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Sample records for co-operation civil society

  1. Cyberethics and co-operation in the information society.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Christian; Bichler, Robert M; Raffl, Celina

    2009-12-01

    The task of this paper is to ground the notion of cyberethics of co-operation. The evolution of modern society has resulted in a shift from industrial society towards informational capitalism. This transformation is a multidimensional shift that affects all aspects of society. Hence also the ethical system of society is penetrated by the emergence of the knowledge society and ethical guidelines for the information age are needed. Ethical issues and conflicts in the knowledge society are connected to topics of ecological and social sustainability. For information ethics and cyberethics, the sustainable design of society, social, and socio-technological systems is important. In this context the notions of sustainability and co-operation are discussed. Based on these categories, the approach of cyberethics of co-operation can be theoretically grounded. PMID:19440854

  2. [Civil bioethics in pluralistics societies].

    PubMed

    Cortina, A

    2000-01-01

    The author examines how Bioethics should be approached in a pluralist society. She argues that through the gradual discovery of shared ethical values and principles for judging which practices are humanizing and which or not, ever-more dense civil Bioethics helps bring out--in contrast to relativism and subjectivism--an ethical intersubjectiveness, the fundaments of which should be addressed by moral philosophy if it hopes to fulfill one of its main tasks.

  3. Civil Society Participation at CONFINTEA VI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the participation of civil society in the Sixth International Conference on Adult Education held in Belem do Para, Brazil, 1-4 December 2009. As a foundation, the discussion first illuminates the important role that civil society in general plays in democratic issues and the relation between the state and society followed by…

  4. Remaking Public Spaces for Civil Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranson, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    The collective action predicaments of the time require citizens to participate in remaking the governance of civil society so that they can become engaged and cooperate together. Can citizens become makers of civil society? This article draws upon Hannah Arendt's "On Revolution" to provide a theory of remaking in which citizens come together to…

  5. Measuring Religion in Global Civil Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Evelyn L.

    2007-01-01

    This article illustrates two conceptual and methodological problems that interfere with the accurate identification and measurement of religious mobilization in global civil society. First, data used to study the organizational composition of global culture contain a selection bias that favors organizations within an elite stratum of the world…

  6. Beyond strong and weak: rethinking postdictatorship civil societies.

    PubMed

    Riley, Dylan; Fernández, Juan J

    2014-09-01

    What is the impact of dictatorships on postdictatorial civil societies? Bottom-up theories suggest that totalitarian dictatorships destroy civil society while authoritarian ones allow for its development. Top-down theories of civil society suggest that totalitarianism can create civil societies while authoritarianism is unlikely to. This article argues that both these perspectives suffer from a one-dimensional understanding of civil society that conflates strength and autonomy. Accordingly we distinguish these two dimensions and argue that totalitarian dictatorships tend to create organizationally strong but heteronomous civil societies, while authoritarian ones tend to create relatively autonomous but organizationally weak civil societies. We then test this conceptualization by closely examining the historical connection between dictatorship and civil society development in Italy (a posttotalitarian case) and Spain (a postauthoritarian one). Our article concludes by reflecting on the implications of our argument for democratic theory, civil society theory, and theories of regime variation. PMID:25811069

  7. Beyond strong and weak: rethinking postdictatorship civil societies.

    PubMed

    Riley, Dylan; Fernández, Juan J

    2014-09-01

    What is the impact of dictatorships on postdictatorial civil societies? Bottom-up theories suggest that totalitarian dictatorships destroy civil society while authoritarian ones allow for its development. Top-down theories of civil society suggest that totalitarianism can create civil societies while authoritarianism is unlikely to. This article argues that both these perspectives suffer from a one-dimensional understanding of civil society that conflates strength and autonomy. Accordingly we distinguish these two dimensions and argue that totalitarian dictatorships tend to create organizationally strong but heteronomous civil societies, while authoritarian ones tend to create relatively autonomous but organizationally weak civil societies. We then test this conceptualization by closely examining the historical connection between dictatorship and civil society development in Italy (a posttotalitarian case) and Spain (a postauthoritarian one). Our article concludes by reflecting on the implications of our argument for democratic theory, civil society theory, and theories of regime variation.

  8. Popularizing dissent: A civil society perspective.

    PubMed

    Motion, Judy; Leitch, Shirley; Weaver, C Kay

    2015-05-01

    This article theorizes civil society groups' attempts to popularize opposition to genetic modification in New Zealand as deliberative interventions that seek to open up public participation in science-society governance. In this case, the popularization strategies were designed to intensify concerns about social justice and democratic incursions, mobilize dissent and offer meaningful mechanisms for navigating and participating in public protest. Such civic popularization efforts, we argue, are more likely to succeed when popularity and politicization strategies are judiciously integrated to escalate controversy, re-negotiate power relations and provoke agency and action.

  9. Popularizing dissent: A civil society perspective.

    PubMed

    Motion, Judy; Leitch, Shirley; Weaver, C Kay

    2015-05-01

    This article theorizes civil society groups' attempts to popularize opposition to genetic modification in New Zealand as deliberative interventions that seek to open up public participation in science-society governance. In this case, the popularization strategies were designed to intensify concerns about social justice and democratic incursions, mobilize dissent and offer meaningful mechanisms for navigating and participating in public protest. Such civic popularization efforts, we argue, are more likely to succeed when popularity and politicization strategies are judiciously integrated to escalate controversy, re-negotiate power relations and provoke agency and action. PMID:25394361

  10. Civil society, health, and social exclusion in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Schurmann, Anna T; Mahmud, Simeen

    2009-08-01

    Civil society has the potential to have a positive impact on social exclusion and health equity through active monitoring and increased accountability. This paper examines the role of civil society in Bangladesh to understand why this potential has not been realized. Looking at two models of civil society action-participation in decentralized public-sector service provision and academic think-tank data analysis-this analysis examines the barriers to positive civil society input into public policy decision-making. The role of non-governmental organizations, political, cultural and economic factors, and the influence of foreign bilateral and multilateral donors are considered. The paper concludes that, with a few exceptions, civil society in Bangladesh replicates the structural inequalities of society at large.

  11. Civil Society, Health, and Social Exclusion in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Mahmud, Simeen

    2009-01-01

    Civil society has the potential to have a positive impact on social exclusion and health equity through active monitoring and increased accountability. This paper examines the role of civil society in Bangladesh to understand why this potential has not been realized. Looking at two models of civil society action—participation in decentralized public-sector service provision and academic think-tank data analysis—this analysis examines the barriers to positive civil society input into public policy decision-making. The role of non-governmental organizations, political, cultural and economic factors, and the influence of foreign bilateral and multilateral donors are considered. The paper concludes that, with a few exceptions, civil society in Bangladesh replicates the structural inequalities of society at large. PMID:19761087

  12. The Politics of Adult Education: State, Economy and Civil Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Examines the idea of civil society, comparing the Marxist and post-Marxist definitions of it. Discusses the political agendas of socialism and radical democracy and their impact on adult education. (Contains 59 references.) (SK)

  13. Listening, Conflict and Citizenship: Towards a Pedagogy of Civil Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welton, Michael

    2002-01-01

    Political listening is an essential practice of democratic citizenship in world of inequality and cultural conflict. Critical adult educators should foster an infrastructure for respectful communication toward the goal of building a civil and tolerable society. (Contains 21 references.) (SK)

  14. The Feminist Project in Cyberspace and Civil Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mojab, Shahrzad

    2000-01-01

    Offers a feminist critique of civil society, especially as it is constituted in cyberspace. Uses the International Kurdish Women's Studies Network to illustrate how cyberspace reproduces the unequal divisions of power existing in "realspace." (SK)

  15. The Engagement of Older People in Civil Society Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principi, Andrea; Chiatti, Carlos; Lamura, Giovanni; Frerichs, Frerich

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews recent international literature on the opportunities and restrictions experienced by older people to act as volunteers in civil society organizations. Our aim was to develop a conceptual framework applicable to the European ageing society. This aim was pursued through a computerized database search focused on studies analyzing…

  16. Higher Education and Civil Society: Compatibility Re-Examined

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatun, Mahmuda

    2012-01-01

    Last couple of decades, some developed countries emphasized to develop civil society in developing countries. The main goals were to promote democratic norms and values among citizens who will not be thinking about democratic society otherwise. To establish democratic norms and values, many view that higher education is necessary. The relationship…

  17. More Participation, Happier Society? A Comparative Study of Civil Society and the Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Claire; Pichler, Florian

    2009-01-01

    A "good society" has recently been portrayed as one in which citizens engage in voluntary associations to foster democratic processes. Arguably, such a good society is considered as one where people are content with their own lives as well as public life. We consider whether participation in civil society leads to more satisfied individuals on the…

  18. Curriculum and Civil Society in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Adele

    2009-01-01

    Although research has traditionally discussed the ways in which societies in conflict develop educational practices, only recently have scholars begun to examine the role of education in creating or sustaining conflict. In Afghanistan, changing regimes have had an impact on state-sanctioned curricula over the past fifty years, drastically altering…

  19. Creating Civil Societies: The University's Role.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daxner, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The president emeritus of Carl von Ossietzky University in Germany describes a research project examining the university's role in creating a democratic citizenship, prompted by the European Union's need to create societies in which citizens can participate actively in determining their own future. (EV)

  20. Reflections on civil society and gender.

    PubMed

    Thacker, P

    1997-07-01

    This article discusses ways to empower women in rural Nepal. Nepal needs to plan for the expected doubling of its population in the next 28 years. It is important that priorities be established in national development strategies. Nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the private sector will also play a role in development. Nepal is a multiethnic society with about 42% of its population living in poverty. About 42% are aged under 15 years. A major task of development is to engender a sense of hopefulness for young people, despite a deteriorating social situation. The government, the private sector, and NGOs must all act in a socially responsible manner by creating job opportunities and building infrastructure. Development should not concentrate on projects alone and should contribute to an equitable and just society, distributive justice, and sustainability. Economic growth is a lesser concern. Activism and intuition are necessary subjective approaches outside the realm of objective academic research. It is important to retain women's knowledge base of indigenous ways of doing things. Women are participating in NGOs in a variety of capacities. Although women's NGO participation may build important bridges of cooperation, their work remains invisible. NGOs are key players in exposing poor people's agenda in international forums. NGOs work with different ideologies and without political bases, which must be surmounted in building cooperation with the private sector. Elites must act responsibly to expose patriarchy and gender insubordination. Development interventions must be based on gender, economic, and social class relations.

  1. Building A Culture Of Peace For A Civil Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foo, Sue Fan, Ed.; Starlin, Clay M., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Building a Culture of Peace for a Civil Society" consists of papers from scholars from around the world including: Canada, India, Japan, Nigeria, Philippines, Thailand, Turkey and the United States. This volume includes selected papers and lectures delivered at the 12th World Conference on Education of the World Council of Curriculum &…

  2. 77 FR 25780 - Advisory Committee on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue With Civil Society

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... Committee on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue With Civil Society ACTION: Notice of meeting... on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue with Civil Society will convene in Washington, DC on... strategies for engagement with, and protection of, civil society worldwide. ] The objective of this...

  3. 78 FR 4189 - Advisory Committee on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue With Civil Society

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... Committee on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue With Civil Society ACTION: Notice of meeting... on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue with Civil Society will convene in Washington, DC on... strategies for engagement with, and protection of, civil society worldwide. The objective of this meeting...

  4. 76 FR 60113 - Advisory Committee on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue With Civil Society

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... Committee on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue With Civil Society ACTION: Notice of meeting... (FACA), the Advisory Committee on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue with Civil Society will... formulation of U.S. policies, proposals, and strategies for engagement with, and protection of, civil...

  5. Making research matter: a civil society perspective on health research.

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, David; Labonte, Ronald; Baum, Fran; Chopra, Mickey

    2004-01-01

    Complex global public health challenges such as the rapidly widening health inequalities, and unprecedented emergencies such as the pandemic of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) demand a reappraisal of existing priorities in health policies, expenditure and research. Research can assist in mounting an effective response, but will require increased emphasis on health determinants at both the national and global levels, as well as health systems research and broad-based and effective public health initiatives. Civil society organizations (CSOs) are already at the forefront of such research. We suggest that there are at least three ways in which the participation of CSOs in research can be increased: namely, influencing commissioning and priority-setting; becoming involved in the review process and in conducting research; and through formal partnerships between communities and universities that link CSOs with academic researchers. PMID:15643797

  6. Civil Society, Citizenship and Learning. Bochum Studies in International Adult Education, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bron, Agnieszka, Ed.; Schemmann, Michael, Ed.

    This second volume of the Bochum Studies in International Adult Education presents a variety of different perspectives on the topics of citizenship and civil society. Its goal is to give an overview of the European discourse on citizenship and civil society and on the discourse in some selected countries. Part I is comprised of the first of 14…

  7. The Political Economy of Civil Society: Implications for Adult and Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Mark

    Adult education theory and practice has long been involved in identifying spaces where counter-hegemonic learning can take place. Civil society is regarded as the site par-excellence for providing space in which to learn free from power and domination and from the state and economy. Another dimension to the recent focus on civil society as a site…

  8. Building a Civil Society: A New Role for the Human Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Martha C.

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that economic well-being rests on a thriving civil society. Discusses lines of inquiry in the human sciences necessary to building a civil society in Canada: (1) enabling individuals to better understand themselves, their values, and their roles as citizens; (2) defining Canadian identity and role as global citizen; and (3) informing the…

  9. Non-Formal Education and Civil Society in Post-Soviet Russia: What Is the Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, W. John; Kliucharev, Grigori A.

    2011-01-01

    The article describes collaborative research into the relationship between non-formal education and civil society in post-Soviet Russia. It shows how through social survey data and case studies of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and other civil society organisations (CSOs), using a combination of social science perspectives, much can be…

  10. Reasons to Co-Operate: Co-Operative Solutions for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The NASUWT's landmark agreement with the Schools Co-operative Society has provided a new spur to co-operation, collaboration and collegiality in schools. Against a background of rapid and radical changes to the education landscape, co-operative schools are viewed by many as a means to maintaining public service ethos and values in education.…

  11. Using global health initiatives to strengthen health systems: a civil society perspective.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Jennifer; Russell, Asia; Baker, Brook; Kayongo, Alice; Wanjiku, Esther; Davis, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Research into the effects of global health initiatives (GHIs) on health systems has largely left out the viewpoints and contributions of civil society. This study details civil society's perspective regarding the effects of two GHIs, the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM), on country health systems and the added value of civil society interacting with GHIs to strengthen health systems. The study employed qualitative data collection methods using semi-structured interviews administered during focus groups and key informant interviews. A range of health system stakeholders were interviewed in Kenya, Malawi, Uganda and Zambia. Data were coded and analysed for themes and sub-themes. In total, 2910 civil society participants provided information individually or in focus groups. Respondents reported that GHIs have contributed to dramatic health benefits within and outside of a disease-specific focus, including health systems strengthening efforts. However, opportunities for synergy between GHIs and health systems have been missed, and GHIs have not worked sufficiently to close capacity gaps of grassroots civil society organisations. Despite some governance innovations, civil society's opportunities to participate meaningfully in GHI priority setting efforts are limited. Recommendations are included on how to best use GHIs to strengthen health systems by partnering with civil society.

  12. The role of civil society in health care reforms: an arena for hegemonic struggles.

    PubMed

    Filc, Dani

    2014-12-01

    The present paper argues that current mainstream understandings of civil society as ontologically different from the state and essentially positive (either normative or functionally) are problematic in order to understand the development of health care reforms. The paper proposes to ground an explanation of the role of civil society in health care reforms in a Gramscian understanding of civil society as analytically different from the state, and as an arena for hegemonic struggles. The study of health care reform in Israel serves as a case study for this claim.

  13. 78 FR 26100 - Advisory Committee on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue With Civil Society; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... Committee on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue With Civil Society; Notice of the Renewal of an... Strategic Dialogue with Civil Society (hereinafter ``the Committee''). The Committee provides advice and... of, civil society worldwide. Functions of the Committee include, but are not limited to:...

  14. World Bank: harnessing civil society expertise in undertaking and disseminating research findings.

    PubMed

    Simms, Ben

    2013-01-01

    The UK Consortium on AIDS and International Development was an essential partner to the evaluation leaders in harnessing the contribution and expertise of civil society. This article describes what the partnership entailed, the additional value it brought and how civil society might use the evaluation findings both as a tool for advocacy and a means for improving its own engagement with the individuals directly affected by HIV and with those who care for them. PMID:23745623

  15. Political repression, civil society and the politics of responding to AIDS in the BRICS nations.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Eduardo J; Harris, Joseph

    2016-02-01

    The policy responses to human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) nations have played out amid radically different political environments that have shaped state-civil society relations in critical ways. In contrasting these different environments, this article offers the first comparison of the policy response to AIDS in the BRICS nations and seeks to understand the way in which political context matters for conditioning the response to a major epidemic. Using a comparative historical approach, we find that while collaborative state-civil society relations have produced an aggressive response and successful outcomes in Brazil, democratic openness and state-civil society engagement has not necessarily correlated with an aggressive response or better outcomes in the other cases. Response to the epidemic has been worst by far in democratic South Africa, followed by Russia, where in the former, denialism and antagonistic state-civil society relations fuelled a delayed response and proved extremely costly in terms of human lives. In Russia, a lack of civil societal opportunity for mobilization and non-governmental organization (NGO) growth, political centralization and the state's unwillingness to work with NGOs led to an ineffective government response. Top-down bureaucratic rule and a reluctance to fully engage civil society in democratic India substantially delayed the state's efforts to engage in a successful partnership with NGOs. Nevertheless, China has done surprisingly well, in spite of its repressive approach and narrow engagement with civil society. And in all cases, we find the relationship between state and civil society to be evolving over time in important ways. These findings suggest the need for more research on the links between democratic openness, political repression and policy responses to epidemics. PMID:25858965

  16. Political repression, civil society and the politics of responding to AIDS in the BRICS nations.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Eduardo J; Harris, Joseph

    2016-02-01

    The policy responses to human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) nations have played out amid radically different political environments that have shaped state-civil society relations in critical ways. In contrasting these different environments, this article offers the first comparison of the policy response to AIDS in the BRICS nations and seeks to understand the way in which political context matters for conditioning the response to a major epidemic. Using a comparative historical approach, we find that while collaborative state-civil society relations have produced an aggressive response and successful outcomes in Brazil, democratic openness and state-civil society engagement has not necessarily correlated with an aggressive response or better outcomes in the other cases. Response to the epidemic has been worst by far in democratic South Africa, followed by Russia, where in the former, denialism and antagonistic state-civil society relations fuelled a delayed response and proved extremely costly in terms of human lives. In Russia, a lack of civil societal opportunity for mobilization and non-governmental organization (NGO) growth, political centralization and the state's unwillingness to work with NGOs led to an ineffective government response. Top-down bureaucratic rule and a reluctance to fully engage civil society in democratic India substantially delayed the state's efforts to engage in a successful partnership with NGOs. Nevertheless, China has done surprisingly well, in spite of its repressive approach and narrow engagement with civil society. And in all cases, we find the relationship between state and civil society to be evolving over time in important ways. These findings suggest the need for more research on the links between democratic openness, political repression and policy responses to epidemics.

  17. Education for Constructive Engagement of Citizens in Democratic Civil Society and Constitutional Government.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    This paper addresses current concerns about how to improve political and civic engagement through education in U.S. schools and society. Part 1 examines ideas pertaining to "A Persistent Problem of Democracy: Education for Constructive Engagement of Citizens in Common Purposes and Commitments of Civil Society and Constitutional Government." Part 2…

  18. Schools and Civil Society: Corporate or Community Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranson, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    School improvement depends upon mediating the cultural conditions of learning as young people journey between their parochial worlds and the public world of cosmopolitan society. Governing bodies have a crucial role in including or diminishing the representation of different cultural traditions and in enabling or frustrating the expression of…

  19. State Governance and Civil Society in Education: Revisiting the Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Elsie; Vera, Eugenia Roldan

    2013-01-01

    ISCHE 33 was convened in San Luis Potosi to re-examine a relationship--that between society, education and the state--that had been largely taken for granted in official histories of education of modern nations. This theme was inspired by the bicentenary celebrations of the relatively early nineteenth-century movements (from 1804 to 1824) that…

  20. Civil society: the catalyst for ensuring health in the age of sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Smith, Julia; Buse, Kent; Gordon, Case

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable Development Goal Three is rightly ambitious, but achieving it will require doing global health differently. Among other things, progressive civil society organisations will need to be recognised and supported as vital partners in achieving the necessary transformations. We argue, using illustrative examples, that a robust civil society can fulfill eight essential global health functions. These include producing compelling moral arguments for action, building coalitions beyond the health sector, introducing novel policy alternatives, enhancing the legitimacy of global health initiatives and institutions, strengthening systems for health, enhancing accountability systems, mitigating the commercial determinants of health and ensuring rights-based approaches. Given that civil society activism has catalyzed tremendous progress in global health, there is a need to invest in and support it as a global public good to ensure that the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development can be realised. PMID:27424031

  1. Addressing social determinants of health inequities: what can the state and civil society do?

    PubMed

    Blas, Erik; Gilson, Lucy; Kelly, Michael P; Labonté, Ronald; Lapitan, Jostacio; Muntaner, Carles; Ostlin, Piroska; Popay, Jennie; Sadana, Ritu; Sen, Gita; Schrecker, Ted; Vaghri, Ziba

    2008-11-01

    In this Health Policy article, we selected and reviewed evidence synthesised by nine knowledge networks established by WHO to support the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. We have indicated the part that national governments and civil society can play in reducing health inequity. Government action can take three forms: (1) as provider or guarantor of human rights and essential services; (2) as facilitator of policy frameworks that provide the basis for equitable health improvement; and (3) as gatherer and monitor of data about their populations in ways that generate health information about mortality and morbidity and data about health equity. We use examples from the knowledge networks to illustrate some of the options governments have in fulfilling this role. Civil society takes many forms: here, we have used examples of community groups and social movements. Governments and civil society can have important positive roles in addressing health inequity if political will exists.

  2. From invited to uninvited participation (and back?): rethinking civil society engagement in technology assessment and development.

    PubMed

    Wehling, Peter

    2012-11-01

    In recent years, citizens' and civil society engagement with science and technology has become almost synonymous with participation in institutionally organized formats of participatory technology assessment (pTA) such as consensus conferences or stakeholder dialogues. Contrary to this view, it is argued in the article that beyond these standardized models of "invited" participation, there exist various forms of "uninvited" and independent civil society engagement, which frequently not only have more significant impact but are profoundly democratically legitimate as well. Using the two examples of patient associations and environmental and consumer organizations in the field of nanotechnology, it is illustrated that interest-based civil society interventions do play an important role in the polycentric governance of science and technology. In conclusion, some implications for the activities of TA institutions and the design of novel TA procedures are outlined.

  3. Addressing social determinants of health inequities: what can the state and civil society do?

    PubMed

    Blas, Erik; Gilson, Lucy; Kelly, Michael P; Labonté, Ronald; Lapitan, Jostacio; Muntaner, Carles; Ostlin, Piroska; Popay, Jennie; Sadana, Ritu; Sen, Gita; Schrecker, Ted; Vaghri, Ziba

    2008-11-01

    In this Health Policy article, we selected and reviewed evidence synthesised by nine knowledge networks established by WHO to support the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. We have indicated the part that national governments and civil society can play in reducing health inequity. Government action can take three forms: (1) as provider or guarantor of human rights and essential services; (2) as facilitator of policy frameworks that provide the basis for equitable health improvement; and (3) as gatherer and monitor of data about their populations in ways that generate health information about mortality and morbidity and data about health equity. We use examples from the knowledge networks to illustrate some of the options governments have in fulfilling this role. Civil society takes many forms: here, we have used examples of community groups and social movements. Governments and civil society can have important positive roles in addressing health inequity if political will exists. PMID:18994667

  4. Civil society and the negotiation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    MAMUDU, H. M.

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco control civil society organisations mobilised to influence countries during the negotiation of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) between 1999 and 2003. Tobacco control civil society organisations and coalitions around the world embraced the idea of an international tobacco control treaty and came together as the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA), becoming an important non-state actor within the international system of tobacco control. Archival documents and interviews demonstrate that the FCA successfully used strategies including publication of a newsletter, shaming, symbolism and media advocacy to influence policy positions of countries during the FCTC negotiation. The FCA became influential in the negotiation process by mobilising tobacco control civil society organisations and resources with the help of the Internet and framing the tobacco control discussion around global public health. PMID:19333806

  5. Civil society: the catalyst for ensuring health in the age of sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Smith, Julia; Buse, Kent; Gordon, Case

    2016-07-16

    Sustainable Development Goal Three is rightly ambitious, but achieving it will require doing global health differently. Among other things, progressive civil society organisations will need to be recognised and supported as vital partners in achieving the necessary transformations. We argue, using illustrative examples, that a robust civil society can fulfill eight essential global health functions. These include producing compelling moral arguments for action, building coalitions beyond the health sector, introducing novel policy alternatives, enhancing the legitimacy of global health initiatives and institutions, strengthening systems for health, enhancing accountability systems, mitigating the commercial determinants of health and ensuring rights-based approaches. Given that civil society activism has catalyzed tremendous progress in global health, there is a need to invest in and support it as a global public good to ensure that the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development can be realised.

  6. Civil Society Organizations and the Functions of Global Health Governance: What Role within Intergovernmental Organizations?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kelley

    2016-01-01

    Amid discussion of how global health governance should and could be strengthened, the potential role of civil society organizations has been frequently raised. This paper considers the role of Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in four health governance instruments under the auspices of the World Health Organization – the International Code on the Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, International Health Regulations and Codex Alimentarius - and maps the functions they have contributed to. The paper draws conclusions about the opportunities and limitations CSOs represent for strengthening global health governance (GHG). PMID:27274776

  7. Catalysing Educational Development or Institutionalising External Influence? Donors, Civil Society and Educational Policy Formation in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappleye, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Recent pronouncements on the benefits of enlisting civil society in educational development have so far not attracted adequate scholarly analyses. This paper therefore seeks to present a critical perspective on this new trend by providing a fine-grained look at three concrete cases of NGO involvement in educational policy-making in Nepal. It also…

  8. The Financing of Adult Learning in Civil Society: A European Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Paul; Bochynek, Bettina

    The financing of adult learning in civil society in Europe was examined in an exploratory study that focused on the relationship between nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the status of financing in the general field of adult learning. Adult education experts from the following countries were subcontracted to develop "country windows" on…

  9. Non-Formal Education for Youth and Adults: The Perspective of Civil Society. New Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarti, Iliana Pereyra

    2006-01-01

    REPEM is a civil society organisation based in Uruguay. REPEM's mission is to contribute to the achievement of social and gender justice through alliance-building processes. In this article, the author, who works with REPEM, shares some reflections, lessons learned, and concerns about the issue of non-formal education for youth and adults. She…

  10. Civil Society, State, and Institutions for Young Children in Modern Japan: The Initial Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uno, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Research on the history of children and childhood in modern Japan (1868-1945) reveals that issues related to civil society, state, and the establishment of institutions for young children can be explored beyond the transatlantic world. In this essay, after briefly surveying historiography, a few basic terms, and earlier patterns of state and…

  11. Making Space for Civil Society: Institutional Reforms and Local Democracy in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baiocchi, Gianpaolo; Heller, Patrick; Silva, Marcelo Kunrath

    2008-01-01

    This paper contributes to the growing body of research on participatory democracy and the literature on associational democracy by exploring the impact that institutional reforms have on local-level configurations of civil society. In the 1980s a wide range of participatory experiments were initiated in Brazil, most notably Participatory Budgeting…

  12. The Information Age and the Civil Society: An Interview with Jeremy Rifkin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavin, Peter

    1996-01-01

    For over a century, American education's mission has centered on preparing future workers to enter the marketplace. Just as the Industrial Age ended slave labor, the Information Age will end mass wage labor, freeing up millions for shortened work weeks and/or work in the civil society or nonprofit sector. Service learning helps by creating social…

  13. Civic Education Partnerships: Civil Society Organisations, Donors and the State in Fiji

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baleinakorodawa, Paolo; Spence, Rebecca; O'Loughlin, Micheal

    2011-01-01

    This article reflects on some of the challenges and opportunities presented when working in partnership in the highly politicised and contested Fijian Civil Society environment over the past five years. The authors are practitioners who specialise in working with communities which experience conflict. The paper discusses and analyses the genesis…

  14. Civil Society and Control of Corruption: Assessing Governance of Romanian Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina; Dusu, Andra Elena

    2011-01-01

    Romania is perceived as the most corrupt EU member state according to Transparency International Corruption Perception Index. In 2008-2009, a grassroots coalition of civil society organizations and education stakeholders created the Coalition for Clean Universities which organized the first assessment of integrity of the Romanian higher education…

  15. Creating Inquiry Between Technology Developers and Civil Society Actors: Learning from Experiences Around Nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Krabbenborg, Lotte

    2016-06-01

    Engaging civil society actors as knowledgeable dialogue partners in the development and governance of emerging technologies is a new challenge. The starting point of this paper is the observation that the design and orchestration of current organized interaction events shows limitations, particularly in the articulation of issues and in learning how to address the indeterminacies that go with emerging technologies. This paper uses Dewey's notion of 'publics' and 'reflective inquiry' to outline ways of doing better and to develop requirements for a more productive involvement of civil society actors. By studying four novel spaces for interaction in the domain of nanotechnology, this paper examines whether and how elements of Dewey's thought are visible and under what conditions. One of the main findings is that, in our society, special efforts are needed in order for technology developers and civil society actors to engage in a joint inquiry on emerging nanotechnology. Third persons, like social scientists and philosophers, play a role in this respect in addition to external input such as empirically informed scenarios and somewhat protected spaces.

  16. Resistance, rupture and repetition: Civil society strategies against intimate partner violence in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Lilja, Mona; Baaz, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a new interpretation of the 'resistance' carried out by local civil society organisations in Cambodia against intimate partner violence (IPV). In this, the paper explores the nexus between 'rupture', 'resistance' and 'repetition' and concludes that different 'repetitions' can contribute to acts of violence while simultaneously creating possibilities for resisting IPV. In regard to the latter, the concept of 'rupture' is investigated as a performative politics through which organisations try to disrupt the 'repetitions' of violent masculinities. Furthermore, it is argued that the importance of 'repetitions' and the concept of time should be acknowledged. The French criminal defence lawyer Jacques Vergès' understanding of 'rupture' and the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze's notions of 'repetition' inform the analysis. To exemplify our discussion and findings, the paper embraces stories of a number of civil society workers who facilitate various men's groups in Cambodia in order to negotiate the practice of IPV.

  17. Civil society organizations, the implementing partners of the Global Vaccine Action Plan.

    PubMed

    Thacker, Naveen; Vashishtha, Vipin M; Awunyo-Akaba, Joan; Mistry, Rozina Farhad

    2013-04-18

    The authors illustrate by way of civil society (CS) experiences in Pakistan, India, and Ghana how the guiding principles of CS and civil society organizations (CSOs) align with those of the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP); (i.e., country ownership, shared responsibility and partnership, equity, integration, sustainability, and innovation). These experiences show how CS is contributing to GVAP goals such as global polio eradication and improving vaccination coverage by removing barriers and ultimately working toward achieving Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4-reducing child mortality. A number of CSOs working in the field of child health share some of the objectives enlisted in GVAP: that immunization becomes a national health priority; individuals, families, communities understand the importance of immunization; benefits of immunization are equitably extended to all people; and vaccination systems are part of an integrated health system.

  18. Who's making global civil society: philanthropy and US empire in world society.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Ann

    2006-12-01

    Theories of US hegemony commonly ignore the role of American philanthropy in the contemporary transformations of world society and the globalization of capitalism. In this essay, I suggest that the philanthropic foundation, and with it the institution of philanthropy, is being invigorated by the expansion of its domestic role to foreign activities and to globally framed activities within the USA. I propose that US philanthropy exports American understandings of democracy and simultaneously organizes global reflexivity through citizenship education for the US populace. I offer a preliminary theoretical interpretation of the empirical patterns of international grant-making activities by US foundations, considering John W. Meyer's concept of 'instrumental culture' and some arguments made by Foucauldian 'governmentality' scholars. I emphasize the need to conceptualize the cultural-symbolic and organizational dimensions of hegemony and suggest further sociological analysis of philanthropic activities as integral to current politically and economically led transformations of societies around the globe. PMID:17168942

  19. Globalisation and health inequalities: can a human rights paradigm create space for civil society action?

    PubMed

    London, Leslie; Schneider, Helen

    2012-01-01

    While neoliberal globalisation is associated with increasing inequalities, global integration has simultaneously strengthened the dissemination of human rights discourse across the world. This paper explores the seeming contradiction that globalisation is conceived as disempowering nations states' ability to act in their population's interests, yet implementation of human rights obligations requires effective states to deliver socio-economic entitlements, such as health. Central to the actions required of the state to build a health system based on a human rights approach is the notion of accountability. Two case studies are used to explore the constraints on states meeting their human rights obligations regarding health, the first drawing on data from interviews with parliamentarians responsible for health in East and Southern Africa, and the second reflecting on the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa. The case studies illustrate the importance of a human rights paradigm in strengthening parliamentary oversight over the executive in ways that prioritise pro-poor protections and in increasing leverage for resources for the health sector within parliamentary processes. Further, a rights framework creates the space for civil society action to engage with the legislature to hold public officials accountable and confirms the importance of rights as enabling civil society mobilization, reinforcing community agency to advance health rights for poor communities. In this context, critical assessment of state incapacity to meet claims to health rights raises questions as to the diffusion of accountability rife under modern international aid systems. Such diffusion of accountability opens the door to 'cunning' states to deflect rights claims of their populations. We argue that human rights, as both a normative framework for legal challenges and as a means to create room for active civil society engagement provide a means to contest both the real and the

  20. Circus monkeys or change agents? Civil society advocacy for HIV/AIDS in adverse policy environments.

    PubMed

    Spicer, Neil; Harmer, Andrew; Aleshkina, Julia; Bogdan, Daryna; Chkhatarashvili, Ketevan; Murzalieva, Gulgun; Rukhadze, Natia; Samiev, Arnol; Walt, Gill

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores the factors enabling and undermining civil society efforts to advocate for policy reforms relating to HIV/AIDS and illicit drugs in three countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: Georgia, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine. It examines how political contexts and civil society actors' strengths and weaknesses inhibit or enable advocacy for policy change - issues that are not well understood in relation to specific policy areas such as HIV/AIDS, or particular regions of the world where national policies are believed to be major drivers of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The study is based on in-depth interviews with representatives of civil society organizations (CSOs) (n = 49) and national level informants including government and development partners (n = 22). Our policy analysis identified a culture of fear derived from concerns for personal safety but also risk of losing donor largesse. Relations between CSOs and government were often acrimonious rather than synergistic, and while we found some evidence of CSO collective action, competition for external funding - in particular for HIV/AIDS grants from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria was often divisive. Development partners and government tend to construct CSOs as service providers rather than advocates. While some advocacy was tolerated by governments, CSO participation in the policy process was, ultimately, perceived to be tokenistic. This was because there are financial interests in maintaining prohibitionist legislation: efforts to change punitive laws directed at the behaviors of minority groups such as injecting drug users have had limited impact.

  1. Circus monkeys or change agents? Civil society advocacy for HIV/AIDS in adverse policy environments.

    PubMed

    Spicer, Neil; Harmer, Andrew; Aleshkina, Julia; Bogdan, Daryna; Chkhatarashvili, Ketevan; Murzalieva, Gulgun; Rukhadze, Natia; Samiev, Arnol; Walt, Gill

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores the factors enabling and undermining civil society efforts to advocate for policy reforms relating to HIV/AIDS and illicit drugs in three countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: Georgia, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine. It examines how political contexts and civil society actors' strengths and weaknesses inhibit or enable advocacy for policy change - issues that are not well understood in relation to specific policy areas such as HIV/AIDS, or particular regions of the world where national policies are believed to be major drivers of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The study is based on in-depth interviews with representatives of civil society organizations (CSOs) (n = 49) and national level informants including government and development partners (n = 22). Our policy analysis identified a culture of fear derived from concerns for personal safety but also risk of losing donor largesse. Relations between CSOs and government were often acrimonious rather than synergistic, and while we found some evidence of CSO collective action, competition for external funding - in particular for HIV/AIDS grants from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria was often divisive. Development partners and government tend to construct CSOs as service providers rather than advocates. While some advocacy was tolerated by governments, CSO participation in the policy process was, ultimately, perceived to be tokenistic. This was because there are financial interests in maintaining prohibitionist legislation: efforts to change punitive laws directed at the behaviors of minority groups such as injecting drug users have had limited impact. PMID:22036298

  2. Globalisation and health inequalities: can a human rights paradigm create space for civil society action?

    PubMed

    London, Leslie; Schneider, Helen

    2012-01-01

    While neoliberal globalisation is associated with increasing inequalities, global integration has simultaneously strengthened the dissemination of human rights discourse across the world. This paper explores the seeming contradiction that globalisation is conceived as disempowering nations states' ability to act in their population's interests, yet implementation of human rights obligations requires effective states to deliver socio-economic entitlements, such as health. Central to the actions required of the state to build a health system based on a human rights approach is the notion of accountability. Two case studies are used to explore the constraints on states meeting their human rights obligations regarding health, the first drawing on data from interviews with parliamentarians responsible for health in East and Southern Africa, and the second reflecting on the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa. The case studies illustrate the importance of a human rights paradigm in strengthening parliamentary oversight over the executive in ways that prioritise pro-poor protections and in increasing leverage for resources for the health sector within parliamentary processes. Further, a rights framework creates the space for civil society action to engage with the legislature to hold public officials accountable and confirms the importance of rights as enabling civil society mobilization, reinforcing community agency to advance health rights for poor communities. In this context, critical assessment of state incapacity to meet claims to health rights raises questions as to the diffusion of accountability rife under modern international aid systems. Such diffusion of accountability opens the door to 'cunning' states to deflect rights claims of their populations. We argue that human rights, as both a normative framework for legal challenges and as a means to create room for active civil society engagement provide a means to contest both the real and the

  3. [The Alliance for the Prevention of Colorectal Cancer in Spain. A civil commitment to society].

