Science.gov

Sample records for co-operation civil society

  1. Challenge and co-operation: civil society activism for access to HIV treatment in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ford, Nathan; Wilson, David; Cawthorne, Paul; Kumphitak, Aree; Kasi-Sedapan, Siriras; Kaetkaew, Suntharaporn; Teemanka, Saengsri; Donmon, Boripat; Preuanbuapan, Chalerm

    2009-03-01

    Civil society has been a driving force behind efforts to increase access to treatment in Thailand. A focus on HIV medicines brought civil society and non-governmental and government actors together to fight for a single cause, creating a platform for joint action on practical issues to improve care for people with HIV/AIDS (PHA) within the public health system. The Thai Network of People with HIV/AIDS, in partnership with other actors, has provided concrete support for patients and for the health system as a whole; its efforts have contributed significantly to the availability of affordable generic medicines, early treatment for opportunistic infections, and an informed and responsible approach towards antiretroviral treatment that is critical to good adherence and treatment success. This change in perception of PHA from 'passive receiver' to 'co-provider' of health care has led to improved acceptance and support within the healthcare system. Today, most PHA in Thailand can access treatment, and efforts have shifted to supporting care for excluded populations.

  2. Cyberethics and co-operation in the information society.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Christian; Bichler, Robert M; Raffl, Celina

    2009-12-01

    The task of this paper is to ground the notion of cyberethics of co-operation. The evolution of modern society has resulted in a shift from industrial society towards informational capitalism. This transformation is a multidimensional shift that affects all aspects of society. Hence also the ethical system of society is penetrated by the emergence of the knowledge society and ethical guidelines for the information age are needed. Ethical issues and conflicts in the knowledge society are connected to topics of ecological and social sustainability. For information ethics and cyberethics, the sustainable design of society, social, and socio-technological systems is important. In this context the notions of sustainability and co-operation are discussed. Based on these categories, the approach of cyberethics of co-operation can be theoretically grounded.

  3. Material civilization: things and society.

    PubMed

    Dant, Tim

    2006-06-01

    This paper argues that although classical sociology has largely overlooked the importance of social relations with the material world in shaping the form of society, Braudel's concept of 'material civilization' is a useful way to begin to understand the sociological significance of this relationship. The limitations of Braudel's historical and general concept can be partially overcome with Elias's analysis of the connection between 'technization' and 'civilization' that allows for both a civilizing and a de-civilizing impact of emergent forms of material relation that both lengthen and shorten the chains of interdependence between the members of a society. It is suggested that the concept of the 'morality of things' employed by a number of commentators is useful in summarizing the civilizing effects of material objects and addressing their sociological significance. From the sociology of consumption the idea of materiality as a sign of social relationships can be drawn, and from the sociology of technology the idea of socio-technical systems and actor-networks can contribute to the understanding of material civilization. It is argued that the concept of 'material capital' can usefully summarize the variable social value of objects but to understand the complexity of material civilization as it unfolds in everyday life, an analysis of 'material interaction' is needed. Finally the paper suggests some initial themes and issues apparent in contemporary society that the sociological study of material civilization might address; the increased volume, functional complexity and material specificity of objects and the increased social complexity, autonomy and substitutability that is entailed. A theory of 'material civilization' is the first step in establishing a sociology of objects.

  4. [Civil bioethics in pluralistics societies].

    PubMed

    Cortina, A

    2000-01-01

    The author examines how Bioethics should be approached in a pluralist society. She argues that through the gradual discovery of shared ethical values and principles for judging which practices are humanizing and which or not, ever-more dense civil Bioethics helps bring out--in contrast to relativism and subjectivism--an ethical intersubjectiveness, the fundaments of which should be addressed by moral philosophy if it hopes to fulfill one of its main tasks.

  5. Environmental Protest and Civil Society in China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    to maintain its political monopoly. Yet, the increased dissemination of information may slowly allow China’s civil society to coalesce and reach past...reported incidents of protest is growing, and their influence is felt throughout civil society.

  6. Civil Society Participation at CONFINTEA VI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the participation of civil society in the Sixth International Conference on Adult Education held in Belem do Para, Brazil, 1-4 December 2009. As a foundation, the discussion first illuminates the important role that civil society in general plays in democratic issues and the relation between the state and society followed by…

  7. Civil Society Participation at CONFINTEA VI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the participation of civil society in the Sixth International Conference on Adult Education held in Belem do Para, Brazil, 1-4 December 2009. As a foundation, the discussion first illuminates the important role that civil society in general plays in democratic issues and the relation between the state and society followed by…

  8. Universities, the Social Sciences, and Civil Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesmazoglou, Stephanos

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of the university's role in contributing to a civil society offers examples from the recent history of Yugoslavia showing that universities have frequently contributed to chauvinism, intolerance, racism, and ethnic cleansing. Urges institutions of higher education to foster a civil society by emphasizing: (1) an understanding of the…

  9. Remaking Public Spaces for Civil Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranson, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    The collective action predicaments of the time require citizens to participate in remaking the governance of civil society so that they can become engaged and cooperate together. Can citizens become makers of civil society? This article draws upon Hannah Arendt's "On Revolution" to provide a theory of remaking in which citizens come together to…

  10. Remaking Public Spaces for Civil Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranson, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    The collective action predicaments of the time require citizens to participate in remaking the governance of civil society so that they can become engaged and cooperate together. Can citizens become makers of civil society? This article draws upon Hannah Arendt's "On Revolution" to provide a theory of remaking in which citizens come together to…

  11. Measuring Religion in Global Civil Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Evelyn L.

    2007-01-01

    This article illustrates two conceptual and methodological problems that interfere with the accurate identification and measurement of religious mobilization in global civil society. First, data used to study the organizational composition of global culture contain a selection bias that favors organizations within an elite stratum of the world…

  12. Beyond strong and weak: rethinking postdictatorship civil societies.

    PubMed

    Riley, Dylan; Fernández, Juan J

    2014-09-01

    What is the impact of dictatorships on postdictatorial civil societies? Bottom-up theories suggest that totalitarian dictatorships destroy civil society while authoritarian ones allow for its development. Top-down theories of civil society suggest that totalitarianism can create civil societies while authoritarianism is unlikely to. This article argues that both these perspectives suffer from a one-dimensional understanding of civil society that conflates strength and autonomy. Accordingly we distinguish these two dimensions and argue that totalitarian dictatorships tend to create organizationally strong but heteronomous civil societies, while authoritarian ones tend to create relatively autonomous but organizationally weak civil societies. We then test this conceptualization by closely examining the historical connection between dictatorship and civil society development in Italy (a posttotalitarian case) and Spain (a postauthoritarian one). Our article concludes by reflecting on the implications of our argument for democratic theory, civil society theory, and theories of regime variation.

  13. Civil society, health, and social exclusion in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Schurmann, Anna T; Mahmud, Simeen

    2009-08-01

    Civil society has the potential to have a positive impact on social exclusion and health equity through active monitoring and increased accountability. This paper examines the role of civil society in Bangladesh to understand why this potential has not been realized. Looking at two models of civil society action-participation in decentralized public-sector service provision and academic think-tank data analysis-this analysis examines the barriers to positive civil society input into public policy decision-making. The role of non-governmental organizations, political, cultural and economic factors, and the influence of foreign bilateral and multilateral donors are considered. The paper concludes that, with a few exceptions, civil society in Bangladesh replicates the structural inequalities of society at large.

  14. Civil Society, Health, and Social Exclusion in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    Mahmud, Simeen

    2009-01-01

    Civil society has the potential to have a positive impact on social exclusion and health equity through active monitoring and increased accountability. This paper examines the role of civil society in Bangladesh to understand why this potential has not been realized. Looking at two models of civil society action—participation in decentralized public-sector service provision and academic think-tank data analysis—this analysis examines the barriers to positive civil society input into public policy decision-making. The role of non-governmental organizations, political, cultural and economic factors, and the influence of foreign bilateral and multilateral donors are considered. The paper concludes that, with a few exceptions, civil society in Bangladesh replicates the structural inequalities of society at large. PMID:19761087

  15. Factors That Impact How Civil Society Intermediaries Perceive Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, William L.

    2017-01-01

    Civil society organisations increasingly mediate the creation and exchange of evidence in their activities with policy-makers and practitioners. This article extends knowledge on evidence in policy-making settings to civil society contexts. As an exploratory and qualitative study, it shows how nine UK-based organisations working on issues…

  16. The Politics of Adult Education: State, Economy and Civil Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Examines the idea of civil society, comparing the Marxist and post-Marxist definitions of it. Discusses the political agendas of socialism and radical democracy and their impact on adult education. (Contains 59 references.) (SK)

  17. The Engagement of Older People in Civil Society Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principi, Andrea; Chiatti, Carlos; Lamura, Giovanni; Frerichs, Frerich

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews recent international literature on the opportunities and restrictions experienced by older people to act as volunteers in civil society organizations. Our aim was to develop a conceptual framework applicable to the European ageing society. This aim was pursued through a computerized database search focused on studies analyzing…

  18. Higher Education and Civil Society: Compatibility Re-Examined

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatun, Mahmuda

    2012-01-01

    Last couple of decades, some developed countries emphasized to develop civil society in developing countries. The main goals were to promote democratic norms and values among citizens who will not be thinking about democratic society otherwise. To establish democratic norms and values, many view that higher education is necessary. The relationship…

  19. The Engagement of Older People in Civil Society Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principi, Andrea; Chiatti, Carlos; Lamura, Giovanni; Frerichs, Frerich

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews recent international literature on the opportunities and restrictions experienced by older people to act as volunteers in civil society organizations. Our aim was to develop a conceptual framework applicable to the European ageing society. This aim was pursued through a computerized database search focused on studies analyzing…

  20. Higher Education and Civil Society: Compatibility Re-Examined

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatun, Mahmuda

    2012-01-01

    Last couple of decades, some developed countries emphasized to develop civil society in developing countries. The main goals were to promote democratic norms and values among citizens who will not be thinking about democratic society otherwise. To establish democratic norms and values, many view that higher education is necessary. The relationship…

  1. Curriculum and Civil Society in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Adele

    2009-01-01

    Although research has traditionally discussed the ways in which societies in conflict develop educational practices, only recently have scholars begun to examine the role of education in creating or sustaining conflict. In Afghanistan, changing regimes have had an impact on state-sanctioned curricula over the past fifty years, drastically altering…

  2. Growth of civil society in developing countries: implications for health.

    PubMed

    Jareg, P; Kaseje, D C

    1998-03-14

    Owing to changes in political systems, the number of non-governmental organisations worldwide has increased substantially since 1980. The influence of civil society on health and health care depends on the recognition of its role as a partner in primary health care, on its success in the scaling up of activities, on its cooperation with the State and business sector, and on networking. In the event of health-sector reforms, civil society should focus on equity and justice, and advocate health as a public responsibility. The impact on health would increase if medical personnel joined forces with civil society and if medical schools added public speaking, networking, and lobbying to their agenda. The trend is that an increasing number of agents are getting involved in the promotion of health.

  3. More Participation, Happier Society? A Comparative Study of Civil Society and the Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Claire; Pichler, Florian

    2009-01-01

    A "good society" has recently been portrayed as one in which citizens engage in voluntary associations to foster democratic processes. Arguably, such a good society is considered as one where people are content with their own lives as well as public life. We consider whether participation in civil society leads to more satisfied…

  4. The politics of engagement between Islam and the secular state: ambivalences of 'civil society'.

    PubMed

    Turam, Berna

    2004-06-01

    The paper reveals contemporary transformations of the interaction between Islam and secular states from opposition to engagement. In-depth ethnographic evidence challenges the predominant juxtaposition of Islam against the secular state. Following micro-sites of interaction between the Gülen movement and the state from Turkey to Kazakhstan, my fieldwork revealed a continuum of engagements between them. The paper analyses the engagements ranging from contestation and negotiation to co-operation. The case illustrates the extent to which scholarly interest in opposition and clash has left a wide-ranging variety of state-Islam interaction understudied with regard to civil society. It also reveals the conditions under which effective Islamic horizontal organizations have provided the platforms of vertical engagements with the secular states. The major argument of the paper is that both civil and uncivil outcomes in the Muslim world are primarily shaped by the nature of state-Islam interaction. The evidence suggests that the key to understanding the relationship between Islam and civil society is the state.

  5. Civil society in a divided society: Linking legitimacy and ethnicness of civil society organizations in Bosnia-Herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Puljek-Shank, Randall; Verkoren, Willemijn

    2017-06-01

    Civil society (CS) strengthening is central to peacebuilding policies for divided, post-war societies. However, it has been criticized for creating internationalized organizations without local backing, unable to represent citizens' interests. Based on in-depth empirical research in Bosnia-Herzegovina, this article focuses on the legitimacy of CS organizations (CSOs). It explores why legitimacy for donors rarely accompanies legitimacy for local actors. We hypothesized that whilst donors avoid supporting mono-ethnic organizations, seen as problematic for peacebuilding, 'ethnicness' may provide local legitimacy. However, our analysis of CSOs' ethnicness nuances research characterizing organizations as either inclusive or divisive. Moreover, local legitimacy is not based on ethnicness per se, but CSOs' ability to skilfully interact with ethnically divided constituencies and political structures. In addition, we offer novel explanations why few organizations enjoy both donor and local legitimacy, including local mistrust of donors' normative frameworks and perceived lack of results. However, we also show that a combination of local and donor legitimacy is possible, and explore this rare but interesting category of organizations.

  6. Civil society in a divided society: Linking legitimacy and ethnicness of civil society organizations in Bosnia-Herzegovina

    PubMed Central

    Puljek-Shank, Randall; Verkoren, Willemijn

    2016-01-01

    Civil society (CS) strengthening is central to peacebuilding policies for divided, post-war societies. However, it has been criticized for creating internationalized organizations without local backing, unable to represent citizens’ interests. Based on in-depth empirical research in Bosnia-Herzegovina, this article focuses on the legitimacy of CS organizations (CSOs). It explores why legitimacy for donors rarely accompanies legitimacy for local actors. We hypothesized that whilst donors avoid supporting mono-ethnic organizations, seen as problematic for peacebuilding, ‘ethnicness’ may provide local legitimacy. However, our analysis of CSOs’ ethnicness nuances research characterizing organizations as either inclusive or divisive. Moreover, local legitimacy is not based on ethnicness per se, but CSOs’ ability to skilfully interact with ethnically divided constituencies and political structures. In addition, we offer novel explanations why few organizations enjoy both donor and local legitimacy, including local mistrust of donors’ normative frameworks and perceived lack of results. However, we also show that a combination of local and donor legitimacy is possible, and explore this rare but interesting category of organizations. PMID:28546640

  7. Building A Culture Of Peace For A Civil Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foo, Sue Fan, Ed.; Starlin, Clay M., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Building a Culture of Peace for a Civil Society" consists of papers from scholars from around the world including: Canada, India, Japan, Nigeria, Philippines, Thailand, Turkey and the United States. This volume includes selected papers and lectures delivered at the 12th World Conference on Education of the World Council of Curriculum…

  8. Civil society: a critical new advocate for vaccination in Europe.

    PubMed

    Laurent-Ledru, Vanina; Thomson, Angus; Monsonego, Joseph

    2011-01-17

    The vaccinology landscape has changed, with national authorities now being increasingly accountable to new stakeholders such as health insurers, regional regulatory bodies, the media, and civil society. Here, we discuss how civil society organisations (CSOs), such as patient and women's groups, have become important drivers in the introduction and sustainability of new vaccination programs. This shift in public implication in vaccine policy has been well illustrated in the recent introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in Europe. Patient and women's groups which were traditionally focused on advocacy of treatments have also become advocates for prevention with the advent of HPV vaccination. Civil society advocacy at the European level supported key resolutions and white papers which in turn informed national recommendations on cervical cancer vaccination. CSOs were also active at the national level, supporting national policy makers. These organisations may bring innovative and effective new approaches to communication on vaccination benefits, using public events, celebrities and various social media. Working with experts, CSOs can also be an important bridge from the science to the lay public. This may provide a vital counterbalance to media hype and antivaccination groups, although CSOs may also be active and vocal opponents of immunization. The successful implementation and sustainability of future vaccination programs against infections such as HIV will be dependent upon the active participation of civil society to inform, to reassure and to maintain public trust.

  9. Building A Culture Of Peace For A Civil Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foo, Sue Fan, Ed.; Starlin, Clay M., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Building a Culture of Peace for a Civil Society" consists of papers from scholars from around the world including: Canada, India, Japan, Nigeria, Philippines, Thailand, Turkey and the United States. This volume includes selected papers and lectures delivered at the 12th World Conference on Education of the World Council of Curriculum…

  10. NGOs, Civil Society, and Development: Is There a Third Way?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klees, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    For more than a decade, there has been talk by politicians, academics, and others of a "third way," referring to means and principles of social organization other than the State and the market. Most of this discussion about a third way for development focuses on the roles that can be played by NGOs and other elements of civil society. In this…

  11. The Case of Palestinian Civil Society in Israel: Islam, Civil Society, and Educational Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbaria, Ayman K.; Mustafa, Muhanad

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the educational activism of two Arab civil organizations in Israel: the Follow-Up Committee on Arab Education (FUCAE) and the Eqraa Association (Eqraa). On the one hand, it explores the possibilities and limitations of the involvement of the FUCAE in the state's Arab education system, as a secular organization that is heavily…

  12. The Case of Palestinian Civil Society in Israel: Islam, Civil Society, and Educational Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbaria, Ayman K.; Mustafa, Muhanad

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the educational activism of two Arab civil organizations in Israel: the Follow-Up Committee on Arab Education (FUCAE) and the Eqraa Association (Eqraa). On the one hand, it explores the possibilities and limitations of the involvement of the FUCAE in the state's Arab education system, as a secular organization that is heavily…

  13. 78 FR 4189 - Advisory Committee on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue With Civil Society

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... Committee on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue With Civil Society ACTION: Notice of meeting... on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue with Civil Society will convene in Washington, DC on... strategies for engagement with, and protection of, civil society worldwide. The objective of this meeting...

  14. 77 FR 25780 - Advisory Committee on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue With Civil Society

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... Committee on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue With Civil Society ACTION: Notice of meeting... on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue with Civil Society will convene in Washington, DC on... strategies for engagement with, and protection of, civil society worldwide. ] The objective of this...

  15. From disaster to sustainable civil society: the Kobe experience.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Rajib; Goda, Katsuihciro

    2004-03-01

    Nine years after the Kobe earthquake in Japan, social issues are still prominent, and the rehabilitation process is still ongoing. The earthquake caused two major changes in Japanese society: an increase in voluntary and non-government activities, and the enhancement of cooperation between local government and the residents' association. People's participation in the decision-making process was a significant achievement. To sustain the efforts generated after the earthquake, the Kobe Action Plan was formulated and tested in different disaster scenarios. The current study suggests that civil societies in urban areas are sustainable if, first, the activities related to daily services are provided by the resident's associations; and second, these are linked to economic incentives. Leadership plays a crucial role in collective decision-making. Creation of the support system is essential for long-term sustainability of civil-society activities. These observations are exemplified in the case study in Nishi Suma, one of the worst-affected areas in the Kobe city.

  16. The Role of Civil Society in Shaping Democratic Civil-Military Relations During Political Transition in Nepal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    opposition to patrimonial state[ s ].”148 In other words, the political affiliation of Nepal’s civil society originated in its historical development and...REPORT DATE I 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED March 2015 Master ’ s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5. FUNDING NUMBERS THE ROLE OF CIVIL SOCIETY IN...SHAPING DEMOCRATIC CIVIL- MILITARY RELATIONS DURING POLITICAL TRANSITION IN NEPAL 6. AUTHOR( S ) Bhuwan Pwna Satya! 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NA:i\\tiE( S

  17. Childrens mental health and civil society in the Gaza strip.

    PubMed

    Thirkell, Lucy

    2012-09-01

    The Gaza Strip, with a population of 1.7 million, over half of whom are under 18 years old, has existed in a state of ongoing conflict and containment for years, most notably since its closure in 2007. There is much concern for the mental health of the vast young generation who have little memory of other circumstances of existence, and even less exposure to the outside world. Their society forms the site of direct conflict and social destruction pertaining to untreated stress among the adults. However, leaving the social realm for the institutional for mental health treatment carries strong taboo, especially for adults. Civil society expert organisations offering a range of mental health work primarily pertaining to childrens social development can bypass some of this taboo and can also intervene at their schools and in their families, and may be most strategically located as social rather than institutional actors. Empowering the youth and seeking to strengthen Gazan society through them and for them causes some friction with the local government. However, despite the cultural and political challenges of mental health treatment for children within the Gaza Strip, the wider fact remains that however treated and psychosocially rehabilitated, society is predictably the site of renewed trauma in the short term and foreseeable future, enmeshing the mental health of its future generation inseparably with the international politics it inhabits.

  18. Making research matter: a civil society perspective on health research.

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, David; Labonte, Ronald; Baum, Fran; Chopra, Mickey

    2004-01-01

    Complex global public health challenges such as the rapidly widening health inequalities, and unprecedented emergencies such as the pandemic of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) demand a reappraisal of existing priorities in health policies, expenditure and research. Research can assist in mounting an effective response, but will require increased emphasis on health determinants at both the national and global levels, as well as health systems research and broad-based and effective public health initiatives. Civil society organizations (CSOs) are already at the forefront of such research. We suggest that there are at least three ways in which the participation of CSOs in research can be increased: namely, influencing commissioning and priority-setting; becoming involved in the review process and in conducting research; and through formal partnerships between communities and universities that link CSOs with academic researchers. PMID:15643797

  19. Crowding-in: how Indian civil society organizations began mobilizing around climate change.

    PubMed

    Ylä-Anttila, Tuomas; Swarnakar, Pradip

    2017-06-01

    This paper argues that periodic waves of crowding-in to 'hot' issue fields are a recurring feature of how globally networked civil society organizations operate, especially in countries of the Global South. We elaborate on this argument through a study of Indian civil society mobilization around climate change. Five key mechanisms contribute to crowding-in processes: (1) the expansion of discursive opportunities; (2) the event effects of global climate change conferences; (3) the network effects created by expanding global civil society networks; (4) the adoption and innovation of action repertoires; and (5) global pressure effects creating new opportunities for civil society. Our findings contribute to the world society literature, with an account of the social mechanisms through which global institutions and political events affect national civil societies, and to the social movements literature by showing that developments in world society are essential contributors to national mobilization processes. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2017.

  20. Reasons to Co-Operate: Co-Operative Solutions for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The NASUWT's landmark agreement with the Schools Co-operative Society has provided a new spur to co-operation, collaboration and collegiality in schools. Against a background of rapid and radical changes to the education landscape, co-operative schools are viewed by many as a means to maintaining public service ethos and values in education. The…

  1. Civil society organisations, social innovation and health research in Europe.

    PubMed

    Beinare, Dace; McCarthy, Mark

    2012-12-01

    European Union strategies and programmes identify research and innovation as a critical dimension for future economic and social development. While European research policy emphasizes support for industry, the health field includes not-for-profit civil society organisations (CSOs) providing social innovation. Yet, the perspectives of CSOs towards health research in Europe are not well understood. STEPS (Strengthening Engagement in Public Health Research) was funded by the European Commission's Science in Society research programme. Within the study, we interviewed by telephone respondents of 13 European health CSOs, which represented collectively local and national organizations. Research was valued positively by the respondents. Health CSOs did not seek to do research themselves, but recognized the opportunity of funds in this field and welcomed the possibility of collaborating in research, of using the results from research and of providing input to research agendas. Links between research and users provides knowledge for the public and improves impacts on policy. Research and evaluation can help in demonstrating the benefit of innovative activities, and give support and legitimacy. However, the cultures of, and incentives for, researchers and health CSOs are different, and collaboration requires building trust, a shared language and for the power relations and objectives to match. Health CSOs contribute social innovation in organising services and activities such as advocacy that cannot be satisfactorily met by industry. Engaging CSOs in research and innovation will strengthen the European Research Area.

  2. Increasing civil society participation in the national HIV response: the role of UNGASS reporting.

    PubMed

    Peersman, Greet; Ferguson, Laura; Torres, Mary Ann; Smith, Sally; Gruskin, Sofia

    2009-12-01

    The 2001 Declaration of Commitment on HIV/AIDS provided impetus for strengthening collaboration between government and civil society partners in the HIV response. The biennial UNGASS reporting process is an opportunity for civil society to engage in a review of the implementation of commitments. Descriptive analyses of the National Composite Policy Index from 135 countries; a debriefing on UNGASS reporting with civil society in 40 countries; and 3 country case studies on the UNGASS process. In the latest UNGASS reporting round, engagement of civil society occurred in the vast majority of countries. The utility of UNGASS reporting seemed to be better understood by both government and civil society, compared with previous reporting rounds. Civil society participation was strongest when civil society groupings took the initiative and organized themselves. An important barrier was their lack of experience with national level processes. Civil society involvement in national HIV planning and strategic processes was perceived to be good, but better access to funding and technical support is needed. Instances remain where there are fundamental differences between government and civil society perceptions of the HIV policy and program environment. How or whether differences were resolved is not always clear, but both government and civil society seemed to appreciate the opportunity for discussion. Collaborative reporting by government and civil society on UNGASS indicators is a small but potentially valuable step in what should be an ongoing and fully institutionalized process of collaborative planning, implementation, monitoring, assessment and correction of HIV responses. The momentum achieved through the UNGASS process should be maintained with follow-up actions to address data gaps, formalize partnerships and enhance active and meaningful engagement.

  3. Civil Society, Citizenship and Learning. Bochum Studies in International Adult Education, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bron, Agnieszka, Ed.; Schemmann, Michael, Ed.

    This second volume of the Bochum Studies in International Adult Education presents a variety of different perspectives on the topics of citizenship and civil society. Its goal is to give an overview of the European discourse on citizenship and civil society and on the discourse in some selected countries. Part I is comprised of the first of 14…

  4. Civil Society, Citizenship and Learning. Bochum Studies in International Adult Education, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bron, Agnieszka, Ed.; Schemmann, Michael, Ed.

    This second volume of the Bochum Studies in International Adult Education presents a variety of different perspectives on the topics of citizenship and civil society. Its goal is to give an overview of the European discourse on citizenship and civil society and on the discourse in some selected countries. Part I is comprised of the first of 14…

  5. Creating the Civil Society East and West: Relationality, Responsibility and the Education of the Humane Person

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozolinš, Janis Talivaldis

    2017-01-01

    A recurring theme in many places concerns the nurturing and maintenance of a civil society that is committed to justice, to human fulfilment and a community that actively pursues the good of all its members. The creation of a civil society where there is respect for persons and a concern for the good of others is an important social aim and though…

  6. Non-Formal Education and Civil Society in Post-Soviet Russia: What Is the Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, W. John; Kliucharev, Grigori A.

    2011-01-01

    The article describes collaborative research into the relationship between non-formal education and civil society in post-Soviet Russia. It shows how through social survey data and case studies of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and other civil society organisations (CSOs), using a combination of social science perspectives, much can be…

  7. Non-Formal Education and Civil Society in Post-Soviet Russia: What Is the Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, W. John; Kliucharev, Grigori A.

    2011-01-01

    The article describes collaborative research into the relationship between non-formal education and civil society in post-Soviet Russia. It shows how through social survey data and case studies of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and other civil society organisations (CSOs), using a combination of social science perspectives, much can be…

  8. The Political Economy of Civil Society: Implications for Adult and Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Mark

    Adult education theory and practice has long been involved in identifying spaces where counter-hegemonic learning can take place. Civil society is regarded as the site par-excellence for providing space in which to learn free from power and domination and from the state and economy. Another dimension to the recent focus on civil society as a site…

  9. Building a Civil Society: A New Role for the Human Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Martha C.

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that economic well-being rests on a thriving civil society. Discusses lines of inquiry in the human sciences necessary to building a civil society in Canada: (1) enabling individuals to better understand themselves, their values, and their roles as citizens; (2) defining Canadian identity and role as global citizen; and (3) informing the…

  10. HIV, sex work, and civil society in China.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Joan

    2011-12-01

    Harm reduction programs for sex workers have been hampered by the prioritization of law enforcement over AIDS prevention. For example, the April 2010 "strike-hard" campaign against prostitution in Beijing, during which bars, nightclubs, saunas, and karaoke bars were raided, created an atmosphere that critically impeded human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) outreach activities for sex workers. In China, criminalization has limited the growth of a coherent and cohesive set of nongovernmental organization (NGO) actors working with sex workers to prevent HIV infection. Compared with other risk groups for HIV sexual transmission, such as men who have sex with men, the NGO community for sex workers is fragmented and poorly coordinated with government efforts, and basic rights for sex workers are often violated. This article examines civil society groups working on AIDS prevention and care for female sex workers in China and reviews constraints to their operations. China's HIV prevention programs for sex workers are compared with sex worker HIV prevention in other Asian states where more well-developed NGOs exist and criminalization has been better balanced with harm reduction approaches, and recommendations are offered on improving China's policies and programs.

  11. Using global health initiatives to strengthen health systems: a civil society perspective.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Jennifer; Russell, Asia; Baker, Brook; Kayongo, Alice; Wanjiku, Esther; Davis, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Research into the effects of global health initiatives (GHIs) on health systems has largely left out the viewpoints and contributions of civil society. This study details civil society's perspective regarding the effects of two GHIs, the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM), on country health systems and the added value of civil society interacting with GHIs to strengthen health systems. The study employed qualitative data collection methods using semi-structured interviews administered during focus groups and key informant interviews. A range of health system stakeholders were interviewed in Kenya, Malawi, Uganda and Zambia. Data were coded and analysed for themes and sub-themes. In total, 2910 civil society participants provided information individually or in focus groups. Respondents reported that GHIs have contributed to dramatic health benefits within and outside of a disease-specific focus, including health systems strengthening efforts. However, opportunities for synergy between GHIs and health systems have been missed, and GHIs have not worked sufficiently to close capacity gaps of grassroots civil society organisations. Despite some governance innovations, civil society's opportunities to participate meaningfully in GHI priority setting efforts are limited. Recommendations are included on how to best use GHIs to strengthen health systems by partnering with civil society.

  12. The role of civil society in health care reforms: an arena for hegemonic struggles.

    PubMed

    Filc, Dani

    2014-12-01

    The present paper argues that current mainstream understandings of civil society as ontologically different from the state and essentially positive (either normative or functionally) are problematic in order to understand the development of health care reforms. The paper proposes to ground an explanation of the role of civil society in health care reforms in a Gramscian understanding of civil society as analytically different from the state, and as an arena for hegemonic struggles. The study of health care reform in Israel serves as a case study for this claim.

  13. 78 FR 26100 - Advisory Committee on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue With Civil Society; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... Committee on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue With Civil Society; Notice of the Renewal of an... Strategic Dialogue with Civil Society (hereinafter ``the Committee''). The Committee provides advice and... of, civil society worldwide. Functions of the Committee include, but are not limited to:...

  14. Classical Concepts of Social Solidarity as the Basis of Theoretical Studies on the Institutions of Modern Civil Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naletova, Irina Vladimirovna; Okatov, Alexander Vladimirovich; Zhulikova, Olga Valentinovna

    2016-01-01

    Current importance of this investigation has been stipulated by the modern trends in the development of civil society. Differentiated processes of its development, increased significance of certain institutions of the civil society often require not just empirical description of the principal trends of the functions of civil society, but also need…

  15. World Bank: harnessing civil society expertise in undertaking and disseminating research findings.

    PubMed

    Simms, Ben

    2013-01-01

    The UK Consortium on AIDS and International Development was an essential partner to the evaluation leaders in harnessing the contribution and expertise of civil society. This article describes what the partnership entailed, the additional value it brought and how civil society might use the evaluation findings both as a tool for advocacy and a means for improving its own engagement with the individuals directly affected by HIV and with those who care for them.

  16. Political repression, civil society and the politics of responding to AIDS in the BRICS nations.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Eduardo J; Harris, Joseph

    2016-02-01

    The policy responses to human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) nations have played out amid radically different political environments that have shaped state-civil society relations in critical ways. In contrasting these different environments, this article offers the first comparison of the policy response to AIDS in the BRICS nations and seeks to understand the way in which political context matters for conditioning the response to a major epidemic. Using a comparative historical approach, we find that while collaborative state-civil society relations have produced an aggressive response and successful outcomes in Brazil, democratic openness and state-civil society engagement has not necessarily correlated with an aggressive response or better outcomes in the other cases. Response to the epidemic has been worst by far in democratic South Africa, followed by Russia, where in the former, denialism and antagonistic state-civil society relations fuelled a delayed response and proved extremely costly in terms of human lives. In Russia, a lack of civil societal opportunity for mobilization and non-governmental organization (NGO) growth, political centralization and the state's unwillingness to work with NGOs led to an ineffective government response. Top-down bureaucratic rule and a reluctance to fully engage civil society in democratic India substantially delayed the state's efforts to engage in a successful partnership with NGOs. Nevertheless, China has done surprisingly well, in spite of its repressive approach and narrow engagement with civil society. And in all cases, we find the relationship between state and civil society to be evolving over time in important ways. These findings suggest the need for more research on the links between democratic openness, political repression and policy responses to epidemics.

  17. Education: The Resource for the Consolidation of a Civil Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filonov, G. N.

    2005-01-01

    Contemporary Russian society is going through complex stages of internal change and integration into the world civilizational process. This process includes profound structural and functional changes in the economic, sociocultural, and intellectual spheres. Under these conditions, Russian society is observing the emergence of a whole complex of…

  18. Schools and Civil Society: Corporate or Community Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranson, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    School improvement depends upon mediating the cultural conditions of learning as young people journey between their parochial worlds and the public world of cosmopolitan society. Governing bodies have a crucial role in including or diminishing the representation of different cultural traditions and in enabling or frustrating the expression of…

  19. Schools and Civil Society: Corporate or Community Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranson, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    School improvement depends upon mediating the cultural conditions of learning as young people journey between their parochial worlds and the public world of cosmopolitan society. Governing bodies have a crucial role in including or diminishing the representation of different cultural traditions and in enabling or frustrating the expression of…

  20. Preparing Leaders for Civil Society: A Framework for Professional Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisesi, Michael; Lidman, Russell

    2003-01-01

    Explores how professional education for public service careers must change to meet the new demands of a society that expects its services to be more customer-focused. Proposes eight principle of good teaching practice that would improve the instructional approaches used in public service education and promote the development of leadership…

  1. Preparing Leaders for Civil Society: A Framework for Professional Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisesi, Michael; Lidman, Russell

    2003-01-01

    Explores how professional education for public service careers must change to meet the new demands of a society that expects its services to be more customer-focused. Proposes eight principle of good teaching practice that would improve the instructional approaches used in public service education and promote the development of leadership…

  2. State Governance and Civil Society in Education: Revisiting the Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Elsie; Vera, Eugenia Roldan

    2013-01-01

    ISCHE 33 was convened in San Luis Potosi to re-examine a relationship--that between society, education and the state--that had been largely taken for granted in official histories of education of modern nations. This theme was inspired by the bicentenary celebrations of the relatively early nineteenth-century movements (from 1804 to 1824) that…

  3. State Governance and Civil Society in Education: Revisiting the Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Elsie; Vera, Eugenia Roldan

    2013-01-01

    ISCHE 33 was convened in San Luis Potosi to re-examine a relationship--that between society, education and the state--that had been largely taken for granted in official histories of education of modern nations. This theme was inspired by the bicentenary celebrations of the relatively early nineteenth-century movements (from 1804 to 1824) that…

  4. Civil society and the negotiation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    MAMUDU, H. M.

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco control civil society organisations mobilised to influence countries during the negotiation of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) between 1999 and 2003. Tobacco control civil society organisations and coalitions around the world embraced the idea of an international tobacco control treaty and came together as the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA), becoming an important non-state actor within the international system of tobacco control. Archival documents and interviews demonstrate that the FCA successfully used strategies including publication of a newsletter, shaming, symbolism and media advocacy to influence policy positions of countries during the FCTC negotiation. The FCA became influential in the negotiation process by mobilising tobacco control civil society organisations and resources with the help of the Internet and framing the tobacco control discussion around global public health. PMID:19333806

  5. Civil society and the negotiation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Mamudu, H M; Glantz, S A

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco control civil society organisations mobilised to influence countries during the negotiation of the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) between 1999 and 2003. Tobacco control civil society organisations and coalitions around the world embraced the idea of an international tobacco control treaty and came together as the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA), becoming an important non-state actor within the international system of tobacco control. Archival documents and interviews demonstrate that the FCA successfully used strategies, including publication of a newsletter, shaming symbolism and media advocacy to influence policy positions of countries during the FCTC negotiation. The FCA became influential in the negotiation process, by mobilising tobacco control civil society organisations and resources with the help of the Internet, and framing the tobacco control discussion around global public health.

  6. Civil society: the catalyst for ensuring health in the age of sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Smith, Julia; Buse, Kent; Gordon, Case

    2016-07-16

    Sustainable Development Goal Three is rightly ambitious, but achieving it will require doing global health differently. Among other things, progressive civil society organisations will need to be recognised and supported as vital partners in achieving the necessary transformations. We argue, using illustrative examples, that a robust civil society can fulfill eight essential global health functions. These include producing compelling moral arguments for action, building coalitions beyond the health sector, introducing novel policy alternatives, enhancing the legitimacy of global health initiatives and institutions, strengthening systems for health, enhancing accountability systems, mitigating the commercial determinants of health and ensuring rights-based approaches. Given that civil society activism has catalyzed tremendous progress in global health, there is a need to invest in and support it as a global public good to ensure that the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development can be realised.

  7. Civil society organisations' roles in health development in Vietnam: HIV as a case study.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Tu-Anh

    2013-01-01

    Civil society in contemporary Vietnam has been recognised as an important force in public health. Based on qualitative interviews and observations of 30 organisations and networks in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, this paper argues that civil society organisations (CSOs) focus almost exclusively on providing information and services, including care and treatment, in line with a state-sanctioned 'implementer' role for civil society, and that these organisations therefore miss an opportunity to act as agents for change. It was observed that the CSOs taking on roles involving advocacy and the monitoring of policy implementation were those that focus exclusively on HIV/AIDS prevention and control. However, the sustainability of these efforts is unclear.

  8. Addressing social determinants of health inequities: what can the state and civil society do?

    PubMed

    Blas, Erik; Gilson, Lucy; Kelly, Michael P; Labonté, Ronald; Lapitan, Jostacio; Muntaner, Carles; Ostlin, Piroska; Popay, Jennie; Sadana, Ritu; Sen, Gita; Schrecker, Ted; Vaghri, Ziba

    2008-11-08

    In this Health Policy article, we selected and reviewed evidence synthesised by nine knowledge networks established by WHO to support the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. We have indicated the part that national governments and civil society can play in reducing health inequity. Government action can take three forms: (1) as provider or guarantor of human rights and essential services; (2) as facilitator of policy frameworks that provide the basis for equitable health improvement; and (3) as gatherer and monitor of data about their populations in ways that generate health information about mortality and morbidity and data about health equity. We use examples from the knowledge networks to illustrate some of the options governments have in fulfilling this role. Civil society takes many forms: here, we have used examples of community groups and social movements. Governments and civil society can have important positive roles in addressing health inequity if political will exists.

  9. From invited to uninvited participation (and back?): rethinking civil society engagement in technology assessment and development.

    PubMed

    Wehling, Peter

    2012-11-01

    In recent years, citizens' and civil society engagement with science and technology has become almost synonymous with participation in institutionally organized formats of participatory technology assessment (pTA) such as consensus conferences or stakeholder dialogues. Contrary to this view, it is argued in the article that beyond these standardized models of "invited" participation, there exist various forms of "uninvited" and independent civil society engagement, which frequently not only have more significant impact but are profoundly democratically legitimate as well. Using the two examples of patient associations and environmental and consumer organizations in the field of nanotechnology, it is illustrated that interest-based civil society interventions do play an important role in the polycentric governance of science and technology. In conclusion, some implications for the activities of TA institutions and the design of novel TA procedures are outlined.

  10. Civil Society Organizations and the Functions of Global Health Governance: What Role within Intergovernmental Organizations?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kelley

    2016-01-01

    Amid discussion of how global health governance should and could be strengthened, the potential role of civil society organizations has been frequently raised. This paper considers the role of Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in four health governance instruments under the auspices of the World Health Organization – the International Code on the Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, International Health Regulations and Codex Alimentarius - and maps the functions they have contributed to. The paper draws conclusions about the opportunities and limitations CSOs represent for strengthening global health governance (GHG). PMID:27274776

  11. PROPOSAL OF USING WOOD IN CIVIL ENGINEERING FIELD AIMING FOR A SUSTAINABLE SOCIETY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomimatsu, Yoshiharu; Numata, Atsunori; Hamada, Masanori; Miwa, Shigeru; Motoyama, Hiroshi

    Aiming for a sustainable society is one of the most important missions in the first half of the twenty-first century. In the civil engineering field, which normally focuses on carbon dioxide emissions, other techniques to attain a perfect sustainable ecosystem are considered expectable. For this, technical developments are needed to harmonize natural ecosystems for the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions or reduce carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The authors propose using a lot of wood in the civil engineering field. However, civil engineers do not have the chance to learn about wood science and some engineers have misconceptions about the use of wood. For these reasons, this paper explains the significance of using wood for a sustainable society. As a concrete measure, the authors proposed the use of wood as a countermeasure against poor, unstable ground and liquefiable ground.

  12. Online Deliberation among Regional Civil Society Groups--The Case of the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thakur, Dhanaraj G.

    2010-01-01

    Deliberative democracy has been promoted as a way improving legitimacy and political equality in policy debates. This dissertation seeks to understand how deliberation takes place within the intersection of two unique spaces: dialogue among members of regional civil society groups and communication in online fora. The motivation for this research…

  13. Civil Society, State, and Institutions for Young Children in Modern Japan: The Initial Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uno, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Research on the history of children and childhood in modern Japan (1868-1945) reveals that issues related to civil society, state, and the establishment of institutions for young children can be explored beyond the transatlantic world. In this essay, after briefly surveying historiography, a few basic terms, and earlier patterns of state and…

  14. Civil Society and Control of Corruption: Assessing Governance of Romanian Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina; Dusu, Andra Elena

    2011-01-01

    Romania is perceived as the most corrupt EU member state according to Transparency International Corruption Perception Index. In 2008-2009, a grassroots coalition of civil society organizations and education stakeholders created the Coalition for Clean Universities which organized the first assessment of integrity of the Romanian higher education…

  15. Civil Society and Control of Corruption: Assessing Governance of Romanian Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina; Dusu, Andra Elena

    2011-01-01

    Romania is perceived as the most corrupt EU member state according to Transparency International Corruption Perception Index. In 2008-2009, a grassroots coalition of civil society organizations and education stakeholders created the Coalition for Clean Universities which organized the first assessment of integrity of the Romanian higher education…

  16. Sexuality Education in South African Schools: The Challenge for Civil Society Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams Tucker, Leigh; George, Gavin; Reardon, Candice; Panday, Saadhna

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Drawing on the perceptions of various key stakeholders, the paper explores the strengths and limitations of involving civil society organisations in the delivery of HIV and AIDS and sexuality education in South African schools. Design: Qualitative study with a cross-sectional design. Setting: Research was conducted at 16 public…

  17. Affective and Behavioural Variables: Reforms as Experiments to Produce a Civil Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitz-Gibbon, Carol T.

