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Sample records for co-operation civil society

  1. Challenge and co-operation: civil society activism for access to HIV treatment in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Ford, Nathan; Wilson, David; Cawthorne, Paul; Kumphitak, Aree; Kasi-Sedapan, Siriras; Kaetkaew, Suntharaporn; Teemanka, Saengsri; Donmon, Boripat; Preuanbuapan, Chalerm

    2009-03-01

    Civil society has been a driving force behind efforts to increase access to treatment in Thailand. A focus on HIV medicines brought civil society and non-governmental and government actors together to fight for a single cause, creating a platform for joint action on practical issues to improve care for people with HIV/AIDS (PHA) within the public health system. The Thai Network of People with HIV/AIDS, in partnership with other actors, has provided concrete support for patients and for the health system as a whole; its efforts have contributed significantly to the availability of affordable generic medicines, early treatment for opportunistic infections, and an informed and responsible approach towards antiretroviral treatment that is critical to good adherence and treatment success. This change in perception of PHA from 'passive receiver' to 'co-provider' of health care has led to improved acceptance and support within the healthcare system. Today, most PHA in Thailand can access treatment, and efforts have shifted to supporting care for excluded populations.

  2. Material civilization: things and society.

    PubMed

    Dant, Tim

    2006-06-01

    This paper argues that although classical sociology has largely overlooked the importance of social relations with the material world in shaping the form of society, Braudel's concept of 'material civilization' is a useful way to begin to understand the sociological significance of this relationship. The limitations of Braudel's historical and general concept can be partially overcome with Elias's analysis of the connection between 'technization' and 'civilization' that allows for both a civilizing and a de-civilizing impact of emergent forms of material relation that both lengthen and shorten the chains of interdependence between the members of a society. It is suggested that the concept of the 'morality of things' employed by a number of commentators is useful in summarizing the civilizing effects of material objects and addressing their sociological significance. From the sociology of consumption the idea of materiality as a sign of social relationships can be drawn, and from the sociology of technology the idea of socio-technical systems and actor-networks can contribute to the understanding of material civilization. It is argued that the concept of 'material capital' can usefully summarize the variable social value of objects but to understand the complexity of material civilization as it unfolds in everyday life, an analysis of 'material interaction' is needed. Finally the paper suggests some initial themes and issues apparent in contemporary society that the sociological study of material civilization might address; the increased volume, functional complexity and material specificity of objects and the increased social complexity, autonomy and substitutability that is entailed. A theory of 'material civilization' is the first step in establishing a sociology of objects.

  3. [Civil bioethics in pluralistics societies].

    PubMed

    Cortina, A

    2000-01-01

    The author examines how Bioethics should be approached in a pluralist society. She argues that through the gradual discovery of shared ethical values and principles for judging which practices are humanizing and which or not, ever-more dense civil Bioethics helps bring out--in contrast to relativism and subjectivism--an ethical intersubjectiveness, the fundaments of which should be addressed by moral philosophy if it hopes to fulfill one of its main tasks.

  4. Civil Society Participation at CONFINTEA VI

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddad, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    This article analyzes the participation of civil society in the Sixth International Conference on Adult Education held in Belem do Para, Brazil, 1-4 December 2009. As a foundation, the discussion first illuminates the important role that civil society in general plays in democratic issues and the relation between the state and society followed by…

  5. Remaking Public Spaces for Civil Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranson, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    The collective action predicaments of the time require citizens to participate in remaking the governance of civil society so that they can become engaged and cooperate together. Can citizens become makers of civil society? This article draws upon Hannah Arendt's "On Revolution" to provide a theory of remaking in which citizens come together to…

  6. Universities, the Social Sciences, and Civil Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pesmazoglou, Stephanos

    1999-01-01

    Discussion of the university's role in contributing to a civil society offers examples from the recent history of Yugoslavia showing that universities have frequently contributed to chauvinism, intolerance, racism, and ethnic cleansing. Urges institutions of higher education to foster a civil society by emphasizing: (1) an understanding of the…

  7. Civil Society in Nigeria: Reasons for Ineffectiveness

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    why the Nigerian state, through its democratic system , has not been able to meet reasonable expectations of good governance. While the country suffers...argues that the state responds to civil society. Civil society, then, is the tool that shapes state behavior. Thus, the question is why Nigerian civil...number of theories are posited on the methods, tools , and elements required to engender good governance: parliamentary development, a free press