    PubMed

    Morillas, Juan Diego; Castells, Antoni; Oriol, Isabel; Pastor, Ana; Pérez-Segura, Pedro; Echevarría, José Manuel; Caballero, Begoña; González-Navarro, Andrés; Bandrés, Fernando; Brullet, Enric; Iniesta, Antonio; Carballo, Fernando; Bouzas, Rosa; Ariza, Aurelio; Ibisate, Alfredo; García-Alfonso, Pilar; Escudero, Beatriz; Camacho, Silvia; Fernández-Marcos, Ana; González, Teresa; Quintero, Enrique; Lanas, Angel; Marzo, Mercè; Mascort, Juanjo; Andréu, Monserrat; Cerezo, Laura; Vázquez-Sequeiros, Enrique; Borrás, Josep María; Salas, Dolores; Ascunce, Nieves; Portillo, Isabel; Herráiz, Mayte; Valle, María Luisa; Sotoca, Amalia; Nieto, Santiago; Hué, Carlos; Paz-Ares, Luis

    2012-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common malignant tumor in Spain, when men and women are considered together, and the second leading cause of cancer death. Every week in Spain over 500 cases of CRC are diagnosed, and nearly 260 people die from the disease. Epidemiologic estimations for the coming years show a significant increase in the number of annual cases. CRC is a perfectly preventable tumor and can be cured in 90% of cases if detected in the early stages. Population-based screening programs have been shown to reduce the incidence of CRC and mortality from the disease. Unless early detection programs are established in Spain, it is estimated that in the coming years, 1 out of 20 men and 1 out of 30 women will develop CRC before the age of 75. The Alliance for the Prevention of Colorectal Cancer in Spain is an independent and non-profit organization created in 2008 that integrates patients' associations, altruistic non-governmental organizations and scientific societies. Its main objective is to raise awareness and disseminate information on the social and healthcare importance of CRC in Spain and to promote screening measures, early detection and prevention programs. Health professionals, scientific societies, healthcare institutions and civil society should be sensitized to this highly important health problem that requires the participation of all sectors of society. The early detection of CRC is an issue that affects the whole of society and therefore it is imperative for all sectors to work together.

  4. The privatization of human services: myths, social capital and civil society.

    PubMed

    Martin, Lawrence L

    2004-01-01

    It is fashionable to point to privatization and the involvement of for-profits as the parties responsible for many, if not most, of the ills that plague the social welfare system today. This article takes a contrary point of view. Three arguments are made. First, private sector human service delivery and the use of for-profits in the United States predate privatization as a defined public policy. Second, the privatization of the human services is a world wide phenomenon that transcends politics and ideology. Third, the privatization of human services helps to promote civil society and generate social capital.

  5. Public or private? The role of the state and civil society in health and health inequalities across nations.

    PubMed

    Olafsdottir, Sigrun; Bakhtiari, Elyas; Barman, Emily

    2014-12-01

    Social scientists have long recognized that macro-level factors have the potential to shape the health of populations and individuals. Along these lines, they have theorized about the role of the welfare state in creating more equal opportunities and outcomes and how this intervention may benefit health. More recently, scholars and policymakers alike have pointed out how the involvement of civil society actors may replace or complement any state effort. Using data from the World Values Surveys and the European Values Study, combined with national-level indicators for welfare state and civil society involvement, we test the impact of each sector on health and health inequalities in 25 countries around the world. We find that both have a statistically significant effect on overall health, but the civil society sector may have a greater independent influence in societies with weaker welfare states. The health inequalities results are less conclusive, but suggest a strong civil society may be particularly beneficial to vulnerable populations, such as the low income and unemployed. Our paper represents an early step in providing empirical evidence for the impact of the welfare state and civil society on health and health inequalities.

  6. Governing AIDS through aid to civil society: Global solutions meet local problems in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Follér, Maj-Lis

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this article is to explore how international donors influence civil society organisations (CSOs) in Mozambique through funding mechanisms, the creation of partnerships, or inclusion in targeted programmes. The main focus is the relationship between donors and AIDS non-governmental organisations (NGOs). The main questions the paper aims to answer are: Who is setting the agenda? What power mechanisms are in place to fulfil planned projects and programmes? Are there any forms of resistance from civil society AIDS-organisations in the face of the donor interventions? The actions will be analysed through the lens of governmentality theory. The study concluded that donors have the power to set the agenda through predetermined programmes and using various technologies. Their strongest weapons are audit mechanisms such as the result based management model used as a control mechanism, and there is still a long way to go to achieve a situation with multiple forms of local resistance to the conditions set by economically powerful donors. The standardisation imposed through clustering donors into like-minded groups and other constellations gives them power to govern the politics of AIDS.

  7. The role of civil society organizations in the institutionalization of indigenous medicine in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Babis, Deby

    2014-12-01

    December 2013 marked a significant shift in Bolivia with the enactment of a law for the inclusion of indigenous doctors in the National Health System. This article traces the constellation of forces that led to the institutionalization of indigenous medicine in Bolivia. It identifies three factors contributing to this health policy change. The first factor is the crystallization of a strong indigenous movement fighting for the recognition of cultural rights through the foundation of civil society organizations. Second is the rise to power of Evo Morales, the first Latin American president of indigenous origin, who has promoted multicultural policies, formally supported through the promulgation of a new constitution. Lastly is the influence of the global acceptance of alternative medicine. Indigenous doctor organizations in Bolivia have been highly involved throughout the entire process of institutionalization and have played a crucial role in it. An analysis of the relationship between these civil society organizations and the Bolivian government reveals a strong partnership. This dynamic can be described in terms of Interdependence Theory, as each party relied on the other in the promotion and practice of the law to achieve the integration of indigenous medicine as part of the Bolivian Health System. PMID:25043560

  8. The role of civil society organizations in the institutionalization of indigenous medicine in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Babis, Deby

    2014-12-01

    December 2013 marked a significant shift in Bolivia with the enactment of a law for the inclusion of indigenous doctors in the National Health System. This article traces the constellation of forces that led to the institutionalization of indigenous medicine in Bolivia. It identifies three factors contributing to this health policy change. The first factor is the crystallization of a strong indigenous movement fighting for the recognition of cultural rights through the foundation of civil society organizations. Second is the rise to power of Evo Morales, the first Latin American president of indigenous origin, who has promoted multicultural policies, formally supported through the promulgation of a new constitution. Lastly is the influence of the global acceptance of alternative medicine. Indigenous doctor organizations in Bolivia have been highly involved throughout the entire process of institutionalization and have played a crucial role in it. An analysis of the relationship between these civil society organizations and the Bolivian government reveals a strong partnership. This dynamic can be described in terms of Interdependence Theory, as each party relied on the other in the promotion and practice of the law to achieve the integration of indigenous medicine as part of the Bolivian Health System.

  9. The role of breast cancer civil society in different resource settings.

    PubMed

    Azenha, Gustavo; Bass, Loyce Pace; Caleffi, Maira; Smith, Robert; Pretorius, Lauren; Durstine, Alessandra; Perez, Cristina Parsons

    2011-04-01

    Breast cancer civil society, as represented by non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in this study, can play an essential role in breast cancer control. Their breast cancer-related programs often reflect the breast cancer burden and the resources available for cancer control within the country or region they serve. This report reviews organizational features and program activities of 154 NGOs involved in breast cancer control from 35 countries. Breast cancer civil society in low and lower-middle income countries are most often associated with hospitals and medical professionals and focus on direct medical services, providing information, raising community awareness, and early detection campaigns. In upper-middle income countries, NGOs were likely to be survivor-led and there were more breast cancer-specific organizations. NGOs played a lesser role in provision of direct medical services and had a greater program emphasis on other areas of patient services, including emotional support. In high income countries, they were typically survivor-led, breast cancer-specific NGOs were prominent, and NGOs had a more prominent focus on research, advocacy and legal rights compared to other resource settings. PMID:21345677

  10. 78 FR 43960 - Advisory Committee on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue With Civil Society; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-22

    ... Committee on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue With Civil Society; Notice of the Renewal of an... respect to tools and capacities of the civilian foreign affairs agencies; define priorities and strategic... State, the Deputy Secretaries, or the Director of Policy Planning. The Board consults with...

  11. Understanding the Influence of Independent Civil Society Monitoring and Evaluation at the District Level: A Case Study of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gildemyn, Marie

    2014-01-01

    In developing countries, an increasing number of civil society organizations (CSOs) engage in independent monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of government programs and policies. Most CSOs rely on a range of M&E tools in combination with advocacy strategies to hold government accountable and improve the implementation of programs and policies.…

  12. Adult Learning in Political (Un-Civil) Society: Anti-Colonial Subaltern Social Movement (SSM) Pedagogies of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapoor, Dip

    2011-01-01

    Through a selective deployment of conceptualisations from subaltern studies, in particular the concepts of political (un-civil) society and an autonomous domain (or a people's politics that suggests the plausibility of dominance without hegemony), this article distinguishes a subaltern social movement (SSM) formation and related anti-colonial SSM…

  13. Civil Society Organizations in Post-War Liberia: The Role of Education and Training in Strengthening Organizational Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duo, Samuel N.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the role of non-formal education and training in the organizational change process of Civil society organizations (CSOs) in post war Liberia. CSOs are the local foundation for democracy and development in Liberia, and serve a wide range of roles in local communities. For example, in post-war Liberia,…

  14. The Emergence of Cambodian Civil Society within Global Educational Governance: A Morphogenetic Approach to Agency and Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.; Brehm, William C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses Margaret Archer's morphogenetic approach to analyze the emergence of civil society within global educational governance. The purpose is to understand the intersection of historical structures with global actors and spaces that have accompanied the globalization of education. Based on findings from a study on the impact in…

  15. Arab Civil Society and Education in Israel: The Arab Pedagogical Council as a Contentious Performance to Achieve National Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbaria, Ayman K.

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on recent developments in the field of education, this article grapples with the educational activism of Arab civil society in Israel. Specifically, it presents a case study of a recent initiative to establish an independent Arab Pedagogical Council (APC). I argue that this initiative, although controversial and challenging to the very…

  16. Terrorism, Civil Liberties, and Preventive Approaches to Technology: The Difficult Choices Western Societies Face in the War on Terrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurgensen, Arnd

    2004-01-01

    This article explores public policy alternatives to the current war on terrorism. Western society's vulnerability to terrorism has been dealt with primarily by expanding the law enforcement and surveillance authority of governments at the expense of the freedoms and civil liberties of the public. This approach threatens to undermine the…

  17. Some Partners Are More Equal than Others: EFA and Civil Society in Papua New Guinea and Vanuatu Education Policy Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    This article considers a parallel marginalisation of Education for All (EFA) as a holistic approach to education, and the civil society actors and coalitions who address sidelined Dakar goals of early childhood care and education, adult literacy, quality and non-formal education. I argue that in spite of over two decades of EFA rhetoric prizing…

  18. Civil society organizations: capacity to address the needs of the urban poor in Nairobi.

    PubMed

    Ekirapa, Akaco; Mgomella, George S; Kyobutungi, Catherine

    2012-11-01

    We conducted a needs assessment that describes the landscape of civil society organizations (CSOs) in three informal settlements around Nairobi, Kenya. The numbers of CSOs have rapidly increased in areas underserved by governments including poor urban neighbourhoods but little is known about CSOs capacity to meet the priority health needs of the urban poor. It is also unclear why, despite a proliferation of CSOs, residents still experience unimproved health outcomes. We collected data on core activities, financial management, and governance structures. Of the 952 CSOs assessed, 47 per cent reported HIV/AIDS counselling, prevention, and treatment as their core activity. Most CSOs reported good financial management systems and governance structures but responses were not validated. Representation in district health stakeholder fora was low; most CSOs did not have the capacity to effectively deliver services that would have impact. For CSOs to realize the desired goal to improve the well-being of low-income populations, programmes to build their management capacity are essential.

  19. To whom do bureaucrats need to respond? Two faces of civil society in health policy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seunghoo; Lee, Keon-Hyung; Suh, Hae Sun; Bae, Kwi-Hee

    2014-12-01

    The South Korean government implemented a law that separates the dispensing and prescribing (SDP) of drugs in July 2000. It was one of the most controversial issues in the Korean healthcare delivery system. Drawing on the conflict-cycle view and stakeholder analysis, which was used to examine how multiple stakeholders influenced this policymaking process, this study examines 1) the role of Korean civil society (i.e., civic and special interest groups) in SDP reform and 2) why SDP reform led to unintended consequences. We argue that bureaucrats in the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MoHW) should have played a central role in accommodating the public interest. Because they failed to do so, civic groups assumed major mediating and moderating roles. Due to the civic groups' lack of technical knowledge and professional experience, however, they played a limited role. In finalizing the proposal, therefore, bureaucrats were captured by strong interest groups, leading to unintended consequences, such as the increased use of non-covered services and higher healthcare expenditures. To ensure that the government serves the authentic public interest rather than special interest groups, bureaucrats should be responsible to the public rather than these interest groups. Moreover, civic groups should be strengthened (in relation to strongly organized interest groups) and included systematically in creating health policy.

  20. Emergency contraception under attack in Latin America: response of the medical establishment and civil society.

    PubMed

    Faúndes, Aníbal; Távara, Luis; Brache, Vivian; Alvarez, Frank

    2007-05-01

    The concept that it is possible to prevent a pregnancy after coitus is not new, but has gained prominence over the last 10-15 years. It provides a second chance to women who do not want to get pregnant and who, voluntarily or not, have had unprotected intercourse. Emergency contraception has been under strong attack by the Catholic church and anti-choice organisations in Latin America, who claim that the interference with implantation of the fertilised ovum is equivalent to an early abortion. The accumulation of evidence, however, is that the mechanism of action of emergency contraception is to prevent ovulation and that it does not interfere with implantation. This has been ignored by the anti-choice movement. The pattern of opposition to emergency contraception has been the same all over the Latin America region. The medical establishment and civil society, including the International Consortium for Emergency Contraception, have played a key role in defending access to emergency contraception throughout the region. A positive consequence of the public opposition of the Catholic church is that the concept and the method have become better known, and emergency contraception has become widely used. The cases of Peru, Brazil and Chile are described as examples.

  1. Civil society and sanitation hydropolitics: A case study of South Africa’s Vaal River Barrage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tempelhoff, Johann W. N.

    The Vaal River Barrage, situated on the south-eastern border of the Gauteng Province, has been part of the hydrological landscape of South Africa’s most populous and economically active region for more than eight decades. After its completion in 1923 the Barrage was compromised by the construction, upstream, of the Vaal Dam (1930-1933). Today the Vaal River Barrage is primarily a storage facility of sewage and industrial waste water. South Africa’s transition to a multi-racial democracy in 1994 saw a number of socio-economic and political transformations that affected the water infrastructure. In the field of sanitation infrastructure in particular, conditions have deteriorated to the extent that the health of people in many parts of the country is being compromised. Using the Vaal River Barrage as a case study, this article outlines the efforts by civil society to make the relevant government sectors aware of this hazardous state of affairs. particular attention is given to save our Vaal environment (SAVE), a non-governmental organisation, at the helm of an active campaign to reduce pollution in the Vaal River Barrage.

  2. Emergency contraception under attack in Latin America: response of the medical establishment and civil society.

    PubMed

    Faúndes, Aníbal; Távara, Luis; Brache, Vivian; Alvarez, Frank

    2007-05-01

    The concept that it is possible to prevent a pregnancy after coitus is not new, but has gained prominence over the last 10-15 years. It provides a second chance to women who do not want to get pregnant and who, voluntarily or not, have had unprotected intercourse. Emergency contraception has been under strong attack by the Catholic church and anti-choice organisations in Latin America, who claim that the interference with implantation of the fertilised ovum is equivalent to an early abortion. The accumulation of evidence, however, is that the mechanism of action of emergency contraception is to prevent ovulation and that it does not interfere with implantation. This has been ignored by the anti-choice movement. The pattern of opposition to emergency contraception has been the same all over the Latin America region. The medical establishment and civil society, including the International Consortium for Emergency Contraception, have played a key role in defending access to emergency contraception throughout the region. A positive consequence of the public opposition of the Catholic church is that the concept and the method have become better known, and emergency contraception has become widely used. The cases of Peru, Brazil and Chile are described as examples. PMID:17512384

  3. Civil society perspectives on negative biomedical HIV prevention trial results and implications for future trials.

    PubMed

    Essack, Zaynab; Koen, Jennifer; Slack, Catherine; Lindegger, Graham; Newman, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    Community engagement is crucial to ongoing development and testing of sorely needed new biomedical HIV prevention technologies. Yet, negative trial results raise significant challenges for community engagement in HIV prevention trials, including the early termination of the Cellulose Sulfate microbicide trial and two Phase IIb HIV vaccine trials (STEP and Phambili). The present study aimed to explore the perspectives and experiences of civil society organization (CSO) representatives regarding negative HIV prevention trial results and perceived implications for future trials. We conducted in-depth interviews with 14 respondents from a broad range of South African and international CSOs, and analyzed data using thematic analysis. CSO representatives reported disappointment in response to negative trial results, but acknowledged such outcomes as inherent to clinical research. Respondents indicated that in theory negative trial results seem likely to impact on willingness to participate in future trials, but that in practice people in South Africa have continued to volunteer. Negative trial results were described as having contributed to improving ethical standards, and to a re-evaluation of the scientific agenda. Such negative results were identified as potentially impacting on funding for trials and engagement activities. Our findings indicate that trial closures may be used constructively to support opportunities for reflection and renewed vigilance in strategies for stakeholder engagement, communicating trial outcomes, and building research literacy among communities; however, these strategies require sustained resources for community engagement and capacity-building.

  4. Co-Operative Education or Co-Operative Placement?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, C. R.

    The Co-operative Education Department at Mohawk College is designed to extend the academic learning process into the workplace through on-the-job learning experiences which enhance the students' vocational maturation and personal development, and are integrated with the learning objectives of the program. The department offers paid, supervised…

  5. Civil society, political mobilization, and the impact of HIV scale-up on health systems in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Parker, Richard G

    2009-11-01

    This article examines the role of civil society in shaping HIV and AIDS policies and programs in Brazil. It focuses on the historical context of the redemocratization of Brazilian society during the 1980s, when the initial response to the epidemic took shape, and emphasizes the role of social movements linked to the progressive Catholic Church, the sanitary reform movement in public health, and the emerging gay rights movement in the early response to the epidemic in Brazil. It highlights the broad-based civil society coalition that took shape over the course of the 1990s and the political alliances that were built up shortly after the 1996 International AIDS Conference in Vancouver, Canada, to pass legislation guaranteeing the right to access to antiretroviral treatment. It emphasizes the continued importance of civil society organizations-in particular, AIDS-related nongovernmental organizations-and leading AIDS activists in exerting continued pressure to guarantee the sustainability of treatment access and the impact that action focused on HIV and AIDS has had on the Brazilian public health system more broadly, particularly through strengthening health infrastructures and providing a model for health-related social mobilization.

  6. Civil society, political mobilization, and the impact of HIV scale-up on health systems in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Parker, Richard G

    2009-11-01

    This article examines the role of civil society in shaping HIV and AIDS policies and programs in Brazil. It focuses on the historical context of the redemocratization of Brazilian society during the 1980s, when the initial response to the epidemic took shape, and emphasizes the role of social movements linked to the progressive Catholic Church, the sanitary reform movement in public health, and the emerging gay rights movement in the early response to the epidemic in Brazil. It highlights the broad-based civil society coalition that took shape over the course of the 1990s and the political alliances that were built up shortly after the 1996 International AIDS Conference in Vancouver, Canada, to pass legislation guaranteeing the right to access to antiretroviral treatment. It emphasizes the continued importance of civil society organizations-in particular, AIDS-related nongovernmental organizations-and leading AIDS activists in exerting continued pressure to guarantee the sustainability of treatment access and the impact that action focused on HIV and AIDS has had on the Brazilian public health system more broadly, particularly through strengthening health infrastructures and providing a model for health-related social mobilization. PMID:19858939

  7. [Strategies by civil society organizations for access to breast cancer drugs in the Brazilian Unified National Health System].

    PubMed

    Deprá, Aline Scaramussa; Ribeiro, Carlos Dimas Martins; Maksud, Ivia

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to identify and analyze strategies by civil society organizations working with breast cancer (CSOs) on access to drugs in Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) and the main social actors. A qualitative approach used the snowball technique, semi-structured interviews, and participant observation. Thematic analysis was based on the following categories: access to drugs for breast cancer treatment, relationship between CSOs and government, relationship between CSOs and the pharmaceutical industry, and other strategies used by CSOs. The results showed that civil society organizations have influenced access to drugs for breast cancer in the SUS and that their main strategies have focused on pressuring government at all levels. Meanwhile, the pharmaceutical industry sponsors some CSOs in order to strengthen them and expand its own market. The main difficulties in access to such drugs involve insufficient services, unequal treatment, and inclusion of technology in the SUS.

  8. [Strategies by civil society organizations for access to breast cancer drugs in the Brazilian Unified National Health System].

    PubMed

    Deprá, Aline Scaramussa; Ribeiro, Carlos Dimas Martins; Maksud, Ivia

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to identify and analyze strategies by civil society organizations working with breast cancer (CSOs) on access to drugs in Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) and the main social actors. A qualitative approach used the snowball technique, semi-structured interviews, and participant observation. Thematic analysis was based on the following categories: access to drugs for breast cancer treatment, relationship between CSOs and government, relationship between CSOs and the pharmaceutical industry, and other strategies used by CSOs. The results showed that civil society organizations have influenced access to drugs for breast cancer in the SUS and that their main strategies have focused on pressuring government at all levels. Meanwhile, the pharmaceutical industry sponsors some CSOs in order to strengthen them and expand its own market. The main difficulties in access to such drugs involve insufficient services, unequal treatment, and inclusion of technology in the SUS. PMID:26248106

  9. What Political Framework Is Necessary to Reduce Malnutrition? A Civil Society Perspective.

    PubMed

    Walter, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Around 800 million people worldwide are still starving. Around 2 billion are somehow able to allay their hunger yet remain malnourished because their food does not contain sufficient nutrients. There are many reasons for this: for people living in poverty and precarious conditions, the priority is to fill their stomach, and the quality of food seems less important. Since the 1960s, global food production has been focused on increasing yield, not food quality. Mass-produced convenience food with high fat and carbohydrate contents but containing few nutrients is on the rise and - as a result of price wars - often replaces healthier locally grown products. To overcome global hunger and malnutrition, civil society organizations urge governments to turn towards sustainable and human rights-based development, including sustainable agricultural and fishing policies, to contribute to the eradication of poverty. This development is first and foremost guided by the right to food. In a policy that enables farmers to produce enough food that is healthy and rich in nutrients, the following principles should be fulfilled. Governments should assume responsibility for the international impacts of their agricultural policy decisions. The food sovereignty of other countries should be respected. Policies should enable self-supply of the population with healthy food and should promote the protection of resources, the climate, biodiversity and animal welfare. Strengthening rural structures, local economies, labor rights and small-scale food producers, establishing public programs that provide locally produced food, applying stringent standards for food labeling and the regulation of unhealthy products and paying special attention to the first 1,000 days of life as the starting point of a good and healthy well-being are core elements of such a political framework. PMID:27198237

  10. What Political Framework Is Necessary to Reduce Malnutrition? A Civil Society Perspective.

    PubMed

    Walter, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Around 800 million people worldwide are still starving. Around 2 billion are somehow able to allay their hunger yet remain malnourished because their food does not contain sufficient nutrients. There are many reasons for this: for people living in poverty and precarious conditions, the priority is to fill their stomach, and the quality of food seems less important. Since the 1960s, global food production has been focused on increasing yield, not food quality. Mass-produced convenience food with high fat and carbohydrate contents but containing few nutrients is on the rise and - as a result of price wars - often replaces healthier locally grown products. To overcome global hunger and malnutrition, civil society organizations urge governments to turn towards sustainable and human rights-based development, including sustainable agricultural and fishing policies, to contribute to the eradication of poverty. This development is first and foremost guided by the right to food. In a policy that enables farmers to produce enough food that is healthy and rich in nutrients, the following principles should be fulfilled. Governments should assume responsibility for the international impacts of their agricultural policy decisions. The food sovereignty of other countries should be respected. Policies should enable self-supply of the population with healthy food and should promote the protection of resources, the climate, biodiversity and animal welfare. Strengthening rural structures, local economies, labor rights and small-scale food producers, establishing public programs that provide locally produced food, applying stringent standards for food labeling and the regulation of unhealthy products and paying special attention to the first 1,000 days of life as the starting point of a good and healthy well-being are core elements of such a political framework.

  11. [The role of civil society in constructing scientific questions: focus on the work of the CESTM at the Aquarium La Rochelle].

    PubMed

    Pomade, Adélie

    2014-03-01

    The relation between experts and civil society raises profound questioning. The first of them is the role of civil society in their evaluation work and in their research. We note that the involvement of citizen leds not only to build scientifical questions, but also to enrich and to answer them. In that way, civil society becomes a key player and an irreplaceable actor of the scientific research. This article highlights action carry out by the Centre d'Etudes et de Soins pour les Tortues Marines of the Aquarium La Rochelle which asks civil society to help it everydays to fulfill his duties. At the end of a training period, or thanks to a spontaneous initiative, volunteers get involve to move research.

  12. The Global Fund and the re-configuration and re-emergence of 'civil society': widening or closing the democratic deficit?

    PubMed

    Kapilashrami, Anuj; O'Brien, Oonagh

    2012-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a tremendous growth in the scale and policy influence of civil society in global health governance. The AIDS 'industry' in particular opens up spaces for active mobilisation and participation of non-state actors, which further crystallise with an ever-increasing dominance of global health initiatives. While country evaluations of global initiatives call for a greater participation of 'civil society', the evidence base examining the organisation, nature and operation of 'civil society' and its claims to legitimacy is very thin. Drawing on the case of one of the most visible players in the global response to HIV epidemic, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, this article seeks to highlight the complex micropolitics of its interactions with civil society. It examines the nature of civil society actors involved in the Fund projects and the processes through which they gain credibility. We argue that the imposition of global structures and principles facilitates a reconfiguration of actors around newer forms of expertise and power centres. In this context, the notion of 'civil society' underplays differences and power dynamics between various institutions and conceals the agency of outsiders under the guise of autonomy of the state and people. PMID:22239445

  13. The Global Fund and the re-configuration and re-emergence of 'civil society': widening or closing the democratic deficit?

    PubMed

    Kapilashrami, Anuj; O'Brien, Oonagh

    2012-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a tremendous growth in the scale and policy influence of civil society in global health governance. The AIDS 'industry' in particular opens up spaces for active mobilisation and participation of non-state actors, which further crystallise with an ever-increasing dominance of global health initiatives. While country evaluations of global initiatives call for a greater participation of 'civil society', the evidence base examining the organisation, nature and operation of 'civil society' and its claims to legitimacy is very thin. Drawing on the case of one of the most visible players in the global response to HIV epidemic, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, this article seeks to highlight the complex micropolitics of its interactions with civil society. It examines the nature of civil society actors involved in the Fund projects and the processes through which they gain credibility. We argue that the imposition of global structures and principles facilitates a reconfiguration of actors around newer forms of expertise and power centres. In this context, the notion of 'civil society' underplays differences and power dynamics between various institutions and conceals the agency of outsiders under the guise of autonomy of the state and people.

  14. Civil Rights Acts: The Use of Presidential Power to Achieve Equality in American Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Jack

    1981-01-01

    Presents an activity for senior high government courses about how President Johnson used his powers of persuasion to obtain civil rights legislation. Students analyze the effectiveness of arguments and persuasive techniques in two letters from President Johnson to the Speaker of the House of Representatives. (RM)

  15. A Challenge for Social Studies Educators: Increasing Civility in Schools and Society by Modeling Civic Virtues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, James

    2012-01-01

    Many scholars, teachers, parents, as well as others, are concerned with the decline of civility in public discourse and public schools. The sharp differences among various ideological groups, exacerbated by media incivility, are contributing factors to rising incivility. This ideological divide currently manifests itself in bitter partisan…

  16. [The role of civil society in building the field of Food and Nutrition in Brazil: elements for reflection].

    PubMed

    Burlandy, Luciene

    2011-01-01

    The inclusion of Food and Nutrition (FN) issues on the public agenda has gained progressive relevance in Brazil and the civil society (CS) has an important role in this process. This article examines how CS affects policies in this field based on a historical perspective of their influence in political arenas of the Federal Government. The analysis was based on the following questions: (1) the political and institutional participatory approaches; (2) the related issues and political demands; (3) the implications of this process in developing public policies. The research instruments have combined literature review and documentary analysis. It was concluded that the role of the civil society was crucial for the consolidation of the National Policy of FN and the National Policy of Food and Nutrition Security. The institutional engineering and the profile of social organizations were very different, ranging from social movements to policy networks. The topics on the agenda have changed over the period studied, with the strengthening of ethnic, racial and gender issues. The gains of this process depend on public sector capacity to regulate and support the functioning of these institutional arenas and to involve governmental segments that actually has decision making power.

  17. Creek Women and the "Civilizing" of Creek Society, 1790-1820.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dysart, Jane E.

    Women in traditional Creek society, while making few decisions in the public domain, held almost absolute power in the domestic realm. When a Creek couple married, the husband moved into his wife's house and lived among her clan, her matrilineal kin. The house, household goods, fields, and children belonged to her. Boys were educated by their…

  18. Separate Education and Hegemonic Domination: Civil Society Challenges in the Arab-Jewish City of Jaffa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payes, Shany

    2013-01-01

    The case of education in the mixed Arab-Jewish city of Jaffa, Israel, demonstrates the dialectical role of education in conflict-affected societies. As scholars of transformative education and critical pedagogy have noted, education tends to serve as an instrument of the dominant ideology of social and political elites, yet it is also a…

  19. Sustaining Peace through School and Civil Society: Mortar, Bricks and Human Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkomo, Mokubung; Weber, Everard; Malada, Brutus

    2007-01-01

    South Africa has been a high-conflict society for nearly 350 years. The first 300 years were characterised by colonial rule with all the attendant conflicts inherent in such polities where dominance over the subjects was achieved by coercive means. This was followed by a more virulent form of racial domination, called apartheid, which…

  20. Service Learning: Connecting Higher Education and Civil Society--Are We Meeting the Challenge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, B.; Devnarain, B.

    2009-01-01

    The decline in civic participation, dwindling support for social services and deficits in state budgets, has created a climate in which higher education, supported by several policies, has to make a commitment to contribute to the reconstruction and development of society by linking academic programmes to community-based priorities (Campbell…

  1. The expanding role of civil society in the global HIV/AIDS response: what has the President's Emergency Program For AIDS Relief's role been?

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Alex; Roxo, Uchechi; Epino, Henry; Muganzi, Alex; Dorward, Emily; Pick, Billy

    2012-08-15

    Civil society has been part of the HIV/AIDS response from the very beginning of the epidemic, often becoming engaged before national governments. Traditional roles of civil society--advocacy, activism, serving as government watchdog, and acting as community caretaker--have been critical to the response. In addition, civil society organizations (CSOs) play an integral part in providing world-class HIV prevention and treatment services and helping to ensure continuity of care. The President's Emergency Program for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has significantly increased the global scale-up of combination antiretroviral therapy reaching for more than 5 million people in developing countries, as well as implementation of effective evidence-based combination prevention approaches. PEPFAR databases in 5 countries and annual reports from a centrally managed initiative were mined and analyzed to determine the numbers and types of CSOs funded by PEPFAR over a 5-year period (2006-2011). Data are also presented from Uganda showing the overall resource growth in CSO working for HIV. Case studies document the evolution of 3 indigenous CSOs that increased the capacity to implement activities with PEPFAR funding. A legacy of PEPFAR has been the growth of civil society to address social and health issues as well as recognition by governments that partnerships with beneficiaries and civil society result in better outcomes. Scale-up of the global response could not have happened without the involvement of civil society and people living with HIV. This game changing partnership to jointly tackle the problems that countries face may well be the greatest benefit emerging from the HIV epidemic.

  2. Engaging civil society through deliberative dialogue to create the first Mental Health Strategy for Canada: Changing Directions, Changing Lives.

    PubMed

    Mulvale, Gillian; Chodos, Howard; Bartram, Mary; MacKinnon, Mary Pat; Abud, Manon

    2014-12-01

    Citizen engagement through deliberative dialogue is increasingly being used to address 'wicked problems' in policy-making, such as the development of national mental health policy. In 2012, the Mental Health Commission of Canada (MHCC), a national organization funded by and operating at arm's length from the federal government, released the first Mental Health Strategy for Canada: Changing Directions, Changing Lives (Mental Health Commission of Canada, 2012). Despite much-needed reform, Canada, unlike most other industrialized countries, had never previously developed a national Mental Health Strategy (the Strategy). This was due to a mix of policy factors, including a federalist system of government where primary responsibility for healthcare resides with provincial and territorial governments and a highly diverse set of stakeholder groups with diverging core ideas for mental health reform that were rooted in deeply held value differences. In this case study, we review the essential role that engagement of civil society played in the creation of the Strategy, beginning with the efforts to create a national body to shine the light on the need for mental health reform in Canada, followed by the development of a framework of specific goals based on core principles to guide the development of the Strategy, and ultimately, the creation of the Strategy itself. We discuss the various approaches to civil society engagement in each step of this process and focus in particular on how deliberative approaches helped build trust and common ground amongst stakeholders around complex, and often contentious, issues. The nature and outcomes of the deliberative processes including the key tensions between different stakeholder perspectives and values are described. We close by highlighting the lessons learned in a process that culminated with a Strategy that received strong endorsement from stakeholders across Canada. Mental Health Commission of Canada (2012). Changing Directions

  3. Engaging civil society through deliberative dialogue to create the first Mental Health Strategy for Canada: Changing Directions, Changing Lives.

