working in vacuum is presented. Thin-wall tubes (straws) of a new type are used in the chamber. A large share of these 9.80 mm diameter drift tubes are made in Dubna from metalized 36 μm Mylar film welded along the generatrix using an ultrasonic welding machine created at JINR. The main features of the chamber and some characteristics of the drift tubes are described. Four such chambers with the X, Y, U, V coordinates each, containing 7168 straws in total, are designed and produced at JINR and CERN. They are installed in the vacuum volume of the NA62 setup in order to study the ultra-rare decay K+ →π+ vv bar and to search for and study rare meson decays. In autumn 2014 the chambers were used for the first time for the data taking in the experimental run of the NA62 at CERN's SPS.

  9. Tubing suspension system

    SciTech Connect

    Berner, P. C.; Brickman, E. L.

    1985-12-31

    A tubing suspension system for undersea well production operations employs a nonoriented tubing hanger having an inner body for supporting a tubing string and a landing collar for supporting the tubing hanger on a wellhead casing. The tubing hanger includes three co-operating concentric sleeve assemblies which are employed to lock and seal the tubing hanger to the wellhead housing. The outer sleeve assembly includes a locking actuator and a dual seal assembly and is separately retrievable from the remainder of the hanger assmebly. A nonorienting hydraulic set running tool is employed to run the tubing hanger, set the seals, lock the tubing hanger to the wellhead casing, retrieve either the outer sleeve assembly or the entire tubing hanger. The running tool includes a hydraulically controlled actuating sleeve which carries a latch dog assembly which locks with the tubing hanger.

  10. Ensuring Wire Alignment for the New COMPASS Drift Chamber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cromis, Megan; Compass Dc5 Team

    2014-09-01

    COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment at CERN investigating the internal structure of the proton. Polarized Drell-Yan measurements at COMPASS will explore how the quark orbital angular momentum contributes to the spin of the proton. To enable this measurement, several straw tube chambers need to be replaced due to long term wear. One of the replacement chambers, drift chamber DC5, is being built at Old Dominion University based on a prototype from UIUC and existing COMPASS drift chambers. DC5 consists of 4 wire planes with 513 wires (256 [20 μm] sense wires and 257 [100 μm] field wires alternating) and 4 wire planes at a 10 degree offset with 641 wires each. Each of these 4616 wires need to be aligned within either 100 μm (sense wire) or 200 μm (field wire) of the center of the solder pad to ensure the accuracy of the drift chamber. Problems that arose during stringing include initial alignment of the wire and efficient soldering techniques. Also, because the field wires charged at -1750 volts will be 4 mm from the sense wires, there should be no gaps or points in the solder to prevent arcing. This poster will discuss the alignment techniques, soldering methods, testing, and repair process for the wires. COMPASS is a fixed-target experiment at CERN investigating the internal structure of the proton. Polarized Drell-Yan measurements at COMPASS will explore how the quark orbital angular momentum contributes to the spin of the proton. To enable this measurement, several straw tube chambers need to be replaced due to long term wear. One of the replacement chambers, drift chamber DC5, is being built at Old Dominion University based on a prototype from UIUC and existing COMPASS drift chambers. DC5 consists of 4 wire planes with 513 wires (256 [20 μm] sense wires and 257 [100 μm] field wires alternating) and 4 wire planes at a 10 degree offset with 641 wires each. Each of these 4616 wires need to be aligned within either 100 μm (sense wire) or 200 μm (field wire

  11. German contributions to the CMS computing infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheurer, A.; German CMS Community

    2010-04-01

    The CMS computing model anticipates various hierarchically linked tier centres to counter the challenges provided by the enormous amounts of data which will be collected by the CMS detector at the Large Hadron Collider, LHC, at CERN. During the past years, various computing exercises were performed to test the readiness of the computing infrastructure, the Grid middleware and the experiment's software for the startup of the LHC which took place in September 2008. In Germany, several tier sites are set up to allow for an efficient and reliable way to simulate possible physics processes as well as to reprocess, analyse and interpret the numerous stored collision events of the experiment. It will be shown that the German computing sites played an important role during the experiment's preparation phase and during data-taking of CMS and, therefore, scientific groups in Germany will be ready to compete for discoveries in this new era of particle physics. This presentation focuses on the German Tier-1 centre GridKa, located at Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, the German CMS Tier-2 federation DESY/RWTH with installations at the University of Aachen and the research centre DESY. In addition, various local computing resources in Aachen, Hamburg and Karlsruhe are briefly introduced as well. It will be shown that an excellent cooperation between the different German institutions and physicists led to well established computing sites which cover all parts of the CMS computing model. Therefore, the following topics are discussed and the achieved goals and the gained knowledge are depicted: data management and distribution among the different tier sites, Grid-based Monte Carlo production at the Tier-2 as well as Grid-based and locally submitted inhomogeneous user analyses at the Tier-3s. Another important task is to ensure a proper and reliable operation 24 hours a day, especially during the time of data-taking. For this purpose, the meta-monitoring tool "HappyFace", which was

  12. Drift stabilizer for reciprocating free-piston devices

    DOEpatents

    Ward, William C.; Corey, John A.; Swift, Gregory W.

    2003-05-20

    A free-piston device has a stabilized piston drift. A piston having a frequency of reciprocation over a stroke length and with first and second sides facing first and second variable volumes, respectively, for containing a working fluid defining an acoustic wavelength at the frequency of reciprocation. A bypass tube waveguide connects the first and second variable volumes at all times during reciprocation of the piston. The waveguide has a relatively low impedance for steady flow and a relatively high impedance for oscillating flow at the frequency of reciprocation of the piston, so that steady flow returns fluid leakage from about the piston between the first and second volumes while oscillating flow is not diverted through the waveguide. Thus, net leakage about the piston is returned during each stroke of the piston while oscillating leakage is not allowed and pressure buildup on either the first or second side of the piston is avoided to provide a stable piston location.

  13. Effects of Natural Drift Degradation on In-Drift Thermohydrological Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manepally, C.; Sun, A. Y.; Fedors, R. W.

    2004-12-01

    Understanding thermohydrological processes at the potential high-level waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, is important for assessing its long-term performance. Detailed process models that provide the in-drift and near-field thermohydrological conditions are needed to estimate the composition of water that may contact the waste package and to evaluate the potential for corrosion of waste packages. Drift degradation could significantly influence the environment inside waste emplacement drifts. Degradation of the host rock may backfill portions of the repository, and drifts could potentially be backfilled within 1000 years after closure. This poster presents a two-dimensional detailed process model that incorporates the temporal variation of in-drift and drift wall geometry as a result of drift degradation. Model results indicate that radiation and convection dominate in-drift heat transfer until the drip shield is completely surrounded by rubble. Subsequently, the insulating effect of rubble causes an abrupt increase in the temperatures of the in-drift components and conduction through the rubble dominates the in-drift heat transfer. The heat generated by emplaced waste transports water vapor away from the drift creating a dryout zone and redistributing pore fluids within a potentially large volume of host rock. The likelihood of water seeping into the drift is strongly affected by the extent and duration of the dryout zone. Model results showing the temporal variability of the dryout zone, both in the host rock and the rubble pile, will be presented. Sensitivity analyses show that the in-drift thermohydrologic conditions are sensitive to the thermal properties of the rubble and the rate of drift degradation. This poster in an independent product of CNWRA and does not necessarily reflect the view or regulatory position of Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  14. Field Investigation of the Drift Shadow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, G. W.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Ghezzehei, T. A.; Marshall, B. D.; Cook, P. J.

    2005-12-01

    A drift shadow is an area immediately beneath an underground void that, in theory, will be relatively drier than the surrounding rock mass. Numerical and analytical models of water flow through unsaturated rock predict the existence of a drift shadow, but field tests confirming its existence have yet to be performed. Proving the existence of drift shadows and understanding their hydrologic and transport characteristics could provide a better understanding of how contaminants move in the subsurface if released from waste emplacement drifts such as the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. We describe the field program that will be used to investigate the existence of a drift shadow and the corresponding hydrological process at the Hazel-Atlas silica-sand mine located at the Black Diamond Mines Regional Preserve in Antioch, California. The location and configuration of this mine makes it an excellent site to observe and measure drift shadow characteristics. The mine is located in a porous sandstone unit of the Domengine Formation, an approximately 230 meter thick series of interbedded Eocene-age shales, coals, and massive-bedded sandstones. The mining method used at the mine required the development of two parallel drifts, one above the other, driven along the strike of the mined sandstone stratum. This configuration provides the opportunity to introduce water into the rock mass in the upper drift and to observe and measure its flow around the underlying drift. The passive and active hydrologic tests to be performed are described. In the passive method, cores will be obtained in a radial pattern around a drift and will be sectioned and analyzed for in-situ water content and chemical constituents. With the active hydrologic test, water will be introduced into the upper drift of the two parallel drifts and the flow of the water will be tracked as it passes near the bottom drift. Tensiometers, electrical resistance probes, neutron probes, and

  15. The DRIFT Directional Dark Matter Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harton, John

    2014-03-01

    The DRIFT dark matter collaboration aims to detect the sidereal modulation of the dark matter signal through measurement of spatial components of the recoil nucleus direction from WIMP-nucleon interactions. DRIFT uses low-pressure negative-ion time projection chambers to measure recoil nuclei, and the recoiling nuclei, from a standard WIMP halo, would typically leave a millimeter-scale ionization track in the chamber. The rotation of the Earth on its axis combined with the motion of the solar system through the WIMP halo creates the sidereal modulation. This sidereal (``daily'') modulation is the change in average direction of the recoils over the course of the sidereal day, which for the DRIFT detector, located in England, changes from generally down to south once a (sidereal) day. Recent advances in background rejection are allowing DRIFT-IId to run background free. And measurement of the interaction location along the ion drift direction has recently been enabled by adding a small amount of oxygen to the drift gas. This talk will report on these recent advances and show current limits, as well as describe plans for future DRIFT detectors. Supported by the US Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation.