  8. Beyond strong and weak: rethinking postdictatorship civil societies.

    PubMed

    Riley, Dylan; Fernández, Juan J

    2014-09-01

    What is the impact of dictatorships on postdictatorial civil societies? Bottom-up theories suggest that totalitarian dictatorships destroy civil society while authoritarian ones allow for its development. Top-down theories of civil society suggest that totalitarianism can create civil societies while authoritarianism is unlikely to. This article argues that both these perspectives suffer from a one-dimensional understanding of civil society that conflates strength and autonomy. Accordingly we distinguish these two dimensions and argue that totalitarian dictatorships tend to create organizationally strong but heteronomous civil societies, while authoritarian ones tend to create relatively autonomous but organizationally weak civil societies. We then test this conceptualization by closely examining the historical connection between dictatorship and civil society development in Italy (a posttotalitarian case) and Spain (a postauthoritarian one). Our article concludes by reflecting on the implications of our argument for democratic theory, civil society theory, and theories of regime variation.

  9. Measuring Religion in Global Civil Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bush, Evelyn L.

    2007-01-01

    This article illustrates two conceptual and methodological problems that interfere with the accurate identification and measurement of religious mobilization in global civil society. First, data used to study the organizational composition of global culture contain a selection bias that favors organizations within an elite stratum of the world…

  10. Civil society, health, and social exclusion in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Schurmann, Anna T; Mahmud, Simeen

    2009-08-01

    Civil society has the potential to have a positive impact on social exclusion and health equity through active monitoring and increased accountability. This paper examines the role of civil society in Bangladesh to understand why this potential has not been realized. Looking at two models of civil society action-participation in decentralized public-sector service provision and academic think-tank data analysis-this analysis examines the barriers to positive civil society input into public policy decision-making. The role of non-governmental organizations, political, cultural and economic factors, and the influence of foreign bilateral and multilateral donors are considered. The paper concludes that, with a few exceptions, civil society in Bangladesh replicates the structural inequalities of society at large.

  11. The Politics of Adult Education: State, Economy and Civil Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Mark

    2001-01-01

    Examines the idea of civil society, comparing the Marxist and post-Marxist definitions of it. Discusses the political agendas of socialism and radical democracy and their impact on adult education. (Contains 59 references.) (SK)

  12. The Engagement of Older People in Civil Society Organizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principi, Andrea; Chiatti, Carlos; Lamura, Giovanni; Frerichs, Frerich

    2012-01-01

    This article reviews recent international literature on the opportunities and restrictions experienced by older people to act as volunteers in civil society organizations. Our aim was to develop a conceptual framework applicable to the European ageing society. This aim was pursued through a computerized database search focused on studies analyzing…

  13. Higher Education and Civil Society: Compatibility Re-Examined

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khatun, Mahmuda

    2012-01-01

    Last couple of decades, some developed countries emphasized to develop civil society in developing countries. The main goals were to promote democratic norms and values among citizens who will not be thinking about democratic society otherwise. To establish democratic norms and values, many view that higher education is necessary. The relationship…

  14. More Participation, Happier Society? A Comparative Study of Civil Society and the Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Claire; Pichler, Florian

    2009-01-01

    A "good society" has recently been portrayed as one in which citizens engage in voluntary associations to foster democratic processes. Arguably, such a good society is considered as one where people are content with their own lives as well as public life. We consider whether participation in civil society leads to more satisfied…

  15. Environmental Protest and Civil Society in China

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    The leadership of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) appears to have conceded that environmental issues are an area in which people may publicly...protested, and whether they have affected Chinese society and politics. Due to an inability to access primary sources on Chinese protests, this thesis

  16. Curriculum and Civil Society in Afghanistan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Adele

    2009-01-01

    Although research has traditionally discussed the ways in which societies in conflict develop educational practices, only recently have scholars begun to examine the role of education in creating or sustaining conflict. In Afghanistan, changing regimes have had an impact on state-sanctioned curricula over the past fifty years, drastically altering…

  17. The politics of engagement between Islam and the secular state: ambivalences of 'civil society'.

    PubMed

    Turam, Berna

    2004-06-01

    The paper reveals contemporary transformations of the interaction between Islam and secular states from opposition to engagement. In-depth ethnographic evidence challenges the predominant juxtaposition of Islam against the secular state. Following micro-sites of interaction between the Gülen movement and the state from Turkey to Kazakhstan, my fieldwork revealed a continuum of engagements between them. The paper analyses the engagements ranging from contestation and negotiation to co-operation. The case illustrates the extent to which scholarly interest in opposition and clash has left a wide-ranging variety of state-Islam interaction understudied with regard to civil society. It also reveals the conditions under which effective Islamic horizontal organizations have provided the platforms of vertical engagements with the secular states. The major argument of the paper is that both civil and uncivil outcomes in the Muslim world are primarily shaped by the nature of state-Islam interaction. The evidence suggests that the key to understanding the relationship between Islam and civil society is the state.