    2006-01-01

    Affective and behavioural indicators of the effects of schooling, and of other interventions, might be more important than cognitive indicators, particularly in the long run and considering the urgent need for civil societies. Examples are provided of the statistical properties of affective and behavioural indicators, and of their current use in…

  18. The Memorial Ceremony in Israeli Schools: Between the State and Civil Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomsky-Feder, Edna

    2004-01-01

    Exploring memorial ceremonies conducted in Israeli schools over the past decade, this paper discusses the school memorial ceremony as a potential site for struggle over national identities, and schools as the social arena of an encounter between the State and civil society. Analysis of 50 ethnographies (elicited from semi-structured observations)…

  19. Catalysing Educational Development or Institutionalising External Influence? Donors, Civil Society and Educational Policy Formation in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappleye, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Recent pronouncements on the benefits of enlisting civil society in educational development have so far not attracted adequate scholarly analyses. This paper therefore seeks to present a critical perspective on this new trend by providing a fine-grained look at three concrete cases of NGO involvement in educational policy-making in Nepal. It also…

  20. Making Space for Civil Society: Institutional Reforms and Local Democracy in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baiocchi, Gianpaolo; Heller, Patrick; Silva, Marcelo Kunrath

    2008-01-01

    This paper contributes to the growing body of research on participatory democracy and the literature on associational democracy by exploring the impact that institutional reforms have on local-level configurations of civil society. In the 1980s a wide range of participatory experiments were initiated in Brazil, most notably Participatory Budgeting…

  1. Catalysing Educational Development or Institutionalising External Influence? Donors, Civil Society and Educational Policy Formation in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappleye, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Recent pronouncements on the benefits of enlisting civil society in educational development have so far not attracted adequate scholarly analyses. This paper therefore seeks to present a critical perspective on this new trend by providing a fine-grained look at three concrete cases of NGO involvement in educational policy-making in Nepal. It also…

  2. The Financing of Adult Learning in Civil Society: A European Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Paul; Bochynek, Bettina

    The financing of adult learning in civil society in Europe was examined in an exploratory study that focused on the relationship between nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the status of financing in the general field of adult learning. Adult education experts from the following countries were subcontracted to develop "country…

  3. Sexuality Education in South African Schools: The Challenge for Civil Society Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams Tucker, Leigh; George, Gavin; Reardon, Candice; Panday, Saadhna

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Drawing on the perceptions of various key stakeholders, the paper explores the strengths and limitations of involving civil society organisations in the delivery of HIV and AIDS and sexuality education in South African schools. Design: Qualitative study with a cross-sectional design. Setting: Research was conducted at 16 public…

  4. Civic Education Partnerships: Civil Society Organisations, Donors and the State in Fiji

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baleinakorodawa, Paolo; Spence, Rebecca; O'Loughlin, Micheal

    2011-01-01

    This article reflects on some of the challenges and opportunities presented when working in partnership in the highly politicised and contested Fijian Civil Society environment over the past five years. The authors are practitioners who specialise in working with communities which experience conflict. The paper discusses and analyses the genesis…

  5. Non-Formal Education for Youth and Adults: The Perspective of Civil Society. New Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarti, Iliana Pereyra

    2006-01-01

    REPEM is a civil society organisation based in Uruguay. REPEM's mission is to contribute to the achievement of social and gender justice through alliance-building processes. In this article, the author, who works with REPEM, shares some reflections, lessons learned, and concerns about the issue of non-formal education for youth and adults. She…

  6. Civil society advocacy in Nigeria: promoting democratic norms or donor demands?

    PubMed

    Williamson, R Taylor; Rodd, Joshua

    2016-07-11

    Civil society organizations (CSOs) are often assumed to be institutions that facilitate communication between citizens and policymakers. However, CSO advocacy is only as effective as the space allowed by government, the resources available from funders, and their own internal capacity. This article presents findings from a study in Nigeria that explores the advocacy and service delivery roles of CSOs working in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) prevention and mitigation. We will argue that donor and government treatment of civil society as service delivery organizations, rather than as organizations that participate in democratic norms, have shaped how civil society organizations work to mitigate and prevent HIV. From February to April 2012, a team of Health Systems 20/20 staff and one consultant conducted 48 in-depth interviews with civil society organizations, State AIDS Control Agencies (SACAs), donors, international organizations, and networks of people living with HIV to examine a wide range of advocacy efforts by CSOs. For quantitative data collection, sampling frames were assembled from lists of HIV-oriented or involved CSOs. This sampling frame consisted of 2548 CSOs from all 36 states and the Federal Capital Territory. A random sample was then taken from the sampling frame, and we contacted 665 CSOs to arrange interviews. With a response rate of 80.2 %, the project conducted 533 surveys in February 2012. These surveys showed that CSOs advocacy efforts focused on community mobilization related to behavior change, such as peer education (54.9 % of CSOs) and rallies (58.2 % of CSOs), and not on changing government policies. In-depth interviews highlighted the role of donors and government in shaping a purely apolitical role for most CSOs through funding constraints, regulations, and capacity development choices. In light of these findings, we present key points for considering the influence of donors and government on civil society advocacy for HIV services

  7. Creating Inquiry Between Technology Developers and Civil Society Actors: Learning from Experiences Around Nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Krabbenborg, Lotte

    2016-06-01

    Engaging civil society actors as knowledgeable dialogue partners in the development and governance of emerging technologies is a new challenge. The starting point of this paper is the observation that the design and orchestration of current organized interaction events shows limitations, particularly in the articulation of issues and in learning how to address the indeterminacies that go with emerging technologies. This paper uses Dewey's notion of 'publics' and 'reflective inquiry' to outline ways of doing better and to develop requirements for a more productive involvement of civil society actors. By studying four novel spaces for interaction in the domain of nanotechnology, this paper examines whether and how elements of Dewey's thought are visible and under what conditions. One of the main findings is that, in our society, special efforts are needed in order for technology developers and civil society actors to engage in a joint inquiry on emerging nanotechnology. Third persons, like social scientists and philosophers, play a role in this respect in addition to external input such as empirically informed scenarios and somewhat protected spaces.

  8. Resistance, rupture and repetition: Civil society strategies against intimate partner violence in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Lilja, Mona; Baaz, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a new interpretation of the 'resistance' carried out by local civil society organisations in Cambodia against intimate partner violence (IPV). In this, the paper explores the nexus between 'rupture', 'resistance' and 'repetition' and concludes that different 'repetitions' can contribute to acts of violence while simultaneously creating possibilities for resisting IPV. In regard to the latter, the concept of 'rupture' is investigated as a performative politics through which organisations try to disrupt the 'repetitions' of violent masculinities. Furthermore, it is argued that the importance of 'repetitions' and the concept of time should be acknowledged. The French criminal defence lawyer Jacques Vergès' understanding of 'rupture' and the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze's notions of 'repetition' inform the analysis. To exemplify our discussion and findings, the paper embraces stories of a number of civil society workers who facilitate various men's groups in Cambodia in order to negotiate the practice of IPV.

  9. Appropriateness of Prescriptions of Recommended Treatments in Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Health Systems: Findings Based on the Long-Term Registry of the European Society of Cardiology on Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Maggioni, Aldo P; Van Gool, Kees; Biondi, Nelly; Urso, Renato; Klazinga, Niek; Ferrari, Roberto; Maniadakis, Nikolaos; Tavazzi, Luigi

    2015-12-01

    This observational study aimed to identify clinical variables and health system characteristics associated with incomplete guideline application in drug treatment of patients with chronic heart failure (HF) across 15 countries. Three data sets were used: European Society of Cardiology Heart Failure Registry, Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development's Health System Characteristics Survey, and Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development Health Statistics 2013. Patient and country variables were examined by multilevel, multiple logistic regression. The study population consisted of ambulatory patients with chronic HF and reduced ejection fraction. Inappropriateness of prescription of pharmacological treatments was defined as patients not prescribed at least one of the two recommended treatments (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin-receptor blockers and beta-blockers) or treated with both medications but at suboptimal dosage and in absence of documented contraindication/intolerance. Of 4605 patients, 1097 (23.8%) received inappropriate drug prescriptions with a large variation within and across countries, with 18.5% of the total variability accounted for by between-country health structure characteristics. Patient-level characteristics such as having mitral regurgitation (odds ratio 1.4; 95% confidence interval 1.1-1.7) was significantly associated with inappropriate prescription of recommended drugs, whereas chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (odds ratio 0.7; 95% confidence interval 0.5-0.9) was associated with more appropriate prescriptions. Among the country-level variables, incentives or obligation to comply with guidelines increased the probability of prescription appropriateness. Combining clinical variables with health system characteristics is a promising exercise to explain the appropriateness of recommended drug prescriptions. Such an understanding can help decision makers to design more effective policies to

  10. Civil Society Engagement in the Sulu Archipelago: Mobilizing Vibrant Networks to Win the Peace

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-06-14

    human endeavor, ultimately won or lost in the human domain” (2012) and Special Operations Command’s new theme “You Can’t Surge Trust” conveys the same...involvement of intellectuals in civil society is not entirely lost overtime and the concept has resonance with leading scholars and more importantly...organized, and analyzed to support this thesis’ argument. Analytical Style and Research Approach Ian Shapiro laments that “academics have all but lost

  11. From spectators to implementers: civil society organizations involved in AIDS programmes in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Hui; Kuo, Nana Taona; Liu, Hui; Korhonen, Christine; Pond, Ellenie; Guo, Haoyan; Smith, Liz; Xue, Hui; Sun, Jiangping

    2010-12-01

    Over the past 20 years, civil society organizations (CSOs) in China have significantly increased their involvement in the AIDS response. This article aims to review the extent of civil society participation in China AIDS programmes over the past two decades. A desk review was conducted to collect Chinese government policies, project documents and published articles on civil society participation of HIV/AIDS programmes in China over the past two decades. Assessment focused on five aspects: (i) the political environment; (ii) access to financial resources; (iii) the number of CSOs working on HIV/AIDS; (iv) the scope of work; and (v) the impact of CSO involvement on programmes. The number of CSOs specificly working on HIV/AIDS increased from 0 before 1988 to over 400 in 2009. Among a sample of 368 CSOs, 135 (36.7%) were registered. CSOs were primarily supported by international programmes. Government financial support to CSOs has increased from USD248 000 in 2002 to USD1.46 million in 2008. Initially, civil society played a minimal role. It is now widely involved in nearly all aspects of HIV/AIDS-related prevention, treatment and care efforts, and has had a positive impact; for example, increased adherence of anti-retroviral treatment and HIV testing among hard-to-reach groups. The main challenges faced by CSOs include registration, capacity and long-term financial support. CSOs have significantly increased their participation and contribution to HIV/AIDS programmes in China. Policies for registration and financial support to CSOs need to be developed to enable them to play an even greater role in AIDS programmes.

  12. Who's making global civil society: philanthropy and US empire in world society.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Ann

    2006-12-01

    Theories of US hegemony commonly ignore the role of American philanthropy in the contemporary transformations of world society and the globalization of capitalism. In this essay, I suggest that the philanthropic foundation, and with it the institution of philanthropy, is being invigorated by the expansion of its domestic role to foreign activities and to globally framed activities within the USA. I propose that US philanthropy exports American understandings of democracy and simultaneously organizes global reflexivity through citizenship education for the US populace. I offer a preliminary theoretical interpretation of the empirical patterns of international grant-making activities by US foundations, considering John W. Meyer's concept of 'instrumental culture' and some arguments made by Foucauldian 'governmentality' scholars. I emphasize the need to conceptualize the cultural-symbolic and organizational dimensions of hegemony and suggest further sociological analysis of philanthropic activities as integral to current politically and economically led transformations of societies around the globe.

  13. Civil society participation in the health system: the case of Brazil's Health Councils.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Martha Gabriela; Kohler, Jillian Clare

    2016-10-26

    Brazil created Health Councils to bring together civil society groups, heath professionals, and government officials in the discussion of health policies and health system resource allocation. However, several studies have concluded that Health Councils are not very influential on healthcare policy. This study probes this issue further by providing a descriptive account of some of the challenges civil society face within Brazil's Health Councils. Forty semi-structured interviews with Health Council Members at the municipal, state and national levels were conducted in June and July of 2013 and May of 2014. The geographical location of the interviewees covered all five regions of Brazil (North, Northeast, Midwest, Southeast, South) for a total of 5 different municipal Health Councils, 8 different state Health Councils, and the national Health Council in Brasilia. Interview data was analyzed using a thematic approach. Health Councils are limited by a lack of legal authority, which limits their ability to hold the government accountable for its health service performance, and thus hinders their ability to fulfill their mandate. Equally important, their membership guidelines create a limited level of inclusivity that seems to benefit only well-organized civil society groups. There is a reported lack of support and recognition from the relevant government that negatively affects the degree to which Health Council deliberations are implemented. Other deficiencies include an insufficient amount of resources for Health Council operations, and a lack of training for Health Council members. Lastly, strong individual interests among Health Council members tend to influence how members participate in Health Council discussions. Brazil's Health Councils fall short in providing an effective forum through which civil society can actively participate in health policy and resource allocation decision-making processes. Restrictive membership guidelines, a lack of autonomy from the

  14. Local governments and civil society lead breakthrough for tobacco control: lessons from Chandigarh and Chennai.

    PubMed

    Kashiwabara, Mina; Arul, Rathinum; Goswami, Hemant; Narain, Jai P; Armada, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Smoke-free legislation is gaining popularity; however, it must accompany effective implementation to protect people from secondhand smoke (SHS) which causes 600,000 deaths annually. Increasing numbers of smoke-free cities in the world indicate that municipalities have an important role in promoting smoke-free environments. The objectives were to describe the local initiative to promote smoke-free environments and identify the key factors that contributed to the process. Observations were based on a case study on the municipal smoke-free initiatives in Chandigarh and Chennai, India. India adopted the Cigarette and Other Tobacco Products Act in 2003, the first national tobacco control law including smoke-free provisions. In an effort to enforce the Act at the local level, a civil society organization in Chandigarh initiated activities urging the city to support the implementation of the provisions of the Act which led to the initiation of city-wide law enforcement. After the smoke-free declaration of Chandigarh in 2007, Chennai also initiated a smoke-free intervention led by civil society in 2008, following the strategies used in Chandigarh. These experiences resonate with other cases in Asian cities, such as Jakarta, Davao, and Kanagawa as well as cities in other areas of the world including Mexico City, New York City, Mecca and Medina. The cases of Chandigarh and Chennai demonstrate that civil society can make a great contribution to the enforcement of smoke-free laws in cities, and that cities can learn from their peers to protect people from SHS.

  15. Circus monkeys or change agents? Civil society advocacy for HIV/AIDS in adverse policy environments.

    PubMed

    Spicer, Neil; Harmer, Andrew; Aleshkina, Julia; Bogdan, Daryna; Chkhatarashvili, Ketevan; Murzalieva, Gulgun; Rukhadze, Natia; Samiev, Arnol; Walt, Gill

    2011-12-01

    This paper explores the factors enabling and undermining civil society efforts to advocate for policy reforms relating to HIV/AIDS and illicit drugs in three countries in Eastern Europe and Central Asia: Georgia, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine. It examines how political contexts and civil society actors' strengths and weaknesses inhibit or enable advocacy for policy change - issues that are not well understood in relation to specific policy areas such as HIV/AIDS, or particular regions of the world where national policies are believed to be major drivers of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The study is based on in-depth interviews with representatives of civil society organizations (CSOs) (n = 49) and national level informants including government and development partners (n = 22). Our policy analysis identified a culture of fear derived from concerns for personal safety but also risk of losing donor largesse. Relations between CSOs and government were often acrimonious rather than synergistic, and while we found some evidence of CSO collective action, competition for external funding - in particular for HIV/AIDS grants from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria was often divisive. Development partners and government tend to construct CSOs as service providers rather than advocates. While some advocacy was tolerated by governments, CSO participation in the policy process was, ultimately, perceived to be tokenistic. This was because there are financial interests in maintaining prohibitionist legislation: efforts to change punitive laws directed at the behaviors of minority groups such as injecting drug users have had limited impact. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Globalisation and health inequalities: can a human rights paradigm create space for civil society action?

    PubMed

    London, Leslie; Schneider, Helen

    2012-01-01

    While neoliberal globalisation is associated with increasing inequalities, global integration has simultaneously strengthened the dissemination of human rights discourse across the world. This paper explores the seeming contradiction that globalisation is conceived as disempowering nations states' ability to act in their population's interests, yet implementation of human rights obligations requires effective states to deliver socio-economic entitlements, such as health. Central to the actions required of the state to build a health system based on a human rights approach is the notion of accountability. Two case studies are used to explore the constraints on states meeting their human rights obligations regarding health, the first drawing on data from interviews with parliamentarians responsible for health in East and Southern Africa, and the second reflecting on the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa. The case studies illustrate the importance of a human rights paradigm in strengthening parliamentary oversight over the executive in ways that prioritise pro-poor protections and in increasing leverage for resources for the health sector within parliamentary processes. Further, a rights framework creates the space for civil society action to engage with the legislature to hold public officials accountable and confirms the importance of rights as enabling civil society mobilization, reinforcing community agency to advance health rights for poor communities. In this context, critical assessment of state incapacity to meet claims to health rights raises questions as to the diffusion of accountability rife under modern international aid systems. Such diffusion of accountability opens the door to 'cunning' states to deflect rights claims of their populations. We argue that human rights, as both a normative framework for legal challenges and as a means to create room for active civil society engagement provide a means to contest both the real and the

  17. The privatization of human services: myths, social capital and civil society.

    PubMed

    Martin, Lawrence L

    2004-01-01

    It is fashionable to point to privatization and the involvement of for-profits as the parties responsible for many, if not most, of the ills that plague the social welfare system today. This article takes a contrary point of view. Three arguments are made. First, private sector human service delivery and the use of for-profits in the United States predate privatization as a defined public policy. Second, the privatization of the human services is a world wide phenomenon that transcends politics and ideology. Third, the privatization of human services helps to promote civil society and generate social capital.

  18. [The Alliance for the Prevention of Colorectal Cancer in Spain. A civil commitment to society].

    PubMed

    Morillas, Juan Diego; Castells, Antoni; Oriol, Isabel; Pastor, Ana; Pérez-Segura, Pedro; Echevarría, José Manuel; Caballero, Begoña; González-Navarro, Andrés; Bandrés, Fernando; Brullet, Enric; Iniesta, Antonio; Carballo, Fernando; Bouzas, Rosa; Ariza, Aurelio; Ibisate, Alfredo; García-Alfonso, Pilar; Escudero, Beatriz; Camacho, Silvia; Fernández-Marcos, Ana; González, Teresa; Quintero, Enrique; Lanas, Angel; Marzo, Mercè; Mascort, Juanjo; Andréu, Monserrat; Cerezo, Laura; Vázquez-Sequeiros, Enrique; Borrás, Josep María; Salas, Dolores; Ascunce, Nieves; Portillo, Isabel; Herráiz, Mayte; Valle, María Luisa; Sotoca, Amalia; Nieto, Santiago; Hué, Carlos; Paz-Ares, Luis

    2012-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common malignant tumor in Spain, when men and women are considered together, and the second leading cause of cancer death. Every week in Spain over 500 cases of CRC are diagnosed, and nearly 260 people die from the disease. Epidemiologic estimations for the coming years show a significant increase in the number of annual cases. CRC is a perfectly preventable tumor and can be cured in 90% of cases if detected in the early stages. Population-based screening programs have been shown to reduce the incidence of CRC and mortality from the disease. Unless early detection programs are established in Spain, it is estimated that in the coming years, 1 out of 20 men and 1 out of 30 women will develop CRC before the age of 75. The Alliance for the Prevention of Colorectal Cancer in Spain is an independent and non-profit organization created in 2008 that integrates patients' associations, altruistic non-governmental organizations and scientific societies. Its main objective is to raise awareness and disseminate information on the social and healthcare importance of CRC in Spain and to promote screening measures, early detection and prevention programs. Health professionals, scientific societies, healthcare institutions and civil society should be sensitized to this highly important health problem that requires the participation of all sectors of society. The early detection of CRC is an issue that affects the whole of society and therefore it is imperative for all sectors to work together.

  19. An Empirical Study of IT Use in Pakistani Civil Society Organizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Saqib; Rohde, Markus; Wulf, Volker

    As voulantary organizations are differnt from business and governmental organizations in terms of structure, working methodologies and decision making, we are interested in the specific IT requirements and technology use in this sector. In this paper we investigate the Pakistani civil society sector to analyze the involvement of technology in their work settings. The paper also discusses two successful virtual voulantary organizations to highlight the potential of new media. The findings suggest that lack of technological and financial resources hinder them to adopt innovative solutions. The technological use is mostly limited, but the realization of its importance and urge to establish ICT infrastructures exist. So there is need for appropriating technology so that this sector in collaboration with government institutions can serve the public in a better way in new knowledge society.

  20. Governing AIDS through aid to civil society: Global solutions meet local problems in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Follér, Maj-Lis

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this article is to explore how international donors influence civil society organisations (CSOs) in Mozambique through funding mechanisms, the creation of partnerships, or inclusion in targeted programmes. The main focus is the relationship between donors and AIDS non-governmental organisations (NGOs). The main questions the paper aims to answer are: Who is setting the agenda? What power mechanisms are in place to fulfil planned projects and programmes? Are there any forms of resistance from civil society AIDS-organisations in the face of the donor interventions? The actions will be analysed through the lens of governmentality theory. The study concluded that donors have the power to set the agenda through predetermined programmes and using various technologies. Their strongest weapons are audit mechanisms such as the result based management model used as a control mechanism, and there is still a long way to go to achieve a situation with multiple forms of local resistance to the conditions set by economically powerful donors. The standardisation imposed through clustering donors into like-minded groups and other constellations gives them power to govern the politics of AIDS.

  1. Role of civil society, people's participation and gender equity in food security.

    PubMed

    Jones, G W

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the views of an Australian demographer on the role of civil society, community participation, and gender equity in food security as a chief conference discussant. Professor Jones stated that sufficient food supplies did not assure equitable food accessibility. Food insecurity was greatest among poor and marginalized groups. Access to food was limited by limited purchasing power of populations, uneven income distribution, and inadequate storage and transportation systems. Food security was tied to the degree of political participation of a population in processes and plans that affected their lives. Cohesiveness of a society was related to the vulnerability of the poor during times of food scarcity. The greatest threats to socioeconomic development and to food security were from civil disorder or unrest. Governments are becoming aware of women's role in food production. This role in the past was obscured by data that were not aggregated by sex and that understated the importance of women's role. Women's invisible role in food production resulted in women's exclusion from cultural extension programs, credit schemes, and knowledge about improved technology. Women's participation in credit programs was linked with women's general level of empowerment and community participation. Research findings indicate that increases in women's status were associated with more even access to educational opportunities for women. Increased educational level was associated with improved family nutrition, higher economic productivity, and lower fertility, and consequently, better food security.

  2. The role of civil society organizations in the institutionalization of indigenous medicine in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Babis, Deby

    2014-12-01

    December 2013 marked a significant shift in Bolivia with the enactment of a law for the inclusion of indigenous doctors in the National Health System. This article traces the constellation of forces that led to the institutionalization of indigenous medicine in Bolivia. It identifies three factors contributing to this health policy change. The first factor is the crystallization of a strong indigenous movement fighting for the recognition of cultural rights through the foundation of civil society organizations. Second is the rise to power of Evo Morales, the first Latin American president of indigenous origin, who has promoted multicultural policies, formally supported through the promulgation of a new constitution. Lastly is the influence of the global acceptance of alternative medicine. Indigenous doctor organizations in Bolivia have been highly involved throughout the entire process of institutionalization and have played a crucial role in it. An analysis of the relationship between these civil society organizations and the Bolivian government reveals a strong partnership. This dynamic can be described in terms of Interdependence Theory, as each party relied on the other in the promotion and practice of the law to achieve the integration of indigenous medicine as part of the Bolivian Health System. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Public or private? The role of the state and civil society in health and health inequalities across nations.

    PubMed

    Olafsdottir, Sigrun; Bakhtiari, Elyas; Barman, Emily

    2014-12-01

    Social scientists have long recognized that macro-level factors have the potential to shape the health of populations and individuals. Along these lines, they have theorized about the role of the welfare state in creating more equal opportunities and outcomes and how this intervention may benefit health. More recently, scholars and policymakers alike have pointed out how the involvement of civil society actors may replace or complement any state effort. Using data from the World Values Surveys and the European Values Study, combined with national-level indicators for welfare state and civil society involvement, we test the impact of each sector on health and health inequalities in 25 countries around the world. We find that both have a statistically significant effect on overall health, but the civil society sector may have a greater independent influence in societies with weaker welfare states. The health inequalities results are less conclusive, but suggest a strong civil society may be particularly beneficial to vulnerable populations, such as the low income and unemployed. Our paper represents an early step in providing empirical evidence for the impact of the welfare state and civil society on health and health inequalities.

  4. [Foundation of the science and society alliance in France. Towards a conscious and recognised collaboration between actors of research and civil society].

    PubMed

    Fellini, Nadia; Faroult, Elie

    2015-01-01

    In the last two decades, the debate on the meaning of science in relation to societies that create it, nourish it, and benefit from it, focused on civil society's ability to produce knowledge. This yielded first the concept of participatory science and later the wider concept of participatory research. Throughout Europe, numerous collective experimentations have generated countless interactions, and new interfaces between the world of research and civil society are constantly being created. But in spite of the proliferation of these experiences, a paradox slows down their acknowledgment and legitimation. On the one hand, these interactions often go unseen and unrecognized by the institutions, public policies, and even at times their very creators. On the other hand, scientists, are still overwhelmingly wary of civil society and, perceiving only its intellectual deficit and lack of comprehension, they fail to consider the study and development of these interactions as being of primary importance. The Sciences and Society Alliance, which was recently founded in France, provides a platform where these collaborative experiences can be collected, studied, supported, communicated, and institutionally acknowledged. The launch of this process,which is soon to be European in scope, answers the need to bring science into the democratic path tread by the societies that create it. In its ability to compose diversity, this process is an example of deep democracy.

  5. The Role of Civil Society Organizations in Monitoring the Global AIDS Response.

    PubMed

    Smith, Julia; Mallouris, Christoforos; Lee, Kelley; Alfvén, Tobias

    2017-07-01

    Civil society organizations (CSOs) are recognized as playing an exceptional role in the global AIDS response. However, there is little detailed research to date on how they contribute to specific governance functions. This article uses Haas' framework on global governance functions to map CSO's participation in the monitoring of global commitments to the AIDS response by institutions and states. Drawing on key informant interviews and primary documents, it focuses specifically on CSO participation in Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting and in Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria processes. It argues that the AIDS response is unique within global health governance, in that CSOs fulfill both formal and informal monitoring functions, and considers the strengths and weaknesses of these contributions. It concludes that future global health governance arrangements should include provisions and resources for monitoring by CSOs because their participation creates more inclusive global health governance and contributes to strengthening commitments to human rights.

  6. The research infrastructure of Chinese foundations, a database for Chinese civil society studies.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ji; Wang, Qun; Dong, Chao; Li, Huafang

    2017-07-25

    This paper provides technical details and user guidance on the Research Infrastructure of Chinese Foundations (RICF), a database of Chinese foundations, civil society, and social development in general. The structure of the RICF is deliberately designed and normalized according to the Three Normal Forms. The database schema consists of three major themes: foundations' basic organizational profile (i.e., basic profile, board member, supervisor, staff, and related party tables), program information (i.e., program information, major program, program relationship, and major recipient tables), and financial information (i.e., financial position, financial activities, cash flow, activity overview, and large donation tables). The RICF's data quality can be measured by four criteria: data source reputation and credibility, completeness, accuracy, and timeliness. Data records are properly versioned, allowing verification and replication for research purposes.

  7. Civil society development versus the peace dividend: international aid in the Wanni.

    PubMed

    Culbert, Vance

    2005-03-01

    Donors that provide aid to the Wanni region of Sri Lanka, which is controlled by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), are promoting initiatives that seek to advance the national peace process. Under the rubric of post-conflict reconstruction, the actions of political forces and structural factors have led to the prioritisation of two different approaches to peace-building: community capacity-building projects; and support for the 'peace dividend'. Both of these approaches face challenges. Cooperation with civil society actors is extremely difficult due to intimidation by the LTTE political authority and the authoritarian nature of its control. Peace-building successes with respect to the peace dividend are difficult to measure, and must be balanced against the negative effects of misdirected funds. Aid organisations must be careful not to consider the tasks of peacebuilding, humanitarian relief and community empowerment as either interchangeable or as mutually reinforcing endeavours.

  8. Incentives to improve farm management: EMS, supply-chains and civil society.

    PubMed

    Gunningham, Neil

    2007-02-01

    This paper focuses on impediments to environmentally sound management practices and how these might be overcome, with an emphasis on the role of environmental management systems, supply chains and civil society. It argues that: Farmers are under increased pressure to cut costs and improve production but with little opportunity to increase prices. Commonly short-term economic interest has damaging environmental implications. Current government policy, in Australia and in many other jurisdictions, relies heavily on voluntary arrangements, education and information, as the main policy instruments through which to persuade farmers to adopt better environmental farm management - e.g. the recent push to encourage the use of voluntary environmental management systems. However, there is good evidence to suggest that these can only make a valuable contribution when combined with a range of other policy instruments, including positive and negative incentives, intervention by third parties and in some cases, an underpinning of regulation. Arguably, what is needed is a strategy that builds on the strengths of voluntary environmental management arrangements while compensating for their weaknesses by combining them with other, complementary policy instruments. If so, we must engage with a range of questions that have not so far figured substantially in the policy debate. Although the principal focus has been on the role of government in bringing about on-farm change in management practices, supply chain pressure (at least in respect of agricultural chemicals and practices which threaten food safety) and civil society action are also potentially powerful mechanisms for bringing about change. Government can and should play a role in harnessing such forces in the interests of improved environmental on-farm practices.

  9. Civil society organizations and adaptation to the health effects of climate change in Canada.

    PubMed

    Poutiainen, C; Berrang-Ford, L; Ford, J; Heymann, J

    2013-05-01

    Adaptation will be necessary to cope with the impacts of climate change on the health of Canadians. Civil society organizations (CSOs) have an important role in health adaptation, but it is unknown what actions they are undertaking. To identify and examine what adaptations are being developed by CSOs to adapt to the health effects of climate change based on a systematic review of the activities of 190 organizations and 1196 reported adaptation actions. There were six key findings: (1) health adaptation actions are predominantly led by environmental CSOs; (2) most actions are occurring at national and regional levels; (3) food and/or water contamination and air quality are dominant climate change stimuli for action; (4) responses predominantly reflect awareness and research activities, with limited evidence of substantive intervention; (5) consideration of vulnerable groups is limited; and (6) climate change is usually considered alongside other factors, if at all. The results indicate a deficit in terms of what needs to be done for health adaptation and what is being done; part of a broader adaptation deficit in Canada. Coordinated adaptation planning at federal and provincial level is needed, involving collaboration between CSOs and public health bodies. Copyright © 2013 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Terrorism, Civil Liberties, and Preventive Approaches to Technology: The Difficult Choices Western Societies Face in the War on Terrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurgensen, Arnd

    2004-01-01

    This article explores public policy alternatives to the current war on terrorism. Western society's vulnerability to terrorism has been dealt with primarily by expanding the law enforcement and surveillance authority of governments at the expense of the freedoms and civil liberties of the public. This approach threatens to undermine the…

  11. Terrorism, Civil Liberties, and Preventive Approaches to Technology: The Difficult Choices Western Societies Face in the War on Terrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurgensen, Arnd

    2004-01-01

    This article explores public policy alternatives to the current war on terrorism. Western society's vulnerability to terrorism has been dealt with primarily by expanding the law enforcement and surveillance authority of governments at the expense of the freedoms and civil liberties of the public. This approach threatens to undermine the…

  12. Contemporary Internet as a Means for Leveling Social Inequality in the Context of Relationships between Civil Society and the State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pronchev, Gennadi B.; Monakhov, Danila N.; Kovalchuk, Valerii K.

    2016-01-01

    The topicality of the research depends on the existence of social inequality which emerges as various social groups of the civil society interact with the state. With regard to this, the paper aims to find out the relation between the current social stratification and the usage level of modern information and communication technologies by…

  13. Understanding the Influence of Independent Civil Society Monitoring and Evaluation at the District Level: A Case Study of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gildemyn, Marie

    2014-01-01

    In developing countries, an increasing number of civil society organizations (CSOs) engage in independent monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of government programs and policies. Most CSOs rely on a range of M&E tools in combination with advocacy strategies to hold government accountable and improve the implementation of programs and policies.…

  14. Some Partners Are More Equal than Others: EFA and Civil Society in Papua New Guinea and Vanuatu Education Policy Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    This article considers a parallel marginalisation of Education for All (EFA) as a holistic approach to education, and the civil society actors and coalitions who address sidelined Dakar goals of early childhood care and education, adult literacy, quality and non-formal education. I argue that in spite of over two decades of EFA rhetoric prizing…

  15. Adult Learning in Political (Un-Civil) Society: Anti-Colonial Subaltern Social Movement (SSM) Pedagogies of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapoor, Dip

    2011-01-01

    Through a selective deployment of conceptualisations from subaltern studies, in particular the concepts of political (un-civil) society and an autonomous domain (or a people's politics that suggests the plausibility of dominance without hegemony), this article distinguishes a subaltern social movement (SSM) formation and related anti-colonial SSM…

  16. Civil Society Organizations in Post-War Liberia: The Role of Education and Training in Strengthening Organizational Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duo, Samuel N.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the role of non-formal education and training in the organizational change process of Civil society organizations (CSOs) in post war Liberia. CSOs are the local foundation for democracy and development in Liberia, and serve a wide range of roles in local communities. For example, in post-war Liberia,…

  17. Civil Society Organizations in Post-War Liberia: The Role of Education and Training in Strengthening Organizational Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duo, Samuel N.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the role of non-formal education and training in the organizational change process of Civil society organizations (CSOs) in post war Liberia. CSOs are the local foundation for democracy and development in Liberia, and serve a wide range of roles in local communities. For example, in post-war Liberia,…

  18. Adult Learning in Political (Un-Civil) Society: Anti-Colonial Subaltern Social Movement (SSM) Pedagogies of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapoor, Dip

    2011-01-01

    Through a selective deployment of conceptualisations from subaltern studies, in particular the concepts of political (un-civil) society and an autonomous domain (or a people's politics that suggests the plausibility of dominance without hegemony), this article distinguishes a subaltern social movement (SSM) formation and related anti-colonial SSM…

  19. Arab Civil Society and Education in Israel: The Arab Pedagogical Council as a Contentious Performance to Achieve National Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbaria, Ayman K.

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on recent developments in the field of education, this article grapples with the educational activism of Arab civil society in Israel. Specifically, it presents a case study of a recent initiative to establish an independent Arab Pedagogical Council (APC). I argue that this initiative, although controversial and challenging to the very…

  20. The Emergence of Cambodian Civil Society within Global Educational Governance: A Morphogenetic Approach to Agency and Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.; Brehm, William C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses Margaret Archer's morphogenetic approach to analyze the emergence of civil society within global educational governance. The purpose is to understand the intersection of historical structures with global actors and spaces that have accompanied the globalization of education. Based on findings from a study on the impact in Cambodia…

  1. Arab Civil Society and Education in Israel: The Arab Pedagogical Council as a Contentious Performance to Achieve National Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbaria, Ayman K.

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on recent developments in the field of education, this article grapples with the educational activism of Arab civil society in Israel. Specifically, it presents a case study of a recent initiative to establish an independent Arab Pedagogical Council (APC). I argue that this initiative, although controversial and challenging to the very…

  2. The Emergence of Cambodian Civil Society within Global Educational Governance: A Morphogenetic Approach to Agency and Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.; Brehm, William C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses Margaret Archer's morphogenetic approach to analyze the emergence of civil society within global educational governance. The purpose is to understand the intersection of historical structures with global actors and spaces that have accompanied the globalization of education. Based on findings from a study on the impact in Cambodia…

  3. Understanding the Influence of Independent Civil Society Monitoring and Evaluation at the District Level: A Case Study of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gildemyn, Marie

    2014-01-01

    In developing countries, an increasing number of civil society organizations (CSOs) engage in independent monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of government programs and policies. Most CSOs rely on a range of M&E tools in combination with advocacy strategies to hold government accountable and improve the implementation of programs and policies.…

  4. Influencing Student Beliefs about the Role of the Civil Engineer in Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nesbit, Susan E.; Sianchuk, Robert; Aleksejuniene, Jolanta; Kindiak, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    This study suggests that community service learning experiences facilitate the reconstruction of civil engineering student beliefs about both the type of work performed by civil engineers and the broad impact of civil engineering knowledge. Further, the service learning experiences highlight for students 1) the importance of relationships between…

  5. Civil society and sanitation hydropolitics: A case study of South Africa’s Vaal River Barrage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tempelhoff, Johann W. N.

    The Vaal River Barrage, situated on the south-eastern border of the Gauteng Province, has been part of the hydrological landscape of South Africa’s most populous and economically active region for more than eight decades. After its completion in 1923 the Barrage was compromised by the construction, upstream, of the Vaal Dam (1930-1933). Today the Vaal River Barrage is primarily a storage facility of sewage and industrial waste water. South Africa’s transition to a multi-racial democracy in 1994 saw a number of socio-economic and political transformations that affected the water infrastructure. In the field of sanitation infrastructure in particular, conditions have deteriorated to the extent that the health of people in many parts of the country is being compromised. Using the Vaal River Barrage as a case study, this article outlines the efforts by civil society to make the relevant government sectors aware of this hazardous state of affairs. particular attention is given to save our Vaal environment (SAVE), a non-governmental organisation, at the helm of an active campaign to reduce pollution in the Vaal River Barrage.

  6. Emergency contraception under attack in Latin America: response of the medical establishment and civil society.

    PubMed

    Faúndes, Aníbal; Távara, Luis; Brache, Vivian; Alvarez, Frank

    2007-05-01

    The concept that it is possible to prevent a pregnancy after coitus is not new, but has gained prominence over the last 10-15 years. It provides a second chance to women who do not want to get pregnant and who, voluntarily or not, have had unprotected intercourse. Emergency contraception has been under strong attack by the Catholic church and anti-choice organisations in Latin America, who claim that the interference with implantation of the fertilised ovum is equivalent to an early abortion. The accumulation of evidence, however, is that the mechanism of action of emergency contraception is to prevent ovulation and that it does not interfere with implantation. This has been ignored by the anti-choice movement. The pattern of opposition to emergency contraception has been the same all over the Latin America region. The medical establishment and civil society, including the International Consortium for Emergency Contraception, have played a key role in defending access to emergency contraception throughout the region. A positive consequence of the public opposition of the Catholic church is that the concept and the method have become better known, and emergency contraception has become widely used. The cases of Peru, Brazil and Chile are described as examples.

  7. Civil society organizations: capacity to address the needs of the urban poor in Nairobi.

    PubMed

    Ekirapa, Akaco; Mgomella, George S; Kyobutungi, Catherine

    2012-11-01

    We conducted a needs assessment that describes the landscape of civil society organizations (CSOs) in three informal settlements around Nairobi, Kenya. The numbers of CSOs have rapidly increased in areas underserved by governments including poor urban neighbourhoods but little is known about CSOs capacity to meet the priority health needs of the urban poor. It is also unclear why, despite a proliferation of CSOs, residents still experience unimproved health outcomes. We collected data on core activities, financial management, and governance structures. Of the 952 CSOs assessed, 47 per cent reported HIV/AIDS counselling, prevention, and treatment as their core activity. Most CSOs reported good financial management systems and governance structures but responses were not validated. Representation in district health stakeholder fora was low; most CSOs did not have the capacity to effectively deliver services that would have impact. For CSOs to realize the desired goal to improve the well-being of low-income populations, programmes to build their management capacity are essential.

  8. Civil society perspectives on negative biomedical HIV prevention trial results and implications for future trials.

    PubMed

    Essack, Zaynab; Koen, Jennifer; Slack, Catherine; Lindegger, Graham; Newman, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    Community engagement is crucial to ongoing development and testing of sorely needed new biomedical HIV prevention technologies. Yet, negative trial results raise significant challenges for community engagement in HIV prevention trials, including the early termination of the Cellulose Sulfate microbicide trial and two Phase IIb HIV vaccine trials (STEP and Phambili). The present study aimed to explore the perspectives and experiences of civil society organization (CSO) representatives regarding negative HIV prevention trial results and perceived implications for future trials. We conducted in-depth interviews with 14 respondents from a broad range of South African and international CSOs, and analyzed data using thematic analysis. CSO representatives reported disappointment in response to negative trial results, but acknowledged such outcomes as inherent to clinical research. Respondents indicated that in theory negative trial results seem likely to impact on willingness to participate in future trials, but that in practice people in South Africa have continued to volunteer. Negative trial results were described as having contributed to improving ethical standards, and to a re-evaluation of the scientific agenda. Such negative results were identified as potentially impacting on funding for trials and engagement activities. Our findings indicate that trial closures may be used constructively to support opportunities for reflection and renewed vigilance in strategies for stakeholder engagement, communicating trial outcomes, and building research literacy among communities; however, these strategies require sustained resources for community engagement and capacity-building.

  9. To whom do bureaucrats need to respond? Two faces of civil society in health policy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seunghoo; Lee, Keon-Hyung; Suh, Hae Sun; Bae, Kwi-Hee

    2014-12-01

    The South Korean government implemented a law that separates the dispensing and prescribing (SDP) of drugs in July 2000. It was one of the most controversial issues in the Korean healthcare delivery system. Drawing on the conflict-cycle view and stakeholder analysis, which was used to examine how multiple stakeholders influenced this policymaking process, this study examines 1) the role of Korean civil society (i.e., civic and special interest groups) in SDP reform and 2) why SDP reform led to unintended consequences. We argue that bureaucrats in the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MoHW) should have played a central role in accommodating the public interest. Because they failed to do so, civic groups assumed major mediating and moderating roles. Due to the civic groups' lack of technical knowledge and professional experience, however, they played a limited role. In finalizing the proposal, therefore, bureaucrats were captured by strong interest groups, leading to unintended consequences, such as the increased use of non-covered services and higher healthcare expenditures. To ensure that the government serves the authentic public interest rather than special interest groups, bureaucrats should be responsible to the public rather than these interest groups. Moreover, civic groups should be strengthened (in relation to strongly organized interest groups) and included systematically in creating health policy.

  10. Civil society, political mobilization, and the impact of HIV scale-up on health systems in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Parker, Richard G

    2009-11-01

    This article examines the role of civil society in shaping HIV and AIDS policies and programs in Brazil. It focuses on the historical context of the redemocratization of Brazilian society during the 1980s, when the initial response to the epidemic took shape, and emphasizes the role of social movements linked to the progressive Catholic Church, the sanitary reform movement in public health, and the emerging gay rights movement in the early response to the epidemic in Brazil. It highlights the broad-based civil society coalition that took shape over the course of the 1990s and the political alliances that were built up shortly after the 1996 International AIDS Conference in Vancouver, Canada, to pass legislation guaranteeing the right to access to antiretroviral treatment. It emphasizes the continued importance of civil society organizations-in particular, AIDS-related nongovernmental organizations-and leading AIDS activists in exerting continued pressure to guarantee the sustainability of treatment access and the impact that action focused on HIV and AIDS has had on the Brazilian public health system more broadly, particularly through strengthening health infrastructures and providing a model for health-related social mobilization.

  11. Civil Society-Driven Drug Policy Reform for Health and Human Welfare-India.

    PubMed

    Vallath, Nandini; Tandon, Tripti; Pastrana, Tania; Lohman, Diederik; Husain, S Asra; Cleary, James; Ramanath, Ganpati; Rajagopal, M R

    2017-03-01

    The lack of adequate access to opioids in India as analgesics and for agonist therapies, forces millions to live with severe unalleviated pain, or languish with suffering associated with drug dependence. Although India is a major opium exporter, the excessively prohibitive 1985 narcotics law formulated to control harmful use of drugs, impeded the availability and access to opioids for medical and scientific purposes. Amendment of this law in 2014 established a new national regulatory framework for improved access to essential opioid analgesics. This article reflects on key elements and processes that led to this landmark achievement. Unlike quick timelines associated with effecting policy reforms for law enforcement, realizing the 2014 drug policy change primarily to mitigate human suffering, was a 22-year-long process. The most exacting challenges included recognizing the multilayered complexities of the prior policy framework and understanding their adverse impact on field practices to chart an appropriate and viable path for reform. The evolution of an informal civil society movement involving health care professionals, lawyers, media, policy analysts, government officials, and the public was pivotal in addressing these challenges and garnering momentum for reform. The success of the effort for improving access to opioid medications was underpinned by a three-pronged strategy of 1) persuading the executive arm of the government to take interim enabling measures; 2) leveraging judicial intervention through public interest litigation; and 3) crafting a viable policy document for legislative approval and implementation. We hope our findings are useful for realizing drug policy reforms, given the current transformed global policy mandates emphasizing humanitarian, healthcare, and quality-of-life considerations. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Involvement in civil society groups: Is it good for your health?

    PubMed Central

    Ziersch, A; Baum, F

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: To determine the involvement in civil society groups (CSGs) and the impact of this on health. Design: Case study, cross sectional, self completion questionnaire, and semi-structured interviews. Setting: Residents in two suburbs in Adelaide, South Australia. Participants: Every household (1038) received a questionnaire asking the adult with the next birthday to complete it. A total of 530 questionnaires were returned. Sixteen questionnaire respondents were also interviewed. Main results: 279 (53%) questionnaire respondents had been involved in a CSG in the past 12 months, 190 (36%) in locally based CSGs, and 188 (35%) in CSGs outside the area. Eleven of the 16 interviewees had been involved in a CSG. A path analysis examined the relation between demographic variables, CSG involvement, and mental and physical health, as measured by the SF-12. Physical health was negatively associated with CSG involvement and older age, and positively associated with working full time or part time and higher education level. Mental health was positively associated with older age, working full time or part time, and higher income but negatively associated with having a child under 18, speaking a language other than English and higher education level. Very few interviewees made a direct link between CSGs and positive individual health outcomes, though some positive community level outcomes were noted. More consistent were reports of the detrimental effects of CSG involvement on mental and physical health. Conclusions: Involvement in CSGs was significant but not always positive for health. It is possible that CSG involvement is good for a community but not necessarily for the individual. PMID:15143118

  13. What Political Framework Is Necessary to Reduce Malnutrition? A Civil Society Perspective.

    PubMed

    Walter, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Around 800 million people worldwide are still starving. Around 2 billion are somehow able to allay their hunger yet remain malnourished because their food does not contain sufficient nutrients. There are many reasons for this: for people living in poverty and precarious conditions, the priority is to fill their stomach, and the quality of food seems less important. Since the 1960s, global food production has been focused on increasing yield, not food quality. Mass-produced convenience food with high fat and carbohydrate contents but containing few nutrients is on the rise and - as a result of price wars - often replaces healthier locally grown products. To overcome global hunger and malnutrition, civil society organizations urge governments to turn towards sustainable and human rights-based development, including sustainable agricultural and fishing policies, to contribute to the eradication of poverty. This development is first and foremost guided by the right to food. In a policy that enables farmers to produce enough food that is healthy and rich in nutrients, the following principles should be fulfilled. Governments should assume responsibility for the international impacts of their agricultural policy decisions. The food sovereignty of other countries should be respected. Policies should enable self-supply of the population with healthy food and should promote the protection of resources, the climate, biodiversity and animal welfare. Strengthening rural structures, local economies, labor rights and small-scale food producers, establishing public programs that provide locally produced food, applying stringent standards for food labeling and the regulation of unhealthy products and paying special attention to the first 1,000 days of life as the starting point of a good and healthy well-being are core elements of such a political framework.

  14. Capacity and readiness of civil society organisations to implement community case management of malaria in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Marita, Enock; Oule, Jared; Mungai, Margaret; Thiam, Sylla; Ilako, Festus

    2016-01-01

    Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) contribute to achieving development goals through advocacy, social mobilisation and provision of health services. CSO programming is a key component of Global Fund (GF) grants; however, CSOs face technical and governance capacity challenges in grant utilisation leading to missed opportunities for improving health at community level. Amref Health Africa was appointed Principal Recipient of a GF grant aimed at scaling up community case management of malaria through CSOs as sub-recipients in western Kenya. To identify potential risks and strengthen grant management, Amref Health Africa and the Ministry of Health conducted a capacity needs assessment to determine the capacity of CSOs to effectively utilise grants. 26 selected CSOs participated in this study. Document reviews and on-site assessments and observations were conducted using structured tool. The five main assessment areas were: governance and risk management; strategic and operational planning; monitoring and evaluation; programme management; and financial management. Overall performance was grouped into four categories: 3.0-2.5 (excellent), 2.0-2.4 (good), 1.5-1.9 (fair), and 1.0-1.4 (poor). Data were collected and analysed using Excel software. Twenty five out of 26 CSOs were legally compliant. 14(54%) CSOs were categorized as good; 7(27%) as excellent; 3(12%) as poor and 2(8%) as fair. Most CSOs had good programme management capacity but monitoring and evaluation presented the most capacity gaps. More than 75% of the CSOs were rated as excellent or good. A capacity building plan, programme risk management plan and oversight mechanisms were important for successful grant implementation.