  16. Genetic Drift of HIV Populations in Culture

    PubMed Central

    Voronin, Yegor; Holte, Sarah; Overbaugh, Julie; Emerman, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Populations of Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) undergo a surprisingly large amount of genetic drift in infected patients despite very large population sizes, which are predicted to be mostly deterministic. Several models have been proposed to explain this phenomenon, but all of them implicitly assume that the process of virus replication itself does not contribute to genetic drift. We developed an assay to measure the amount of genetic drift for HIV populations replicating in cell culture. The assay relies on creation of HIV populations of known size and measurements of variation in frequency of a neutral allele. Using this assay, we show that HIV undergoes approximately ten times more genetic drift than would be expected from its population size, which we defined as the number of infected cells in the culture. We showed that a large portion of the increase in genetic drift is due to non-synchronous infection of target cells. When infections are synchronized, genetic drift for the virus is only 3-fold higher than expected from its population size. Thus, the stochastic nature of biological processes involved in viral replication contributes to increased genetic drift in HIV populations. We propose that appreciation of these effects will allow better understanding of the evolutionary forces acting on HIV in infected patients. PMID:19300501

  17. Seepage into drifts with mechanical degradation.

    PubMed

    Li, Guomin; Tsang, Chin-Fu

    2003-01-01

    Seepage into drifts in unsaturated tuff is an important issue for the long-term performance of the proposed nuclear waste repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Drifts in which waste packages will be emplaced are subject to degradation in the form of rockfall from the drift ceiling, induced by stress-relief, seismic, or thermal effects. The objective of this study is to calculate seepage rates, for various drift-degradation scenarios and for different values of percolation flux, in the Topopah Spring middle nonlithophysal (Tptpmn) and the Topopah Spring lower lithophysal (Tptpll) units at Yucca Mountain. Seepage calculations are conducted by (1) defining a heterogeneous drift-scale permeability model with field data, (2) selecting calibrated parameters associated with the Tptpmn and Tptpll units, and (3) simulating seepage, based on detailed degraded-drift profiles obtained from a separate rock mechanics engineering analysis. The simulation results indicate (1) that the seepage threshold (i.e., the percolation flux at which seepage first occurs) is not significantly changed by drift degradation and (2) the degradation-induced increase in seepage above the threshold is influenced probably more by the shape of the cavity created by rockfall than by rockfall volume.

  18. CMS Reverse Engineering and Encore/Model Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-10-31

    Systems , Dam Neck, as follows: Module - 1 consisting of two files containing 5,600 lines of CMS -2Y source code. This module is a portion of the common...initial demonstration system is currently operational which produces a CADRE Teamwork/ SD structure chart from CMS source code. This demonstrates the...case kind(N) is when auto_datadesign => process-autodatadesign(N, flags); when cms - system => process_cmssystem(N, flags); (similarly for all italicized

  19. Use of the PTM with CMS Quadtree Grids

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-04-01

    simulation through coupling the Coastal Modeling System ( CMS ) with a quadtree grid and Version 2.1 of the Particle Tracking Model (PTM) in the Surface...water Modeling System (SMS). A CMS /PTM application is presented to demonstrate the recent changes in the SMS interface of the PTM. INTRODUCTION: The...from the contents of the cards file.  Boundary conditions - This file has information about what to do for the PTM along the boundaries of the CMS

  20. CMS experiment at the LHC: Results and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golutvin, I. A.; Shmatov, S. V.

    2017-09-01

    The results of the CMS experiment based on the LHC first-run data taken at c.m.s. energies of 7 and 8 TeV and on the first data taken in the second-run at the c.m.s. energy of 13 TeV are presented. The research prospects with the LHC running at high luminosity are discussed.

  1. Interaction between a drifting spiral and defects

    SciTech Connect

    Zou, X.; Levine, H. ); Kessler, D.A. )

    1993-02-01

    Spiral waves, a type of reentrant excitation,'' are believed to be associated with the most dangerous cardiac arrhythmias, including ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. Recent experimental findings have implicated defective regions as a means of trapping spirals which would otherwise drift and (eventually) disappear. Here, we model the myocardium as a simple excitable medium and study via simulation the interaction between a drifting spiral and one or more such defects. We interpret our results in terms of a criterion for the transition between trapped and untrapped drifting spirals.

  2. The Electron Drift Instrument for Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paschmann, G.; Melzner, F.; Frenzel, R.; Vaith, H.; Parigger, P.; Pagel, U.; Bauer, O. H.; Haerendel, G.; Baumjohann, W.; Scopke, N.

    1997-01-01

    The Electron Drift Instrument (EDI) measures the drift of a weak beam of test electrons that, when emitted in certain directions, return to the spacecraft after one or more gyrations. This drift is related to the electric field and the gradient in the magnetic field, and these quantities can, by use of different electron energies, be determined separately. As a by-product, the magnetic field strength is also measured. The present paper describes the scientific objectives, the experimental method, and the technical realization of the various elements of the instrument.

  3. Collisional Drift Waves in Stellarator Plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    J.L.V. Lewandowski

    2003-10-07

    A computational study of resistive drift waves in the edge plasma of a stellarator with an helical magnetic axis is presented. Three coupled field equations, describing the collisional drift wave dynamics in the linear approximation, are solved as an initial-value problem along the magnetic field line. The magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium is obtained from a three-dimensional local equilibrium model. The use of a local magnetohydrodynamic equilibrium model allows for a computationally efficient systematic study of the impact of the magnetic field structure on drift wave stability.

  4. FIELD INVESTIGATIONS OF THE DRIFT SHADOW

    SciTech Connect

    G. W. Su, T. J. Kneafsey, T. A. Ghezzehei, B. D. Marshall, and P. J. Cook

    2006-01-15

    The ''Drift Shadow'' is defined as the relatively drier region that forms below subsurface cavities or drifts in unsaturated rock. Its existence has been predicted through analytical and numerical models of unsaturated flow. However, these theoretical predictions have not been demonstrated empirically to date. In this project they plan to test the drift shadow concept through field investigations and compare our observations to simulations. Based on modeling studies they have an identified suitable site to perform the study at an inactive mine in a sandstone formation. Pretest modeling studies and preliminary characterization of the site are being used to develop the field scale tests.

  5. Ion Drift Meter for Dynamics Explorer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heelis, R. A.; Hanson, W. B.; Lippincott, C. R.; Zuccaro, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    The ion drift meter for Dynamics Explorer B is discussed. It measures two mutually perpendicular angles of arrival of thermal ions with respect to the sensor look directions. These angles lie in the vertical and horizontal planes and may be thought of as pitch and yaw in the conventional aerodynamic sense. The components of the ion drift velocity along vertical and horizontal axes through the spacecraft body are derived to first order from knowledge of the spacecraft velocity vector and more accurately with additional knowledge of the component of ion drift along the sensor look direction.

  6. 42 CFR 425.218 - Termination of the agreement by CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Termination of the agreement by CMS. 425.218... and Participation Agreement § 425.218 Termination of the agreement by CMS. (a) General. CMS may... termination by CMS. CMS may terminate the participation agreement for reasons including, but not limited...

  7. 42 CFR 425.218 - Termination of the agreement by CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Termination of the agreement by CMS. 425.218... and Participation Agreement § 425.218 Termination of the agreement by CMS. (a) General. CMS may... termination by CMS. CMS may terminate the participation agreement for reasons including, but not limited...

  8. 42 CFR 425.218 - Termination of the agreement by CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Termination of the agreement by CMS. 425.218... and Participation Agreement § 425.218 Termination of the agreement by CMS. (a) General. CMS may... termination by CMS. CMS may terminate the participation agreement for reasons including, but not limited...

  9. Torsion Tests of Tubes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stang, Ambrose H; Ramberg, Walter; Back, Goldie

    1937-01-01

    This report presents the results of tests of 63 chromium-molybdenum steel tubes and 102 17st aluminum-alloy tubes of various sizes and lengths made to study the dependence of the torsional strength on both the dimensions of the tube and the physical properties of the tube material. Three types of failure are found to be important for sizes of tubes frequently used in aircraft construction: (1) failure by plastic shear, in which the tube material reached its yield strength before the critical torque was reached; (2) failure by elastic two-lobe buckling, which depended only on the elastic properties of the tube material and the dimensions of the tube; and (3) failure by a combination of (1) and (2) that is, by buckling taking place after some yielding of the tube material.

  10. Using the CMS threaded framework in a production environment

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C. D.; Contreras, L.; Gartung, P.; Hufnagel, D.; Sexton-Kennedy, L.

    2015-12-23

    During 2014, the CMS Offline and Computing Organization completed the necessary changes to use the CMS threaded framework in the full production environment. We will briefly discuss the design of the CMS Threaded Framework, in particular how the design affects scaling performance. We will then cover the effort involved in getting both the CMSSW application software and the workflow management system ready for using multiple threads for production. Finally, we will present metrics on the performance of the application and workflow system as well as the difficulties which were uncovered. As a result, we will end with CMS' plans for using the threaded framework to do production for LHC Run 2.

  11. CMS-2 Reverse Engineering and ENCORE/MODEL Integration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    14399 S92 6 01 0,68 I. Table of Contents CMS2 Reverse Engineering and NENCORE/MODEL Integration Study Final Report Part I CMS -2 Reverse Engineering...Automated extraction of design information from an existing software system written in CMS -2 can be used to document that system as-built, and that I The...Cadre Technologies Inc.a N00114-91 -C-0240 Final Report May 1992 The key features of the CMS RET system are: *The interactive visual interface to the

  12. CMS Changes in Reimbursement for HAIs

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Patricia W.; Glied, Sherry A.; McNair, Peter D.; Matthes, Nikolas; Cohen, Bevin; Landers, Timothy F.; Larson, Elaine L.

    2010-01-01

    Background The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) promulgated regulations commencing October 1, 2008, which deny payment for selected conditions occurring during the hospital stay and are not present on admission. Three of the 10 hospital-acquired conditions covered by the new CMS policy involve healthcare-associated infections, which are a common, expensive, and often preventable cause of inpatient morbidity and mortality. Objective To outline a research agenda on the impact of CMS’s payment policy on the healthcare system and the prevention of healthcare-associated infections. Methods An invitational daylong conference was convened in April 2009. Including the planning committee and speakers there were 41 conference participants who were national experts and senior researchers. Results Building upon a behavioral model and organizational theory and management research a conceptual framework was applied to organize the wide range of issues that arose. A broad array of research topics was identified. Thirty-two research agenda items were organized in the areas of incentives, environmental factors, organizational factors, clinical outcomes, staff outcomes, and financial outcomes. Methodological challenges are also discussed. Conclusions This policy is a first significant step to move output-based inpatient funding to outcome-based funding, and this agenda is applicable to all hospital-acquired conditions. Studies beginning soon will have the best hope of capturing data for the years preceding the policy change, a key element in nonexperimental research. The CMS payment policy offers an excellent opportunity to understand and influence the use of financial incentives for improving patient safety. PMID:20351584

  13. G-2 and CMS fast optical calorimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Winn, David R.

    2001-06-01

    The following projects are discussed: (A) Operation of the muon g-2 experiment at Brookhaven National Lab (Experiment E821), especially the pulsed laser calibration system, to test the standard model of forces, and to see if new forces may exist in the vacuum. (B) The second part of this project developed fast optical forward Cerenkov jet calorimetry used in the CMS experiment collaboration (US lead organization FermiLab) at CERN on the Large Hadron Collider, designed to detect new physics at the TeV scale, such as supersymmetry and the Higgs boson.