    PubMed

    Mulvale, Gillian; Chodos, Howard; Bartram, Mary; MacKinnon, Mary Pat; Abud, Manon

    2014-12-01

    Citizen engagement through deliberative dialogue is increasingly being used to address 'wicked problems' in policy-making, such as the development of national mental health policy. In 2012, the Mental Health Commission of Canada (MHCC), a national organization funded by and operating at arm's length from the federal government, released the first Mental Health Strategy for Canada: Changing Directions, Changing Lives (Mental Health Commission of Canada, 2012). Despite much-needed reform, Canada, unlike most other industrialized countries, had never previously developed a national Mental Health Strategy (the Strategy). This was due to a mix of policy factors, including a federalist system of government where primary responsibility for healthcare resides with provincial and territorial governments and a highly diverse set of stakeholder groups with diverging core ideas for mental health reform that were rooted in deeply held value differences. In this case study, we review the essential role that engagement of civil society played in the creation of the Strategy, beginning with the efforts to create a national body to shine the light on the need for mental health reform in Canada, followed by the development of a framework of specific goals based on core principles to guide the development of the Strategy, and ultimately, the creation of the Strategy itself. We discuss the various approaches to civil society engagement in each step of this process and focus in particular on how deliberative approaches helped build trust and common ground amongst stakeholders around complex, and often contentious, issues. The nature and outcomes of the deliberative processes including the key tensions between different stakeholder perspectives and values are described. We close by highlighting the lessons learned in a process that culminated with a Strategy that received strong endorsement from stakeholders across Canada. Mental Health Commission of Canada (2012). Changing Directions

  4. Civil society and the Health and Social Care Act in England and Wales: theory and praxis for the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Scambler, Graham; Scambler, Sasha; Speed, Ewen

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we revisit the notion of civil society in the light of recent attempts to privatize health care in England via the passing of the Health and Social Care Act of 2013. This legislation promises a re-commodification of the National Health Service (NHS) in England. The Bill was bitterly contested during its passage through parliament, most vigorously in 2011. Much of the opposition occurred at a time of widespread, global rebellion, most notably in the 'Arab uprisings' and through the 'occupy movement'. Despite a plethora of protests, we argue, a non-porous boundary between what we call the 'protest sector' of civil society and the wider public sphere of the lifeworld has become apparent in England. A good deal of collective action, whether campaign-focused (like opposition to the Health and Social Care Bill) or more generalized (like rejections of corporate greed), has so far proved ineffective, at least in the short-term; no crisis of legitimation is apparent. We highlight a new 'class/command dynamic', leading to oligarchic rule, in the present era of financial capitalism. We use this health care case-study to re-examine the notion of civil society and its changing properties in what Castells calls a 'networked society'. The contribution ends with a discussion of the role of the sociologist re-civil society and the advocacy of both 'action' and 'foresight sociologies'. PMID:25043559

  5. Civil society and the Health and Social Care Act in England and Wales: theory and praxis for the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Scambler, Graham; Scambler, Sasha; Speed, Ewen

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we revisit the notion of civil society in the light of recent attempts to privatize health care in England via the passing of the Health and Social Care Act of 2013. This legislation promises a re-commodification of the National Health Service (NHS) in England. The Bill was bitterly contested during its passage through parliament, most vigorously in 2011. Much of the opposition occurred at a time of widespread, global rebellion, most notably in the 'Arab uprisings' and through the 'occupy movement'. Despite a plethora of protests, we argue, a non-porous boundary between what we call the 'protest sector' of civil society and the wider public sphere of the lifeworld has become apparent in England. A good deal of collective action, whether campaign-focused (like opposition to the Health and Social Care Bill) or more generalized (like rejections of corporate greed), has so far proved ineffective, at least in the short-term; no crisis of legitimation is apparent. We highlight a new 'class/command dynamic', leading to oligarchic rule, in the present era of financial capitalism. We use this health care case-study to re-examine the notion of civil society and its changing properties in what Castells calls a 'networked society'. The contribution ends with a discussion of the role of the sociologist re-civil society and the advocacy of both 'action' and 'foresight sociologies'.

  6. The Co-Operative: Good with Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Max

    2015-01-01

    The article is a summary of a small-scale research project which considers the formation of Co-operative Trust Schools. This was carried out in 2013 at a time when the number of schools becoming Academies and Trust Schools through the Co-operative College was burgeoning. Through questionnaire, interview, documentary analysis and exploration of…

  7. Women and International Intellectual Co-Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    The article explores ways in which intellectual co-operation at the League of Nations [SDN] provided a space for the engagement of culturally elite women in intellectual co-operation circles in Geneva, Paris and a range of national contexts stretching across Europe, Latin America and Asia. It discusses the language of the "international mind" and…

  8. Making Co-Operative Ideas Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Reddish Vale Technology College was the first co-operative trust in England. The democratic and co-operative nature of the experiment mean that students have gained a greater voice in the organisation of the school. As a result, new social enterprises, environmental interventions, connections with the community and with the wider co-operative…

  9. Disaster, Civil Society and Education in China: A Case Study of an Independent Non-Government Organization Working in the Aftermath of the Wenchuan Earthquake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menefee, Trey; Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald

    2012-01-01

    In May 2008 nearly 90,000 people died in the most powerful earthquake in modern Chinese history. Many were students killed in substandard schools, creating a sensitive disaster zone inside a nation whose civil society organizations are beginning to flourish. This paper examines the education earthquake relief program of an international NGO, and…

  10. Participation in Civil Society and Political Life among Young People in Maharashtra: Findings from the Youth in India--Situation and Needs Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acharya, Rajib; Singh, Abhishek; Santhya, K. G.; Ram, Faujdar; Jejeebhoy, Shireen; Ram, Usha; Mohanty, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Youth participation in civil society and political life is increasingly recognised to be an important development objective. Nonetheless, research that sheds light on the extent to which youth participate in these arenas, and the factors that facilitate or inhibit such participation remain limited in most developing countries including India.…

  11. [The participation of civil society in health and social policy councils in the city of Piraí, State of Rio de Janeiro (2006)].

    PubMed

    Andrade, Gabriela Rieveres Borges de; Vaitsman, Jeni

    2013-07-01

    Social policy councils began to be set up in municipalities in Brazil in the 1990s, first in the health care sector, then spreading to other sectors, for the purpose of including civil society in municipal policy management. Among the advances, studies revealed the formation of a network of government and non-government actors for the resolution of problems in the sector. Among the challenges, there was the limitation of the participation of government programs to a critical approval. This paper addresses the participation of councilors and representatives of civil society in the Health Council as being included in a network that includes councils and civil society organizations in a small municipality. Based on semi-structured interviews with councilors representing civil society, two dimensions of participation are analyzed. The first is the relationship between demand for participation generated by the simultaneous activity of various sectorial councils and the participatory basis existing in the city. The second is the relationship between the issues that the respondents identified and their role as councilors. Lastly, the article discusses the potential of municipal councils in contributing to an intersectorial management of the city's problems.

  12. Empowering Civil Society To Monitor the Environment: Education for Students, Awareness for the Public, and Functional Literacy for Targeted Groups. WBI Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariasingam, David Lakshmanan

    This paper uses case studies to show that by (1) empowering civil society to monitor the environment through environmental education for primary and secondary students, (2) providing environmental awareness programs for the public, and (3) supporting efforts to improve the functional literacy of targeted groups, the effectiveness and…

  13. US "Partnership" with the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood and its Effect on Civil Society and Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Anne R

    2014-01-01

    Looking at Egypt before, during and after the Arab Spring, this paper examines the intersection of Christian Copts, the Muslim Brotherhood, the Egyptian army, moderate Muslims and secular groups. In turn, it examines the Obama administration's policies toward Egypt. It discloses the surprising finding that the only consistent aspect of the administration's policy toward Egypt has been outreach to and engagement with the Muslim Brotherhood. At no time before or after the Brotherhood's ascent to prominence in Egyptian politics and society did the administration make support of the Brotherhood conditional. At no time did it use US leverage - given the massive amount of financial and military aid Egypt was depending on, and given the new Egyptian government's desire for prestige in the world community-to pressure the Morsi government to respect human rights, religious liberty and the impartial rule of law. Arguing that American foreign policy at its best is rooted in democratic ideals, this paper asks whether the United States, while respecting that Egyptians must choose their leaders and their political system, could have done more to encourage a positive strategic, moral and political outcome.

  14. US "Partnership" with the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood and its Effect on Civil Society and Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Anne R

    2014-01-01

    Looking at Egypt before, during and after the Arab Spring, this paper examines the intersection of Christian Copts, the Muslim Brotherhood, the Egyptian army, moderate Muslims and secular groups. In turn, it examines the Obama administration's policies toward Egypt. It discloses the surprising finding that the only consistent aspect of the administration's policy toward Egypt has been outreach to and engagement with the Muslim Brotherhood. At no time before or after the Brotherhood's ascent to prominence in Egyptian politics and society did the administration make support of the Brotherhood conditional. At no time did it use US leverage - given the massive amount of financial and military aid Egypt was depending on, and given the new Egyptian government's desire for prestige in the world community-to pressure the Morsi government to respect human rights, religious liberty and the impartial rule of law. Arguing that American foreign policy at its best is rooted in democratic ideals, this paper asks whether the United States, while respecting that Egyptians must choose their leaders and their political system, could have done more to encourage a positive strategic, moral and political outcome. PMID:24415811

  15. A neoliberalisation of civil society? Self-help groups and the labouring class poor in rural South India.

    PubMed

    Pattenden, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This paper notes the prominence of self-help groups (SHGs) within current anti-poverty policy in India, and analyses the impacts of government- and NGO-backed SHGs in rural North Karnataka. It argues that self-help groups represent a partial neoliberalisation of civil society in that they address poverty through low-cost methods that do not challenge the existing distribution of power and resources between the dominant class and the labouring class poor. It finds that intra-group savings and loans and external loans/subsidies can provide marginal economic and political gains for members of the dominant class and those members of the labouring classes whose insecure employment patterns currently provide above poverty line consumption levels, but provide neither material nor political gains for the labouring class poor. Target-oriented SHG catalysts are inattentive to how the social relations of production reproduce poverty and tend to overlook class relations and socio-economic and political differentiation within and outside of groups, which are subject to interference by dominant class local politicians and landowners.

  16. What can the World Health Organization learn from EU lessons in civil society engagement and participation for health?

    PubMed

    Battams, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    This article explores challenges for and the development of civil society engagement and stakeholder representation, transparency, and accountability measures in the European Union, with a specific focus on health policy. The stance of the European Union on stakeholder participation within reform debates of the World Health Organization (WHO) is also considered, along with EU lessons for multi-stakeholders at the WHO. The European Commission has developed a number of measures for stakeholder engagement and transparency; however, the European Union has been prone to lobbying interests and has found difficulty in leading and making accountable the private sector when it comes to achieving its own health policy goals. The strong influence of corporate lobbyists on the European Union has come to light, with concerns about a lack of transparency and accountability in decision-making processes. While the WHO could learn from the European Union in terms of its strategies for stakeholder engagement, it could also heed some of the important lessons for the European Union when it comes to working with a broad range of stakeholders.

  17. Activism: working to reduce maternal mortality through civil society and health professional alliances in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sunanda; Madzimbamuto, Farai; Fonn, Sharon

    2012-06-01

    Partnerships between civil society groups campaigning for reproductive and human rights, health professionals and others could contribute more to the strengthening of health systems needed to bring about declines in maternal deaths in Africa. The success of the HIV treatment literacy model developed by the Treatment Action Campaign in South Africa provides useful lessons for activism on maternal mortality, especially the combination of a right-to-health approach with learning and capacity building, community networking, popular mobilisation and legal action. This paper provides examples of these from South Africa, Botswana, Kenya and Uganda. Confidential enquiries into maternal deaths can be powerful instruments for change if pressure to act on their recommendations is brought to bear. Shadow reports presented during UN human rights country assessments can be used in a similar way. Public protests and demonstrations over avoidable deaths have succeeded in drawing attention to under-resourced services, shortages of supplies, including blood for transfusion, poor morale among staff, and lack of training and supervision. Activists could play a bigger role in holding health services, governments, and policy-makers accountable for poor maternity services, developing user-friendly information materials for women and their families, and motivating appropriate human resources strategies. Training and support for patients' groups, in how to use health facility complaints procedures is also a valuable strategy. PMID:22789081

  18. Activism: working to reduce maternal mortality through civil society and health professional alliances in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sunanda; Madzimbamuto, Farai; Fonn, Sharon

    2012-06-01

    Partnerships between civil society groups campaigning for reproductive and human rights, health professionals and others could contribute more to the strengthening of health systems needed to bring about declines in maternal deaths in Africa. The success of the HIV treatment literacy model developed by the Treatment Action Campaign in South Africa provides useful lessons for activism on maternal mortality, especially the combination of a right-to-health approach with learning and capacity building, community networking, popular mobilisation and legal action. This paper provides examples of these from South Africa, Botswana, Kenya and Uganda. Confidential enquiries into maternal deaths can be powerful instruments for change if pressure to act on their recommendations is brought to bear. Shadow reports presented during UN human rights country assessments can be used in a similar way. Public protests and demonstrations over avoidable deaths have succeeded in drawing attention to under-resourced services, shortages of supplies, including blood for transfusion, poor morale among staff, and lack of training and supervision. Activists could play a bigger role in holding health services, governments, and policy-makers accountable for poor maternity services, developing user-friendly information materials for women and their families, and motivating appropriate human resources strategies. Training and support for patients' groups, in how to use health facility complaints procedures is also a valuable strategy.

  19. Has global fund support for civil society advocacy in the former Soviet Union established meaningful engagement or 'a lot of jabber about nothing'?

    PubMed

    Harmer, Andrew; Spicer, Neil; Aleshkina, Julia; Bogdan, Daryna; Chkhatarashvili, Ketevan; Murzalieva, Gulgun; Rukhadze, Natia; Samiev, Arnol; Walt, Gill

    2013-05-01

    Although civil society advocacy for health issues such as HIV transmission through injecting drug use is higher on the global health agenda than previously, its impact on national policy reform has been limited. In this paper we seek to understand why this is the case through an examination of civil society advocacy efforts to reform HIV/AIDS and drugs-related policies and their implementation in three former Soviet Union countries. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in Georgia, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine by national researchers with representatives from a sample of 49 civil society organizations (CSOs) and 22 national key informants. We found that Global Fund support resulted in the professionalization of CSOs, which increased confidence from government and increased CSO influence on policies relating to HIV/AIDS and illicit drugs. Interviewees also reported that the amount of funding for advocacy from the Global Fund was insufficient, indirect and often interrupted. CSOs were often in competition for Global Fund support, which caused resentment and limited collective action, further weakening capacity for effective advocacy.

  20. Connected Learning in Co-Operative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jeela

    2007-01-01

    This qualitative research study explored the experiences of students who had attended a co operative (co-op) education program, with a focus on what makes the experience meaningful to them. Utilizing a basic interpretive research design, students who graduated from a co-op program were interviewed using an open-ended interview protocol. Both male…

  1. Gender Differences in Job Satisfaction, Satisfaction with Society and Satisfaction from their Salary in Greek Civil Servants who are working under conditions of Labour—Intensive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonakas, Nikolaos; Mironaki, Amalia

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study is to determine empirically the existence of differences in three dimensions of satisfaction in Greek civil servants' gender, when they work under conditions of stress and tension. The three dimensions of satisfaction selected to be considered were job satisfaction, satisfaction with society and satisfaction from their salary. For this a two parts questionnaire was used. The first part included, besides sex and socially demographic characteristics of employees and the second part consisted of the above aspects of satisfaction. Used a sample of 290 employees and a factor analysis was conducted on the results of the questionnaire. The central question of this paper was whether the strength of the force of better wage, compared with the average civil servant, affects a different way to meet women and men's satisfaction who work under working conditions—intensity. The main finding of this study was the existence differences between women and men in the dimension of satisfaction from the salary.

  2. Missing--The People's Voice: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development in education for future economic growth has always been a global focal point for non-governmental agencies across the world. This article highlights the extensive work the Organisation for Economic Co-operation Development (OECD) has achieved over time, constructing contemporary society as we know it today, continually…

  3. Co-Operation: The Antidote to Isolated Misery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This is a case study demonstrating the impact the co-operative movement has had on one co-operative school in south-west England. Lipson Co-operative Academy in Plymouth was one of the first schools to convert to become a co-operative school in 2009. The article has been co-written by members of the Academy and focuses on three transformational…

  4. An Analysis of the Curricula of Business Administration Departments in Turkish Universities with the Perspective of Civil Society Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Aytul Ayse; Sarikaya, Muammer

    2009-01-01

    The authors' goal was to analyze the curricula of business administration departments in state and private universities in Turkey, which have been offering courses such as business and society, social responsibility, business ethics, and management of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Of the 74 universities with business administration…

  5. A Prototype Item-Level Index to the Civil War Photograph Collection of the Ohio Historical Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Eric T.

    Historically, bibliographical classification and indexing systems have concentrated on textually-based materials. More recently, archives and libraries have realized a pressing need to provide access to visual documents. An institution like the Ohio Historical Society must consider many different tools of access to achieve this goal. The growth of…

  6. Co-Operative Schools: A Democratic Alternative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audsley, Jamie; Cook, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Many fear that the pressures of running an Academy will be too great for individual schools, and that they will be forced to join chains run by private companies. These may offer hard-pressed school administrators valuable management expertise and back-office support, but seem to offer wider society little accountability and transparency. Are…

  7. The ambiguities of the 'partnership' between civil society and the state in Uganda's AIDS response during the 1990s and 2000s as demonstrated in the development of TASO.

    PubMed

    Grebe, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    This article critically investigates state-civil society relations in the Ugandan AIDS response by tracing the history of Uganda's 'multisectoral' and 'partnership' approaches, particularly as it pertains to The AIDS Support Organisation (TASO). It finds that the Ugandan government's reputation for good leadership on AIDS is more ambiguous than commonly supposed and that the much-vaunted 'partnership' approach has not enabled strong critical civil society voices to emerge or prevented the harmful impact of a socially conservative agenda. By the 1990s, TASO had become the most important provider of medical and psychosocial support services to HIV/AIDS patients, but was less effective in influencing policy or holding the state accountable (because the political context prevented a more activist stance). The effectiveness of civil society has been constrained by an authoritarian political culture and institutions that discourage vocal criticism. Despite these limitations, however, state-civil society partnership did contribute to the emergence of a relatively effective coalition for action against HIV/AIDS. Donors were essential in encouraging the emergence of this coalition. PMID:26251294

  8. Summary and Analysis of the Feedback from Civil Society as Part of the Consultation on the Commission's Memorandum on Lifelong Learning. Supporting Document to the Communication from the Commission Making a European Area of Lifelong Learning a Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document presents a Consultation Platform formed by seven major networks to maximize impact of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and civil society organizations on development of the Communication on Lifelong Learning. Section 2 is a summary of platform conclusions structured according to these six key messages in the Memorandum on…

  9. The ambiguities of the 'partnership' between civil society and the state in Uganda's AIDS response during the 1990s and 2000s as demonstrated in the development of TASO.

    PubMed

    Grebe, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    This article critically investigates state-civil society relations in the Ugandan AIDS response by tracing the history of Uganda's 'multisectoral' and 'partnership' approaches, particularly as it pertains to The AIDS Support Organisation (TASO). It finds that the Ugandan government's reputation for good leadership on AIDS is more ambiguous than commonly supposed and that the much-vaunted 'partnership' approach has not enabled strong critical civil society voices to emerge or prevented the harmful impact of a socially conservative agenda. By the 1990s, TASO had become the most important provider of medical and psychosocial support services to HIV/AIDS patients, but was less effective in influencing policy or holding the state accountable (because the political context prevented a more activist stance). The effectiveness of civil society has been constrained by an authoritarian political culture and institutions that discourage vocal criticism. Despite these limitations, however, state-civil society partnership did contribute to the emergence of a relatively effective coalition for action against HIV/AIDS. Donors were essential in encouraging the emergence of this coalition.

  10. The effects of national and international HIV/AIDS funding and governance mechanisms on the development of civil-society responses to HIV/AIDS in East and Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kevin J; Birdsall, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The study takes stock of the exponential growth in the number of new civil-society organisations (CSOs) working in the HIV/AIDS field in East and Southern Africa during the period 1996-2004. We researched this development through a survey of 439 CSOs in six countries and case studies focused on the evolution of community responses to HIV/AIDS in specific communities in eight countries. We describe the types of CSOs that emerged, their relationships with governments and donors, and their activities, organisational characteristics and funding requirements. The data presented show that the vision of social mobilisation of HIV/AIDS responses through community-level organisations has faced strong external challenges. Evidence from survey data, national HIV/AIDS spending assessments and case studies shows that in some respects the changing international aid environment undermines the prospects for development of the civil-society sector's contributions in HIV/AIDS responses. Of particular interest is to understand how the "Three Ones" and the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness have reshaped international funding for HIV/AIDS responses. There has been relatively little attention paid to the impact of the new management and funding modalities--including national performance frameworks, general budget support, joint funding arrangements and basket funds--on civil-society agencies at the forefront of community HIV/AIDS responses. Evidence is presented to show that in important respects the new modalities limit the unique contribution that CSOs can make to national HIV/AIDS responses. It is also shown that the drive to rapidly intensify the scale of HIV/AIDS responses has involved using community organisations as service providers for externally formulated programmes. We discuss this as a strong threat to the development of sustainable civil-society economies as well as to CSOs' diversity and responsiveness. The ways in which CSOs are responding to these challenges are

  11. Using information communication technologies to increase the institutional capacity of local health organisations in Africa: a case study of the Kenya Civil Society Portal for Health

    PubMed Central

    Juma, Charles; Sundsmo, Aaron; Maket, Boniface; Powell, Richard; Aluoch, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Achieving the healthcare components of the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals is significantly premised on effective service delivery by civil society organisations (CSOs). However, many CSOs across Africalack the necessary capacity to perform this role robustly. This paper reports on an evaluation of the use, and perceived impact, of aknowledge management tool upon institutional strengthening among CSOs working in Kenya's health sector. Methods Three methods were used: analytics data; user satisfaction surveys; and a furtherkey informant survey. Results Satisfaction with the portal was consistently high, with 99% finding the quality and relevance of the content very good or good for institutional strengthening standards, governance, and planning and resource mobilisation. Critical facilitators to the success of knowledge management for CSO institutional strengthening were identified as people/culture (developed resources and organisational narratives) and technology (easily accessible, enabling information exchange, tools/resources available, access to consultants/partners). Critical barriers were identified as people/culture (database limitations, materials limitations, and lack of active users), and process (limited access, limited interactions, and limited approval process). Conclusion This pilot study demonstrated the perceived utility of a web-based knowledge management portal among developing nations’ CSOs, with widespread satisfaction across multiple domains, which increased over time. Providing increased opportunities for collective mutual learning, promoting a culture of data use for decision making, and encouraging all health organisations to be learning institutions should be a priority for those interested in promoting sustainable long-term solutions for Africa. PMID:26401217

  12. National Health Service Principles as Experienced by Vulnerable London Migrants in "Austerity Britain": A Qualitative Study of Rights, Entitlements, and Civil-Society Advocacy

    PubMed Central

    Rafighi, Elham; Poduval, Shoba; Legido-Quigley, Helena; Howard, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent British National Health Service (NHS) reforms, in response to austerity and alleged ‘health tourism,’ could impose additional barriers to healthcare access for non-European Economic Area (EEA) migrants. This study explores policy reform challenges and implications, using excerpts from the perspectives of non-EEA migrants and health advocates in London. Methods: A qualitative study design was selected. Data were collected through document review and 22 in-depth interviews with non-EEA migrants and civil-society organisation representatives. Data were analysed thematically using the NHS principles. Results: The experiences of those ‘vulnerable migrants’ (ie, defined as adult non-EEA asylum-seekers, refugees, undocumented, low-skilled, and trafficked migrants susceptible to marginalised healthcare access) able to access health services were positive, with healthcare professionals generally demonstrating caring attitudes. However, general confusion existed about entitlements due to recent NHS changes, controversy over ‘health tourism,’ and challenges registering for health services or accessing secondary facilities. Factors requiring greater clarity or improvement included accessibility, communication, and clarity on general practitioner (GP) responsibilities and migrant entitlements. Conclusion: Legislation to restrict access to healthcare based on immigration status could further compromise the health of vulnerable individuals in Britain. This study highlights current challenges in health services policy and practice and the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in healthcare advocacy (eg, helping the voices of the most vulnerable reach policy-makers). Thus, it contributes to broadening national discussions and enabling more nuanced interpretation of ongoing global debates on immigration and health. PMID:27694650

  13. National Health Service Principles as Experienced by Vulnerable London Migrants in "Austerity Britain": A Qualitative Study of Rights, Entitlements, and Civil-Society Advocacy

    PubMed Central

    Rafighi, Elham; Poduval, Shoba; Legido-Quigley, Helena; Howard, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent British National Health Service (NHS) reforms, in response to austerity and alleged ‘health tourism,’ could impose additional barriers to healthcare access for non-European Economic Area (EEA) migrants. This study explores policy reform challenges and implications, using excerpts from the perspectives of non-EEA migrants and health advocates in London. Methods: A qualitative study design was selected. Data were collected through document review and 22 in-depth interviews with non-EEA migrants and civil-society organisation representatives. Data were analysed thematically using the NHS principles. Results: The experiences of those ‘vulnerable migrants’ (ie, defined as adult non-EEA asylum-seekers, refugees, undocumented, low-skilled, and trafficked migrants susceptible to marginalised healthcare access) able to access health services were positive, with healthcare professionals generally demonstrating caring attitudes. However, general confusion existed about entitlements due to recent NHS changes, controversy over ‘health tourism,’ and challenges registering for health services or accessing secondary facilities. Factors requiring greater clarity or improvement included accessibility, communication, and clarity on general practitioner (GP) responsibilities and migrant entitlements. Conclusion: Legislation to restrict access to healthcare based on immigration status could further compromise the health of vulnerable individuals in Britain. This study highlights current challenges in health services policy and practice and the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in healthcare advocacy (eg, helping the voices of the most vulnerable reach policy-makers). Thus, it contributes to broadening national discussions and enabling more nuanced interpretation of ongoing global debates on immigration and health.

  14. The effects of national and international HIV/AIDS funding and governance mechanisms on the development of civil-society responses to HIV/AIDS in East and Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kevin J; Birdsall, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The study takes stock of the exponential growth in the number of new civil-society organisations (CSOs) working in the HIV/AIDS field in East and Southern Africa during the period 1996-2004. We researched this development through a survey of 439 CSOs in six countries and case studies focused on the evolution of community responses to HIV/AIDS in specific communities in eight countries. We describe the types of CSOs that emerged, their relationships with governments and donors, and their activities, organisational characteristics and funding requirements. The data presented show that the vision of social mobilisation of HIV/AIDS responses through community-level organisations has faced strong external challenges. Evidence from survey data, national HIV/AIDS spending assessments and case studies shows that in some respects the changing international aid environment undermines the prospects for development of the civil-society sector's contributions in HIV/AIDS responses. Of particular interest is to understand how the "Three Ones" and the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness have reshaped international funding for HIV/AIDS responses. There has been relatively little attention paid to the impact of the new management and funding modalities--including national performance frameworks, general budget support, joint funding arrangements and basket funds--on civil-society agencies at the forefront of community HIV/AIDS responses. Evidence is presented to show that in important respects the new modalities limit the unique contribution that CSOs can make to national HIV/AIDS responses. It is also shown that the drive to rapidly intensify the scale of HIV/AIDS responses has involved using community organisations as service providers for externally formulated programmes. We discuss this as a strong threat to the development of sustainable civil-society economies as well as to CSOs' diversity and responsiveness. The ways in which CSOs are responding to these challenges are

  15. Co-operativity in a nanocrystalline solid-state transition.

    PubMed

    White, Sarah L; Smith, Jeremy G; Behl, Mayank; Jain, Prashant K

    2013-01-01

    Co-operativity is a remarkable phenomenon mostly seen in biology, where initial reaction events significantly alter the propensity of subsequent reaction events, giving rise to a nonlinear tightly regulated synergistic response. Here we have found unique evidence of atomic level co-operativity in an inorganic material. A thousand-atom nanocrystal (NC) of the inorganic solid cadmium selenide exhibits strong positive co-operativity in its reaction with copper ions. A NC doped with a few copper impurities becomes highly prone to be doped even further, driving an abrupt transition of the entire NC to the copper selenide phase, as manifested by a strongly sigmoidal response in optical spectroscopy and electron diffraction measurements. The examples presented here suggest that cooperative phenomena may have an important role in the solid state, especially in the nucleation of new chemical phases, crystal growth, and other materials' transformations.

  16. Co-operation between Canada and other countries and territories to promote countermeasures against illicit drug trafficking.

    PubMed

    Stamler, R T; Fahlman, R C; Clement, G W

    1987-01-01

    This article reviews the current programme and legislation relating to drug control and co-operation in drug law enforcement between Canada and other countries. The article also outlines the measures proposed by the authors to promote world-wide co-operation in controlling the illicit traffic in drugs. The authors make the following suggestions: in order to prevent individuals involved in organized crime from profiting from their illegal activities, standards for criminal laws should be established at the international level to ensure that no country or territory can be used as a haven for organized crime and profits derived from it; national Governments must ensure that co-operation is extended to all investigations and enquiries concerning organized crime; bilateral and multilateral treaties should be developed and adopted to ensure the exchange of information and mutual co-operation in law enforcement action against organized crime; international co-operation is needed to ensure the effective prosecution of individuals involved in organized international criminal groups and the removal of their illegally accumulated profits, which should result in the dismantling of the illegal organizations to prevent their entrenchment in contemporary societies.

  17. SMEs and their co-operation with academia.

    PubMed

    Antoine, Jean Michel; Strömqvist, Mats

    2005-01-01

    Co-operation between SMEs and Academia can be a win-win situation when each partner understands the constraints of the other. SMEs are often leaders in innovation; therefore more ready to share interest in research. They are flexible and dynamic. They need a short feed-back to sustain their co-operation. Academia is often more long-term oriented and more question- than answer-oriented. A code of conduct can ease the relationship because it can anticipate the potential problems.

  18. Supersurveillance, Democracy, and Co-Operation--The Challenge for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schostak, John

    2014-01-01

    The paper explores pedagogies of surveillance and counter pedagogies of radical democracy and co-operative practice and their implications for continuing professional development (CPD). Teachers have had to respond to an increasing naturalisation of surveillance in schools. However, this naturalisation can be countered by drawing upon the emergent…

  19. Impact of Co-Operative Learning Strategies in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, G.

    2010-01-01

    The study illuminates the effectiveness of Co-operative Learning Strategies in learning English Grammar for the learners at secondary level. Cooperative Learning is particularly beneficial for any student learning as a second language. It promotes peer interaction, which helps the development of language and the learning of concepts with content.…

  20. Co-Operative Training in the Sheffield Forging Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give details of an operation carried out in Sheffield to increase the recruitment of young men into the steel forging industry. Design/methodology/approach: The Sheffield Forges Co-operative Training Scheme was designed to encourage boys to enter the forging industry and to provide them with training and…

  1. Securing co-operation from persons supplying statistical data

    PubMed Central

    Aubenque, M. J.; Blaikley, R. M.; Harris, F. Fraser; Lal, R. B.; Neurdenburg, M. G.; Hernández, R. de Shelly

    1954-01-01

    Securing the co-operation of persons supplying information required for medical statistics is essentially a problem in human relations, and an understanding of the motivations, attitudes, and behaviour of the respondents is necessary. Before any new statistical survey is undertaken, it is suggested by Aubenque and Harris that a preliminary review be made so that the maximum use is made of existing information. Care should also be taken not to burden respondents with an overloaded questionnaire. Aubenque and Harris recommend simplified reporting. Complete population coverage is not necessary. Neurdenburg suggests that the co-operation and support of such organizations as medical associations and social security boards are important and that propaganda should be directed specifically to the groups whose co-operation is sought. Informal personal contacts are valuable and desirable, according to Blaikley, but may have adverse effects if the right kind of approach is not made. Financial payments as an incentive in securing co-operation are opposed by Neurdenburg, who proposes that only postage-free envelopes or similar small favours be granted. Blaikley and Harris, on the other hand, express the view that financial incentives may do much to gain the support of those required to furnish data; there are, however, other incentives, and full use should be made of the natural inclinations of respondents. Compulsion may be necessary in certain instances, but administrative rather than statutory measures should be adopted. Penalties, according to Aubenque, should be inflicted only when justified by imperative health requirements. The results of surveys should be made available as soon as possible to those who co-operated, and Aubenque and Harris point out that they should also be of practical value to the suppliers of the information. Greater co-operation can be secured from medical persons who have an understanding of the statistical principles involved; Aubenque and

  2. Interdisciplinary Co-operation (Part II of "Language Learning: Individual Needs, Interdisciplinary Co-operation, Bi- and Multilingualism").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1978

    The following papers on interdisciplinary cooperation in second language instruction are included: (1) "Language Teaching: Possibilities for Interdisciplinary Co-operation," by James E. Alatis; (2) "L'insegnamento della letteratura italiana (The Teaching of Italian Literature)," by Ezio Raimondi; (3) "Objective Evaluation and Transparency," by…

  3. Moroccan Civil Society: Historical Traditions and Contemporary Challenges. Curriculum Projects of a Fulbright-Hays Seminar Abroad, June 25-July 29, 1998 (Morocco).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This collection of curriculum projects is the result of the participation of 15 teacher/authors in the 1998 Fulbright-Hays seminar in Morocco. Projects in the collection focus on various topics in Moroccan society. The following curriculum projects are outlined in the collection: "Studies in African Cultures: A Course Syllabus" (Dinker I. Patel);…

  4. It All Began with Raiffeisen: Co-operatives as Instruments of Self-Help and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nover, Kurt

    1986-01-01

    The rural and manufacturing co-operatives and credit co-operatives in the Federal Republic of Germany have succeeded in continuously expanding and consolidating their position within the framework of the country's market economy. As the biggest organizations of medium-size enterprises, the co-operatives have adapted to the new circumstances…

  5. An Effect of the Co-Operative Network Model for Students' Quality in Thai Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanthaphum, Udomsin; Tesaputa, Kowat; Weangsamoot, Visoot

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed: 1) to study the current and desirable states of the co-operative network in developing the learners' quality in Thai primary schools, 2) to develop a model of the co-operative network in developing the learners' quality, and 3) to examine the results of implementation of the co-operative network model in the primary school.…

  6. Civil Drafting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertz, Karen; Kellum, Mary, Ed.

    This curriculum guide contains a course in civil drafting to train entry-level workers for jobs in the field. The module contains 12 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to civil drafting; (2) map scales and measurement; (3) standard symbols and abbreviations; (4) interpretation of surveyor's notations; (5) legal…

  7. [Sex role orientation and interdisciplinary co-operation].

    PubMed

    Kada, Olivia; Brunner, Eva; Maier, Marco

    2010-01-01

    Interdisciplinary collaboration between nurses and physicians contributes to optimal patient outcomes. Both insufficient knowledge of each other's roles and competencies and the power position of physicians impede nurse-physician collaboration. Health care managers play an important role in the promotion of nurse-physician collaboration. Leadership is associated with masculine traits, but female attributes are crucial in social relationships. Austrian health care management students (n=141, response rate: 93 %) rated themselves, the typical nurse and the typical physician with respect to masculine and feminine traits using the Bem sex-role-inventory (BSRI). The respondents saw themselves as equally masculine and feminine (androgynous self-concept); nurses were rated as significantly more masculine than feminine, whereas physicians were described as masculine sex-typed and significantly less feminine than nurses. For health care managers who also have to promote interdisciplinary collaboration an androgynous self-concept can be regarded as advantageous. They need to reflect on their ideas about nurses and physicians in order to manage the challenge of promoting interprofessional co-operation.

  8. Implementation effects of GFATM-supported HIV/AIDS projects on the health sector, civil society and affected communities in Peru 2004-2007.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, C F; Girón, J Maziel; Sandoval, C; López, R; Valverde, R; Pajuelo, J; Vásquez, P; Rosasco, A M; Chirinos, A; Silva-Santisteban, A

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of opportunities for support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) for HIV-related projects has so far generated funding of over US$75 million for three proposals in Peru. The size of this investment creates the need for close monitoring to ensure a reasonable impact. This paper describes the effects of collaboration with the GFATM on key actors involved in HIV-related activities and on decision-making processes; on health sector divisions; on policies and sources of financing; on equity of access; and on stigma and discrimination of vulnerable and affected populations. Data analysed included primary data collected through interviews with key informants, in-depth interviews and group discussions with vulnerable and affected populations, as well as several public documents. Multisectorality, encouraged by the GFATM, is incipient; centralist proposals with limited consultation, a lack of consensus and short preparation times prevail. No accountability mechanisms operate at the Country Coordinating Mechanism (CCM) level regarding CCM members or society as a whole. GFATM-funded activities have required significant input from the public sector, sometimes beyond the capacity of its human resources. A significant increase in HIV funding, in absolute amounts and in fractions of the total budget, has been observed from several sources including the National Treasury, and it is unclear whether this has implied reductions in the budget for other priorities. Patterns of social exclusion of people living with HIV/AIDS are diverse: children and women are more valued; while transgender persons and sex workers are often excluded. PMID:20390630

  9. Implementation effects of GFATM-supported HIV/AIDS projects on the health sector, civil society and affected communities in Peru 2004-2007.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, C F; Girón, J Maziel; Sandoval, C; López, R; Valverde, R; Pajuelo, J; Vásquez, P; Rosasco, A M; Chirinos, A; Silva-Santisteban, A

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of opportunities for support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) for HIV-related projects has so far generated funding of over US$75 million for three proposals in Peru. The size of this investment creates the need for close monitoring to ensure a reasonable impact. This paper describes the effects of collaboration with the GFATM on key actors involved in HIV-related activities and on decision-making processes; on health sector divisions; on policies and sources of financing; on equity of access; and on stigma and discrimination of vulnerable and affected populations. Data analysed included primary data collected through interviews with key informants, in-depth interviews and group discussions with vulnerable and affected populations, as well as several public documents. Multisectorality, encouraged by the GFATM, is incipient; centralist proposals with limited consultation, a lack of consensus and short preparation times prevail. No accountability mechanisms operate at the Country Coordinating Mechanism (CCM) level regarding CCM members or society as a whole. GFATM-funded activities have required significant input from the public sector, sometimes beyond the capacity of its human resources. A significant increase in HIV funding, in absolute amounts and in fractions of the total budget, has been observed from several sources including the National Treasury, and it is unclear whether this has implied reductions in the budget for other priorities. Patterns of social exclusion of people living with HIV/AIDS are diverse: children and women are more valued; while transgender persons and sex workers are often excluded.