  15. [Strategies by civil society organizations for access to breast cancer drugs in the Brazilian Unified National Health System].

    PubMed

    Deprá, Aline Scaramussa; Ribeiro, Carlos Dimas Martins; Maksud, Ivia

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to identify and analyze strategies by civil society organizations working with breast cancer (CSOs) on access to drugs in Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) and the main social actors. A qualitative approach used the snowball technique, semi-structured interviews, and participant observation. Thematic analysis was based on the following categories: access to drugs for breast cancer treatment, relationship between CSOs and government, relationship between CSOs and the pharmaceutical industry, and other strategies used by CSOs. The results showed that civil society organizations have influenced access to drugs for breast cancer in the SUS and that their main strategies have focused on pressuring government at all levels. Meanwhile, the pharmaceutical industry sponsors some CSOs in order to strengthen them and expand its own market. The main difficulties in access to such drugs involve insufficient services, unequal treatment, and inclusion of technology in the SUS.

  16. [The role of civil society in constructing scientific questions: focus on the work of the CESTM at the Aquarium La Rochelle].

    PubMed

    Pomade, Adélie

    2014-03-01

    The relation between experts and civil society raises profound questioning. The first of them is the role of civil society in their evaluation work and in their research. We note that the involvement of citizen leds not only to build scientifical questions, but also to enrich and to answer them. In that way, civil society becomes a key player and an irreplaceable actor of the scientific research. This article highlights action carry out by the Centre d'Etudes et de Soins pour les Tortues Marines of the Aquarium La Rochelle which asks civil society to help it everydays to fulfill his duties. At the end of a training period, or thanks to a spontaneous initiative, volunteers get involve to move research.

  17. The Global Fund and the re-configuration and re-emergence of 'civil society': widening or closing the democratic deficit?

    PubMed

    Kapilashrami, Anuj; O'Brien, Oonagh

    2012-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a tremendous growth in the scale and policy influence of civil society in global health governance. The AIDS 'industry' in particular opens up spaces for active mobilisation and participation of non-state actors, which further crystallise with an ever-increasing dominance of global health initiatives. While country evaluations of global initiatives call for a greater participation of 'civil society', the evidence base examining the organisation, nature and operation of 'civil society' and its claims to legitimacy is very thin. Drawing on the case of one of the most visible players in the global response to HIV epidemic, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, this article seeks to highlight the complex micropolitics of its interactions with civil society. It examines the nature of civil society actors involved in the Fund projects and the processes through which they gain credibility. We argue that the imposition of global structures and principles facilitates a reconfiguration of actors around newer forms of expertise and power centres. In this context, the notion of 'civil society' underplays differences and power dynamics between various institutions and conceals the agency of outsiders under the guise of autonomy of the state and people.

  18. The United States Civil War Causal Agent for Irish Assimilation and Acceptance in US Society

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-06-01

    era three powerful national Irish ethnic associations emerged, the Irish Catholic Benevolent Union (1869), the Catholic 116 Total Abstinence Union...142 vi TABLES Table Page 1. Key Factors in Migration and Assimilation Processes............................................. 9 2... Association was founded and declared that Catholicism was “in its principles and tendency, subversive of civil and religious liberty, and destructive to the

  19. A Challenge for Social Studies Educators: Increasing Civility in Schools and Society by Modeling Civic Virtues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, James

    2012-01-01

    Many scholars, teachers, parents, as well as others, are concerned with the decline of civility in public discourse and public schools. The sharp differences among various ideological groups, exacerbated by media incivility, are contributing factors to rising incivility. This ideological divide currently manifests itself in bitter partisan…

  20. A Challenge for Social Studies Educators: Increasing Civility in Schools and Society by Modeling Civic Virtues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, James

    2012-01-01

    Many scholars, teachers, parents, as well as others, are concerned with the decline of civility in public discourse and public schools. The sharp differences among various ideological groups, exacerbated by media incivility, are contributing factors to rising incivility. This ideological divide currently manifests itself in bitter partisan…

  1. Making Co-Operative Ideas Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Reddish Vale Technology College was the first co-operative trust in England. The democratic and co-operative nature of the experiment mean that students have gained a greater voice in the organisation of the school. As a result, new social enterprises, environmental interventions, connections with the community and with the wider co-operative…

  2. Women and International Intellectual Co-Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    The article explores ways in which intellectual co-operation at the League of Nations [SDN] provided a space for the engagement of culturally elite women in intellectual co-operation circles in Geneva, Paris and a range of national contexts stretching across Europe, Latin America and Asia. It discusses the language of the "international mind" and…

  3. The Co-Operative: Good with Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Max

    2015-01-01

    The article is a summary of a small-scale research project which considers the formation of Co-operative Trust Schools. This was carried out in 2013 at a time when the number of schools becoming Academies and Trust Schools through the Co-operative College was burgeoning. Through questionnaire, interview, documentary analysis and exploration of…

  4. Making Co-Operative Ideas Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Reddish Vale Technology College was the first co-operative trust in England. The democratic and co-operative nature of the experiment mean that students have gained a greater voice in the organisation of the school. As a result, new social enterprises, environmental interventions, connections with the community and with the wider co-operative…

  5. Women and International Intellectual Co-Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    The article explores ways in which intellectual co-operation at the League of Nations [SDN] provided a space for the engagement of culturally elite women in intellectual co-operation circles in Geneva, Paris and a range of national contexts stretching across Europe, Latin America and Asia. It discusses the language of the "international mind" and…

  6. The Co-Operative: Good with Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Max

    2015-01-01

    The article is a summary of a small-scale research project which considers the formation of Co-operative Trust Schools. This was carried out in 2013 at a time when the number of schools becoming Academies and Trust Schools through the Co-operative College was burgeoning. Through questionnaire, interview, documentary analysis and exploration of…

  7. A comparative study of the use of the Istanbul Protocol amongst civil society organizations in low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Toby; Jensen, Steffen; Koch Andersen, Morten; Christiansen, Catrine; Sharma, Jeevan Raj

    2016-01-01

    The Istanbul Protocol (IP) is one of the great success stories of the global anti-torture movement, setting out universal guidelines for the production of rigorous, objective and reliable evidence about allegations of torture and ill-treatment. The IP is explicitly designed to outline 'minimum standards for States'. However, it is all too often left to civil society organizations to investigate allegations of torture and ill-treatment. In this context, important questions remain as to how and where the IP can be used best by such organizations. These questions are particularly acute in situations where human rights groups may have limited institutional capacity. This paper explores the practical challenges faced by civil society in using the IP in Low-Income Countries. It is based on qualitative research in three case studies: Nepal, Kenya and Bangladesh. This research involved over 80 interviews with human rights practitioners. The conclusions of the paper are that the Istanbul Protocol provides a useful framework for documentation, but more comprehensive forms of documentation will often be limited to a very small - albeit important - number of legal cases. In many cases, the creation of precise and standardized forms of evidence is not necessarily the most effective form of documentation for redress or accountability. In the absence of legal systems willing and able to respond effectively to allegations of torture and ill-treatment, there are severe limitations on the practical effectiveness of detailed and technical forms of documentation.

  8. [The role of civil society in building the field of Food and Nutrition in Brazil: elements for reflection].

    PubMed

    Burlandy, Luciene

    2011-01-01

    The inclusion of Food and Nutrition (FN) issues on the public agenda has gained progressive relevance in Brazil and the civil society (CS) has an important role in this process. This article examines how CS affects policies in this field based on a historical perspective of their influence in political arenas of the Federal Government. The analysis was based on the following questions: (1) the political and institutional participatory approaches; (2) the related issues and political demands; (3) the implications of this process in developing public policies. The research instruments have combined literature review and documentary analysis. It was concluded that the role of the civil society was crucial for the consolidation of the National Policy of FN and the National Policy of Food and Nutrition Security. The institutional engineering and the profile of social organizations were very different, ranging from social movements to policy networks. The topics on the agenda have changed over the period studied, with the strengthening of ethnic, racial and gender issues. The gains of this process depend on public sector capacity to regulate and support the functioning of these institutional arenas and to involve governmental segments that actually has decision making power.

  9. Service Learning: Connecting Higher Education and Civil Society--Are We Meeting the Challenge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, B.; Devnarain, B.

    2009-01-01

    The decline in civic participation, dwindling support for social services and deficits in state budgets, has created a climate in which higher education, supported by several policies, has to make a commitment to contribute to the reconstruction and development of society by linking academic programmes to community-based priorities (Campbell…

  10. Creek Women and the "Civilizing" of Creek Society, 1790-1820.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dysart, Jane E.

    Women in traditional Creek society, while making few decisions in the public domain, held almost absolute power in the domestic realm. When a Creek couple married, the husband moved into his wife's house and lived among her clan, her matrilineal kin. The house, household goods, fields, and children belonged to her. Boys were educated by their…

  11. Advancing Global Citizens: Afterschool and Out-of-School Time as Common Ground for Civil Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider-Munoz, Andrew; Politz, Bonnie

    2007-01-01

    The key importance of after-school and out-of-school time in a democratic society is the experience of activities and programs providing a common ground that extends the play of childhood into leadership opportunities for youthful learning and exploration of the world. The authors hypothesize that by focusing civic attention on the developmental…

  12. Service Learning: Connecting Higher Education and Civil Society--Are We Meeting the Challenge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, B.; Devnarain, B.

    2009-01-01

    The decline in civic participation, dwindling support for social services and deficits in state budgets, has created a climate in which higher education, supported by several policies, has to make a commitment to contribute to the reconstruction and development of society by linking academic programmes to community-based priorities (Campbell…

  13. Can Simpson's paradox explain co-operation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms?

    PubMed

    Penn, Alexandra S; Conibear, Tim C R; Watson, Richard A; Kraaijeveld, Alex R; Webb, Jeremy S

    2012-07-01

    Co-operative behaviours, such as the production of public goods, are commonly displayed by bacteria in biofilms and can enhance their ability to survive in environmental or clinical settings. Non-co-operative cheats commonly arise and should, theoretically, disrupt co-operative behaviour. Its stability therefore requires explanation, but no mechanisms to suppress cheating within biofilms have yet been demonstrated experimentally. Theoretically, repeated aggregation into groups, interleaved with dispersal and remixing, can increase co-operation via a 'Simpson's paradox'. That is, an increase in the global proportion of co-operators despite a decrease in within-group proportions, via differential growth of groups. We investigate the hypothesis that microcolony formation and dispersal produces a Simpson's paradox that explains bacterial co-operation in biofilms. Using the production of siderophores in Pseudomonas aeruginosa as our model system for co-operation, we use well-documented co-operator and siderophore-deficient cheat strains to measure the frequency of co-operating and cheating individuals, in-situ within-microcolony structures. We detected significant within-type negative density-dependant effects that vary over microcolony development. However, we find no evidence of Simpson's paradox. Instead, we see clear within-microcolony spatial structure (cheats occupying the interior portions of microcolonies) that may violate the assumption required for Simpson's paradox that group members share equally in the public good. © 2012 Federation of European Microbiological Societies. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. African civil society initiatives to drive a biobanking, biosecurity and infrastructure development agenda in the wake of the West African Ebola outbreak.

    PubMed

    Abayomi, Akin; Gevao, Sahr; Conton, Brian; Deblasio, Pasquale; Katz, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the formation of a civil society consortium, spurred to action by frustration over the Ebola crises, to facilitate the development of infrastructure and frameworks including policy development to support a harmonized, African approach to health crises on the continent. The Global Emerging Pathogens Treatment Consortium, or GET, is an important example of how African academics, scientists, clinicians and civil society have come together to initiate policy research, multilevel advocacy and implementation of initiatives aimed at building African capacity for timely and effective mitigations strategies against emerging infectious and neglected pathogens, with a focus on biobanking and biosecurity. The consortium has been able to establish it self as a leading voice, drawing attention to scientific infrastructure gaps, the importance of cultural sensitivities, and the power of community engagement. The GET consortium demonstrates how civil society can work together, encourage government engagement and strengthen national and regional efforts to build capacity.

  15. African civil society initiatives to drive a biobanking, biosecurity and infrastructure development agenda in the wake of the West African Ebola outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Abayomi, Akin; Gevao, Sahr; Conton, Brian; Deblasio, Pasquale; Katz, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the formation of a civil society consortium, spurred to action by frustration over the Ebola crises, to facilitate the development of infrastructure and frameworks including policy development to support a harmonized, African approach to health crises on the continent. The Global Emerging Pathogens Treatment Consortium, or GET, is an important example of how African academics, scientists, clinicians and civil society have come together to initiate policy research, multilevel advocacy and implementation of initiatives aimed at building African capacity for timely and effective mitigations strategies against emerging infectious and neglected pathogens, with a focus on biobanking and biosecurity. The consortium has been able to establish it self as a leading voice, drawing attention to scientific infrastructure gaps, the importance of cultural sensitivities, and the power of community engagement. The GET consortium demonstrates how civil society can work together, encourage government engagement and strengthen national and regional efforts to build capacity. PMID:28154625

  16. Improving brain computer interface research through user involvement - The transformative potential of integrating civil society organisations in research projects.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Bernd Carsten; Wakunuma, Kutoma; Rainey, Stephen; Hansen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Research on Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) often aims to provide solutions for vulnerable populations, such as individuals with diseases, conditions or disabilities that keep them from using traditional interfaces. Such research thereby contributes to the public good. This contribution to the public good corresponds to a broader drive of research and funding policy that focuses on promoting beneficial societal impact. One way of achieving this is to engage with the public. In practical terms this can be done by integrating civil society organisations (CSOs) in research. The open question at the heart of this paper is whether and how such CSO integration can transform the research and contribute to the public good. To answer this question the paper describes five detailed qualitative case studies of research projects including CSOs. The paper finds that transformative impact of CSO integration is possible but by no means assured. It provides recommendations on how transformative impact can be promoted.

  17. Toward a science for and of the people: promoting civil society through the application of developmental science.

    PubMed

    Lerner, R M; Fisher, C B; Weinberg, R A

    2000-01-01

    Applied developmental science (ADS) is scholarship that seeks to advance the integration of developmental research with actions-policies and programs-that promote positive development and/or enhance the life chances of vulnerable children and families. Through this integration ADS may become a major means to foster a science for and of the people. It may serve as an exemplar of the means through which scholarship, with community collaboration, may contribute directly to social justice. In so doing, ADS helps shift the model of amelioration, prevention, or optimization research from one demonstrating efficacy to one promoting outreach. When this contribution occurs in the context of university-community partnerships, ADS may serve also as a model of how higher education may engage policy makers, contribute to community capacity to sustain valued programs, and maintain and perpetuate civil society through knowledge-based, interinstitutional systems change.

  18. Improving brain computer interface research through user involvement - The transformative potential of integrating civil society organisations in research projects

    PubMed Central

    Wakunuma, Kutoma; Rainey, Stephen; Hansen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Research on Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) often aims to provide solutions for vulnerable populations, such as individuals with diseases, conditions or disabilities that keep them from using traditional interfaces. Such research thereby contributes to the public good. This contribution to the public good corresponds to a broader drive of research and funding policy that focuses on promoting beneficial societal impact. One way of achieving this is to engage with the public. In practical terms this can be done by integrating civil society organisations (CSOs) in research. The open question at the heart of this paper is whether and how such CSO integration can transform the research and contribute to the public good. To answer this question the paper describes five detailed qualitative case studies of research projects including CSOs. The paper finds that transformative impact of CSO integration is possible but by no means assured. It provides recommendations on how transformative impact can be promoted. PMID:28207882

  19. State-civil society partnerships for HIV/AIDS treatment and prevention in Ghana: exploring factors associated with successes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Hushie, Martin; Omenyo, Cephas N; van den Berg, Jacob J; Lally, Michelle A

    2016-08-02

    The past decade has seen an increased number of state-civil society partnerships in the global Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) response of many countries. However, there has been limited research carried out concerning the successes and challenges of these partnerships. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 23 participants from 21 different state-civil society partnerships throughout Ghana including all three major geographical zones (Northern, Middle, and Southern zones) to examine the nature of these partnerships and their positive and negative effects in responding to the national HIV/AIDS epidemic. Major themes included: 1) commitment by the government and civil society organizations to work cooperatively in order to support the development and implementation of HIV/AIDS interventions in Ghana; 2) the role of civil society organizations in facilitating community mobilization; capacity building; and information, resources and skills exchange to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of these partnerships for HIV prevention and treatment; and 3) significant challenges including funding issues and other structural barriers for these partnerships that need to be addressed moving forward. Future research should focus on examining the impact of recommended changes on state-civil partnerships and studying the extent and nature of these partnerships in other countries in order to establish the generalizability of the findings from this study.

  20. The expanding role of civil society in the global HIV/AIDS response: what has the President's Emergency Program For AIDS Relief's role been?

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Alex; Roxo, Uchechi; Epino, Henry; Muganzi, Alex; Dorward, Emily; Pick, Billy

    2012-08-15

    Civil society has been part of the HIV/AIDS response from the very beginning of the epidemic, often becoming engaged before national governments. Traditional roles of civil society--advocacy, activism, serving as government watchdog, and acting as community caretaker--have been critical to the response. In addition, civil society organizations (CSOs) play an integral part in providing world-class HIV prevention and treatment services and helping to ensure continuity of care. The President's Emergency Program for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has significantly increased the global scale-up of combination antiretroviral therapy reaching for more than 5 million people in developing countries, as well as implementation of effective evidence-based combination prevention approaches. PEPFAR databases in 5 countries and annual reports from a centrally managed initiative were mined and analyzed to determine the numbers and types of CSOs funded by PEPFAR over a 5-year period (2006-2011). Data are also presented from Uganda showing the overall resource growth in CSO working for HIV. Case studies document the evolution of 3 indigenous CSOs that increased the capacity to implement activities with PEPFAR funding. A legacy of PEPFAR has been the growth of civil society to address social and health issues as well as recognition by governments that partnerships with beneficiaries and civil society result in better outcomes. Scale-up of the global response could not have happened without the involvement of civil society and people living with HIV. This game changing partnership to jointly tackle the problems that countries face may well be the greatest benefit emerging from the HIV epidemic.

  1. The role of civil society in strengthening intercultural maternal health care in local health facilities: Puno, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Jeannie

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Peru's Ministry of Health has made efforts to increase the cultural inclusiveness of maternal health services. In 2005, the Ministry adopted an intercultural birthing policy (IBP) that authorizes and encourages the use of culturally acceptable birthing practices in government-run health facilities. However, studies suggest that indigenous women may receive inconsistent benefits from these kinds of policies. This article examines whether a grassroots accountability initiative based on citizen monitoring of local health facilities by indigenous women can help to promote the objectives of the IBP and improve intercultural maternal health care. Design Findings are drawn from a larger qualitative research study completed in 2015 that included fieldwork done between 2010 and 2011. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 women working as citizen monitors in local health facilities in Puno and 30 key informants, including frontline health workers, health officials, and civil society actors in Puno and Lima, and human rights lawyers from the Defensoría del Pueblo Office in Puno. Results Monitors confirmed from their own personal experiences in the 1990s and early 2000s that respect for intercultural aspects of maternal health care, including traditional indigenous birthing practices, were not readily accepted in publicly funded health facilities. It was also common for indigenous women to face discrimination when seeking health service provided by the state. Although the government's adoption of the IBP in 2005 was a positive step, considerable efforts are still needed to ensure high-quality, culturally appropriate maternal health care is consistently available in local health facilities. Conclusions Despite important progress in the past two decades, policies aimed at improving intercultural maternal health care are unevenly implemented in local health facilities. Civil society, in particular indigenous women themselves, can play an

  2. Co-production of community mental health services: Organising the interplay between public services and civil society in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Vaeggemose, Ulla; Ankersen, Pia Vedel; Aagaard, Jørgen; Burau, Viola

    2017-07-02

    Co-production involves knowledge and skills based on both lived experiences of citizens and professionally training of staff. In Europe, co-production is viewed as an essential tool for meeting the demographic, political and economic challenges of welfare states. However, co-production is facing challenges because public services and civil society are rooted in two very different logics. These challenges are typically encountered by provider organisations and their staff who must convert policies and strategies into practice. Denmark is a welfare state with a strong public services sector and a relatively low involvement of volunteers. The aim of this study was to investigate how provider organisations and their staff navigate between the two logics. The present analysis is a critical case study of two municipalities selected from seven participating municipalities, for their maximum diversity. The study setting was the Community Families programme, which aim to support the social network of mental health users by offering regular contact with selected private families/individuals. The task of the municipalities was to initiate and support Community Families. The analysis built on qualitative data generated at the organisational level in the seven participating municipalities. Within the two "case study" municipalities, qualitative interviews were conducted with front-line co-ordinators (six) and line managers (two). The interviews were recorded, transcribed verbatim and coded using the software program NVivo. The results confirm the central role played by staff and identify a close interplay between public services and civil society logics as essential for the organisation of co-production. Corresponding objectives, activities and collaborative relations of provider organisations are keys for facilitating the co-productive practice of individual staff. Organised in this way, co-production can succeed even in a mental health setting associated with social stigma

  3. The role of civil society in strengthening intercultural maternal health care in local health facilities: Puno, Peru.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Jeannie

    2016-01-01

    Peru's Ministry of Health has made efforts to increase the cultural inclusiveness of maternal health services. In 2005, the Ministry adopted an intercultural birthing policy (IBP) that authorizes and encourages the use of culturally acceptable birthing practices in government-run health facilities. However, studies suggest that indigenous women may receive inconsistent benefits from these kinds of policies. This article examines whether a grassroots accountability initiative based on citizen monitoring of local health facilities by indigenous women can help to promote the objectives of the IBP and improve intercultural maternal health care. Findings are drawn from a larger qualitative research study completed in 2015 that included fieldwork done between 2010 and 2011. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 women working as citizen monitors in local health facilities in Puno and 30 key informants, including frontline health workers, health officials, and civil society actors in Puno and Lima, and human rights lawyers from the Defensoría del Pueblo Office in Puno. Monitors confirmed from their own personal experiences in the 1990s and early 2000s that respect for intercultural aspects of maternal health care, including traditional indigenous birthing practices, were not readily accepted in publicly funded health facilities. It was also common for indigenous women to face discrimination when seeking health service provided by the state. Although the government's adoption of the IBP in 2005 was a positive step, considerable efforts are still needed to ensure high-quality, culturally appropriate maternal health care is consistently available in local health facilities. Despite important progress in the past two decades, policies aimed at improving intercultural maternal health care are unevenly implemented in local health facilities. Civil society, in particular indigenous women themselves, can play an important role in holding the state accountable for

  4. Engaging civil society through deliberative dialogue to create the first Mental Health Strategy for Canada: Changing Directions, Changing Lives.

    PubMed

    Mulvale, Gillian; Chodos, Howard; Bartram, Mary; MacKinnon, Mary Pat; Abud, Manon

    2014-12-01

    Citizen engagement through deliberative dialogue is increasingly being used to address 'wicked problems' in policy-making, such as the development of national mental health policy. In 2012, the Mental Health Commission of Canada (MHCC), a national organization funded by and operating at arm's length from the federal government, released the first Mental Health Strategy for Canada: Changing Directions, Changing Lives (Mental Health Commission of Canada, 2012). Despite much-needed reform, Canada, unlike most other industrialized countries, had never previously developed a national Mental Health Strategy (the Strategy). This was due to a mix of policy factors, including a federalist system of government where primary responsibility for healthcare resides with provincial and territorial governments and a highly diverse set of stakeholder groups with diverging core ideas for mental health reform that were rooted in deeply held value differences. In this case study, we review the essential role that engagement of civil society played in the creation of the Strategy, beginning with the efforts to create a national body to shine the light on the need for mental health reform in Canada, followed by the development of a framework of specific goals based on core principles to guide the development of the Strategy, and ultimately, the creation of the Strategy itself. We discuss the various approaches to civil society engagement in each step of this process and focus in particular on how deliberative approaches helped build trust and common ground amongst stakeholders around complex, and often contentious, issues. The nature and outcomes of the deliberative processes including the key tensions between different stakeholder perspectives and values are described. We close by highlighting the lessons learned in a process that culminated with a Strategy that received strong endorsement from stakeholders across Canada. Mental Health Commission of Canada (2012). Changing Directions

  5. The role of civil society in strengthening intercultural maternal health care in local health facilities: Puno, Peru.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Jeannie

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Peru's Ministry of Health has made efforts to increase the cultural inclusiveness of maternal health services. In 2005, the Ministry adopted an intercultural birthing policy (IBP) that authorizes and encourages the use of culturally acceptable birthing practices in government-run health facilities. However, studies suggest that indigenous women may receive inconsistent benefits from these kinds of policies. This article examines whether a grassroots accountability initiative based on citizen monitoring of local health facilities by indigenous women can help to promote the objectives of the IBP and improve intercultural maternal health care. Design Findings are drawn from a larger qualitative research study completed in 2015 that included fieldwork done between 2010 and 2011. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 women working as citizen monitors in local health facilities in Puno and 30 key informants, including frontline health workers, health officials, and civil society actors in Puno and Lima, and human rights lawyers from the Defensoría del Pueblo Office in Puno. Results Monitors confirmed from their own personal experiences in the 1990s and early 2000s that respect for intercultural aspects of maternal health care, including traditional indigenous birthing practices, were not readily accepted in publicly funded health facilities. It was also common for indigenous women to face discrimination when seeking health service provided by the state. Although the government's adoption of the IBP in 2005 was a positive step, considerable efforts are still needed to ensure high-quality, culturally appropriate maternal health care is consistently available in local health facilities. Conclusions Despite important progress in the past two decades, policies aimed at improving intercultural maternal health care are unevenly implemented in local health facilities. Civil society, in particular indigenous women themselves, can play an

  6. Civil society engagement in multi-stakeholder dialogue: a qualitative study exploring the opinions and perceptions of MeTA members.

    PubMed

    Buckland-Merrett, Gemma L; Kilkenny, Catherine; Reed, Tim

    2017-01-01

    The Medicines Transparency Alliance (MeTA) is an initiative that brings together all stakeholders in the medicines market to create a multi-stakeholder dialogue and improve access, availability and affordability of medicines. Key to this multi-stakeholder dialogue is the participation of Civil Society Organisations. A recent MeTA annual review, identified uneven engagement of civil society organisations in the multi-stakeholder process. This study was designed to explore the engagement of Civil Society Organisations in the MeTA multi-stakeholder process and the factors influencing their participation. Participants were drawn from a convenience sample of key MeTA informants attending a MeTA global meeting in Geneva in 2014. Study participants consisted of members of MeTA, which included representatives from government, the private sector and civil society. In-depth semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted to identify perceptions around the barriers to civil society engagement in the multi-stakeholder process. Interviews were guided by a conceptual framework exploring the three main themes of the political environment, relative stakeholder strength and agenda setting/gatekeepers. Interviews were structured to enable additional themes to emerge and be explored. Fifteen interviews were conducted. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed using a general inductive approach. All interviewees provided written informed consent. Findings were captured within three main overarching themes: the political environment, relative stakeholder strength and agenda setting/gatekeepers, with the opportunity for additional themes to emerge in the interviewing process. The study conformed these three themes were important in the engagement process. Participants reported that civil society engagement is particularly limited by those who set the agenda. It was largely seen that the political environment was the significant factor that enabled or

  7. Civilization and Contemporary Social Theory: Alternative Approaches to Armed Forces and Society

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    model of Willam H. McNeill, and the post-structuralism of Michel Foucault view armed forces to be central actors in the historical emergence of Western...ENGLISH, John. "Canada’s Road to 1945". Journal of Canadian Studies. Vol 16, Nos. 3 and 4, 1981. Pp. 100-109. FOUCAULT , Michel . Discipline and Punish...of sacred truths concentrates on the legal and political strata of modern societies. Foucault extends this argument, as O’Neill (1986, l986a) has

  8. Civil society and the Health and Social Care Act in England and Wales: theory and praxis for the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Scambler, Graham; Scambler, Sasha; Speed, Ewen

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we revisit the notion of civil society in the light of recent attempts to privatize health care in England via the passing of the Health and Social Care Act of 2013. This legislation promises a re-commodification of the National Health Service (NHS) in England. The Bill was bitterly contested during its passage through parliament, most vigorously in 2011. Much of the opposition occurred at a time of widespread, global rebellion, most notably in the 'Arab uprisings' and through the 'occupy movement'. Despite a plethora of protests, we argue, a non-porous boundary between what we call the 'protest sector' of civil society and the wider public sphere of the lifeworld has become apparent in England. A good deal of collective action, whether campaign-focused (like opposition to the Health and Social Care Bill) or more generalized (like rejections of corporate greed), has so far proved ineffective, at least in the short-term; no crisis of legitimation is apparent. We highlight a new 'class/command dynamic', leading to oligarchic rule, in the present era of financial capitalism. We use this health care case-study to re-examine the notion of civil society and its changing properties in what Castells calls a 'networked society'. The contribution ends with a discussion of the role of the sociologist re-civil society and the advocacy of both 'action' and 'foresight sociologies'.

  9. Disaster, Civil Society and Education in China: A Case Study of an Independent Non-Government Organization Working in the Aftermath of the Wenchuan Earthquake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menefee, Trey; Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald

    2012-01-01

    In May 2008 nearly 90,000 people died in the most powerful earthquake in modern Chinese history. Many were students killed in substandard schools, creating a sensitive disaster zone inside a nation whose civil society organizations are beginning to flourish. This paper examines the education earthquake relief program of an international NGO, and…

  10. The Earth Charter and the ESDinds Initiative: Developing Indicators and Assessment Tools for Civil Society Organisations to Examine the Values Dimensions of Sustainability Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podger, Dimity; Piggot, Georgia; Zahradnik, Martin; Janouskova, Svatava; Velasco, Ismael; Hak, Tomas; Dahl, Arthur; Jimenez, Alicia; Harder, Marie K.

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive report outlines an innovative project in which Earth Charter International is actively involved. The project aims to develop approaches, indicators and tools for Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) to be able to measure values-based aspects and impacts of their work at the project level. Many CSOs have an intuitive feeling that…

  11. What's the Matter with Civil Society? The Declining Effect of Civic Involvement on Civic Identity among Czech Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Šerek, Jan

    2017-01-01

    This study shows that the beneficial impact of adolescents' involvement in civil society on their civic identity cannot be taken for granted. Employing the case of the Czech Republic, it is shown that this effect has vanished since early postcommunism to the present day. Survey data from two different generations of Czech middle adolescents were…

  12. The Earth Charter and the ESDinds Initiative: Developing Indicators and Assessment Tools for Civil Society Organisations to Examine the Values Dimensions of Sustainability Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podger, Dimity; Piggot, Georgia; Zahradnik, Martin; Janouskova, Svatava; Velasco, Ismael; Hak, Tomas; Dahl, Arthur; Jimenez, Alicia; Harder, Marie K.

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive report outlines an innovative project in which Earth Charter International is actively involved. The project aims to develop approaches, indicators and tools for Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) to be able to measure values-based aspects and impacts of their work at the project level. Many CSOs have an intuitive feeling that…

  13. Disaster, Civil Society and Education in China: A Case Study of an Independent Non-Government Organization Working in the Aftermath of the Wenchuan Earthquake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menefee, Trey; Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald

    2012-01-01

    In May 2008 nearly 90,000 people died in the most powerful earthquake in modern Chinese history. Many were students killed in substandard schools, creating a sensitive disaster zone inside a nation whose civil society organizations are beginning to flourish. This paper examines the education earthquake relief program of an international NGO, and…

  14. Empowering Civil Society To Monitor the Environment: Education for Students, Awareness for the Public, and Functional Literacy for Targeted Groups. WBI Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariasingam, David Lakshmanan

    This paper uses case studies to show that by (1) empowering civil society to monitor the environment through environmental education for primary and secondary students, (2) providing environmental awareness programs for the public, and (3) supporting efforts to improve the functional literacy of targeted groups, the effectiveness and…

  15. Participation in Civil Society and Political Life among Young People in Maharashtra: Findings from the Youth in India--Situation and Needs Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acharya, Rajib; Singh, Abhishek; Santhya, K. G.; Ram, Faujdar; Jejeebhoy, Shireen; Ram, Usha; Mohanty, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Youth participation in civil society and political life is increasingly recognised to be an important development objective. Nonetheless, research that sheds light on the extent to which youth participate in these arenas, and the factors that facilitate or inhibit such participation remain limited in most developing countries including India.…

  16. Participation in Civil Society and Political Life among Young People in Maharashtra: Findings from the Youth in India--Situation and Needs Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acharya, Rajib; Singh, Abhishek; Santhya, K. G.; Ram, Faujdar; Jejeebhoy, Shireen; Ram, Usha; Mohanty, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Youth participation in civil society and political life is increasingly recognised to be an important development objective. Nonetheless, research that sheds light on the extent to which youth participate in these arenas, and the factors that facilitate or inhibit such participation remain limited in most developing countries including India.…

  17. US "Partnership" with the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood and its Effect on Civil Society and Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Anne R

    2014-01-01

    Looking at Egypt before, during and after the Arab Spring, this paper examines the intersection of Christian Copts, the Muslim Brotherhood, the Egyptian army, moderate Muslims and secular groups. In turn, it examines the Obama administration's policies toward Egypt. It discloses the surprising finding that the only consistent aspect of the administration's policy toward Egypt has been outreach to and engagement with the Muslim Brotherhood. At no time before or after the Brotherhood's ascent to prominence in Egyptian politics and society did the administration make support of the Brotherhood conditional. At no time did it use US leverage - given the massive amount of financial and military aid Egypt was depending on, and given the new Egyptian government's desire for prestige in the world community-to pressure the Morsi government to respect human rights, religious liberty and the impartial rule of law. Arguing that American foreign policy at its best is rooted in democratic ideals, this paper asks whether the United States, while respecting that Egyptians must choose their leaders and their political system, could have done more to encourage a positive strategic, moral and political outcome.

  18. Co-operative transport by molecular motors.

    PubMed

    Berger, Florian; Keller, Corina; Müller, Melanie J I; Klumpp, Stefan; Lipowsky, Reinhard

    2011-10-01

    Intracellular transport is often driven co-operatively by several molecular motors, which may belong to one or several motor species. Understanding how these motors interact and what co-ordinates and regulates their movements is a central problem in studies of intracellular transport. A general theoretical framework for the analysis of such transport processes is described, which enables us to explain the behaviour of intracellular cargos by the transport properties of individual motors and their interactions. We review recent advances in the theoretical description of motor co-operativity and discuss related experimental results.

  19. A neoliberalisation of civil society? Self-help groups and the labouring class poor in rural South India.

    PubMed

    Pattenden, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This paper notes the prominence of self-help groups (SHGs) within current anti-poverty policy in India, and analyses the impacts of government- and NGO-backed SHGs in rural North Karnataka. It argues that self-help groups represent a partial neoliberalisation of civil society in that they address poverty through low-cost methods that do not challenge the existing distribution of power and resources between the dominant class and the labouring class poor. It finds that intra-group savings and loans and external loans/subsidies can provide marginal economic and political gains for members of the dominant class and those members of the labouring classes whose insecure employment patterns currently provide above poverty line consumption levels, but provide neither material nor political gains for the labouring class poor. Target-oriented SHG catalysts are inattentive to how the social relations of production reproduce poverty and tend to overlook class relations and socio-economic and political differentiation within and outside of groups, which are subject to interference by dominant class local politicians and landowners.

  20. Activism: working to reduce maternal mortality through civil society and health professional alliances in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sunanda; Madzimbamuto, Farai; Fonn, Sharon

    2012-06-01

    Partnerships between civil society groups campaigning for reproductive and human rights, health professionals and others could contribute more to the strengthening of health systems needed to bring about declines in maternal deaths in Africa. The success of the HIV treatment literacy model developed by the Treatment Action Campaign in South Africa provides useful lessons for activism on maternal mortality, especially the combination of a right-to-health approach with learning and capacity building, community networking, popular mobilisation and legal action. This paper provides examples of these from South Africa, Botswana, Kenya and Uganda. Confidential enquiries into maternal deaths can be powerful instruments for change if pressure to act on their recommendations is brought to bear. Shadow reports presented during UN human rights country assessments can be used in a similar way. Public protests and demonstrations over avoidable deaths have succeeded in drawing attention to under-resourced services, shortages of supplies, including blood for transfusion, poor morale among staff, and lack of training and supervision. Activists could play a bigger role in holding health services, governments, and policy-makers accountable for poor maternity services, developing user-friendly information materials for women and their families, and motivating appropriate human resources strategies. Training and support for patients' groups, in how to use health facility complaints procedures is also a valuable strategy.

  1. What can the World Health Organization learn from EU lessons in civil society engagement and participation for health?

    PubMed

    Battams, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    This article explores challenges for and the development of civil society engagement and stakeholder representation, transparency, and accountability measures in the European Union, with a specific focus on health policy. The stance of the European Union on stakeholder participation within reform debates of the World Health Organization (WHO) is also considered, along with EU lessons for multi-stakeholders at the WHO. The European Commission has developed a number of measures for stakeholder engagement and transparency; however, the European Union has been prone to lobbying interests and has found difficulty in leading and making accountable the private sector when it comes to achieving its own health policy goals. The strong influence of corporate lobbyists on the European Union has come to light, with concerns about a lack of transparency and accountability in decision-making processes. While the WHO could learn from the European Union in terms of its strategies for stakeholder engagement, it could also heed some of the important lessons for the European Union when it comes to working with a broad range of stakeholders.

  2. Drug policy and harm reduction in the Middle East and North Africa: The role of civil society.

    PubMed

    Aaraj, Elie; Jreij Abou Chrouch, Micheline

    2016-05-01

    Civil society organizations (CSOs) in Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are the principal partners of government in scaling up the response to HIV and in implementing national policies. In return, CSOs expect endorsement of their work by the governments. Some CSOs face weaknesses and need capacity-building in order for them to reach the level of response required for reducing drug-related harm in this region. Substance use and the transmission of HIV are increasing in the MENA region. The limited data available on drug use show that there are approximately 630,000 people who inject drugs (PWID) across the region. The HIV epidemic remains concentrated among PWID and other key populations in the region. Comprehensive harm reduction programs which include prevention, care, and HIV treatment for PWID are being implemented by CSOs. This could not happen without the presence of a conducive environment which has been facilitated by the CSOs, and which aims to lead to a positive response in health policies, and thus to harm reduction programs in some countries in the region. However, based on the international data, antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage remains low in these countries, even if the number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) receiving ART is increasing. This increase can sometimes mask important challenges in equity: in several countries PWID are the most likely to be infected with HIV while being the least likely to be receiving care and ART. Therefore, concentrated efforts need to continue toward the goal of having mainstream harm reduction approaches in region. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Civil Society Organizations and medicines policy change: a case study of registration, procurement, distribution and use of misoprostol in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Atukunda, Esther Cathyln; Brhlikova, Petra; Agaba, Amon Ganafa; Pollock, Allyson M

    2015-04-01

    Misoprostol use for postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) has been promoted by Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) since the early 2000s. Yet, CSOs' role in improving access to misoprostol and shaping health policy at global and national levels is not well understood. We document the introduction of misoprostol in Uganda in 2008 from its registration, addition to treatment guidelines and national Essential Medicines List (EML), to its distribution and use. We then analyse the contribution of CSOs to this health policy change and service provision. Policy documents, procurement data and 82 key informant interviews with government officials, healthcare providers, and CSOs in four Ugandan districts of Kampala, Mbarara, Apac, Bundibugyo were collected between 2010 and 2013. Five key CSOs promoted and accelerated the rollout of misoprostol in Uganda. They supported the registration of misoprostol with the National Drug Authority, the development of clinical guidelines, and the piloting and training of health care providers. CSOs and National Medical Stores were procuring and distributing misoprostol country-wide to health centres two years before it was added to the clinical guidelines and EML of Uganda and in the absence of good evidence. The evidence suggests an increasing trend of misoprostol procurement and availability over the medicine of choice, oxytocin. This shift in national priorities has serious ramifications for maternal health care that need urgent evaluation. The absence of clinical guidelines in health centres and the lack of training preclude rational use of misoprostol. CSOs shifted their focus from the public to the private sector, where some of them continue to promote its use for off-label indications including induction of labour and abortion. There is an urgent need to build capacity to improve the robustness of the national and local institutions in assessing the safety and effectiveness of all medicines and their indications in Uganda.

  4. Employment discrimination and HIV stigma: survey results from civil society organisations and people living with HIV in Africa.

    PubMed

    Sprague, Laurel; Simon, Sara; Sprague, Courtenay

    2011-01-01

    The article presents findings from three surveys of people living with HIV (PLHIV) and civil society organisations about the experience of employment discrimination and stigma in the workplace. The work seeks to contribute to efforts by businesses and other organisations to effectively respond to the HIV epidemic within the world of work, and to deepen our understanding of the ways in which HIV stigma and employment discrimination persist in the workplace. The findings of global and regional surveys indicate the existence of high levels of employment discrimination based on HIV status worldwide, including forced disclosure of HIV status, exclusion in the workplace, refusals to hire or promote, and terminations of people known to be living with HIV. The survey findings show that employment discrimination based on HIV status is experienced in all African subregions. Country-level surveys conducted in Kenya and Zambia indicated that PLHIV face marked barriers to employment, including discrimination in hiring, loss of promotions, and termination because of HIV status. Additionally, large variances were found in the degree of support versus discrimination that employees living with HIV in those two countries received following their disclosure. The discussion emphasises the importance of the workplace as a site for intervention and behaviour change. To address this, we introduce a conceptual framework - the employment continuum - that maps multiple points of entry within the workplace to address HIV-related stigma and discrimination. Additional recommendations include: actions to ensure equal opportunity in hiring for PLHIV; ensuring that HIV testing is voluntary, never mandatory, and that disclosure is not necessary for employment; ensuring confidentiality of HIV status; communicating and enforcing HIV-related antidiscrimination policies; establishing support groups in the workplace; providing safe and confidential processes for resolving complaints of employment

  5. [Funding of a free healthcare campaign in a rural district of Cameroon: optimizing the role of civil society in sub-Saharan Africa].

    PubMed

    Keugoung, B; Fouelifack Ymele, F; Dongtsa Mabou, J; Nangue, C; Ngouadjio Kougoum, P; Takoudjou, L; Hercot, D; Meli, J

    2013-05-01

    Financial barriers represent a major obstacle to access to health care in sub-Saharan Africa and thus to the implementation of the Bamako Initiative. We describe an experience in which a civil society organization financed a free healthcare campaign in a rural health district in Cameroon. In all, 2,073 patients received free consultations, laboratory tests, and drugs. Adults older than 40 years accounted for 55.7% of all patients. The most frequent diseases were: osteoarticular conditions (24.1%), malaria (20.8%), and intestinal parasitosis (12.5%). In health systems financed mainly by cost recovery, some population needs remain uncovered by health services. There is a need to involve and reinforce the role of civil society in health system financing. It can help to pool more funds and improve the management of health resources to increase financial access to health care for poor people.

  6. Has global fund support for civil society advocacy in the former Soviet Union established meaningful engagement or 'a lot of jabber about nothing'?

    PubMed

    Harmer, Andrew; Spicer, Neil; Aleshkina, Julia; Bogdan, Daryna; Chkhatarashvili, Ketevan; Murzalieva, Gulgun; Rukhadze, Natia; Samiev, Arnol; Walt, Gill

    2013-05-01

    Although civil society advocacy for health issues such as HIV transmission through injecting drug use is higher on the global health agenda than previously, its impact on national policy reform has been limited. In this paper we seek to understand why this is the case through an examination of civil society advocacy efforts to reform HIV/AIDS and drugs-related policies and their implementation in three former Soviet Union countries. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in Georgia, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine by national researchers with representatives from a sample of 49 civil society organizations (CSOs) and 22 national key informants. We found that Global Fund support resulted in the professionalization of CSOs, which increased confidence from government and increased CSO influence on policies relating to HIV/AIDS and illicit drugs. Interviewees also reported that the amount of funding for advocacy from the Global Fund was insufficient, indirect and often interrupted. CSOs were often in competition for Global Fund support, which caused resentment and limited collective action, further weakening capacity for effective advocacy.

  7. [Right of access to healthcare in the context of the Royal Decree-Law 16/2012: the perspective of civil society organizations and professional associations].

    PubMed

    Suess, Amets; Ruiz Pérez, Isabel; Ruiz Azarola, Ainhoa; March Cerdà, Joan Carles

    2014-01-01

    The recent publication of the Royal Decree-Law 16/2012 (RDL 16/2012), which introduces structural changes in the Spanish Public Healthcare System, can be placed in the broader context of budgetary adjustments in response to the current economic crisis. An analysis of the interrelationships among economic crisis, healthcare policies, and health reveals that citizen participation is one of several potential strategies for reducing the impact of this situation on the population. This observation raises the interest to know the citizens' perspectives on the modifications introduced by the RDL 16/2012. Narrative review of documents related to the RDL 16/2012 published by civil society organizations and professional associations in the Spanish context. A broad citizen response can be observed to the introduction of RDL 16/2012. The documents reviewed include an analysis of changes in the healthcare model inherent to the RDL 16/2012, as well as predictions on its impact on access to healthcare, healthcare quality, and health. The civil society organizations and professional associations offer recommendations and proposals, as well as collaboration in elaborating alternative strategies to reduce costs. The response of civil society organizations and professional associations underscores the importance of strengthening citizen participation in the development of healthcare policies aimed at maintaining the universal character and sustainability of the Spanish Public Healthcare System in the current moment of economic and systemic crisis. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. How does single party dominance influence civil society organisations’ engagement strategies? Exploratory analysis of participative mainstreaming in a ‘regional’ European polity

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    A raft of United Nations Treaties, European Union Directives and domestic laws oblige governments in 180 + countries to apply the Participative Democratic Model of mainstreaming equalities to public administration by involving those targeted by equality initiatives at all stages in their design and delivery. Notwithstanding Participative Democratic Model’s deeply political nature, extant work has overlooked how governing party turnover influences civil society organisations’ (CSOs) strategies. Here, this lacuna is addressed using a negative ‘extreme case study’ research design involving qualitative accounts from civil society organisations in Wales, a ‘regional’ European polity characterised by one-party dominance. The findings reveal how the absence of turnover distorts the Participative Democratic Model in relation to diverse factors including: strategic bridging, extraparliamentary politics, cognitive locks and party institutionalisation. Inter alia, the wider contribution of this analysis lies in showing the importance of turnover to effective engagement, the ‘pathologies’ associated with one-party dominance and the need for adaptive civil society strategies tailored to prevailing electoral politics and governing party turnover in liberal democracies. PMID:28596639

  9. How does single party dominance influence civil society organisations' engagement strategies? Exploratory analysis of participative mainstreaming in a 'regional' European polity.