  14. SUSY Search Strategies at Atlas and CMS

    SciTech Connect

    Autermann, Christian

    2008-11-23

    Supersymmetry is regarded as the most promising candidate for physics beyond the Standard Model. Various search strategies for SUSY are conducted at the Atlas and CMS experiments. In the early data inclusive searches, with different lepton multiplicities, are most sensitive and will be discussed here. The reach of both experiments is interpreted within the mSUGRA model.The LHC has started operation and the experiments are expected to collect of the order of 100 pb{sup -1} integrated luminosity within the first year.

  15. CMS Calorimeter Trigger Phase I upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klabbers, P.; Gorski, T.; Bachtis, M.; Compton, K.; Dasu, S.; Farmahini-Farahani, A.; Fobes, R.; Gregerson, A.; Grothe, M.; Ross, I.; Seemuth, D.; Schulte, M.; Smith, W. H.

    2012-01-01

    We present a design for the Phase-1 upgrade of the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) calorimeter trigger system composed of FPGAs and Multi-GBit/sec links that adhere to the μTCA crate Telecom standard. The upgrade calorimeter trigger will implement algorithms that create collections of isolated and non-isolated electromagnetic objects, isolated and non-isolated tau objects and jet objects. The algorithms are organized in several steps with progressive data reduction. These include a particle cluster finder that reconstructs overlapping clusters of 2x2 calorimeter towers and applies electron identification, a cluster overlap filter, particle isolation determination, jet reconstruction, particle separation and sorting.

  16. Jets In Heavy Ion Collisions with CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salur, Sevil

    2016-08-01

    Jet physics in heavy ion collisions is a rich field which has been rapidly evolving since the first observations of medium interactions at RHIC through back-to-back hadron correlations and at LHC via reconstructed jets. In order to completely characterize the final state via jet-medium interactions and distinguish between competing energy loss mechanisms, complementary and robust jet observables are investigated. Latest developments of jet finding techniques and their applications to heavy ion environments are discussed with an emphasis given on experimental results from CMS experiment.

  17. Study of Zγ Helicity Distributions at CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakaberia, Irakli; CMS Collaboration

    2011-04-01

    Measurement of the production of electroweak gauge bosons (γ, W, Z) provides important tests of the standard model. The production of a diboson final state at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) can occur by quark-antiquark annihilation (t-channel) or by boson self-interaction (s-channel). The s-channel production provides a unique probe of triple gauge boson couplings (TGC) and the effects of new physics on these couplings. I present a study of the helicity angle distributions in the Zγ production process at the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC and an examination of the sensitivity of these distributions to new physics.

  18. Searching for extra-dimensions at CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benucci, Leonardo

    2009-06-01

    A possible solution to the hierarchy problem is the presence of extra space dimensions beyond the three ones which are known from our everyday experience. The phenomenological ADD model of large extra-dimensions predicts a ETmiss +jet signature. Randall-Sundrum-type extra-dimensions predict di-lepton and di-jet resonances. This contribution addresses an overview of experimental issues and discovery potential for these new particles at the LHC, focusing on perspectives with the CMS detector during early data taking.

  19. The upgrade of the CMS Global Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wittmann, J.; Arnold, B.; Bergauer, H.; Jeitler, M.; Matsushita, T.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Wulz, C.-E.

    2016-02-01

    The Global Trigger is the final step of the CMS Level-1 Trigger. Previously implemented in VME, it has been redesigned and completely rebuilt in MicroTCA technology, using the Virtex-7 FPGA chip family. It will allow to implement trigger algorithms close to the final physics selection. The new system is presented, together with performance tests undertaken in parallel operation with the legacy system during the initial months of Run II of the LHC at a beam energy of 13 TeV.

  20. The simulation of the CMS electromagnetic calorimeter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cossutti, F.

    2008-07-01

    The CMS Collaboration has developed a detailed simulation of the electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL), which has been fully integrated in the collaboration software framework CMSSW. The simulation is based on the Geant4 detector simulation toolkit for the modelling of the passage of particles through matter and magnetic field. The geometrical description of the detector is being re-implemented using the DetectorDescription language, combining an XML based description with the algorithmic definition of the position of the elements. The ECAL simulation software is fully operational and has been validated using real data from the ECAL test beam experiment that took place in summer 2006.

  1. Review of bottomonium measurements from CMS

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, Z.; Liu, T.; Leonardo, N. T.; ...

    2017-07-20

    We review the results on the bottomonium system from the CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider. Measurements have been carried out at different center-of-mass energies in proton collisions and in collisions involving heavy ions. These include precision measurements of cross sections and polarizations, shedding light on hadroproduction mechanisms, and the observation of quarkonium sequential suppression, a notable indication of quark–gluon plasma formation. The observation of the production of bottomonium pairs is also reported along with searches for new states. We close with a brief outlook of the future physics program.

  2. Drift of continental rafts with asymmetric heating.

    PubMed

    Knopoff, L; Poehls, K A; Smith, R C

    1972-06-02

    A laboratory model of a lithospheric raft is propelled through a viscous asthenospheric layer with constant velocity of scaled magnitude appropriate to continental drift. The propulsion is due to differential heat concentration in the model oceanic and continental crusts.

  3. Nonlinear electrostatic drift Kelvin-Helmholtz instability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, Avadhesh C.; Srivastava, Krishna M.

    1993-01-01

    Nonlinear analysis of electrostatic drift Kelvin-Helmholtz instability is performed. It is shown that the analysis leads to the propagation of the weakly nonlinear dispersive waves, and the nonlinear behavior is governed by the nonlinear Burger's equation.

  4. DRIFT BOTTLE STUDIES AT BODEGA HEAD, CALIFORNIA.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    From July 7, 1962 to July 30, 1963 twenty-eight drift bottle experiments were performed in the Bodega Bay region of Central California. The pattern...of returns showed that most of the bottles were recovered within a few miles radius of Bodega Head. The possibility of a prevailing northerly current...close to shore along Bodega Head is indicated. Periods of heavy northwest winds result in a dispersal of drift bottles to the south in the summer

  5. Assessment of HF Drift Data Reliability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-13

    the array, making the beamforming computations very efficient. The station can operate in four different modes: 1) Scanning ionogram , 2) Drift ionogram ...3) Fixed Frequency ionogram 4) Oblique ionogram . Real-time ionograms with the results of their automatic scaling and the history of past soundings...are currently available on the official web site of Athens Digisonde (http://www.iono.noa.gr). For the post-processing of the drift ionogram , the

  6. Strange Attractors in Drift Wave Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    J.L.V. Lewandowski

    2003-04-25

    A multi-grid part-in-cell algorithm for a shearless slab drift wave model with kinetic electrons is presented. The algorithm, which is based on an exact separation of adiabatic and nonadiabatic electron responses, is used to investigate the presence of strange attractors in drift wave turbulence. Although the simulation model has a large number of degrees of freedom, it is found that the strange attractor is low-dimensional and that it is strongly affected by dissipative (collisional) effects.

  7. Effects of Fault Displacement on Emplacement Drifts

    SciTech Connect

    F. Duan

    2000-04-25

    The purpose of this analysis is to evaluate potential effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts, including drip shields and waste packages emplaced in emplacement drifts. The output from this analysis not only provides data for the evaluation of long-term drift stability but also supports the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) process model report (PMR) and Disruptive Events Report currently under development. The primary scope of this analysis includes (1) examining fault displacement effects in terms of induced stresses and displacements in the rock mass surrounding an emplacement drift and (2 ) predicting fault displacement effects on the drip shield and waste package. The magnitude of the fault displacement analyzed in this analysis bounds the mean fault displacement corresponding to an annual frequency of exceedance of 10{sup -5} adopted for the preclosure period of the repository and also supports the postclosure performance assessment. This analysis is performed following the development plan prepared for analyzing effects of fault displacement on emplacement drifts (CRWMS M&O 2000). The analysis will begin with the identification and preparation of requirements, criteria, and inputs. A literature survey on accommodating fault displacements encountered in underground structures such as buried oil and gas pipelines will be conducted. For a given fault displacement, the least favorable scenario in term of the spatial relation of a fault to an emplacement drift is chosen, and the analysis is then performed analytically. Based on the analysis results, conclusions are made regarding the effects and consequences of fault displacement on emplacement drifts. Specifically, the analysis will discuss loads which can be induced by fault displacement on emplacement drifts, drip shield and/or waste packages during the time period of postclosure.

  8. Thermodynamics Insights for the Redshift Drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ming-Jian; Liu, Wen-Biao

    2015-01-01

    The secular redshift drift is a potential measurement to directly probe the cosmic expansion. Previous study on the redshift drift mainly focused on the model-dependent simulation. Apparently, the physical insights on the redshift drift are very necessary. So in this paper, it is investigated using thermodynamics on the apparent, Hubble and event horizons. Thermodynamics could analytically present the model-independent upper bounds of redshift drift. For specific assumption on the cosmological parameters, we find that the thermodynamics bounds are nearly one order of magnitude larger than the expectation in standard ΛCDM model. We then examine ten observed redshift drift from Green Bank Telescope at redshift 0.09 < z < 0.69, and find that these observational results are inconsistent with the thermodynamics. The size of the errorbars on these measurements is about three orders of magnitude larger than the effect of thermodynamical bounds for the redshift drift. Obviously, we have not yet hit any instrumental systematics at the shift level of 1m s-1 yr-1.

  9. Light-induced drift of Na vapor without physical adsorption on the inner surface of the cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atutov, S. N.