  10. Ten thousand revolutions: conjectures about civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denning, Kathryn

    2011-02-01

    Ten thousand years ago, no-one on Earth was living a "civilized" life. What has happened since is remarkable and impossible to fully comprehend; yet, everyone has ideas about civilization, and how the world came to be as it is. Such understandings of civilizations on Earth inevitably influence speculation about extraterrestrial civilizations, in two ways. First, sometimes a specific Earth civilization or historical experience is explicitly used as a basis for inferences about extraterrestrial civilizations. Second, more general assumptions about the development and functioning of Earth's societies shape conjectures about alien societies. This paper focuses on the latter, general assumptions, with the aim of considering how we can use multidisciplinary approaches, and our knowledge of Earth's civilizations, to our best advantage in SETI.

  11. The ACCEND program: a combined BS and MS program in environmental engineering that includes co-operative work experience.

    PubMed

    Bishop, P L; Keener, T C; Kukreti, A R; Kowel, S T

    2004-01-01

    Environmental engineering education has rapidly expanded in recent years and new teaching methods are needed. Many professionals and educators believe that a MS degree in environmental engineering should be the minimum in order to practice the profession, along with practical training. This paper describes an innovative program being offered at the University of Cincinnati that combines an integrated BS in civil engineering and an MS in environmental engineering with extensive practical co-operative education (co-op) experience, all within a five-year period. The program includes distance learning opportunities during the co-op periods. The result is a well-trained graduate who will receive higher pay and more challenging career opportunities, and who will have developed professionalism and maturity beyond that from traditional engineering programs.

  12. The ACCEND program: a combined BS and MS program in environmental engineering that includes co-operative work experience.

    PubMed

    Bishop, P L; Keener, T C; Kukreti, A R; Kowel, S T

    2004-01-01

    Environmental engineering education has rapidly expanded in recent years and new teaching methods are needed. Many professionals and educators believe that a MS degree in environmental engineering should be the minimum in order to practice the profession, along with practical training. This paper describes an innovative program being offered at the University of Cincinnati that combines an integrated BS in civil engineering and an MS in environmental engineering with extensive practical co-operative education (co-op) experience, all within a five-year period. The program includes distance learning opportunities during the co-op periods. The result is a well-trained graduate who will receive higher pay and more challenging career opportunities, and who will have developed professionalism and maturity beyond that from traditional engineering programs. PMID:15193097

  13. Ancient Civilizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Web Feet K-8, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This subject guide includes Web sites and other resources on ancient civilizations with age levels and appropriate subject disciplines specified. Also includes CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, audios, magazines, professional resources, and a sample student assignment. (LRW)

  14. Vitrification assistance program: international co-operation on vitrification technology

    SciTech Connect

    Penrice, Ch.; McGowan, B.; Garth, B.; Reed, J.; Prod'homme, A.; Sartelet, S.; Guerif, H.N.; Hollebecque, J.F.; Flament, T.; Prod'homme, A.

    2008-07-01

    With 10 vitrification lines in operation (3 on WVP in Sellafield, 1 on AVM in Marcoule and 6 on AVH in La Hague), Sellafield Ltd and Areva NC benefit from the most in-depth experience worldwide in the vitrification of highly active liquors within a framework of commercial operations. Based on the two-step process design, using a calciner and an induction-heated hot melter, which was initially deployed in Marcoule in 1978, core vitrification equipment has been continuously improved by the independent development programmes of the two companies. In March 2005, Sellafield Ltd and Areva NC signed the Vitrification Assistance Program (hereafter referred to as VAP); a co-operative project lasting 4 years during which Areva NC is to share some areas of their experience and expertise with Sellafield Ltd. Now at the halfway point of this project, this paper summarises the work performed by the VAP team to date, highlighting the early benefits and lessons learned. The following points will be developed: - Equipment delivery and preparation for implementation on WVP - Training organization and dissemination to WVP teams - Lessons learned from the early changes implemented in operations (Calciner, Melter, Dust Scrubber and Primary off gas system), and initial feedback from the first campaign using a VAP equipped line. In conclusion: The vitrification process and technology implemented at Sellafield and at La Hague, based on the two-step process, have proved to be efficient in treating high active liquor of various types. Ten lines based on this principle have been successfully operated for more than 15 years in France and in the UK. The process has also been demonstrated to be sufficiently versatile to benefit from continuous improvement and development programmes. VAP, as a complete package to support vitrification technology and knowledge transfer from AREVA NC to Sellafield Ltd, has provided the framework for fruitful technical exchanges and discussions between the two

  15. 'Part of the solution': Developing sustainable energy through co-operatives and learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duguid, Fiona C. B.

    After five years of development, WindShare Co-operative in Toronto, Ontario became the first urban wind turbine in North America and the first co-operatively owned and operated wind turbine in Canada. The development of WindShare Co-operative has spurred the growth of a green energy co-operative sector in Ontario. This study, which included 27 interviews and a focus group with members of WindShare Co-operative, focuses on the roles of community-based green energy co-operatives in advancing sustainable energy development and energy literacy. Sustainable energy development is firmly rooted in the triple bottom line of environmental, social and economic success, and green energy co-operatives can be a way to help achieve those successes. Green energy co-operatives are structures for providing renewable energy generation or energy conservation practices, both of which have important environmental impacts regarding climate change and pollution levels. Co-operative structures are supported by processes that include local ownership, democracy, participation, community organizing, learning and social change. These processes have a significant social impact by creating a venue for people to be directly involved in the energy industry, by involving learning through participation in a community-based organization, and by advancing energy literacy within the membership and the general public. In regards to the economic impacts, green energy co-operatives foster a local economy and local investment opportunities, which have repercussions regarding building expertise within Ontario's green energy and co-operative development future, and more generally, captures members' interest because they have a direct stake in the co-operative. This thesis shows that green energy co-operatives, like WindShare, play an important role in advancing sustainable energy development, energy literacy and the triple bottom line. Members of WindShare expressed resounding feelings of pride, efficacy

  16. Co-Operative Schools: Building Communities in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodin, Tom

    2012-01-01

    The recent progress of "co-operative schools" both confirms and disrupts many assumptions surrounding contemporary compulsory schooling. The term itself refers to an eclectic array of schools, both primary and secondary, of which there were, by June 2012, almost 300 in England that have adopted co-operative values, in terms of governance, pedagogy…

  17. Quorum sensing protects bacterial co-operation from exploitation by cheats

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Richard C; McNally, Luke; Popat, Roman; Brown, Sam P

    2016-01-01

    Quorum sensing (QS) is a cell–cell communication system found in many bacterial species, commonly controlling secreted co-operative traits, including extracellular digestive enzymes. We show that the canonical QS regulatory architecture allows bacteria to sense the genotypic composition of high-density populations, and limit co-operative investments to social environments enriched for co-operators. Using high-density populations of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa we map per-capita signal and co-operative enzyme investment in the wild type as a function of the frequency of non-responder cheats. We demonstrate mathematically and experimentally that the observed response rule of ‘co-operate when surrounded by co-operators' allows bacteria to match their investment in co-operation to the composition of the group, therefore allowing the maintenance of co-operation at lower levels of population structuring (that is, lower relatedness). Similar behavioural responses have been described in vertebrates under the banner of ‘generalised reciprocity'. Our results suggest that mechanisms of reciprocity are not confined to taxa with advanced cognition, and can be implemented at the cellular level via positive feedback circuits. PMID:26744811

  18. Co-Operative Problem-Solving at the Royal Docks Community School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This article responds to Henry Tam's article in this issue of FORUM by exploring opportunities for co-operative problem-solving for staff and students of the Royal Docks Community School in the London Borough of Newham. Becoming a co-operative trust helped the school move out of special measures and develop a strategy of participation and…

  19. The Learning Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Zee, Hendrik

    1991-01-01

    Strategic issues in the development of a learning society are (1) broadening the definition of learning; (2) making the goal of learning growth toward completeness; (3) increasing collective competence; (4) fostering autonomy in learners; and (5) stressing a political approach to learning (the right to learn as a civil right). (SK)

  20. Corruption drives the emergence of civil society.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Sherief; Sayed, Rasha; Rahwan, Iyad; Leveck, Brad L; Cebrian, Manuel; Rutherford, Alex; Fowler, James H

    2014-04-01

    Centralized sanctioning institutions have been shown to emerge naturally through social learning, displace all other forms of punishment and lead to stable cooperation. However, this result provokes a number of questions. If centralized sanctioning is so successful, then why do many highly authoritarian states suffer from low levels of cooperation? Why do states with high levels of public good provision tend to rely more on citizen-driven peer punishment? Here, we consider how corruption influences the evolution of cooperation and punishment. Our model shows that the effectiveness of centralized punishment in promoting cooperation breaks down when some actors in the model are allowed to bribe centralized authorities. Counterintuitively, a weaker centralized authority is actually more effective because it allows peer punishment to restore cooperation in the presence of corruption. Our results provide an evolutionary rationale for why public goods provision rarely flourishes in polities that rely only on strong centralized institutions. Instead, cooperation requires both decentralized and centralized enforcement. These results help to explain why citizen participation is a fundamental necessity for policing the commons.

  1. Corruption drives the emergence of civil society

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Sherief; Sayed, Rasha; Rahwan, Iyad; LeVeck, Brad L.; Cebrian, Manuel; Rutherford, Alex; Fowler, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Centralized sanctioning institutions have been shown to emerge naturally through social learning, displace all other forms of punishment and lead to stable cooperation. However, this result provokes a number of questions. If centralized sanctioning is so successful, then why do many highly authoritarian states suffer from low levels of cooperation? Why do states with high levels of public good provision tend to rely more on citizen-driven peer punishment? Here, we consider how corruption influences the evolution of cooperation and punishment. Our model shows that the effectiveness of centralized punishment in promoting cooperation breaks down when some actors in the model are allowed to bribe centralized authorities. Counterintuitively, a weaker centralized authority is actually more effective because it allows peer punishment to restore cooperation in the presence of corruption. Our results provide an evolutionary rationale for why public goods provision rarely flourishes in polities that rely only on strong centralized institutions. Instead, cooperation requires both decentralized and centralized enforcement. These results help to explain why citizen participation is a fundamental necessity for policing the commons. PMID:24478283

  2. Corruption drives the emergence of civil society.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Sherief; Sayed, Rasha; Rahwan, Iyad; Leveck, Brad L; Cebrian, Manuel; Rutherford, Alex; Fowler, James H

    2014-04-01

    Centralized sanctioning institutions have been shown to emerge naturally through social learning, displace all other forms of punishment and lead to stable cooperation. However, this result provokes a number of questions. If centralized sanctioning is so successful, then why do many highly authoritarian states suffer from low levels of cooperation? Why do states with high levels of public good provision tend to rely more on citizen-driven peer punishment? Here, we consider how corruption influences the evolution of cooperation and punishment. Our model shows that the effectiveness of centralized punishment in promoting cooperation breaks down when some actors in the model are allowed to bribe centralized authorities. Counterintuitively, a weaker centralized authority is actually more effective because it allows peer punishment to restore cooperation in the presence of corruption. Our results provide an evolutionary rationale for why public goods provision rarely flourishes in polities that rely only on strong centralized institutions. Instead, cooperation requires both decentralized and centralized enforcement. These results help to explain why citizen participation is a fundamental necessity for policing the commons. PMID:24478283

  3. Children's Rights and Global Civil Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Eckhardt

    2007-01-01

    Although the Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) was a significant international achievement, its adoption requires analysis and interpretation in terms of the possibilities and limitations of multilateral cooperation. The international movement for children's rights can only be conceived as the result of a system of multilateral…

  4. Handbook for the Emergence of Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, David; And Others

    This handbook, prepared through the Anthropology Curriculum Study Project in Chicago, Illinois, is designed to accompany the secondary level textbook, "The Emergence of Civilization" (SO 012 148) written in 1964. The textbook emphasizes the comparison of the patterns of culture change which resulted in complex societies (civilizations) in six…

  5. The Black Civil Rights Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burson, George

    1986-01-01

    Presents part of the Aspen High School curriculum about the United States civil rights movement. Focuses on why Blacks were segregated and disenfranchised prior to the movement, why the movement took place, what were the results of the movement, and what is the present condition of Blacks in American society. (JDH)

  6. Civil Disobedience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue looks at three historical and recent instances of civil disobedience. The first article examines the Free Speech Movement, which arose on the Berkeley campus of the University of California in the 1960s. The second article recounts the struggle of Mahatma Gandhi to free India from the British Empire. The final article explores the…

  7. Making the Good Society Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    2010-01-01

    Everyone is talking about civil society. Perhaps it's the election, and the shock of seeing more voters at the polling booths than anyone had expected. Now David Cameron's idea of a "big society" is being translated into some early policy measures. Does today's debate have anything to do with adult learning? The author believes that the debate…

  8. The Civil Behavior of Students: A Survey of School Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Keely; Caldarella, Paul; Crook-Lyon, Rachel E.; Young, K. Richard

    2010-01-01

    Many authors regard education as a way of increasing civility in society, and some have implemented interventions to improve civility in schools. However, very little empirical data exist on the extent and nature of students' civil behavior. The present study systematically gathered data from 251 school professionals regarding their perceptions of…

  9. Fostering Positive Peer Relations in the Primary Classroom through Circle Time and Co-Operative Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mary, Latisha

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the role of co-operative games and circle time activities in fostering positive peer relations in two French Primary classrooms (N = 40). It presents French teachers' and pupils' perceptions of a set of co-operative games and circle time activities implemented within a year long study on personal,…

  10. The Emergence of Civilization [and] Case Studies in the Emergence of Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Jack

    This secondary level anthropology textbook emphasizes the comparison of the patterns of culture change which resulted in complex societies (civilizations) in six different areas around the world. The textbook stresses problem-solving and is centered around three questions: In what manner and through what stages did these civilizations evolve? What…

  11. Cleavages and co-operation in the UK alcohol industry: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background It is widely believed that corporate actors exert substantial influence on the making of public health policy, including in the alcohol field. However, the industry is far from being monolithic, comprising a range of producers and retailers with varying and diverse interests. With a focus on contemporary debates concerning the minimum pricing of alcohol in the UK, this study examined the differing interests of actors within the alcohol industry, the cleavages which emerged between them on this issue and how this impacted on their ability to organise themselves collectively to influence the policy process. We conducted 35 semi-structured interviews between June and November 2010 with respondents from all sectors of the industry as well as a range of non-industry actors who had knowledge of the alcohol policy process, including former Ministers, Members of the UK Parliament and the Scottish Parliament, civil servants, members of civil society organisations and professionals. Methods The paper draws on an analysis of publicly available documents and 35 semi-structured interviews with respondents from the alcohol industry (on- and off-trade including retailers, producers of wines, spirits and beers and trade associations) and a range of non-industry actors with knowledge of the alcohol policy process (including former Ministers, Members of Parliament and of the Scottish Parliament, civil servants, members of civil society organisations and professional groups). Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using Nvivo qualitative analysis software. Processes of triangulation between data sources and different types of respondent sought to ensure we gained as accurate a picture as possible of industry participation in the policy process. Results Divergences of interest were evident between producers and retailers and within the retail sector between the on and off trade. Divisions within the alcohol industry, however, existed not only between these

  12. Society's expectations of health

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Edmund

    1975-01-01

    Sir Edmund Leach argues that doctors in the modern world, fortified by the traditional concept that the life of the sick person must at all costs be preserved, are to some extent guilty of the false antitheses current today between youth and age. Moreover youth means health, age illness and senility. Until this imbalance is corrected society will be in danger of `a kind of civil war between the generations'. Society must be taught again that mortality cannot be avoided or conquered by medical science, and at the same time that `health' is not enshrined in the young alone. PMID:1177271

  13. Implications of Civility for Children and Adolescents: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Keely; Caldarella, Paul; Crook-Lyon, Rachel; Young, K. Richard

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the literature exploring various definitions of civility, along with reasons why civility is vital to children and adolescents in any community. The authors examine definitions and components of civility in both historical and current contexts. The need for increased civility in modern society is described.…

  14. Benzoyl peroxide interferes with metabolic co-operation between cultured human epidermal keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, N.J.; Parkinson, E.K.; Emmerson, A.

    1984-03-01

    The ability of benzoyl peroxide to inhibit metabolic co-operation in rodent cell cultures may be relevant to its recently reported tumour promoting activity in mouse epidermis. We show here that non-toxic doses of this compound reduce metabolic co-operation between human epidermal keratinocytes to approximately 30% of that found in controls. The doses of benzoyl peroxide used did not affect keratinocyte morphology or their rate of attachment to the culture substratum. These results could be important as benzoyl peroxide is widely used in industry.

  15. The rivers of civilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macklin, Mark G.; Lewin, John

    2015-04-01

    The hydromorphic regimes that underpinned Old World river-based civilizations are reviewed in light of recent research. Notable Holocene climatic changes varied from region to region, whilst the dynamics of floodplain environments were equally diverse, with river channel changes significantly affecting human settlement. There were longer-term trends in Holocene hydroclimate and multi-centennial length 'flood-rich' and 'flood-poor' episodes. These impacted on five identified flooding and settlement scenarios: (i) alluvial fans and aprons; (ii) laterally mobile rivers; (iii) rivers with well-developed levees and flood basins; (iv) river systems characterised by avulsions and floodouts; and (v) large river-fed wetlands. This gave a range of changes that were either more or less regular or incremental from year-to-year (and thus potentially manageable) or catastrophic. The latter might be sudden during a flood event or a few seasons (acute), or over longer periods extending over many decades or even centuries (chronic). The geomorphic and environmental impacts of these events on riparian societies were very often irreversible. Contrasts are made between allogenic and autogenic mechanism for imposing environmental stress on riverine communities and a distinction is made between channel avulsion and contraction responses. Floods, droughts and river channel changes can precondition as well as trigger environmental crises and societal collapse. The Nile system currently offers the best set of independently dated Holocene fluvial and archaeological records, and the contrasted effects of changing hydromorphological regimes on floodwater farming are examined. The persistence of civilizations depended essentially on the societies that maintained them, but they were also understandably resilient in some environments (Pharaonic Egypt in the Egyptian Nile), appear to have had more limited windows of opportunity in others (the Kerma Kingdom in the Nubian Nile), or required

  16. Primitive Societies, Social Studies: 6478.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedman, Harrabey

    Junior high students examine selected primitive societies in this quinmester course. The concept of culture is defined and studied to expose similarities and differences between primitive and contemporary man and civilizations, not simply for greater understanding but also to permit further insight into American civilization. Both types of…

  17. The Contribution of International Academic Co-operation and Exchange to the Development and Advancement of Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grothus, Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the role of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) in the ongoing effort to internationalize German higher education. Describes efforts in Germany such as the introduction of bachelor's and master's degree-level programs and the restructuring of doctoral programs, as well as formation of networks with foreign universities. (EV)

  18. Using Peer Teaching to Support Co-Operative Learning in Undergraduate Pharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depaz, Iris; Moni, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    We report findings from the second phase of a study of co-operative, group-based assessment in Pharmacology for second-year undergraduates at The University of Queensland, Australia. Students (n = 285) enrolled in the 2006 Bachelor of Science degree program completed a group-based assessment task (weighted 10% of their course). Blended teaching…

  19. The Economic and Social Impact of the Arctic Co-operative Movement on the Canadian Eskimo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Kenneth D.

    Canada's Arctic co-operatives are designed to provide a means of encouraging Eskimos to participate directly in the economic development of the Arctic through the promotion of cooperative ownership and enterprise. They also seek to provide a method of maximizing economic returns in Arctic communities from local businesses and enterprise. Backed by…

  20. Co-Operative Education: Challenges of Qualitative Research on Learning in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chin, Peter; Munby, Hugh; Hutchinson, Nancy L.

    This paper is concerned with the challenges of qualitative research on workplace learning that occurs within co-operative (co-op) education. Co-op education is extensive in Canada, with an estimated 10% of the student population enrolled in co-op secondary education each year. The context for this study was a veterinary clinic in which four co-op…

  1. The Case of the Missing Organizations: Co-operatives and the Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Roderick

    2000-01-01

    States that co-operative (co-op) economics organizations are ignored in economic introductory textbooks in North America and provides evidence for this assertion. Addresses how to deal with this form of economic organization. Argues that asking who makes the decisions in firms and why, using co-ops as an example, raises important questions. (CMK)

  2. International Co-Operation in Control Engineering Education Using Online Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Jim; Schaedel, Herbert M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the international co-operation experience in teaching control engineering with laboratories being conducted remotely by students via the Internet. This paper describes how the students ran the experiments and their personal experiences with the laboratory. A tool for process identification and controller tuning based on…

  3. Environmental Engineering Education (E3) in the Gulf Co-Operation Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jassim, Majeed; Coskuner, Gulnur

    2007-01-01

    The six members of the Gulf Co-operation Countries (GCC)--Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates--are facing enormous environmental challenges associated with rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, especially in the last three decades, due to its role as a global hydrocarbon energy centre. None of these…

  4. From competition to co-operation: new economic relationships in the National Health Service.

    PubMed

    Goddard, M; Mannion, R

    1998-03-01

    The Labour government has outlined its plans to 'replace' the competitive internal market with a more collaborative system based on partnership. Agreement amongst purchasers and providers is to be based on co-operation rather than competition. Longer term agreements covering periods of 3-5 years are to replace annual contracts within this new environment. The aim of this paper is to explore the potential economic implications of these policy changes by drawing on the economics of co-operation and the transaction costs approach to longer term contracting. Issues surrounding the role of trust in contractual relationships are explored and the relevance of experience and evidence from non-health care sectors is considered in the context of the NHS. It is concluded that both theory and empirical evidence suggest that co-operation and trust can play a central role in the efficient organisation of contractual arrangements in circumstances similar to those under which the NHS operates. However, we warn against the expectation that the policy changes will produce automatically the scale of benefits predicted by the Labour government, especially as they will have to find a way of extracting reasonable performance from providers under a system of collaboration and long term agreements. They may find they need to tread a fine line between competition and co-operation in order to reap the benefits of both. PMID:9565167

  5. Effects of a Co-operative Learning Strategy on Ninth-Graders' Understanding of Human Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyibo, Kola; Evans, Hermel G.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at the effect of teaching strategies on a group's attitude toward biology and understanding human nutrition. Used an experimental group that participated in co-operative learning and a control group taught using the lecture method. Involves ninth graders (n=156) from two high schools in Jamaica. (Author/YDS)

  6. Gestalt Revisited: Spin-Offs and Assessment in International University Co-Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denman, Brian D.

    2004-01-01

    International university co-operation is in a constant state of metamorphosis. Its future rests upon extraneous forces such as globalization and internationalization and also upon those who make policy decisions. Many international university organizations are auditing their programs and initiatives to such a degree that the cost effectiveness of…

  7. Some "Get It" More than Others: Cultivating a Co-Operative Ethos in Uncertain Times

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davidge, Gail

    2013-01-01

    This article seeks to explore the dilemmas that schools and their members encounter whilst striving to establish a co-operative culture within an educational landscape contoured by decades of neo-liberal policy "reform". In order to (re)consider the construction of democratic subjectivity within contemporary educational discourse, the…

  8. [SUPPORT, CO-OPERATIVE EDUCATION PROGRAMMES, PRAGMATIC CODE OF ETHICS: A CLINICAL APPROACH OF EXECUTIVE TRAINING].

    PubMed

    Cabaret, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    This article aims at introducing an educational sequence completed at l'Institut de Formation des Cadres de Santé (IFCS) at the CHRU in Lille in France, entitled "training project and educational project" present in the "training duties" module whose goal is to generate students'knowledge through co-operative education programmes. By creating this innovative sequence, the educational aim is to use the Institut ground as a ground of learning, associated with the various internship grounds, in order to get the most of co-operative education programmes. Besides, in a pragmatic code of ethics in training, the teaching staff draw their inspiration from a clinical approach of executive training: they regard students as true protagonists in a co-operative plan created for them, wishing to design it with them using their words. Thus, students are brought to criticize the IFCS educational project and debate it with the trainers who have built it. Each partner tries to understand the Other, being aware of their being different. By contributing every year to rewriting the educational project which directly concerns them, students build their professional positions as health executives. They play an active role in co-operative education programmes just like IFCS outside partners. PMID:27305794

  9. [SUPPORT, CO-OPERATIVE EDUCATION PROGRAMMES, PRAGMATIC CODE OF ETHICS: A CLINICAL APPROACH OF EXECUTIVE TRAINING].

    PubMed

    Cabaret, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    This article aims at introducing an educational sequence completed at l'Institut de Formation des Cadres de Santé (IFCS) at the CHRU in Lille in France, entitled "training project and educational project" present in the "training duties" module whose goal is to generate students'knowledge through co-operative education programmes. By creating this innovative sequence, the educational aim is to use the Institut ground as a ground of learning, associated with the various internship grounds, in order to get the most of co-operative education programmes. Besides, in a pragmatic code of ethics in training, the teaching staff draw their inspiration from a clinical approach of executive training: they regard students as true protagonists in a co-operative plan created for them, wishing to design it with them using their words. Thus, students are brought to criticize the IFCS educational project and debate it with the trainers who have built it. Each partner tries to understand the Other, being aware of their being different. By contributing every year to rewriting the educational project which directly concerns them, students build their professional positions as health executives. They play an active role in co-operative education programmes just like IFCS outside partners.

  10. Are University Co-Operative Education Students Safe? Perceptions of Risk to Students on Work Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhook, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    As students venture off campus for university-sponsored activities, are they at risk, given that universities are better able to control risk factors on campus than they can for their off-campus activities? Co-operative education is a formalized and longstanding academic program that often sees students spend upwards of a third of their time off…

  11. Research on Sino-Australia Co-operative Program Teaching Management Pattern and Implementation Plan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Dong

    2008-01-01

    With the rapid development of Chinese economy and education, deepening reform and open-up policy, more and more co-operative education programs are established in China. Among them, some programs are just copies of Western style or pattern, which has no Chinese characteristics. This article elaborates on the Sino-Australia program offered at…

  12. Organized network for supporting the amateur-scientist co-operation in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mäkelä, V.; Haukka, H.; Oksanen, A.; Hentunen, V.-P.

    2014-04-01

    PROAM network is a working group of Ursa Astronomical Association [1] for supporting Finnish amateur astronomers participating to co-operation projects between professional and amateur astronomers. The network relays the information on projects, maintains professional contacts and arranges training on technical skills for research work.

  13. Council for Cultural Co-Operation and Cultural Fund. Annual Report 1972.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

    This document is a report on the activities of the Council for Cultural Co-Operation (CCC) and Cultural Fund for 1972. The CCC is briefly defined as being designed to reinforce educational and cultural cooperation among the 21 countries of the CCC, especially in matters of research, information, and documentation. The document is composed of…

  14. The evolution of insect societies.

    PubMed

    Page, R E

    1997-01-01

    The organization and evolution of insect societies has amazed natural historians since Aristotle. Charles Darwin considered social insects to be a major difficulty for his theory of evolution by natural selection because they demonstrate a rich diversity of adaptation among sterile workers leading to a complex division of labour, something that should not occur if variation in individual reproductive success is the grist for the mill of natural selection. This article shows how division of labour can self-organize from groups of cohabiting individuals without the necessity of a past history of natural selection for co-operative behaviour. It then explores how more complex social systems may evolve.

  15. History and Civility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Larry Schaefer's history of civility is a succinct summary of the implicit and evolving definitions of civility over 2500 years of civilization. Beginning with the Romans and the root word "civitas," meaning the rights and duties of citizenship, civility appears in classical literature as integral to the roots of democracy in the context…

  16. Power corrupts co-operation: cognitive and motivational effects in a double EEG paradigm.

    PubMed

    Kanso, Riam; Hewstone, Miles; Hawkins, Erin; Waszczuk, Monika; Nobre, Anna Christina

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of interpersonal power on co-operative performance. We used a paired electro-encephalogram paradigm: pairs of participants performed an attention task, followed by feedback indicating monetary loss or gain on every trial. Participants were randomly allocated to the power-holder, subordinate or neutral group by creating different levels of control over how a joint monetary reward would be allocated. We found that power was associated with reduced behavioural accuracy. Event-related potential analysis showed that power-holders devoted less motivational resources to their targets than did subordinates or neutrals, but did not differ at the level of early conflict detection. Their feedback potential results showed a greater expectation of rewards but reduced subjective magnitude attributed to losses. Subordinates, on the other hand, were asymmetrically sensitive to power-holders' targets. They expected fewer rewards, but attributed greater significance to losses. Our study shows that power corrupts balanced co-operation with subordinates.

  17. Co-operation with another player in a financially rewarded guessing game activates regions implicated in theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Rebecca; Völlm, Birgit; Drury, Andrew; McKie, Shane; Richardson, Paul; Deakin, J F William

    2006-01-01

    Functional imaging studies have identified a network of brain regions associated with theory of mind (ToM); the attribution of mental states to other people. Similar regions have also been observed in studies where people play games that involve either competing or co-operating with another person. Such games are thought to place implicit demands on ToM processes. Co-operation with others has also been shown to elicit brain responses in areas associated with the processing of reward, suggesting that co-operation is an intrinsically rewarding process. In this study, we used a factorial design to assess the interaction between co-operation and the availability of financial rewards in a guessing game. Twelve subjects were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while they performed a guessing game with and without co-operation, and under both these conditions with and without financial reward. The main effect of co-operation was associated with neural responses in theory of mind regions, while the main effect of financial reward was associated with neural responses in reward regions. Critically the response to reward in medial orbitofrontal cortex was significantly enhanced when subjects were co-operating. This suggests that rewards achieved through co-operation are more valuable than rewards achieved alone.

  18. Generalized microscopic reversibility, kinetic co-operativity of enzymes and evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Ricard, J

    1978-01-01

    Generalized microscopic reversibility implies that the apparent rate of any catalytic process in a complex mechanism is paralleled by substrate desorption in such a way that this ratio is held constant within the reaction mechanism [Whitehead (1976) Biochem. J. 159, 449--456]. The physical and evolutionary significances of this concept, for both polymeric and monomeric enzymes, are discussed. For polymeric enzymes, generalized microscopic reversibility of necessity occurs if, within the same reaction sequence, the substrate stabilizes one type of conformation of the active site only. Generalized microscopic reversibility suppresses the kinetic co-operativity of the slow transition model [Ainslie, Shill & Neet (1972) J. Biol. Chem. 247, 7088--7096]. This situation is obtained if the free-energy difference between the corresponding transition states of the two enzyme forms is held constant along the reaction co-ordinate. This situation implies that the 'extra costs' of energy (required to pass each energy barrier) that are not covered by the corresponding binding energies of the transition states vary in a similar way along the two reaction co-ordinates. The regulatory behaviour of monomeric enzymes is discussed in the light of the concept of 'catalytic perfection' proposed by Albery & Knowles [(1976) Biochemistry 15, 5631--5640]. These authors claim that an enzyme will be catalytically 'perfect' when its catalytic efficiency is maximum. If this situation occurs for a monomeric enzyme obeying either the slow transition or the mnemonical model, it can be shown that the kinetic co-operativity disappears. In other words, kinetic co-operativity of a monomeric enzyme is 'paid for' at the expense of catalytic efficiency, and the monomeric enzyme cannot be simultaneously co-operative and catalytically very efficient. This is precisely what has been found experimentally in a number of cases. PMID:743234

  19. Co-operative versus independent transport of different cargoes by Kinesin-1.

    PubMed

    Hammond, Jennetta W; Griffin, Kelly; Jih, Gloria T; Stuckey, Jeanne; Verhey, Kristen J

    2008-05-01

    Kinesin motors drive the intracellular transport of multiple cargoes along microtubule tracks; yet, how kinesins discriminate among their many potential cargoes is unknown. We tested whether Kinesin-1 cargoes compete, co-operate or are transported independently of each other. We focused on Kinesin-1 cargoes that bind directly to the kinesin light chain (KLC) subunit, namely the c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase-interacting proteins (JIPs) 1 and 3, Kidins220/ARMS and PAT1. Overexpression of individual cargo proteins in differentiated CAD cells resulted in mislocalization of the endogenous protein but had no effect on localization of other cargo proteins to neurite tips. Thus, while transport of distinct cargoes is saturable, they do not compete with each other. Interestingly, we found that low expression of JIP1 or JIP3 enhanced the transport of the other JIP to neurite tips. Moreover, JIP1 and JIP3 require each other for transport. Co-operative transport is due to an interaction between JIP1 and JIP3 as well as distinct binding sites on the KLC tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) bundle: the TPR groove binds to C-terminal residues of JIP1, whereas the TPR surface binds to internal residues in JIP3. Formation of a JIP1/JIP3/KLC complex is necessary for efficient JIP1 or JIP3 transport in neuronal cells. Thus, JIP scaffolding proteins are transported in a co-operative manner, despite the independent transport of other Kinesin-1 cargoes.

  20. Civil Rights in the Third Wave.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Toffler, Alvin

    1982-01-01

    Current political and legal institutions must be restructured to accommodate the new, higher levels of social diversity brought about by technological progress. Those who are committed to civil rights should recognize the need to tolerate and even encourage diversity, instead of attempting to recreate the homogeneity of yesterday's mass society.…

  1. Planetary Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman founded the non-profit Planetary Society in 1979 to advance the exploration of the solar system and to continue the search for extraterrestrial life. The Society has its headquarters in Pasadena, California, but is international in scope, with 100 000 members worldwide, making it the largest space interest group in the world. The Society funds a var...

  2. Civil Law Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents a glossary of civil law terms originally compiled for journalists by the American Bar Association. Defines many essential civil law concepts and practices including compensatory damages, jurisdiction, motion to dismiss, discovery, and remedy. (MJP)

  3. Civility and Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Media in the '70s stressed the importance of self and popularized psychology. Amidst self-help best sellers, encounter sessions, and special interest groups, the author asks, "What has happened to civility?" and "Can a culture without civility call itself civilized?" Condensed and reprinted from "Daedalus," Summer 1980. (Editor)

  4. The Celestial Basis of Civilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masse, W. B.

    Scholars have long puzzled over the reasons for the ubiquity of celestial images in the residue of the world's earliest civilizations: in art, myth, religious cosmology, iconography, cosmogony, eschatological beliefs, and as portents for the conduct of royal and chiefly power. The general consensus is that these images represented a need by early societies to use the fixed celestial heavens in order to regulate ritual and agricultural cycles, and to satisfy a psychological need by people to relate themselves to their surrounding Universe. Such explanations are facile and miss an important aspect of the celestial heavens. The fixed celestial heavens served as the back-drop for a large number of often spectacular temporary naked-eye visible celestial events which animated the night and sometimes the daytime sky, and which created an 'otherworld' for virtually all cultural groups. In this paper I present a model derived from the detailed analysis of Hawaiian oral traditions and culture history in relation to historic astronomical records of temporary celestial events, and then apply this model to cultural traditions from Mesoamerica and other geographic regions in order to demonstrate that novae, supernovae, variable stars, comets, great meteor showers, aurorae, solar and lunar eclipses, and impacting Solar System debris, together played a critical role in the artistic, intellectual, and political development of early civilizations. These data not only provide important insights into the development of civilization, but also provide important details and longitudinal records of astronomical events and phenomena which are otherwise not readily available for scientific scrutiny.

  5. Co-operation and conflict in a hospital: interprofessional differences in perception and management of conflicts.

    PubMed

    Skjørshammer, M

    2001-02-01

    This article presents a case study of a Norwegian hospital, analysing how health professionals manage conflicts related to work co-operation. Altogether, 29 health professionals working in the hospital were interviewed, and data was analysed according to a grounded theory approach. When in conflict, health professionals seem to use three major approaches to handling the situation: avoidance, forcing and negotiation, and usually in that order. Avoidance behaviour or suppression is the most common reaction to an emerging conflict. If the use of power does not re-establish a balance between the participants, one negotiates. These conflict styles seem to be determined by two major factors: the perceived interdependence between parties and the perceived urgency of doing something about the situation. Nurses and physicians in particular seem to differ considerably in their perception of what is a conflict and when to do something about it. Such differences in perceptions and the extensive use of avoidance represent important challenges to managers and clinical leaders when it comes to advancing interprofessional co-operation.