    PubMed

    Chaney, Paul

    2016-04-01

    A raft of United Nations Treaties, European Union Directives and domestic laws oblige governments in 180 + countries to apply the Participative Democratic Model of mainstreaming equalities to public administration by involving those targeted by equality initiatives at all stages in their design and delivery. Notwithstanding Participative Democratic Model's deeply political nature, extant work has overlooked how governing party turnover influences civil society organisations' (CSOs) strategies. Here, this lacuna is addressed using a negative 'extreme case study' research design involving qualitative accounts from civil society organisations in Wales, a 'regional' European polity characterised by one-party dominance. The findings reveal how the absence of turnover distorts the Participative Democratic Model in relation to diverse factors including: strategic bridging, extraparliamentary politics, cognitive locks and party institutionalisation. Inter alia, the wider contribution of this analysis lies in showing the importance of turnover to effective engagement, the 'pathologies' associated with one-party dominance and the need for adaptive civil society strategies tailored to prevailing electoral politics and governing party turnover in liberal democracies.

  10. Co-Operation: The Antidote to Isolated Misery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This is a case study demonstrating the impact the co-operative movement has had on one co-operative school in south-west England. Lipson Co-operative Academy in Plymouth was one of the first schools to convert to become a co-operative school in 2009. The article has been co-written by members of the Academy and focuses on three transformational…

  11. Co-Operation: The Antidote to Isolated Misery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This is a case study demonstrating the impact the co-operative movement has had on one co-operative school in south-west England. Lipson Co-operative Academy in Plymouth was one of the first schools to convert to become a co-operative school in 2009. The article has been co-written by members of the Academy and focuses on three transformational…

  12. Gender Differences in Job Satisfaction, Satisfaction with Society and Satisfaction from their Salary in Greek Civil Servants who are working under conditions of Labour—Intensive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonakas, Nikolaos; Mironaki, Amalia

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study is to determine empirically the existence of differences in three dimensions of satisfaction in Greek civil servants' gender, when they work under conditions of stress and tension. The three dimensions of satisfaction selected to be considered were job satisfaction, satisfaction with society and satisfaction from their salary. For this a two parts questionnaire was used. The first part included, besides sex and socially demographic characteristics of employees and the second part consisted of the above aspects of satisfaction. Used a sample of 290 employees and a factor analysis was conducted on the results of the questionnaire. The central question of this paper was whether the strength of the force of better wage, compared with the average civil servant, affects a different way to meet women and men's satisfaction who work under working conditions—intensity. The main finding of this study was the existence differences between women and men in the dimension of satisfaction from the salary.

  13. Missing--The People's Voice: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development in education for future economic growth has always been a global focal point for non-governmental agencies across the world. This article highlights the extensive work the Organisation for Economic Co-operation Development (OECD) has achieved over time, constructing contemporary society as we know it today, continually…

  14. Missing--The People's Voice: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development in education for future economic growth has always been a global focal point for non-governmental agencies across the world. This article highlights the extensive work the Organisation for Economic Co-operation Development (OECD) has achieved over time, constructing contemporary society as we know it today, continually…

  15. United States History: From Community to Society. Unit Six: Civil War and Reconstruction. Grade Six. Project Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    The cause of the Civil War is interpreted through cultural concepts in this sixth resource unit series designed for sixth grade students. Suggested activity units expose students in some depth to inhumane conditions of slaves, enslavement problems, black exploitation, and revolts stemming from denial of basic humanity, the African background of…

  16. The role of civil society in health policy making in South Africa: a review of the strategies adopted by the Treatment Action Campaign.

    PubMed

    Sabi, Stella C; Rieker, Mark

    2017-03-01

    The diagnosis of AIDS in 1982 in South Africa was followed by a rapid rise in the number of people living with the virus and dying from AIDS-related illnesses. The 2016 report by the Statistics South Africa indicated that about 7.03 million South Africans were infected with HIV/AIDS - the highest rate in the world. Despite the emergence of effective drugs in the mid-1990s, medical treatment remained unavailable in South Africa, particularly in public hospitals. This prompted civil society groups to establish platforms to discuss health policy change in South Africa. Prominent among these was the Treatment Action Campaign (TAC), formed in 1998, which aimed to advocate for improved HIV/AIDS health service delivery. The efforts succeeded in shaping the current HIV/AIDS policy through various initiatives such as the use of constitutional law in legal action against profiteering drug companies. This paper examines the role of civil society, and particularly the TAC engagement with the state in health policy making, and the subsequent implementation of health policy on HIV/AIDS in post-apartheid South Africa.

  17. Co-Operative Schools: A Democratic Alternative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audsley, Jamie; Cook, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Many fear that the pressures of running an Academy will be too great for individual schools, and that they will be forced to join chains run by private companies. These may offer hard-pressed school administrators valuable management expertise and back-office support, but seem to offer wider society little accountability and transparency. Are…

  18. Co-Operative Schools: A Democratic Alternative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audsley, Jamie; Cook, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Many fear that the pressures of running an Academy will be too great for individual schools, and that they will be forced to join chains run by private companies. These may offer hard-pressed school administrators valuable management expertise and back-office support, but seem to offer wider society little accountability and transparency. Are…

  19. An Analysis of the Curricula of Business Administration Departments in Turkish Universities with the Perspective of Civil Society Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Aytul Ayse; Sarikaya, Muammer

    2009-01-01

    The authors' goal was to analyze the curricula of business administration departments in state and private universities in Turkey, which have been offering courses such as business and society, social responsibility, business ethics, and management of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Of the 74 universities with business administration…

  20. A Prototype Item-Level Index to the Civil War Photograph Collection of the Ohio Historical Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Eric T.

    Historically, bibliographical classification and indexing systems have concentrated on textually-based materials. More recently, archives and libraries have realized a pressing need to provide access to visual documents. An institution like the Ohio Historical Society must consider many different tools of access to achieve this goal. The growth of…

  1. An Analysis of the Curricula of Business Administration Departments in Turkish Universities with the Perspective of Civil Society Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Aytul Ayse; Sarikaya, Muammer

    2009-01-01

    The authors' goal was to analyze the curricula of business administration departments in state and private universities in Turkey, which have been offering courses such as business and society, social responsibility, business ethics, and management of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Of the 74 universities with business administration…

  2. Network effects in environmental justice struggles: An investigation of conflicts between mining companies and civil society organizations from a network perspective.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Cem Iskender; Ozkaynak, Begum; Rodríguez-Labajos, Beatriz; Yenilmez, Taylan

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines conflicts that occur between mining companies and civil society organizations (CSOs) around the world and offers an innovative analysis of mining conflicts from a social network perspective. The analysis showed that, as the number of CSOs involved in a conflict increased, its outcome was more likely to be perceived as a success in terms of environmental justice (EJ); if a CSO was connected to other central CSOs, the average perception of EJ success was likely to increase; and as network distance between two conflicts increased (or decreased), they were more likely to lead to different (or similar) EJ outcomes. Such network effects in mining conflicts have policy implications for EJ movements. It would be a strategic move on the part of successful CSOs to become involved in other major conflicts and disseminate information about how they achieved greater EJ success.

  3. Network effects in environmental justice struggles: An investigation of conflicts between mining companies and civil society organizations from a network perspective

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Cem Iskender; Ozkaynak, Begum; Rodríguez-Labajos, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    This paper examines conflicts that occur between mining companies and civil society organizations (CSOs) around the world and offers an innovative analysis of mining conflicts from a social network perspective. The analysis showed that, as the number of CSOs involved in a conflict increased, its outcome was more likely to be perceived as a success in terms of environmental justice (EJ); if a CSO was connected to other central CSOs, the average perception of EJ success was likely to increase; and as network distance between two conflicts increased (or decreased), they were more likely to lead to different (or similar) EJ outcomes. Such network effects in mining conflicts have policy implications for EJ movements. It would be a strategic move on the part of successful CSOs to become involved in other major conflicts and disseminate information about how they achieved greater EJ success. PMID:28686618

  4. Recommendations to Strengthen Civil Society and Balance Michigan's State Budget, 2nd Edition. An Analysis of Fiscal-Year 2003-04 Appropriations and Recommendations for 2004-05. Revision of the March 2003 Study. A Mackinac Center Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFaive, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    As the debate rages in Lansing over the size and scope of the 2004-2005 Fiscal Year state budget, the Mackinac Center for Public Policy is republishing and updating budget cutting ideas from its March 2003 study, "Recommendations to Strengthen Civil Society and Balance Michigan's Budget." The 2003 study made over 200 recommendations…

  5. The ambiguities of the 'partnership' between civil society and the state in Uganda's AIDS response during the 1990s and 2000s as demonstrated in the development of TASO.

    PubMed

    Grebe, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    This article critically investigates state-civil society relations in the Ugandan AIDS response by tracing the history of Uganda's 'multisectoral' and 'partnership' approaches, particularly as it pertains to The AIDS Support Organisation (TASO). It finds that the Ugandan government's reputation for good leadership on AIDS is more ambiguous than commonly supposed and that the much-vaunted 'partnership' approach has not enabled strong critical civil society voices to emerge or prevented the harmful impact of a socially conservative agenda. By the 1990s, TASO had become the most important provider of medical and psychosocial support services to HIV/AIDS patients, but was less effective in influencing policy or holding the state accountable (because the political context prevented a more activist stance). The effectiveness of civil society has been constrained by an authoritarian political culture and institutions that discourage vocal criticism. Despite these limitations, however, state-civil society partnership did contribute to the emergence of a relatively effective coalition for action against HIV/AIDS. Donors were essential in encouraging the emergence of this coalition.

  6. Summary and Analysis of the Feedback from Civil Society as Part of the Consultation on the Commission's Memorandum on Lifelong Learning. Supporting Document to the Communication from the Commission Making a European Area of Lifelong Learning a Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document presents a Consultation Platform formed by seven major networks to maximize impact of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and civil society organizations on development of the Communication on Lifelong Learning. Section 2 is a summary of platform conclusions structured according to these six key messages in the Memorandum on…

  7. [Developments in civil and disciplinary law. A view of the revision of the Netherlands Society for Dentistry (NMT) administration of justice].

    PubMed

    Brands, W G

    2004-06-01

    According to some people, the renewed Dutch civil disciplinary law is not fulfilling the expectations. Some procedures seem to be reductant for accused dentists. Besides the civil disciplinary law, also the professional disciplinary law of Dutch Dental Association is questionable. The Association is planning to change the current professional disciplinary law. However, the proposed amendments may have the consequence that a Dutch dentist more frequently will be faced with a civil disciplinary law procedure or normal civil law procedure.

  8. The effects of national and international HIV/AIDS funding and governance mechanisms on the development of civil-society responses to HIV/AIDS in East and Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kevin J; Birdsall, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The study takes stock of the exponential growth in the number of new civil-society organisations (CSOs) working in the HIV/AIDS field in East and Southern Africa during the period 1996-2004. We researched this development through a survey of 439 CSOs in six countries and case studies focused on the evolution of community responses to HIV/AIDS in specific communities in eight countries. We describe the types of CSOs that emerged, their relationships with governments and donors, and their activities, organisational characteristics and funding requirements. The data presented show that the vision of social mobilisation of HIV/AIDS responses through community-level organisations has faced strong external challenges. Evidence from survey data, national HIV/AIDS spending assessments and case studies shows that in some respects the changing international aid environment undermines the prospects for development of the civil-society sector's contributions in HIV/AIDS responses. Of particular interest is to understand how the "Three Ones" and the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness have reshaped international funding for HIV/AIDS responses. There has been relatively little attention paid to the impact of the new management and funding modalities--including national performance frameworks, general budget support, joint funding arrangements and basket funds--on civil-society agencies at the forefront of community HIV/AIDS responses. Evidence is presented to show that in important respects the new modalities limit the unique contribution that CSOs can make to national HIV/AIDS responses. It is also shown that the drive to rapidly intensify the scale of HIV/AIDS responses has involved using community organisations as service providers for externally formulated programmes. We discuss this as a strong threat to the development of sustainable civil-society economies as well as to CSOs' diversity and responsiveness. The ways in which CSOs are responding to these challenges are

  9. Upcrowding energy co-operatives - Evaluating the potential of crowdfunding for business model innovation of energy co-operatives.

    PubMed

    Dilger, Mathias Georg; Jovanović, Tanja; Voigt, Kai-Ingo

    2017-08-01

    Practice and theory have proven the relevance of energy co-operatives for civic participation in the energy turnaround. However, due to a still low awareness and changing regulation, there seems an unexploited potential of utilizing the legal form 'co-operative' in this context. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the crowdfunding implementation in the business model of energy co-operatives in order to cope with the mentioned challenges. Based on a theoretical framework, we derive a Business Model Innovation (BMI) through crowdfunding including synergies and differences. A qualitative study design, particularly a multiple-case study of energy co-operatives, was chosen to prove the BMI and to reveal barriers. The results show that although most co-operatives are not familiar with crowdfunding, there is strong potential in opening up predominantly local structures to a broader group of members. Building on this, equity-based crowdfunding is revealed to be suitable for energy co-operatives as BMI and to accompany other challenges in the same way. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Public health within the EU policy space: a qualitative study of Organized Civil Society (OCS) and the Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach.

    PubMed

    Franklin, P K

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews how Organized Civil Society (OCS) groups in the field of public health work across the boundaries between European institutions and policy areas. In particular, it explores 1) how the Health in All Policies (HiAP) approach is conducted by these groups informally within the formal governance structures, and 2) how this advocacy work creates space for public health within the broader political determinants of health. A qualitative mixed-methods framework. Political ethnography, including 20 semi-structured interviews conducted with EU health strategy stakeholders and participant observations in public health events (n = 22) in Brussels over a three-year period (2012-2015), as well as four interviews with EU Member State representatives. Three additional semi-structured interviews were conducted with World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe staff members who had been involved in the drafting of the Health 2020 framework and strategy and the accompanying main implementation pillar, European Action Plan for Strengthening Public Health Capacities and Services (EAP-PHS). The findings provide an insight into OCS work in the field of European public health, offering an account of the experiences of HiAP work conducted by the research participants. The OCS groups perceive themselves as communicators between policy areas within European institutions and between local and supranational levels. The structures and political determinants of health that impose limitations on a public institution can at points be transcended by stakeholders, who conduct HiAP work at supranational level, thus negotiating space for public health within the competitive, globalized policy space. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. National Health Service Principles as Experienced by Vulnerable London Migrants in "Austerity Britain": A Qualitative Study of Rights, Entitlements, and Civil-Society Advocacy.

    PubMed

    Rafighi, Elham; Poduval, Shoba; Legido-Quigley, Helena; Howard, Natasha

    2016-05-08

    Recent British National Health Service (NHS) reforms, in response to austerity and alleged 'health tourism,' could impose additional barriers to healthcare access for non-European Economic Area (EEA) migrants. This study explores policy reform challenges and implications, using excerpts from the perspectives of non-EEA migrants and health advocates in London. A qualitative study design was selected. Data were collected through document review and 22 in-depth interviews with non-EEA migrants and civil-society organisation representatives. Data were analysed thematically using the NHS principles. The experiences of those 'vulnerable migrants' (ie, defined as adult non-EEA asylum-seekers, refugees, undocumented, low-skilled, and trafficked migrants susceptible to marginalised healthcare access) able to access health services were positive, with healthcare professionals generally demonstrating caring attitudes. However, general confusion existed about entitlements due to recent NHS changes, controversy over 'health tourism,' and challenges registering for health services or accessing secondary facilities. Factors requiring greater clarity or improvement included accessibility, communication, and clarity on general practitioner (GP) responsibilities and migrant entitlements. Legislation to restrict access to healthcare based on immigration status could further compromise the health of vulnerable individuals in Britain. This study highlights current challenges in health services policy and practice and the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in healthcare advocacy (eg, helping the voices of the most vulnerable reach policy-makers). Thus, it contributes to broadening national discussions and enabling more nuanced interpretation of ongoing global debates on immigration and health.

  12. Using information communication technologies to increase the institutional capacity of local health organisations in Africa: a case study of the Kenya Civil Society Portal for Health.

    PubMed

    Juma, Charles; Sundsmo, Aaron; Maket, Boniface; Powell, Richard; Aluoch, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Achieving the healthcare components of the United Nations' Millennium Development Goals is significantly premised on effective service delivery by civil society organisations (CSOs). However, many CSOs across Africalack the necessary capacity to perform this role robustly. This paper reports on an evaluation of the use, and perceived impact, of aknowledge management tool upon institutional strengthening among CSOs working in Kenya's health sector. Three methods were used: analytics data; user satisfaction surveys; and a furtherkey informant survey. Satisfaction with the portal was consistently high, with 99% finding the quality and relevance of the content very good or good for institutional strengthening standards, governance, and planning and resource mobilisation. Critical facilitators to the success of knowledge management for CSO institutional strengthening were identified as people/culture (developed resources and organisational narratives) and technology (easily accessible, enabling information exchange, tools/resources available, access to consultants/partners). Critical barriers were identified as people/culture (database limitations, materials limitations, and lack of active users), and process (limited access, limited interactions, and limited approval process). This pilot study demonstrated the perceived utility of a web-based knowledge management portal among developing nations' CSOs, with widespread satisfaction across multiple domains, which increased over time. Providing increased opportunities for collective mutual learning, promoting a culture of data use for decision making, and encouraging all health organisations to be learning institutions should be a priority for those interested in promoting sustainable long-term solutions for Africa.

  13. [Knowledge, and attitudes of Civil Society Organizations in the implementation of the Expanded Program on Immunization in Côte d'Ivoire].

    PubMed

    Yao, Gnissan Henri Auguste; Aka, Lepri Bernadin Nicaise; Manouan, Nogbou Jean Marc; Effi, Odile Angbo; Douba, Alfred; Zengbé-Acray, Pétronille; Traoré, Youssouf; Soumahoro, Sory Ibrahim; Ak, Koko Aude; Dagnan, N'Cho Simplice

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the level of involvement of leaders of Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in implementation of routine EPI activities. This was a cross-sectional descriptive study of the knowledge and attitudes of CSOs concerning implementation of routine EPI activities in the health district of Adiaké (Côte d'Ivoire). This study shows that 77.1% of CSO leaders were literate and 92.9% of them were practicing Catholics or Muslims. They had a good knowledge of the existence of EPI (97.1%) and EPI target diseases, but were ignorant about the immunization schedule (82%). 90% of CSO leaders considered EPI to be an important activity for the prevention of childhood diseases. They considered the reception in immunization units to be satisfactory (60%) and believed that rumours about the sterility of women were the cause of refusal of vaccination by communities. Although 41.4% of leaders had participated in social mobilization activities, none had participated in the mobilization of resources. Vaccination was not rejected by CSO leaders, but their lack of participation in implementation of EPI could induce errors and lead them to believe the rumours and refuse vaccination of their community. The effective integration of the socio-cultural bases of communities in which immunization programmes are conducted will promote the adhesion of the people responsible for these programmes.

  14. Using information communication technologies to increase the institutional capacity of local health organisations in Africa: a case study of the Kenya Civil Society Portal for Health

    PubMed Central

    Juma, Charles; Sundsmo, Aaron; Maket, Boniface; Powell, Richard; Aluoch, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Achieving the healthcare components of the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals is significantly premised on effective service delivery by civil society organisations (CSOs). However, many CSOs across Africalack the necessary capacity to perform this role robustly. This paper reports on an evaluation of the use, and perceived impact, of aknowledge management tool upon institutional strengthening among CSOs working in Kenya's health sector. Methods Three methods were used: analytics data; user satisfaction surveys; and a furtherkey informant survey. Results Satisfaction with the portal was consistently high, with 99% finding the quality and relevance of the content very good or good for institutional strengthening standards, governance, and planning and resource mobilisation. Critical facilitators to the success of knowledge management for CSO institutional strengthening were identified as people/culture (developed resources and organisational narratives) and technology (easily accessible, enabling information exchange, tools/resources available, access to consultants/partners). Critical barriers were identified as people/culture (database limitations, materials limitations, and lack of active users), and process (limited access, limited interactions, and limited approval process). Conclusion This pilot study demonstrated the perceived utility of a web-based knowledge management portal among developing nations’ CSOs, with widespread satisfaction across multiple domains, which increased over time. Providing increased opportunities for collective mutual learning, promoting a culture of data use for decision making, and encouraging all health organisations to be learning institutions should be a priority for those interested in promoting sustainable long-term solutions for Africa. PMID:26401217

  15. The Relationship Between Core Members' Social Capital and Perceived and Externally Evaluated Prestige and Cooperation Among HIV/AIDS-Related Civil Society Organizations in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Danni; Xu, Xiaoru; Mei, Guangliang; Ma, Ying; Chen, Ren; Qin, Xia; Hu, Zhi

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the core members' social capital was associated with individually perceived and externally evaluated prestige and cooperation among the HIV/AIDS-related civil society organizations (CSOs). To accomplish this, a cross-sectional study using multistage sampling was carried out in eight provinces of China. Data were collected from the 327 core members via questionnaires and self-evaluated performance of the respondents were evaluated and measured. The interviews were conducted with all core members and the supervisory staff of the local Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that social support (adjusted odds ratio [a OR] = 1.87) and organizational commitment (a OR = 1.57) were significantly associated with a higher odds of prestige performance in self-evaluation. Furthermore, social support (a OR = 1.65), trust (a OR = 1.33), and organizational commitment (a OR = 1.52) were significantly correlated with cooperation performance. Trust was positively associated with the cooperation performance on external evaluation. These findings may provide a new perspective on challenges that the CSOs face in response to a growing HIV/AIDS epidemic in China. Social capital may increase performance and accelerate organizational growth, ultimately improving HIV/AIDS prevention and care.

  16. 'It looks like you just want them when things get rough': civil society perspectives on negative trial results and stakeholder engagement in HIV prevention trials.

    PubMed

    Koen, Jennifer; Essack, Zaynab; Slack, Catherine; Lindegger, Graham; Newman, Peter A

    2013-12-01

    Civil society organizations (CSOs) have significantly impacted on the politics of health research and the field of bioethics. In the global HIV epidemic, CSOs have served a pivotal stakeholder role. The dire need for development of new prevention technologies has raised critical challenges for the ethical engagement of community stakeholders in HIV research. This study explored the perspectives of CSO representatives involved in HIV prevention trials (HPTs) on the impact of premature trial closures on stakeholder engagement. Fourteen respondents from South African and international CSOs representing activist and advocacy groups, community mobilisation initiatives, and human and legal rights groups were purposively sampled based on involvement in HPTs. Interviews were conducted from February-May 2010. Descriptive analysis was undertaken across interviews and key themes were developed inductively. CSO representatives largely described positive outcomes of recent microbicide and HIV vaccine trial terminations, particularly in South Africa, which they attributed to improvements in stakeholder engagement. Ongoing challenges to community engagement included the need for principled justifications for selective stakeholder engagement at strategic time-points, as well as the need for legitimate alternatives to CABs as mechanisms for engagement. Key issues for CSOs in relation to research were also raised. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Co-operativity in a nanocrystalline solid-state transition.

    PubMed

    White, Sarah L; Smith, Jeremy G; Behl, Mayank; Jain, Prashant K

    2013-01-01

    Co-operativity is a remarkable phenomenon mostly seen in biology, where initial reaction events significantly alter the propensity of subsequent reaction events, giving rise to a nonlinear tightly regulated synergistic response. Here we have found unique evidence of atomic level co-operativity in an inorganic material. A thousand-atom nanocrystal (NC) of the inorganic solid cadmium selenide exhibits strong positive co-operativity in its reaction with copper ions. A NC doped with a few copper impurities becomes highly prone to be doped even further, driving an abrupt transition of the entire NC to the copper selenide phase, as manifested by a strongly sigmoidal response in optical spectroscopy and electron diffraction measurements. The examples presented here suggest that cooperative phenomena may have an important role in the solid state, especially in the nucleation of new chemical phases, crystal growth, and other materials' transformations.

  18. Co-operativity in a nanocrystalline solid-state transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Sarah L.; Smith, Jeremy G.; Behl, Mayank; Jain, Prashant K.

    2013-12-01

    Co-operativity is a remarkable phenomenon mostly seen in biology, where initial reaction events significantly alter the propensity of subsequent reaction events, giving rise to a nonlinear tightly regulated synergistic response. Here we have found unique evidence of atomic level co-operativity in an inorganic material. A thousand-atom nanocrystal (NC) of the inorganic solid cadmium selenide exhibits strong positive co-operativity in its reaction with copper ions. A NC doped with a few copper impurities becomes highly prone to be doped even further, driving an abrupt transition of the entire NC to the copper selenide phase, as manifested by a strongly sigmoidal response in optical spectroscopy and electron diffraction measurements. The examples presented here suggest that cooperative phenomena may have an important role in the solid state, especially in the nucleation of new chemical phases, crystal growth, and other materials’ transformations.

  19. Co-operativity in seminal ribonuclease function: binding studies.

    PubMed Central

    Di Donato, A; Piccoli, R; D'Alessio, G

    1987-01-01

    Binding of nucleotides to bovine seminal RNAase was studied by differential spectrophotometry and equilibrium dialysis. Cytidine 3'-phosphate, the reaction product of the hydrolytic, rate-limiting step of the reaction, was found to be capable, in contrast to related nucleotides, of discriminating between the two structurally identical active sites of the enzyme. Negative co-operativity, with a 'half-of-sites' reactivity, was found at lower concentrations of ligand, whereas at higher concentrations positive co-operativity was detected. These findings exclude that the non-hyperbolic kinetics previously reported for the hydrolytic step of the reaction are due to hysteretic effect. A model of mixed-type co-operativity is proposed for interpreting the binding data. PMID:3593200

  20. SMEs and their co-operation with academia.

    PubMed

    Antoine, Jean Michel; Strömqvist, Mats

    2005-01-01

    Co-operation between SMEs and Academia can be a win-win situation when each partner understands the constraints of the other. SMEs are often leaders in innovation; therefore more ready to share interest in research. They are flexible and dynamic. They need a short feed-back to sustain their co-operation. Academia is often more long-term oriented and more question- than answer-oriented. A code of conduct can ease the relationship because it can anticipate the potential problems.

  1. Al-qararal-wizari raqam 159 bi-tarikh 21/8/1968 fi sha'n al-jam'iyyat al-ta'awiniyya al-ta'limiyya (Ministerial Decree No.169, 21 August 1968, Concerning Educational Co-operative Societies).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Arab Republic.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a Ministerial decree establishing educational cooperative societies, and spelling out their objectives, rules of procedure, fees, membership requirements, funding, administrative organization, voting procedures, distribution of profits, termination procedures,…

  2. National Health Service Principles as Experienced by Vulnerable London Migrants in "Austerity Britain": A Qualitative Study of Rights, Entitlements, and Civil-Society Advocacy

    PubMed Central

    Rafighi, Elham; Poduval, Shoba; Legido-Quigley, Helena; Howard, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent British National Health Service (NHS) reforms, in response to austerity and alleged ‘health tourism,’ could impose additional barriers to healthcare access for non-European Economic Area (EEA) migrants. This study explores policy reform challenges and implications, using excerpts from the perspectives of non-EEA migrants and health advocates in London. Methods: A qualitative study design was selected. Data were collected through document review and 22 in-depth interviews with non-EEA migrants and civil-society organisation representatives. Data were analysed thematically using the NHS principles. Results: The experiences of those ‘vulnerable migrants’ (ie, defined as adult non-EEA asylum-seekers, refugees, undocumented, low-skilled, and trafficked migrants susceptible to marginalised healthcare access) able to access health services were positive, with healthcare professionals generally demonstrating caring attitudes. However, general confusion existed about entitlements due to recent NHS changes, controversy over ‘health tourism,’ and challenges registering for health services or accessing secondary facilities. Factors requiring greater clarity or improvement included accessibility, communication, and clarity on general practitioner (GP) responsibilities and migrant entitlements. Conclusion: Legislation to restrict access to healthcare based on immigration status could further compromise the health of vulnerable individuals in Britain. This study highlights current challenges in health services policy and practice and the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in healthcare advocacy (eg, helping the voices of the most vulnerable reach policy-makers). Thus, it contributes to broadening national discussions and enabling more nuanced interpretation of ongoing global debates on immigration and health. PMID:27694650

  3. Co-Operative Training in the Sheffield Forging Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give details of an operation carried out in Sheffield to increase the recruitment of young men into the steel forging industry. Design/methodology/approach: The Sheffield Forges Co-operative Training Scheme was designed to encourage boys to enter the forging industry and to provide them with training and…

  4. Co-Operative Training in the Sheffield Forging Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give details of an operation carried out in Sheffield to increase the recruitment of young men into the steel forging industry. Design/methodology/approach: The Sheffield Forges Co-operative Training Scheme was designed to encourage boys to enter the forging industry and to provide them with training and…

  5. Supersurveillance, Democracy, and Co-Operation--The Challenge for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schostak, John

    2014-01-01

    The paper explores pedagogies of surveillance and counter pedagogies of radical democracy and co-operative practice and their implications for continuing professional development (CPD). Teachers have had to respond to an increasing naturalisation of surveillance in schools. However, this naturalisation can be countered by drawing upon the emergent…

  6. Impact of Co-Operative Learning Strategies in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, G.

    2010-01-01

    The study illuminates the effectiveness of Co-operative Learning Strategies in learning English Grammar for the learners at secondary level. Cooperative Learning is particularly beneficial for any student learning as a second language. It promotes peer interaction, which helps the development of language and the learning of concepts with content.…

  7. Securing co-operation from persons supplying statistical data

    PubMed Central

    Aubenque, M. J.; Blaikley, R. M.; Harris, F. Fraser; Lal, R. B.; Neurdenburg, M. G.; Hernández, R. de Shelly

    1954-01-01

    Securing the co-operation of persons supplying information required for medical statistics is essentially a problem in human relations, and an understanding of the motivations, attitudes, and behaviour of the respondents is necessary. Before any new statistical survey is undertaken, it is suggested by Aubenque and Harris that a preliminary review be made so that the maximum use is made of existing information. Care should also be taken not to burden respondents with an overloaded questionnaire. Aubenque and Harris recommend simplified reporting. Complete population coverage is not necessary. Neurdenburg suggests that the co-operation and support of such organizations as medical associations and social security boards are important and that propaganda should be directed specifically to the groups whose co-operation is sought. Informal personal contacts are valuable and desirable, according to Blaikley, but may have adverse effects if the right kind of approach is not made. Financial payments as an incentive in securing co-operation are opposed by Neurdenburg, who proposes that only postage-free envelopes or similar small favours be granted. Blaikley and Harris, on the other hand, express the view that financial incentives may do much to gain the support of those required to furnish data; there are, however, other incentives, and full use should be made of the natural inclinations of respondents. Compulsion may be necessary in certain instances, but administrative rather than statutory measures should be adopted. Penalties, according to Aubenque, should be inflicted only when justified by imperative health requirements. The results of surveys should be made available as soon as possible to those who co-operated, and Aubenque and Harris point out that they should also be of practical value to the suppliers of the information. Greater co-operation can be secured from medical persons who have an understanding of the statistical principles involved; Aubenque and

  8. Interdisciplinary Co-operation (Part II of "Language Learning: Individual Needs, Interdisciplinary Co-operation, Bi- and Multilingualism").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1978

    The following papers on interdisciplinary cooperation in second language instruction are included: (1) "Language Teaching: Possibilities for Interdisciplinary Co-operation," by James E. Alatis; (2) "L'insegnamento della letteratura italiana (The Teaching of Italian Literature)," by Ezio Raimondi; (3) "Objective Evaluation and Transparency," by…

  9. Interdisciplinary Co-operation (Part II of "Language Learning: Individual Needs, Interdisciplinary Co-operation, Bi- and Multilingualism").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1978

    The following papers on interdisciplinary cooperation in second language instruction are included: (1) "Language Teaching: Possibilities for Interdisciplinary Co-operation," by James E. Alatis; (2) "L'insegnamento della letteratura italiana (The Teaching of Italian Literature)," by Ezio Raimondi; (3) "Objective Evaluation and Transparency," by…

  10. Healthcare technology co-operatives: Innovative about innovation.

    PubMed

    Heron, Nicola M; Tindale, Wendy B

    2014-01-01

    The paper provides an introduction to the National Institute for Health Research Devices for Dignity Healthcare Technology Co-operative. Embedded within the NHS, Devices for Dignity identifies areas of unmet clinical need and translates these into research and development projects to develop new medical technologies. It addresses the needs of people living with long-term conditions, helping them to live more dignified and independent lives. Through partnerships with patients, universities, the NHS and industry, Devices for Dignity has developed an innovation methodology for successful medical technology innovation.

  11. Rhadinovirus Host Entry by Co-operative Infection

    PubMed Central

    May, Janet S.; Stevenson, Philip G.

    2015-01-01

    Rhadinoviruses establish chronic infections of clinical and economic importance. Several show respiratory transmission and cause lung pathologies. We used Murid Herpesvirus-4 (MuHV-4) to understand how rhadinovirus lung infection might work. A primary epithelial or B cell infection often is assumed. MuHV-4 targeted instead alveolar macrophages, and their depletion reduced markedly host entry. While host entry was efficient, alveolar macrophages lacked heparan - an important rhadinovirus binding target - and were infected poorly ex vivo. In situ analysis revealed that virions bound initially not to macrophages but to heparan+ type 1 alveolar epithelial cells (AECs). Although epithelial cell lines endocytose MuHV-4 readily in vitro, AECs did not. Rather bound virions were acquired by macrophages; epithelial infection occurred only later. Thus, host entry was co-operative - virion binding to epithelial cells licensed macrophage infection, and this in turn licensed AEC infection. An antibody block of epithelial cell binding failed to block host entry: opsonization provided merely another route to macrophages. By contrast an antibody block of membrane fusion was effective. Therefore co-operative infection extended viral tropism beyond the normal paradigm of a target cell infected readily in vitro; and macrophage involvement in host entry required neutralization to act down-stream of cell binding. PMID:25790477

  12. EDITORIAL: Co-operation by Mutual Transfer of Manuscripts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Krumbhaar, H.

    2002-12-01

    Co-operation among scientifically qualified journals is essential for providing authors with a proper wide audience in the interest of the progress of sciences. The reviewing process of a scientifically qualified paper occasionally comes to the conclusion that the manuscript might be more suitable for a different journal than the one to which it was originally submitted. The author might be inclined to agree to such a transfer of his/her manuscript to a different journal, if the original submission date of the manuscript would be maintained ant the related materials transmitted as well. In order to facilitate this transfer of papers between The European Physical Journal and Europhysics Letters, the Editors-in-Chief of these journals have come to an agreement for the transfer of suitable manuscripts from one journal to another journal that should avoid unnecessary publication delays. Other journals published in Europe may join this co-operation. In case of such an intended transfer of a submitted manuscript, the editor of the journal who has received the manuscript asks the author for his agreement and contacts the editor of the other journal. He sends him the manuscript and related material from the reviewing process. The final decision on the manuscript publication stays the with then editor of the journal to which the manuscript is transferred, who can either make his decision on the basis of the existing reports or ask for complementary reports.

  13. The Effectiveness of Structured Co-Operative Teaching and Learning in Greek Primary School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaldi, Stavroula; Filippatou, Diamanto; Anthopoulou, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses upon the effectiveness of structured co-operative group work on primary school students, aged between 8.5 and 9.5 years old, regarding their content knowledge, attitudes towards co-operative group work, experiential learning and open-ended curriculum as well as students' social and learning behaviour during co-operative group…

  14. An Effect of the Co-Operative Network Model for Students' Quality in Thai Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanthaphum, Udomsin; Tesaputa, Kowat; Weangsamoot, Visoot

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed: 1) to study the current and desirable states of the co-operative network in developing the learners' quality in Thai primary schools, 2) to develop a model of the co-operative network in developing the learners' quality, and 3) to examine the results of implementation of the co-operative network model in the primary school.…

  15. The Effectiveness of Structured Co-Operative Teaching and Learning in Greek Primary School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaldi, Stavroula; Filippatou, Diamanto; Anthopoulou, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses upon the effectiveness of structured co-operative group work on primary school students, aged between 8.5 and 9.5 years old, regarding their content knowledge, attitudes towards co-operative group work, experiential learning and open-ended curriculum as well as students' social and learning behaviour during co-operative group…

  16. On the road towards better health gain through co-operation in the European Union?

    PubMed

    Schutyser, K

    1999-01-01

    Explained are some 4 paradoxes, amongst many others, in healthcare and hospital policy and the turbulent "changes" and so-called changes they are going through all over Europe:--change vs being changed?--cost vs investment?--compete vs co-operate?--patients vs healthcare workers? There is certainly not yet a politically explicit option for a comprehensive European (Union) healthcare system. The national governments explicitly want to keep their part of the social organisation of society in their own hands. But at the same time the EU is active in the healthcare field when exercising its (reduced) competencies in public health and in data comparison as well as when acting in its very broad domains of the internal market. The informative and benchmarking role of the EU is immense and it has huge means to stimulate European networks and scientific research even in healthcare systems and policymaking. A strong message here is certainly to correctly invest in real health gain for patients and society through co-operation and networking among the many stakeholders in health and healthcare. The challenge for the future, for the numerous actors on the very slippery slope of health is to keep upright as moderate consumers, producers and rulers. This appeal to moderation, i.e. to prevention of exaggeration, which comes down to an attitude of subsidiarity, is a general conclusion, which may seem idealistic. However, one can qualify it also as "2000 realism" which our western social healthcare systems need for surviving, as they will have to see to a more solidarity-based coverage of health risks instead of reserving healthcare to the rich, and as they will have to open their social quality systems even more throughout the world.

  17. Civil Rights

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Civil Rights Program enforces federal civil rights laws that prohibit discrimination against members of the public by recipients of EPA funds, and protects employees and applicants for employment from discrimination.

  18. Moroccan Civil Society: Historical Traditions and Contemporary Challenges. Curriculum Projects of a Fulbright-Hays Seminar Abroad, June 25-July 29, 1998 (Morocco).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This collection of curriculum projects is the result of the participation of 15 teacher/authors in the 1998 Fulbright-Hays seminar in Morocco. Projects in the collection focus on various topics in Moroccan society. The following curriculum projects are outlined in the collection: "Studies in African Cultures: A Course Syllabus" (Dinker…

  19. Variations in life expectancy in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries--1985-2010.

    PubMed

    Zare, Hossein; Gaskin, Darrell J; Anderson, Gerard

    2015-12-01

    We examined the impact of different behavioral factors of health on the variations in the levels and rate of increase in life expectancy in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries between 1985 and 2010. Using the World Health Organization's conceptual framework of socio-economic determinants of health, we incorporated Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development, World Bank and United Nations data to estimate the impact of these variables on life expectancy for 30 Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries. We used a random effect model to control the fixed effect of year and each country. Results show that the level of health care spending is the most important factor predicting life expectancy. Other important factors are gross domestic product per capita, labor productivity, years of schooling and percentage of gross domestic product spending allocated for public services. Life expectancy was reduced by smoking and higher daily calorie consumption. Countries that were previously part of the Soviet Union had lower life expectancies. Political factors had only a minor impact on life expectancy. Life expectancy increased an average of 5.1 years in Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development countries between 1985 and 2010, but there was wide variation. Health spending per capita, economic factors and two behavioral factors - smoking and caloric intake - explained most of the variation and suggest where increased policy attention could have the greatest impact on life expectancy. Policymakers who consider our estimates recognize that they may see greater or less impact depending on the characteristics of their nation. © 2015 the Nordic Societies of Public Health.

  20. Overcoming decommissioning challenges through client/laboratory co-operation

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, Mike; Gray, Lesley

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Accelerated decommissioning projects of the type underway at the former gaseous diffusion plant at BNG Capenhurst, UK, involve characterisation and radiochemical fingerprinting of a variety of unusual materials derived from legacy wastes. The project management and technical challenges that can occur during such a program can be successfully surmounted if a close working relationship between the client and the analytical laboratory is achieved. The Capenhurst Integrated Decommissioning Program (IDP) is an example of how such co-operation can reduce costs and time scales by providing the analytical laboratory with key sample and technical information prior to the shipping of the samples to the lab. This ensures that challenges associated with unusual sample matrices can be anticipated and dealt with at an early stage in the project. Gamma spectrometry is the most common analytical technique when analysing samples for radioactive content as it is non-destructive, relatively inexpensive and fast. However, accurate measurement generally requires samples of a known density to be counted in calibrated geometries. This becomes a challenge as many legacy wastes comprise materials of uneven geometry and/or varying density, as has been the case during the Capenhurst IDP. Liaising with the client to ensure a representative sub-sample of the material is taken on-site, and a series of additional checks when analysing the sample ensure that accurate results are obtained even for non-routine materials. Often it is only one or two radionuclides that dominate the radioactive inventory for legacy wastes. (authors)

  1. Rocks, climate and the survival of human societies in hyper-arid and arid environments - Are the human civilization in deserts at a permanent risk of collapse?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoav, Avni; Noa, Avriel-Avni

    2017-04-01

    The great challenges of living in the arid and hyper arid regions worldwide are the shortage of water, limited resources and the permanent uncertainty of the desert climate. These challenges are known as the main weaknesses of desert societies that are prone, according to the existing paradigm, to a permanent risk of collapse. However, in the Middle East deserts, human societies are known since prehistoric times and during the entire hyper-dry Holocene. This hints that the simple paradigm of desert societies' high vulnerability to harsh desert environments needs to be better examined. In this context we examine three case studies: 1. The Southern Sinai region in Egypt: In this region, the annual precipitation fluctuates between 20-50 mm/y. However, in this highly mountainous area, desert agriculture plots including orchards were constructed, located mainly around the byzantine monastery of Santa Katerina. During the last 1500 years, much of the water supply needed for humans and agriculture was generated from runoff developed on exposed granite rocks. 2. The southern Jordan region south of Petra: Much of this wide area connecting the deserts of the Arabian Peninsula and southern Jordan receive only 20-30 mm/y. However, the main caravan route established by the Arabian tribes during the first millennia BC managed to cross this land, supplying the water needs of many camels. Most of this water was stored in large cisterns dug into the sandstone rock formations exposed along the route, especially within the Disi Formation. 3. The Negev Highlands of southern Israel: This region is divided between the hyper arid region to the south, receiving 70-80 mm/y, and the arid region to the north receiving 90-130 mm/y. During the last two millennia, the hyper arid area was used for camel grazing and goats herds, while the northern sector was used for the construction of agriculture plots, agriculture farms and even desert towns. All these activities were sustained by runoff

  2. The ACCEND program: a combined BS and MS program in environmental engineering that includes co-operative work experience.

    PubMed

    Bishop, P L; Keener, T C; Kukreti, A R; Kowel, S T

    2004-01-01

    Environmental engineering education has rapidly expanded in recent years and new teaching methods are needed. Many professionals and educators believe that a MS degree in environmental engineering should be the minimum in order to practice the profession, along with practical training. This paper describes an innovative program being offered at the University of Cincinnati that combines an integrated BS in civil engineering and an MS in environmental engineering with extensive practical co-operative education (co-op) experience, all within a five-year period. The program includes distance learning opportunities during the co-op periods. The result is a well-trained graduate who will receive higher pay and more challenging career opportunities, and who will have developed professionalism and maturity beyond that from traditional engineering programs.

  3. 'Part of the solution': Developing sustainable energy through co-operatives and learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duguid, Fiona C. B.

    After five years of development, WindShare Co-operative in Toronto, Ontario became the first urban wind turbine in North America and the first co-operatively owned and operated wind turbine in Canada. The development of WindShare Co-operative has spurred the growth of a green energy co-operative sector in Ontario. This study, which included 27 interviews and a focus group with members of WindShare Co-operative, focuses on the roles of community-based green energy co-operatives in advancing sustainable energy development and energy literacy. Sustainable energy development is firmly rooted in the triple bottom line of environmental, social and economic success, and green energy co-operatives can be a way to help achieve those successes. Green energy co-operatives are structures for providing renewable energy generation or energy conservation practices, both of which have important environmental impacts regarding climate change and pollution levels. Co-operative structures are supported by processes that include local ownership, democracy, participation, community organizing, learning and social change. These processes have a significant social impact by creating a venue for people to be directly involved in the energy industry, by involving learning through participation in a community-based organization, and by advancing energy literacy within the membership and the general public. In regards to the economic impacts, green energy co-operatives foster a local economy and local investment opportunities, which have repercussions regarding building expertise within Ontario's green energy and co-operative development future, and more generally, captures members' interest because they have a direct stake in the co-operative. This thesis shows that green energy co-operatives, like WindShare, play an important role in advancing sustainable energy development, energy literacy and the triple bottom line. Members of WindShare expressed resounding feelings of pride, efficacy

  4. Vitrification assistance program: international co-operation on vitrification technology

    SciTech Connect

    Penrice, Ch.; McGowan, B.; Garth, B.; Reed, J.; Prod'homme, A.; Sartelet, S.; Guerif, H.N.; Hollebecque, J.F.; Flament, T.; Prod'homme, A.