    1986-12-01

    The experimental results are presented, which are obtained by the light-induced drift (LID) of Na vapor in helium without physical adsorption on the cell surface. This condition can be obtained by treatment of the cell surface with vacuum pump oil, which was extracted out of vaseline. By elimination of the physical adsorption the time for establishing the stationary distribution of the vapor density can be reduced (by a factor of ≈ 10 5). The attainable maximum of the drift velocity of Na vapor in helium was 580 cm/s. The relative variation of Na diffusion coefficient was experimentally estimated by optical excitation. The variation is ≈ 0.1. With the help of the LID effect, Na vapor can be localized in a region smaller tha 1 mm.

  10. Glass tube splitting tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, J. A.; Murray, C. D.; Stein, J. A.

    1971-01-01

    Tool accurately splits glass tubing so cuts are aligned 180 deg apart and reassembled tube forms low pressure, gastight enclosure. Device should interest industries using cylindrical closed glass containers.

  11. Eustachian tube (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... are more common in children because their eustachian tubes are shorter, narrower, and more horizontal than in ... become trapped when the tissue of the eustachian tube becomes swollen from colds or allergies. Bacteria trapped ...

  12. Neural Tube Defects

    MedlinePlus

    Neural tube defects are birth defects of the brain, spine, or spinal cord. They happen in the first month ... she is pregnant. The two most common neural tube defects are spina bifida and anencephaly. In spina ...

  13. PEG tube insertion -- discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... shower or bathe. Keeping the PEG-tube in Place If the feeding tube comes out, the stoma ... eds. Pfenninger and Fowler's Procedures for Primary Care . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2011:chap 100. ...

  14. Feeding tube - infants

    MedlinePlus

    ... NG - infants Images Feeding tube References Kim YS. Nasogastric and nasoenteric tube insertion. In: Pfenninger JL, Fowler GC, eds. Pfenninger and Fowler's Procedures for Primary Care . 3rd ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2011:chap ...

  15. Eustachian tube patency

    MedlinePlus

    ... refers to how much the eustachian tube is open. The eustachian tube runs between the middle ear and the throat. It controls the pressure behind the eardrum and middle ear space. This helps keep the middle ear free of ...

  16. 42 CFR 423.2063 - Applicability of laws, regulations and CMS Rulings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., ALJ Hearings, MAC review, and Judicial Review § 423.2063 Applicability of laws, regulations and CMS... on ALJs and the MAC. (b) CMS Rulings are published under the authority of the CMS Administrator...

  17. CMS distributed data analysis with CRAB3

    DOE PAGES

    Mascheroni, M.; Balcas, J.; Belforte, S.; ...

    2015-12-23

    The CMS Remote Analysis Builder (CRAB) is a distributed workflow management tool which facilitates analysis tasks by isolating users from the technical details of the Grid infrastructure. Throughout LHC Run 1, CRAB has been successfully employed by an average of 350 distinct users each week executing about 200,000 jobs per day.CRAB has been significantly upgraded in order to face the new challenges posed by LHC Run 2. Components of the new system include 1) a lightweight client, 2) a central primary server which communicates with the clients through a REST interface, 3) secondary servers which manage user analysis tasks andmore » submit jobs to the CMS resource provisioning system, and 4) a central service to asynchronously move user data from temporary storage in the execution site to the desired storage location. Furthermore, the new system improves the robustness, scalability and sustainability of the service.Here we provide an overview of the new system, operation, and user support, report on its current status, and identify lessons learned from the commissioning phase and production roll-out.« less

  18. CMS distributed data analysis with CRAB3

    SciTech Connect

    Mascheroni, M.; Balcas, J.; Belforte, S.; Bockelman, B. P.; Hernandez, J. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Konstantinov, P. B.; Silva, J. M. D.; Ali, M. A. B. M.; Melo, A. M.; Riahi, H.; Tanasijczuk, A. J.; Yusli, M. N. B.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A. E.; Vaandering, E.

    2015-12-23

    The CMS Remote Analysis Builder (CRAB) is a distributed workflow management tool which facilitates analysis tasks by isolating users from the technical details of the Grid infrastructure. Throughout LHC Run 1, CRAB has been successfully employed by an average of 350 distinct users each week executing about 200,000 jobs per day.CRAB has been significantly upgraded in order to face the new challenges posed by LHC Run 2. Components of the new system include 1) a lightweight client, 2) a central primary server which communicates with the clients through a REST interface, 3) secondary servers which manage user analysis tasks and submit jobs to the CMS resource provisioning system, and 4) a central service to asynchronously move user data from temporary storage in the execution site to the desired storage location. Furthermore, the new system improves the robustness, scalability and sustainability of the service.Here we provide an overview of the new system, operation, and user support, report on its current status, and identify lessons learned from the commissioning phase and production roll-out.

  19. Status of the CMS pixel project

    SciTech Connect

    Uplegger, Lorenzo; /Fermilab

    2008-01-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid Experiment (CMS) will start taking data at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) in 2008. The closest detector to the interaction point is the silicon pixel detector which is the heart of the tracking system. It consists of three barrel layers and two pixel disks on each side of the interaction point for a total of 66 million channels. Its proximity to the interaction point means there will be very large particle fluences and therefore a radiation-tolerant design is necessary. The pixel detector will be crucial to achieve a good vertex resolution and will play a key role in pattern recognition and track reconstruction. The results from test beam runs prove that the expected performances can be achieved. The detector is currently being assembled and will be ready for insertion into CMS in early 2008. During the assembly phase, a thorough electronic test is being done to check the functionality of each channel to guarantee the performance required to achieve the physics goals. This report will present the final detector design, the status of the production as well as results from test beam runs to validate the expected performance.

  20. The Phase1 CMS Pixel detector upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tavolaro, V. R.

    2016-12-01

    The pixel detector of the CMS experiment will be replaced in an extended end-of-year shutdown during winter 2016/2017 with an upgraded one able to cope with peak instantaneous luminosities beyond the nominal LHC instantaneous luminosity of 1 × 1034 cm-2 s-1. Under the conditions expected in the coming years, which will see an increase of a factor two in instantaneous luminosity, the present system would experience a dynamic inefficiency caused mainly by data losses due to buffer overflows. The Phase I upgrade of the CMS pixel detector, described in this paper, will operate at full efficiency at an instantaneous luminosity of 2 × 1034 cm-2 s-1 and beyond, thanks to a new readout chip. The new detector will feature one additional tracking point both in the barrel and in the forward regions, while reducing the material budget as a result of a new CO2 cooling system and optimised layout of the services. In this paper, the design and the technological choices of the Phase I detector will be reviewed and the status of the construction of the detector and the performance of its components will be discussed.

  1. Status of the CMS Detector Control System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, Gerry; Behrens, Ulf; Bowen, Matthew; Branson, James; Bukowiec, Sebastian; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, Jose Antonio; Deldicque, Christian; Dobson, Marc; Dupont, Aymeric; Erhan, Samim; Flossdorf, Alexander; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, Robert; Hartl, Christian; Hegeman, Jeroen; Holzner, Andre; Hwong, Yi Ling; Masetti, Lorenzo; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Mommsen, Remigius K.; O'Dell, Vivian; Orsini, Luciano; Paus, Christoph; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Polese, Giovanni; Racz, Attila; Raginel, Olivier; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schwick, Christoph; Shpakov, Dennis; Simon, Michal; Cristian Spataru, Andrei; Sumorok, Konstanty

    2012-12-01

    The Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) is a CERN multi-purpose experiment that exploits the physics of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). The Detector Control System (DCS) is responsible for ensuring the safe, correct and efficient operation of the experiment, and has contributed to the recording of high quality physics data. The DCS is programmed to automatically react to the LHC operational mode. CMS sub-detectors’ bias voltages are set depending on the machine mode and particle beam conditions. An operator provided with a small set of screens supervises the system status summarized from the approximately 6M monitored parameters. Using the experience of nearly two years of operation with beam the DCS automation software has been enhanced to increase the system efficiency by minimizing the time required by sub-detectors to prepare for physics data taking. From the infrastructure point of view the DCS will be subject to extensive modifications in 2012. The current rack mounted control PCs will be replaced by a redundant pair of DELL Blade systems. These blade servers are a high-density modular solution that incorporates servers and networking into a single chassis that provides shared power, cooling and management. This infrastructure modification associated with the migration to blade servers will challenge the DCS software and hardware factorization capabilities. The on-going studies for this migration together with the latest modifications are discussed in the paper.

  2. CMS distributed data analysis with CRAB3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mascheroni, M.; Balcas, J.; Belforte, S.; Bockelman, B. P.; Hernandez, J. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Konstantinov, P. B.; Silva, J. M. D.; Ali, M. A. B. M.; Melo, A. M.; Riahi, H.; Tanasijczuk, A. J.; Yusli, M. N. B.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A. E.; Vaandering, E.

    2015-12-01

    The CMS Remote Analysis Builder (CRAB) is a distributed workflow management tool which facilitates analysis tasks by isolating users from the technical details of the Grid infrastructure. Throughout LHC Run 1, CRAB has been successfully employed by an average of 350 distinct users each week executing about 200,000 jobs per day. CRAB has been significantly upgraded in order to face the new challenges posed by LHC Run 2. Components of the new system include 1) a lightweight client, 2) a central primary server which communicates with the clients through a REST interface, 3) secondary servers which manage user analysis tasks and submit jobs to the CMS resource provisioning system, and 4) a central service to asynchronously move user data from temporary storage in the execution site to the desired storage location. The new system improves the robustness, scalability and sustainability of the service. Here we provide an overview of the new system, operation, and user support, report on its current status, and identify lessons learned from the commissioning phase and production roll-out.

  3. Performance of the CMS High Level Trigger

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrotta, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    The CMS experiment has been designed with a 2-level trigger system. The first level is implemented using custom-designed electronics. The second level is the so-called High Level Trigger (HLT), a streamlined version of the CMS offline reconstruction software running on a computer farm. For Run II of the Large Hadron Collider, the increases in center-of-mass energy and luminosity will raise the event rate to a level challenging for the HLT algorithms. The increase in the number of interactions per bunch crossing, on average 25 in 2012, and expected to be around 40 in Run II, will be an additional complication. We present here the expected performance of the main triggers that will be used during the 2015 data taking campaign, paying particular attention to the new approaches that have been developed to cope with the challenges of the new run. This includes improvements in HLT electron and photon reconstruction as well as better performing muon triggers. We will also present the performance of the improved tracking and vertexing algorithms, discussing their impact on the b-tagging performance as well as on the jet and missing energy reconstruction.