  6. Power corrupts co-operation: cognitive and motivational effects in a double EEG paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Kanso, Riam; Hewstone, Miles; Hawkins, Erin; Waszczuk, Monika; Nobre, Anna Christina

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of interpersonal power on co-operative performance. We used a paired electro-encephalogram paradigm: pairs of participants performed an attention task, followed by feedback indicating monetary loss or gain on every trial. Participants were randomly allocated to the power-holder, subordinate or neutral group by creating different levels of control over how a joint monetary reward would be allocated. We found that power was associated with reduced behavioural accuracy. Event-related potential analysis showed that power-holders devoted less motivational resources to their targets than did subordinates or neutrals, but did not differ at the level of early conflict detection. Their feedback potential results showed a greater expectation of rewards but reduced subjective magnitude attributed to losses. Subordinates, on the other hand, were asymmetrically sensitive to power-holders’ targets. They expected fewer rewards, but attributed greater significance to losses. Our study shows that power corrupts balanced co-operation with subordinates. PMID:23160813

  7. Autism Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... age, and provide the latest information regarding treatment, education, research, and advocacy. Learn more Improving the lives of all affected by autism. The Autism Society is the nation's leading grassroots ...

  8. Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee Review: Review of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guidance on the GLP Requirements for Peer Review of Histopathology.

    PubMed

    Fikes, James D; Patrick, Daniel J; Francke, Sabine; Frazier, Kendall S; Reindel, James F; Romeike, Annette; Spaet, Robert H; Tomlinson, Lindsay; Schafer, Kenneth A

    2015-10-01

    In 2014, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) issued guidance no. 16, Guidance on the GLP Requirements for Peer Review of Histopathology. The stated purpose of the guidance document is "to provide guidance to pathologists, test facility management, study directors and quality assurance personnel on how the peer review of histopathology should be planned, managed, documented, and reported in order to meet Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) expectations and requirements." On behalf of and in collaboration with the global societies of toxicologic pathology, the Society of Toxicologic Pathology initiated a review of OECD guidance no. 16. The objectives of this review are to provide a unified interpretation of the guidance, to recommend compliant processes for organizations to implement, and to avoid inconsistent process adaptations across the industry. This review of the guidance document is the product of a global collaboration with other societies of toxicologic pathology and provides a section-by-section international consensus view and interpretation of the OECD guidance on peer review.

  9. International co-operation through the Interpol system to counter illicit drug trafficking.

    PubMed

    Leamy, W J

    1983-01-01

    The International Criminal Police Organization (ICPO/Interpol), whose main aim is the prevention and suppression of ordinary crime, has 135 member countries. The Government of each of these countries has designated an Interpol National Central Bureau to co-operate and liaise within the framework of Interpol. The Drugs Sub-Division of Interpol's General Secretariat monitors and responds to incoming communications on drug enforcement matters, conducts intelligence analysis of information and produces tactical and strategic intelligence reports as well as statistical and other specialized reports. It received 33,181 and dispatched 6,741 drug-enforcement-related communications in 1982, which was over 60 per cent of the entire communications of the General Secretariat. The Drugs Sub-Division participates in drug training and drug strategy seminars world-wide. Interpol also carries out drug liaison officer programmes in five regions of the world.

  10. Co-operation with eastern European countries taking ENAC as an example

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.

    1994-12-31

    In the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident, the European Community launched an ambitious programme of nuclear safety assistance. The purpose of this programme is to improve the safety of the Nuclear Power stations in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union plants. It was felt in the Western European nuclear industry that the emphasis should be on finding practical solutions to improve the most urgent problems. To achieve this objective, the nuclear industry in Western Europe founded a consortium called ENAC (European Nuclear Assistance Consortium) comprising companies form seven European countries (Great Britain, France, Germany, Spain, Belgium, Italy, Netherlands). The co-operation between these companies and the Russian designers would ensure that the solutions developed meet the approval of all interested parties.

  11. Surface Support Systems for Co-Operative and Integrated Human/Robotic Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2006-01-01

    Human and robotic partnerships to realize space goals can enhance space missions and provide increases in human productivity while decreasing the hazards that the humans are exposed to. For lunar exploration, the harsh environment of the moon and the repetitive nature of the tasks involved with lunar outpost construction, maintenance and operation as well as production tasks associated with in-situ resource utilization, make it highly desirable to use robotic systems in co-operation with human activity. A human lunar outpost is functionally examined and concepts for selected human/robotic tasks are discussed in the context of a lunar outpost which will enable the presence of humans on the moon for extended periods of time.

  12. WHO Co-operative studies on a simple culture technique for the isolation of mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Šula, Ladislav

    1963-01-01

    Tuberculosis surveys are in progress in many countries that do not have adequate laboratory facilities for carrying out complicated bacteriological procedures. As part of a WHO co-operative research programme, studies have been undertaken with a view to developing a simple culture technique for the isolation of mycobacteria that does not require elaborate equipment. This paper is the first report on these co-operative studies. Storage and transport are known to affect adversely the viability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pathological specimens, thus giving rise to poor culture results and indicating the advisability of culturing such specimens on the spot. The preparation of the efficient and widely used Löwenstein-Jensen (L-J) culture medium, however, requires materials and facilities that are not easy available in developing countries. In an attempt to overcome this difficulty, the Tuberculosis Research Institute in Prague has developed a semi-synthetic liquid medium that can be prepared in bulk, concentrated and lyophilized, and sent even to distant laboratories. The present paper describes in detail the preparation of this lyophilized medium, which can be stored at room temperature for at least 6-12 months and is easy to reconstitute, and discusses the growth characteristics of mycobacteria multiplied in it. Experience in Czechoslovakia, where between 1953 and 1962 nearly 21 million cultures have been made with the medium, has shown that it is quite satisfactory and even slightly superior to L-J medium in certain respects. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3 & 4FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 12FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 13FIG. 14FIG. 15FIG. 16 PMID:14102036

  13. Understanding the Civil Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshon, Robert E.; Bolduan, Linda M.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a concise and informative overview of the civil justice system. Examines various components and issues including the federal and state court systems, differences between civil and criminal law, background in common law, types of civil law, civil procedure, and the effect and implementation of civil law in everyday life. (MJP)

  14. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  15. Fostering Civility on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rookstool, Judy

    2007-01-01

    The issue of civility has become a major topic of discussion on college campuses throughout the country, attracting media attention nationwide. In this illuminating book, civility scholar Judy Rookstool tackles the issue for the community college audience, bringing both her research and classroom experience to bear. She offers a definition of…

  16. Schools and Civil Defense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Civil defense is a planned, coordinated action to protect the population during any emergency whether arising from thermonuclear attack or natural disaster. The Federal Government has assumed four responsibilities--(1) to keep track of the nature of the threat which the civil defense program must meet, (2) to prepare and disseminate information…

  17. Mobile satellite services: International co-ordination, co-operation and competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundberg, Olof

    1988-01-01

    In the context of a discussion of international cooperation, coordination and competition regarding mobile satellite services, it is asserted that: there will be more than one civil mobile satellite service in the 1990's; competition between these separate mobile satellite systems is inevitable; no system should enjoy monopoly protection or subsidies; and coordination and cooperation are desirable and necessary, since the available L-band spectrum is in short supply.

  18. Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-10-01

    Humans are now the dominant driver of global climate change. From ocean acidification to sea level rise, changes in precipitation patterns, and rising temperatures, global warming is presenting us with an uncertain future. However, this is not the first time human civilizations have faced a changing world. In the AGU monograph Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations, editors Liviu Giosan, Dorian Q. Fuller, Kathleen Nicoll, Rowan K. Flad, and Peter C. Clift explore how some ancient peoples weathered the shifting storms while some faded away. In this interview, Eos speaks with Liviu Giosan about the decay of civilizations, ancient adaptation, and the surprisingly long history of humanity's effect on the Earth.

  19. A Single Society: Alternatives to Urban Apartheid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canty, Donald

    This book opens with a review of the past decade, marked as it was by steadily escalating civil disorders despite the unprecedented progressive programs that grew out of Lyndon Johnson's Great Society. It traces the rise of black pride and white resistance and clearly delineates the critical and continuing lag in national response to urban needs.…

  20. pH-induced kinetic co-operativity of a thylakoid-bound polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Valero, E; García-Carmona, F

    1992-01-01

    A study of the catecholase activity of a latent plant polyphenol oxidase, extracted and purified from the chloroplast membranes of grapes (Vitis vinifera cv. Airen), revealed for the first time a lag phase above pH 5.0, whereas a steady-state rate was reached immediately when pH values were lower, thus suggesting the hysteretic nature of the enzyme. During steady state, the enzyme showed negative co-operativity concomitant with the presence of the lag period, and followed classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics under more acid pH conditions. Statistical analysis of these data showed a minimal value for the extreme Hill coefficient of 0.54 at pH 6.0. This kinetic behaviour of polyphenol oxidase has been interpreted in terms of the pH-induced 'slow' transition mechanism reported by Ricard, Noat & Nari [(1984) Eur. J. Biochem. 145, 311-317] in which the conformational change does not affect the active site of the enzyme. Images Fig. 4. PMID:1530593

  1. Concentrating on Solar Power in a Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Co-Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trieb, F.; Kronshage, S.; Knies, G.

    2004-12-01

    Combining the large demand of clean electricity in Europe (EU) with the large potential of solar electricity generation from concentrating solar power stations (CSP) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) can provide both climate protection and development for both regions and lead to environmental, economical and social sustainability. The presentation will address the concept of solar cogeneration of electricity and desalted water and the scope of generating clean power for MENA and Europe while providing large quantities of freshwater for the MENA countries. Costs and benefits of the concept will be quantified, and the first steps to realisation within the Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Co-Operation TREC are presented. After running through the technology learning curve within about 10-15 years, concentrated solar electricity will be generated at a cost of roughly 4 ct/kWh. Importing solar power from North Africa to Europe, will add 1 ct/kWh, thus being competitive with new fuel fired plants. The total initial support of about 1 billion € needed to trigger CSP market introduction and to achieve forever low electricity costs in the EU and MENA, equals 25 % of the German annual coal subsidies, 1 month of EU agronomic-subsidies or 1 day of US military expenses and could be provided in form of public investment, soft loans or feed-in guaranties like the German Renewable Energy Act.

  2. Co-operative inhibitory effects of hydrogen peroxide and iodine against bacterial and yeast species

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hydrogen peroxide and iodine are powerful antimicrobials widely used as antiseptics and disinfectants. Their antimicrobial properties are known to be enhanced by combining them with other compounds. We studied co-operative inhibitory activities (synergism, additive effects and modes of growth inhibition) of hydrogen peroxide and iodine used concurrently against 3 bacterial and 16 yeast species. Results Synergistic or additive inhibitory effects were shown for hydrogen peroxide and iodine mixtures against all 19 species used in the study. Both biocides were mostly cidal individually and in mixtures against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Both compounds manifested static inhibitory effects individually, but their mixtures were synergistically cidal for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherihia coli. Cells of S. cerevisiae treated with hydrogen peroxide and iodine-hydrogen peroxide mixture produced increased numbers of respiratory deficient mutants indicating genotoxic effects. Conclusion Iodine and hydrogen peroxide used concurrently interact synergistically or additively against a range of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. The study provides an insight as to how these traditional antimicrobials could be used more effectively for disinfection and antisepsis. In addition, a simple approach is proposed for scoring genotoxicity of different biocides by using the budding yeast system. PMID:23856115

  3. Cryptozoology Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Reports of Loch Ness monsters, Bigfoot, and the Yeti spring u p from time to time, sparking scientific controversy about the veracity of these observations. Now an organization has been established to help cull, analyze, and disseminate information on the alleged creatures. The International Society of Cryptozoology, formed at a January meeting at the U.S. National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution, will serve as the focal point for the investigation, analysis, publication, and discussion of animals of unexpected form or size or of unexpected occurrences in time or space.

  4. Examining the Research Base on University Co-Operative Education in Light of the Neoliberal Challenge to Liberal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milley, Peter; Kovinthan, Thursica

    2014-01-01

    Debates have been taking place in higher education communities in Canada and other Anglo-American contexts between defenders of liberal education and promoters of neoliberalism. One development not addressed is the growth of co-operative education (co-op). The origins of co-op may reside in John Dewey's (1939, 1966) ideas about experience and…

  5. Student Perceptions of Social Learning Space: Designing and Implementing a Co-Operative Assessment Task in Pharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moni, Roger W.; Depaz, Iris; Lluka, Lesley J.

    2008-01-01

    We report findings from a case study of co-operative, group-based assessment in Pharmacology for second-year undergraduates at The University of Queensland, Australia. Students enrolled in the 2005 Bachelor of Science and 2006 Bachelor of Pharmacy degree programs, were early users of the university's new Collaborative Teaching and Learning Centre…

  6. Western Co-operative College (Study of an Agency); Project Study for Education 480, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, H.E.; And Others

    Based on the philosophy of individuals taking responsibility for their own destinies through mutual self help, and drawing heavily from European cooperatives, Western Co-operative College provides training for elected officials and employees of cooperatives such as marketing, consumer, finance, service, and education cooperatives, and government…

  7. Co-operative Learning for Students with Difficulties in Learning: A Description of Models and Guidelines for Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Ellen; Grey, Ian M.; Honan, Rita

    2005-01-01

    As part of a larger study regarding the inclusion of children with disabilities in mainstream classroom settings, Ellen Murphy, of the D Clin Psych programme at NUI Galway, with Ian Grey and Rita Honan, from Trinity College, Dublin, reviewed existing literature on co-operative learning in the classroom. In this article, they identify four models…

  8. Environmental Co-Operatives as Instruments for Delivering Across-Farm Environmental and Rural Policy Objectives: Lessons for the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, J. R.; Mc Gloin, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses the potential of environmental co-operatives (EC) to deliver environmental benefits and an integrated and strengthened rural economy in the UK. It is based on research into Dutch EC, which have about 10,000 members, of which a quarter are non-farmers. The paper details the benefits EC have delivered to their members, the Dutch…

  9. Adult Education and Grass-Roots Organisations in Latin America: The Contribution of the International Co-operative University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haubert, Maxime

    1986-01-01

    Reports that adult education through participatory action-research has provided the framework for experiments carried out by groups associated with the International Co-operative University. Traces the background of the development of this method in Latin America and its principal characteristics. (CH)

  10. Petroleum geology of the Timor Gap Zone of co-operation (Area A)

    SciTech Connect

    Whittam, D.B. )

    1996-01-01

    The discovery of the Elang/Kakatua oilfield and Undan/Bayu gas-condensate accumulation has demonstrated the presence of a significant new hydrocarbon province in Area A of the Zone of Co-Operation between Australia and Indonesia (ZOCA). The western part of ZOCA is underlain by a north-west trending Triassic to mid-Cretaceous sag basin (the Northern Bonaparte Basin) which is overprinted by a series of east-west faults. The basin is related to Jurassic rifting and continental separation and is overlain by a seaward thickening, passive-margin wedge of Upper Cretaceous marls and Tertiary carbonates. The east-west faults form horst blocks which are the principal structural trapping style. Hydrocarbons have been encountered in fluvial and shallow marine sandstone of mid-Jurassic age (Bathonian to Callovian). These reservoirs are sealed by marine claystones and shales of Oxfordian to Berriasian age which are also potential petroleum source rocks containing a mixture of Type II and III organic matter. The discovered oils are very light (57[degrees] API), mature crudes with low producing gas/oil ratios. The understanding and prediction of the controls on reservoir quality and access to mature source rocks are key factors in the successful exploration of the area. Poor seismic data quality is a major obstacle to the accurate mapping of structure at the level of top reservoir. Several traps are interpreted to have failed due to breaching and remigration of hydrocarbons caused by Miocene/Pliocene faulting related to the collision between the Australasian and Eurasian plates.

  11. Petroleum geology of the Timor Gap Zone of co-operation (Area A)

    SciTech Connect

    Whittam, D.B.

    1996-12-31

    The discovery of the Elang/Kakatua oilfield and Undan/Bayu gas-condensate accumulation has demonstrated the presence of a significant new hydrocarbon province in Area A of the Zone of Co-Operation between Australia and Indonesia (ZOCA). The western part of ZOCA is underlain by a north-west trending Triassic to mid-Cretaceous sag basin (the Northern Bonaparte Basin) which is overprinted by a series of east-west faults. The basin is related to Jurassic rifting and continental separation and is overlain by a seaward thickening, passive-margin wedge of Upper Cretaceous marls and Tertiary carbonates. The east-west faults form horst blocks which are the principal structural trapping style. Hydrocarbons have been encountered in fluvial and shallow marine sandstone of mid-Jurassic age (Bathonian to Callovian). These reservoirs are sealed by marine claystones and shales of Oxfordian to Berriasian age which are also potential petroleum source rocks containing a mixture of Type II and III organic matter. The discovered oils are very light (57{degrees} API), mature crudes with low producing gas/oil ratios. The understanding and prediction of the controls on reservoir quality and access to mature source rocks are key factors in the successful exploration of the area. Poor seismic data quality is a major obstacle to the accurate mapping of structure at the level of top reservoir. Several traps are interpreted to have failed due to breaching and remigration of hydrocarbons caused by Miocene/Pliocene faulting related to the collision between the Australasian and Eurasian plates.

  12. EFA, Civil Society and the Post-2015 Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verger, Antoni; Sayed, Yusuf; Hiroshi, Ito; Croso, Camilla; Beardmore, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The year 2015 is the deadline for most of the Education for All (EFA) goals. As this date gets closer, reviews about what has been done and reflection about future agendas will multiply. This Forum aims to contribute such a pressing debate, bringing together contributors from key international organisations within the EFA movement. They are…

  13. Education for Engagement in Civil Society and Government. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrick, John J.

    A report by the National Commission on Civic Renewal has sounded alarms about the declining quantity and quality of citizen engagement in U.S. political and civic life. According to the Commission the overall civic condition is weaker than it was and in need of significant improvement. To renew the constructive engagement of citizens in political…

  14. Beyond Rhetoric: A Recipe for Civil Society Action on Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanvir, Mohammad Muntasim

    2007-01-01

    On the eve of CONFINTEA VI, discussion and debates on promoting literacy is being revived. However, in most cases, the discussion limits itself to the definitional nuances of literacy and falls short of critiquing the global policy making inertia that violates the human rights obligations to the millions of adults remaining illiterate. This…

  15. Improving retention and performance in civil society in Uganda.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Mary L; Paydos, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This article is the second article in the Human Resources for Health journal's first quarterly feature. The series of seven articles has been contributed by Management Sciences for Health (MSH) under the theme of leadership and management in public health and will be published article-by-article over the next few weeks. The journal invited Dr Manuel M. Dayrit, Director of the WHO Department of Human Resources for Health and former Minister of Health for the Philippines to launch the feature with an opening editorial to be found in the journal's blog. This article--number two in the series--describes the experience of the Family Life Education Programme (FLEP), a reproductive health program that provides community-based health services through 40 clinics in five districts of Uganda, in improving retention and performance by using the Management Sciences for Health (MSH) Human Resource Management Rapid Assessment Tool. A few years ago, the FLEP of Busoga Diocese began to see an increase in staff turnover and a decrease in overall organizational performance. The workplace climate was poor and people stopped coming for services even though there were few other choices in the area. An external assessment found the quality of the health care services provided was deficient. An action plan to improve their human resource management (HRM) system was developed and implemented. To assess the strengths and weaknesses of their system and to develop an action plan, they used the Rapid Assessment Tool. The tool guides users through a process of prioritizing and action planning after the assessment is done. By implementing the various recommended changes, FLEP established an improved, responsive HRM system. Increased employee satisfaction led to less staff turnover, better performance, and increased utilization of health services. These benefits were achieved by cost-effective measures focused on professionalizing the organization's approach to HRM. PMID:18570658

  16. Producing Literacy and Civil Society: The Case of Senegal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald

    2008-01-01

    Donor and financial institutions, such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and others, often promote market-based solutions for the delivery of public services in developing countries. This article examines the use of such market approaches by the World Bank to hire for-profit and nonprofit nongovernmental organizations…

  17. Abortion in a just society.

    PubMed

    Hunt, M E

    1993-01-01

    A female Catholic theologian imagines a just society that does not judge women who decide to undergo an abortion. The Church, practitioners, and the courts must trust that women do make person-enhancing choices about the quality of life. In the last 15 years most progress in securing a woman's right to abortion has been limited to white, well-educated, and middle or upper middle class women. A just society would consider reproductive options a human right. Abortion providers are examples of a move to a just society; they are committed to women's well-being. There are some facts that make one pessimistic about achieving abortion in a just society. The US Supreme Court plans to review important decisions establishing abortion as a civil right. Further, some men insist on suing women who want to make their own reproductive decisions--an anti-choice tactic to wear away women's right to reproductive choice. Bombings of abortion clinics and harassment campaigns by anti-choice groups are common. These behaviors strain pro-choice proponents emotionally, psychically, and spiritually. Their tactics often lead to theologians practicing self-censorship because they fear backlash. Abortion providers also do this. Further, the reaction to AIDS is that sex is bad. Anti-abortion groups use AIDS to further their campaigns, claiming that AIDS is a punishment for sex. Strategies working towards abortion in a just society should be education and persuasion of policymakers and citizens about women's right to choose, since they are the ones most affected by abortion. Moreover, only women can secure their rights to abortion. In a just society, every health maintenance organization, insurance company, and group practice would consider abortion a normal service. A just society provides for the survival needs of the most marginalized.

  18. Searching for extraterrestrial civilizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Morris, M.

    1977-01-01

    Three interrelated assumptions are critically examined in an attempt to outline a productive strategy for a search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Questions concerning the feasibility of interstellar travel are investigated. It is concluded that the probability of interstellar travel is high enough that, given a modest number of advanced civilizations, at least one of them will engage in interstellar voyages and colonize the galaxy. Assuming, however, that technological civilizations are rare the galaxy would be essentially unpopulated. Attention is given to the present lack of contact with extraterrestrial beings and frequencies for interstellar beacons.

  19. AIDS and civil disobedience.

    PubMed

    Spiers, H R

    1989-01-01

    Members of groups such as ACT UP (AIDS Coalition to Unleash Power) risk arrest and criminal charges to protest laws and policies they view as unjust to persons with AIDS. Spiers, a founding member of ACT UP, discusses the rationale behind the tactics of civil disobedience employed by AIDS activists. He argues that civil disobedience is justified by American political and legal traditions, and by the federal government's lack of response to the needs of its citizens. Spiers warns that while AIDS protests have been nonviolent and characterized by conscientious planning and execution, violence cannot be ruled out as a "political act born of desperation."

  20. Cyber threats within civil aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitner, Kerri A.

    Existing security policies in civil aviation do not adequately protect against evolving cyber threats. Cybersecurity has been recognized as a top priority among some aviation industry leaders. Heightened concerns regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities surround components utilized in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) implementation. Automated Dependent Surveillance-B (ADS-B) and Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) have both been exploited through the research of experienced computer security professionals. Civil aviation is essential to international infrastructure and if its critical assets were compromised, it could pose a great risk to public safety and financial infrastructure. The purpose of this research was to raise awareness of aircraft system vulnerabilities in order to provoke change among current national and international cybersecurity policies, procedures and standards. Although the education of cyber threats is increasing in the aviation industry, there is not enough urgency when creating cybersecurity policies. This project intended to answer the following questions: What are the cyber threats to ADS-B of an aircraft in-flight? What are the cyber threats to EFB? What is the aviation industry's response to the issue of cybersecurity and in-flight safety? ADS-B remains unencrypted while the FAA's mandate to implement this system is rapidly approaching. The cyber threat of both portable and non-portable EFB's have received increased publicity, however, airlines are not responding quick enough (if at all) to create policies for the use of these devices. Collectively, the aviation industry is not being proactive enough to protect its aircraft or airport network systems. That is not to say there are not leaders in cybersecurity advancement. These proactive organizations must set the standard for the future to better protect society and it's most reliable form of transportation.

  1. Commentary: civil commitment and its reform.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Alexander I F

    2015-03-01

    Internationally, civil commitment laws have gone through substantial reforms in the past 50 years. Discernible shifts from the medically paternalistic to the excessively legalistic may be giving way to a blending of legislative intent under the rubric of therapeutic jurisprudence. In the light of those international movements, Shao and Xie describe how China's new mental health law shows the impact of these international and local influences on the development and practice of mental health law in China. The new Law was passed in 2012. It sets a broad vision for mental health services and mental health promotion in Chinese society as well as providing the legal framework for civil commitment. Practicalities of implementation may be highly significant in the success of the legislation.

  2. Commentary: civil commitment and its reform.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Alexander I F

    2015-03-01

    Internationally, civil commitment laws have gone through substantial reforms in the past 50 years. Discernible shifts from the medically paternalistic to the excessively legalistic may be giving way to a blending of legislative intent under the rubric of therapeutic jurisprudence. In the light of those international movements, Shao and Xie describe how China's new mental health law shows the impact of these international and local influences on the development and practice of mental health law in China. The new Law was passed in 2012. It sets a broad vision for mental health services and mental health promotion in Chinese society as well as providing the legal framework for civil commitment. Practicalities of implementation may be highly significant in the success of the legislation. PMID:25770279

  3. Integrated Schooling, Life Course Outcomes, and Social Cohesion in Multiethnic Democratic Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin; Nkomo, Mokubung

    2012-01-01

    Schools have a seminal role in preparing a society's children for their adult responsibilities as workers, parents, friends, neighbors, and citizens. The United States, countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Brazil, India, South Africa, and other multiethnic democratic nation-states have increasingly diverse…

  4. Free Black Adult Education before the Civil War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ihle, Elizabeth L.

    Although the first black organization chartered in the United States, the Free African Society, was chartered in 1787, education for free blacks was largely a 19th-century phenomenon. By the time the Civil War broke out, black adults outside the South had established social structures that offered them education in civic, intellectual, and…

  5. Teaching the Civil Rights Era: A Student-Active Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Joe P.

    2005-01-01

    The civil rights movement is the most important historical event of the last fifty years, and it remains central to contemporary society. For all the purported attention at the elementary and secondary school levels, students and their teachers appear to know very little if anything beyond the names Martin Luther King, Jr. and Rosa Parks. Student…

  6. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  7. European Civilization. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppert, Ella C.; Halac, Dennis

    The instructional materials in this teaching guide for Course II, Unit IV, follow and build upon a previous sequential course described in SO 003 169 offering ninth grade students a study on the development of Western European Civilization. Focus is upon four periods of high development: The High Middle Ages (12th Century), The Renaissance (15th…

  8. CIVIL RIGHTS AND MINORITIES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HARTMAN, PAUL

    A MAJOR INTENT OF THE CONSTITUTION AND ITS AMENDMENTS, TO GUARANTEE EQUAL RIGHTS TO ALL CITIZENS REGARDLESS OF RACE, CREED, OR COLOR, HAS BEEN REINFORCED BY THE CIVIL RIGHTS STATUTES OF MANY STATES. IN SOME STATES SUCH LAWS HAVE BEEN ON RECORD FOR THREE-QUARTERS OF A CENTURY. IN OTHER STATES THE SAME CONSTITUTIONAL INTENT HAS BEEN DENIED BY…

  9. High speed civil transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcknight, R. L.

    1992-01-01

    The design requirements of the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) are discussed. The following design concerns are presented: (1) environmental impact (emissions and noise); (2) critical components (the high temperature combustor and the lightweight exhaust nozzle); and (3) advanced materials (high temperature ceramic matrix composites (CMC's)/intermetallic matrix composites (IMC's)/metal matrix composites (MMC's)).

  10. What Is Western Civilization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birken, Lawrence

    1992-01-01

    Discusses opposing tendencies in the interpretation of Western Civilization. Describes the expanded definition that includes Byzantine and Islamic cultures as heirs of the Greco-Roman cultures. Suggests that a limited definition of Western culture will facilitate a problems approach, emphasize diversity among cultures, and integrate the classical…

  11. Co-operation processes in dynamic environment management: evolution through training experienced pilots in flying a highly automated aircraft.

    PubMed

    Rogalski, J

    1996-01-01

    Dynamic environment management (process control, aircraft piloting, etc.) increasingly implies collective work components. Pragmatic purposes as well as epistemological interests raise important questions on collective activities at work. In particular, linked to the technological evolution in flight management, the role of the 'collective fact' appears as a key point in reliability. Beyond the development of individual competencies, the quality of the 'distributed' crew activity has to be questioned. This paper presents an empirical study about how experienced pilots co-ordinate their information and actions during the last period of training on a highly automated cockpit. A task of disturbance management (engine fire during takeoff) is chosen as amplifying cognitive requirements. Analysis focuses on the transitions between the main task and the incident to be managed. Crew performance and co-operation between two pilots are compared in three occurrences of the same task: the results are coherent with the hypothesis of a parallel evolution of the crew performance and its internal co-operation, and show that prescribed explicit co-operation is more present on action than on information about the 'state of the world'. Methodological issues are discussed about the possible effects of the specific situation of training, and about the psychological meaning of the results. PMID:11540153

  12. Climate protection in Germany`s bilateral development co-operation with the People`s Republic of China

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, A.

    1996-12-31

    For globally sustainable development to be achieved, three concerns are central: productive economic growth, social justice and ecological sustainability. Development co-operation supports the realisation of these three goals in partner countries by helping to alleviate poverty, promote economic growth through private-sector development and protect vital natural resources. The aim of globally sustainable development can only be achieved if industrial countries too implement necessary reforms and structural adjustments at every level. Co-operation efforts with partners must therefore be complemented by coherent policies at home. This is a matter of credibility, but also of developmental far-sightedness. Internal reforms in the industrial countries secure financial leeway for their providing foreign assistance in the longer term. Environmental and resource protection as a focal point of Germany`s development co-operation with the PRC aims to preserve vital natural resources, shape economic development in their partner countries in an ecologically sound manner and put China in a position to participate in global endeavours to protect the environment. Climate protection measures figure prominently in this area. This is justified given China`s share of global CO{sub 2} emissions and the potential for energy-saving measures and measures to increase power intensity. This potential is derived primarily from the possibility of using energy-efficient technologies, increasing the relatively low energy prices and making use of renewable sources of energy.

  13. A portable inhalational induction device provides co-operative induction of anaesthesia in preanaesthetic area for children

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Mi-Ja; Na, Hyo-Seok; Shin, Young Duck; Han, Jun-Sung; Hwang, Jung-Won; Kim, Chong Soo

    2010-01-01

    Background We introduce a new, simple portable inhalational induction device (PD) that provides co-operative inhalational induction of anaesthesia using N2O and subsequent sevoflurane in the preanaesthetic induction area in children. Methods Forty-five children (30 to 94 months old age, <35 kg) who were scheduled to undergo simple operations were assigned randomly to one of three regimens. Patients were encouraged by their parents to inhale N2O followed by sevoflurane (PD N2O-sevo group) or sevoflurane (PD sevo group) using a portable inhalational induction device in the preanaesthetic induction area until they were unable to respond to their names. They were then transferred to the operating room while maintaining inhalation of sevoflurane via the device. The control group underwent conventional inhalational induction in the operating room with the parents in attendance. Results Patients in the PD N2O-sevo group had a higher co-operative inhalation frequency than the patients in the PD sevo or the control group. Anaesthesia induction in the PD N2O-sevo and the PD sevo groups were faster than in the control group. Parent satisfaction score (0-100) was higher for the PD N2O-sevo group than for the control group. Conclusions A new portable inhalational induction device allows faster induction in co-operation with parents present in the preanaesthetic induction area compared to conventional inhalational induction in the unfamiliar operating room with the parents in attendance. PMID:20589175

  14. Global Civil Unrest: Contagion, Self-Organization, and Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Braha, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Civil unrest is a powerful form of collective human dynamics, which has led to major transitions of societies in modern history. The study of collective human dynamics, including collective aggression, has been the focus of much discussion in the context of modeling and identification of universal patterns of behavior. In contrast, the possibility that civil unrest activities, across countries and over long time periods, are governed by universal mechanisms has not been explored. Here, records of civil unrest of 170 countries during the period 1919–2008 are analyzed. It is demonstrated that the distributions of the number of unrest events per year are robustly reproduced by a nonlinear, spatially extended dynamical model, which reflects the spread of civil disorder between geographic regions connected through social and communication networks. The results also expose the similarity between global social instability and the dynamics of natural hazards and epidemics. PMID:23119067

  15. Global civil unrest: contagion, self-organization, and prediction.

    PubMed

    Braha, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Civil unrest is a powerful form of collective human dynamics, which has led to major transitions of societies in modern history. The study of collective human dynamics, including collective aggression, has been the focus of much discussion in the context of modeling and identification of universal patterns of behavior. In contrast, the possibility that civil unrest activities, across countries and over long time periods, are governed by universal mechanisms has not been explored. Here, records of civil unrest of 170 countries during the period 1919-2008 are analyzed. It is demonstrated that the distributions of the number of unrest events per year are robustly reproduced by a nonlinear, spatially extended dynamical model, which reflects the spread of civil disorder between geographic regions connected through social and communication networks. The results also expose the similarity between global social instability and the dynamics of natural hazards and epidemics.

  16. Civil partnerships five years on.

    PubMed

    Ross, Helen; Gask, Karen; Berrington, Ann

    2011-01-01

    The Civil Partnership Act 2004, which came into force in December 2005 allowing same-sex couples in the UK to register their relationship for the first time, celebrated its fifth anniversary in December 2010. This article examines civil partnership in England and Wales, five years on from its introduction. The characteristics of those forming civil partnerships between 2005 and 2010 including age, sex and previous marital/civil partnership status are examined. These are then compared with the characteristics of those marrying over the same period. Further comparisons are also made between civil partnership dissolutions and divorce. The article presents estimates of the number of people currently in civil partnerships and children of civil partners. Finally the article examines attitudes towards same-sex and civil partner couples both in the UK and in other countries across Europe.

  17. 77 FR 70710 - Civil Penalties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ...,000. 75 FR 5246. Also on February 10, 2010, NHTSA last adjusted the maximum civil penalty for a... civil penalty policy when determining the appropriate civil penalty amount. See 62 FR 37115 (July 10... Act was published on February 4, 1997. 62 FR 5167. At that time, we codified the penalties...

  18. 77 FR 55175 - Civil Penalties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-07

    ... $6,000. 71 FR 28279. At the same time, the agency adjusted the maximum civil penalty for a single... to $16,650,000. 75 FR 5246. Also on February 10, 2010, NHTSA last adjusted the maximum civil penalty... policy when determining the appropriate civil penalty amount. See 62 FR 37115 (July 10, 1997)...

  19. 75 FR 5244 - Civil Penalties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ...) entitled ``Civil Penalties'' which proposed the adjustment of certain civil penalties for inflation. 74 FR.... See 62 FR 37115 (July 10, 1997) (NHTSA's civil penalty policy under the Small Business Regulatory... April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477, 19477-78). FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jessica Lang, Office of...

  20. Acute pancreatitis in six non-transplanted uraemic children. A co-operative study from the French Society of Paediatric Nephrology.

    PubMed

    Boudailliez, B; André, J L; Broyer, M; Davin, J C; Landthaler, G; Palcoux, J B

    1988-10-01

    Ten clinical episodes of acute pancreatitis (AP) occurred in six patients (mean age 10 years, range 3-15 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) during a 9-year period (1977-1986). The underlying cause of CRF was vesicoureteral reflux (2); urethral valves (1); ureterohydronephrosis (1); nephronopthisis (1) and a haemolytic uraemic syndrome which occurred 12 years before (1). In all patients a diagnosis of AP was established both on clinical grounds and with a serum amylase level of greater than 600 IU/l. In 3 patients laparotomy was performed because of suspected appendicitis. All patients required exclusive parenteral feeding (mean duration 25 days) and 2 patients had a partial pancreatectomy. No patient developed pancreatic pseudocysts, 2 patients experienced one relapse (3 and 21 months later) and 1 patient had two relapses and died. Mean duration of follow up was 3 years (range 1-10 years). Possible aetiological factors were: choledochal cyst (1); parotitis without a rise in mumps antibodies (1); familial dyslipidaemia but without AP in other family members (1), and aluminium intoxication with hypercalcaemia and convulsive encephalopathy treated with valproic acid in 1 patient. Severe hyperparathyroidism with radiological signs was absent in all patients. Transplantation had been performed either before AP in 2 patients (1 and 3 years before AP) or had followed AP in 1 patient (7 years after) without occurrence or relapse of AP.

  1. Galactic-scale civilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.

    1980-01-01

    Evolutionary arguments are presented in favor of the existence of civilization on a galactic scale. Patterns of physical, chemical, biological, social and cultural evolution leading to increasing levels of complexity are pointed out and explained thermodynamically in terms of the maximization of free energy dissipation in the environment of the organized system. The possibility of the evolution of a global and then a galactic human civilization is considered, and probabilities that the galaxy is presently in its colonization state and that life could have evolved to its present state on earth are discussed. Fermi's paradox of the absence of extraterrestrials in light of the probability of their existence is noted, and a variety of possible explanations is indicated. Finally, it is argued that although mankind may be the first occurrence of intelligence in the galaxy, it is unjustified to presume that this is so.

  2. "Insanity" in civil law.