    2008-07-01

    With 10 vitrification lines in operation (3 on WVP in Sellafield, 1 on AVM in Marcoule and 6 on AVH in La Hague), Sellafield Ltd and Areva NC benefit from the most in-depth experience worldwide in the vitrification of highly active liquors within a framework of commercial operations. Based on the two-step process design, using a calciner and an induction-heated hot melter, which was initially deployed in Marcoule in 1978, core vitrification equipment has been continuously improved by the independent development programmes of the two companies. In March 2005, Sellafield Ltd and Areva NC signed the Vitrification Assistance Program (hereafter referred to as VAP); a co-operative project lasting 4 years during which Areva NC is to share some areas of their experience and expertise with Sellafield Ltd. Now at the halfway point of this project, this paper summarises the work performed by the VAP team to date, highlighting the early benefits and lessons learned. The following points will be developed: - Equipment delivery and preparation for implementation on WVP - Training organization and dissemination to WVP teams - Lessons learned from the early changes implemented in operations (Calciner, Melter, Dust Scrubber and Primary off gas system), and initial feedback from the first campaign using a VAP equipped line. In conclusion: The vitrification process and technology implemented at Sellafield and at La Hague, based on the two-step process, have proved to be efficient in treating high active liquor of various types. Ten lines based on this principle have been successfully operated for more than 15 years in France and in the UK. The process has also been demonstrated to be sufficiently versatile to benefit from continuous improvement and development programmes. VAP, as a complete package to support vitrification technology and knowledge transfer from AREVA NC to Sellafield Ltd, has provided the framework for fruitful technical exchanges and discussions between the two

  5. Civil Drafting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schertz, Karen; Kellum, Mary, Ed.

    This curriculum guide contains a course in civil drafting to train entry-level workers for jobs in the field. The module contains 12 instructional units that cover the following topics: (1) introduction to civil drafting; (2) map scales and measurement; (3) standard symbols and abbreviations; (4) interpretation of surveyor's notations; (5) legal…

  6. Co-Operative Problem-Solving at the Royal Docks Community School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This article responds to Henry Tam's article in this issue of FORUM by exploring opportunities for co-operative problem-solving for staff and students of the Royal Docks Community School in the London Borough of Newham. Becoming a co-operative trust helped the school move out of special measures and develop a strategy of participation and…

  7. General practice out-of-hours co-operatives in Ireland-emergency service or not?

    PubMed

    Bury, G; Janes, D; Dowling, J

    2005-01-01

    Since 1998, Irish general practice has developed 11 out-of-hours co-operatives, covering almost 40% of the population.The co-operatives vary in terms of triage mechanisms, treatment centres and domiciliary visits but no data exist on their role in the management of emergencies in the community. To describe the role of co-operatives in the management of emergencies, both in quantitative and qualitative terms. A questionnaire survey for a 12-month period completed by all 11 co-operatives described structures and activity levels. Semi-structured interviews with senior management and GPs at five randomly selected co-operatives explored their understanding of the role of co-operatives. The incidence of emergencies is very variable (10% of all contacts-virtually nil) with general reliance on the skills of triage staff rather than use of protocols to identify emergencies. Eight of 11 co-operatives provide a domiciliary service with some responding to calls from ambulance services and Gardai for medical assistance. There are very limited liaison structures with ambulance services at any level. Interviews with staff reveal concern with a perceived role as a service dealing with 999 type calls rather than with emergencies encountered in the course of normal general practice work. Clarification is urgently required of the extent to which GP co-operatives and ambulance services support each other. Examples include procedures for passing calls between services, mutual understanding of each others roles and development of common procedures.

  8. Co-Operative Education and the State, c.1895-1935

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Keith

    2013-01-01

    The co-operative movement is currently exploring ways of engaging with changes in government education policy to develop schools with a distinctive co-operative ethos. While drawing on the opportunities in changing policy, these initiatives can also be seen as offering alternatives to the prevailing tenor of government thinking. This is not the…

  9. Co-Operative Problem-Solving at the Royal Docks Community School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This article responds to Henry Tam's article in this issue of FORUM by exploring opportunities for co-operative problem-solving for staff and students of the Royal Docks Community School in the London Borough of Newham. Becoming a co-operative trust helped the school move out of special measures and develop a strategy of participation and…

  10. Ethics and Accountability: Participatory Research in a Worker Co-Operative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellor, Mary

    1988-01-01

    The author describes a participatory research project that took place in a garment workers' co-operative. The project's purpose was to record the history and working relationships of the co-operative in an attempt to help similar ventures. Problems of participatory research are considered. (CH)

  11. Co-Operative Education and the State, c.1895-1935

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Keith

    2013-01-01

    The co-operative movement is currently exploring ways of engaging with changes in government education policy to develop schools with a distinctive co-operative ethos. While drawing on the opportunities in changing policy, these initiatives can also be seen as offering alternatives to the prevailing tenor of government thinking. This is not the…

  12. Ten thousand revolutions: conjectures about civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denning, Kathryn

    2011-02-01

    Ten thousand years ago, no-one on Earth was living a "civilized" life. What has happened since is remarkable and impossible to fully comprehend; yet, everyone has ideas about civilization, and how the world came to be as it is. Such understandings of civilizations on Earth inevitably influence speculation about extraterrestrial civilizations, in two ways. First, sometimes a specific Earth civilization or historical experience is explicitly used as a basis for inferences about extraterrestrial civilizations. Second, more general assumptions about the development and functioning of Earth's societies shape conjectures about alien societies. This paper focuses on the latter, general assumptions, with the aim of considering how we can use multidisciplinary approaches, and our knowledge of Earth's civilizations, to our best advantage in SETI.

  13. Implementation effects of GFATM-supported HIV/AIDS projects on the health sector, civil society and affected communities in Peru 2004-2007.

    PubMed

    Cáceres, C F; Girón, J Maziel; Sandoval, C; López, R; Valverde, R; Pajuelo, J; Vásquez, P; Rosasco, A M; Chirinos, A; Silva-Santisteban, A

    2010-01-01

    The emergence of opportunities for support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM) for HIV-related projects has so far generated funding of over US$75 million for three proposals in Peru. The size of this investment creates the need for close monitoring to ensure a reasonable impact. This paper describes the effects of collaboration with the GFATM on key actors involved in HIV-related activities and on decision-making processes; on health sector divisions; on policies and sources of financing; on equity of access; and on stigma and discrimination of vulnerable and affected populations. Data analysed included primary data collected through interviews with key informants, in-depth interviews and group discussions with vulnerable and affected populations, as well as several public documents. Multisectorality, encouraged by the GFATM, is incipient; centralist proposals with limited consultation, a lack of consensus and short preparation times prevail. No accountability mechanisms operate at the Country Coordinating Mechanism (CCM) level regarding CCM members or society as a whole. GFATM-funded activities have required significant input from the public sector, sometimes beyond the capacity of its human resources. A significant increase in HIV funding, in absolute amounts and in fractions of the total budget, has been observed from several sources including the National Treasury, and it is unclear whether this has implied reductions in the budget for other priorities. Patterns of social exclusion of people living with HIV/AIDS are diverse: children and women are more valued; while transgender persons and sex workers are often excluded.

  14. Co-operation in Environmental Education at the Tertiary Level in the Asia-Pacific Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Masahisa; Bhandari, Bishnu; Abe, Osamu

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes the co-operation in environmental education at the tertiary level with regard to sub-regions, which include North-East Asia, South-East Asia, South Asia, and the South Pacific. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

  15. Case Studies Involving Co-operation between Industry and Education in Australia's Northern Territory: The Role of the Professional Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, W. P.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide case studies of co-operation between education and industry in the Northern Territory in particular; the study also provides exemplars of co-operation between education and industry in Australia and worldwide. The existence of such co-operation is not surprising as education and industry share many common…

  16. Corruption drives the emergence of civil society.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Sherief; Sayed, Rasha; Rahwan, Iyad; Leveck, Brad L; Cebrian, Manuel; Rutherford, Alex; Fowler, James H

    2014-04-06

    Centralized sanctioning institutions have been shown to emerge naturally through social learning, displace all other forms of punishment and lead to stable cooperation. However, this result provokes a number of questions. If centralized sanctioning is so successful, then why do many highly authoritarian states suffer from low levels of cooperation? Why do states with high levels of public good provision tend to rely more on citizen-driven peer punishment? Here, we consider how corruption influences the evolution of cooperation and punishment. Our model shows that the effectiveness of centralized punishment in promoting cooperation breaks down when some actors in the model are allowed to bribe centralized authorities. Counterintuitively, a weaker centralized authority is actually more effective because it allows peer punishment to restore cooperation in the presence of corruption. Our results provide an evolutionary rationale for why public goods provision rarely flourishes in polities that rely only on strong centralized institutions. Instead, cooperation requires both decentralized and centralized enforcement. These results help to explain why citizen participation is a fundamental necessity for policing the commons.

  17. Corruption drives the emergence of civil society

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Sherief; Sayed, Rasha; Rahwan, Iyad; LeVeck, Brad L.; Cebrian, Manuel; Rutherford, Alex; Fowler, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Centralized sanctioning institutions have been shown to emerge naturally through social learning, displace all other forms of punishment and lead to stable cooperation. However, this result provokes a number of questions. If centralized sanctioning is so successful, then why do many highly authoritarian states suffer from low levels of cooperation? Why do states with high levels of public good provision tend to rely more on citizen-driven peer punishment? Here, we consider how corruption influences the evolution of cooperation and punishment. Our model shows that the effectiveness of centralized punishment in promoting cooperation breaks down when some actors in the model are allowed to bribe centralized authorities. Counterintuitively, a weaker centralized authority is actually more effective because it allows peer punishment to restore cooperation in the presence of corruption. Our results provide an evolutionary rationale for why public goods provision rarely flourishes in polities that rely only on strong centralized institutions. Instead, cooperation requires both decentralized and centralized enforcement. These results help to explain why citizen participation is a fundamental necessity for policing the commons. PMID:24478283

  18. Children's Rights and Global Civil Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Eckhardt

    2007-01-01

    Although the Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) was a significant international achievement, its adoption requires analysis and interpretation in terms of the possibilities and limitations of multilateral cooperation. The international movement for children's rights can only be conceived as the result of a system of multilateral…

  19. Civil Society in Nigeria: Reasons for Ineffectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    multiple deprivations in the same households in education, health and living standards. The education and health dimensions are each based on two...indicators, while the standard of living dimension is based on six indicators. All of the indicators needed to construct the MPI for a household are...ECONOMIC POLICIES ON THE CITIZEN ...........81 1. Afrobarometer Perceptions on the Economy and Personal Living Conditions

  20. Civil Disobedience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue looks at three historical and recent instances of civil disobedience. The first article examines the Free Speech Movement, which arose on the Berkeley campus of the University of California in the 1960s. The second article recounts the struggle of Mahatma Gandhi to free India from the British Empire. The final article explores the…

  1. The Learning Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Zee, Hendrik

    1991-01-01

    Strategic issues in the development of a learning society are (1) broadening the definition of learning; (2) making the goal of learning growth toward completeness; (3) increasing collective competence; (4) fostering autonomy in learners; and (5) stressing a political approach to learning (the right to learn as a civil right). (SK)

  2. Handbook for the Emergence of Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Neill, David; And Others

    This handbook, prepared through the Anthropology Curriculum Study Project in Chicago, Illinois, is designed to accompany the secondary level textbook, "The Emergence of Civilization" (SO 012 148) written in 1964. The textbook emphasizes the comparison of the patterns of culture change which resulted in complex societies (civilizations)…

  3. Inquiry-Based Civil Discourse Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linvill, Darren L.; Pyle, Andrew S.

    2017-01-01

    Course: Civil discourse, argumentation, debate, persuasion, political communication. Objectives: This unit activity will help students build an understanding of civil discourse and its function in society. Students will: (1) increase their capacity to examine arguments critically, (2) enhance their own ability to self-reflect critically, and (3)…

  4. Public health and the civilizing process.

    PubMed

    Goudsblom, J

    1986-01-01

    Since the Middle Ages, European society has passed through two successive stages in the "civilizing process." Each has been attended by profound changes in psychological and social codes. These are examined in relation to a greater concern with health and hygiene in response to four waves of epidemics: leprosy, plague, syphilis, and cholera. Speculations are offered about AIDS and the "civilizing process".

  5. Co-operation between patient organisations and the drug industry in Finland.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, Elina; Toiviainen, Hanna K; Vuorenkoski, Lauri

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the co-operation between patient organizations and the drug industry in Finland prior to critical discussions on the topic. The data were gathered by a questionnaire survey of 85 patient organisations (response rate 65%, n = 55) and 20 drug firms (response rate 100%) in 2003, and by interviewing 13 organisations and surveying their web-pages and other documents in 2004. In the surveys, half of the patient organisations and 80% of the drug firms considered co-operation important. Most (71%) organisations reported financial support from the drug industry. Most organisations and drug firms had experienced problems. Common problems for organisations were too little or too unpredictable support from industry, and threats to independence and objectivity. Drug firms frequently mentioned unclear rules of co-operation. The patient organisation interviews exhibited similar themes and findings to those found in the surveys, revealing the complexity and importance of co-operation in organisation activities, and the variation between organisations. This case study from Finland showed that co-operation between patient organizations and the drug industry was common, many-sided and not usually transparent. The close connections between patient organizations and commercial companies, particularly drug firms, raise several policy issues and the need for action. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Cleavages and co-operation in the UK alcohol industry: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Holden, Chris; Hawkins, Benjamin; McCambridge, Jim

    2012-06-26

    It is widely believed that corporate actors exert substantial influence on the making of public health policy, including in the alcohol field. However, the industry is far from being monolithic, comprising a range of producers and retailers with varying and diverse interests. With a focus on contemporary debates concerning the minimum pricing of alcohol in the UK, this study examined the differing interests of actors within the alcohol industry, the cleavages which emerged between them on this issue and how this impacted on their ability to organise themselves collectively to influence the policy process. We conducted 35 semi-structured interviews between June and November 2010 with respondents from all sectors of the industry as well as a range of non-industry actors who had knowledge of the alcohol policy process, including former Ministers, Members of the UK Parliament and the Scottish Parliament, civil servants, members of civil society organisations and professionals. The paper draws on an analysis of publicly available documents and 35 semi-structured interviews with respondents from the alcohol industry (on- and off-trade including retailers, producers of wines, spirits and beers and trade associations) and a range of non-industry actors with knowledge of the alcohol policy process (including former Ministers, Members of Parliament and of the Scottish Parliament, civil servants, members of civil society organisations and professional groups). Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using Nvivo qualitative analysis software. Processes of triangulation between data sources and different types of respondent sought to ensure we gained as accurate a picture as possible of industry participation in the policy process. Divergences of interest were evident between producers and retailers and within the retail sector between the on and off trade. Divisions within the alcohol industry, however, existed not only between these sectors, but within them

  7. Cleavages and co-operation in the UK alcohol industry: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background It is widely believed that corporate actors exert substantial influence on the making of public health policy, including in the alcohol field. However, the industry is far from being monolithic, comprising a range of producers and retailers with varying and diverse interests. With a focus on contemporary debates concerning the minimum pricing of alcohol in the UK, this study examined the differing interests of actors within the alcohol industry, the cleavages which emerged between them on this issue and how this impacted on their ability to organise themselves collectively to influence the policy process. We conducted 35 semi-structured interviews between June and November 2010 with respondents from all sectors of the industry as well as a range of non-industry actors who had knowledge of the alcohol policy process, including former Ministers, Members of the UK Parliament and the Scottish Parliament, civil servants, members of civil society organisations and professionals. Methods The paper draws on an analysis of publicly available documents and 35 semi-structured interviews with respondents from the alcohol industry (on- and off-trade including retailers, producers of wines, spirits and beers and trade associations) and a range of non-industry actors with knowledge of the alcohol policy process (including former Ministers, Members of Parliament and of the Scottish Parliament, civil servants, members of civil society organisations and professional groups). Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using Nvivo qualitative analysis software. Processes of triangulation between data sources and different types of respondent sought to ensure we gained as accurate a picture as possible of industry participation in the policy process. Results Divergences of interest were evident between producers and retailers and within the retail sector between the on and off trade. Divisions within the alcohol industry, however, existed not only between these

  8. [Care and preventive experts lecture in the elementary school programme "Klasse2000" - co-operative teaching].

    PubMed

    Hollederer, A; Bölcskei, P L

    2001-10-01

    In the context of the health promotion programme 'Klasse2000', 483 health experts gave specific lessons to pupils from the first to the fourth grade of the elementary school. Following the classes a survey was conducted as to the valuation of the programme, its translation into practice and co-operation between class teachers and health experts. Those questioned considered the programme as really applicable and were absolutely content with the organisation. They regarded direct working with pupils as fairly positive. Co-operation with class teachers was seen as ambivalent. The findings of this survey trigger further optimisation of the programme, especially to enlarge the time spent on efforts by the health experts and to intensify parent co-operation.

  9. The Civil Behavior of Students: A Survey of School Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Keely; Caldarella, Paul; Crook-Lyon, Rachel E.; Young, K. Richard

    2010-01-01

    Many authors regard education as a way of increasing civility in society, and some have implemented interventions to improve civility in schools. However, very little empirical data exist on the extent and nature of students' civil behavior. The present study systematically gathered data from 251 school professionals regarding their perceptions of…

  10. The Civil Behavior of Students: A Survey of School Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Keely; Caldarella, Paul; Crook-Lyon, Rachel E.; Young, K. Richard

    2010-01-01

    Many authors regard education as a way of increasing civility in society, and some have implemented interventions to improve civility in schools. However, very little empirical data exist on the extent and nature of students' civil behavior. The present study systematically gathered data from 251 school professionals regarding their perceptions of…

  11. Benzoyl peroxide interferes with metabolic co-operation between cultured human epidermal keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, N.J.; Parkinson, E.K.; Emmerson, A.

    1984-03-01

    The ability of benzoyl peroxide to inhibit metabolic co-operation in rodent cell cultures may be relevant to its recently reported tumour promoting activity in mouse epidermis. We show here that non-toxic doses of this compound reduce metabolic co-operation between human epidermal keratinocytes to approximately 30% of that found in controls. The doses of benzoyl peroxide used did not affect keratinocyte morphology or their rate of attachment to the culture substratum. These results could be important as benzoyl peroxide is widely used in industry.

  12. Making the Good Society Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    2010-01-01

    Everyone is talking about civil society. Perhaps it's the election, and the shock of seeing more voters at the polling booths than anyone had expected. Now David Cameron's idea of a "big society" is being translated into some early policy measures. Does today's debate have anything to do with adult learning? The author believes that the…

  13. Making the Good Society Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    2010-01-01

    Everyone is talking about civil society. Perhaps it's the election, and the shock of seeing more voters at the polling booths than anyone had expected. Now David Cameron's idea of a "big society" is being translated into some early policy measures. Does today's debate have anything to do with adult learning? The author believes that the…

  14. [Civil status and suicide].

    PubMed

    Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Bitzer-Quintero, Oscar Kurt; García-González, Adolfo; Celis-de la Rosa, Alfredo

    2009-01-01

    To determine if civil status acts as a risk factor in suicide and how it modifies according to gender, age and population size. A retrospective study which analyzes information from the mortality data from the National Institute of Statistics, Geography and Information, from 1998 to 2002. Variables like suicides age, sex, cause of death, federal entity, population size and civil status were registered. Single men showed twofold risk for committing suicide. Women did not show any associated risk for suicide according to civil status. The risk of married men for committing suicide increased gradually with age. Medium-sized communities with less than 19,999 habitants presented the highest risk for habitants to commit suicide. Suicide is associated to gender especially to men who are not married and living in small and medium-sized communities. One explanation could be the lack of integrated behavior as defined by Emile Durkheim, where the physical density of society will determine behavior and ideas. This social structure phenomenon is called the "moral cocoon." This works around the individual being less individualistic and granting him/her the feeling of belonging to a group.

  15. Medical needs of cystic fibrosis patients and policies for fair co-operation between small and middle-sized companies and patient organizations.

    PubMed

    Schlangen, Miriam; Reimann, Andreas L G

    2011-06-01

    Workpackage 4 of EuroCareCF brought together a group of small and middle-size companies (SMEs) with strong interest in drug development for cystic fibrosis (CF). The common interest of SMEs and patient organizations (PO) in mutually beneficial cooperation was assessed. This was achieved by identifying critical unmet medical needs of CF patients and by analyzing fields of cooperation between SMEs and POs. Over and above all, finding a cure for the disease is considered the most important unmet medical need by POs. However, preventing or slowing down any further deterioration of health and the alleviation of symptoms are also considered valuable objectives. Areas of co-operation with SMEs include the preparation and conduct of clinical trials and co-operation in the post-marketing authorization period. If a policy of transparency and respect for the independence of POs is applied, SMEs and POs can develop mutually beneficial and sustainable co-operation. Copyright © 2011 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Civil Liberty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Angela Khristin

    2012-01-01

    There are inherent differences which can easily divide the foundation of a free society. When we exonerate our concerns about things we do not understand, we develop perceived values which discriminates between race and sexual preference.

  17. Are University Co-Operative Education Students Safe? Perceptions of Risk to Students on Work Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhook, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    As students venture off campus for university-sponsored activities, are they at risk, given that universities are better able to control risk factors on campus than they can for their off-campus activities? Co-operative education is a formalized and longstanding academic program that often sees students spend upwards of a third of their time off…

  18. The Tyranny of No Alternative: Co-Operating in a Competitive Marketplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mills, Martin

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the decisions made by one secondary school in a major English city to become a co-operative academy. This school is located in an area affected by economic hardship and social and cultural tensions. The school, prior to its conversion to an academy, was well known in the local area for its commitment to social justice…

  19. A mixture of "cheats" and "co-operators" can enable maximal group benefit.

    PubMed

    MaClean, R Craig; Fuentes-Hernandez, Ayari; Greig, Duncan; Hurst, Laurence D; Gudelj, Ivana

    2010-09-14

    Is a group best off if everyone co-operates? Theory often considers this to be so (e.g. the "conspiracy of doves"), this understanding underpinning social and economic policy. We observe, however, that after competition between "cheat" and "co-operator" strains of yeast, population fitness is maximized under co-existence. To address whether this might just be a peculiarity of our experimental system or a result with broader applicability, we assemble, benchmark, dissect, and test a systems model. This reveals the conditions necessary to recover the unexpected result. These are 3-fold: (a) that resources are used inefficiently when they are abundant, (b) that the amount of co-operation needed cannot be accurately assessed, and (c) the population is structured, such that co-operators receive more of the resource than the cheats. Relaxing any of the assumptions can lead to population fitness being maximized when cheats are absent, which we experimentally demonstrate. These three conditions will often be relevant, and hence in order to understand the trajectory of social interactions, understanding the dynamics of the efficiency of resource utilization and accuracy of information will be necessary.

  20. Gestalt Revisited: Spin-Offs and Assessment in International University Co-Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denman, Brian D.

    2004-01-01

    International university co-operation is in a constant state of metamorphosis. Its future rests upon extraneous forces such as globalization and internationalization and also upon those who make policy decisions. Many international university organizations are auditing their programs and initiatives to such a degree that the cost effectiveness of…

  1. Using Peer Teaching to Support Co-Operative Learning in Undergraduate Pharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depaz, Iris; Moni, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    We report findings from the second phase of a study of co-operative, group-based assessment in Pharmacology for second-year undergraduates at The University of Queensland, Australia. Students (n = 285) enrolled in the 2006 Bachelor of Science degree program completed a group-based assessment task (weighted 10% of their course). Blended teaching…

  2. Gestalt Revisited: Spin-Offs and Assessment in International University Co-Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denman, Brian D.

    2004-01-01

    International university co-operation is in a constant state of metamorphosis. Its future rests upon extraneous forces such as globalization and internationalization and also upon those who make policy decisions. Many international university organizations are auditing their programs and initiatives to such a degree that the cost effectiveness of…

  3. Jamming Transition of Point-To Traffic Through Co-Operative Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jun; Qin, Zheng; Chen, Xiqun; Xu, Zhaohui

    2012-11-01

    We study the jamming transition of two-dimensional point-to-point traffic through co-operative mechanisms (DCM) using computer simulation. We propose two decentralized co-operative mechanisms CM which are incorporated into the point-to-point traffic models: stepping aside (CM-SA) and choosing alternative routes (CM-CAR). Incorporating CM-SA is to prevent a type of ping-pong jumps from happening when two objects standing face-to-face want to move in opposite directions. Incorporating CM-CAR is to handle the conflict when more than one object competes for the same point in parallel update. We investigate and compare four models mainly from fundamental diagrams, jam patterns and the distribution of co-operation probability. It is found that although it decreases the average velocity a little, the CM-SA increases the critical density and the average flow. Despite increasing the average velocity, the CM-CAR decreases the average flow by creating substantially vacant areas inside jam clusters. We investigate the jam patterns of four models carefully and explain this result qualitatively. In addition, we discuss the advantage and applicability of decentralized co-operation modeling.

  4. Effects of a Co-operative Learning Strategy on Ninth-Graders' Understanding of Human Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyibo, Kola; Evans, Hermel G.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at the effect of teaching strategies on a group's attitude toward biology and understanding human nutrition. Used an experimental group that participated in co-operative learning and a control group taught using the lecture method. Involves ninth graders (n=156) from two high schools in Jamaica. (Author/YDS)

  5. Effects of a Co-operative Learning Strategy on Ninth-Graders' Understanding of Human Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyibo, Kola; Evans, Hermel G.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at the effect of teaching strategies on a group's attitude toward biology and understanding human nutrition. Used an experimental group that participated in co-operative learning and a control group taught using the lecture method. Involves ninth graders (n=156) from two high schools in Jamaica. (Author/YDS)

  6. Using Peer Teaching to Support Co-Operative Learning in Undergraduate Pharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depaz, Iris; Moni, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    We report findings from the second phase of a study of co-operative, group-based assessment in Pharmacology for second-year undergraduates at The University of Queensland, Australia. Students (n = 285) enrolled in the 2006 Bachelor of Science degree program completed a group-based assessment task (weighted 10% of their course). Blended teaching…

  7. IEP (Individualized Educational Program) Co-operation between Optimal Support of Students with Special Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogoshi, Yasuhiro; Nakai, Akio; Ogoshi, Sakiko; Mitsuhashi, Yoshinori; Araki, Chikahiro

    A key aspect of the optimal support of students with special needs is co-ordination and co-operation between school, home and specialized agencies. Communication between these entities is of prime importance and can be facilitated through the use of a support system implementing ICF guidelines as outlined. This communication system can be considered to be a preventative rather than allopathic support.

  8. The Formation and Development of Co-Operations among South African Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebken, Heinke

    2008-01-01

    Organizational collaboration is "en vogue", especially in higher education. So far, little is known about the mechanisms that explain co-operation formation and their impact on the social structure of the research systems. By examining co-authored research papers written at South African universities between 1966 and 2006, co-operation…

  9. Environmental Engineering Education (E3) in the Gulf Co-Operation Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jassim, Majeed; Coskuner, Gulnur

    2007-01-01

    The six members of the Gulf Co-operation Countries (GCC)--Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates--are facing enormous environmental challenges associated with rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, especially in the last three decades, due to its role as a global hydrocarbon energy centre. None of these…

  10. Environmental Engineering Education (E3) in the Gulf Co-Operation Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jassim, Majeed; Coskuner, Gulnur

    2007-01-01

    The six members of the Gulf Co-operation Countries (GCC)--Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates--are facing enormous environmental challenges associated with rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, especially in the last three decades, due to its role as a global hydrocarbon energy centre. None of these…

  11. International Co-Operation in Control Engineering Education Using Online Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henry, Jim; Schaedel, Herbert M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the international co-operation experience in teaching control engineering with laboratories being conducted remotely by students via the Internet. This paper describes how the students ran the experiments and their personal experiences with the laboratory. A tool for process identification and controller tuning based on…

  12. The Emergence of Civilization [and] Case Studies in the Emergence of Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Jack

    This secondary level anthropology textbook emphasizes the comparison of the patterns of culture change which resulted in complex societies (civilizations) in six different areas around the world. The textbook stresses problem-solving and is centered around three questions: In what manner and through what stages did these civilizations evolve? What…

  13. The Contribution of International Academic Co-operation and Exchange to the Development and Advancement of Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grothus, Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the role of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) in the ongoing effort to internationalize German higher education. Describes efforts in Germany such as the introduction of bachelor's and master's degree-level programs and the restructuring of doctoral programs, as well as formation of networks with foreign universities. (EV)

  14. Unity of Action Through a Whole of Society Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-16

    thoughts on the changes necessary to effectively influence and improve military and Civil Society Organization cross cultural cooperation Institutional...for an integrated approach leveraging unique complimentary non military organizations . This study examines the roll of Civil Society ... Organizations (CSOs), as a strategic partner and offers the whole of society approach for harmonizing their unique contributions to achieve unity of action

  15. Implications of Civility for Children and Adolescents: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Keely; Caldarella, Paul; Crook-Lyon, Rachel; Young, K. Richard

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the literature exploring various definitions of civility, along with reasons why civility is vital to children and adolescents in any community. The authors examine definitions and components of civility in both historical and current contexts. The need for increased civility in modern society is described.…

  16. Society's expectations of health

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Edmund

    1975-01-01

    Sir Edmund Leach argues that doctors in the modern world, fortified by the traditional concept that the life of the sick person must at all costs be preserved, are to some extent guilty of the false antitheses current today between youth and age. Moreover youth means health, age illness and senility. Until this imbalance is corrected society will be in danger of `a kind of civil war between the generations'. Society must be taught again that mortality cannot be avoided or conquered by medical science, and at the same time that `health' is not enshrined in the young alone. PMID:1177271

  17. Power corrupts co-operation: cognitive and motivational effects in a double EEG paradigm.

    PubMed

    Kanso, Riam; Hewstone, Miles; Hawkins, Erin; Waszczuk, Monika; Nobre, Anna Christina

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of interpersonal power on co-operative performance. We used a paired electro-encephalogram paradigm: pairs of participants performed an attention task, followed by feedback indicating monetary loss or gain on every trial. Participants were randomly allocated to the power-holder, subordinate or neutral group by creating different levels of control over how a joint monetary reward would be allocated. We found that power was associated with reduced behavioural accuracy. Event-related potential analysis showed that power-holders devoted less motivational resources to their targets than did subordinates or neutrals, but did not differ at the level of early conflict detection. Their feedback potential results showed a greater expectation of rewards but reduced subjective magnitude attributed to losses. Subordinates, on the other hand, were asymmetrically sensitive to power-holders' targets. They expected fewer rewards, but attributed greater significance to losses. Our study shows that power corrupts balanced co-operation with subordinates.

  18. Education for Rural Development - A Portfolio of Studies. Volume 5: Inter-Agency and Inter-Institutional Co-Operation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Asian Centre for Educational Innovation for Development.

    Volume 5 in a five-volume portfolio of studies reflecting different facets of the concept of education for rural development comprises two studies on co-operation among development agencies. The first study, "Co-Operation among Various Development Agencies for a Co-Ordinated Approach to Education for Agricultrual and Skills Development and…

  19. Generalized microscopic reversibility, kinetic co-operativity of enzymes and evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Ricard, J

    1978-01-01

    Generalized microscopic reversibility implies that the apparent rate of any catalytic process in a complex mechanism is paralleled by substrate desorption in such a way that this ratio is held constant within the reaction mechanism [Whitehead (1976) Biochem. J. 159, 449--456]. The physical and evolutionary significances of this concept, for both polymeric and monomeric enzymes, are discussed. For polymeric enzymes, generalized microscopic reversibility of necessity occurs if, within the same reaction sequence, the substrate stabilizes one type of conformation of the active site only. Generalized microscopic reversibility suppresses the kinetic co-operativity of the slow transition model [Ainslie, Shill & Neet (1972) J. Biol. Chem. 247, 7088--7096]. This situation is obtained if the free-energy difference between the corresponding transition states of the two enzyme forms is held constant along the reaction co-ordinate. This situation implies that the 'extra costs' of energy (required to pass each energy barrier) that are not covered by the corresponding binding energies of the transition states vary in a similar way along the two reaction co-ordinates. The regulatory behaviour of monomeric enzymes is discussed in the light of the concept of 'catalytic perfection' proposed by Albery & Knowles [(1976) Biochemistry 15, 5631--5640]. These authors claim that an enzyme will be catalytically 'perfect' when its catalytic efficiency is maximum. If this situation occurs for a monomeric enzyme obeying either the slow transition or the mnemonical model, it can be shown that the kinetic co-operativity disappears. In other words, kinetic co-operativity of a monomeric enzyme is 'paid for' at the expense of catalytic efficiency, and the monomeric enzyme cannot be simultaneously co-operative and catalytically very efficient. This is precisely what has been found experimentally in a number of cases. PMID:743234

  20. User participation in mental health nurse decision-making: a co-operative enquiry.

    PubMed

    Tee, Steve; Lathlean, Judith; Herbert, Lesley; Coldham, Tina; East, Bella; Johnson, Tammy-Jo

    2007-10-01

    This paper is a report of a study to encourage participants to work together to identify strategies for increasing user participation in clinical decisions and to evaluate the value of co-operative inquiry as a vehicle for supporting learning in practice. Service user participation in the clinical practice decisions of mental health nurses is considered essential for good practice. Methods need to be found which enable opportunities for shared learning, facilitate practice development and empower service users. A co-operative inquiry design engaged all participants (n = 17) as co-researchers and involved repeated cycles of action and reflection, using multiple data collection methods. The research was conducted over a two year period in 2004-2005, with mental health nursing students collaborating with service users. Factors inhibiting participation included stigmatizing and paternalistic approaches, where clinical judgments were made solely on the basis of diagnosis. Enhancing factors were a respectful culture which recognized users ''expertise' and communicated belief in individual potential. Inquiry benefits included insight into service users' perspectives, enhanced confidence in decision-making, appreciation of power issues in helping relationships and deconstruction of decision-making within a safe learning environment. Learning from novel approaches which enable nursing students to develop their reflective and reflexive ability is essential to avoid practice which disempowers and potentially harms service users' recovery. Co-operative inquiry is a valuable vehicle for developing professional practice in higher education and practice environments.

  1. History and Civility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Larry Schaefer's history of civility is a succinct summary of the implicit and evolving definitions of civility over 2500 years of civilization. Beginning with the Romans and the root word "civitas," meaning the rights and duties of citizenship, civility appears in classical literature as integral to the roots of democracy in the context…

  2. The rivers of civilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macklin, Mark G.; Lewin, John

    2015-04-01

    The hydromorphic regimes that underpinned Old World river-based civilizations are reviewed in light of recent research. Notable Holocene climatic changes varied from region to region, whilst the dynamics of floodplain environments were equally diverse, with river channel changes significantly affecting human settlement. There were longer-term trends in Holocene hydroclimate and multi-centennial length 'flood-rich' and 'flood-poor' episodes. These impacted on five identified flooding and settlement scenarios: (i) alluvial fans and aprons; (ii) laterally mobile rivers; (iii) rivers with well-developed levees and flood basins; (iv) river systems characterised by avulsions and floodouts; and (v) large river-fed wetlands. This gave a range of changes that were either more or less regular or incremental from year-to-year (and thus potentially manageable) or catastrophic. The latter might be sudden during a flood event or a few seasons (acute), or over longer periods extending over many decades or even centuries (chronic). The geomorphic and environmental impacts of these events on riparian societies were very often irreversible. Contrasts are made between allogenic and autogenic mechanism for imposing environmental stress on riverine communities and a distinction is made between channel avulsion and contraction responses. Floods, droughts and river channel changes can precondition as well as trigger environmental crises and societal collapse. The Nile system currently offers the best set of independently dated Holocene fluvial and archaeological records, and the contrasted effects of changing hydromorphological regimes on floodwater farming are examined. The persistence of civilizations depended essentially on the societies that maintained them, but they were also understandably resilient in some environments (Pharaonic Egypt in the Egyptian Nile), appear to have had more limited windows of opportunity in others (the Kerma Kingdom in the Nubian Nile), or required

  3. A synthesis of drug reimbursement decision-making processes in organisation for economic co-operation and development countries.

    PubMed

    Barnieh, Lianne; Manns, Braden; Harris, Anthony; Blom, Marja; Donaldson, Cam; Klarenbach, Scott; Husereau, Don; Lorenzetti, Diane; Clement, Fiona

    2014-01-01

    The use of a restrictive formulary, with placement determined through a drug-reimbursement decision-making process, is one approach to managing drug expenditures. To describe the processes in drug reimbursement decision-making systems currently used in national publicly funded outpatient prescription drug insurance plans. By using the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) nations as the sampling frame, a search was done in the published literature, followed by the gray literature. Collected data were verified by a system expert within the prescription drug insurance plan in each country to ensure the accuracy of key data elements across countries. All but one country provided at least one publicly funded prescription drug formulary. Many systems have adopted similar processes of drug reimbursement decision making. All but three systems required additional consideration of clinical evidence within the decision-making process. Transparency of recommendations varied between systems, from having no information publicly available (three systems) to all information available and accessible to the public (16 systems). Only four countries did not consider cost within the drug reimbursement decision-making process. There were similarities in the decision-making process for drug reimbursement across the systems; however, only five countries met the highest standard of transparency, requirement of evidence, and ability to appeal. Future work should focus on examining how these processes may affect formulary listing decisions for drugs between countries. © 2013 International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) Published by International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research (ISPOR) All rights reserved.

  4. Co-operation as a strategy for provision of welfare services--a study of a rehabilitation project in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Norman, Christina; Axelsson, Runo

    2007-10-01

    During the past 15 years, there have been many initiatives to improve the integration between different welfare agencies. This study is describing and analysing the co-operation between agencies involved in a rehabilitation project in Sweden, and discussing such inter-agency co-operation as a strategy for provision of complex welfare services. The study is based on a process evaluation, where the co-operation between the agencies was followed and documented during the time of the project. Different kinds of data were collected through interviews, focus groups and diaries. The contents of these data were analysed in order to evaluate the process of co-operation. In addition, there was also an evaluation of the effects of the co-operation, based on official documents, statistics, etc. The evaluation shows that it was possible to co-operate across the organizational boundaries of the different agencies, but there were obstacles related to organizational and cultural differences of the agencies, divided loyalties of the officials and limited resources available to deal with the complex needs of the clients. At the same time, the commitment and the relations between the officials were facilitating the co-operation. Based on the evaluation of this project, it seems that co-operation could be an effective strategy to deal with clients who need services from different welfare agencies. At the same time, however, it is clear that inter-agency co-operation requires a lot of time and energy and should therefore be used with caution.

  5. [Skills in management, co-operation and communication in the Pre-Registration House Officership].

    PubMed

    Andersen, Kristian Janus; Østergaard, Helle Thy

    2006-12-11

    In aviation, it has been realised that technical training ensures competence in specific procedures, but does not counter errors due to communication or decision making in a dynamic environment. As a consequence, Crew Resource Management, consisting of training in co-operation, management, and communication skills, was introduced in order to serve as a countermeasure towards human errors. In the same way, medical school ensures academic and technical insight, but rarely offers systematic training in such non-technical skills. The aim of this study is to identify the standard of competence in skills of co-operation, management, and communication at the end of the Pre-Registration House Officership. 30 skills of management, co-operation, and communication divided into five main areas were identified. Using the Delphi method through two rounds of questionnaires, an expert panel of 50 doctors evaluated six different standards of competence for each skill. The Panel reached consensus at a 75% level for five skills, all within the main area "Team communication in the acute situation". Consensus was not reached within any of the other four main areas. None of the 30 skills was evaluated as being irrelevant for the Pre-Registration House Officer by more than one panel member. There was broad agreement on the need for high standards of competence within the area of team communication. There was considerable disagreement within the panel with regard to the other main areas, but all of the skills listed in this study were found relevant to the Pre-Registration House Officer in the acute situation.

  6. Implementing agreement on a co-operative program on inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J; Hogan, W; Meier, W

    2000-01-04

    The Programme to be carried out by the Contracting Parties within the framework of this Agreement shall consist of co-operative research, development, demonstrations and exchanges of information regarding inertial fusion energy (IFE). This shall include: (1) Nuclear Technology, (2) Fusion Materials, (3) Environment, Safety and Economics, (4) Laser Drivers, (5) Ion Beam Drivers and Beam/Plasma Interactions, (6) Target Production, Injection and Tracking, (7) Fusion Diagnostics, (8) Driver/Plasma Interactions, (9) Fast Ignition and (10) Power Plant Design Studies. Annexes to this agreement will describe specific tasks in each area.

  7. Effects of co-operative ligand binding on protein amide NH hydrogen exchange.

    PubMed

    Polshakov, Vladimir I; Birdsall, Berry; Feeney, James

    2006-03-03

    Amide protection factors have been determined from NMR measurements of hydrogen/deuterium amide NH exchange rates measured on assigned signals from Lactobacillus casei apo-DHFR and its binary and ternary complexes with trimethoprim (TMP), folinic acid and coenzymes (NADPH/NADP(+)). The substantial sizes of the residue-specific DeltaH and TDeltaS values for the opening/closing events in NH exchange for most of the measurable residues in apo-DHFR indicate that sub-global or global rather than local exchange mechanisms are usually involved. The amide groups of residues in helices and sheets are those most protected in apo-DHFR and its complexes, and the protection factors are generally related to the tightness of ligand binding. The effects of ligand binding that lead to changes in amide protection are not localised to specific binding sites but are spread throughout the structure via a network of intramolecular interactions. Although the increase in protein stability in the DHFR.TMP.NADPH complex involves increased ordering in the protein structure (requiring TDeltaS energy) this is recovered, to a large extent, by the stronger binding (enthalpic DeltaH) interactions made possible by the reduced motion in the protein. The ligand-induced protection effects in the ternary complexes DHFR.TMP.NADPH (large positive binding co-operativity) and DHFR.folinic acid.NADPH (large negative binding co-operativity) mirror the co-operative effects seen in the ligand binding. For the DHFR.TMP.NADPH complex, the ligand-induced protection factors result in DeltaDeltaG(o) values for many residues being larger than the DeltaDeltaG(o) values in the corresponding binary complexes. In contrast, for DHFR.folinic acid.NADPH, the DeltaDeltaG(o) values are generally smaller than many of those in the corresponding binary complexes. The results indicate that changes in protein conformational flexibility on formation of the ligand complex play an important role in determining the co-operativity in

  8. Safety management in multiemployer worksites in the manufacturing industry: opinions on co-operation and problems encountered.

    PubMed

    Nenonen, Sanna; Vasara, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Co-operation between different parties and effective safety management play an important role in ensuring safety in multiemployer worksites. This article reviews safety co-operation and factors complicating safety management in Finnish multiemployer manufacturing worksites. The paper focuses on the service providers' opinions; however, a comparison of the customers' views is also presented. The results show that safety-related co-operation between providers and customers is generally considered as successful but strongly dependent on the partner. Safety co-operation is provided through, e.g., training, orientation and risk analysis. Problems encountered include ensuring adequate communication, identifying hazards, co-ordinating work tasks and determining responsibilities. The providers and the customers encounter similar safety management problems. The results presented in this article can help companies to focus their efforts on the most problematic points of safety management and to avoid common pitfalls.

  9. Receptor co-operation in retrovirus entry: recruitment of an auxiliary entry mechanism after retargeted binding.

    PubMed Central

    Valsesia-Wittmann, S; Morling, F J; Hatziioannou, T; Russell, S J; Cosset, F L

    1997-01-01

    We have constructed Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV)-derived envelope glycoproteins (AMO) displaying an amino-terminal Ram-1-binding domain in which a variety of different amino acid spacers have been inserted between the displayed domain and the MoMLV surface (SU) subunit. Titres of retroviruses generated with these chimeric envelopes were enhanced on cells expressing both Ram-1 and Rec-1 receptors compared with the titres on cells expressing only one or other receptor type. The absolute viral titres and the degree of titre enhancement due to receptor cooperativity were highly variable between the different chimeric envelopes and were determined primarily by the properties of the interdomain spacer. An extreme example of receptor co-operativity was encountered when testing Ram-1-targeted AMOPRO envelopes with specific proline-rich interdomain spacers. AMOPRO viruses could not enter cells expressing only Rec-1 or only Ram-1 but could efficiently infect cells co-expressing both receptors. The data are consistent with a model for receptor co-operativity in which binding to the targeted (Ram-1) receptor triggers conformational rearrangements of the envelope that lead to complete unmasking of the hidden Rec-1-binding domain, thereby facilitating its interaction with the viral (Rec-1) receptor which leads to optimal fusion triggering. PMID:9135138

  10. A voice from the high wire: Public involvement in a co-operative siting process

    SciTech Connect

    Oates, D.J.L.

    1995-05-01

    The author is a public consultation and communications consultant to the Siting Task Force (STF), Low level Radioactive Waste Management. The STF is a Canadian government-appointed yet independent body implementing a voluntary, co-operative siting process for a long term storage or disposal facility for 1 million cubic metres of LLRW. The presentation will document the experiences of and lessons learned by the author during her role developing and implementing a public involvement program for the process. The Co-operative Siting Process is a new approach to siting controversial facilities. It is based on the belief that communities should accept such a facility in their backyard and not be forced against their will on technical or political grounds. A formal `ground rules-up-front` process was developed and is now being carried out, with completion slated for April, 1995. Putting these rules and theories into practice has resulted in significant changes being made to the work plan for technical activities, and in a sober second look at the intricacies involved in planning and carrying out a thorough and efficient public involvement program that remain practical and cost-effective. There is a delicate balancing act between meaningful public participation that lays the foundation for trust, confidence and consensus, and public involvement that can result in the process being side-tracked and legitimate solutions and technical activities becoming mired in political and personal agendas.

  11. Development of co-operative Pan-European TMN systems: EURESCOM experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covaci, Stefan; Mayordomo, Eduado; Zhang, Tianning

    1996-12-01

    During the last years EURESCOM has launched a set of projects in the area of TMN addressing the problems of pan- European broadband networks and services management. The X interfaces, which provide the means for co-operative management of different domains, are the emphasis in this context. Two such X interfaces are developed for the pan- European broadband SDH/ATM services: the Xcoop interfaces situated between two public management domains and the Xuser interface which is situated between a private and a public management domain. The Xcoop interfaces support the co- operations between the Public Network Operators in providing the global connectivities, whereas the Xuser offers a means of provisioning the connectivity to the customers by enabling the customer management entities in the private domains to subscribe for the service, to access and to manage the global connectivities or related resources. This paper presents the results of the EURESCOM project P408 in specifying, implementing and testing these X interfaces, and discusses the experiences obtained.