  4. Guide tube flow diffuser

    SciTech Connect

    Berringer, R.T.; Myron, D.L.

    1980-11-04

    A nuclear reactor upper internal guide tube has a flow diffuser integral with its bottom end. The guide tube provides guidance for control rods during their ascent or descent from the reactor core. The flow diffuser serves to divert the upward flow of reactor coolant around the outside of the guide tube thereby limiting the amount of coolant flow and turbulence within the guide tube, thus enhancing the ease of movement of the control rods.

  5. Microhole Tubing Bending Report

    DOE Data Explorer

    Oglesby, Ken

    2012-01-01

    A downhole tubing bending study was made and is reported herein. IT contains a report and 2 excel spreadsheets to calculate tubing bending and to estimate contact points of the tubing to the drilled hole wall (creating a new support point).

  6. 1992 tubing tables

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    This paper is helpful to those designing oil well completions or purchasing tubing with proprietary or premium connections. Tables contain specifications and application data for over 100 different tubing joints, including those used with fiberglass pipe. The tables this year contain dimensional and performance data for coiled tubing.

  7. Prospects for SUSY searches in CMS and ATLAS

    SciTech Connect

    Jong, Paul de

    2008-11-23

    We discuss how the CMS and ATLAS experiments are preparing for the analysis of first LHC data with emphasis on the search for supersymmetry. We will show the importance of the understanding of detector, trigger, reconstruction and backgrounds, and we will present realistic estimates of the reach of CMS and ATLAS.

  8. Higgs Boson Search at LHC (and LHC/CMS status)

    SciTech Connect

    Korytov, Andrey

    2008-11-23

    Presented are the results of the most recent studies by the CMS and ATLAS collaborations on the expected sensitivity of their detectors to observing a Higgs boson at LHC. The overview is preceded with a brief summary of the LHC and the CMS Experiment status.

  9. 42 CFR 460.18 - CMS evaluation of applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ELDERLY (PACE) PACE Organization Application and Waiver Process § 460.18 CMS evaluation of applications... information: (a) Information contained in the application. (b) Information obtained through onsite visits conducted by CMS or the State administering agency. (c) Information obtained by the State administering...

  10. 45 CFR 150.203 - Circumstances requiring CMS enforcement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... individual market. If a State has notified CMS that it is implementing an acceptable alternative mechanism in... requirements of § 148.120, CMS's determination focuses on the following: (1) Whether the State's mechanism meets the requirements for an acceptable alternative mechanism. (2) Whether the State is...

  11. 42 CFR 416.30 - Terms of agreement with CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... from someone on their behalf. (2) As used in this section, money incorrectly collected means sums... entitlement period falls within the time the ASC's agreement with CMS is in effect. (d) Furnishing information. The ASC agrees to furnish to CMS, if requested, information necessary to establish payment rates...

  12. 42 CFR 416.30 - Terms of agreement with CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... from someone on their behalf. (2) As used in this section, money incorrectly collected means sums... entitlement period falls within the time the ASC's agreement with CMS is in effect. (d) Furnishing information. The ASC agrees to furnish to CMS, if requested, information necessary to establish payment rates...

  13. 42 CFR 416.30 - Terms of agreement with CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... from someone on their behalf. (2) As used in this section, money incorrectly collected means sums... entitlement period falls within the time the ASC's agreement with CMS is in effect. (d) Furnishing information. The ASC agrees to furnish to CMS, if requested, information necessary to establish payment rates...

  14. 42 CFR 416.30 - Terms of agreement with CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... from someone on their behalf. (2) As used in this section, money incorrectly collected means sums... entitlement period falls within the time the ASC's agreement with CMS is in effect. (d) Furnishing information. The ASC agrees to furnish to CMS, if requested, information necessary to establish payment rates...

  15. 42 CFR 416.30 - Terms of agreement with CMS.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... from someone on their behalf. (2) As used in this section, money incorrectly collected means sums... entitlement period falls within the time the ASC's agreement with CMS is in effect. (d) Furnishing information. The ASC agrees to furnish to CMS, if requested, information necessary to establish payment rates...

  16. Proteomic Analysis of Male-Fertility Restoration in CMS Onion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The production of hybrid-onion seed is dependent on cytoplasmic-genic male sterility (CMS) systems. For the most commonly used CMS, male-sterile (S) cytoplasm interacts with a dominant allele at one nuclear male-fertility restoration locus (Ms) to condition male fertility. We are using proteomics ...

  17. Proteomic analyses of male-fertility restoration in CMS onion

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The production of hybrid-onion seed is dependent on cytoplasmic-genic male sterility (CMS) systems. For the most commonly used CMS, male-sterile (S) cytoplasm interacts with a dominant allele at one nuclear male-fertility restoration locus (Ms) to condition male fertility. We are using a proteomics ...

  18. Risk factors for cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) in Norwegian salmon farming.

    PubMed

    Bang Jensen, Britt; Brun, Edgar; Fineid, Birgitte; Larssen, Rolf Bjerke; Kristoffersen, Anja B

    2013-12-12

    Cardiomyopathy syndrome (CMS) has been an economically important disease in Norwegian aquaculture since the 1990s. In this study, data on monthly production characteristics and case registrations were combined in a cohort study and supplemented with a questionnaire-based case-control survey on management factors in order to identify risk factors for CMS. The cohort study included cases and controls from 2005 to 2012. From this dataset differences between all cases and controls were analyzed by a mixed effect multivariate logistic regression. From this we found that the probability of CMS increased with increasing time in the sea, infection pressure, and cohort size, and that cohorts which had previously been diagnosed with heart and skeletal muscle inflammation or which were in farms with a history of CMS in previous cohorts had double the odds of developing CMS. The model was then used to calculate the predicted value for each cohort from which additional data were obtained via the questionnaire-based survey and used as offset for calculating the probability of CMS in a semi-univariate analysis of additional risk factors. Finally, the model was used to calculate the probability of developing CMS in 100 different scenarios in which the cohorts were subject to increasingly worse conditions with regards to the risk factors from the dataset. We believe that this exercise is a good way of communicating the findings to farmers, so they can make informed decisions when trying to avoid CMS in their fish cohorts.

  19. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5800 Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into...

  20. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5800 Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into...

  1. 21 CFR 868.5800 - Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. 868.5800 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5800 Tracheostomy tube and tube cuff. (a) Identification. A tracheostomy tube and tube cuff is a device intended to be placed into...

  2. REACTOR COOLANT TUBE SEAL

    DOEpatents

    Morris, W.J.

    1958-12-01

    A plle-flattenlng control element and a fluid seal therefore to permit movement of the element into a liquld contnining region of a neutronlc reactor are described. The device consists of flattened, thin-walled aluminum tubing contalnlng a uniform mixture of thermal neutron absorbing material, and a number of soft rubber closures for the process tubes, having silts capable of passing the flattened elements therethrough, but effectively sealing the process tubes against fluld leaknge by compression of the rubber. The flattened tubing is sufficiently flexible to enable it to conform to the configuratlon of the annular spacing surrounding the fuel elements ln the process tubes.

  3. Telescoping tube assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturm, Albert J. (Inventor); Marrinan, Thomas E. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An extensible and retractable telescoping tube positions test devices that inspect large stationary objects. The tube has three dimensional adjustment capabilities and is vertically suspended from a frame. The tube sections are independently supported with each section comprising U-shaped housing secured to a thicker support plate. Guide mechanisms preferably mounted only to the thicker plates guide each tube section parallel to a reference axis with improved accuracy so that the position of the remote end of the telescoping tube is precisely known.

  4. Pollen tube development.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Mark A; Kost, Benedikt

    2010-01-01

    Pollen tubes grow rapidly in a strictly polarized manner as they transport male reproductive cells through female flower tissues to bring about fertilization. Vegetative pollen tube cells are an excellent model system to investigate processes underlying directional cell expansion. In this chapter, we describe materials and methods required for (1) the identification of novel factors essential for polarized cell growth through the isolation and analysis of Arabidopsis mutants with defects in pollen tube growth and (2) the detailed functional characterization of pollen tube proteins based on transient transformation and microscopic analysis of cultured tobacco pollen tubes.

  5. Gas analyzer's drift leads to systematic error in maximal oxygen uptake and maximal respiratory exchange ratio determination.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Tabar, Ibai; Eclache, Jean P; Aramendi, José F; Gorostiaga, Esteban M

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to examine the drift in the measurements of fractional concentration of oxygen (FO2) and carbon dioxide (FCO2) of a Nafion-using metabolic cart during incremental maximal exercise in 18 young and 12 elderly males, and to propose a way in which the drift can be corrected. The drift was verified by comparing the pre-test calibration values with the immediate post-test verification values of the calibration gases. The system demonstrated an average downscale drift (P < 0.001) in FO2 and FCO2 of -0.18% and -0.05%, respectively. Compared with measured values, corrected average maximal oxygen uptakevalues were 5-6% lower (P < 0.001) whereas corrected maximal respiratory exchange ratio values were 8-9% higher (P < 0.001). The drift was not due to an electronic instability in the analyzers because it was reverted after 20 min of recovery from the end of the exercise. The drift may be related to an incomplete removal of water vapor from the expired gas during transit through the Nafion conducting tube. These data demonstrate the importance of checking FO2 and FCO2 values by regular pre-test calibrations and post-test verifications, and also the importance of correcting a possible shift immediately after exercise.

  6. Ion mobility mass spectrometry of peptide, protein, and protein complex ions using a radio-frequency confining drift cell.

    PubMed

    Allen, Samuel J; Giles, Kevin; Gilbert, Tony; Bush, Matthew F

    2016-02-07

    Ion mobility mass spectrometry experiments enable the characterization of mass, assembly, and shape of biological molecules and assemblies. Here, a new radio-frequency confining drift cell is characterized and used to measure the mobilities of peptide, protein, and protein complex ions. The new drift cell replaced the traveling-wave ion mobility cell in a Waters Synapt G2 HDMS. Methods for operating the drift cell and determining collision cross section values using this experimental set up are presented within the context of the original instrument control software. Collision cross sections for 349 cations and anions are reported, 155 of which are for ions that have not been characterized previously using ion mobility. The values for the remaining ions are similar to those determined using a previous radio-frequency confining drift cell and drift tubes without radial confinement. Using this device under 2 Torr of helium gas and an optimized drift voltage, denatured and native-like ions exhibited average apparent resolving powers of 14.2 and 16.5, respectively. For ions with high mobility, which are also low in mass, the apparent resolving power is limited by contributions from ion gating. In contrast, the arrival-time distributions of low-mobility, native-like ions are not well explained using only contributions from ion gating and diffusion. For those species, the widths of arrival-time distributions are most consistent with the presence of multiple structures in the gas phase.