    PubMed

    Kern, S R

    1986-07-01

    The issue of "insanity" is rarely alluded to in the area of civil law. As a consequence, the legal standard for insanity is not clearly understood by many psychiatrists. The standard derives from case law and is based upon statutory law in the criminal sector. A civil case will be presented where the question of "insanity" was raised. In this case an individual committed suicide and his insurance company refused to pay the beneficiaries of his life insurance policy based upon a provision in his policy that excluded payment in situations of suicide. His beneficiaries sued, claiming that the deceased was insane at the time of his suicide and therefore not responsible for his actions. The standard for insanity in New Jersey and the reasoning of the psychiatrists will be presented.

  3. Manifestations of advanced civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracewell, R. N.

    A list of possible modes of detecting advanced civilizations elsewhere in the universe is provided, including EM Alfven, and gravity waves, matter transfer, and exotica such as tachyons, black hole tunneling, and telepathy. Further study is indicated for low frequency radio wave propagation, which may travel along magnetic fields to reach the earth while laser beams are not favored because of the power needed for transmitting quanta instead of waves. IR, X ray, and UV astronomy are noted to be suitable for detecting signals in those ranges, while Alfven wave communication will be best observed by probes outside the orbit of Jupiter, where local anomalies have less effect. Particle propagation communication is viewed as unlikely, except as a trace of an extinct civilization, but panspermia, which involves interstellar spreading of seeds and/or spores, receives serious attention, as does laser probe or pellet propulsion.

  4. [Viruses and civilization].

    PubMed

    Chastel, C

    1999-01-01

    A few million years ago, when primates moved from the east African forest to the savannah, they were already infected with endogenous viruses and occultly transmitted them to the prime Homo species. However it was much later with the building of the first large cities in Mesopotamia that interhuman viral transmission began in earnest. Spreading was further enhanced with the organization of the Egyptian, Greek, Roman, and Arab empires around the Mediterranean. Discovery of the New World in 1492 led to an unprecedented clash of civilizations and the destruction of pre-Columbian Indian civilizations. It also led to a rapid spread of viruses across the Atlantic Ocean with the emergence of yellow fever and appearance of smallpox and measles throughout the world. However the greatest opportunities for worldwide viral development have been created by our present, modern civilization. This fact is illustrated by epidemic outbreaks of human immunodeficiency virus, Venezuela hemorrhagic fever, Rift valley fever virus, and monkey pox virus. Close analysis underscores the major role of human intervention in producing these events.

  5. European tendencies and co-operation in the field of ITS systems - national achievements and challenges in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindenbach, Ágnes

    2016-06-01

    The article presents the role of intelligent transport systems/services related to the implementation of the essential European and Hungarian transport policy objectives. The `ITS Directive' will provide a framework for the tasks/works to be performed in the forthcoming years within the priority areas of ITS. The European Commission published regulations / specifications for the priority actions in the form of delegated acts defining the tasks/responsibilities of Member States. Regional/European co-operation for Hungary started after the EU-accession of the country. Hungary was an active partner within the European CONNECT and EasyWay projects, currently Hungary is a member of the CROCODILE consortium.

  6. Analysis on the Load Carrying Mechanism Integrated as Heterogeneous Co-operative Manipulator in a Walking Wheelchair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajay Vedaraj, I. S.; Jain, Ritika; Rao, B. V. A.

    2014-07-01

    After industrial robots came into existence during 1960, the technology of robotics with the design and analysis of robots in various forms in industries as well as in domestic applications were developed. Nowadays, along with the automotive sector the robots are producing a great impact in the form of quality and production rate to register their existence reliable in various other sectors also. Robotic technology has undergone various phase translations from being tortured as humanoids to the present day manipulators. Depending upon the various forms of its existence, robot manipulators are designed as serial manipulators and parallel manipulators. Individually both types can be proved effective though both have various drawbacks in design and the kinematic analysis. The versatility of robots can be increased by making them work in an environment where the same work volume is shared by more than one manipulator. This work volume can be identified as co-operative work volume of those manipulators. Here the interference of manipulators in the work volume of other manipulators is possible and is made obstacle free. The main advantage of co-operative manipulators is that when a number of independent manipulators are put together in a cooperative work envelope the efficiency and ability to perform tasks is greatly enhanced. The main disadvantage of the co-operative manipulators lies in the complication of its design even for a simple application, in almost all fields. In this paper, a cooperative design of robot manipulators to work in co-operative work environment is done and analysed for its efficacy. In the industrial applications when robotic manipulators are put together in more numbers, the trajectory planning becomes the tough task in the work cell. Proper design can remove the design defects of the cooperative manipulators and can be utilized in a more efficient way. In the proposed research paper an analysis is made on such a type of cooperative manipulator

  7. Risk to civilization: A planetary science perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Clark R.; Morrison, David

    One of the most profound changes in our perspective of the solar system resulting from the first quarter century of planetary exploration by spacecraft is the recognition that planets, including Earth, were bombarded by cosmic projectiles for 4.5 aeons and continue to be bombarded today. Although the planetary cratering rate is much lower now than it was during the first 0.5 aeons, sizeable Earth-approaching asteroids and comets continue to hit the Earth at a rate that poses a finite risk to civilization. The evolution of this planetary perspective on impact cratering is gradual over the last two decades. It took explorations of Mars and Mercury by early Mariner spacecraft and of the outer solar system by the Voyagers to reveal the significance of asteroidal and cometary impacts in shaping the morphologies and even chemical compositions of the planets. An unsettling implication of the new perspective is addressed: the risk to human civilization. Serious scientific attention was given to this issue in July 1981 at a NASA-sponsored Spacewatch Workshop in Snowmass, Colorado. The basic conclusion of the 1981 NASA sponsored workshop still stands: the risk that civilization might be destroyed by impact with an as-yet-undiscovered asteroid or comet exceeds risk levels that are sometimes deemed unacceptable by modern societies in other contexts. Yet these impact risks have gone almost undiscussed and undebated. The tentative quantitative assessment by some members of the 1981 workshop was that each year, civilization is threatened with destruction with a probability of about 1 in 100,000. The enormous spread in risk levels deemed by the public to be at the threshold of acceptability derives from a host of psychological factors that were widely discussed in the risk assessment literature. Slovic shows that public fears of hazards are greatest for hazards that are uncontrollable, involuntary, fatal, dreadful, globally catastrophic, and which have consequences that seem

  8. Risk to civilization: A planetary science perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Clark R.; Morrison, David

    1988-01-01

    One of the most profound changes in our perspective of the solar system resulting from the first quarter century of planetary exploration by spacecraft is the recognition that planets, including Earth, were bombarded by cosmic projectiles for 4.5 aeons and continue to be bombarded today. Although the planetary cratering rate is much lower now than it was during the first 0.5 aeons, sizeable Earth-approaching asteroids and comets continue to hit the Earth at a rate that poses a finite risk to civilization. The evolution of this planetary perspective on impact cratering is gradual over the last two decades. It took explorations of Mars and Mercury by early Mariner spacecraft and of the outer solar system by the Voyagers to reveal the significance of asteroidal and cometary impacts in shaping the morphologies and even chemical compositions of the planets. An unsettling implication of the new perspective is addressed: the risk to human civilization. Serious scientific attention was given to this issue in July 1981 at a NASA-sponsored Spacewatch Workshop in Snowmass, Colorado. The basic conclusion of the 1981 NASA sponsored workshop still stands: the risk that civilization might be destroyed by impact with an as-yet-undiscovered asteroid or comet exceeds risk levels that are sometimes deemed unacceptable by modern societies in other contexts. Yet these impact risks have gone almost undiscussed and undebated. The tentative quantitative assessment by some members of the 1981 workshop was that each year, civilization is threatened with destruction with a probability of about 1 in 100,000. The enormous spread in risk levels deemed by the public to be at the threshold of acceptability derives from a host of psychological factors that were widely discussed in the risk assessment literature. Slovic shows that public fears of hazards are greatest for hazards that are uncontrollable, involuntary, fatal, dreadful, globally catastrophic, and which have consequences that seem

  9. Civil space technology initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) is a major, focused, space technology program of the Office of Aeronautics, Exploration and Technology (OAET) of NASA. The program was initiated to advance technology beyond basic research in order to expand and enhance system and vehicle capabilities for near-term missions. CSTI takes critical technologies to the point at which a user can confidently incorporate the new or expanded capabilities into relatively near-term, high-priority NASA missions. In particular, the CSTI program emphasizes technologies necessary for reliable and efficient access to and operation in Earth orbit as well as for support of scientific missions from Earth orbit.

  10. Novel co-operation between eotaxin and substance-P in inducing eosinophil-derived neurotoxin release.

    PubMed Central

    El-Shazly, A; Ishikawa, T

    1999-01-01

    Eosinophils, chemokines, and neuropeptides are thought to play effector roles in the pathogenesis of allergic diseases such as rhinitis. Eotaxin is a novel C-C chemokine with a potent and relatively specific eosinophil chemoattractant activity that binds selectively to CCR3 receptor, however, its activity in inducing eosinophil granules proteins release is poorly characterized. This study was performed to determine whether eotaxin primes eosinophil exocytosis and whether this co-operates with the sensory neuroimmune-axis. In the present communication, we show that 10 ng/ml eotaxin primed normal human eosinophil for exaggerated eosonophil-derived neurotoxin (EDN) release stimulated by 10(-8) M Substance-P (SP). This novel priming was blocked by; 7B11 and Herbimycin A (HA), the CCR3 antagonist and the tyrosine kinase inhibitor, respectively. SDS-Page studies showed significant tyrosine phosphorylation of several protein residues induced by 10(-8) M SP only after priming with 10 ng/ml eotaxin. These results demonstrate a novel co-operation between eotaxin and SP in inducing eosinophil cytotoxicity, which at least in part involves tyrosine kinases pathway(s). PMID:10704057

  11. Active and inactive enhancers co-operate to exert localized and long-range control of gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Proudhon, Charlotte; Snetkova, Valentina; Raviram, Ramya; Lobry, Camille; Badri, Sana; Jiang, Tingting; Hao, Bingtao; Trimarchi, Thomas; Kluger, Yuval; Aifantis, Iannis; Bonneau, Richard; Skok, Jane A

    2016-01-01

    V(D)J recombination relies on the presence of proximal enhancers that activate the antigen receptor (AgR) loci in a lineage and stage specific manner. Unexpectedly we find that both active and inactive AgR enhancers co-operate to disseminate their effects in a localized and long-range manner. Here we demonstrate the importance of short-range contacts between active enhancers that constitute an Igk super-enhancer in B cells. Deletion of one element reduces the interaction frequency between other enhancers in the hub, which compromises the transcriptional output of each component. We further establish that in T cells long-range contact and co-operation between the inactive Igk enhancer, MiEκ and the active Tcrb enhancer, Eβ, alters enrichment of CBFβ binding in a manner that impacts Tcrb recombination. These findings underline the complexities of enhancer regulation and point to a role for localized and long-range enhancer-sharing between active and inactive elements in lineage and stage specific control. PMID:27239026

  12. Novel JAZ co-operativity and unexpected JA dynamics underpin Arabidopsis defence responses to Pseudomonas syringae infection.

    PubMed

    de Torres Zabala, Marta; Zhai, Bing; Jayaraman, Siddharth; Eleftheriadou, Garoufalia; Winsbury, Rebecca; Yang, Ron; Truman, William; Tang, Saijung; Smirnoff, Nicholas; Grant, Murray

    2016-02-01

    Pathogens target phytohormone signalling pathways to promote disease. Plants deploy salicylic acid (SA)-mediated defences against biotrophs. Pathogens antagonize SA immunity by activating jasmonate signalling, for example Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000 produces coronatine (COR), a jasmonic acid (JA) mimic. This study found unexpected dynamics between SA, JA and COR and co-operation between JAZ jasmonate repressor proteins during DC3000 infection. We used a systems-based approach involving targeted hormone profiling, high-temporal-resolution micro-array analysis, reverse genetics and mRNA-seq. Unexpectedly, foliar JA did not accumulate until late in the infection process and was higher in leaves challenged with COR-deficient P. syringae or in the more resistant JA receptor mutant coi1. JAZ regulation was complex and COR alone was insufficient to sustainably induce JAZs. JAZs contribute to early basal and subsequent secondary plant defence responses. We showed that JAZ5 and JAZ10 specifically co-operate to restrict COR cytotoxicity and pathogen growth through a complex transcriptional reprogramming that does not involve the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors MYC2 and related MYC3 and MYC4 previously shown to restrict pathogen growth. mRNA-seq predicts compromised SA signalling in a jaz5/10 mutant and rapid suppression of JA-related components on bacterial infection. PMID:26428397

  13. A new co-operative inversion strategy via fuzzy clustering technique applied to seismic and magnetotelluric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thong Kieu, Duy; Kepic, Anton

    2015-04-01

    Geophysical inversion produces very useful images of earth parameters; however, inversion results usually suffer from inherent non-uniqueness: many subsurface models with different structures and parameters can explain the measurements. To reduce the ambiguity, extra information about the earth's structure and physical properties is needed. This prior information can be extracted from geological principles, prior petrophysical information from well logs, and complementary information from other geophysical methods. Any technique used to constrain inversion should be able to integrate the prior information and to guide updating inversion process in terms of the geological model. In this research, we have adopted fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering technique for this purpose. FCM is a clustering method that allows us to divide the model of physical parameters into a few clusters of representative values that also may relate to geological units based on the similarity of the geophysical properties. This exploits the fact that in many geological environments the earth is comprised of a few distinctive rock units with different physical properties. Therefore FCM can provide a platform to constrain geophysical inversion, and should tend to produce models that are geologically meaningful. FCM was incorporated in both separate and co-operative inversion processing of seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) data with petrophysical constraints. Using petrophysical information through FCM assists the inversion to build a reliable earth model. In this algorithm, FCM plays a role of guider; it uses the prior information to drive the model update process, and also forming an earth model filled with rocks units rather than smooth transitions when the boundary is in doubt. Where petrophysical information from well logs or core measurement is not locally available the cluster petrophysics may be solved for in inversion as well if some knowledge of how many distinctive geological exist. A

  14. Third Wave Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Jane

    1982-01-01

    Presents an interview with Alvin Toffler on the role of education in the future. The discussion covers the effects of socio-economic, political and technological changes upon the educational system. Toffler argues that education must prepare students to cope with the increasing cultural diversity and interdependence of future societies. (AM)

  15. 'Sites' of resistance: alternative websites and state-society relations.

    PubMed

    Ho, K C; Baber, Zaheer; Khondker, Habibul

    2002-03-01

    Much attention has been focused on Singapore's attempt to use information technology to build a knowledge-based economy. This paper examines the implications of the unintended consequences of the Internet in the restructuring of state and society relations in Singapore. We use the data on Singapore-based and Singapore-related websites to show (a) the diversity of positions expressed by civil society organizations, fringe groups and even mainstream segments of society; (b) the negotiation process between the state and civil society over various rights and how developments in cyber-space have implications for 'reality'; (c) how censorship and content regulation itself is a more complex multi-dimensional process such that while local politics is regulated, the multi-ethnic character of the resident population has led to greater religious tolerance such that religious groups banned in some countries have found a safe haven in Singapore and have used the city-state as a strategic Internet node.

  16. World History and Geography: Ancient Civilizations. Course Models for the History-Social Science Framework: Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Ralph, Ed.; Brooks, Diane

    This document outlines ancient civilization teaching models for California sixth graders. It is another response to teachers' requests for practical assistance in implementing the "History-Social Science Framework." Units include: (1) Early Humankind and the Development of Human Societies; (2) The Beginnings of Civilization in the Near East and…

  17. "At the Head of the Aboriginal Remnant": Cherokee Construction of a "Civilized" Indian Identity during the Lakota Crisis of 1876

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelton, Paul

    2003-01-01

    In 1876 the bilingual Cherokee diplomat and lawyer William Penn Adair expressed great pride in the level of "civilization" that his nation had achieved. Defining civilization as commercial agriculture, literacy, Christianity, and republican government, Adair believed that his society has reached a sophistication that equaled and in certain areas…

  18. 22 CFR 208.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 208.920 Section 208.920 Foreign...) Definitions § 208.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  19. 22 CFR 1006.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  20. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and...) Definitions § 1404.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  1. 2 CFR 180.915 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 180.915 Section 180.915... § 180.915 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  2. 22 CFR 1508.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  3. High speed civil transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogardus, Scott; Loper, Brent; Nauman, Chris; Page, Jeff; Parris, Rusty; Steinbach, Greg

    1990-01-01

    The design process of the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) combines existing technology with the expectation of future technology to create a Mach 3.0 transport. The HSCT was designed to have a range in excess of 6000 nautical miles and carry up to 300 passengers. This range will allow the HSCT to service the economically expanding Pacific Basin region. Effort was made in the design to enable the aircraft to use conventional airports with standard 12,000 foot runways. With a takeoff thrust of 250,000 pounds, the four supersonic through-flow engines will accelerate the HSCT to a cruise speed of Mach 3.0. The 679,000 pound (at takeoff) HSCT is designed to cruise at an altitude of 70,000 feet, flying above most atmospheric disturbances.

  4. The medical aspects of civil defense in California.

    PubMed

    STEIN, J J

    1952-01-01

    Medical care for persons injured in atomic bomb attack or other far-reaching enemy action occupies an important place in civil defense plans that have been set up in California. Preparations have been made on the basis of suppositions as to where attacks might occur and estimates of the number of casualties. State and federal funds have been allocated for aid station equipment, antibiotics, plasma, blankets and litters. In the table of organization, use of all physicians, nurses and hospitals in the state is contemplated. Communities at the center of attacks would borrow facilities and medical personnel from areas not directly affected.County medical societies in California have appointed civil defense committees to work out local plans. Each physician has a part in these plans. If he does not know what his assignment is, be ought to get in touch with his county medical society headquarters immediately.

  5. Vocational Education and Civil Rights.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    This pamphlet discusses the "Guidelines for Eliminating Discrimination and Denial of Services on the Basis of Race, Color, National Origin, Sex, and Handicap in Vocational Education Programs," first issued by the Office for Civil Rights in 1979, and how they relate to the civil rights of students and staff. It also outlines the responsibilities of…

  6. Civil Engineering Technology Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland Community Coll., Farmington, MI. Office of Institutional Planning and Analysis.

    In 1991, a study was conducted by Oakland Community College (OCC) to evaluate the need for a proposed Civil Engineering Technology program. An initial examination of the literature focused on industry needs and the job market for civil engineering technicians. In order to gather information on local area employers' hiring practices and needs, a…

  7. Environmental Ethics and Civil Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesilind, P. Aarne

    1987-01-01

    Traces the development of the civil engineering code of ethics. Points out that the code does have an enforceable provision that addresses the engineer's responsibility toward the environment. Suggests revisions to the code to accommodate the environmental impacts of civil engineering. (TW)

  8. Microprocessor, Setx, Xrn2, and Rrp6 co-operate to induce premature termination of transcription by RNAPII.

    PubMed

    Wagschal, Alexandre; Rousset, Emilie; Basavarajaiah, Poornima; Contreras, Xavier; Harwig, Alex; Laurent-Chabalier, Sabine; Nakamura, Mirai; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Ke; Meziane, Oussama; Boyer, Frédéric; Parrinello, Hugues; Berkhout, Ben; Terzian, Christophe; Benkirane, Monsef; Kiernan, Rosemary

    2012-09-14

    Transcription elongation is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism of gene regulation. Here, we show that microprocessor controls gene expression in an RNAi-independent manner. Microprocessor orchestrates the recruitment of termination factors Setx and Xrn2, and the 3'-5' exoribonuclease, Rrp6, to initiate RNAPII pausing and premature termination at the HIV-1 promoter through cleavage of the stem-loop RNA, TAR. Rrp6 further processes the cleavage product, which generates a small RNA that is required to mediate potent transcriptional repression and chromatin remodeling at the HIV-1 promoter. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq), we identified cellular gene targets whose transcription is modulated by microprocessor. Our study reveals RNAPII pausing and premature termination mediated by the co-operative activity of ribonucleases, Drosha/Dgcr8, Xrn2, and Rrp6, as a regulatory mechanism of RNAPII-dependent transcription elongation.

  9. CXCL8/IL-8 and CXCL12/SDF-1α Co-operatively Promote Invasiveness and Angiogenesis in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Yoichi; Ochi, Nobuo; Sawai, Hirozumi; Yasuda, Akira; Takahashi, Hiroki; Funahashi, Hitoshi; Takeyama, Hiromitsu; Tong, Zhimin; Guha, Sushovan

    2009-01-01

    CXC-chemokines are involved in the chemotaxis of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes. However, role of these chemokines in tumorigenesis, especially with regard to interaction between tumor and its microenvironment, has not been clearly elucidated. The purpose of this study was to analyze the co-operative role of CXCL8 and CXCL12 in the tumor-stromal interaction in pancreatic cancer (PaCa). Using ELISA and RT-PCR, we initially confirmed the expression of ligands and receptors, respectively, of CXC-chemokines in PaCa and stromal cells. We examined the co-operative role of CXCL8 and CXCL12 in proliferation/invasion of PaCa and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and in HUVEC tube-formations through tumor-stromal interaction by MTS, Matrigel invasion, and angiogenesis assays, respectively. We detected expression of CXCR4, but not CXCR2, in all PaCa cells and fibroblasts. PaCa cells secreted CXCL8, and fibroblast cells secreted CXCL12. CXCL8 production in PaCa was significantly enhanced by CXCL12, and CXCL12 production in fibroblasts was significantly enhanced by co-culturing with PaCa. CXCL8 enhanced proliferation/invasion of HUVECs but did not promote proliferation/invasion of PaCa. Both recombinant and PaCa-derived CXCL8 enhanced tube formation of HUVECs that were co-cultured with fibroblast cells. CXCL12 enhanced the proliferation/invasion of HUVECs and the invasion of PaCa cells but had no effect on tube formation of HUVEC. We showed that PaCa-derived CXCL8 and fibroblast-derived CXCL12 cooperatively induced angiogenesis in vitro by promoting HUVEC proliferation, invasion, and tube formation. Thus, corresponding receptors CXCR2 and CXCR4 are potential antiangiogenic and antimetastatic therapeutic targets in PaCa. PMID:19035451

  10. dREAM co-operates with insulator-binding proteins and regulates expression at divergently paired genes

    PubMed Central

    Korenjak, Michael; Kwon, Eunjeong; Morris, Robert T.; Anderssen, Endre; Amzallag, Arnaud; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Dyson, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    dREAM complexes represent the predominant form of E2F/RBF repressor complexes in Drosophila. dREAM associates with thousands of sites in the fly genome but its mechanism of action is unknown. To understand the genomic context in which dREAM acts we examined the distribution and localization of Drosophila E2F and dREAM proteins. Here we report a striking and unexpected overlap between dE2F2/dREAM sites and binding sites for the insulator-binding proteins CP190 and Beaf-32. Genetic assays show that these components functionally co-operate and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments on mutant animals demonstrate that dE2F2 is important for association of CP190 with chromatin. dE2F2/dREAM binding sites are enriched at divergently transcribed genes, and the majority of genes upregulated by dE2F2 depletion represent the repressed half of a differentially expressed, divergently transcribed pair of genes. Analysis of mutant animals confirms that dREAM and CP190 are similarly required for transcriptional integrity at these gene pairs and suggest that dREAM functions in concert with CP190 to establish boundaries between repressed/activated genes. Consistent with the idea that dREAM co-operates with insulator-binding proteins, genomic regions bound by dREAM possess enhancer-blocking activity that depends on multiple dREAM components. These findings suggest that dREAM functions in the organization of transcriptional domains. PMID:25053843

  11. Military Power in a Democratic Society. Teacher and Student Manuals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zarlengo, F. John

    This unit focuses on the classic problem of the place of military power in a democratic society. Early sections examine the relationship between civil and military authority as developed in colonial America and written into the Constitution. The second half of the unit invites consideration of the relevance and workability of the earlier tradition…

  12. Still Not Equal: Expanding Educational Opportunity in Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, M. Christopher, II, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Still Not Equal: Expanding Educational Opportunity in Society" addresses the successes and failures of "Brown v. Board of Education" and the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as well as the continuing challenge of expanding educational opportunity in the United States and across the Black diaspora. The educational, political, and social influence…

  13. 50 CFR 697.11 - Civil procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ....11 Civil procedures. The civil procedure regulations at 15 CFR part 904 apply to civil penalties, permit sanctions, seizures, and forfeitures under the Atlantic Striped Bass Conservation Act and...

  14. 50 CFR 697.11 - Civil procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ....11 Civil procedures. The civil procedure regulations at 15 CFR part 904 apply to civil penalties, permit sanctions, seizures, and forfeitures under the Atlantic Striped Bass Conservation Act and...

  15. 50 CFR 697.11 - Civil procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ....11 Civil procedures. The civil procedure regulations at 15 CFR part 904 apply to civil penalties, permit sanctions, seizures, and forfeitures under the Atlantic Striped Bass Conservation Act and...

  16. 50 CFR 697.11 - Civil procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ....11 Civil procedures. The civil procedure regulations at 15 CFR part 904 apply to civil penalties, permit sanctions, seizures, and forfeitures under the Atlantic Striped Bass Conservation Act and...

  17. 76 FR 71431 - Civil Penalty Calculation Methodology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Civil Penalty Calculation Methodology AGENCY: Federal... its civil penalty methodology. Part of this evaluation includes a forthcoming explanation of the Uniform Fine Assessment (UFA) algorithm, which FMCSA currently uses for calculation of civil...

  18. Society of Thoracic Surgeons

    MedlinePlus

    ... With Its Intense Demands New Website from The Society of Thoracic Surgeons Puts the Power of Information ... Hotel Discount for STS Members Copyright © 2016 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. All rights reserved. Expanded Proprietary ...

  19. Society of Interventional Radiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... comments to CMS on two MACRA coding issues; society is engaged with CMS as they develop codes ... radiology case studies Developed by ACR Copyright © 2016 Society of Interventional Radiology. All rights reserved. 3975 Fair ...

  20. Civil commitment in the United States.

    PubMed

    Testa, Megan; West, Sara G

    2010-10-01

    This article reviews the academic literature on the psychiatric practice of civil commitment. It provides an overview of the history of involuntary psychiatric hospitalization in the United States-from the creation of the first asylum and the era of institutionalization to the movement of deinstitutionalization. The ethical conflict that the practice of involuntary hospitalization presents for providers, namely the conflict between the ethical duties of beneficence and respect for patient autonomy, is presented. The evolution of the United States commitment standards, from being based on a right to treatment for patients with mental illness to being based on dangerousness, as well as the implications that the changes in commitment criteria has had on patients and society, are discussed. Involuntary hospitalization of patient populations that present unique challenges for psychiatry (e.g., not guilty by reason of insanity acquittees, sex offenders, and individuals with eating disorders, substance use disorders, and personality disorders) is discussed. Finally, an overview of outpatient commitment is provided. By reading this article, one will learn the history of involuntary psychiatric hospitalization in the United States and gain an understanding of the ethical issues that make civil commitment one of the most controversial practices in modern psychiatry.

  1. Professional Scientific Societies, 1968.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frye, Robert E.; And Others

    Reported are the findings of a study of scientific societies in the United States. Some 449 professional organizations were considered of which 284 conformed to the validation criteria for inclusion. Data gathering was most successful on membership, current dues, society history, and purpose and less successful on topics related to society income…

  2. Technical Civilizations in the Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    Are there other technical civilizations in the galaxy? Past analyses come to different conclusions. Cocconi and Morrison demonstrated in 1959 that interstellar radio communication was possible and Drake conducted the first search for beacons in 1960. The Drake equation estimates the number of galactic civilizations that are transmitting beacons as the product of the rate of star formation in the galaxy, the fraction of stars with planets, their average number of earthlike planets, the fraction with intelligent life and interstellar communication, and the average lifetime of a technical civilization. The Drake model of the galaxy contains many technical civilizations with communication but no interstellar travel. Michael Hart in 1975 strongly challenged this model. Starting with the fact that no extraterrestrials have been observed on Earth, and assuming that interstellar colonization is possible, he concluded that it was very likely that we are the first civilization in our galaxy and that searching or beacons is probably a waste of time and money. The Fermi paradox similarly reasons that if extraterrestrials exist: they should be here, and asks, Where are they? The Hart/Fermi model of the galaxy contains only our civilization and suggests we may colonize the galaxy. A third galactic model is that we are alone but will never develop interstellar travel. The fourth alternate model has many technical civilizations, with interstellar travel and colonization. The possibilities are clear and momentous. Either we are the only technical civilization in the galaxy or there are others. Technical civilizations will colonize the galaxy or not. We have four cosmic conjectures - one or many, colonization or not - but however unlikely they seem based on our limited evidence, one of these four models must be collect.

  3. Credit and civilization.

    PubMed

    Newton, Tim

    2003-09-01

    This paper analyses financial credit in order to re-examine the work of Norbert Elias, particularly his association of interdependency complexity with social discipline, and his approach to contradiction. Following a discussion of these issues, the paper examines Elias's writing on money and explores the emergence of financial credit networks in early modern England. Attention is paid to credit networks and social discipline, to credit and the state, and to the contradictory images associated with the transition to modern cash economies. From one perspective, early modern credit networks might be read as a confirmation of Elias, particularly his argument that interdependency complexity, changing power balances and self-restraint are interwoven. Yet the development of modern cash money raises questions, not just in relation to Elias's treatment of money, but also with regard to his assumptions about social discipline and his approach to ambivalence and contradiction. Drawing on the foregoing discussion, the paper argues that the relation between interdependency complexity and social discipline is contingent and variable, and that interdependency complexity may simultaneously encourage contradictory processes, such as those of civilizing and barbarity.

  4. High speed civil transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the design and marketability of a next generation supersonic transport. Apogee Aeronautics Corporation has designated its High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT): Supercruiser HS-8. Since the beginning of the Concorde era, the general consensus has been that the proper time for the introduction of a next generation Supersonic Transport (SST) would depend upon the technical advances made in the areas of propulsion (reduction in emissions) and material composites (stronger, lighter materials). It is believed by many in the aerospace industry that these beforementioned technical advances lie on the horizon. With this being the case, this is the proper time to begin the design phase for the next generation HSCT. The design objective for a HSCT was to develop an aircraft that would be capable of transporting at least 250 passengers with baggage at a distance of 5500 nmi. The supersonic Mach number is currently unspecified. In addition, the design had to be marketable, cost effective, and certifiable. To achieve this goal, technical advances in the current SST's must be made, especially in the areas of aerodynamics and propulsion. As a result of these required aerodynamic advances, several different supersonic design concepts were reviewed.

  5. Co-operation and conflict under hard and soft contracting regimes: case studies from England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper examines NHS secondary care contracting in England and Wales in a period which saw increasing policy divergence between the two systems. At face value, England was making greater use of market levers and utilising harder-edged service contracts incorporating financial penalties and incentives, while Wales was retreating from the 1990s internal market and emphasising cooperation and flexibility in the contracting process. But there were also cross-border spill-overs involving common contracting technologies and management cultures that meant that differences in on-the-ground contracting practices might be smaller than headline policy differences suggested. Methods The nature of real-world contracting behaviour was investigated by undertaking two qualitative case studies in England and two in Wales, each based on a local purchaser/provider network. The case studies involved ethnographic observations and interviews with staff in primary care trusts (PCTs) or local health boards (LHBs), NHS or Foundation trusts, and the overseeing Strategic Health Authority or NHS Wales regional office, as well as scrutiny of relevant documents. Results Wider policy differences between the two NHS systems were reflected in differing contracting frameworks, involving regional commissioning in Wales and commissioning by either a PCT, or co-operating pair of PCTs in our English case studies, and also in different oversight arrangements by higher tiers of the service. However, long-term relationships and trust between purchasers and providers had an important role in both systems when the financial viability of organisations was at risk. In England, the study found examples where both PCTs and trusts relaxed contractual requirements to assist partners faced with deficits. In Wales, news of plans to end the purchaser/provider split meant a return to less precisely-specified block contracts and a renewed concern to build cooperation between LHB and trust staff

  6. Teaching Mathematics to Civil Engineers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, J. J.; Moore, E.

    1977-01-01

    This paper outlines a technique for teaching a rigorous course in calculus and differential equations which stresses applicability of the mathematics to problems in civil engineering. The method involves integration of subject matter and team teaching. (SD)

  7. Job Prospects for Civil Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1988-01-01

    Discusses civil engineering employment opportunities; indicates that the field is shrinking. Presents national placement and enrollment statistics. Identifies building and construction materials, and public works as areas of current and expanding opportunities. (CW)

  8. Civil Engineering Technology Program Standards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This publication contains statewide standards for the civil engineering program in Georgia. The standards are divided into 12 categories: foundations (philosophy, purpose, goals, program objectives, availability, evaluation); admissions (admission requirements, provisional admission requirements, recruitment, evaluation and planning); program…

  9. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 5. Governmental Responsibilities for Civil Defense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    A description of the laws and orders that provide necessary legal authorization for civil defense activities is provided. In addition, an outline of the responsibilities of all governments and the role of the private sector in civil defense is presented. Topics discussed include: (1) Legal authority for civil defense, (2) Civil defense…

  10. U.S. Commission on Civil Rights' 40th Anniversary: The Road Ahead for Civil Rights. A Civil Rights Symposium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil Rights Journal, 1997

    1997-01-01

    This special theme issue of the newly titled "Civil Rights Journal" (previously titled "Perspectives"), commemorates the 40th anniversary of the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights by presenting a written symposium that offers a wide range of perspectives on civil rights realities and the future of civil rights. Three context-setting articles…

  11. [Improving team-oriented co-operation between physicians and nursing staff--opening new opportunities with process orientation and extended nursing roles].

    PubMed

    Dahlgaard, Knut

    2010-01-01

    Co-ordination in terms of synergetic co-operation of the two professional groups is highly demanding and requires creative measures. Co-operation between doctors and nurses can be improved by an integrative organisational concept agreed-upon by the parties involved. The core elements of this KoPM model include jointly practised patient orientation, a process organisation approach to health care provision, successful communication as well as a process support framework. Another task that needs to be performed will be to refine this approach by improving communication efficiency, by employing qualification processes and by evaluating cooperation projects.

  12. Co-operative Bmp- and Fgf-signaling inputs convert skin wound healing to limb formation in urodele amphibians.

    PubMed

    Makanae, Aki; Mitogawa, Kazumasa; Satoh, Akira

    2014-12-01

    Urodele amphibians have remarkable organ regeneration capability, and their limb regeneration capability has been investigated as a representative phenomenon. In the early 19th century, nerves were reported to be an essential tissue for the successful induction of limb regeneration. Nerve substances that function in the induction of limb regeneration responses have long been sought. A new experimental system called the accessory limb model (ALM) has been established to identify the nerve factors. Skin wounding in urodele amphibians results in skin wound healing but never in limb induction. However, nerve deviation to the wounded skin induces limb formation in ALM. Thus, nerves can be considered to have the ability to transform skin wound healing to limb formation. In the present study, co-operative Bmp and Fgf application, instead of nerve deviation, to wounded skin transformed skin wound healing to limb formation in two urodele amphibians, axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and newt (Pleurodeles waltl). Our findings demonstrate that defined factors can induce homeotic transformation in postembryonic bodies of urodele amphibians. The combination of Bmp and Fgf(s) may contribute to the development of novel treatments for organ regeneration.

  13. A Cytotoxic, Co-operative Interaction Between Energy Deprivation and Glutamate Release From System xc- Mediates Aglycemic Neuronal Cell Death.

    PubMed

    Thorn, Trista L; He, Yan; Jackman, Nicole A; Lobner, Doug; Hewett, James A; Hewett, Sandra J

    2015-01-01

    The astrocyte cystine/glutamate antiporter (system xc(-)) contributes substantially to the excitotoxic neuronal cell death facilitated by glucose deprivation. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism by which this occurred. Using pure astrocyte cultures, as well as, mixed cortical cell cultures containing both neurons and astrocytes, we found that neither an enhancement in system xc(-) expression nor activity underlies the excitotoxic effects of aglycemia. In addition, using three separate bioassays, we demonstrate no change in the ability of glucose-deprived astrocytes--either cultured alone or with neurons--to remove glutamate from the extracellular space. Instead, we demonstrate that glucose-deprived cultures are 2 to 3 times more sensitive to the killing effects of glutamate or N-methyl-D-aspartate when compared with their glucose-containing controls. Hence, our results are consistent with the weak excitotoxic hypothesis such that a bioenergetic deficiency, which is measureable in our mixed but not astrocyte cultures, allows normally innocuous concentrations of glutamate to become excitotoxic. Adding to the burgeoning literature detailing the contribution of astrocytes to neuronal injury, we conclude that under our experimental paradigm, a cytotoxic, co-operative interaction between energy deprivation and glutamate release from astrocyte system xc(-) mediates aglycemic neuronal cell death.