  12. Power corrupts co-operation: cognitive and motivational effects in a double EEG paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Kanso, Riam; Hewstone, Miles; Hawkins, Erin; Waszczuk, Monika; Nobre, Anna Christina

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of interpersonal power on co-operative performance. We used a paired electro-encephalogram paradigm: pairs of participants performed an attention task, followed by feedback indicating monetary loss or gain on every trial. Participants were randomly allocated to the power-holder, subordinate or neutral group by creating different levels of control over how a joint monetary reward would be allocated. We found that power was associated with reduced behavioural accuracy. Event-related potential analysis showed that power-holders devoted less motivational resources to their targets than did subordinates or neutrals, but did not differ at the level of early conflict detection. Their feedback potential results showed a greater expectation of rewards but reduced subjective magnitude attributed to losses. Subordinates, on the other hand, were asymmetrically sensitive to power-holders’ targets. They expected fewer rewards, but attributed greater significance to losses. Our study shows that power corrupts balanced co-operation with subordinates. PMID:23160813

  13. Situational trust and co-operative partnerships between physicians and their patients: a theoretical explanation transferable from business practice.

    PubMed

    Dibben, M R; Morris, S E; Lean, M E

    2000-01-01

    A model to explain interpersonal trust development, and its consequences for co-operative behaviour in doctor/patient partnerships derived from the context of business relationships is applied to patient/physician relationships. Threshold barriers exist against all human behaviours or actions and trust is the process by which barriers to co-operation and compliance are overcome. Dispositional trust (a psychological trait to be trusting) is dominant in the early stages of a relationship and contributes to the weight of subsequent trust development. Co-operative behaviour or compliance ultimately requires a secure situational trust emerging from consultations, which is carried forward as learnt trust and modified in each subsequent consultation. The model comprises three types of situational trust (calculus-based, knowledge-based, and identification trust) and five co-operation criteria from which to determine an individual's tendency for co- operative behaviour. These model components can be identified and mapped from a range of qualitative data, with the aim of enhancing co-operative behaviour and efficiently achieving optimal patient compliance.

  14. Civil Law Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents a glossary of civil law terms originally compiled for journalists by the American Bar Association. Defines many essential civil law concepts and practices including compensatory damages, jurisdiction, motion to dismiss, discovery, and remedy. (MJP)

  15. Civility and Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Robert

    1981-01-01

    Media in the '70s stressed the importance of self and popularized psychology. Amidst self-help best sellers, encounter sessions, and special interest groups, the author asks, "What has happened to civility?" and "Can a culture without civility call itself civilized?" Condensed and reprinted from "Daedalus," Summer 1980. (Editor)

  16. Repairing the Breach. Key Ways To Support Family Life, Reclaim Our Streets, and Rebuild Civil Society in America's Communities. Report of the National Task Force on African-American Men and Boys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Bobby William, Ed.

    This report of the National Task Force on African-American Men and Boys is the beginning of an approach to repair society's breaches and restore the streets to safety. The Task Force, headed by Andrew J. Young and established in 1994, conceived its mission as one of reclamation. The Task Force made 61 specific recommendations, and three general…

  17. Caffeinated coffee enhances co-operative behavior in the Mixed Motive Game in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Tse, Wai S; Chan, Chi Choi S; Shiu, Shun Yan K; Chung, Pik Yee A; Cheng, Shuk Han

    2009-02-01

    Caffeinated drinks are commonly consumed in social gatherings. However, their effects on social behavior remain unclear. The present study examined the effects of caffeinated coffee on antidepressant-related co-operative behavior. Seventy-seven low-caffeine users took part in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study of single dose of caffeinated coffee (150 mg caffeine) and decaffeinated coffee (9 mg caffeine) with at least a 3-day washout period. In each session, participants were asked to imagine a fictitious person and play the Mixed Motive Game with that person 45 min after coffee consumption. Heart rate, blood pressure, and state moods were measured at baseline and at 45 min post-coffee consumption. After caffeinated coffee, participants exhibited significantly higher blood pressure. They also allocated significantly fewer scores to themselves and sent significantly more sadness message during the game. These results suggest that caffeinated coffee may help to improve social support and depressive symptoms.

  18. Surface Support Systems for Co-Operative and Integrated Human/Robotic Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2006-01-01

    Human and robotic partnerships to realize space goals can enhance space missions and provide increases in human productivity while decreasing the hazards that the humans are exposed to. For lunar exploration, the harsh environment of the moon and the repetitive nature of the tasks involved with lunar outpost construction, maintenance and operation as well as production tasks associated with in-situ resource utilization, make it highly desirable to use robotic systems in co-operation with human activity. A human lunar outpost is functionally examined and concepts for selected human/robotic tasks are discussed in the context of a lunar outpost which will enable the presence of humans on the moon for extended periods of time.

  19. Co-operative action of calcium ions in dopamine release from rat brain synaptosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Nachshen, D A; Sanchez-Armass, S

    1987-01-01

    1. The release of [3H]dopamine from isolated presynaptic nerve terminals (synaptosomes) prepared from rat striata was measured as a function of the external Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]o). 2. In synaptosomes depolarized by the addition of 50 mM-K+, release of [3H]dopamine increased in a highly non-linear manner with [Ca2+]o. The release could be described as a third power function of [Ca2+]o. 3. Both 45Ca2+ influx and the change in the free cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i, measured with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator fura-2) that were evoked by depolarization increased in a linear manner with [Ca2+]o. 4. These results suggest that non-linearity in the [Ca2+]o dependence of transmitter release originates in a co-operative relation between [Ca2+]i and exocytosis. PMID:3656180

  20. Co-operation with eastern European countries taking ENAC as an example

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.

    1994-12-31

    In the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident, the European Community launched an ambitious programme of nuclear safety assistance. The purpose of this programme is to improve the safety of the Nuclear Power stations in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union plants. It was felt in the Western European nuclear industry that the emphasis should be on finding practical solutions to improve the most urgent problems. To achieve this objective, the nuclear industry in Western Europe founded a consortium called ENAC (European Nuclear Assistance Consortium) comprising companies form seven European countries (Great Britain, France, Germany, Spain, Belgium, Italy, Netherlands). The co-operation between these companies and the Russian designers would ensure that the solutions developed meet the approval of all interested parties.

  1. A second international co-operative investigation into thioacetazone side-effects*

    PubMed Central

    Miller, A. B.; Nunn, A. J.; Robinson, D. K.; Ferguson, G. C.; Fox, Wallace; Tall, Ruth

    1970-01-01

    As part of a large-scale international, co-operative investigation into the side-effects produced by thioacetazone employed in the treatment of tuberculosis, an evaluation has been made of a supplement incorporating vitamins and an antihistamine as a prophylactic. Over a 12-week period of treatment, the additive supplement failed to reduce the over-all frequency of side-effects or the frequency of side-effects leading to a major departure from prescribed treatment. There was also no evidence that the more serious side-effects, particularly rashes, jaundice and agranulocytosis, were reduced by the additives, although the occurrence of vomiting, which was however infrequent, was reduced. In view of this lack of appreciable benefit, as well as the higher cost and impaired keeping properties of tablets containing thioacetazone plus isoniazid when the supplement is added, the use of the supplement as a prophylactic cannot be recommended. PMID:4098113

  2. International co-operation through the Interpol system to counter illicit drug trafficking.

    PubMed

    Leamy, W J

    1983-01-01

    The International Criminal Police Organization (ICPO/Interpol), whose main aim is the prevention and suppression of ordinary crime, has 135 member countries. The Government of each of these countries has designated an Interpol National Central Bureau to co-operate and liaise within the framework of Interpol. The Drugs Sub-Division of Interpol's General Secretariat monitors and responds to incoming communications on drug enforcement matters, conducts intelligence analysis of information and produces tactical and strategic intelligence reports as well as statistical and other specialized reports. It received 33,181 and dispatched 6,741 drug-enforcement-related communications in 1982, which was over 60 per cent of the entire communications of the General Secretariat. The Drugs Sub-Division participates in drug training and drug strategy seminars world-wide. Interpol also carries out drug liaison officer programmes in five regions of the world.

  3. WHO Co-operative studies on a simple culture technique for the isolation of mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Šula, Ladislav

    1963-01-01

    Tuberculosis surveys are in progress in many countries that do not have adequate laboratory facilities for carrying out complicated bacteriological procedures. As part of a WHO co-operative research programme, studies have been undertaken with a view to developing a simple culture technique for the isolation of mycobacteria that does not require elaborate equipment. This paper is the first report on these co-operative studies. Storage and transport are known to affect adversely the viability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pathological specimens, thus giving rise to poor culture results and indicating the advisability of culturing such specimens on the spot. The preparation of the efficient and widely used Löwenstein-Jensen (L-J) culture medium, however, requires materials and facilities that are not easy available in developing countries. In an attempt to overcome this difficulty, the Tuberculosis Research Institute in Prague has developed a semi-synthetic liquid medium that can be prepared in bulk, concentrated and lyophilized, and sent even to distant laboratories. The present paper describes in detail the preparation of this lyophilized medium, which can be stored at room temperature for at least 6-12 months and is easy to reconstitute, and discusses the growth characteristics of mycobacteria multiplied in it. Experience in Czechoslovakia, where between 1953 and 1962 nearly 21 million cultures have been made with the medium, has shown that it is quite satisfactory and even slightly superior to L-J medium in certain respects. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3 & 4FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 12FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 13FIG. 14FIG. 15FIG. 16 PMID:14102036

  4. Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee Review: Review of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guidance on the GLP Requirements for Peer Review of Histopathology.

    PubMed

    Fikes, James D; Patrick, Daniel J; Francke, Sabine; Frazier, Kendall S; Reindel, James F; Romeike, Annette; Spaet, Robert H; Tomlinson, Lindsay; Schafer, Kenneth A

    2015-10-01

    In 2014, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) issued guidance no. 16, Guidance on the GLP Requirements for Peer Review of Histopathology. The stated purpose of the guidance document is "to provide guidance to pathologists, test facility management, study directors and quality assurance personnel on how the peer review of histopathology should be planned, managed, documented, and reported in order to meet Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) expectations and requirements." On behalf of and in collaboration with the global societies of toxicologic pathology, the Society of Toxicologic Pathology initiated a review of OECD guidance no. 16. The objectives of this review are to provide a unified interpretation of the guidance, to recommend compliant processes for organizations to implement, and to avoid inconsistent process adaptations across the industry. This review of the guidance document is the product of a global collaboration with other societies of toxicologic pathology and provides a section-by-section international consensus view and interpretation of the OECD guidance on peer review. © 2015 by The Author(s).

  5. Planetary Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman founded the non-profit Planetary Society in 1979 to advance the exploration of the solar system and to continue the search for extraterrestrial life. The Society has its headquarters in Pasadena, California, but is international in scope, with 100 000 members worldwide, making it the largest space interest group in the world. The Society funds a var...

  6. Wound care in primary health care: district nurses' needs for co-operation and well-functioning organization.

    PubMed

    Friman, Anne; Klang, Birgitta; Ebbeskog, Britt

    2010-01-01

    Most patients with leg- and foot ulcers are managed within non-institutional care. The aim of this study was to investigate the district nurses' wound management, including wound appearance, assignment of responsibility, guidelines for wound treatment and co-operation with other professional groups. The study has a descriptive quantitative approach. Data was collected using a wound registration form and a questionnaire. The selection of participants was made by random sampling. District nurses (n = 26) in five health-care centers situated in central Stockholm and two of its suburbs, participated in the study. The results show that the wound appearance is dominated by traumatic wounds. Approximately 40% of the wounds were not medically diagnosed. The area of responsibility of different professional groups was not defined and guidelines for wound treatment were mostly lacking. The decision about wound management was generally made by the district nurse. Co-operation with the general practitioner was lacking and when a consultation with dermatologist was required, the routines concerning referral were undefined. Co-operation with the assistant nurses consisted of redressing the wounds in home care. Interprofessional co-operation was regarded as important for wound healing. The paper provides insights into the district nurses' wound management and co-operation in wound care.

  7. Evidence for co-operativity in coenzyme binding to tetrameric Sulfolobus solfataricus alcohol dehydrogenase and its structural basis: fluorescence, kinetic and structural studies of the wild-type enzyme and non-co-operative N249Y mutant

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The interaction of coenzyme with thermostable homotetrameric NAD(H)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from the thermoacidophilic sulphur-dependent crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus (SsADH) and its N249Y (Asn-249→Tyr) mutant was studied using the high fluorescence sensitivity of its tryptophan residues Trp-95 and Trp-117 to the binding of coenzyme moieties. Fluorescence quenching studies performed at 25 °C show that SsADH exhibits linearity in the NAD(H) binding [the Hill coefficient (h)∼1) at pH 9.8 and at moderate ionic strength, in addition to positive co-operativity (h=2.0–2.4) at pH 7.8 and 6.8, and at pH 9.8 in the presence of salt. Furthermore, NADH binding is positively co-operative below 20 °C (h∼3) and negatively co-operative at 40–50 °C (h∼0.7), as determined at moderate ionic strength and pH 9.8. Steady-state kinetic measurements show that SsADH displays standard Michaelis–Menten kinetics between 35 and 45 °C, but exhibits positive and negative co-operativity for NADH oxidation below (h=3.3 at 20 °C) and above (h=0.7 at 70–80 °C) this range of temperatures respectively. However, N249Y SsADH displays non-co-operative behaviour in coenzyme binding under the same experimental conditions used for the wild-type enzyme. In loop 270–275 of the coenzyme domain and segments at the interface of dimer A–B, analyses of the wild-type and mutant SsADH structures identified the structural elements involved in the intersubunit communication and suggested a possible structural basis for co-operativity. This is the first report of co-operativity in a tetrameric ADH and of temperature-induced co-operativity in a thermophilic enzyme. PMID:15651978

  8. The Celestial Basis of Civilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masse, W. B.

    Scholars have long puzzled over the reasons for the ubiquity of celestial images in the residue of the world's earliest civilizations: in art, myth, religious cosmology, iconography, cosmogony, eschatological beliefs, and as portents for the conduct of royal and chiefly power. The general consensus is that these images represented a need by early societies to use the fixed celestial heavens in order to regulate ritual and agricultural cycles, and to satisfy a psychological need by people to relate themselves to their surrounding Universe. Such explanations are facile and miss an important aspect of the celestial heavens. The fixed celestial heavens served as the back-drop for a large number of often spectacular temporary naked-eye visible celestial events which animated the night and sometimes the daytime sky, and which created an 'otherworld' for virtually all cultural groups. In this paper I present a model derived from the detailed analysis of Hawaiian oral traditions and culture history in relation to historic astronomical records of temporary celestial events, and then apply this model to cultural traditions from Mesoamerica and other geographic regions in order to demonstrate that novae, supernovae, variable stars, comets, great meteor showers, aurorae, solar and lunar eclipses, and impacting Solar System debris, together played a critical role in the artistic, intellectual, and political development of early civilizations. These data not only provide important insights into the development of civilization, but also provide important details and longitudinal records of astronomical events and phenomena which are otherwise not readily available for scientific scrutiny.

  9. Mobile satellite services: International co-ordination, co-operation and competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundberg, Olof

    1988-01-01

    In the context of a discussion of international cooperation, coordination and competition regarding mobile satellite services, it is asserted that: there will be more than one civil mobile satellite service in the 1990's; competition between these separate mobile satellite systems is inevitable; no system should enjoy monopoly protection or subsidies; and coordination and cooperation are desirable and necessary, since the available L-band spectrum is in short supply.

  10. The inception and development of basic animal health systems: examples of German development co-operation.

    PubMed

    Leidl, K; Baumann, M P O; Schenkel, F

    2004-04-01

    About thirty years ago the financial, logistic and manpower resources of veterinary and animal production services in the developing world were stretched to the limit. Epizootic disease control was their main and often only field activity, which left livestock owners to manage their daily production and health problems alone. To meet their requirements, Veterinary Services in these countries came under increasing public and political pressure to modify and adjust their approaches. This gave rise to a series of workshops in Africa (e.g. Bujumbura in Burundi and Blantyre in Malawi) and South-East Asia (e.g. Singapore, and Khon Kaen in Thailand), most of which were organised and facilitated by the German Agency for Technical Co-operation (GTZ) in close collaboration with French and British development co-operation agencies and universities. These workshops stimulated discussion with the key stakeholders and, thus, were most beneficial in supporting the process of developing alternative approaches. This paper reports in particular on the outcomes of the regional workshops held in Bujumbura, Burundi, in 1984, Blantyre, Malawi, in 1985, Bangui, Central African Republic, in 1988, Khon Kaen, Thailand, in 1989, Schmitten, Germany, in 1991, and Mzuzu, Malawi, in 1996 and 2000. For more than two decades, concepts of community-based livestock services in general, and primary animal health activities (PAHAs) in particular, have been developed and established in various developing countries. Over the years the PAHA concept has proved to be effective and has shown that livestock-keeping communities clearly benefit from such programmes. In presenting key features from some prominent and successful project examples (GTZ-supported projects in Thailand, Malawi and Somalia) it can be demonstrated that such approaches are not static but rather dynamic, requiring open minded innovative partners on both sides. Over the last few years, the delivery of PAHA has become the domain of non

  11. Leadership role of Consultant Nurses working with Older People: a co-operative inquiry.

    PubMed

    Manley, Kim; Webster, Jonathan; Hale, Nick; Hayes, Nicky; Minardi, Henry

    2008-03-01

    The aim of the co-operative enquiry undertaken was to explore how the leadership component of the Consultant Nurse for Older People role was reflected in day-to-day working. Leadership is one of the four key elements of the Consultant Nurse role and is the key mechanism for achieving and embedding transformation in practice. However, within the role of the Consultant Nurse this area has not been explored in detail. A 6-month co-operative inquiry approach was used to develop insights into leadership strategies of Consultant Nurses for Older People and involved the five authors of the paper, four Consultant Nurses in Older People nursing and the lead author who was also an experienced Consultant Nurse and practice-based researcher from a different nursing specialism. Through the analysis of the stories shared by the co-authors/participants, two key themes emerged relating to complexity and pathway. These themes provided a major focus for the Consultant Nurses in their leadership role. The outcome of the study is a framework that describes the triggers and enabling factors that precede the use of leadership strategies at the clinical and organizational level and associated outcomes. In defining how leadership is reflected by Consultant Nurses for Older People, a complex picture emerges that is multifaceted and multidimensional. Consultant Nurses need support to make visible the valuable contribution they make to enabling healthcare teams, organizations and work places. Consultant Nurses for Older People are key in ensuring the quality agenda within their organizations as they are well placed to provide leadership at both a strategic and clinical level, while providing influence to operational development. Within the context of the literature this area is under investigated. Understanding how leadership is reflected in the role of Consultant Nurses is complex as Consultant Nurses work across traditional interfaces and between different levels within organizations

  12. Understanding the Civil Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshon, Robert E.; Bolduan, Linda M.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a concise and informative overview of the civil justice system. Examines various components and issues including the federal and state court systems, differences between civil and criminal law, background in common law, types of civil law, civil procedure, and the effect and implementation of civil law in everyday life. (MJP)

  13. Co-operative inhibitory effects of hydrogen peroxide and iodine against bacterial and yeast species

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Hydrogen peroxide and iodine are powerful antimicrobials widely used as antiseptics and disinfectants. Their antimicrobial properties are known to be enhanced by combining them with other compounds. We studied co-operative inhibitory activities (synergism, additive effects and modes of growth inhibition) of hydrogen peroxide and iodine used concurrently against 3 bacterial and 16 yeast species. Results Synergistic or additive inhibitory effects were shown for hydrogen peroxide and iodine mixtures against all 19 species used in the study. Both biocides were mostly cidal individually and in mixtures against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Both compounds manifested static inhibitory effects individually, but their mixtures were synergistically cidal for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherihia coli. Cells of S. cerevisiae treated with hydrogen peroxide and iodine-hydrogen peroxide mixture produced increased numbers of respiratory deficient mutants indicating genotoxic effects. Conclusion Iodine and hydrogen peroxide used concurrently interact synergistically or additively against a range of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. The study provides an insight as to how these traditional antimicrobials could be used more effectively for disinfection and antisepsis. In addition, a simple approach is proposed for scoring genotoxicity of different biocides by using the budding yeast system. PMID:23856115

  14. Co-operative inhibitory effects of hydrogen peroxide and iodine against bacterial and yeast species.

    PubMed

    Zubko, Elena I; Zubko, Mikhajlo K

    2013-07-15

    Hydrogen peroxide and iodine are powerful antimicrobials widely used as antiseptics and disinfectants. Their antimicrobial properties are known to be enhanced by combining them with other compounds. We studied co-operative inhibitory activities (synergism, additive effects and modes of growth inhibition) of hydrogen peroxide and iodine used concurrently against 3 bacterial and 16 yeast species. Synergistic or additive inhibitory effects were shown for hydrogen peroxide and iodine mixtures against all 19 species used in the study. Both biocides were mostly cidal individually and in mixtures against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Both compounds manifested static inhibitory effects individually, but their mixtures were synergistically cidal for Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Escherihia coli. Cells of S. cerevisiae treated with hydrogen peroxide and iodine-hydrogen peroxide mixture produced increased numbers of respiratory deficient mutants indicating genotoxic effects. Iodine and hydrogen peroxide used concurrently interact synergistically or additively against a range of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microorganisms. The study provides an insight as to how these traditional antimicrobials could be used more effectively for disinfection and antisepsis. In addition, a simple approach is proposed for scoring genotoxicity of different biocides by using the budding yeast system.

  15. Effect of Oral Midazolam Premedication on Children's Co-operation Before General Anesthesia in Pediatric Dentistry.

    PubMed

    Kaviani, Nasser; Shahtusi, Mina; Haj Norousali Tehrani, Maryam; Nazari, Sara

    2014-09-01

    Premedication is expedient in reducing the psychological trauma from recalling the unpleasant pre-anesthetic phases, hence, inducing a trouble-free anesthesia. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of oral midazolam in co-operation of the subjects before general anesthesia and in recalling the pre-anesthetic phases, performed on children candidate for dental treatment under general anesthesia. In this prospective clinical trial study, 62 healthy non-cooperative children, candidate for dental treatment under general anesthesia, were randomly divided into study and control groups. The children received 20ml orange juice, 20 minutes before starting the anesthesia. The juice of the test group contained 0.5mg/kg of midazolam and that of the control group included no medication. The induction and the maintenance process of anesthesia were similar in both groups. The manner of subjects when separated from parents, their cooperation during intravenous catheterization, and recalling the pre-anesthetic events were recorded. Data were analyzed by adopting chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. Most of the children in the test group had a comfortable separation from parents, restful IV catheterization and 90% of the subjects did not recall the pre-anesthetic events. Under the circumstances of this study, it could be concluded that 0.5mg/kg oral midazolam premedication is effective for comfortable separation of children from parents and restful IV catheterization and also forgetting the pre-anesthetic events.

  16. Co-operative working in aged care: The Cooperative for Healthy Ageing Research and Teaching Project.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Maggie; Grealish, Laurie

    2016-09-01

    The objective of this study was to describe the partnership mechanisms that supported teaching and research in aged care, in one of the 16 funded projects under the auspices of the Teaching and Research in Aged Care Service project. Located in ACT and southern NSW, the Co-operative for Healthy Ageing Research and Teaching (CHART) was comprised of eleven partners from the residential care sector, higher education, and hospital and non-government sectors. A descriptive study of the project engagement and partnership processes and outcomes using documentation review and stakeholder interviews. The overarching goal of the CHART project was to facilitate the development of aged care service models that combine teaching, learning and research. This study describes (i) the processes and investment required to enable care providers to partner in teaching and research activities; and (ii) the structure and practices required to build workforce capacity and create career pathways in the sector. Maintaining consistency of engagement and collaboration required significant, and often invisible, investment in partnership arrangements. Overall, the partnerships were often person, rather than organisation, dependent. New student placements were introduced, but support for continued nursing placements remained variable. Local practice innovation was advanced when partnership investment was aligned at strategic and operational levels. Continuous, and often invisible, investment in maintaining operational partnerships is critical to sustained change. Partnering in a private aged care service environment to achieve sector-wide changes was challenging, but the investment can result in innovation and service improvement. © 2016 AJA Inc.

  17. Management of recycling in the Gulf Co-operation Council states.

    PubMed

    Alhumoud, Jasem M; Al-Ghusain, Ibrahim; Al-Hasawi, Hamad

    2004-01-01

    Although some of the Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC) member states have placed recycling at the top of their waste management priorities, the low cost of landfill and the availability of land, usually old sand or gravel quarries, make recycling programs infeasible, uneconomical and unachievable. The only comprehensive form of recycling available within the GCC states is recycling of paper and cartons. The majority of the GCC states never set national or regional recycling targets. The cost of recycling in the GCC states region could be moderate to high depending on the collection system selected for the recycling program. Almost all of the cities within the GCC states use mechanised systems for daily collection of municipal solid waste (MSW). Therefore, the same daily collection system used for MSW might well be used for collection of recyclable materials, both on the same day and at the same time, or according to a different timetable. This paper provides strategies for developing an effective recycling marketing program and discusses regional co-ordination options.

  18. Co-operative action of calcium ions in transmitter release at the neuromuscular junction

    PubMed Central

    Dodge, F. A.; Rahamimoff, R.

    1967-01-01

    1. The quantitative dependence of transmitter release on external calcium concentration has been studied at the frog neuromuscular junction, using intracellular recording and taking the amplitude of the end-plate potential (e.p.p.) as an index of the number of packets released. 2. The relation between [Ca] and the e.p.p. is highly non-linear. The initial part of this relation on double logarithmic co-ordinates gives a straight line with a slope of nearly four (mean 3·78 ± 0·2 S.D. in 28 experiments). Addition of a constant amount of Mg reduces the e.p.p. without altering the slope of the log e.p.p./log Ca relation. 3. The slope of this logarithmic relation diminishes as [Ca] is raised towards the normal level. 4. The results are explained quantitatively on the hypothesis that Ca ions combine with a specific site X on the nerve terminal forming CaX, and that the number of packets of acetylcholine released is proportional to the fourth power of [CaX]. 5. The analysis suggests that a co-operative action of about four calcium ions is necessary for the release of each quantal packet of transmitter by the nerve impulse. PMID:6065887

  19. Concentrating on Solar Power in a Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Co-Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trieb, F.; Kronshage, S.; Knies, G.

    2004-12-01

    Combining the large demand of clean electricity in Europe (EU) with the large potential of solar electricity generation from concentrating solar power stations (CSP) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) can provide both climate protection and development for both regions and lead to environmental, economical and social sustainability. The presentation will address the concept of solar cogeneration of electricity and desalted water and the scope of generating clean power for MENA and Europe while providing large quantities of freshwater for the MENA countries. Costs and benefits of the concept will be quantified, and the first steps to realisation within the Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Co-Operation TREC are presented. After running through the technology learning curve within about 10-15 years, concentrated solar electricity will be generated at a cost of roughly 4 ct/kWh. Importing solar power from North Africa to Europe, will add 1 ct/kWh, thus being competitive with new fuel fired plants. The total initial support of about 1 billion € needed to trigger CSP market introduction and to achieve forever low electricity costs in the EU and MENA, equals 25 % of the German annual coal subsidies, 1 month of EU agronomic-subsidies or 1 day of US military expenses and could be provided in form of public investment, soft loans or feed-in guaranties like the German Renewable Energy Act.

  20. pH-induced kinetic co-operativity of a thylakoid-bound polyphenol oxidase.

    PubMed Central

    Valero, E; García-Carmona, F

    1992-01-01

    A study of the catecholase activity of a latent plant polyphenol oxidase, extracted and purified from the chloroplast membranes of grapes (Vitis vinifera cv. Airen), revealed for the first time a lag phase above pH 5.0, whereas a steady-state rate was reached immediately when pH values were lower, thus suggesting the hysteretic nature of the enzyme. During steady state, the enzyme showed negative co-operativity concomitant with the presence of the lag period, and followed classical Michaelis-Menten kinetics under more acid pH conditions. Statistical analysis of these data showed a minimal value for the extreme Hill coefficient of 0.54 at pH 6.0. This kinetic behaviour of polyphenol oxidase has been interpreted in terms of the pH-induced 'slow' transition mechanism reported by Ricard, Noat & Nari [(1984) Eur. J. Biochem. 145, 311-317] in which the conformational change does not affect the active site of the enzyme. Images Fig. 4. PMID:1530593

  1. From Information Society to Knowledge Society: The Ontology Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Christophe

    2002-09-01

    Information society, virtual enterprise, e-business rely more and more on communication and knowledge sharing between heterogeneous actors. But, no communication is possible, and all the more so no co-operation or collaboration, if those actors do not share the same or at least a compatible meaning for the terms they use. Ontology, understood as an agreed vocabulary of common terms and meanings, is a solution to that problem. Nevertheless, although there is quite a lot of experience in using ontologies, several barriers remain which stand against a real use of ontology. As a matter of fact, it is very difficult to build, reuse and share ontologies. We claim that the ontology problem requires a multidisciplinary approach based on sound epistemological, logical and linguistic principles. This article presents the Ontological Knowledge Station (OK Station©), a software environment for building and using ontologies which relies on such principles. The OK Station is currently being used in several industrial applications.

  2. Children in Contemporary Society. IYC Series: Part I. A Changing Society and the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frank, Mary, Ed.

    1979-01-01

    This collection of seven abridged symposium papers discusses contemporary social conditions which affect the nuclear family and suggests directions for intervention. The introduction declares that the family remains the single most important unit in civilized society. Its destruction is seen to be the destruction of society as we know it. The…

  3. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  4. Schools and Civil Defense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Civil defense is a planned, coordinated action to protect the population during any emergency whether arising from thermonuclear attack or natural disaster. The Federal Government has assumed four responsibilities--(1) to keep track of the nature of the threat which the civil defense program must meet, (2) to prepare and disseminate information…

  5. The Measure of Civilizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barry

    2002-01-01

    This article explores whether it is possible to compare civilizations one with another; that is, whether one can construct some neutral and objective framework in terms of which we could establish in what respects one civilization might deserve to be ranked more highly than its competitors. The author states that, in addressing the idea of an…

  6. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  7. Examining the Research Base on University Co-Operative Education in Light of the Neoliberal Challenge to Liberal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milley, Peter; Kovinthan, Thursica

    2014-01-01

    Debates have been taking place in higher education communities in Canada and other Anglo-American contexts between defenders of liberal education and promoters of neoliberalism. One development not addressed is the growth of co-operative education (co-op). The origins of co-op may reside in John Dewey's (1939, 1966) ideas about experience and…

  8. The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development's International Early Learning Study: Opening for Debate and Contestation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Peter; Dahlberg, Gunilla; Grieshaber, Susan; Mantovani, Susanna; May, Helen; Pence, Alan; Rayna, Sylvie; Swadener, Beth Blue; Vandenbroeck, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development is initiating the International Early Learning Study, a cross-national assessment of early learning outcomes involving the testing of 5-year-old children in participating countries. The authors use this colloquium to inform members of the early childhood community about this project and to…

  9. Characteristics of Mother-Infant Communicative Interaction: Relations to the Ratings of Maternal Sensitivity and Infant Co-Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paavola, Leila; Kemppinen, Kaarina; Kunnari, Sari; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Moilanen, Irma; Ebeling, Hanna

    2006-01-01

    The present article reports a study of communicative behaviour among mothers and infants who were grouped according to the ratings of sensitivity and co-operation, respectively. The participants were 27 Finnish-speaking mothers and their 10-month-old first-born infants (13 boys and 14 girls). The study is descriptive by nature, and the data were…

  10. Perceptions of Co-Operation and Collegiality by Participants of a One-Day Challenge Course Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Brent D.; Dattilo, John

    2007-01-01

    While many studies have sought to understand challenge courses and their benefits, less emphasis has been focused on understanding participants' perceptions of these programmes. In this study, 16 adults working at a dental office attended a one-day challenge course programme designed to teach lessons about co-operation. Data were collected via "in…

  11. Student Perceptions of Social Learning Space: Designing and Implementing a Co-Operative Assessment Task in Pharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moni, Roger W.; Depaz, Iris; Lluka, Lesley J.

    2008-01-01

    We report findings from a case study of co-operative, group-based assessment in Pharmacology for second-year undergraduates at The University of Queensland, Australia. Students enrolled in the 2005 Bachelor of Science and 2006 Bachelor of Pharmacy degree programs, were early users of the university's new Collaborative Teaching and Learning Centre…

  12. Western Co-operative College (Study of an Agency); Project Study for Education 480, University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, H.E.; And Others

    Based on the philosophy of individuals taking responsibility for their own destinies through mutual self help, and drawing heavily from European cooperatives, Western Co-operative College provides training for elected officials and employees of cooperatives such as marketing, consumer, finance, service, and education cooperatives, and government…

  13. Co-operative Learning for Students with Difficulties in Learning: A Description of Models and Guidelines for Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Ellen; Grey, Ian M.; Honan, Rita

    2005-01-01

    As part of a larger study regarding the inclusion of children with disabilities in mainstream classroom settings, Ellen Murphy, of the D Clin Psych programme at NUI Galway, with Ian Grey and Rita Honan, from Trinity College, Dublin, reviewed existing literature on co-operative learning in the classroom. In this article, they identify four models…

  14. Student Perceptions of Social Learning Space: Designing and Implementing a Co-Operative Assessment Task in Pharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moni, Roger W.; Depaz, Iris; Lluka, Lesley J.

    2008-01-01

    We report findings from a case study of co-operative, group-based assessment in Pharmacology for second-year undergraduates at The University of Queensland, Australia. Students enrolled in the 2005 Bachelor of Science and 2006 Bachelor of Pharmacy degree programs, were early users of the university's new Collaborative Teaching and Learning Centre…

  15. Perceptions of Co-Operation and Collegiality by Participants of a One-Day Challenge Course Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Brent D.; Dattilo, John

    2007-01-01

    While many studies have sought to understand challenge courses and their benefits, less emphasis has been focused on understanding participants' perceptions of these programmes. In this study, 16 adults working at a dental office attended a one-day challenge course programme designed to teach lessons about co-operation. Data were collected via "in…

  16. Co-operative Learning for Students with Difficulties in Learning: A Description of Models and Guidelines for Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Ellen; Grey, Ian M.; Honan, Rita

    2005-01-01

    As part of a larger study regarding the inclusion of children with disabilities in mainstream classroom settings, Ellen Murphy, of the D Clin Psych programme at NUI Galway, with Ian Grey and Rita Honan, from Trinity College, Dublin, reviewed existing literature on co-operative learning in the classroom. In this article, they identify four models…

  17. Laparoscopic and endoscopic co-operative surgery for non-ampullary duodenal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa, Daisuke; Komatsu, Shuhei; Dohi, Osamu; Naito, Yuji; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Kamada, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Kazuma; Itoh, Yoshito; Otsuji, Eigo

    2016-01-01

    AIM To assess the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic and endoscopic co-operative surgery (LECS) for early non-ampullary duodenal tumors. METHODS Twelve patients with a non-ampullary duodenal tumor underwent LECS at our hospital. One patient had two mucosal lesions in the duodenum. The indication for this procedure was the presence of duodenal tumors with a low risk for lymph node metastasis. In particular, the tumors included small (less than 10 mm) submucosal tumors (SMT) and epithelial mucosal tumors, such as mucosal cancers or large mucosal adenomas with malignant suspicion. The LECS procedures, such as full-thickness dissection for SMT and laparoscopic reinforcement after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for epithelial tumors, were performed for the 13 early duodenal lesions in 12 patients. Here we present the short-term outcomes and evaluate the safety and feasibility of this new technique. RESULTS Two SMT-like lesions and eleven superficial epithelial tumor-like lesions were observed. Seven and Six lesions were located in the second and third parts of the duodenum, respectively. All lesions were successfully resected en bloc. The defect in the duodenal wall was manually sutured after resection of the duodenal SMT. For epithelial duodenal tumors, the ulcer bed was laparoscopically reinforced via manual suturing after ESD. Intraoperative perforation occurred in two out of eleven epithelial tumor-like lesions during ESD; however, they were successfully laparoscopically repaired. The median operative time and intraoperative estimated blood loss were 322 min and 0 mL, respectively. Histological examination of the tumors revealed one adenoma with moderate atypia, ten adenocarcinomas, and two neuroendocrine tumors. No severe postoperative complications (Clavien-Dindo classification grade III or higher) were reported in this series, but minor leakage secondary to pancreatic fistula occurred in one patient. CONCLUSION LECS can be a safe and minimally

  18. The PRISM data/model co-operative: current modelling activities, future plans and data requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haywood, Alan

    2010-05-01

    Here we review current activities and future model and data requirements associated with the palaeoclimate modelling arm of the PRISM data/model co-operative. The talk will begin with a description of modelling focussed on understanding the behaviour of climate phenomena that are responsible for generating significant regional decadal and sub-decadal climate variability (ENSO and NAO), and the challenges associated with linking such predictions to mid-Piacenzian palaeoenvironmental data. Secondly, we will examine current efforts to understand the role of changing sea-surface temperatures, in relation to other important boundary conditions, in driving global and regional climate/environmental shifts recognised in the proxy data. Thirdly, we will examine initial results from coupled climate and ice sheet modelling examining the response of the Greenland and East Antarctic Ice Sheets to orbital variations and how these predicted changes relate to current estimates of mid-Piacenzian mean sea level and sea level variability. Our future plans centre on (a) the development of the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project, (b) understanding uncertainty in climate model predictions of mid-Piacenzian climates and (c) moving towards an Earth System Modelling framework for the PRISM interval. With the 4th iteration of the PRISM palaeoenvironmental data set under construction we briefly outline how the demands of modern climate and earth system models will partly shape PRISM4, as well as the new scientific opportunities that will stem from it (e.g. the advent of isotope enabled models, higher resolution boundary conditions, river routing schemes and palaeobathymetry).

  19. Civilization as a threat to human health?

    PubMed

    Trnovec, T; Cook, T; Kahayová, K; Nyulassy, S

    2001-02-01

    Civilization can be defined as the distinctly human attributes and attainments of a particular society. In general, the development of civilization is viewed as a positive step for the well-being of the human species, leading to an increased duration and quality of human life. The accelerated progress of civilization (mainly industrialization, urbanization and nutrition) has lead to new possibilities for adverse effects on human health. A collection of problems referred to as 'civilization diseases' has become the subject of serious concern but review of available data indicates that this concept appears to add very little to our understanding of modern environmental influences on human health. Important limitations in the continued use of this term are its non-specificity, the lack of a unifying scientific foundation, and provision of virtually no direction for remediation of these diseases or for future research. In addition, the use of this term has been localized to primarily post-socialist European countries. In view of these limitations, it seems more productive for scientists, in all parts of the world, to embrace the discipline of environmental health science and to discontinue use of the term "civilization diseases".

  20. Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-10-01

    Humans are now the dominant driver of global climate change. From ocean acidification to sea level rise, changes in precipitation patterns, and rising temperatures, global warming is presenting us with an uncertain future. However, this is not the first time human civilizations have faced a changing world. In the AGU monograph Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations, editors Liviu Giosan, Dorian Q. Fuller, Kathleen Nicoll, Rowan K. Flad, and Peter C. Clift explore how some ancient peoples weathered the shifting storms while some faded away. In this interview, Eos speaks with Liviu Giosan about the decay of civilizations, ancient adaptation, and the surprisingly long history of humanity's effect on the Earth.

  1. The Development of Co-Operation and Competition in Japanese Public Schools: Two National Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shwalb, Barbara J.; Shwalb, David W.

    1985-01-01

    Japanese school teachers provided examples of cooperative and competitive student behaviors in order to construct rating scales. Further ranking and factor analysis resulted in nine competitive and eight cooperative items. Age differences are discussed, as well as the Japanese society's encouragement of cooperative activities. The items are…

  2. Report to the Government of Zambia on Co-Operative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This 1-year study was undertaken in the Reupublic of Zambia to survey and analyze needs in cooperative education and training and to plan and execute immediate courses with detailed curricula in this area. A brief history of Zambian cooperative societies and a description of the expert's study activities are followed by conclusions and…

  3. Design and implementation of co-operative control strategy for hybrid AC/DC microgrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, Rasel

    This thesis is mainly divided in two major sections: 1) Modeling and control of AC microgrid, DC microgrid, Hybrid AC/DC microgrid using distributed co-operative control, and 2) Development of a four bus laboratory prototype of an AC microgrid system. At first, a distributed cooperative control (DCC) for a DC microgrid considering the state-of-charge (SoC) of the batteries in a typical plug-in-electric-vehicle (PEV) is developed. In DC microgrids, this methodology is developed to assist the load sharing amongst the distributed generation units (DGs), according to their ratings with improved voltage regulation. Subsequently, a DCC based control algorithm for AC microgrid is also investigated to improve the performance of AC microgrid in terms of power sharing among the DGs, voltage regulation and frequency deviation. The results validate the advantages of the proposed methodology as compared to traditional droop control of AC microgrid. The DCC-based control methodology for AC microgrid and DC microgrid are further expanded to develop a DCC-based power management algorithm for hybrid AC/DC microgrid. The developed algorithm for hybrid microgrid controls the power flow through the interfacing converter (IC) between the AC and DC microgrids. This will facilitate the power sharing between the DGs according to their power ratings. Moreover, it enables the fixed scheduled power delivery at different operating conditions, while maintaining good voltage regulation and improved frequency profile. The second section provides a detailed explanation and step-by-step design and development of an AC/DC microgrid testbed. Controllers for the three-phase inverters are designed and tested on different generation units along with their corresponding inductor-capacitor-inductor (LCL) filters to eliminate the switching frequency harmonics. Electric power distribution line models are developed to form the microgrid network topology. Voltage and current sensors are placed in the proper

  4. Civil engineering reference guide

    SciTech Connect

    Merritt, F.S.

    1986-01-01

    The civil engineering reference guide contains the following: Structural theory. Structural steel design. Concrete design and construction. Wood design and construction. Bridge engineering. Geotechnical engineering. Water engineering. Environmental engineering. Surveying.

  5. Civil Support Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-08-01

    incorporated into the joint dictionary . The new DODD 3025.1 will supersede the existing version, and the definitions of military support to civil...authorities and military assistance to civil authorities will be eliminated from the joint dictionary . When updated, National Guard Regulation 500-1 will...maps, specific local information).  Recreation and tourism center (source for maps and specific, local information).  Chief medical examiner

  6. Vocational rehabilitation of the socially disadvantaged long-term sick: inter-organizational co-operation between welfare state agencies.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, R; Grape, O

    1999-03-01

    Vocational rehabilitation targeted to the socially disadvantaged long-term sick requires that the client keep in touch with a number of welfare state agencies, all of which have different regulations, conflicting goals and various types of benefits. This is an arduous and time-consuming task for clients with medical, social and labour market problems. Many of these clients run the risk of ending up in a no-man's land or being endlessly circulated between agencies because their problems do not correspond to the profile of the typical client. Both government and welfare workers see institutional co-operation between welfare state agencies as the remedy to such problems. This article, which is based on interviews with participants in fourteen cooperating projects, focuses on difficulties and opportunities experienced in such co-operation. It is concluded that such cooperation, when initiated in local settings and supported by local players, is a way of rejuvenating the existing Swedish model.

  7. There Is an Alternative: A Report on an Action Research Project to Develop a Framework for Co-Operative Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neary, Mike; Winn, Joss

    2017-01-01

    This report provides an interim account of a participatory action research project undertaken during 2015-16. The research brought together scholars, students and expert members of the co-operative movement to design a theoretically informed and practically grounded framework for co-operative higher education that activists, educators and the…

  8. Climate protection in Germany`s bilateral development co-operation with the People`s Republic of China

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, A.

    1996-12-31

    For globally sustainable development to be achieved, three concerns are central: productive economic growth, social justice and ecological sustainability. Development co-operation supports the realisation of these three goals in partner countries by helping to alleviate poverty, promote economic growth through private-sector development and protect vital natural resources. The aim of globally sustainable development can only be achieved if industrial countries too implement necessary reforms and structural adjustments at every level. Co-operation efforts with partners must therefore be complemented by coherent policies at home. This is a matter of credibility, but also of developmental far-sightedness. Internal reforms in the industrial countries secure financial leeway for their providing foreign assistance in the longer term. Environmental and resource protection as a focal point of Germany`s development co-operation with the PRC aims to preserve vital natural resources, shape economic development in their partner countries in an ecologically sound manner and put China in a position to participate in global endeavours to protect the environment. Climate protection measures figure prominently in this area. This is justified given China`s share of global CO{sub 2} emissions and the potential for energy-saving measures and measures to increase power intensity. This potential is derived primarily from the possibility of using energy-efficient technologies, increasing the relatively low energy prices and making use of renewable sources of energy.