  7. Gas analyzer's drift leads to systematic error in maximal oxygen uptake and maximal respiratory exchange ratio determination

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Tabar, Ibai; Eclache, Jean P.; Aramendi, José F.; Gorostiaga, Esteban M.

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to examine the drift in the measurements of fractional concentration of oxygen (FO2) and carbon dioxide (FCO2) of a Nafion-using metabolic cart during incremental maximal exercise in 18 young and 12 elderly males, and to propose a way in which the drift can be corrected. The drift was verified by comparing the pre-test calibration values with the immediate post-test verification values of the calibration gases. The system demonstrated an average downscale drift (P < 0.001) in FO2 and FCO2 of −0.18% and −0.05%, respectively. Compared with measured values, corrected average maximal oxygen uptakevalues were 5–6% lower (P < 0.001) whereas corrected maximal respiratory exchange ratio values were 8–9% higher (P < 0.001). The drift was not due to an electronic instability in the analyzers because it was reverted after 20 min of recovery from the end of the exercise. The drift may be related to an incomplete removal of water vapor from the expired gas during transit through the Nafion conducting tube. These data demonstrate the importance of checking FO2 and FCO2 values by regular pre-test calibrations and post-test verifications, and also the importance of correcting a possible shift immediately after exercise. PMID:26578980

  8. Heat tube device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khattar, Mukesh K. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    The present invention discloses a heat tube device through which a working fluid can be circulated to transfer heat to air in a conventional air conditioning system. The heat tube device is disposable about a conventional cooling coil of the air conditioning system and includes a plurality of substantially U-shaped tubes connected to a support structure. The support structure includes members for allowing the heat tube device to be readily positioned about the cooling coil. An actuatable adjustment device is connected to the U-shaped tubes for allowing, upon actuation thereof, for the heat tubes to be simultaneously rotated relative to the cooling coil for allowing the heat transfer from the heat tube device to air in the air conditioning system to be selectively varied.

  9. Drift emplaced waste package thermal response

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffner, D.J.; Johnson, G.L.; Platt, E.A.; Blink, J.A.; Doering, T.W.

    1993-12-31

    Thermal calculations of the effects of radioactive waste decay heat on the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have been conducted by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) at Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL) in conjunction with the B&W Fuel Co. For a number of waste package spacings, these 3D transient calculations use the TOPAZ3D code to predict drift wall temperatures to 10,000 years following emplacement. Systematic temperature variation occurs as a function of fuel age at emplacement and Areal Mass Loading (AML) during the first few centuries after emplacement. After about 1000 years, emplacement age is not a strong driver on rock temperature; AML has a larger impact. High AMLs occur when large waste packages are emplaced end-to-end in drifts. Drift emplacement of equivalent packages results in lower rock temperatures than borehole emplacement. For an emplacement scheme with 50% of the drift length occupied by packages, an AML of 138 MTU/acre is about three times higher than the Site Characterization Plan-Conceptual Design (SCP-CD) value. With this higher AML (requiring only 1/3 of the SCP-CD repository footprint), peak drift wall temperatures do not exceed 160{degrees}C, but rock temperatures exceed the boiling point of water for about 3000 years. These TOPAZ3D results have been compared with reasonable agreement with two other computer codes.

  10. Drift emplaced waste package thermal response

    SciTech Connect

    Ruffner, D.J.; Johnson, G.L.; Platt, E.A.; Blink, J.A.; Doering, T.W.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal calculations of the effects of radioactive waste decay heat on the I repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada have been conducted by the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in conjunction with the B&W Fuel Company. For a number of waste package spacings, these 3D transient calculations use the TOPAZ3D code to predict drift wall temperatures to 10,000 years following emplacement. Systematic tcniperature variation occurs as a function of fuel age at emplacement and Areal Mass Loading (AML) during the first few centuries after emplacement. After about 1000 years, emplacement age is not a strong driver on rock temperature; AML has a larger impact. High AMLs occur when large waste packages are emplaced end-tocnd in drifts. Drift emplacement of equivalent packages results in lower rock teniperatures than borehole emplacement. For an emplacement scheme with 50% of the drift length occupied by packages, an AML of 138 MTU/acre is about three times higher than the Site Characterization Plan-Conceptual Design (SCP-CD) value. With this higher AML (requiring only 1/3 of the SCP-CD repository footprint), peak drift wall temperatures do not exceed 160*C, but rock temperatures excetd the boiling point of water for about 3000 years. These TOPAZ3D results Iiive been compared with reasonable agreement with two other computer codes.

  11. The generalized drift flux approach: Identification of the void-drift closure law

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boure, J. A.

    1989-01-01

    The main characteristics and the potential advantages of generalized drift flux models are presented. In particular it is stressed that the issue on the propagation properties and on the mathematical nature (hyperbolic or not) of the model and the problem of closure are easier to tackle than in two fluid models. The problem of identifying the differential void-drift closure law inherent to generalized drift flux models is then addressed. Such a void-drift closure, based on wave properties, is proposed for bubbly flows. It involves a drift relaxation time which is of the order of 0.25 s. It is observed that, although wave properties provide essential closure validity tests, they do not represent an easily usable source of quantitative information on the closure laws.

  12. Intercostal drainage tube or intracardiac drainage tube?

    PubMed Central

    Anitha, N.; Kamath, S. Ganesh; Khymdeit, Edison; Prabhu, Manjunath

    2016-01-01

    Although insertion of chest drain tubes is a common medical practice, there are risks associated with this procedure, especially when inexperienced physicians perform it. Wrong insertion of the tube has been known to cause morbidity and occasional mortality. We report a case where the left ventricle was accidentally punctured leading to near-exsanguination. This report is to highlight the need for experienced physicians to supervise the procedure and train the younger physician in the safe performance of the procedure. PMID:27397467

  13. Optimizing CMS build infrastructure via Apache Mesos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdurachmanov, David; Degano, Alessandro; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Mendez, David; Muzaffar, Shahzad

    2015-12-01

    The Offline Software of the CMS Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN consists of 6M lines of in-house code, developed over a decade by nearly 1000 physicists, as well as a comparable amount of general use open-source code. A critical ingredient to the success of the construction and early operation of the WLCG was the convergence, around the year 2000, on the use of a homogeneous environment of commodity x86-64 processors and Linux. Apache Mesos is a cluster manager that provides efficient resource isolation and sharing across distributed applications, or frameworks. It can run Hadoop, Jenkins, Spark, Aurora, and other applications on a dynamically shared pool of nodes. We present how we migrated our continuous integration system to schedule jobs on a relatively small Apache Mesos enabled cluster and how this resulted in better resource usage, higher peak performance and lower latency thanks to the dynamic scheduling capabilities of Mesos.

  14. Optimizing CMS build infrastructure via Apache Mesos

    SciTech Connect

    Abdurachmanov, David; Degano, Alessandro; Elmer, Peter; Eulisse, Giulio; Mendez, David; Muzaffar, Shahzad

    2015-12-23

    The Offline Software of the CMS Experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN consists of 6M lines of in-house code, developed over a decade by nearly 1000 physicists, as well as a comparable amount of general use open-source code. A critical ingredient to the success of the construction and early operation of the WLCG was the convergence, around the year 2000, on the use of a homogeneous environment of commodity x86-64 processors and Linux.Apache Mesos is a cluster manager that provides efficient resource isolation and sharing across distributed applications, or frameworks. It can run Hadoop, Jenkins, Spark, Aurora, and other applications on a dynamically shared pool of nodes. Lastly, we present how we migrated our continuous integration system to schedule jobs on a relatively small Apache Mesos enabled cluster and how this resulted in better resource usage, higher peak performance and lower latency thanks to the dynamic scheduling capabilities of Mesos.

  15. MPPC photon sensor operational experience in CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Künsken, Andreas; CMS Collaboration

    2015-02-01

    During the first long shutdown of the LHC the Outer Hadron Calorimeter of CMS has been equipped with silicon photomultipliers that replace the existing hybrid photodiodes while maintaining most of the readout chain. The new photon sensors are Hamamatsu MultiPixel Photon Counters with an active area of 3 mm × 3 mm and a cell pitch of 50 μm. Different means of determining the device's breakdown voltage and gain are presented. The stability of the overall system temperature as well as the stability of the gain and the breakdown voltage of the silicon photomultipliers are studied. The correlation between the different methods of determining the gain and breakdown voltage is tested to find whether they yield comparable results.

  16. Radiation simulations of the CMS detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoddard, Graham J.

    This thesis presents results of recent radiation simulations for the Compact Muon Solenoid detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN performed using the Monte Carlo simulation package FLUKA. High statistics simulations with a fine granularity in the detector were carried out using the Condor batch system at the Fermilab LHC Physics Center. In addition, an existing web tool for accessing and displaying simulation data was upgraded. The FLUKA data and previously generated MARS Monte Carlo data can be plotted using 1-D or 2-D plotting functionalities along R and Z, the transverse distance from the beamline and the distance along the beamline, respectively. Comparisons between the data sets have been carried out; the effect of particle transport thresholds in both packages was explored, comparisons with zero magnetic field in the CMS solenoid and full field are made, a model of non-ionizing energy losses is examined, and sensitive areas of interest within the simulation are identified.

  17. Computing challenges of the CMS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krammer, N.; Liko, D.

    2017-06-01

    The success of the LHC experiments is due to the magnificent performance of the detector systems and the excellent operating computing systems. The CMS offline software and computing system is successfully fulfilling the LHC Run 2 requirements. For the increased data rate of future LHC operation, together with high pileup interactions, improvements of the usage of the current computing facilities and new technologies became necessary. Especially for the challenge of the future HL-LHC a more flexible and sophisticated computing model is needed. In this presentation, I will discuss the current computing system used in the LHC Run 2 and future computing facilities for the HL-LHC runs using flexible computing technologies like commercial and academic computing clouds. The cloud resources are highly virtualized and can be deployed for a variety of computing tasks providing the capacities for the increasing needs of large scale scientific computing.