  14. A Cytotoxic, Co-operative Interaction Between Energy Deprivation and Glutamate Release From System xc− Mediates Aglycemic Neuronal Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Thorn, Trista L.; He, Yan; Jackman, Nicole A.; Lobner, Doug; Hewett, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The astrocyte cystine/glutamate antiporter (system xc−) contributes substantially to the excitotoxic neuronal cell death facilitated by glucose deprivation. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism by which this occurred. Using pure astrocyte cultures, as well as, mixed cortical cell cultures containing both neurons and astrocytes, we found that neither an enhancement in system xc− expression nor activity underlies the excitotoxic effects of aglycemia. In addition, using three separate bioassays, we demonstrate no change in the ability of glucose-deprived astrocytes—either cultured alone or with neurons—to remove glutamate from the extracellular space. Instead, we demonstrate that glucose-deprived cultures are 2 to 3 times more sensitive to the killing effects of glutamate or N-methyl-D-aspartate when compared with their glucose-containing controls. Hence, our results are consistent with the weak excitotoxic hypothesis such that a bioenergetic deficiency, which is measureable in our mixed but not astrocyte cultures, allows normally innocuous concentrations of glutamate to become excitotoxic. Adding to the burgeoning literature detailing the contribution of astrocytes to neuronal injury, we conclude that under our experimental paradigm, a cytotoxic, co-operative interaction between energy deprivation and glutamate release from astrocyte system xc− mediates aglycemic neuronal cell death. PMID:26553727

  15. A co-operative interaction between Neisseria gonorrhoeae and complement receptor 3 mediates infection of primary cervical epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Jennifer L; Brown, Eric J; Uk-Nham, Sang; Cannon, Janne G; Blake, Milan S; Apicella, Michael A

    2002-09-01

    Little is known about the pathogenesis of gonococcal infection within the lower female genital tract. We recently described the distribution of complement receptor 3 (CR3) on epithelia of the female genital tract. Our studies further indicate that CR3-mediated endocytosis serves as a primary mechanism by which N. gonorrhoeae elicits membrane ruffling and cellular invasion of primary, human, cervical epithelial cells. We have extended these studies to describe the nature of the gonococcus-CR3 interaction. Western Blot analysis demonstrated production of alternative pathway complement components by ecto- and endocervical cells which allows C3b deposition on gonococci and its rapid conversion to iC3b. Anti-iC3b and -factor I antibodies significantly inhibited adherence and invasion of primary cervical cells, suggesting that iC3b covalently bound to the gonococcus serves as a primary ligand for CR3 adherence. However, gonococcal porin and pili also bound to the I-domain of CR3 in a non-opsonic manner. Binding of porin and pili to CR3 were required for adherence to and invasion of cervical epithelia. Collectively, these data suggest that gonococcal adherence to CR3 occurs in a co-operative manner, which requires gonococcal iC3b-opsonization, porin and pilus. In conjunction, these molecules facilitate targeting to and successful infection of the cervical epithelium. PMID:12390350

  16. Establishment and application of SPA-co-operated ELISA for detection of anti-HCV-IgM.

    PubMed

    Li, F H; Guo, L S; Yu, Z Q; Wang, Y K; Qi, J Y; Yuan, X W; Hao, L J

    1993-01-01

    A staphylococcus aureus protein A co-operated ELISA (SPA-ELISA) for the detection of anti-HCV-IgM has been established using HCV antigenic polypeptide, SPA-bearing germs and horseradish peroxidase labelled anti-human IgM. The specificity of SPA-ELISA has been confirmed by some substitution tests, blocking tests and destroying test with 2-mercaptoethanol. The results showed that the rate of anti-HCV-IgG in a group of patients with acute hepatitis and there were significant difference in anti-HCV-IgM was higher than that of anti-HCV-IgM detected rates between patients with acute hepatitis and those with chronic hepatitis (32.26%, P < 0.01). On the other hand, the positive rates of anti-HCV-IgM were 53.66% and 63.41% in transfusion associated hepatitis, 38.10% and 42.86% in sporadic hepatitis, 6.11% and 16.33% in people who have had active social activities, 40.00% and 10.00% in a group of blood donors respectively. Furthermore, taking into account the characteristics of HCV polypeptide used, its easiness of manipulation, and elimination of the interference of anti-HCV-IgG in sera, the new SPA-ELISA is believed to be of practical value in clinical and epidemiological studies of hepatitis C. PMID:7512150

  17. Co-operative Bmp- and Fgf-signaling inputs convert skin wound healing to limb formation in urodele amphibians.

    PubMed

    Makanae, Aki; Mitogawa, Kazumasa; Satoh, Akira

    2014-12-01

    Urodele amphibians have remarkable organ regeneration capability, and their limb regeneration capability has been investigated as a representative phenomenon. In the early 19th century, nerves were reported to be an essential tissue for the successful induction of limb regeneration. Nerve substances that function in the induction of limb regeneration responses have long been sought. A new experimental system called the accessory limb model (ALM) has been established to identify the nerve factors. Skin wounding in urodele amphibians results in skin wound healing but never in limb induction. However, nerve deviation to the wounded skin induces limb formation in ALM. Thus, nerves can be considered to have the ability to transform skin wound healing to limb formation. In the present study, co-operative Bmp and Fgf application, instead of nerve deviation, to wounded skin transformed skin wound healing to limb formation in two urodele amphibians, axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and newt (Pleurodeles waltl). Our findings demonstrate that defined factors can induce homeotic transformation in postembryonic bodies of urodele amphibians. The combination of Bmp and Fgf(s) may contribute to the development of novel treatments for organ regeneration. PMID:25286122

  18. Paying for outpatient care in rural China: cost escalation under China's New Co-operative Medical Scheme.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Wu, Xun

    2015-03-01

    China's New Co-operative Medical Scheme (NCMS), a government-subsidized health insurance programme, was launched in 2003 in response to deterioration in access to health services in rural areas. Initially designed to cover inpatient care, it has begun to expand its benefit package to cover outpatient care since 2007. The impacts of this initiative on outpatient care costs have raised growing concern, in particular regarding whether it has in fact reduced out-of-pocket (OOP) payments for services among rural participants. This study investigates the impacts on outpatient costs by analysing data from an individual-level longitudinal survey, the China Health and Nutrition Survey, for 2004 and 2009, years shortly before and after NCMS began coverage of outpatient services in 2007. Various health econometrics strategies were employed in the analysis of these data, including the Two-Part Model, the Heckman Selection Model and Propensity Score Matching with the Differences-in-Differences model, to estimate the effects of the 2007 NCMS initiative on per episode outpatient costs. We find that NCMS outpatient coverage starting in 2007 had little impact on reducing its participants' OOP payments for outpatient services. The new coverage may also have contributed to an observed increase in total per episode outpatient costs billed to the insured patients. This increase was more pronounced among village clinics and township health centres-the backbone of the health system for rural residents-than at county and municipal hospitals.

  19. Co-operative DNA binding by GAGA transcription factor requires the conserved BTB/POZ domain and reorganizes promoter topology.

    PubMed Central

    Katsani, K R; Hajibagheri, M A; Verrijzer, C P

    1999-01-01

    The POZ domain is a conserved protein-protein interaction motif present in a variety of transcription factors involved in development, chromatin remodelling and human cancers. Here, we study the role of the POZ domain of the GAGA transcription factor in promoter recognition. Natural target promoters for GAGA typically contain multiple GAGA-binding elements. Our results show that the POZ domain mediates strong co-operative binding to multiple sites but inhibits binding to single sites. Protein cross-linking and gel filtration chromatography experiments established that the POZ domain is required for GAGA oligomerization into higher order complexes. Thus, GAGA oligomerization increases binding specificity by selecting only promoters with multiple sites. Electron microscopy revealed that GAGA binds to multiple sites as a large oligomer and induces bending of the promoter DNA. Our results indicate a novel mode of DNA binding by GAGA, in which a large GAGA complex binds multiple GAGA elements that are spread out over a region of a few hundred base pairs. We suggest a model in which the promoter DNA is wrapped around a GAGA multimer in a conformation that may exclude normal nucleosome formation. PMID:9927429

  20. Site selection and characterization for historic low-level radioactive wastes in Ontario, Co-operative Siting Process

    SciTech Connect

    Paktunc, A.D.

    1993-12-31

    The Co-operative Siting Process is a non-confrontational way to site a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) management facility in Ontario. The facility will be designed to accommodate approximately 880,000 m{sup 3} of LLRW. Four sets of general facility concepts, appropriate for the physical and chemical characteristics of the wastes and the general site conditions, are being considered. These include engineered mounds, shallow burial in trenches, burial in open pit with previous surround, and intermediate depth rock disposal concepts. The communities interested in offering a site are located in the Canadian Shield where the topography is dominated by rolling hills with reliefs of up to 50 meters and hydrogeological conditions are primarily controlled by fractures in the rock and by the types and distribution of glacial sediments. Climatic conditions can be classified as humid-continental. The objective of site characterization activity is to assess the suitability of potential sites for long-term containment of LLRW in the geosphere and their safe isolation from the biosphere. An initial phase involves exploratory studies designed to reduce larger areas to smaller areas and eventually to candidate sites. The second phase involves site-specific studies designed to maximize the changes of identifying more than one site for different facility requirements and complying with the regulatory requirements and performance expectations.

  1. 30 CFR 921.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 921.845 Section 921.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed...

  2. 30 CFR 942.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 942.845 Section 942.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply to the assessment of civil penalties...

  3. 29 CFR 98.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Civil judgment. 98.920 Section 98.920 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent...

  4. Communication Needs of Thai Civil Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaewpet, Chamnong

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an examination of the communication needs of a group of Thai civil engineering students. Twenty-five stakeholders helped identify the communication needs of the students by participating in individual interviews. These included employers, civil engineers, civil engineering lecturers, ex-civil engineering students of the…

  5. 30 CFR 941.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 941.845 Section 941.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed...

  6. 5 CFR 919.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 919.920 Section 919.920 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.920 Civil judgment. Civil...

  7. 30 CFR 903.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 903.845 Section 903.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, applies to the assessment of civil penalties for...

  8. 30 CFR 933.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 933.845 Section 933.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chaper, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed...

  9. 30 CFR 922.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 922.845 Section 922.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for...

  10. 50 CFR 697.11 - Civil procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....11 Civil procedures. The civil procedure regulations at 15 CFR part 904 apply to civil penalties... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil procedures. 697.11 Section 697.11 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC...

  11. 31 CFR 19.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 19.920 Section 19.920... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision,...

  12. 30 CFR 905.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 905.845 Section 905.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply to the assessment of civil penalties...

  13. 48 CFR 3.807 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalties. 3.807... Federal Transactions 3.807 Civil penalties. Agencies shall impose and collect civil penalties pursuant to the provisions of the Program Fraud and Civil Remedies Act, 31 U.S.C. 3803 (except subsection...

  14. 14 CFR 406.9 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil penalties. 406.9 Section 406.9... § 406.9 Civil penalties. (a) Civil penalty liability. Under 49 U.S.C. 70115(c), a person found by the... civil penalty of not more than $100,000 for each violation, as adjusted for inflation. A...

  15. 30 CFR 939.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 939.845 Section 939.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed...

  16. 30 CFR 912.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 912.845 Section 912.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for...

  17. 10 CFR 2.205 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil penalties. 2.205 Section 2.205 Energy NUCLEAR... for Imposing Civil Penalties § 2.205 Civil penalties. (a) Before instituting any proceeding to impose a civil penalty under section 234 of the Act, the Executive Director for Operations or the...

  18. 29 CFR 1471.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 1471.920 Section 1471.920 Labor Regulations... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision,...

  19. 30 CFR 910.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 910.845 Section 910.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for...

  20. 30 CFR 947.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 947.845 Section 947.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed...

  1. 30 CFR 937.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 937.845 Section 937.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for...

  2. 7 CFR 3017.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 3017.920 Section 3017.920 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 3017.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction,...

  3. 7 CFR 2500.056 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Closeout § 2500.056 Civil rights. Awardees must comply with the civil rights requirements of 7 CFR part 15, subpart A—USDA implementation of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended. In accordance, no... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Civil rights. 2500.056 Section 2500.056...

  4. 14 CFR 1274.924 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Civil rights. 1274.924 Section 1274.924... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.924 Civil rights. Civil Rights July 2002 Work on NASA cooperative agreements is subject to the provisions of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of...

  5. 28 CFR 31.202 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Civil rights. 31.202 Section 31.202....202 Civil rights. (a) To carry out the State's Federal civil rights responsibilities the plan must: (1) Designate a civil rights contact person who has lead responsibility in insuring that all applicable...

  6. 28 CFR 31.202 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Civil rights. 31.202 Section 31.202....202 Civil rights. (a) To carry out the State's Federal civil rights responsibilities the plan must: (1) Designate a civil rights contact person who has lead responsibility in insuring that all applicable...

  7. 7 CFR 2500.056 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Closeout § 2500.056 Civil rights. Awardees must comply with the civil rights requirements of 7 CFR part 15, subpart A—USDA implementation of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended. In accordance, no... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Civil rights. 2500.056 Section 2500.056...

  8. 14 CFR 1274.924 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Civil rights. 1274.924 Section 1274.924... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.924 Civil rights. Civil Rights July 2002 Work on NASA cooperative agreements is subject to the provisions of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of...

  9. 7 CFR 2500.056 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Closeout § 2500.056 Civil rights. Awardees must comply with the civil rights requirements of 7 CFR part 15, subpart A—USDA implementation of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended. In accordance, no... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Civil rights. 2500.056 Section 2500.056...

  10. 14 CFR 1274.924 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Civil rights. 1274.924 Section 1274.924... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.924 Civil rights. Civil Rights July 2002 Work on NASA cooperative agreements is subject to the provisions of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of...

  11. 28 CFR 31.202 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Civil rights. 31.202 Section 31.202....202 Civil rights. (a) To carry out the State's Federal civil rights responsibilities the plan must: (1) Designate a civil rights contact person who has lead responsibility in insuring that all applicable...

  12. 28 CFR 31.202 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil rights. 31.202 Section 31.202....202 Civil rights. (a) To carry out the State's Federal civil rights responsibilities the plan must: (1) Designate a civil rights contact person who has lead responsibility in insuring that all applicable...

  13. Space civil engineering - A new discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadeh, Willy Z.; Criswell, Marvin E.

    1991-01-01

    Space Civil Engineering is an emerging engineering discipline that focuses on extending and expanding the Civil Engineering know-how and practice to the development and maintenance of infrastructure on celestial bodies. Space Civil Engineering is presently being developed as a new discipline within the Department of Civil Engineering at Colorado State University under a recently established NASA Space Grant College Program. Academic programs geared toward creating Space Civil Engineering Options at both undergraduate and graduate levels are being formulated. Basic ideas and concepts of the curriculum in the Space Civil Engineering Option at both undergraduate and graduate levels are presented. The role of Space Civil Engineering in the Space Program is discussed.

  14. Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cañedo, Luis

    2008-08-01

    In July 2007 physicians, biologists and physicists that have collaborated in previous meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society constituted the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism with the purpose of promote scientific study of the interaction of electromagnetic energy (at frequencies ranging from zero Hertz through those of visible light) and acoustic energy with biological systems. A second goal was to increase the contribution of medical and biological professionals in the meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society. The following paragraphs summarize some objectives of the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism for the next two years.

  15. Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Canedo, Luis

    2008-08-11

    In July 2007 physicians, biologists and physicists that have collaborated in previous meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society constituted the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism with the purpose of promote scientific study of the interaction of electromagnetic energy (at frequencies ranging from zero Hertz through those of visible light) and acoustic energy with biological systems. A second goal was to increase the contribution of medical and biological professionals in the meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society. The following paragraphs summarize some objectives of the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism for the next two years.

  16. Going Boldly Into the Future: A Series of Case Studies of Co-Operative Research Centres and Their Relationships with the VET Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrier, Fran; Trood, Clifford; Whittingham, Karen

    This document presents case studies of 10 cooperative research centers (CRCs) across Australia and their relationships with the vocational education and training (VET) sector. The CRCs profiled in the case studies are as follows: Co-operative Research Centre for Sustainable Rice Production; Cast Alloy and Solidification Technology Co-operative…

  17. Example of International Co-Operation in the Frame of the Project Phare (TEMPUS) in Innovations in Teaching of Environmental Hydrogeology in Engineering Education in the Czech Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grmela, Arnost; Rapantova, Nadia

    The international TEMPUS (Trans-European Co-operating and Mobility Scheme for Higher Education between Central/Eastern Europe and European Union) project lasted from 1995-1997. In the framework of TEMPUS, a material and knowledge background was developed in order to ensure the education of the branch Geological Engineering with specialization in…

  18. OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development): A Guide to Publications and Data Available in the Libraries of Duke University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basefsky, Stuart, Comp.

    Designed to make Duke University's collection of OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development) publications and data more readily accessible, this guide is divided into the following sections: Introduction to OECD and Its Publications; General References about OECD and Its Activities; Indexes and Other Sources for Accessing OECD…

  19. Conseil de la Cooperation Culturelle et Fonds Culturel. Rapport Annuel 1972. (Council for Cultural Co-operation and Cultural Fund. Annual Report 1972.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council for Cultural Cooperation, Strasbourg (France).

    This document is a report on the activities of the Council for Cultural Co-Operation (CCC) and Cultural Fund for 1972. The CCC is briefly defined as being designed to reinforce educational and cultural cooperation among the 21 countries of the CCC, especially in matters of research, information, and documentation. The document is composed of…

  20. Problems of Bi- and Multilingualism (Part III of "Language Learning: Individual Needs, Interdisciplinary Co-operation, Bi- and Multilingualism").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1978

    The following papers on the issue of multilingualism in second language instruction are included: (1) "Problemes linguistiques dans les societes plurilingues (Linguistic Problems in Multilingual Societies)," by Amadou-Mahtar M'Bow; (2) "Aim: Multilingualism. The Dismantling of Resistance and Prejudice," by Eva Koberski; (3) "Problemes poses en…

  1. How to create more supportive supervision for primary healthcare: lessons from Ngamiland district of Botswana: co-operative inquiry group

    PubMed Central

    Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Mash, Robert; Wojczewski, Silvia; Kutalek, Ruth; Phaladze, Nthabiseng

    2016-01-01

    Background Supportive supervision is a way to foster performance, productivity, motivation, and retention of health workforce. Nevertheless there is a dearth of evidence of the impact and acceptability of supportive supervision in low- and middle-income countries. This article describes a participatory process of transforming the supervisory practice of district health managers to create a supportive environment for primary healthcare workers. Objective The objective of the study was to explore how district health managers can change their practice to create a more supportive environment for primary healthcare providers. Design A facilitated co-operative inquiry group (CIG) was formed with Ngamiland health district managers. CIG belongs to the participatory action research paradigm and is characterised by a cyclic process of observation, reflection, planning, and action. The CIG went through three cycles between March 2013 and March 2014. Results Twelve district health managers participated in the inquiry group. The major insights and learning that emerged from the inquiry process included inadequate supervisory practice, perceptions of healthcare workers’ experiences, change in the managers’ supervision paradigm, recognition of the supervisors’ inadequate supervisory skills, and barriers to supportive supervision. Finally, the group developed a 10-point consensus on what they had learnt regarding supportive supervision. Conclusion Ngamiland health district managers have come to appreciate the value of supportive supervision and changed their management style to be more supportive of their subordinates. They also developed a consensus on supportive supervision that could be adapted for use nationally. Supportive supervision should be prioritised at all levels of the health system, and it should be adequately resourced. PMID:27345024

  2. Directed evolution of Tau class glutathione transferases reveals a site that regulates catalytic efficiency and masks co-operativity.

    PubMed

    Axarli, Irine; Muleta, Abdi W; Vlachakis, Dimitrios; Kossida, Sophia; Kotzia, Georgia; Maltezos, Anastasios; Dhavala, Prathusha; Papageorgiou, Anastassios C; Labrou, Nikolaos E

    2016-03-01

    A library of Tau class GSTs (glutathione transferases) was constructed by DNA shuffling using the DNA encoding the Glycine max GSTs GmGSTU2-2, GmGSTU4-4 and GmGSTU10-10. The parental GSTs are >88% identical at the sequence level; however, their specificity varies towards different substrates. The DNA library contained chimaeric structures of alternated segments of the parental sequences and point mutations. Chimaeric GST sequences were expressed in Escherichia coli and their enzymatic activities towards CDNB (1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene) and the herbicide fluorodifen (4-nitrophenyl α,α,α-trifluoro-2-nitro-p-tolyl ether) were determined. A chimaeric clone (Sh14) with enhanced CDNB- and fluorodifen-detoxifying activities, and unusual co-operative kinetics towards CDNB and fluorodifen, but not towards GSH, was identified. The structure of Sh14 was determined at 1.75 Å (1 Å=0.1 nm) resolution in complex with S-(p-nitrobenzyl)-glutathione. Analysis of the Sh14 structure showed that a W114C point mutation is responsible for the altered kinetic properties. This was confirmed by the kinetic properties of the Sh14 C114W mutant. It is suggested that the replacement of the bulky tryptophan residue by a smaller amino acid (cysteine) results in conformational changes of the active-site cavity, leading to enhanced catalytic activity of Sh14. Moreover, the structural changes allow the strengthening of the two salt bridges between Glu(66) and Lys(104) at the dimer interface that triggers an allosteric effect and the communication between the hydrophobic sites.

  3. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of

  4. Geologists' Role in Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bally, A. W.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    At a meeting sponsored by the Geological Society of America, earth scientists examined their function in society. Participants concluded that earth scientists are not providing a rationale for value judgments concerning the use and limitations of the earth and a program aimed at understanding solid-Earth resource systems is needed. (BT)

  5. Schools, Violence, and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Allan M., Ed.

    The seeming increase of violence in American society and its schools has become a pressing issue. Some researchers argue that the American education system mirrors the dynamics of society. The articles in this book address the following issues: the extent of violence in American schools; the forms that violence takes; its root causes; the effects…

  6. Navigating the Information Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirk, Joyce

    This paper explores the idea of an information society from different perspectives, raises issues that are relevant to university libraries, and offers a way forward to some future developments. The first section provides a sketch of the information society in Australia and presents statistics on readiness, intensity, and impacts from reports…

  7. Environment, energy, and society

    SciTech Connect

    Humphrey, C.R.; Buttel, F.R.

    1986-01-01

    This book delineates the major ways in which human society and the environment affect each other. To study the structure of societies, it employs three conceptual models, or sociological paradigms, conservative, liberal, and radical. The book explains the courses in environmental sociology, international development, natural resources, agriculture, and urban or regional planning.

  8. Space Civil Engineering option - A progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, Marvin E.; Sadeh, Willy Z.

    1992-01-01

    Space Civil Engineering is an emerging engineering discipline that focuses on extending and expanding Civil Engineering to the development, operation, and maintenance of infrastructures on celestial bodies. Space Civil Engineering is presently being developed as a new discipline within the Department of Civil Engineering at Colorado State University and with support of the NASA Space Grant College Program. Academic programs geared toward creating Space Civil Engineering Options at both undergraduate and graduate levels are being formulated. Basic ideas and concepts and the current status of the curriculum in the Space Civil Engineering Option primarily at the undergraduate level are presented.

  9. [Civil Rights Goals for the Year 2000 and the Means for Achieving Them.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reynolds, Wm. Bradford

    Today, the United States stands at a critical crossroad with regard to civil rights; the choice is between an officially colorblind society and a government-supported, race-conscious one. The purpose of the 13th, 14th, and 15th Amendments was to end a discriminatory system and to erect in its place a regime of race neutrality. In 1896, the…

  10. Gendered experiences of conflict and co-operation in heterosexual relations of Somalis in exile in Gothenburg, Sweden.

    PubMed

    Aden, A S; Dahlgren, L; Tarsitani, G

    2004-01-01

    Political upheaval and poverty at home has been forcing many Somalis to immigrate. These immigrants do not only leave their physical house, families, relatives, loved ones, friends, but also familiarities, culture, customs, and often they do end up in no man's land being between their own and new home culture. Available reports suggest that there are about 15,000 Somalis in Sweden and their majority came here from late 1989 to 1996. About one third these immigrants live in and around the city of Gothenburg. This paper explores and describes gendered experiences of conflict and co-operation in heterosexual relations of Somalis in exile in Gothenburg, Sweden. A qualitative sociological in-depth interviews with 6 women and 7 men was performed during May 1999 to January 2000. A follow up focus group interviews with 10 people (2 women and 8 men) was also carried on. The results show that both the Somali culture and Muslim religion do not support the children being taught sex education in schools or the names of the sex organs being pronounced other than to be used as metaphors. The girls, unlike their age group males, experience a very painful and terrifying process during childhood in which their self-esteem is downgraded by means of serious degrading traditional active violence such as female genital mutilation and visible virginity control. The narratives tell stories in which Somali women are degraded and expected to obey in situations characterised by their man's arbitrariness. They are subject to a very extensive form of social control, which is especially pronounced on issues regarding sexuality. Their integrity as women is, consequently set aside. When Somali refugees came to Sweden some of them came to adopt much of the modern lifestyle and cultural norm systems, preferable young people and some of the females. Relating to a new culture with its new expectations on the norm obedience also created changes in self-esteem. Exile situation tends to generate

  11. Co-operative agreements and the EU Water Framework Directive in conjunction with the Common Agricultural Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, I.

    2007-06-01

    This paper discusses the significance of voluntary arrangements for the water and agricultural policies in the European Union. The current implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) require new approaches in water management. As many case studies have shown, co-operative agreements (CAs) between water companies, farmers and authorities can help to reduce environmental pressures on water bodies. The main reasons for that are: i) water companies are ready to advise and financially support farmers in changing production methods; ii) changes of farming practices are tailored to the site-specific requirements; iii) farmers and water companies are interested in minimising the costs and environmental pressures as they benefit, for example, from modernization of farming methods, and reductions in cost of water treatment, and iv) voluntarily agreed commitments to change farming practices are often stricter than statutory rules. Moreover, precautionary rather than remedial measures are preferred. Tackling diffuse pollution is one of the main concerns of the WFD. CAs can enhance the cost-effectiveness of actions within the programmes of measures so that good water status is achieved by 2015. In CAs all relevant stakeholders, located in catchment areas of agricultural usage, can be involved. Thus, they can help to foster integrated water resources management. In particular, disproportionate costs of changing farming practices can be identified. With regard to the recent CAP reform, financial support for farmers will be linked to compliance with environmental standards and further commitments. This concerns both direct payments and agri-environmental programmes. The experience gained in CAs can provide information on best agricultural practices. Informed farmers are more ready to meet environmental requirements. Because CAs implement the most cost-effective changes in farming practice, it can be assumed

  12. Co-operative agreements and the EU Water Framework Directive in conjunction with the Common Agricultural Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, I.

    2008-05-01

    This paper discusses the significance of voluntary arrangements for the water and agricultural policies in the European Union. The current implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) require new approaches in water management. As many case studies have shown, co-operative agreements (CAs) between water companies, farmers and authorities can help to reduce environmental pressures on water bodies. The main reasons for that are: i) water companies are ready to advise and financially support farmers in changing production methods; ii) changes of farming practices are tailored to the site-specific requirements; iii) farmers and water companies are interested in minimising the costs and environmental pressures as they benefit, for example, from modernization of farming methods, and reductions in cost of water treatment, and iv) voluntarily agreed commitments to change farming practices are often stricter than statutory rules. Moreover, precautionary rather than remedial measures are preferred. Tackling diffuse pollution is one of the main concerns of the WFD. CAs can enhance the cost-effectiveness of actions within the programmes of measures so that good water status is achieved by 2015. In CAs all relevant stakeholders, located in catchment areas of agricultural usage, can be involved. Thus, they can help to foster integrated water resources management. In particular, disproportionate costs of changing farming practices can be identified. With regard to the recent CAP reform, financial support for farmers will be linked to compliance with environmental standards and further commitments. This concerns both direct payments and agri-environmental programmes. The experience gained in CAs can provide information on best agricultural practices. Informed farmers are more ready to meet environmental requirements. Because CAs implement the most cost-effective changes in farming practice, it can be assumed

  13. Monitoring of civil engineering structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyrsa, Valentin E.; Burtseva, Larisa P.; Rivas Lopez, Moises; Tyrsa, Vera V.

    2004-07-01

    Civil engineering structures require geometrical monitoring to assure their integrity during their life time. The monitoring by geodetic devices or according to GPS technology is not always appropriate, sometimes it is unrealizable. Means for monitoring based on automatic geodetic measurements applying optical scanners are proposed. The sensor for integrity and deformation control of the structure elements and components was designed.

  14. Getting the Civil War Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewen, James W.

    2011-01-01

    William Faulkner famously wrote, "The past is never dead. It's not even past." He would not be surprised to learn that Americans, 150 years after the Civil War began, are still getting it wrong. Did America's most divisive war start over slavery or states' rights? The author says that too many people--including educators--get it wrong. The author…

  15. Civil Liberties under State Constitutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarr, G. Alan

    1988-01-01

    Discusses "new judicial federalism" as the rediscovery of state bills of rights for protecting civil liberties. Analyzes the differences in protection under state and federal bills of rights. Recommends that the growing importance of state constitutions be included in the political science curriculum and suggests bibliographic sources to be used.…

  16. Civil law problems and morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Pleasence, P; Balmer, N; Buck, A; O'Grady, A; Genn, H

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: In the United Kingdom, recognition of the links between social and health problems has led to government initiatives such as health action zones. The principles of civil law apply to many types of social problem, and the civil justice system provides one means through which they can be tackled. However, little research has been undertaken into the particular links between problems to which civil legal principles and processes can be applied and morbidity. This study examines these links, and the role of legal advice and services in preventing ill health. Design: This study examined survey respondents' self reports of longstanding illness/disability and experience of 18 problems to which legal principles can be applied. Setting: A random national survey conducted across England and Wales. Participants: 5611 adults drawn from 3348 residential households. Main results: Significant associations were found between illness/disability and 13 of the problem types. Moreover, experience of greater numbers of problems increased the likelihood of reported illness/disability. In attempting to resolve problems respondents' health also frequently suffered. Conclusions: This study highlights the contribution that public legal education and legal advice can make to the promotion of public health, and the importance of further integration of health and civil justice initiatives through health action zones, community legal service partnerships, etc, to further this end. PMID:15194714

  17. Job Prospects for Civil Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1985-01-01

    Government programs and renewed industrial activity have combined with stable enrollments to create bright job prospects for civil engineers. Areas with good opportunities include highway reconstruction and rehabilitation, water-resource management, and new factory construction. The subspecialty of structural engineering has a growing need in…

  18. Primary Sources Enliven Civil War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2011-01-01

    Today, a growing number of teachers are moving beyond the textbook in teaching about the war, and U.S. history more broadly. Teachers are digging directly into primary sources and harnessing technology, all in an attempt to help students better understand the past and bring it to life. Doing so may be especially important with the Civil War,…

  19. Civil Engineering Technology Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide presents civil engineering technology curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description, including admissions, typical job titles, and accreditation and certification; and curriculum model, including standard curriculum sequence and…

  20. The Civil War and Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    This journal issue explores Iowa's participation in the U.S. Civil War and primarily focuses on what happened to the men, women, and children who remained at home. A number of social, political, and economic changes are examined, including: (1) the increased responsibilities of women and children; (2) the growth of abolitionism; (3) the role of…

  1. Promoting Civil Discourse on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Rita

    2010-01-01

    During the past several decades, off campus and on, much of the discourse on controversial issues has been personal, vicious, and divisive. On the national scene, politics has become permeated with incivility. It now appears that Americans have been naive about their ability and willingness to engage in civil discourse and compromise. How can…

  2. 1975 Textbooks for French Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jack Davis

    Four 1975 textbooks for French civilization courses are cited including price, suggested level, format and a listing of contents. A review of one text follows: Rey and Santoni, "Quand les Francais parlent: Langue en contexte, culture en contraste," Newbury House Publishers. The reviewer states that this book is basically a sociological study of…

  3. Climate Change and Civil Violence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Vink, G.; Plancherel, Y.; Hennet, C.; Jones, K. D.; Abdullah, A.; Bradshaw, J.; Dee, S.; Deprez, A.; Pasenello, M.; Plaza-Jennings, E.; Roseman, D.; Sopher, P.; Sung, E.

    2009-05-01

    The manifestations of climate change can result in humanitarian impacts that reverse progress in poverty- reduction, create shortages of food and resources, lead to migration, and ultimately result in civil violence and conflict. Within the continent of Africa, we have found that environmentally-related variables are either the cause or the confounding factor for over 80% of the civil violence events during the last 10 years. Using predictive climate models and land-use data, we are able to identify populations in Africa that are likely to experience the most severe climate-related shocks. Through geospatial analysis, we are able to overlay these areas of high risk with assessments of both the local population's resiliency and the region's capacity to respond to climate shocks should they occur. The net result of the analysis is the identification of locations that are becoming particularly vulnerable to future civil violence events (vulnerability hotspots) as a result of the manifestations of climate change. For each population group, over 600 social, economic, political, and environmental indicators are integrated statistically to measures the vulnerability of African populations to environmental change. The indicator time-series are filtered for data availability and redundancy, broadly ordered into four categories (social, political, economic and environmental), standardized and normalized. Within each category, the dominant modes of variability are isolated by principal component analysis and the loadings of each component for each variable are used to devise composite index scores. Comparisons of past vulnerability with known environmentally-related conflicts demonstrates the role that such vulnerability hotspot maps can play in evaluating both the potential for, and the significance of, environmentally-related civil violence events. Furthermore, the analysis reveals the major variables that are responsible for the population's vulnerability and therefore

  4. Radiation and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Edward I.

    1974-01-01

    Presents a discussion of the risks, to society, from radiation-associated technologies and urges that science teachers help the public understand the decision-making process relative to nuclear power as well as the problems and alternatives. (PEB)

  5. Ehlers-Danlos Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medical and Scientific Board Staff Volunteer Leaders The Ehlers-Danlos Society Center for EDS Research & Clinical Care Our History Close Ehlers-Danlos Info What is EDS? EDS Diagnostics EDS Types ...

  6. National Multiple Sclerosis Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Join the Community Stay Informed Corporate Support National Multiple Sclerosis Society Our Mission: People affected by MS can ... 10.5 Million in New Research to Stop Multiple Sclerosis, Restore Function and End MS Forever October 11, ...

  7. Changing anthropology, changing society.

    PubMed

    Varughese, Heather

    2009-12-01

    Fifty years after the founding of the field of medical anthropology, the Society for Medical Anthropology of the American Anthropological Association held its first independent meeting on September 24-27, 2009, at Yale University.

  8. National MPS Society (Mucopolysaccharidoses)

    MedlinePlus

    ... 2017 National MPS Society board of directors. The election will run through Nov. 1, and all voting ... Survey Results Board of Directors Board of Directors Election 2016 Financial Information 2014 – 2015 Financial Report Annual ...

  9. National Rosacea Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... opinion counts! Help us learn more about social perceptions of rosacea. How to Donate to the Society ... Your Opinion Count Take the survey on social perceptions of rosacea. arrow Your initial visit to the ...

  10. Consumption in the Information Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zherebin, V. M.; Ermakova, N. A.; Makhrova, O. N.

    2010-01-01

    The current state of the economy in the developed countries make it possible to characterize them using concepts and terms such as the postindustrial society, the new economy, the service economy, the creative economy, the posteconomic society, the information society, the knowledge society, and the consumer society. Among these terms and…

  11. 39 CFR 235.2 - Civil preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... programs: (1) National Civil Preparedness and Defense Mobilization; (2) Natural Disaster Preparedness; (3... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Civil preparedness. 235.2 Section 235.2 Postal... Civil preparedness. (a) Mission. The prime objective of postal emergency preparedness planning is...

  12. 39 CFR 235.2 - Civil preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... programs: (1) National Civil Preparedness and Defense Mobilization; (2) Natural Disaster Preparedness; (3... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Civil preparedness. 235.2 Section 235.2 Postal... Civil preparedness. (a) Mission. The prime objective of postal emergency preparedness planning is...

  13. 39 CFR 235.2 - Civil preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... programs: (1) National Civil Preparedness and Defense Mobilization; (2) Natural Disaster Preparedness; (3... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Civil preparedness. 235.2 Section 235.2 Postal... Civil preparedness. (a) Mission. The prime objective of postal emergency preparedness planning is...

  14. 39 CFR 235.2 - Civil preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... programs: (1) National Civil Preparedness and Defense Mobilization; (2) Natural Disaster Preparedness; (3... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil preparedness. 235.2 Section 235.2 Postal... Civil preparedness. (a) Mission. The prime objective of postal emergency preparedness planning is...