  9. A portable inhalational induction device provides co-operative induction of anaesthesia in preanaesthetic area for children

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Mi-Ja; Na, Hyo-Seok; Shin, Young Duck; Han, Jun-Sung; Hwang, Jung-Won; Kim, Chong Soo

    2010-01-01

    Background We introduce a new, simple portable inhalational induction device (PD) that provides co-operative inhalational induction of anaesthesia using N2O and subsequent sevoflurane in the preanaesthetic induction area in children. Methods Forty-five children (30 to 94 months old age, <35 kg) who were scheduled to undergo simple operations were assigned randomly to one of three regimens. Patients were encouraged by their parents to inhale N2O followed by sevoflurane (PD N2O-sevo group) or sevoflurane (PD sevo group) using a portable inhalational induction device in the preanaesthetic induction area until they were unable to respond to their names. They were then transferred to the operating room while maintaining inhalation of sevoflurane via the device. The control group underwent conventional inhalational induction in the operating room with the parents in attendance. Results Patients in the PD N2O-sevo group had a higher co-operative inhalation frequency than the patients in the PD sevo or the control group. Anaesthesia induction in the PD N2O-sevo and the PD sevo groups were faster than in the control group. Parent satisfaction score (0-100) was higher for the PD N2O-sevo group than for the control group. Conclusions A new portable inhalational induction device allows faster induction in co-operation with parents present in the preanaesthetic induction area compared to conventional inhalational induction in the unfamiliar operating room with the parents in attendance. PMID:20589175

  10. Analysis of the co-operative interaction between the allosterically regulated proteins GK and GKRP using tryptophan fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Zelent, Bogumil; Raimondo, Anne; Barrett, Amy; Buettger, Carol W.; Chen, Pan; Gloyn, Anna L.; Matschinsky, Franz M.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic glucose phosphorylation by GK (glucokinase) is regulated by GKRP (GK regulatory protein). GKRP forms a cytosolic complex with GK followed by nuclear import and storage, leading to inhibition of GK activity. This process is initiated by low glucose, but reversed nutritionally by high glucose and fructose or pharmacologically by GKAs (GK activators) and GKRPIs (GKRP inhibitors). To study the regulation of this process by glucose, fructose-phosphate esters and a GKA, we measured the TF (tryptophan fluorescence) of human WT (wild-type) and GKRP-P446L (a mutation associated with high serum triacylglycerol) in the presence of non-fluorescent GK with its tryptophan residues mutated. Titration of GKRP-WT by GK resulted in a sigmoidal increase in TF, suggesting co-operative PPIs (protein–protein interactions) perhaps due to the hysteretic nature of GK. The affinity of GK for GKRP was decreased and binding co-operativity increased by glucose, fructose 1-phosphate and GKA, reflecting disruption of the GK–GKRP complex. Similar studies with GKRP-P446L showed significantly different results compared with GKRP-WT, suggesting impairment of complex formation and nuclear storage. The results of the present TF-based biophysical analysis of PPIs between GK and GKRP suggest that hepatic glucose metabolism is regulated by a metabolite-sensitive drug-responsive co-operative molecular switch, involving complex formation between these two allosterically regulated proteins. PMID:24568320

  11. Schooling in a Post-Industrial Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doll, William E., Jr.

    American social trends and the consequent developments in educational approach and philosophy from the time of the Civil War to the present day are examined. The transition from an agricultural to an industrialized society is discussed in relation to American definitions and conceptions of educational structures. The socioeconomic environment of a…

  12. Searching for extraterrestrial civilizations.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, T B; Morris, M

    1977-05-06

    We have argued that planning for a search for extraterrestrial intelligence should involve a minimum number of assumptions. In view of the feasibility (at our present level of understanding) of using nuclear fusion to effect interstellar travel at a speed of 0.1c, it appears unwarranted (at this time) to assume that it would not occur for at least some technologically advanced civilizations. One cannot even conclude that humans would not attempt this within the next few centuries. On the contrary, the most likely future situation, given the maintenance of technological growth and the absence of extraterrestrial interference, is that our civilization will explore and colonize our galactic neighborhood. A comparison of the time scales of galactic evolution and interstellar travel leads to the conclusion that the galaxy is either essentially empty with respect to technological civilizations or extensively colonized. In the former instance, a SETI would be unproductive. In the latter, a SETI could be fruitful if a signal has been deliberately directed at the earth or at an alien outpost, probe, or communication relay station in our solar system. In the former case, an existing antenna would probably be sufficient to detect the signal. In the latter case, success would depend on the way in which the communications were coded. Failure to detect a signal could permit any of the following conclusions: (i) the galaxy is devoid of technological civilizations, advanced beyond our own, (ii) such civilizations exist, but cannot (for some reason which is presently beyond our ken) engage in interstellar colonization, or (iii) such civilizations are not attempting overt contact with terrestrial civilizations and their intercommunications, if present, are not coded in a simple way. To plan at this time for a high-cost, large-array SETI based on the last two possibilities appears to be rather premature.

  13. Cryptozoology Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Reports of Loch Ness monsters, Bigfoot, and the Yeti spring u p from time to time, sparking scientific controversy about the veracity of these observations. Now an organization has been established to help cull, analyze, and disseminate information on the alleged creatures. The International Society of Cryptozoology, formed at a January meeting at the U.S. National Museum of Natural History of the Smithsonian Institution, will serve as the focal point for the investigation, analysis, publication, and discussion of animals of unexpected form or size or of unexpected occurrences in time or space.

  14. The barbarism of civilization: cultural genocide and the 'stolen generations'.

    PubMed

    van Krieken, R

    1999-06-01

    Norbert Elias suggested that 'civilization' involves the transformation of human habitus so that violence of all sorts is gradually subjected to greater and more sophisticated forms of management and control, whereas 'decivilization' encompasses processes which produce an increase in violence and a breakdown in the stability and consistency of on-going social relations. What remains unexplored is the extent to which 'civilizing offensives', the self-conscious attempts to bring about 'civilization', have revolved around essentially violent policies and practices. This paper examines the systematic removal of indigenous Australian children from their families, largely for the social engineering purpose of the gradual and systematic annihilation of Aboriginal cultural identity. At the time, these policies and practices were constructed by most observers as contributing to the 'welfare' of Australian Aborigines, and this intersection of welfare and violence raises the possibility that civilization and decivilization, rather than being different processes which may or may not run alongside each other, interpenetrate each other so that, under certain circumstances, societies are 'barbaric' precisely in their movement towards increasing civilization. It may also be possible to describe the move away from the systematic removal of Aboriginal children since the 1970s as itself part of a civilizing process, an increasing recognition of the human rights of Australian Aborigines and of the inhumanity of those policies and practices. The paper concludes by addressing the implications for theories of civilization and decivilization, as well as more generally for our contemporary understanding of what it means to be a 'civilized' modern citizen.

  15. EFA, Civil Society and the Post-2015 Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verger, Antoni; Sayed, Yusuf; Hiroshi, Ito; Croso, Camilla; Beardmore, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The year 2015 is the deadline for most of the Education for All (EFA) goals. As this date gets closer, reviews about what has been done and reflection about future agendas will multiply. This Forum aims to contribute such a pressing debate, bringing together contributors from key international organisations within the EFA movement. They are…

  16. Shaping the Global Civil Society: An Interview with Michael Peters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heraud, Richard; Tesar, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Professor Michael A. Peters has worked in an era of transformation that has taken him from a labour-intensive paper-based form of production to the computerised reproduction of thought, and the current shift in the publishing landscape from a reader-subscription to an author-pays model. Most of what he has learned in publishing and editing he has…

  17. From Outreach to Engagement: Fostering Civil Society through Educational Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Jan; Tayebjee, Freny; Pearce, Ross

    2003-01-01

    Describes the development of the University of Western Sydney, Australia, from being a university with spasmodic and uncoordinated outreach programs to one that is truly engaged with its community. Presents two examples of educational partnerships in which the university exercises coherent purpose and strategic direction. (SLD)

  18. Beyond Rhetoric: A Recipe for Civil Society Action on Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanvir, Mohammad Muntasim

    2007-01-01

    On the eve of CONFINTEA VI, discussion and debates on promoting literacy is being revived. However, in most cases, the discussion limits itself to the definitional nuances of literacy and falls short of critiquing the global policy making inertia that violates the human rights obligations to the millions of adults remaining illiterate. This…

  19. Improving retention and performance in civil society in Uganda.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Mary L; Paydos, Michael

    2008-06-20

    This article is the second article in the Human Resources for Health journal's first quarterly feature. The series of seven articles has been contributed by Management Sciences for Health (MSH) under the theme of leadership and management in public health and will be published article-by-article over the next few weeks. The journal invited Dr Manuel M. Dayrit, Director of the WHO Department of Human Resources for Health and former Minister of Health for the Philippines to launch the feature with an opening editorial to be found in the journal's blog. This article--number two in the series--describes the experience of the Family Life Education Programme (FLEP), a reproductive health program that provides community-based health services through 40 clinics in five districts of Uganda, in improving retention and performance by using the Management Sciences for Health (MSH) Human Resource Management Rapid Assessment Tool. A few years ago, the FLEP of Busoga Diocese began to see an increase in staff turnover and a decrease in overall organizational performance. The workplace climate was poor and people stopped coming for services even though there were few other choices in the area. An external assessment found the quality of the health care services provided was deficient. An action plan to improve their human resource management (HRM) system was developed and implemented. To assess the strengths and weaknesses of their system and to develop an action plan, they used the Rapid Assessment Tool. The tool guides users through a process of prioritizing and action planning after the assessment is done. By implementing the various recommended changes, FLEP established an improved, responsive HRM system. Increased employee satisfaction led to less staff turnover, better performance, and increased utilization of health services. These benefits were achieved by cost-effective measures focused on professionalizing the organization's approach to HRM.

  20. Value Conflicts between Civil Society and Military Institutions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1972-02-01

    public attitudes and military ideology within the Army. Specifically, the military evaluators felt that the political climate was favorable only under...the conditions that the higher echelons of the military would consent to the chande and that Congress as a whole would and be favorable/would...budget, the political climate rating was not as favorable. During the discussion and analysi: phase of attempting to reaL.I a consensus on each of the

  1. Prerequisites for Democracy in Cuba: Promoting Liberalization Via Civil Society

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    Enrique , a writer and translator, though critical of the regime’s response to world changes, is certain that it is all that stands between the people and...capitulation rather than compromise. "Everyone’s fired up about Bush’s tone and his visible willingness to get Cardenas ", spokesman for the Cuban American

  2. EFA, Civil Society and the Post-2015 Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verger, Antoni; Sayed, Yusuf; Hiroshi, Ito; Croso, Camilla; Beardmore, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The year 2015 is the deadline for most of the Education for All (EFA) goals. As this date gets closer, reviews about what has been done and reflection about future agendas will multiply. This Forum aims to contribute such a pressing debate, bringing together contributors from key international organisations within the EFA movement. They are…

  3. Improving retention and performance in civil society in Uganda

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, Mary L; Paydos, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This article is the second article in the Human Resources for Health journal's first quarterly feature. The series of seven articles has been contributed by Management Sciences for Health (MSH) under the theme of leadership and management in public health and will be published article-by-article over the next few weeks. The journal invited Dr Manuel M. Dayrit, Director of the WHO Department of Human Resources for Health and former Minister of Health for the Philippines to launch the feature with an opening editorial to be found in the journal's blog. This article – number two in the series – describes the experience of the Family Life Education Programme (FLEP), a reproductive health program that provides community-based health services through 40 clinics in five districts of Uganda, in improving retention and performance by using the Management Sciences for Health (MSH) Human Resource Management Rapid Assessment Tool. A few years ago, the FLEP of Busoga Diocese began to see an increase in staff turnover and a decrease in overall organizational performance. The workplace climate was poor and people stopped coming for services even though there were few other choices in the area. An external assessment found the quality of the health care services provided was deficient. An action plan to improve their human resource management (HRM) system was developed and implemented. To assess the strengths and weaknesses of their system and to develop an action plan, they used the Rapid Assessment Tool. The tool guides users through a process of prioritizing and action planning after the assessment is done. By implementing the various recommended changes, FLEP established an improved, responsive HRM system. Increased employee satisfaction led to less staff turnover, better performance, and increased utilization of health services. These benefits were achieved by cost-effective measures focused on professionalizing the organization's approach to HRM. PMID:18570658

  4. Producing Literacy and Civil Society: The Case of Senegal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald

    2008-01-01

    Donor and financial institutions, such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and others, often promote market-based solutions for the delivery of public services in developing countries. This article examines the use of such market approaches by the World Bank to hire for-profit and nonprofit nongovernmental organizations…

  5. Shaping the Global Civil Society: An Interview with Michael Peters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heraud, Richard; Tesar, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Professor Michael A. Peters has worked in an era of transformation that has taken him from a labour-intensive paper-based form of production to the computerised reproduction of thought, and the current shift in the publishing landscape from a reader-subscription to an author-pays model. Most of what he has learned in publishing and editing he has…

  6. Beyond Rhetoric: A Recipe for Civil Society Action on Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanvir, Mohammad Muntasim

    2007-01-01

    On the eve of CONFINTEA VI, discussion and debates on promoting literacy is being revived. However, in most cases, the discussion limits itself to the definitional nuances of literacy and falls short of critiquing the global policy making inertia that violates the human rights obligations to the millions of adults remaining illiterate. This…

  7. Producing Literacy and Civil Society: The Case of Senegal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald

    2008-01-01

    Donor and financial institutions, such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and others, often promote market-based solutions for the delivery of public services in developing countries. This article examines the use of such market approaches by the World Bank to hire for-profit and nonprofit nongovernmental organizations…

  8. Medical Journals in Louisiana before the Civil War *

    PubMed Central

    Olschner, Kay

    1972-01-01

    This study, an historical survey of medical journals in Louisiana before the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, revealed that nine journals made an appearance during the period covered—all of them published in New Orleans. Of these, two were French language journals published by a French medical society. The others were all published by individuals rather than by professional societies. Medical practices, interests, and problems of the times were clearly reflected on the pages of the journals. It is evident that medical journalism reached a high plane in the era before the Civil War. Of the nine periodicals, only one emerged as a permanent publication after the War. PMID:4554217

  9. Classification of extraterrestrial civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tong B.; Chang, Grace

    1991-06-01

    A scheme of classification of extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI) communities based on the scope of energy accessible to the civilization in question is proposed as an alternative to the Kardeshev (1964) scheme that includes three types of civilization, as determined by their levels of energy expenditure. The proposed scheme includes six classes: (1) a civilization that runs essentially on energy exerted by individual beings or by domesticated lower life forms, (2) harnessing of natural sources on planetary surface with artificial constructions, like water wheels and wind sails, (3) energy from fossils and fissionable isotopes, mined beneath the planet surface, (4) exploitation of nuclear fusion on a large scale, whether on the planet, in space, or from primary solar energy, (5) extensive use of antimatter for energy storage, and (6) energy from spacetime, perhaps via the action of naked singularities.

  10. Searching for extraterrestrial civilizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Morris, M.

    1977-01-01

    Three interrelated assumptions are critically examined in an attempt to outline a productive strategy for a search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Questions concerning the feasibility of interstellar travel are investigated. It is concluded that the probability of interstellar travel is high enough that, given a modest number of advanced civilizations, at least one of them will engage in interstellar voyages and colonize the galaxy. Assuming, however, that technological civilizations are rare the galaxy would be essentially unpopulated. Attention is given to the present lack of contact with extraterrestrial beings and frequencies for interstellar beacons.

  11. Analysis on the Load Carrying Mechanism Integrated as Heterogeneous Co-operative Manipulator in a Walking Wheelchair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajay Vedaraj, I. S.; Jain, Ritika; Rao, B. V. A.

    2014-07-01

    After industrial robots came into existence during 1960, the technology of robotics with the design and analysis of robots in various forms in industries as well as in domestic applications were developed. Nowadays, along with the automotive sector the robots are producing a great impact in the form of quality and production rate to register their existence reliable in various other sectors also. Robotic technology has undergone various phase translations from being tortured as humanoids to the present day manipulators. Depending upon the various forms of its existence, robot manipulators are designed as serial manipulators and parallel manipulators. Individually both types can be proved effective though both have various drawbacks in design and the kinematic analysis. The versatility of robots can be increased by making them work in an environment where the same work volume is shared by more than one manipulator. This work volume can be identified as co-operative work volume of those manipulators. Here the interference of manipulators in the work volume of other manipulators is possible and is made obstacle free. The main advantage of co-operative manipulators is that when a number of independent manipulators are put together in a cooperative work envelope the efficiency and ability to perform tasks is greatly enhanced. The main disadvantage of the co-operative manipulators lies in the complication of its design even for a simple application, in almost all fields. In this paper, a cooperative design of robot manipulators to work in co-operative work environment is done and analysed for its efficacy. In the industrial applications when robotic manipulators are put together in more numbers, the trajectory planning becomes the tough task in the work cell. Proper design can remove the design defects of the cooperative manipulators and can be utilized in a more efficient way. In the proposed research paper an analysis is made on such a type of cooperative manipulator

  12. European tendencies and co-operation in the field of ITS systems - national achievements and challenges in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindenbach, Ágnes

    2016-06-01

    The article presents the role of intelligent transport systems/services related to the implementation of the essential European and Hungarian transport policy objectives. The `ITS Directive' will provide a framework for the tasks/works to be performed in the forthcoming years within the priority areas of ITS. The European Commission published regulations / specifications for the priority actions in the form of delegated acts defining the tasks/responsibilities of Member States. Regional/European co-operation for Hungary started after the EU-accession of the country. Hungary was an active partner within the European CONNECT and EasyWay projects, currently Hungary is a member of the CROCODILE consortium.

  13. LTI system order reduction approach based on asymptotical equivalence and the Co-operation of biology-related algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhikov, I. S.; Semenkin, E. S.; Akhmedova, Sh A.

    2017-02-01

    A novel order reduction method for linear time invariant systems is described. The method is based on reducing the initial problem to an optimization one, using the proposed model representation, and solving the problem with an efficient optimization algorithm. The proposed method of determining the model allows all the parameters of the model with lower order to be identified and by definition, provides the model with the required steady-state. As a powerful optimization tool, the meta-heuristic Co-Operation of Biology-Related Algorithms was used. Experimental results proved that the proposed approach outperforms other approaches and that the reduced order model achieves a high level of accuracy.

  14. Righting Civil Wrongs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrell, Dan S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The 1991 Civil Rights Act fills many gaps in existing employment laws, but its implications for higher education go beyond employment to admissions and students affairs. Trustees should direct administrators to review personnel policies and practices and liability insurance coverage in light of the new law. (Author/MSE)

  15. History and Undergraduate Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Peter

    1995-01-01

    It is argued that a traditional, historically-oriented course in 17th- and 18th-century French civilization continues to be an appropriate and effective approach for undergraduate French study, in preparation for later, more sophisticated cultural analysis. Four course components are discussed: class lectures; literary text selection; textbook…

  16. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  17. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  18. European Civilization. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppert, Ella C.; Halac, Dennis

    The instructional materials in this teaching guide for Course II, Unit IV, follow and build upon a previous sequential course described in SO 003 169 offering ninth grade students a study on the development of Western European Civilization. Focus is upon four periods of high development: The High Middle Ages (12th Century), The Renaissance (15th…

  19. European Civilization. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppert, Ella C.; Halac, Dennis

    The instructional materials in this teaching guide for Course II, Unit IV, follow and build upon a previous sequential course described in SO 003 169 offering ninth grade students a study on the development of Western European Civilization. Focus is upon four periods of high development: The High Middle Ages (12th Century), The Renaissance (15th…

  20. Hydraulics in civil engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Chadwick, A.; Morfett, J.

    1986-01-01

    This undergraduate text combines fundamental theoretical concepts with design applications to provide coverage of hydraulics in civil engineering. The authors have incorporated the results of research in many areas and have taken advantage of the availability of microcomputers in the presentation and solution of problems. In addition, the text embodies a set of worked examples to illustrate the theoretical concepts, and typical problems.

  1. Civil Law: 12 Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresbach, Debra

    These learning activities on civil law are intended to supplement the secondary level Scholastic materials "Living Law." Case studies, simulations, and role-play activities are included. Information provided for each activity includes a brief overview, background information, teacher instructions and a description of each activity.…

  2. Civil partnerships five years on.

    PubMed

    Ross, Helen; Gask, Karen; Berrington, Ann

    2011-01-01

    The Civil Partnership Act 2004, which came into force in December 2005 allowing same-sex couples in the UK to register their relationship for the first time, celebrated its fifth anniversary in December 2010. This article examines civil partnership in England and Wales, five years on from its introduction. The characteristics of those forming civil partnerships between 2005 and 2010 including age, sex and previous marital/civil partnership status are examined. These are then compared with the characteristics of those marrying over the same period. Further comparisons are also made between civil partnership dissolutions and divorce. The article presents estimates of the number of people currently in civil partnerships and children of civil partners. Finally the article examines attitudes towards same-sex and civil partner couples both in the UK and in other countries across Europe.

  3. Cyber threats within civil aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitner, Kerri A.

    Existing security policies in civil aviation do not adequately protect against evolving cyber threats. Cybersecurity has been recognized as a top priority among some aviation industry leaders. Heightened concerns regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities surround components utilized in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) implementation. Automated Dependent Surveillance-B (ADS-B) and Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) have both been exploited through the research of experienced computer security professionals. Civil aviation is essential to international infrastructure and if its critical assets were compromised, it could pose a great risk to public safety and financial infrastructure. The purpose of this research was to raise awareness of aircraft system vulnerabilities in order to provoke change among current national and international cybersecurity policies, procedures and standards. Although the education of cyber threats is increasing in the aviation industry, there is not enough urgency when creating cybersecurity policies. This project intended to answer the following questions: What are the cyber threats to ADS-B of an aircraft in-flight? What are the cyber threats to EFB? What is the aviation industry's response to the issue of cybersecurity and in-flight safety? ADS-B remains unencrypted while the FAA's mandate to implement this system is rapidly approaching. The cyber threat of both portable and non-portable EFB's have received increased publicity, however, airlines are not responding quick enough (if at all) to create policies for the use of these devices. Collectively, the aviation industry is not being proactive enough to protect its aircraft or airport network systems. That is not to say there are not leaders in cybersecurity advancement. These proactive organizations must set the standard for the future to better protect society and it's most reliable form of transportation.

  4. Integrated Schooling, Life Course Outcomes, and Social Cohesion in Multiethnic Democratic Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin; Nkomo, Mokubung

    2012-01-01

    Schools have a seminal role in preparing a society's children for their adult responsibilities as workers, parents, friends, neighbors, and citizens. The United States, countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Brazil, India, South Africa, and other multiethnic democratic nation-states have increasingly diverse…

  5. Integrated Schooling, Life Course Outcomes, and Social Cohesion in Multiethnic Democratic Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin; Nkomo, Mokubung

    2012-01-01

    Schools have a seminal role in preparing a society's children for their adult responsibilities as workers, parents, friends, neighbors, and citizens. The United States, countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Brazil, India, South Africa, and other multiethnic democratic nation-states have increasingly diverse…

  6. Commentary: civil commitment and its reform.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Alexander I F

    2015-03-01

    Internationally, civil commitment laws have gone through substantial reforms in the past 50 years. Discernible shifts from the medically paternalistic to the excessively legalistic may be giving way to a blending of legislative intent under the rubric of therapeutic jurisprudence. In the light of those international movements, Shao and Xie describe how China's new mental health law shows the impact of these international and local influences on the development and practice of mental health law in China. The new Law was passed in 2012. It sets a broad vision for mental health services and mental health promotion in Chinese society as well as providing the legal framework for civil commitment. Practicalities of implementation may be highly significant in the success of the legislation.

  7. Civility in Classes and Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumpkin, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Civility is a polite or courteous act, expression, or standard of conduct, including the display of respect and tolerance to everyone. Teaching and modeling civility in classes and with sport teams is essential so students and athletes can learn the importance of and demonstrate civility in their interactions with others. Teachers and coaches…

  8. Global Civil Unrest: Contagion, Self-Organization, and Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Braha, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Civil unrest is a powerful form of collective human dynamics, which has led to major transitions of societies in modern history. The study of collective human dynamics, including collective aggression, has been the focus of much discussion in the context of modeling and identification of universal patterns of behavior. In contrast, the possibility that civil unrest activities, across countries and over long time periods, are governed by universal mechanisms has not been explored. Here, records of civil unrest of 170 countries during the period 1919–2008 are analyzed. It is demonstrated that the distributions of the number of unrest events per year are robustly reproduced by a nonlinear, spatially extended dynamical model, which reflects the spread of civil disorder between geographic regions connected through social and communication networks. The results also expose the similarity between global social instability and the dynamics of natural hazards and epidemics. PMID:23119067

  9. Global civil unrest: contagion, self-organization, and prediction.

    PubMed

    Braha, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Civil unrest is a powerful form of collective human dynamics, which has led to major transitions of societies in modern history. The study of collective human dynamics, including collective aggression, has been the focus of much discussion in the context of modeling and identification of universal patterns of behavior. In contrast, the possibility that civil unrest activities, across countries and over long time periods, are governed by universal mechanisms has not been explored. Here, records of civil unrest of 170 countries during the period 1919-2008 are analyzed. It is demonstrated that the distributions of the number of unrest events per year are robustly reproduced by a nonlinear, spatially extended dynamical model, which reflects the spread of civil disorder between geographic regions connected through social and communication networks. The results also expose the similarity between global social instability and the dynamics of natural hazards and epidemics.

  10. What impact did the creation of Local Health Care Co-operatives have on indicators of practice resources and activity?

    PubMed Central

    McLean, Gary; Sutton, Matt

    2008-01-01

    Background The creation of Local Health Care Cooperatives (LHCCs) in Scotland in 1999 was typical of attempts to encourage voluntary integration and co-operation between health care providers. One of the three stated objectives of their introduction was to tackle inequalities and improve access to care. Methods We used administrative data on all general practices in 1999 and 2003 to examine whether LHCCs had any measurable impact on six indicators of practice resources and activity. We compare three groups (participant, non-participant, and ineligible practices) through regression analysis of changes over time in group means and within-group inequality (measured using Gini coefficients). In addition, for participants we measure changes in the variation between and within LHCCs. Results Despite having similar registered populations to participants, non-participants had lower levels of resources at the start of the period and this differential widened over time. The changes over time in the activity indicators were similar across the three groups. There was little evidence that inequality between LHCC practices narrowed more than in the other two groups. Practices within LHCCs appear to be become more homogenous while variation increased between LHCCs. Conclusion The mixed messages from our examination of resources and activity indicators demonstrates that there are likely to be important lessons to be learned from the brief experiment with LHCCs. Clear objectives that are evaluated using a battery of simple performance indicators may help to ensure demonstrable change in future initiatives to foster integration and co-operation. PMID:18485213

  11. Active and inactive enhancers co-operate to exert localized and long-range control of gene regulation

    PubMed Central

    Proudhon, Charlotte; Snetkova, Valentina; Raviram, Ramya; Lobry, Camille; Badri, Sana; Jiang, Tingting; Hao, Bingtao; Trimarchi, Thomas; Kluger, Yuval; Aifantis, Iannis; Bonneau, Richard; Skok, Jane A

    2016-01-01

    V(D)J recombination relies on the presence of proximal enhancers that activate the antigen receptor (AgR) loci in a lineage and stage specific manner. Unexpectedly we find that both active and inactive AgR enhancers co-operate to disseminate their effects in a localized and long-range manner. Here we demonstrate the importance of short-range contacts between active enhancers that constitute an Igk super-enhancer in B cells. Deletion of one element reduces the interaction frequency between other enhancers in the hub, which compromises the transcriptional output of each component. We further establish that in T cells long-range contact and co-operation between the inactive Igk enhancer, MiEκ and the active Tcrb enhancer, Eβ, alters enrichment of CBFβ binding in a manner that impacts Tcrb recombination. These findings underline the complexities of enhancer regulation and point to a role for localized and long-range enhancer-sharing between active and inactive elements in lineage and stage specific control. PMID:27239026

  12. What impact did the creation of Local Health Care Co-operatives have on indicators of practice resources and activity?

    PubMed

    McLean, Gary; Sutton, Matt

    2008-05-16

    The creation of Local Health Care Cooperatives (LHCCs) in Scotland in 1999 was typical of attempts to encourage voluntary integration and co-operation between health care providers. One of the three stated objectives of their introduction was to tackle inequalities and improve access to care. We used administrative data on all general practices in 1999 and 2003 to examine whether LHCCs had any measurable impact on six indicators of practice resources and activity. We compare three groups (participant, non-participant, and ineligible practices) through regression analysis of changes over time in group means and within-group inequality (measured using Gini coefficients). In addition, for participants we measure changes in the variation between and within LHCCs. Despite having similar registered populations to participants, non-participants had lower levels of resources at the start of the period and this differential widened over time. The changes over time in the activity indicators were similar across the three groups. There was little evidence that inequality between LHCC practices narrowed more than in the other two groups. Practices within LHCCs appear to be become more homogenous while variation increased between LHCCs. The mixed messages from our examination of resources and activity indicators demonstrates that there are likely to be important lessons to be learned from the brief experiment with LHCCs. Clear objectives that are evaluated using a battery of simple performance indicators may help to ensure demonstrable change in future initiatives to foster integration and co-operation.

  13. Tropical Climate Dynamics and Civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haug, G. H.; Yancheva, G.; Peterson, L. C.

    2005-12-01

    Dr. James P. Kennett has been a leader in the area of rapid climate change. Jim and his son Douglas J. Kennett, a scientific archeologist, were among the first to make a serious effort to combine high-quality climate data with archeological information to study the impact of climate on societies. They argued about the 'strong relationship between climatically induced changes in environmental conditions and social, political, and economic responses' in coastal California during the past 2 millennia. One tropical climate archive with an appropriate memory for the most relevant sub-centennial to sub-decadal scale climate swings is the anoxic Cariaco Basin off northern Venezuela. Millimeter to micrometer-scale geochemical data in the laminated sediments of the Cariaco Basin have been interpreted to reflect variations in the hydrological cycle and the mean annual position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) over tropical South America during the past millennia. These data with decadal to (sub)annual resolution show that the Terminal Collapse of the Classic Maya civilization occurred during an extended dry period. In detail, the Cariaco record reveals evidence for three separate droughts during the period of Maya downfall, each lasting a decade or less. These data suggest that climate change was potentially one immediate cause of the demise of Mayan civilization, with a century-scale decline in rainfall putting a general strain on resources and several multi-year events of more intense drought pushing Mayan society over the edge. Here, we present a new data set of comparable quality and resolution from Southern China. In the sediments of lake Huguang Maar in coastal southeast China, the titanium content and redox-sensitive magnetic properties record the strength of winter monsoon winds at subdecadal resolution over the last 16 thousand years. The record indicates a stronger winter monsoon prior to the Boelling-Alleroed warming, during the Younger Dryas, and

  14. A new co-operative inversion strategy via fuzzy clustering technique applied to seismic and magnetotelluric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thong Kieu, Duy; Kepic, Anton

    2015-04-01

    Geophysical inversion produces very useful images of earth parameters; however, inversion results usually suffer from inherent non-uniqueness: many subsurface models with different structures and parameters can explain the measurements. To reduce the ambiguity, extra information about the earth's structure and physical properties is needed. This prior information can be extracted from geological principles, prior petrophysical information from well logs, and complementary information from other geophysical methods. Any technique used to constrain inversion should be able to integrate the prior information and to guide updating inversion process in terms of the geological model. In this research, we have adopted fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering technique for this purpose. FCM is a clustering method that allows us to divide the model of physical parameters into a few clusters of representative values that also may relate to geological units based on the similarity of the geophysical properties. This exploits the fact that in many geological environments the earth is comprised of a few distinctive rock units with different physical properties. Therefore FCM can provide a platform to constrain geophysical inversion, and should tend to produce models that are geologically meaningful. FCM was incorporated in both separate and co-operative inversion processing of seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) data with petrophysical constraints. Using petrophysical information through FCM assists the inversion to build a reliable earth model. In this algorithm, FCM plays a role of guider; it uses the prior information to drive the model update process, and also forming an earth model filled with rocks units rather than smooth transitions when the boundary is in doubt. Where petrophysical information from well logs or core measurement is not locally available the cluster petrophysics may be solved for in inversion as well if some knowledge of how many distinctive geological exist. A

  15. Abortion in a just society.

    PubMed

    Hunt, M E

    1993-01-01

    A female Catholic theologian imagines a just society that does not judge women who decide to undergo an abortion. The Church, practitioners, and the courts must trust that women do make person-enhancing choices about the quality of life. In the last 15 years most progress in securing a woman's right to abortion has been limited to white, well-educated, and middle or upper middle class women. A just society would consider reproductive options a human right. Abortion providers are examples of a move to a just society; they are committed to women's well-being. There are some facts that make one pessimistic about achieving abortion in a just society. The US Supreme Court plans to review important decisions establishing abortion as a civil right. Further, some men insist on suing women who want to make their own reproductive decisions--an anti-choice tactic to wear away women's right to reproductive choice. Bombings of abortion clinics and harassment campaigns by anti-choice groups are common. These behaviors strain pro-choice proponents emotionally, psychically, and spiritually. Their tactics often lead to theologians practicing self-censorship because they fear backlash. Abortion providers also do this. Further, the reaction to AIDS is that sex is bad. Anti-abortion groups use AIDS to further their campaigns, claiming that AIDS is a punishment for sex. Strategies working towards abortion in a just society should be education and persuasion of policymakers and citizens about women's right to choose, since they are the ones most affected by abortion. Moreover, only women can secure their rights to abortion. In a just society, every health maintenance organization, insurance company, and group practice would consider abortion a normal service. A just society provides for the survival needs of the most marginalized.

  16. Professional Education in Civil Engineering: A Specific Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fordyce, Derek; Robinson, Simon

    1990-01-01

    Described is a professional development program at Heriot-Watt University in Scotland. Discussed are the teaching of the relationship of civil engineering to society and ethics, issues about the style of this type of course, and summative evaluation. Recommendations are provided. (CW)

  17. Integration is not enough: gender inequality and empowerment in Nicaraguan agricultural co-operatives.

    PubMed

    Mayoux, L

    1993-03-01

    Cooperatives have been seen as a means of increasing the productivity of the poor, increasing their income, and providing them with more political power. The aim of this article is to discuss the experiences of women in agricultural cooperatives in Matagalpa and Esteli Regions in Nicaragua under the Sandinistas at the end of 1988. Since the Revolution in 1979, women had been encouraged to participate in agricultural cooperatives, although gender issues were ignored in the wider cooperative policy. Discussion is directed to gender conflicts of interest, the effects of policy change on women's participation, the limits of integration, 4 case studies of integration, some problems, inadequate policy and the implications for feminist participatory strategy. The Nicaraguan experience suggests that the nature of empowerment of women is an important consideration; the extent of empowerment or whether all eligible women can be reached is debatable. Women and men have different needs and priorities in cooperatives because of the division of labor and power structures, both within the family and within society. Cooperative structures need to change in a way that deals with inequalities within and between families and with reproductive issues. Cooperatives were formed in the context of competing interests. There is dispute over whether current structures empower rural producers or are an imposition by the state in order to control production. The history of policy changes affecting the formation and extent of formation of different types of cooperatives are described. The Cooperative Law of 1981 formed the basis for women's right to equal involvement in cooperative organization and management. The Agrarian Reform Act of 1981 gave women equal access to land; land was not redistributed until 1983. The Labor Law of 1979 meant wages were paid directly to workers. Practices, however, changed little. The case studies show the extent of discrimination against women members. Women

  18. Emerging and existing mechanisms co-operate in generating diverse β-lactam resistance phenotypes in geographically dispersed and genetically disparate Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Elena; Pérez, Javier Escobar; Márquez, Carolina; Vilacoba, Elisabet; Centrón, Daniela; Leal, Aura L; Saavedra, Carlos; Saavedra, Sandra Y; Tovar, Catalina; Vanegas, Natasha; Stokes, H W

    2013-09-01

    β-Lactam resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa clinical isolates is driven by a number of mechanisms. Whilst several are understood, how they act co-operatively in pathogenic strains is less clear. In some isolates, resistance profiles cannot always be explained by identifying the common resistance-determining pathways, suggesting that other mechanisms may be important. Pathogenic P. aeruginosa isolates from four countries were characterised by PCR. Quantitative expression analysis was also assessed for the activity of several pathways that influence antibiotic resistance, and culture experiments were conducted to test how random transposition of the insertion sequence IS26 during growth may influence resistance to some antibiotics. In most strains, antibiotic resistance was being driven by changes in multiple pathways and by the presence or absence of genes acquired by lateral gene transfer. Multiple mechanisms of resistance were prevalent in strains from all of the countries examined, although regional differences in the type of interacting mechanisms were apparent. Changes in chromosomal pathways included overexpression of AmpC and two efflux pumps. Also, gain or loss of IS26 at some chromosomal locations, most notably oprD, could influence resistance to carbapenems. IS26-related resistance was found in strains from Argentina and geographically linked Uruguay, but not in strains from either Colombia or Australia. Pseudomonas aeruginosa pathogenic strains are evolving to become multidrug-resistant in more complex ways. This is being influenced by single strains acquiring changes in numerous known pathways as well as by newly emerging resistance mechanisms in this species. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Chemotherapy of Infection and Cancer. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Civil War vascular injuries.

    PubMed

    Blaisdell, F William

    2005-01-01

    As the result of the insistence of the Surgeon General during the United States Civil War, there was extensive documentation of injuries to major blood vessels and their resulting complications. The specific treatment of vascular injuries during the Civil War was ligation of the injured vessel or amputation. This was before there was any knowledge of the cause and prevention of infection. Overall, the results were dismal, with a mortality rate of nearly 60% for the more than 1000 soldiers treated by arterial ligation. The most important contribution of these medical reports was to define how the injuries should be diagnosed and managed. Many of the principles that developed as the result of this post-war review are as valid today as they were then. Unfortunately, it seems that many of these lessons have had to be relearned by the surgeons who have participated in each of our subsequent military conflicts.

  20. Manifestations of advanced civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracewell, R. N.

    A list of possible modes of detecting advanced civilizations elsewhere in the universe is provided, including EM Alfven, and gravity waves, matter transfer, and exotica such as tachyons, black hole tunneling, and telepathy. Further study is indicated for low frequency radio wave propagation, which may travel along magnetic fields to reach the earth while laser beams are not favored because of the power needed for transmitting quanta instead of waves. IR, X ray, and UV astronomy are noted to be suitable for detecting signals in those ranges, while Alfven wave communication will be best observed by probes outside the orbit of Jupiter, where local anomalies have less effect. Particle propagation communication is viewed as unlikely, except as a trace of an extinct civilization, but panspermia, which involves interstellar spreading of seeds and/or spores, receives serious attention, as does laser probe or pellet propulsion.

  1. Galactic-scale civilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.

    1980-01-01

    Evolutionary arguments are presented in favor of the existence of civilization on a galactic scale. Patterns of physical, chemical, biological, social and cultural evolution leading to increasing levels of complexity are pointed out and explained thermodynamically in terms of the maximization of free energy dissipation in the environment of the organized system. The possibility of the evolution of a global and then a galactic human civilization is considered, and probabilities that the galaxy is presently in its colonization state and that life could have evolved to its present state on earth are discussed. Fermi's paradox of the absence of extraterrestrials in light of the probability of their existence is noted, and a variety of possible explanations is indicated. Finally, it is argued that although mankind may be the first occurrence of intelligence in the galaxy, it is unjustified to presume that this is so.

  2. Galactic-scale civilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.

    1980-01-01

    Evolutionary arguments are presented in favor of the existence of civilization on a galactic scale. Patterns of physical, chemical, biological, social and cultural evolution leading to increasing levels of complexity are pointed out and explained thermodynamically in terms of the maximization of free energy dissipation in the environment of the organized system. The possibility of the evolution of a global and then a galactic human civilization is considered, and probabilities that the galaxy is presently in its colonization state and that life could have evolved to its present state on earth are discussed. Fermi's paradox of the absence of extraterrestrials in light of the probability of their existence is noted, and a variety of possible explanations is indicated. Finally, it is argued that although mankind may be the first occurrence of intelligence in the galaxy, it is unjustified to presume that this is so.

  3. Genomic characterisation of Eμ-Myc mouse lymphomas identifies Bcor as a Myc co-operative tumour-suppressor gene.

    PubMed

    Lefebure, Marcus; Tothill, Richard W; Kruse, Elizabeth; Hawkins, Edwin D; Shortt, Jake; Matthews, Geoffrey M; Gregory, Gareth P; Martin, Benjamin P; Kelly, Madison J; Todorovski, Izabela; Doyle, Maria A; Lupat, Richard; Li, Jason; Schroeder, Jan; Wall, Meaghan; Craig, Stuart; Poortinga, Gretchen; Cameron, Don; Bywater, Megan; Kats, Lev; Gearhart, Micah D; Bardwell, Vivian J; Dickins, Ross A; Hannan, Ross D; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Johnstone, Ricky W

    2017-03-06

    The Eμ-Myc mouse is an extensively used model of MYC driven malignancy; however to date there has only been partial characterization of MYC co-operative mutations leading to spontaneous lymphomagenesis. Here we sequence spontaneously arising Eμ-Myc lymphomas to define transgene architecture, somatic mutations, and structural alterations. We identify frequent disruptive mutations in the PRC1-like component and BCL6-corepressor gene Bcor. Moreover, we find unexpected concomitant multigenic lesions involving Cdkn2a loss and other cancer genes including Nras, Kras and Bcor. These findings challenge the assumed two-hit model of Eμ-Myc lymphoma and demonstrate a functional in vivo role for Bcor in suppressing tumorigenesis.

  4. Genomic characterisation of Eμ-Myc mouse lymphomas identifies Bcor as a Myc co-operative tumour-suppressor gene

    PubMed Central

    Lefebure, Marcus; Tothill, Richard W.; Kruse, Elizabeth; Hawkins, Edwin D.; Shortt, Jake; Matthews, Geoffrey M.; Gregory, Gareth P.; Martin, Benjamin P.; Kelly, Madison J.; Todorovski, Izabela; Doyle, Maria A.; Lupat, Richard; Li, Jason; Schroeder, Jan; Wall, Meaghan; Craig, Stuart; Poortinga, Gretchen; Cameron, Don; Bywater, Megan; Kats, Lev; Gearhart, Micah D.; Bardwell, Vivian J.; Dickins, Ross A.; Hannan, Ross D.; Papenfuss, Anthony T.; Johnstone, Ricky W.

    2017-01-01

    The Eμ-Myc mouse is an extensively used model of MYC driven malignancy; however to date there has only been partial characterization of MYC co-operative mutations leading to spontaneous lymphomagenesis. Here we sequence spontaneously arising Eμ-Myc lymphomas to define transgene architecture, somatic mutations, and structural alterations. We identify frequent disruptive mutations in the PRC1-like component and BCL6-corepressor gene Bcor. Moreover, we find unexpected concomitant multigenic lesions involving Cdkn2a loss and other cancer genes including Nras, Kras and Bcor. These findings challenge the assumed two-hit model of Eμ-Myc lymphoma and demonstrate a functional in vivo role for Bcor in suppressing tumorigenesis. PMID:28262675

  5. Microprocessor, Setx, Xrn2, and Rrp6 co-operate to induce premature termination of transcription by RNAPII.

    PubMed

    Wagschal, Alexandre; Rousset, Emilie; Basavarajaiah, Poornima; Contreras, Xavier; Harwig, Alex; Laurent-Chabalier, Sabine; Nakamura, Mirai; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Ke; Meziane, Oussama; Boyer, Frédéric; Parrinello, Hugues; Berkhout, Ben; Terzian, Christophe; Benkirane, Monsef; Kiernan, Rosemary

    2012-09-14

    Transcription elongation is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism of gene regulation. Here, we show that microprocessor controls gene expression in an RNAi-independent manner. Microprocessor orchestrates the recruitment of termination factors Setx and Xrn2, and the 3'-5' exoribonuclease, Rrp6, to initiate RNAPII pausing and premature termination at the HIV-1 promoter through cleavage of the stem-loop RNA, TAR. Rrp6 further processes the cleavage product, which generates a small RNA that is required to mediate potent transcriptional repression and chromatin remodeling at the HIV-1 promoter. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq), we identified cellular gene targets whose transcription is modulated by microprocessor. Our study reveals RNAPII pausing and premature termination mediated by the co-operative activity of ribonucleases, Drosha/Dgcr8, Xrn2, and Rrp6, as a regulatory mechanism of RNAPII-dependent transcription elongation.

  6. Co-operative signalling mechanisms required for erythroid precursor expansion in response to erythropoietin and stem cell factor.

    PubMed

    Arcasoy, Murat O; Jiang, Xiaohong

    2005-07-01

    The regeneration of circulating red blood cells in response to anaemia associated with blood loss or haemolysis involves an increased rate of erythropoiesis and expansion of proerythroblasts, the bone marrow precursor cells that terminally differentiate into mature erythrocytes. This study investigated the mechanisms by which erythropoietin (Epo) and stem cell factor (Scf) modulate the expansion of proerythroblasts. Homogenous populations of primary human proerythroblasts were generated in liquid cultures of CD34(+) cells. In serum-free cultures, proerythroblasts failed to survive in the presence of Epo or Scf alone, but exhibited synergistic proliferation in response to combined Epo and Scf treatment, exhibiting one-log expansion in 5 d. Intracellular signal transduction in response to Epo and Scf revealed that tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat) 5, a downstream target for the non-receptor tyrosine kinase, Janus kinase 2 (Jak2), was mediated by Epo but not Scf. The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) extracellular regulated kinase (Erk) 1-2 were phosphorylated in response to either Epo or Scf. Phosphorylation of Akt, a signalling molecule downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), was observed following Scf but not Epo treatment. To determine the contribution of specific signalling pathways to synergistic expansion of proerythroblasts in response to co-operative effects of Epo and Scf, cells were treated with kinase inhibitors targeting Jak2, PI3K and MAPK kinase. There was a significant, dose-dependent inhibition of proerythroblast expansion in response to all three kinase inhibitors. In conclusion, Epo- and Scf-mediated co-operative, synergistic expansion of primary erythroid precursors requires selective activation of multiple signalling pathways, including the Jak-Stat, PI3K and MAPK pathways.