  18. Estimating job runtime for CMS analysis jobs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sfiligoi, I.

    2014-06-01

    The basic premise of pilot systems is to create an overlay scheduling system on top of leased resources. And by definition, leases have a limited lifetime, so any job that is scheduled on such resources must finish before the lease is over, or it will be killed and all the computation is wasted. In order to effectively schedule jobs to resources, the pilot system thus requires the expected runtime of the users' jobs. Past studies have shown that relying on user provided estimates is not a valid strategy, so the system should try to make an estimate by itself. This paper provides a study of the historical data obtained from the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment's Analysis Operations submission system. Clear patterns are observed, suggesting that making prediction of an expected job lifetime range is achievable with high confidence level in this environment.

  19. Community Air Monitoring for Pesticide Drift Using Pesticide Action Network's (PAN) Drift Catcher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marquez, E.

    2016-12-01

    Community air monitoring projects for pesticides in the air have been conducted by PAN in collaboration with community members and locally based groups engaged around pesticide issues. PAN is part of an international network working to promote a just, thriving food system and replace the use of hazardous pesticides with ecologically sound alternatives. The Drift Catcher is an air-monitoring device with a design based on the California Air Resource Board's air monitoring equipment, and has been used in community-based projects in 11 states. Observations of pesticide drift made by community members cannot always be confirmed by regulatory agencies—if an inspection is made hours or days after a drift incident, the evidence may no longer be present. The Drift Catcher makes it possible to collect scientific evidence of pesticide drift in areas where people live, work, and play. One of the most recent Drift Catcher projects was done in California, in partnership with the Safe Strawberry Coalition and led by the statewide coalition Californians for Pesticide Reform. The data were used to support a call for stronger mitigation rules for the fumigant chloropicrin and to support a campaign asking for stronger pesticide rules to protect children attending school in close proximity to agricultural fields. The Drift Catcher data are used by organizers and community members to engage policymakers with the intention of making policy change on a local and/or statewide level. On the national level, PAN's Drift Catcher data has helped win regulatory recognition of volatilization drift for pesticides other than fumigants. Lessons learned from conducting community-based research projects will also be discussed. PAN is also currently assessing other community-based monitoring tools, such as community surveys and drift questionnaires that may allow communities to collect data that can also support the campaign work.

  20. Drift chambers in BM@N Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fedorišin, Ján

    2017-03-01

    Drift chambers (DCH) constitute an important part of the tracking system of BM@N experiment designed to study the production of baryonic matter at the Nuclotron energies. The method of particle hit and track reconstruction in the drift chambers is proposed and tested on the BM@N deuteron beam data. In first step, the radius vs drift time calibration curve is estimated and applied to calculate DCH hit closest approach coordinates. These coordinates are used to construct hits in each DCH under the assumption of track linearity. Hits in both the DCHs are subsequently aligned and fitted to produce global linear track candidates. Eventually the hit and track reconstruction is optimized by the autocalibration method. The coordinate resolutions are estimated from Gaussian fits of the DCH hit residual spectra for different DCH planes. Furthermore, the deuteron beam momentum value is reconstructed in order to check reliability of the employed track reconstruction algorithm.

  1. Drift due to viscous vortex rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrell, Thomas; Spagnolie, Saverio; Thiffeault, Jean-Luc

    2016-11-01

    Biomixing is the study of fluid mixing due to swimming organisms. While large organisms typically produce turbulent flows in their wake, small organisms produce less turbulent wakes; the main mechanism of mixing is the induced net particle displacement (drift). Several experiments have examined this drift for small jellyfish, which produce vortex rings that trap and transport a fair amount of fluid. Inviscid theory implies infinite particle displacements for the trapped fluid, so the effect of viscosity must be included to understand the damping of real vortex motion. We use a model viscous vortex ring to compute particle displacements and other relevant quantities, such as the integrated moments of the displacement. Fluid entrainment at the tail end of a growing vortex 'envelope' is found to play an important role in the total fluid transport and drift. Partially supported by NSF Grant DMS-1109315.

  2. Dealing with concept drifts in process mining.

    PubMed

    Bose, R P Jagadeesh Chandra; van der Aalst, Wil M P; Zliobaite, Indre; Pechenizkiy, Mykola

    2014-01-01

    Although most business processes change over time, contemporary process mining techniques tend to analyze these processes as if they are in a steady state. Processes may change suddenly or gradually. The drift may be periodic (e.g., because of seasonal influences) or one-of-a-kind (e.g., the effects of new legislation). For the process management, it is crucial to discover and understand such concept drifts in processes. This paper presents a generic framework and specific techniques to detect when a process changes and to localize the parts of the process that have changed. Different features are proposed to characterize relationships among activities. These features are used to discover differences between successive populations. The approach has been implemented as a plug-in of the ProM process mining framework and has been evaluated using both simulated event data exhibiting controlled concept drifts and real-life event data from a Dutch municipality.

  3. P-type silicon drift detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Walton, J.T.; Krieger, B.; Krofcheck, D.; O`Donnell, R.; Odyniec, G.; Partlan, M.D.; Wang, N.W.

    1995-06-01

    Preliminary results on 16 CM{sup 2}, position-sensitive silicon drift detectors, fabricated for the first time on p-type silicon substrates, are presented. The detectors were designed, fabricated, and tested recently at LBL and show interesting properties which make them attractive for use in future physics experiments. A pulse count rate of approximately 8 {times} l0{sup 6} s{sup {minus}1} is demonstrated by the p-type silicon drift detectors. This count rate estimate is derived by measuring simultaneous tracks produced by a laser and photolithographic mask collimator that generates double tracks separated by 50 {mu}m to 1200 {mu}m. A new method of using ion-implanted polysilicon to produce precise valued bias resistors on the silicon drift detectors is also discussed.

  4. Cross-protection against drifted influenza viruses

    PubMed Central

    Orsi, Andrea; Ansaldi, Filippo; de Florentiis, Daniela; Ceravolo, Antonella; Parodi, Valentina; Canepa, Paola; Coppelli, Martina; Icardi, Giancarlo; Durando, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Antigenic drift, the evolutionary mechanism of influenza viruses, results in an increased susceptibility of vaccinated subjects against circulating viruses. New vaccines able to grant a broader and cross-reactive immune response against drifted influenza variants are needed. Several strategies were explored to enhance the immunogenicity of plain vaccines: adjuvants, carriers and intradermal administration of influenza vaccine emerge as a promising options. To evaluate the ability of a MF59™-adjuvanted and intradermal influenza vaccine to elicit an effective antibody response against circulating viruses presenting antigenic patterns different from those of the vaccine strains, we compared antibody responses elicited by “implemented” vaccines and conventional intramuscular trivalent inactivated vaccine against heterologous circulating influenza A viruses. Different studies, simulating different epidemiological pictures produced by the natural antigenic drift of seasonal influenza viruses, highlighted the superior cross-reactivity of the antibodies elicited by MF59™ and intradermal vaccines, compared with subunit or split vaccine against heterologous viruses. PMID:23295230

  5. Pulse Tube Refrigerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsubara, Yoichi

    The pulse tube refrigerator is one of the regenerative cycle refrigerators such as Stirling cycle or Gifford-McMahon cycle which gives the cooling temperature below 150 K down to liquid helium temperature. In 1963, W. E. Gifford invented a simple refrigeration cycle which is composed of compressor, regenerator and simple tube named as pulse tube which gives a similar function of the expander in Stirling or Gifford-McMahon cycle. The thermodynamically performance of this pulse tube refrigerator is inferior to that of other regenerative cycles. In 1984, however, Mikulin and coworkers made a significant advance in pulse tube configuration called as orifice pulse tube. After this, several modifications of the pulse tube hot end configuration have been developed. With those modifications, the thermodynamic performance of the pulse tube refrigerator became the same order to that of Stirling and Gifford-McMahon refrigerator. This article reviews the brief history of the pulse tube refrigerator development in the view point of its thermodynamically efficiency. Simplified theories of the energy flow in the pulse tube have also been described.

  6. Performance studies and improvements of CMS distributed data transfers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonacorsi, D.; Flix, J.; Kaselis, R.; Letts, J.; Magini, N.; Sartirana, A.

    2012-12-01

    CMS computing needs reliable, stable and fast connections among multi-tiered distributed infrastructures. CMS experiment relies on File Transfer Services (FTS) for data distribution, a low level data movement service responsible for moving sets of files from one site to another, while allowing participating sites to control the network resource usage. FTS servers are provided by Tier-0 and Tier-1 centers and used by all the computing sites in CMS, subject to established CMS and sites setup policies, including all the virtual organizations making use of the Grid resources at the site, and properly dimensioned to satisfy all the requirements for them. Managing the service efficiently needs good knowledge of the CMS needs for all kind of transfer routes, and the sharing and interference with other VOs using the same FTS transfer managers. This contribution deals with a complete revision of all FTS servers used by CMS, customizing the topologies and improving their setup in order to keep CMS transferring data to the desired levels, as well as performance studies for all kind of transfer routes, including overheads measurements introduced by SRM servers and storage systems, FTS server misconfigurations and identification of congested channels, historical transfer throughputs per stream, file-latency studies,… This information is retrieved directly from the FTS servers through the FTS Monitor webpages and conveniently archived for further analysis. The project provides an interface for all these values, to ease the analysis of the data.

  7. Multiple CMS-restorer gene polymorphism in gynodioecious Plantago coronopus.

    PubMed

    van Damme, J M M; Hundscheid, M P J; Ivanovic, S; Koelewijn, H P

    2004-08-01

    The mode of inheritance of the male sterility trait is crucial for understanding the evolutionary dynamics of the sexual system gynodioecy, which is the co-occurrence of female and hermaphrodite plants in natural populations. Both cytoplasmic (CMS) and nuclear (restorer) genes are known to be involved. Theoretical models usually assume a limited number of CMS genes with each a single restorer gene, while reality is more complex. In this study, it is shown that in the gynodioecious species Plantago coronopus two new CMS-restorer polymorphisms exist in addition to the two that were already known, which means four CMS-restorer systems at the species level. Furthermore, three CMS types were shown to co-occur within a single population. All new CMS types showed a multilocus system for male fertility restoration, in which both recessive and dominant restorer alleles occur. Our finding of more than two co-occurring CMS-restorer systems each with multiple restorer genes raises the question how this complex of male sterility systems is maintained in natural populations.