  15. Interpreting Asian Civilization to American Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Romeyn

    1974-01-01

    The article, presenting the difficulties of teaching about any foreign civilization, sketches an Asian civilization course which attempts to mitigate those difficulties with a text book that uses models of historical processes applicable to different civilizations and indicative of their common grounds. (JH)

  16. 49 CFR 218.9 - Civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Civil penalty. 218.9 Section 218.9 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES General § 218.9 Civil penalty. Any person (an entity of any type... requirement of this part or causes the violation of any such requirement is subject to a civil penalty of...

  17. 49 CFR 218.9 - Civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Civil penalty. 218.9 Section 218.9 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES General § 218.9 Civil penalty. Any person (an entity of any type... requirement of this part or causes the violation of any such requirement is subject to a civil penalty of...

  18. 49 CFR 218.9 - Civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Civil penalty. 218.9 Section 218.9 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES General § 218.9 Civil penalty. Any person (an entity of any type... requirement of this part or causes the violation of any such requirement is subject to a civil penalty of...

  19. 49 CFR 218.9 - Civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Civil penalty. 218.9 Section 218.9 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES General § 218.9 Civil penalty. Any person (an entity of any type... requirement of this part or causes the violation of any such requirement is subject to a civil penalty of...

  20. 10 CFR 824.4 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... a civil penalty under this part: (1) 10 CFR part 1016—Safeguarding of Restricted Data; (2) 10 CFR... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil penalties. 824.4 Section 824.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF CIVIL PENALTIES FOR CLASSIFIED INFORMATION...

  1. 12 CFR 215.11 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil penalties. 215.11 Section 215.11 Banks... OFFICERS, DIRECTORS, AND PRINCIPAL SHAREHOLDERS OF MEMBER BANKS (REGULATION O) § 215.11 Civil penalties... subject to civil penalties as specified in section 29 of the Federal Reserve Act (12 U.S.C. 504)....

  2. 50 CFR 300.40 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... South Pacific Tuna Fisheries § 300.40 Civil penalties. The procedures of 15 CFR part 904 apply to the assessment of civil penalties, except as modified by the requirements of section 8 of the Act. ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalties. 300.40 Section...

  3. 78 FR 672 - Civil Monetary Penalties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Housing Service 7 CFR Part 3560 RIN 0575AC93 Civil Monetary Penalties AGENCY...) proposes to implement two civil monetary penalty provisions. First, RHS proposes to amend its regulations to create a new section, for imposing civil monetary penalties under the authority of 42 U.S.C....

  4. 30 CFR 881.12 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Civil Rights Act of 1964” (43 CFR part 17) and shall give assurances of compliance in such forms as may... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 881.12 Section 881.12 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION, APPALACHIA § 881.12 Civil rights. State...

  5. 32 CFR 643.114 - Civil disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Civil disturbances. 643.114 Section 643.114... ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.114 Civil disturbances. Without reference to higher... facilities during civil disturbance for not more than 30 days to the National Guard and to municipal,...

  6. 49 CFR 228.21 - Civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 228.21 Section 228.21..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES Records and Reporting § 228.21 Civil... requirement is subject to a civil penalty of at least $650 and not more than $25,000 per violation,...

  7. 50 CFR 401.22 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil rights. 401.22 Section 401.22..., DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.22 Civil rights. Each application for Federal assistance, grant-in-aid award... Assisted Programs of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and with the Secretary's regulations...

  8. 49 CFR 233.11 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalties. 233.11 Section 233.11..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SIGNAL SYSTEMS REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 233.11 Civil penalties. Any person (an... subject to a civil penalty of at least $650 and not more than $25,000 per violation, except...

  9. 14 CFR 1212.800 - Civil remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil remedies. 1212.800 Section 1212.800... Comply With Requirements of This Part § 1212.800 Civil remedies. Failure to comply with the requirements of the Privacy Act and this part could subject NASA to civil suit under the provisions of 5...

  10. 24 CFR 4.28 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... civil money penalty on the employee in accordance with the provisions of 24 CFR part 30. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil penalties. 4.28 Section 4.28... REFORM ACT Prohibition of Advance Disclosure of Funding Decisions § 4.28 Civil penalties. Whenever...

  11. 32 CFR 310.46 - Civil actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil actions. 310.46 Section 310.46 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Privacy Act Violations § 310.46 Civil actions. An individual may file a civil...

  12. 33 CFR 401.102 - Civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalty. 401.102 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Penalties-Violations of Seaway Regulations § 401.102 Civil penalty. (a) A person, as described in § 401.101(b), who violates a regulation is liable to a civil penalty...

  13. 7 CFR 761.3 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 761.3 Section 761.3 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION General Provisions § 761.3 Civil rights. Part 15d of this title contains applicable regulations pertaining to civil rights and filing of discrimination...

  14. 7 CFR 1435.201 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil penalties. 1435.201 Section 1435.201... Recordkeeping Requirements § 1435.201 Civil penalties. (a) Any processor, refiner, or importer of sugar, syrup... false data required under § 1435.200(a) through (e), is subject to a civil penalty of no more than...

  15. 39 CFR 235.2 - Civil preparedness.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil preparedness. 235.2 Section 235.2 Postal... Civil preparedness. (a) Mission. The prime objective of postal emergency preparedness planning is to... programs: (1) National Civil Preparedness and Defense Mobilization; (2) Natural Disaster Preparedness;...

  16. 39 CFR 233.12 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 233.12 Section 233.12 Postal... Civil penalties. False representation and lottery orders— (a) Issuance. Pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3005, the... be liable to the United States for a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed $11,000 for each...

  17. 31 CFR 103.57 - Civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalty. 103.57 Section 103.57... REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.57 Civil penalty. (a) For any... willfully participates in the violation, a civil penalty not to exceed $1,000. (b) For any willful...

  18. 14 CFR 1274.924 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Discrimination Act of 1975 (42 U.S.C. 6101 et seq.), and the NASA implementing regulations (14 CFR parts 1250... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1274.924 Section 1274.924... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.924 Civil rights. Civil Rights July 2002 Work...

  19. 12 CFR 229.21 - Civil liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil liability. 229.21 Section 229.21 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... Availability Policies § 229.21 Civil liability. (a) Civil liability. A bank that fails to comply with...

  20. 49 CFR 221.7 - Civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 221.7 Section 221.7 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION REAR END MARKING DEVICE-PASSENGER, COMMUTER AND FREIGHT TRAINS General § 221.7 Civil penalty. Any... requirement is subject to a civil penalty of at least $650 and not more than $25,000 per violation,...

  1. 10 CFR 110.64 - Civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil penalty. 110.64 Section 110.64 Energy NUCLEAR... Enforcement § 110.64 Civil penalty. (a) In response to a violation, the Commission may institute a proceeding to impose a civil penalty under section 234 of the Atomic Energy Act by issuing a notice to...

  2. 49 CFR 218.9 - Civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalty. 218.9 Section 218.9 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES General § 218.9 Civil penalty. Any person (an entity of any type... requirement of this part or causes the violation of any such requirement is subject to a civil penalty of...

  3. 10 CFR 1017.29 - Civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... subject to a civil penalty under this part: (1) 10 CFR Part 1017—Identification and Protection of... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil penalty. 1017.29 Section 1017.29 Energy DEPARTMENT... INFORMATION Violations § 1017.29 Civil penalty. Link to an amendment published at 74 FR 66033, Dec. 14,...

  4. 7 CFR 3560.2 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 3560.2 Section 3560.2 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS General Provisions and Definitions § 3560.2 Civil rights. (a... prohibition under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. 2000d and Title VI regulations...

  5. 22 CFR 127.10 - Civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil penalty. 127.10 Section 127.10 Foreign... Civil penalty. (a) The Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs is authorized to impose a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed that authorized by 22 U.S.C. 2778, 2779a and 2780...

  6. 34 CFR 300.516 - Civil action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil action. 300.516 Section 300.516 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Due Process Procedures for Parents and Children § 300.516 Civil action. (a... aggrieved by the findings and decision under § 300.514(b), has the right to bring a civil action...

  7. 34 CFR 303.424 - Civil action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil action. 303.424 Section 303.424 Education... Civil action. Any party aggrieved by the findings and decision regarding an administrative complaint has the right to bring a civil action in State or Federal court under section 639(a)(1) of the...

  8. 7 CFR 3560.2 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil rights. 3560.2 Section 3560.2 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS General Provisions and Definitions § 3560.2 Civil rights. (a... prohibition under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. 2000d and Title VI regulations...

  9. 7 CFR 3550.3 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Civil rights. 3550.3 Section 3550.3 Agriculture... DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS General § 3550.3 Civil rights. RHS will administer its... amended by Executive Order 12259, as applicable. The civil rights compliance requirements for RHS are in...

  10. 30 CFR 881.12 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Civil Rights Act of 1964” (43 CFR part 17) and shall give assurances of compliance in such forms as may... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Civil rights. 881.12 Section 881.12 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION, APPALACHIA § 881.12 Civil rights. State...

  11. 13 CFR 302.20 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Civil rights. 302.20 Section 302... TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR INVESTMENT ASSISTANCE § 302.20 Civil rights. (a) Discrimination is prohibited... 601 of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.)...

  12. 7 CFR 1709.18 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil rights. 1709.18 Section 1709.18 Agriculture... ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.18 Civil rights. This program will be administered in accordance with applicable Federal Civil Rights Law. All grants made under this subpart...

  13. 7 CFR 3555.3 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Rural Development's civil rights compliance requirements are provided in 7 CFR part 1901, subpart E. ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Civil rights. 3555.3 Section 3555.3 Agriculture... GUARANTEED RURAL HOUSING PROGRAM (Eff. 9-1-14) General § 3555.3 Civil rights. Rural Development, lenders,...

  14. 30 CFR 881.12 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Civil Rights Act of 1964” (43 CFR part 17) and shall give assurances of compliance in such forms as may... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Civil rights. 881.12 Section 881.12 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION, APPALACHIA § 881.12 Civil rights. State...

  15. 7 CFR 3560.2 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Civil rights. 3560.2 Section 3560.2 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS General Provisions and Definitions § 3560.2 Civil rights. (a... prohibition under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. 2000d and Title VI regulations...

  16. 30 CFR 880.16 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Civil rights. 880.16 Section 880.16 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION MINE FIRE CONTROL § 880.16 Civil rights. State and local authorities shall comply with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Pub. L. 88-352) and all requirements imposed by or pursuant...

  17. 13 CFR 302.20 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Civil rights. 302.20 Section 302... TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR INVESTMENT ASSISTANCE § 302.20 Civil rights. (a) Discrimination is prohibited... 601 of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.)...

  18. 50 CFR 82.20 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Civil rights. 82.20 Section 82.20 Wildlife... (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.20 Civil rights. Each cooperative agreement... Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. 2000d-2000d-4, and with the Secretary's regulations...

  19. 7 CFR 3550.3 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Civil rights. 3550.3 Section 3550.3 Agriculture... DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS General § 3550.3 Civil rights. RHS will administer its... amended by Executive Order 12259, as applicable. The civil rights compliance requirements for RHS are in...

  20. 28 CFR 33.52 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Civil rights. 33.52 Section 33.52... Block Grants Additional Requirements § 33.52 Civil rights. The Justice Assistance Act provides that “no... the provisions of title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act...

  1. 50 CFR 401.22 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Civil rights. 401.22 Section 401.22..., DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.22 Civil rights. Each application for Federal assistance, grant-in-aid award... Assisted Programs of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and with the Secretary's regulations...

  2. 28 CFR 33.52 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Civil rights. 33.52 Section 33.52... Block Grants Additional Requirements § 33.52 Civil rights. The Justice Assistance Act provides that “no... the provisions of title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act...

  3. 30 CFR 881.12 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Civil Rights Act of 1964” (43 CFR part 17) and shall give assurances of compliance in such forms as may... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil rights. 881.12 Section 881.12 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION, APPALACHIA § 881.12 Civil rights. State...

  4. 7 CFR 3560.2 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Civil rights. 3560.2 Section 3560.2 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS General Provisions and Definitions § 3560.2 Civil rights. (a... prohibition under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. 2000d and Title VI regulations...

  5. 7 CFR 761.3 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Civil rights. 761.3 Section 761.3 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS FARM LOAN PROGRAMS; GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION General Provisions § 761.3 Civil rights. Part 15d of this title contains applicable regulations pertaining to civil rights and filing...

  6. 7 CFR 761.3 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Civil rights. 761.3 Section 761.3 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS FARM LOAN PROGRAMS; GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION General Provisions § 761.3 Civil rights. Part 15d of this title contains applicable regulations pertaining to civil rights and filing...

  7. The Transformed Civil Rights Data Collection (CRDC)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights, US Department of Education, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Since 1968, the Civil Rights Data Collection (CRDC) has collected data on key education and civil rights issues in our nation's public schools for use by the Department of Education's Office for Civil Rights (OCR), other Department offices, other federal agencies, and by policymakers and researchers outside of the Department. The CRDC has…

  8. 28 CFR 65.52 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil rights. 65.52 Section 65.52... Additional Requirements § 65.52 Civil rights. The Act provides that “no person in any state shall on the... funds under the Act are also subject to the provisions of title VI of the Civil Rights Act of...

  9. 30 CFR 880.16 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil rights. 880.16 Section 880.16 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION MINE FIRE CONTROL § 880.16 Civil rights. State and local authorities shall comply with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Pub. L. 88-352) and all requirements imposed by or pursuant...

  10. 7 CFR 3550.3 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil rights. 3550.3 Section 3550.3 Agriculture... DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS General § 3550.3 Civil rights. RHS will administer its... amended by Executive Order 12259, as applicable. The civil rights compliance requirements for RHS are in...

  11. 13 CFR 302.20 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Civil rights. 302.20 Section 302... TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR INVESTMENT ASSISTANCE § 302.20 Civil rights. (a) Discrimination is prohibited... 601 of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.)...

  12. 30 CFR 880.16 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Civil rights. 880.16 Section 880.16 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION MINE FIRE CONTROL § 880.16 Civil rights. State and local authorities shall comply with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Pub. L. 88-352) and all requirements imposed by or pursuant...

  13. 7 CFR 3550.3 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Civil rights. 3550.3 Section 3550.3 Agriculture... DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS General § 3550.3 Civil rights. RHS will administer its... amended by Executive Order 12259, as applicable. The civil rights compliance requirements for RHS are in...

  14. 13 CFR 302.20 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil rights. 302.20 Section 302... TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR INVESTMENT ASSISTANCE § 302.20 Civil rights. (a) Discrimination is prohibited... 601 of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.)...

  15. 28 CFR 33.52 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil rights. 33.52 Section 33.52... Block Grants Additional Requirements § 33.52 Civil rights. The Justice Assistance Act provides that “no... the provisions of title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act...

  16. 7 CFR 761.3 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil rights. 761.3 Section 761.3 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION General Provisions § 761.3 Civil rights. Part 15d of this title contains applicable regulations pertaining to civil rights and filing of discrimination...

  17. 30 CFR 881.12 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Civil Rights Act of 1964” (43 CFR part 17) and shall give assurances of compliance in such forms as may... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Civil rights. 881.12 Section 881.12 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION SUBSIDENCE AND STRIP MINE REHABILITATION, APPALACHIA § 881.12 Civil rights. State...

  18. 50 CFR 82.20 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Civil rights. 82.20 Section 82.20 Wildlife... (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.20 Civil rights. Each cooperative agreement... Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. 2000d-2000d-4, and with the Secretary's regulations...

  19. 50 CFR 401.22 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Civil rights. 401.22 Section 401.22..., DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.22 Civil rights. Each application for Federal assistance, grant-in-aid award... Assisted Programs of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and with the Secretary's regulations...

  20. 28 CFR 65.52 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Civil rights. 65.52 Section 65.52... Additional Requirements § 65.52 Civil rights. The Act provides that “no person in any state shall on the... funds under the Act are also subject to the provisions of title VI of the Civil Rights Act of...

  1. 7 CFR 761.3 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Civil rights. 761.3 Section 761.3 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS FARM LOAN PROGRAMS; GENERAL PROGRAM ADMINISTRATION General Provisions § 761.3 Civil rights. Part 15d of this title contains applicable regulations pertaining to civil rights and filing...

  2. 28 CFR 65.52 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Civil rights. 65.52 Section 65.52... Additional Requirements § 65.52 Civil rights. The Act provides that “no person in any state shall on the... funds under the Act are also subject to the provisions of title VI of the Civil Rights Act of...

  3. 30 CFR 880.16 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Civil rights. 880.16 Section 880.16 Mineral... LAND RECLAMATION MINE FIRE CONTROL § 880.16 Civil rights. State and local authorities shall comply with Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (Pub. L. 88-352) and all requirements imposed by or pursuant...

  4. 7 CFR 3560.2 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Civil rights. 3560.2 Section 3560.2 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS General Provisions and Definitions § 3560.2 Civil rights. (a... prohibition under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. 2000d and Title VI regulations...

  5. 7 CFR 1709.18 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Civil rights. 1709.18 Section 1709.18 Agriculture... ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.18 Civil rights. This program will be administered in accordance with applicable Federal Civil Rights Law. All grants made under this subpart...

  6. 50 CFR 401.22 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Civil rights. 401.22 Section 401.22..., DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.22 Civil rights. Each application for Federal assistance, grant-in-aid award... Assisted Programs of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and with the Secretary's regulations...

  7. 50 CFR 82.20 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Civil rights. 82.20 Section 82.20 Wildlife... (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.20 Civil rights. Each cooperative agreement... Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. 2000d-2000d-4, and with the Secretary's regulations...

  8. 7 CFR 1709.18 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Civil rights. 1709.18 Section 1709.18 Agriculture... ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.18 Civil rights. This program will be administered in accordance with applicable Federal Civil Rights Law. All grants made under this subpart...

  9. 50 CFR 401.22 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Civil rights. 401.22 Section 401.22..., DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.22 Civil rights. Each application for Federal assistance, grant-in-aid award... Assisted Programs of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and with the Secretary's regulations...

  10. 28 CFR 33.52 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Civil rights. 33.52 Section 33.52... Block Grants Additional Requirements § 33.52 Civil rights. The Justice Assistance Act provides that “no... the provisions of title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act...

  11. 50 CFR 82.20 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Civil rights. 82.20 Section 82.20 Wildlife... (MARINE MAMMAL PROTECTION ACT OF 1972) Administration § 82.20 Civil rights. Each cooperative agreement... Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. 2000d-2000d-4, and with the Secretary's regulations...

  12. 28 CFR 65.52 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Civil rights. 65.52 Section 65.52... Additional Requirements § 65.52 Civil rights. The Act provides that “no person in any state shall on the... funds under the Act are also subject to the provisions of title VI of the Civil Rights Act of...

  13. 7 CFR 1709.18 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Civil rights. 1709.18 Section 1709.18 Agriculture... ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements § 1709.18 Civil rights. This program will be administered in accordance with applicable Federal Civil Rights Law. All grants made under this subpart...

  14. Pending crisis in Russian civil military relations

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, D.Y.

    1997-10-01

    A key issue in the study of civil-military relations has been how to create a military sufficiently strong to ensure security from external threats while simultaneously preventing the military from using its preponderance of power in the domestic arena. This dilemma arises from the fear engendered by a large armed force created to combat foreign threats, but which is also inherently a threat to the society that created it. In Russia, however, the question is not how the civilian leadership can keep the military out of politics, but how the military can keep the leadership from politicizing the armed forces. The Russian military has no interest in resolving Russia`s domestic political problems. It is a professional military that prefers to leave politics to the politicians, and to carry out its mission of defending the nation against external attack. But the lack of responsible central leadership and the poor state of the economy are driving the military toward involvement in domestic politics if for no other reason than to ensure its own survival.

  15. Reply to Comment on ``Emergence of Complex Societies After Sea Level Stabilized''

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Day, John W.; Gunn, Joel D.; Folan, William J.; Yáñez-Arancibia, Alejandro; Horton, Benjamin P.

    2007-10-01

    Washington [this issue] raised a number of interesting points that serve to clarify the origins of civilizations on continental margins. We linked the initial development of civilizations to coastal margin productivity [Day et al., 2007]. Washington argues that a number of early civilizations were not related to marine productivity, but rather were centered around the exploitation and cultivation of riparian grains. However, we defined coastal margins to include upwellings, estuaries, and lower floodplains affected by coastal water levels. Thus, the Nile, Mesopotamia, Indus, Mississippi, and Yellow societies were influenced by coastal margin productivity.

  16. GLOBAL DISASTERS: Geodynamics and Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vikulina, Marina; Vikulin, Alexander; Semenets, Nikolai

    2013-04-01

    The problem of reducing the damage caused by geodynamic and social disasters is a high priority and urgent task facing the humanity. The vivid examples of the earthquake in Japan in March 2011 that generated a new kind of threat - the radiation pollution, and the events in the Arabic world that began in the same year, are dramatic evidences. By the middle of this century, the damage from such disastrous events is supposed to exceed the combined GDP of all countries of the world. The database of 287 large-scale natural and social disasters and global social phenomena that have occurred in the period of II B.C.E. - XXI A.D. was compiled by the authors for the first time. We have proposed the following phenomenological model: the scale of disasters over the time does not decrease, there is a minimum of accidents in the XV century; the numbers of accidents have cycles lasting until the first thousand years, natural and social disasters in the aggregate are uniformly distributed in time, but separately natural and social disasters are nonuniform. Thus, due to the evaluation, a 500-year cycle of catastrophes and 200-300 and 700-800-year periodicities are identified. It is shown that catastrophes are grouped into natural and social types by forming clusters. The hypothesis of the united geo-bio-social planetary process is founded. A fundamentally new feature of this research is the assumptions about the statistical significance of the biosphere and the impact of society on the geodynamic processes. The results allow to formulate a new understanding of global disaster as an event the damage from which the humanity will be unable to liquidate even by means of the total resource potential and the consequence of which may turn into the irreversible destruction of civilization. The correlation between the natural and social phenomena and the possible action mechanism is suggested.

  17. Civil tiltrotor missions and applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clay, Bill; Baumgaertner, Paul; Thompson, Pete; Meyer, Sam; Reber, Ron; Berry, Dennis (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    In 1983, an FAA-sponsored National Rotorcraft Program sought to identify improvements to the national interurban transportation networks and determined that conventional helicopters did not have the potential to satisfy requirements because of a lack of capacity, high operational costs, and high noise levels. Tiltrotors, it was felt offered a better potential to improve interurban air transport service. In 1985, the FAA proposed a joint civil tiltrotor study with NASA and DOD that would capitalize on development of the military V-22 tiltrotor and document the potential of the commercial tiltrotor transport market. The results of a study on the mission and application of a civil tiltrotor is presented. This study addresses national issues and includes a market summary. A technical summary provides information on six design configurations and potential risk areas are identified. The development of a National Plan for a tiltrotor transportation system is recommended including civil tiltrotor technology development, infrastructure planning and development, a flight technology demonstration plan, and near term actions.

  18. The demography of extraterrestrial civilizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billingham, J.

    1981-01-01

    Studies carried out within the last ten years on the nature and distribution of extraterrestrial intelligent life are reviewed. Arguments for the absence of intelligent life in the Galaxy based on the assumption that at least some of these would have engaged in colonization and for the presence of colonies of extraterrestrials in some undiscovered location in the solar system are presented, and it is noted that both these views rest on the notion that interstellar travel can be achieved at high velocities in very large vehicles, which has been questioned. Alternative suggestions concerning interstellar exploration by automated probes and the possible extended time scale and motivation for galactic colonization are pointed out. Attention is then given to arguments for the extreme smallness of one of the factors in the Drake equation used to estimate the number of communicative extraterrestrial civilizations in the Galaxy, including the frequency of single stars, the likelihood that planets with the correct initial composition and conditions for life are at the proper distance from their stars, the probability of the formation of DNA and the origin of life, and the time for the evolution of intelligence. It is concluded that it seems likely that other civilizations exist in the Galaxy, although the number and distribution of such civilizations may only be determined by the detection of one or more examples.

  19. The open society.

    PubMed

    Opel, J R

    1984-07-27

    The open society, unlike the closed society, requires constant citizen thought and action to ensure that it will continue to survive and prosper. Today in the United States we should give particular attention to three immediate problems. We should reinvigorate our national economic health and international competitiveness, particularly by reducing our unprecedented budget deficits and reforming our tax system. We must strengthen our scientific and engineering vitality, particularly in graduate engineering education and in secondary school instruction in science and mathematics. And we should work with our allies in the free industrialized world to keep our international open society as open as possible, encouraging a flow of people and information and ideas across national boundaries while instituting sensible and efficient safeguards against leakage of critical military technology to the Soviet Union. PMID:17813240

  20. Advanced information society(2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuyama, Keiichi

    Our modern life is full of information and information infiltrates into our daily life. Networking of the telecommunication is extended to society, company, and individual level. Although we have just entered the advanced information society, business world and our daily life have been steadily transformed by the advancement of information network. This advancement of information brings a big influence on economy, and will play they the main role in the expansion of domestic demands. This paper tries to view the image of coming advanced information society, focusing on the transforming businessman's life and the situation of our daily life, which became wealthy by the spread of daily life information and the visual information by satellite system, in the development of the intelligent city.

  1. Tsunami Science for Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernard, E. N.

    2014-12-01

    As the decade of mega-tsunamis has unfolded with new data, the science of tsunami has advanced at an unprecedented pace. Our responsibility to society should guide the use of these new scientific discoveries to better prepare society for the next tsunami. This presentation will focus on the impacts of the 2004 and 2011 tsunamis and new societal expectations accompanying enhanced funding for tsunami research. A list of scientific products, including tsunami hazard maps, tsunami energy scale, real-time tsunami flooding estimates, and real-time current velocities in harbors will be presented to illustrate society's need for relevant, easy to understand tsunami information. Appropriate use of these tsunami scientific products will be presented to demonstrate greater tsunami resilience for tsunami threatened coastlines. Finally, a scientific infrastructure is proposed to ensure that these products are both scientifically sound and represent today's best practices to protect the scientific integrity of the products as well as the safety of coastal residents.

  2. Comparison of injuries due to lethal weapons during and after civil strife in Sri Lanka: A medico-legal study

    PubMed Central

    Vidanapathirana, Muditha; Ruwanpura, Rohan P; Amararatne, Sriyantha RRG; Ratnaweera, Ajith RHI

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: “Injuries due to lethal weapons” has emerged as a subject of public discussion in Sri Lanka. This study was conducted to describe the nature and characteristics of injuries due to lethal weapons during civil strife and to compare those with injuries after civil strife. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on patients reported with injuries caused by lethal weapons from 2004 to 2014. Periods before and after May 19, 2009 were considered as during and after civil strife periods, respectively. A total of 21,210 medico-legal examination forms were studied. Results: There were 358 (1.7%) injuries caused by lethal weapons. Of them, 41% (n = 148) were during and 59% (n = 210) were after the civil strife. During civil strife, 63% occurred during daytime (P < 0.05). Types of lethal weapons that caused injuries were sharp weapons (n = 282), explosives (n = 49), and firearms (n = 27). Of them, 32% of during and 01% of after civil strife were explosive injuries (P < 0.01). Regarding severity, 73% of during and 57% of after civil strife injuries were severe (P < 0.05). During civil strife, 34% injuries were in lower limbs (P < 0.01) and after civil strife, 37% were in upper limbs (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The presence of many similarities indicated that both groups learnt their basis in a society that breeds violence. During civil strife, more injuries occurred during daytime, to lower limbs by explosive weapons and after the civil strife during nighttime, to upper limbs by nonexplosive weapons. Nonexplosive lethal weapon use after civil strife needs further investigation to develop evidence-based interventions. PMID:27127743

  3. Science and Society Colloquium

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Mr. Randi will give an update of his lecture to the American Physical Society on the occasion of his award of the 1989 Forum Prize. The citation said: "for his unique defense of Science and the scientific method in many disciplines, including physics, against pseudoscience, frauds and charlatans. His use of scientific techniques has contributed to refuting suspicious and fraudulent claims of paranormal results. He has contributed significantly to public understanding of important issues where science and society interact". He is a professional magician and author of many books. He worked with John Maddox, the Editor of Nature to investigate the claims of "water with memory".

  4. Science and Society Colloquium

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-10

    Mr. Randi will give an update of his lecture to the American Physical Society on the occasion of his award of the 1989 Forum Prize. The citation said: "for his unique defense of Science and the scientific method in many disciplines, including physics, against pseudoscience, frauds and charlatans. His use of scientific techniques has contributed to refuting suspicious and fraudulent claims of paranormal results. He has contributed significantly to public understanding of important issues where science and society interact". He is a professional magician and author of many books. He worked with John Maddox, the Editor of Nature to investigate the claims of "water with memory".

  5. Advanced information society(7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Toshihiro

    Various threats are hiding in advanced informationalized society. As we see car accident problems in motorization society light aspects necessarily accompy shady ones. Under the changing circumstances of advanced informationalization added values of information has become much higher. It causes computer crime, hacker, computer virus to come to the surface. In addition it can be said that infringement of intellectual property and privacy are threats brought by advanced information. Against these threats legal, institutional and insurance measures have been progressed, and newly security industry has been established. However, they are not adequate individually or totally. The future vision should be clarified, and countermeasures according to the visions have to be considered.

  6. Evo-SETI Theory and Information Gap among Civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maccone, Claudio

    2016-05-01

    In a series of recent papers (Refs. [1] through [9]) this author gave the equations of his mathematical model of Evolution and SETI, simply called "Evo-SETI". Key features of Evo-SETI are: 1) The Statistical Drake Equation is the extension of the classical Drake equation into Statistics. Probability distributions of the number of ET civilizations in the Galaxy (lognormals) were given, and so is the probable distribution of the distance of ETs from us. 2) Darwinian Evolution is re-defined as a Geometric Brownian Motion (GBM) in the number of living species on Earth over the last 3.5 billion years. Its mean value grew exponentially in time and Mass Extinctions of the past are accounted for as unpredictable low GBM values. 3) The exponential growth of the number of species during Evolution is the geometric locus of the peaks of a one-parameter family of lognormal distributions (b-lognormals, starting each at a different time b=birth) constrained between the time axis and the exponential mean value. This accounts for cladistics (i.e. Evolution Lineages). The above key features of Evo-SETI Theory were already discussed by this author in Refs. [1] through [9]. Now about this paper's "novelties". 4) The lifespan of a living being, let it be a cell, an animal, a human, a historic human society, or even an ET society, is mathematically described as a finite b-lognormal. This author then described mathematically the historical development of eight human historic civilizations, from Ancient Greece to the USA, by virtue of b-lognormals. 5) Finally, the b-lognormal's entropy is the measure of a civilization's advancement level. By measuring the entropy difference between Aztecs and Spaniards in 1519, this author was able to account mathematically for the 20-million-Aztecs defeat by a few thousand Spaniards, due to the latter's technological (i.e. entropic) superiority. The same might unfortunately happen to Humans when they will face an ET superior civilization for the first

  7. A Call to Civil Society: Why Democracy Needs Moral Truths. A Report to the Nation from the Council on Civil Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for American Values, New York, NY.

    This report states there are at least 12 seedbeds of civic virtue considered to be the foundational sources of competence, character, and citizenship. The report also claims that the decline of these qualities is cause for weakening morality and the endangerment of continuing self-governance; and as the social morality deteriorates, life becomes…

  8. American Society of Echocardiography

    MedlinePlus

    American Society of Echocardiography Join Ase Member Portal Log In Membership Member Portal Log In Join ASE Renew Benefits Rates FASE – Fellow ... 2016 · Executive Theme · Genesis Framework by StudioPress · WordPress · Log in Membership ▼ Member Portal Log In Join ASE ...

  9. Teaching Global Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peet, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Describes the course, "Global Society," for first-year International Studies students at a Massachusetts liberal arts college. The course, which takes a historical approach, informs students about the nature, history, and present characteristics of the global system, taking theoretical, historical, and critical approaches that stress the…

  10. [The Closing Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brewster, Kingman, Jr.

    At the root of student unrest are two basic factors: (1) the "involuntary campus," and (2) the "manipulated society." Many students attend a university not because they want to, but because of parental pressure, to avoid the draft, to get the right job, or to satisfy the notion that in order to be really accomplished it is necessary to have a…

  11. Multiethnic Societies and Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stanfield, John H., II

    1996-01-01

    Maintains that sociology must reconceptualize the meaning of multiethnic societies and regions and also advance theories about how such social organizations came into being and transform themselves through conflicting and peaceful processes. Briefly reviews traditional approaches and outlines new areas of study. (MJP)

  12. Mind, Society, and Racism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meacham, Jack

    1996-01-01

    Uses example of racism to compare Vygotsky's and Piaget's perspectives on the development of mind within the framework of questions regarding the mutual influence of societies and individuals. Notes that Vygotsky emphasizes knowledge transmission from older to younger, whereas Piaget emphasizes construction of new knowledge with potential for…

  13. Exploratory of society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cederman, L.-E.; Conte, R.; Helbing, D.; Nowak, A.; Schweitzer, F.; Vespignani, A.

    2012-11-01

    A huge flow of quantitative social, demographic and behavioral data is becoming available that traces the activities and interactions of individuals, social patterns, transportation infrastructures and travel fluxes. This has caused, together with innovative computational techniques and methods for modeling social actions in hybrid (natural and artificial) societies, a qualitative change in the ways we model socio-technical systems. For the first time, society can be studied in a comprehensive fashion that addresses social and behavioral complexity. In other words we are in the position to envision the development of large data and computational cyber infrastructure defining an exploratory of society that provides quantitative anticipatory, explanatory and scenario analysis capabilities ranging from emerging infectious disease to conflict and crime surges. The goal of the exploratory of society is to provide the basic infrastructure embedding the framework of tools and knowledge needed for the design of forecast/anticipatory/crisis management approaches to socio technical systems, supporting future decision making procedures by accelerating the scientific cycle that goes from data generation to predictions.

  14. Big Society, Big Deal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    Political leaders like to put forward guiding ideas or themes which pull their individual decisions into a broader narrative. For John Major it was Back to Basics, for Tony Blair it was the Third Way and for David Cameron it is the Big Society. While Mr. Blair relied on Lord Giddens to add intellectual weight to his idea, Mr. Cameron's legacy idea…

  15. Science Serves Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, G. C.

    This book discusses how some of the topics taught in a conventional physics course have been used to solve interesting technical problems in industry, medicine, agriculture, transportation, and other areas of society. The topics include heat, optics, magnetism and electricity, nuclear physics, and sound. (MLH)

  16. The Learning Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Inst. for Advanced Research, Toronto (Ontario).

    This publication focuses on the challenges faced by modern societies as they seek to plan for competing in the global economy, educating the population for new competencies, maintaining the social fabric for nurturing and socializing the next generation, and providing opportunities for the health and well-being of all citizens. Emphasis is placed…

  17. Researching Society and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seale, Clive, Ed.

    This book provides theoretically informed guidance to practicing the key research methods for investigating society and culture. It is a text in both methods and methodology, in which the importance of understanding the historical, theoretical and institutional context in which particular methods have developed is stressed. The contributors of the…

  18. Man--Society--Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taxis, Linda A., Ed.

    The 32nd annual American Industrial Arts Association (AIAA) Convention was held in Louisville in 1970. Topics for the AIAA general session addresses were: (1) "Industrial Arts--The Blender Between Social Form and Technical Function," (2) "Technology and Society: Present and Future Challenges," (3) "A Student-Oriented Industrial Arts," (4) "Man:…

  19. 'Sites' of resistance: alternative websites and state-society relations.

    PubMed

    Ho, K C; Baber, Zaheer; Khondker, Habibul

    2002-03-01

    Much attention has been focused on Singapore's attempt to use information technology to build a knowledge-based economy. This paper examines the implications of the unintended consequences of the Internet in the restructuring of state and society relations in Singapore. We use the data on Singapore-based and Singapore-related websites to show (a) the diversity of positions expressed by civil society organizations, fringe groups and even mainstream segments of society; (b) the negotiation process between the state and civil society over various rights and how developments in cyber-space have implications for 'reality'; (c) how censorship and content regulation itself is a more complex multi-dimensional process such that while local politics is regulated, the multi-ethnic character of the resident population has led to greater religious tolerance such that religious groups banned in some countries have found a safe haven in Singapore and have used the city-state as a strategic Internet node. PMID:11958682

  20. Science, Theology and New Civilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Theodossiou, E.; Manimanis, V. N.; Danezis, E.

    2010-07-01

    This work explores the relation and interdependence among theology, science and social structure within the framework of a new “Cultural Current”, which will probably prevail in the Western societies, through the study of the development of the cultural currents in the ages. The now prevailing in these societies Positivist Cultural Current suffers from the weakness that it is no longer supported by the modern scientific theories of physics and other natural sciences. The new reality will include a more philosophical view of science, and a re-harmonization of its relations with the other two “cultural pillars” on which human societies are based: the sociopolitical (social philosophy) and the metaphysical (inner philosophy).