  7. Graminicide insensitivity correlates with herbicide-binding co-operativity on acetyl-CoA carboxylase isoforms.

    PubMed

    Price, Lindsey J; Herbert, Derek; Moss, Stephen R; Cole, David J; Harwood, John L

    2003-10-15

    The sensitivity of grass species to important classes of graminicide herbicides inhibiting ACCase (acetyl-CoA carboxylase) is associated with a specific inhibition of the multifunctional ACCase located in the plastids of grasses. In contrast, the multisubunit form of ACCase found in the chloroplasts of dicotyledonous plants is insensitive and the minor cytosolic multifunctional isoforms of the enzyme in both types of plants are also less sensitive to inhibition. We have isolated, separated and characterized the multifunctional ACCase isoforms found in exceptional examples of grasses that are either inherently insensitive to these graminicides, or from biotypes showing acquired resistance to their use. Major and minor multifunctional enzymes were isolated from cell suspension cultures of Festuca rubra and the 'Notts A1'-resistant biotype of Alopecurus myosuroides, and their properties compared with those isolated from cells of wild-type sensitive A. myosuroides or from sensitive maize. Purifications of up to 300-fold were necessary to separate the two isoforms. The molecular masses (200-230 kDa) and K(m) values for all three substrates (ATP, bicarbonate and acetyl-CoA) were similar for the different ACCases, irrespective of their graminicide sensitivity. Moreover, we found no correlation between the ability of isoforms to carboxylate propionyl-CoA and their sensitivity to graminicides. However, insensitive purified forms of ACCase were characterized by herbicide-binding co-operativity, whereas, in contrast, sensitive forms of the enzymes were not. Our studies on isolated individual isoforms of ACCase from grasses support and extend previous indications that herbicide binding co-operativity is the only kinetic property that differentiates naturally or selected insensitive enzymes from the typical sensitive forms usually found in grasses.

  8. CXCL8/IL-8 and CXCL12/SDF-1α Co-operatively Promote Invasiveness and Angiogenesis in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Yoichi; Ochi, Nobuo; Sawai, Hirozumi; Yasuda, Akira; Takahashi, Hiroki; Funahashi, Hitoshi; Takeyama, Hiromitsu; Tong, Zhimin; Guha, Sushovan

    2009-01-01

    CXC-chemokines are involved in the chemotaxis of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes. However, role of these chemokines in tumorigenesis, especially with regard to interaction between tumor and its microenvironment, has not been clearly elucidated. The purpose of this study was to analyze the co-operative role of CXCL8 and CXCL12 in the tumor-stromal interaction in pancreatic cancer (PaCa). Using ELISA and RT-PCR, we initially confirmed the expression of ligands and receptors, respectively, of CXC-chemokines in PaCa and stromal cells. We examined the co-operative role of CXCL8 and CXCL12 in proliferation/invasion of PaCa and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and in HUVEC tube-formations through tumor-stromal interaction by MTS, Matrigel invasion, and angiogenesis assays, respectively. We detected expression of CXCR4, but not CXCR2, in all PaCa cells and fibroblasts. PaCa cells secreted CXCL8, and fibroblast cells secreted CXCL12. CXCL8 production in PaCa was significantly enhanced by CXCL12, and CXCL12 production in fibroblasts was significantly enhanced by co-culturing with PaCa. CXCL8 enhanced proliferation/invasion of HUVECs but did not promote proliferation/invasion of PaCa. Both recombinant and PaCa-derived CXCL8 enhanced tube formation of HUVECs that were co-cultured with fibroblast cells. CXCL12 enhanced the proliferation/invasion of HUVECs and the invasion of PaCa cells but had no effect on tube formation of HUVEC. We showed that PaCa-derived CXCL8 and fibroblast-derived CXCL12 cooperatively induced angiogenesis in vitro by promoting HUVEC proliferation, invasion, and tube formation. Thus, corresponding receptors CXCR2 and CXCR4 are potential antiangiogenic and antimetastatic therapeutic targets in PaCa. PMID:19035451

  9. dREAM co-operates with insulator-binding proteins and regulates expression at divergently paired genes

    PubMed Central

    Korenjak, Michael; Kwon, Eunjeong; Morris, Robert T.; Anderssen, Endre; Amzallag, Arnaud; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Dyson, Nicholas J.

    2014-01-01

    dREAM complexes represent the predominant form of E2F/RBF repressor complexes in Drosophila. dREAM associates with thousands of sites in the fly genome but its mechanism of action is unknown. To understand the genomic context in which dREAM acts we examined the distribution and localization of Drosophila E2F and dREAM proteins. Here we report a striking and unexpected overlap between dE2F2/dREAM sites and binding sites for the insulator-binding proteins CP190 and Beaf-32. Genetic assays show that these components functionally co-operate and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments on mutant animals demonstrate that dE2F2 is important for association of CP190 with chromatin. dE2F2/dREAM binding sites are enriched at divergently transcribed genes, and the majority of genes upregulated by dE2F2 depletion represent the repressed half of a differentially expressed, divergently transcribed pair of genes. Analysis of mutant animals confirms that dREAM and CP190 are similarly required for transcriptional integrity at these gene pairs and suggest that dREAM functions in concert with CP190 to establish boundaries between repressed/activated genes. Consistent with the idea that dREAM co-operates with insulator-binding proteins, genomic regions bound by dREAM possess enhancer-blocking activity that depends on multiple dREAM components. These findings suggest that dREAM functions in the organization of transcriptional domains. PMID:25053843

  10. dREAM co-operates with insulator-binding proteins and regulates expression at divergently paired genes.

    PubMed

    Korenjak, Michael; Kwon, Eunjeong; Morris, Robert T; Anderssen, Endre; Amzallag, Arnaud; Ramaswamy, Sridhar; Dyson, Nicholas J

    2014-08-01

    dREAM complexes represent the predominant form of E2F/RBF repressor complexes in Drosophila. dREAM associates with thousands of sites in the fly genome but its mechanism of action is unknown. To understand the genomic context in which dREAM acts we examined the distribution and localization of Drosophila E2F and dREAM proteins. Here we report a striking and unexpected overlap between dE2F2/dREAM sites and binding sites for the insulator-binding proteins CP190 and Beaf-32. Genetic assays show that these components functionally co-operate and chromatin immunoprecipitation experiments on mutant animals demonstrate that dE2F2 is important for association of CP190 with chromatin. dE2F2/dREAM binding sites are enriched at divergently transcribed genes, and the majority of genes upregulated by dE2F2 depletion represent the repressed half of a differentially expressed, divergently transcribed pair of genes. Analysis of mutant animals confirms that dREAM and CP190 are similarly required for transcriptional integrity at these gene pairs and suggest that dREAM functions in concert with CP190 to establish boundaries between repressed/activated genes. Consistent with the idea that dREAM co-operates with insulator-binding proteins, genomic regions bound by dREAM possess enhancer-blocking activity that depends on multiple dREAM components. These findings suggest that dREAM functions in the organization of transcriptional domains. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. Civil space technology initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) is a major, focused, space technology program of the Office of Aeronautics, Exploration and Technology (OAET) of NASA. The program was initiated to advance technology beyond basic research in order to expand and enhance system and vehicle capabilities for near-term missions. CSTI takes critical technologies to the point at which a user can confidently incorporate the new or expanded capabilities into relatively near-term, high-priority NASA missions. In particular, the CSTI program emphasizes technologies necessary for reliable and efficient access to and operation in Earth orbit as well as for support of scientific missions from Earth orbit.

  12. [Hamburg model-project for minors who are at risk for sexual offending: co-operation between the institutions in Hamburg, Germany].

    PubMed

    Spehr, Aranke; Driemeyer, Wiebke; Briken, Peer

    2010-01-01

    When children and adolescents show deviant sexual behavior, co-operation between institutions of the youth welfare service is necessary in order to prevent further assaults. As a part of the Hamburg model project for minors who are at risk for sexual offending we evaluated the existing case-unspecific co-operation between the city's institutions. Selection of the sample resulted in a diagram of co-operation between institutions that have or might have contact to sexual deviant children or juveniles. By analyzing 147 online-surveys, comprising quantitative as well as qualitative questions, revealed a comprehensive system rich in resources but only little case-unspecific cooperation. Highest average rating in co-operation was given to the non-governmental institutions and the police. The inquiry of reasons for the co-operation indicated a demand for specialized diagnostics and advice. Positively evaluated were an efficient and fast processing, an unbureaucratic handling of the case and constant availability. Pointed out negatively were "not-reacting", trivializing and a lack of capacities. In order to improve the level of information and the range of intervention programs, training of professionals in school and the youth welfare service is needed.

  13. Risk to civilization: A planetary science perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Clark R.; Morrison, David

    1988-01-01

    One of the most profound changes in our perspective of the solar system resulting from the first quarter century of planetary exploration by spacecraft is the recognition that planets, including Earth, were bombarded by cosmic projectiles for 4.5 aeons and continue to be bombarded today. Although the planetary cratering rate is much lower now than it was during the first 0.5 aeons, sizeable Earth-approaching asteroids and comets continue to hit the Earth at a rate that poses a finite risk to civilization. The evolution of this planetary perspective on impact cratering is gradual over the last two decades. It took explorations of Mars and Mercury by early Mariner spacecraft and of the outer solar system by the Voyagers to reveal the significance of asteroidal and cometary impacts in shaping the morphologies and even chemical compositions of the planets. An unsettling implication of the new perspective is addressed: the risk to human civilization. Serious scientific attention was given to this issue in July 1981 at a NASA-sponsored Spacewatch Workshop in Snowmass, Colorado. The basic conclusion of the 1981 NASA sponsored workshop still stands: the risk that civilization might be destroyed by impact with an as-yet-undiscovered asteroid or comet exceeds risk levels that are sometimes deemed unacceptable by modern societies in other contexts. Yet these impact risks have gone almost undiscussed and undebated. The tentative quantitative assessment by some members of the 1981 workshop was that each year, civilization is threatened with destruction with a probability of about 1 in 100,000. The enormous spread in risk levels deemed by the public to be at the threshold of acceptability derives from a host of psychological factors that were widely discussed in the risk assessment literature. Slovic shows that public fears of hazards are greatest for hazards that are uncontrollable, involuntary, fatal, dreadful, globally catastrophic, and which have consequences that seem

  14. Risk to civilization: A planetary science perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Clark R.; Morrison, David

    One of the most profound changes in our perspective of the solar system resulting from the first quarter century of planetary exploration by spacecraft is the recognition that planets, including Earth, were bombarded by cosmic projectiles for 4.5 aeons and continue to be bombarded today. Although the planetary cratering rate is much lower now than it was during the first 0.5 aeons, sizeable Earth-approaching asteroids and comets continue to hit the Earth at a rate that poses a finite risk to civilization. The evolution of this planetary perspective on impact cratering is gradual over the last two decades. It took explorations of Mars and Mercury by early Mariner spacecraft and of the outer solar system by the Voyagers to reveal the significance of asteroidal and cometary impacts in shaping the morphologies and even chemical compositions of the planets. An unsettling implication of the new perspective is addressed: the risk to human civilization. Serious scientific attention was given to this issue in July 1981 at a NASA-sponsored Spacewatch Workshop in Snowmass, Colorado. The basic conclusion of the 1981 NASA sponsored workshop still stands: the risk that civilization might be destroyed by impact with an as-yet-undiscovered asteroid or comet exceeds risk levels that are sometimes deemed unacceptable by modern societies in other contexts. Yet these impact risks have gone almost undiscussed and undebated. The tentative quantitative assessment by some members of the 1981 workshop was that each year, civilization is threatened with destruction with a probability of about 1 in 100,000. The enormous spread in risk levels deemed by the public to be at the threshold of acceptability derives from a host of psychological factors that were widely discussed in the risk assessment literature. Slovic shows that public fears of hazards are greatest for hazards that are uncontrollable, involuntary, fatal, dreadful, globally catastrophic, and which have consequences that seem

  15. 28 CFR 31.202 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil rights. 31.202 Section 31.202....202 Civil rights. (a) To carry out the State's Federal civil rights responsibilities the plan must: (1) Designate a civil rights contact person who has lead responsibility in insuring that all applicable civil...

  16. 22 CFR 1006.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  17. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and...) Definitions § 1404.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  18. 22 CFR 1006.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  19. 22 CFR 1006.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  20. 34 CFR 85.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil judgment. 85.920 Section 85.920 Education Office...) Definitions § 85.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  1. 22 CFR 1508.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  2. 34 CFR 85.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 85.920 Section 85.920 Education Office...) Definitions § 85.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  3. 22 CFR 208.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Civil judgment. 208.920 Section 208.920 Foreign...) Definitions § 208.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  4. 22 CFR 1508.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  5. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and...) Definitions § 1404.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  6. 22 CFR 1508.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  7. 22 CFR 1006.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  8. 22 CFR 1508.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  9. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and...) Definitions § 1404.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  10. 22 CFR 1508.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  11. 22 CFR 1006.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  12. 2 CFR 180.915 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 180.915 Section 180.915... § 180.915 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  13. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and...) Definitions § 1404.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  14. 22 CFR 208.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 208.920 Section 208.920 Foreign...) Definitions § 208.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  15. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and...) Definitions § 1404.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  16. DISCUSSION ON THE EFFECTS OF MIDDLE-EAR DISEASE ON EFFICIENCY IN CIVIL AND MILITARY LIFE

    PubMed Central

    1928-01-01

    (1) Introductory.—(2) Symptoms and complications of middle-ear disease and their effects on efficiency.—(3) Service views on the disposal of men suffering from middle-ear disease.—(4) Comparison of the disability caused by middle-ear disease in civil and military life.—(5) Are the aural recruiting and invaliding standards of to-day too exacting?—(6) Aural disease in recruiting and invaliding—tables.—(7) Advantages of rigorous standards of recruiting.—(8) Attainment of aural efficiency in the Services.—(9) Is any relaxation of standards ever justifiable?—(10) Importance of civil and military co-operation. PMID:19986558

  17. Co-operation and conflict under hard and soft contracting regimes: case studies from England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper examines NHS secondary care contracting in England and Wales in a period which saw increasing policy divergence between the two systems. At face value, England was making greater use of market levers and utilising harder-edged service contracts incorporating financial penalties and incentives, while Wales was retreating from the 1990s internal market and emphasising cooperation and flexibility in the contracting process. But there were also cross-border spill-overs involving common contracting technologies and management cultures that meant that differences in on-the-ground contracting practices might be smaller than headline policy differences suggested. Methods The nature of real-world contracting behaviour was investigated by undertaking two qualitative case studies in England and two in Wales, each based on a local purchaser/provider network. The case studies involved ethnographic observations and interviews with staff in primary care trusts (PCTs) or local health boards (LHBs), NHS or Foundation trusts, and the overseeing Strategic Health Authority or NHS Wales regional office, as well as scrutiny of relevant documents. Results Wider policy differences between the two NHS systems were reflected in differing contracting frameworks, involving regional commissioning in Wales and commissioning by either a PCT, or co-operating pair of PCTs in our English case studies, and also in different oversight arrangements by higher tiers of the service. However, long-term relationships and trust between purchasers and providers had an important role in both systems when the financial viability of organisations was at risk. In England, the study found examples where both PCTs and trusts relaxed contractual requirements to assist partners faced with deficits. In Wales, news of plans to end the purchaser/provider split meant a return to less precisely-specified block contracts and a renewed concern to build cooperation between LHB and trust staff

  18. Facilitating large-scale implementation of evidence based health care: insider accounts from a co-operative inquiry.

    PubMed

    Waterman, Heather; Boaden, Ruth; Burey, Lorraine; Howells, Brook; Harvey, Gill; Humphreys, John; Rothwell, Katy; Spence, Michael

    2015-02-13

    Facilitators are known to be influential in the implementation of evidence-based health care (EBHC). However, little evidence exists on what it is that they do to support the implementation process. This research reports on how knowledge transfer associates (KTAs) working as part of the UK National Institute for Health Research 'Collaboration for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care' for Greater Manchester (GM CLAHRC) facilitated the implementation of EBHC across several commissioning and provider health care agencies. A prospective co-operative inquiry with eight KTAs was carried out comprising of 11 regular group meetings where they reflected critically on their experiences. Twenty interviews were also conducted with other members of the GM CLAHRC Implementation Team to gain their perspectives of the KTAs facilitation role and process. There were four phases to the facilitation of EBHC on a large scale: (1) Assisting with the decision on what EBHC to implement, in this phase, KTAs pulled together people and disparate strands of information to facilitate a decision on which EBHC should be implemented; (2) Planning of the implementation of EBHC, in which KTAs spent time gathering additional information and going between key people to plan the implementation; (3) Coordinating and implementing EBHC when KTAs recruited general practices and people for the implementation of EBHC; and (4) Evaluating the EBHC which required the KTAs to set up (new) systems to gather data for analysis. Over time, the KTAs demonstrated growing confidence and skills in aspects of facilitation: research, interpersonal communication, project management and change management skills. The findings provide prospective empirical data on the large scale implementation of EBHC in primary care and community based organisations focusing on resources and processes involved. Detailed evidence shows facilitation is context dependent and that 'one size does not fits all'. Co-operative inquiry

  19. Co-operation and conflict under hard and soft contracting regimes: case studies from England and Wales.

    PubMed

    Hughes, David; Allen, Pauline; Doheny, Shane; Petsoulas, Christina; Vincent-Jones, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines NHS secondary care contracting in England and Wales in a period which saw increasing policy divergence between the two systems. At face value, England was making greater use of market levers and utilising harder-edged service contracts incorporating financial penalties and incentives, while Wales was retreating from the 1990 s internal market and emphasising cooperation and flexibility in the contracting process. But there were also cross-border spill-overs involving common contracting technologies and management cultures that meant that differences in on-the-ground contracting practices might be smaller than headline policy differences suggested. The nature of real-world contracting behaviour was investigated by undertaking two qualitative case studies in England and two in Wales, each based on a local purchaser/provider network. The case studies involved ethnographic observations and interviews with staff in primary care trusts (PCTs) or local health boards (LHBs), NHS or Foundation trusts, and the overseeing Strategic Health Authority or NHS Wales regional office, as well as scrutiny of relevant documents. Wider policy differences between the two NHS systems were reflected in differing contracting frameworks, involving regional commissioning in Wales and commissioning by either a PCT, or co-operating pair of PCTs in our English case studies, and also in different oversight arrangements by higher tiers of the service. However, long-term relationships and trust between purchasers and providers had an important role in both systems when the financial viability of organisations was at risk. In England, the study found examples where both PCTs and trusts relaxed contractual requirements to assist partners faced with deficits. In Wales, news of plans to end the purchaser/provider split meant a return to less precisely-specified block contracts and a renewed concern to build cooperation between LHB and trust staff. The interdependency of local

  20. [Improving team-oriented co-operation between physicians and nursing staff--opening new opportunities with process orientation and extended nursing roles].

    PubMed

    Dahlgaard, Knut

    2010-01-01

    Co-ordination in terms of synergetic co-operation of the two professional groups is highly demanding and requires creative measures. Co-operation between doctors and nurses can be improved by an integrative organisational concept agreed-upon by the parties involved. The core elements of this KoPM model include jointly practised patient orientation, a process organisation approach to health care provision, successful communication as well as a process support framework. Another task that needs to be performed will be to refine this approach by improving communication efficiency, by employing qualification processes and by evaluating cooperation projects.

  1. 75 FR 5244 - Civil Penalties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-02

    ... Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended by the Debt Collection Improvement Act of... penalties and to foster compliance with the law, the Federal Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment Act... ``Act''), requires us and other Federal agencies to adjust civil penalties for inflation. Under...

  2. 75 FR 79978 - Civil Penalties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... the Federal Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990, as amended by the Debt Collection Improvement Act of 1996, which requires NHTSA to review and, as warranted, adjust penalties based on inflation... Federal Civil Monetary Penalty Inflation Adjustment Act of 1990 (28 U.S.C. 2461, Notes, Pub. L. 101-...

  3. Defense Support to Civil Authorities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-22

    Response Authority and Other Military Assistance to Civil Authority ( MACA ) [on-line pamphlet], The Army Lawyer (Charlottesville, VA: Judge Advocate...City Bombing: Immediate Response Authority and Other Military Assistance to Civil Authority ( MACA ). The Army Lawyer. [Charlottesville, VA]: Judge

  4. Environmental Ethics and Civil Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesilind, P. Aarne

    1987-01-01

    Traces the development of the civil engineering code of ethics. Points out that the code does have an enforceable provision that addresses the engineer's responsibility toward the environment. Suggests revisions to the code to accommodate the environmental impacts of civil engineering. (TW)

  5. Civil Engineering Technology Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland Community Coll., Farmington, MI. Office of Institutional Planning and Analysis.

    In 1991, a study was conducted by Oakland Community College (OCC) to evaluate the need for a proposed Civil Engineering Technology program. An initial examination of the literature focused on industry needs and the job market for civil engineering technicians. In order to gather information on local area employers' hiring practices and needs, a…

  6. Introducing Islamic Civilization: Course Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Reuben W., Ed.

    The syllabus reflects a course in Islamic civilization taught at the University of Chicago and includes the recommendations of participants at a conference on the problems of presenting such a course. The "civilization approach" offers a panoramic view of various related fields, affords a perspective on the problems of analyzing changes over time,…

  7. Introducing Islamic Civilization: Course Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Reuben W., Ed.

    The syllabus reflects a course in Islamic civilization taught at the University of Chicago and includes the recommendations of participants at a conference on the problems of presenting such a course. The "civilization approach" offers a panoramic view of various related fields, affords a perspective on the problems of analyzing changes over time,…

  8. Society of Reproductive Surgeons

    MedlinePlus

    The Society of Reproductive Surgeons Home About Us About SRS Mission Statement Officers The Role of Reproductive Surgeons For ... Fact Sheets and Booklets SRS is an affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below ...

  9. 76 FR 71431 - Civil Penalty Calculation Methodology

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-17

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Motor Carrier Safety Administration Civil Penalty Calculation Methodology AGENCY: Federal... its civil penalty methodology. Part of this evaluation includes a forthcoming explanation of the... methodology for calculation of certain civil penalties. To induce compliance with federal regulations,...

  10. Revised RCRA civil-penalty policy

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-10-26

    The directive gives guidance on how to calculate and document civil penalties for administrative and civil judicial proceedings at settlement. The directive supersedes OSWER Directive 9900.1, Final RCRA Civil Penalty Policy dated May 8, 1984.

  11. High speed civil transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogardus, Scott; Loper, Brent; Nauman, Chris; Page, Jeff; Parris, Rusty; Steinbach, Greg

    1990-01-01

    The design process of the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) combines existing technology with the expectation of future technology to create a Mach 3.0 transport. The HSCT was designed to have a range in excess of 6000 nautical miles and carry up to 300 passengers. This range will allow the HSCT to service the economically expanding Pacific Basin region. Effort was made in the design to enable the aircraft to use conventional airports with standard 12,000 foot runways. With a takeoff thrust of 250,000 pounds, the four supersonic through-flow engines will accelerate the HSCT to a cruise speed of Mach 3.0. The 679,000 pound (at takeoff) HSCT is designed to cruise at an altitude of 70,000 feet, flying above most atmospheric disturbances.

  12. A Cytotoxic, Co-operative Interaction Between Energy Deprivation and Glutamate Release From System xc− Mediates Aglycemic Neuronal Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Thorn, Trista L.; He, Yan; Jackman, Nicole A.; Lobner, Doug; Hewett, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The astrocyte cystine/glutamate antiporter (system xc−) contributes substantially to the excitotoxic neuronal cell death facilitated by glucose deprivation. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism by which this occurred. Using pure astrocyte cultures, as well as, mixed cortical cell cultures containing both neurons and astrocytes, we found that neither an enhancement in system xc− expression nor activity underlies the excitotoxic effects of aglycemia. In addition, using three separate bioassays, we demonstrate no change in the ability of glucose-deprived astrocytes—either cultured alone or with neurons—to remove glutamate from the extracellular space. Instead, we demonstrate that glucose-deprived cultures are 2 to 3 times more sensitive to the killing effects of glutamate or N-methyl-D-aspartate when compared with their glucose-containing controls. Hence, our results are consistent with the weak excitotoxic hypothesis such that a bioenergetic deficiency, which is measureable in our mixed but not astrocyte cultures, allows normally innocuous concentrations of glutamate to become excitotoxic. Adding to the burgeoning literature detailing the contribution of astrocytes to neuronal injury, we conclude that under our experimental paradigm, a cytotoxic, co-operative interaction between energy deprivation and glutamate release from astrocyte system xc− mediates aglycemic neuronal cell death. PMID:26553727

  13. The role of research in a technical assistance agency: the case of the 'German Agency for Technical Co-operation'.

    PubMed

    Horchler, S; Gerhardus, A; Schmidt-Ehry, G; Schmidt-Ehry, B; Korte, R; Mitra, S K; Sauerborn, R

    2004-11-01

    Technical assistance agencies have a sustainable impact on the health systems of the countries they are operating in. As well as policy-makers at the national level, technical assistance agencies see themselves confronted that their interventions should be based on evidence, usually meaning the results of research. This study has the aim to analyse role of research in the implementation of technical assistance. We sent a questionnaire to all health project managers of the 'German Agency for Technical Co-operation' and performed a qualitative case study in one of the health projects. Forty-seven of 80 (58.8%) of the questionnaires were completed and sent back. The managers considered publications of International Organisations (IOs), scientific articles and local research as most important for their work. The case study showed application problems in the daily work. Research use not only depends on the relevance of the data but also on analytical skills, linguistic barriers and technical access to research by the potential users. The role of knowledge and information management has to be clearly defined in an organisation of technical assistance. The specific needs at the different levels have to be analysed so that skills and resources can be allocated adequately.

  14. Effect of Oral Midazolam Premedication on Children’s Co-operation Before General Anesthesia in Pediatric Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Kaviani, Nasser; Shahtusi, Mina; Haj Norousali Tehrani, Maryam; Nazari, Sara

    2014-01-01

    Statement of the Problem: Premedication is expedient in reducing the psychological trauma from recalling the unpleasant pre-anesthetic phases, hence, inducing a trouble-free anesthesia. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of oral midazolam in co-operation of the subjects before general anesthesia and in recalling the pre-anesthetic phases, performed on children candidate for dental treatment under general anesthesia. Materials and Method: In this prospective clinical trial study, 62 healthy non-cooperative children, candidate for dental treatment under general anesthesia, were randomly divided into study and control groups. The children received 20ml orange juice, 20 minutes before starting the anesthesia. The juice of the test group contained 0.5mg/kg of midazolam and that of the control group included no medication. The induction and the maintenance process of anesthesia were similar in both groups. The manner of subjects when separated from parents, their cooperation during intravenous catheterization, and recalling the pre-anesthetic events were recorded. Data were analyzed by adopting chi-square and Mann-Whitney tests. Results: Most of the children in the test group had a comfortable separation from parents, restful IV catheterization and 90% of the subjects did not recall the pre-anesthetic events. Conclusion: Under the circumstances of this study, it could be concluded that 0.5mg/kg oral midazolam premedication is effective for comfortable separation of children from parents and restful IV catheterization and also forgetting the pre-anesthetic events. PMID:25191661

  15. Co-operative Bmp- and Fgf-signaling inputs convert skin wound healing to limb formation in urodele amphibians.

    PubMed

    Makanae, Aki; Mitogawa, Kazumasa; Satoh, Akira

    2014-12-01

    Urodele amphibians have remarkable organ regeneration capability, and their limb regeneration capability has been investigated as a representative phenomenon. In the early 19th century, nerves were reported to be an essential tissue for the successful induction of limb regeneration. Nerve substances that function in the induction of limb regeneration responses have long been sought. A new experimental system called the accessory limb model (ALM) has been established to identify the nerve factors. Skin wounding in urodele amphibians results in skin wound healing but never in limb induction. However, nerve deviation to the wounded skin induces limb formation in ALM. Thus, nerves can be considered to have the ability to transform skin wound healing to limb formation. In the present study, co-operative Bmp and Fgf application, instead of nerve deviation, to wounded skin transformed skin wound healing to limb formation in two urodele amphibians, axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and newt (Pleurodeles waltl). Our findings demonstrate that defined factors can induce homeotic transformation in postembryonic bodies of urodele amphibians. The combination of Bmp and Fgf(s) may contribute to the development of novel treatments for organ regeneration.

  16. Paying for outpatient care in rural China: cost escalation under China's New Co-operative Medical Scheme.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Wu, Xun

    2015-03-01

    China's New Co-operative Medical Scheme (NCMS), a government-subsidized health insurance programme, was launched in 2003 in response to deterioration in access to health services in rural areas. Initially designed to cover inpatient care, it has begun to expand its benefit package to cover outpatient care since 2007. The impacts of this initiative on outpatient care costs have raised growing concern, in particular regarding whether it has in fact reduced out-of-pocket (OOP) payments for services among rural participants. This study investigates the impacts on outpatient costs by analysing data from an individual-level longitudinal survey, the China Health and Nutrition Survey, for 2004 and 2009, years shortly before and after NCMS began coverage of outpatient services in 2007. Various health econometrics strategies were employed in the analysis of these data, including the Two-Part Model, the Heckman Selection Model and Propensity Score Matching with the Differences-in-Differences model, to estimate the effects of the 2007 NCMS initiative on per episode outpatient costs. We find that NCMS outpatient coverage starting in 2007 had little impact on reducing its participants' OOP payments for outpatient services. The new coverage may also have contributed to an observed increase in total per episode outpatient costs billed to the insured patients. This increase was more pronounced among village clinics and township health centres-the backbone of the health system for rural residents-than at county and municipal hospitals.

  17. How to create more supportive supervision for primary healthcare: lessons from Ngamiland district of Botswana: co-operative inquiry group.

    PubMed

    Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Mash, Robert; Wojczewski, Silvia; Kutalek, Ruth; Phaladze, Nthabiseng

    2016-01-01

    Supportive supervision is a way to foster performance, productivity, motivation, and retention of health workforce. Nevertheless there is a dearth of evidence of the impact and acceptability of supportive supervision in low- and middle-income countries. This article describes a participatory process of transforming the supervisory practice of district health managers to create a supportive environment for primary healthcare workers. The objective of the study was to explore how district health managers can change their practice to create a more supportive environment for primary healthcare providers. A facilitated co-operative inquiry group (CIG) was formed with Ngamiland health district managers. CIG belongs to the participatory action research paradigm and is characterised by a cyclic process of observation, reflection, planning, and action. The CIG went through three cycles between March 2013 and March 2014. Twelve district health managers participated in the inquiry group. The major insights and learning that emerged from the inquiry process included inadequate supervisory practice, perceptions of healthcare workers' experiences, change in the managers' supervision paradigm, recognition of the supervisors' inadequate supervisory skills, and barriers to supportive supervision. Finally, the group developed a 10-point consensus on what they had learnt regarding supportive supervision. Ngamiland health district managers have come to appreciate the value of supportive supervision and changed their management style to be more supportive of their subordinates. They also developed a consensus on supportive supervision that could be adapted for use nationally. Supportive supervision should be prioritised at all levels of the health system, and it should be adequately resourced.

  18. Site selection and characterization for historic low-level radioactive wastes in Ontario, Co-operative Siting Process

    SciTech Connect

    Paktunc, A.D.

    1993-12-31

    The Co-operative Siting Process is a non-confrontational way to site a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) management facility in Ontario. The facility will be designed to accommodate approximately 880,000 m{sup 3} of LLRW. Four sets of general facility concepts, appropriate for the physical and chemical characteristics of the wastes and the general site conditions, are being considered. These include engineered mounds, shallow burial in trenches, burial in open pit with previous surround, and intermediate depth rock disposal concepts. The communities interested in offering a site are located in the Canadian Shield where the topography is dominated by rolling hills with reliefs of up to 50 meters and hydrogeological conditions are primarily controlled by fractures in the rock and by the types and distribution of glacial sediments. Climatic conditions can be classified as humid-continental. The objective of site characterization activity is to assess the suitability of potential sites for long-term containment of LLRW in the geosphere and their safe isolation from the biosphere. An initial phase involves exploratory studies designed to reduce larger areas to smaller areas and eventually to candidate sites. The second phase involves site-specific studies designed to maximize the changes of identifying more than one site for different facility requirements and complying with the regulatory requirements and performance expectations.

  19. Zika virus evades interferon-mediated antiviral response through the co-operation of multiple nonstructural proteins in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yaoxing; Liu, Qingxiang; Zhou, Jie; Xie, Weihong; Chen, Cheng; Wang, Zefang; Yang, Haitao; Cui, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) serves as the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Inhibition of IFN-triggered signaling cascade by Zika virus (ZIKV) plays a critical role for ZIKV to evade antiviral responses from host cells. Here we demonstrate that ZIKV nonstructural proteins NS1, NS4B and NS2B3 inhibit the induction of IFN and downstream IFN-stimulated genes through diverse strategies. NS1 and NS4B of ZIKV inhibit IFNβ signaling at TANK-binding kinase 1 level, whereas NS2B-NS3 of ZIKV impairs JAK-STAT signaling pathway by degrading Jak1 and reduces virus-induced apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, co-operation of NS1, NS4B and NS2B3 further enhances viral infection by blocking IFN-induced autophagic degradation of NS2B3. Hence, our study reveals a novel antagonistic system employing multiple ZIKV nonstructural proteins in restricting the innate antiviral responses.

  20. Zika virus evades interferon-mediated antiviral response through the co-operation of multiple nonstructural proteins in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yaoxing; Liu, Qingxiang; Zhou, Jie; Xie, Weihong; Chen, Cheng; Wang, Zefang; Yang, Haitao; Cui, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) serves as the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Inhibition of IFN-triggered signaling cascade by Zika virus (ZIKV) plays a critical role for ZIKV to evade antiviral responses from host cells. Here we demonstrate that ZIKV nonstructural proteins NS1, NS4B and NS2B3 inhibit the induction of IFN and downstream IFN-stimulated genes through diverse strategies. NS1 and NS4B of ZIKV inhibit IFNβ signaling at TANK-binding kinase 1 level, whereas NS2B-NS3 of ZIKV impairs JAK–STAT signaling pathway by degrading Jak1 and reduces virus-induced apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, co-operation of NS1, NS4B and NS2B3 further enhances viral infection by blocking IFN-induced autophagic degradation of NS2B3. Hence, our study reveals a novel antagonistic system employing multiple ZIKV nonstructural proteins in restricting the innate antiviral responses. PMID:28373913

  1. Co-operative DNA binding by GAGA transcription factor requires the conserved BTB/POZ domain and reorganizes promoter topology.

    PubMed Central

    Katsani, K R; Hajibagheri, M A; Verrijzer, C P

    1999-01-01

    The POZ domain is a conserved protein-protein interaction motif present in a variety of transcription factors involved in development, chromatin remodelling and human cancers. Here, we study the role of the POZ domain of the GAGA transcription factor in promoter recognition. Natural target promoters for GAGA typically contain multiple GAGA-binding elements. Our results show that the POZ domain mediates strong co-operative binding to multiple sites but inhibits binding to single sites. Protein cross-linking and gel filtration chromatography experiments established that the POZ domain is required for GAGA oligomerization into higher order complexes. Thus, GAGA oligomerization increases binding specificity by selecting only promoters with multiple sites. Electron microscopy revealed that GAGA binds to multiple sites as a large oligomer and induces bending of the promoter DNA. Our results indicate a novel mode of DNA binding by GAGA, in which a large GAGA complex binds multiple GAGA elements that are spread out over a region of a few hundred base pairs. We suggest a model in which the promoter DNA is wrapped around a GAGA multimer in a conformation that may exclude normal nucleosome formation. PMID:9927429

  2. Sympathetic control of skeletal muscle function: possible co-operation between noradrenaline and neuropeptide Y in rabbit jaw muscles.

    PubMed

    Grassi, C; Deriu, F; Roatta, S; Santarelli, R; Azzena, G B; Passatore, M

    1996-07-19

    Stimulation of the cervical sympathetic nerve at 10/s increases by 12.9 +/- 0.7% peak tension of maximal twitches in the directly stimulated jaw muscles and markedly depresses (41.6 +/- 1.3%) the tonic vibration reflex (TVR) elicited in the same muscles by vibration of the mandible. Both effects are not significantly influenced by administration of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. When both alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors are blocked, sympathetic stimulation induces a very small increase in twitch tension (3.8 +/- 0.7%), while no detectable change in the TVR is observed. Close arterial injection of alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine mimics the effects induced by sympathetic stimulation on twitch tension and TVR, dose-dependently. The noradrenaline co-transmitter neuropeptide Y also produces a long-lasting, dose-dependent increase in the twitch tension which is unaffected by blockade of adrenergic receptors as well as of the neuromuscular junctions. Contribution of neuropeptide Y to the sympathetically-induced reduction of the stretch reflex is not clearly demonstrated. These data suggest that co-operation between noradrenaline and neuropeptide Y may be effective in determining sympathetic modulation of skeletal muscle function.

  3. Comparison of approaches to rheumatic fever surveillance across Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development countries.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Jane; Baker, Michael G; Pierse, Nevil; Carapetis, Jonathan

    2015-11-01

    Rheumatic fever (RF) prevention, control and surveillance are increasingly important priorities in New Zealand (NZ) and Australia. We compared RF surveillance across Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) member countries to assist in benchmarking and identifying useful approaches. A structured literature review was completed using Medline and PubMed databases, investigating RF incidence rates. Surveillance methods were noted. Health department websites were searched to assess whether addressing RF was a Government priority. Of 32 OECD member countries, nine reported RF incidence rates after 1999. Highest rates were seen in indigenous Australians, and NZ Māori and Pacific peoples. NZ and Australian surveillance systems are highly developed, with notification and register data compiled regularly. Only these two Governments appeared to prioritise RF surveillance and control. Other countries relied mainly on hospitalisation data. There is a lack of standardisation across incidence rate calculations. Israel and Italy may have relatively high RF rates among developed countries. RF lingers in specific populations in OECD member countries. At a minimum, RF registers are needed in higher incidence countries. Countries with low RF incidences should periodically review surveillance information to ensure rates are not increasing. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2015 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  4. Unemployment and HIV mortality in the countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development: 1981–2009

    PubMed Central

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Williams, Callum; Zeltner, Thomas; Atun, Rifat

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine an association between unemployment rates and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mortality in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Design Multivariate regression analysis. Participants OECD member states. Setting OECD. Main outcome measures World Health Organization HIV mortality. Results Between 1981 and 2009, a 1% increase in unemployment was associated with an increase in HIV mortality in the OECD (coefficient for men 0.711, 0.334–1.089, p = 0.0003; coefficient for women 0.166, 0.071–0.260, p = 0.0007). Time lag analysis showed a significant increase in HIV mortality for up to two years after rises in unemployment: p = 0.0008 for men and p = 0.0030 for women in year 1, p = 0.0067 for men and p = 0.0403 for women in year 2. Conclusions Rises in unemployment are associated with increased HIV mortality. Economic fiscal policy may impact upon population health. Policy discussions should take into consideration potential health outcomes. PMID:28748096

  5. Unemployment and HIV mortality in the countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development: 1981-2009.

    PubMed

    Maruthappu, Mahiben; Zhou, Charlie; Williams, Callum; Zeltner, Thomas; Atun, Rifat

    2017-07-01

    To determine an association between unemployment rates and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) mortality in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD). Multivariate regression analysis. OECD member states. OECD. World Health Organization HIV mortality. Between 1981 and 2009, a 1% increase in unemployment was associated with an increase in HIV mortality in the OECD (coefficient for men 0.711, 0.334-1.089, p = 0.0003; coefficient for women 0.166, 0.071-0.260, p = 0.0007). Time lag analysis showed a significant increase in HIV mortality for up to two years after rises in unemployment: p = 0.0008 for men and p = 0.0030 for women in year 1, p = 0.0067 for men and p = 0.0403 for women in year 2. Rises in unemployment are associated with increased HIV mortality. Economic fiscal policy may impact upon population health. Policy discussions should take into consideration potential health outcomes.

  6. Civil Code, 11 December 1987.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    Article 162 of this Mexican Code provides, among other things, that "Every person has the right freely, responsibly, and in an informed fashion to determine the number and spacing of his or her children." When a marriage is involved, this right is to be observed by the spouses "in agreement with each other." The civil codes of the following states contain the same provisions: 1) Baja California (Art. 159 of the Civil Code of 28 April 1972 as revised in Decree No. 167 of 31 January 1974); 2) Morelos (Art. 255 of the Civil Code of 26 September 1949 as revised in Decree No. 135 of 29 December 1981); 3) Queretaro (Art. 162 of the Civil Code of 29 December 1950 as revised in the Act of 9 January 1981); 4) San Luis Potosi (Art. 147 of the Civil Code of 24 March 1946 as revised in 13 June 1978); Sinaloa (Art. 162 of the Civil Code of 18 June 1940 as revised in Decree No. 28 of 14 October 1975); 5) Tamaulipas (Art. 146 of the Civil Code of 21 November 1960 as revised in Decree No. 20 of 30 April 1975); 6) Veracruz-Llave (Art. 98 of the Civil Code of 1 September 1932 as revised in the Act of 30 December 1975); and 7) Zacatecas (Art. 253 of the Civil Code of 9 February 1965 as revised in Decree No. 104 of 13 August 1975). The Civil Codes of Puebla and Tlaxcala provide for this right only in the context of marriage with the spouses in agreement. See Art. 317 of the Civil Code of Puebla of 15 April 1985 and Article 52 of the Civil Code of Tlaxcala of 31 August 1976 as revised in Decree No. 23 of 2 April 1984. The Family Code of Hidalgo requires as a formality of marriage a certification that the spouses are aware of methods of controlling fertility, responsible parenthood, and family planning. In addition, Article 22 the Civil Code of the Federal District provides that the legal capacity of natural persons is acquired at birth and lost at death; however, from the moment of conception the individual comes under the protection of the law, which is valid with respect to the

  7. "At the Head of the Aboriginal Remnant": Cherokee Construction of a "Civilized" Indian Identity during the Lakota Crisis of 1876

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelton, Paul

    2003-01-01

    In 1876 the bilingual Cherokee diplomat and lawyer William Penn Adair expressed great pride in the level of "civilization" that his nation had achieved. Defining civilization as commercial agriculture, literacy, Christianity, and republican government, Adair believed that his society has reached a sophistication that equaled and in certain areas…

  8. World History and Geography: Ancient Civilizations. Course Models for the History-Social Science Framework: Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Ralph, Ed.; Brooks, Diane

    This document outlines ancient civilization teaching models for California sixth graders. It is another response to teachers' requests for practical assistance in implementing the "History-Social Science Framework." Units include: (1) Early Humankind and the Development of Human Societies; (2) The Beginnings of Civilization in the Near…

  9. World History and Geography: Ancient Civilizations. Course Models for the History-Social Science Framework: Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Ralph, Ed.; Brooks, Diane

    This document outlines ancient civilization teaching models for California sixth graders. It is another response to teachers' requests for practical assistance in implementing the "History-Social Science Framework." Units include: (1) Early Humankind and the Development of Human Societies; (2) The Beginnings of Civilization in the Near…

  10. 22 CFR 42.24 - Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption and the Intercountry Adoption Act... Limitations of INA 201 and 202 § 42.24 Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and...

  11. 22 CFR 42.24 - Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption and the Intercountry Adoption Act... Limitations of INA 201 and 202 § 42.24 Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and...

  12. 22 CFR 42.24 - Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption and the Intercountry Adoption Act... Limitations of INA 201 and 202 § 42.24 Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and...

  13. Example of International Co-Operation in the Frame of the Project Phare (TEMPUS) in Innovations in Teaching of Environmental Hydrogeology in Engineering Education in the Czech Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grmela, Arnost; Rapantova, Nadia

    The international TEMPUS (Trans-European Co-operating and Mobility Scheme for Higher Education between Central/Eastern Europe and European Union) project lasted from 1995-1997. In the framework of TEMPUS, a material and knowledge background was developed in order to ensure the education of the branch Geological Engineering with specialization in…

  14. Going Boldly Into the Future: A Series of Case Studies of Co-Operative Research Centres and Their Relationships with the VET Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrier, Fran; Trood, Clifford; Whittingham, Karen

    This document presents case studies of 10 cooperative research centers (CRCs) across Australia and their relationships with the vocational education and training (VET) sector. The CRCs profiled in the case studies are as follows: Co-operative Research Centre for Sustainable Rice Production; Cast Alloy and Solidification Technology Co-operative…

  15. Perceptions of Student Teachers towards the Effectiveness of Co-Operating Teachers, School Principals and University Supervisors Participating in the Teacher Education Program in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albasheer, Akram; Khasawneh, Samer; Nabah, Abdallah Abu; Hailat, Salah

    2008-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine perceptions of student teachers regarding the effectiveness of university supervisors, school principals and co-operating teachers participating in the teacher education program at the Hashemite University in Jordan. A total of 120 student teachers participated in the study by completing the…

  16. OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development): A Guide to Publications and Data Available in the Libraries of Duke University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basefsky, Stuart, Comp.

    Designed to make Duke University's collection of OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development) publications and data more readily accessible, this guide is divided into the following sections: Introduction to OECD and Its Publications; General References about OECD and Its Activities; Indexes and Other Sources for Accessing OECD…

  17. Going Boldly Into the Future: A Series of Case Studies of Co-Operative Research Centres and Their Relationships with the VET Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrier, Fran; Trood, Clifford; Whittingham, Karen

    This document presents case studies of 10 cooperative research centers (CRCs) across Australia and their relationships with the vocational education and training (VET) sector. The CRCs profiled in the case studies are as follows: Co-operative Research Centre for Sustainable Rice Production; Cast Alloy and Solidification Technology Co-operative…

  18. 22 CFR 42.24 - Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption and the Intercountry Adoption Act... Limitations of INA 201 and 202 § 42.24 Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co...

  19. 22 CFR 42.24 - Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption and the Intercountry Adoption Act... Limitations of INA 201 and 202 § 42.24 Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co...

  20. 'Sites' of resistance: alternative websites and state-society relations.

    PubMed

    Ho, K C; Baber, Zaheer; Khondker, Habibul

    2002-03-01

    Much attention has been focused on Singapore's attempt to use information technology to build a knowledge-based economy. This paper examines the implications of the unintended consequences of the Internet in the restructuring of state and society relations in Singapore. We use the data on Singapore-based and Singapore-related websites to show (a) the diversity of positions expressed by civil society organizations, fringe groups and even mainstream segments of society; (b) the negotiation process between the state and civil society over various rights and how developments in cyber-space have implications for 'reality'; (c) how censorship and content regulation itself is a more complex multi-dimensional process such that while local politics is regulated, the multi-ethnic character of the resident population has led to greater religious tolerance such that religious groups banned in some countries have found a safe haven in Singapore and have used the city-state as a strategic Internet node.