  8. Drift Mode Calculations in Nonaxisymmetric Geometry

    SciTech Connect

    G. Rewoldt; L.-P. Ku; W.A. Cooper; W.M. Tang

    1999-07-01

    A fully kinetic assessment of the stability properties of toroidal drift modes has been obtained for nonaxisymmetric (stellarator) geometry, in the electrostatic limit. This calculation is a comprehensive solution of the linearized gyrokinetic equation, using the lowest-order ''ballooning representation'' for high toroidal mode number instabilities, with a model collision operator. Results for toroidal drift waves destabilized by temperature gradients and/or trapped particle dynamics are presented, using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equilibria generated as part of a design effort for a quasiaxisymmetric stellarator. Comparisons of these results with those obtained for typical tokamak cases indicate that the basic trends are similar.

  9. Learning in the context of distribution drift

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-05-09

    over time. This is problematic for machine learning because almost all algorithms assume that distributions are constant. This project investigates...drift. 15.  SUBJECT TERMS Machine Learning 16.  SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17.  LIMITATION OF  ABSTRACT SAR 18.  NUMBER OF PAGES   17   19a.  NAME OF...distribution drift: the frequency of different factors and the relationships between them change over time. This is problematic for machine learning because

  10. Generalized Drift-Diffusion Model In Semiconductors

    SciTech Connect

    Mesbah, S.; Bendib-Kalache, K.; Bendib, A.

    2008-09-23

    A new drift-diffusion model is proposed based on the computation of the stationary nonlocal current density. The semi classical Boltzmann equation is solved keeping all the anisotropies of the distribution function with the use of the continued fractions. The conductivity is calculated in the linear approximation and for arbitrary collision frequency with respect to Kv{sub t} where K{sup -1} is the characteristic length scale of the system and V{sub t} is the thermal velocity. The nonlocal conductivity can be used to close the generalized drift-diffusion equations valid for arbitrary collisionality.

  11. Aging and epigenetic drift: a vicious cycle.

    PubMed

    Issa, Jean-Pierre

    2014-01-01

    The term epigenetics refers to stable patterns of gene expression that are seen during differentiation or X chromosome inactivation and are not dependent on dynamic changes in coding DNA. These gene expression states are encoded in the epigenome - a collection of marks on DNA or on histone tails that are established during embryogenesis. Genome-wide studies in aging cells and tissues have uncovered stochastic DNA methylation drift (gradual increases or decreases at specific loci) that reflects imperfect maintenance of epigenetic marks. Drift creates epigenetic mosaicism in aging stem cells that could potentially restrict their plasticity and worsen phenotypes such as stem cell exhaustion and focal proliferative defects that can lead to cancer.

  12. Shock drift mechanism for Forbush decreases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Andrew F.; Sarris, E. T.; Dodopoulos, C.

    1990-01-01

    Consideration is given to the way in which Forbush decreases can arise from variable drifts in nonuniform shocks, where the variation in shock strength along the shock front causes both the shock drift distance and the energy gain to become variable. More particles can then be transported out of a given region of space and energy interval than were transported in, so a spacecraft passing through this region can observe a Forbush decrease in this energy interval despite shock energization and compression. A simple example of how this can occur is presented.

  13. Shock drift mechanism for Forbush decreases

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, A.F.; Sarris, E.T.; Dodopoulos, C. Thrace Democritus Univ., Xanthe )

    1990-02-01

    Consideration is given to the way in which Forbush decreases can arise from variable drifts in nonuniform shocks, where the variation in shock strength along the shock front causes both the shock drift distance and the energy gain to become variable. More particles can then be transported out of a given region of space and energy interval than were transported in, so a spacecraft passing through this region can observe a Forbush decrease in this energy interval despite shock energization and compression. A simple example of how this can occur is presented. 20 refs.

  14. Do the pyramids show continental drift?

    PubMed

    Pawley, G S; Abrahamsen, N

    1973-03-02

    The mystery of the orientation of the Great Pyramids of Giza has remained unexplained for many decades. The general alignment is 4 minutes west of north. It is argued that this is not a builders' error but is caused by movement over the centuries. Modern theories of continental drift do not predict quite such large movements, but other causes of polar wandering give even smaller shifts. Thus, continental drift is the most likely explanation, although somewhat implausible, especially as relevant measurements have been made over a 50-year period, whereas geophysical measurements of sea-floor spreading relate to million-year time scales.

  15. Continental drift under the Third Reich.

    PubMed

    Buffetaut, Eric

    2003-12-01

    Contrary to what happened in many other countries in the 1930s and 1940s, Alfred Wegener's theory of continental drift was not generally rejected in Nazi Germany, although several leading German geologists of the time did not accept it. It was actually presented as the modern view of Earth history in books and magazine articles aimed at the general public. Although outlandish geological theories such as Hörbiger's Welteislehre were favoured by some Nazi dignitaries, they were not widely accepted in scientific circles. On the other hand, continental drift received official support under the Third Reich, at a time when it was ignored or ridiculed by most earth scientists outside Germany.

  16. Drifts of Dust or Something Else?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    While the interior and far walls of the crater dubbed 'Bonneville' can be seen in the background, the dominant foreground features in this 180-degree navigation camera mosaic are the wind-deposited drifts of dust or sand. NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit completed this mosaic on sol 71, March 15, 2004, from its newest location at the rim of 'Bonneville' crater.

    Scientists are interested in these formations in part because they might give insight into the processes that formed some of the material within the crater. Thermal emission measurements by the rover indicate that the dark material just below the far rim of this crater is spectrally similar to rocks that scientists have analyzed along their journey to this location. They want to know why this soil-like material has a spectrum that more closely resembles rocks rather than other soils examined so far. The drifts seen in the foreground of this mosaic might have the answer. Scientists hypothesize that these drifts might consist of wind-deposited particles that are the same as the dark material found against the back wall of the crater. If so, Spirit may spend time studying the material and help scientists understand why it is different from other fine-grained material seen at Gusev.

    The drifts appear to be lighter in color than the dark material deposited on the back wall of the crater. They might be covered by a thin deposit of martian dust, or perhaps the drift is like other drifts seen during Spirit's journey and is just a collection of martian dust.

    To find out, Spirit will spend some of sol 72 digging its wheels into the drift to uncover its interior. After backing up a bit, Spirit will use the panoramic camera and miniature thermal emission spectrometer to analyze the scuffed area. If the interior material has a similar spectrum to the dark deposit in the crater, then Spirit will most likely stay here a little longer to study the drift with the instruments on its robotic arm. If the

  17. The effects of CT drift on xenon/CT measurement of regional cerebral blood flow.

    PubMed

    Kearfott, K J; Lu, H C; Rottenberg, D A; Deck, M D

    1984-01-01

    A systematic increase in computed tomography (CT) number of approximately 0.13 Hounsfield unit per scan (HU/scan) was observed when serial DeltaScan 2020 CT scans of a uniform water phantom were equally spaced at 0.5, 1.0, or 2.0 min and a shaped aluminum beam-hardening filter was employed. Much smaller drifts (less than 0.06 HU/scan) were observed with flat aluminum or shaped beryllium oxide filters. This machine drift, which was not associated with a rise in water phantom temperature and did not consistently correlate with estimated x-ray tube heat, could result in a significant overestimation of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) for a xenon/CT rCBF protocol involving 5-7 sequential scans obtained at 1-min interscan intervals.

  18. Small-scale lacustrine drifts in Lake Champlain, Vermont

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manley, Patricia L.; Manley, T.O.; Hayo, Kathryn; Cronin, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    High resolution CHIRP (Compressed High Intensity Radar Pulse) seismic profiles reveal the presence of two lacustrine sediment drifts located in Lake Champlain's Juniper Deep. Both drifts are positive features composed of highly laminated sediments. Drift B sits on a basement high while Drift A is built on a trough-filling acoustically-transparent sediment unit inferred to be a mass-transport event. These drifts are oriented approximately north–south and are parallel to a steep ridge along the eastern shore of the basin. Drift A, located at the bottom of a structural trough, is classified as a confined, elongate drift that transitions northward to become a system of upslope asymmetric mudwaves. Drift B is perched atop a structural high to the west of Drift A and is classified as a detached elongate drift. Bottom current depositional control was investigated using Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCPs) located across Drift A. Sediment cores were taken at the crest and at the edges of the Drift A and were dated. Drift source, deposition, and evolution show that these drifts are formed by a water column shear with the highest deposition occurring along its crest and western flank and began developing circa 8700–8800 year BP.

  19. JINR Tier-1 centre for the CMS experiment at LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astakhov, N. S.; Baginyan, A. S.; Belov, S. D.; Dolbilov, A. G.; Golunov, A. O.; Gorbunov, I. N.; Gromova, N. I.; Kadochnikov, I. S.; Kashunin, I. A.; Korenkov, V. V.; Mitsyn, V. V.; Pelevanyuk, I. S.; Shmatov, S. V.; Strizh, T. A.; Tikhonenko, E. A.; Trofimov, V. V.; Voitishin, N. N.; Zhiltsov, V. E.

    2016-09-01

    An overview of the JINR Tier-1 centre for the CMS experiment at the LHC is given. Special emphasis is placed on the main tasks and services of the CMS Tier-1 at JINR. In February 2015 the JINR CMS Tier-1 resources were increased to the level that was outlined in JINR's rollout plan: CPU 2400 cores (28800 HEP-Spec06), 2.4 PB disks, and 5.0 PB tapes. The first results of the Tier-1 operations received during the LHC Run-2 start are presented.

  20. Lunar Lava Tube Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    York, Cheryl Lynn; Walden, Bryce; Billings, Thomas L.; Reeder, P. Douglas

    1992-01-01

    Large (greater than 300 m diameter) lava tube caverns appear to exist on the Moon and could provide substantial safety and cost benefits for lunar bases. Over 40 m of basalt and regolith constitute the lava tube roof and would protect both construction and operations. Constant temperatures of -20 C reduce thermal stress on structures and machines. Base designs need not incorporate heavy shielding, so lightweight materials can be used and construction can be expedited. Identification and characterization of lava tube caverns can be incorporated into current precursor lunar mission plans. Some searches can even be done from Earth. Specific recommendations for lunar lava tube search and exploration are (1) an Earth-based radar interferometer, (2) an Earth-penetrating radar (EPR) orbiter, (3) kinetic penetrators for lunar lava tube confirmation, (4) a 'Moon Bat' hovering rocket vehicle, and (5) the use of other proposed landers and orbiters to help find lunar lava tubes.