  18. Civil society: a critical new advocate for vaccination in Europe.

    PubMed

    Laurent-Ledru, Vanina; Thomson, Angus; Monsonego, Joseph

    2011-01-17

    The vaccinology landscape has changed, with national authorities now being increasingly accountable to new stakeholders such as health insurers, regional regulatory bodies, the media, and civil society. Here, we discuss how civil society organisations (CSOs), such as patient and women's groups, have become important drivers in the introduction and sustainability of new vaccination programs. This shift in public implication in vaccine policy has been well illustrated in the recent introduction of human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination in Europe. Patient and women's groups which were traditionally focused on advocacy of treatments have also become advocates for prevention with the advent of HPV vaccination. Civil society advocacy at the European level supported key resolutions and white papers which in turn informed national recommendations on cervical cancer vaccination. CSOs were also active at the national level, supporting national policy makers. These organisations may bring innovative and effective new approaches to communication on vaccination benefits, using public events, celebrities and various social media. Working with experts, CSOs can also be an important bridge from the science to the lay public. This may provide a vital counterbalance to media hype and antivaccination groups, although CSOs may also be active and vocal opponents of immunization. The successful implementation and sustainability of future vaccination programs against infections such as HIV will be dependent upon the active participation of civil society to inform, to reassure and to maintain public trust.

  19. NGOs, Civil Society, and Development: Is There a Third Way?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klees, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    For more than a decade, there has been talk by politicians, academics, and others of a "third way," referring to means and principles of social organization other than the State and the market. Most of this discussion about a third way for development focuses on the roles that can be played by NGOs and other elements of civil society. In this…

  20. Building A Culture Of Peace For A Civil Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foo, Sue Fan, Ed.; Starlin, Clay M., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    "Building a Culture of Peace for a Civil Society" consists of papers from scholars from around the world including: Canada, India, Japan, Nigeria, Philippines, Thailand, Turkey and the United States. This volume includes selected papers and lectures delivered at the 12th World Conference on Education of the World Council of Curriculum…

  1. 78 FR 4189 - Advisory Committee on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue With Civil Society

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-18

    ... Committee on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue With Civil Society ACTION: Notice of meeting... on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue with Civil Society will convene in Washington, DC on... strategies for engagement with, and protection of, civil society worldwide. The objective of this meeting...

  2. 77 FR 25780 - Advisory Committee on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue With Civil Society

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... Committee on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue With Civil Society ACTION: Notice of meeting... on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue with Civil Society will convene in Washington, DC on... strategies for engagement with, and protection of, civil society worldwide. ] The objective of this...

  3. The Case of Palestinian Civil Society in Israel: Islam, Civil Society, and Educational Activism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbaria, Ayman K.; Mustafa, Muhanad

    2014-01-01

    This article examines the educational activism of two Arab civil organizations in Israel: the Follow-Up Committee on Arab Education (FUCAE) and the Eqraa Association (Eqraa). On the one hand, it explores the possibilities and limitations of the involvement of the FUCAE in the state's Arab education system, as a secular organization that is heavily…

  4. From disaster to sustainable civil society: the Kobe experience.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Rajib; Goda, Katsuihciro

    2004-03-01

    Nine years after the Kobe earthquake in Japan, social issues are still prominent, and the rehabilitation process is still ongoing. The earthquake caused two major changes in Japanese society: an increase in voluntary and non-government activities, and the enhancement of cooperation between local government and the residents' association. People's participation in the decision-making process was a significant achievement. To sustain the efforts generated after the earthquake, the Kobe Action Plan was formulated and tested in different disaster scenarios. The current study suggests that civil societies in urban areas are sustainable if, first, the activities related to daily services are provided by the resident's associations; and second, these are linked to economic incentives. Leadership plays a crucial role in collective decision-making. Creation of the support system is essential for long-term sustainability of civil-society activities. These observations are exemplified in the case study in Nishi Suma, one of the worst-affected areas in the Kobe city.

  5. 76 FR 60113 - Advisory Committee on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue With Civil Society

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-28

    ... Committee on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue With Civil Society ACTION: Notice of meeting... (FACA), the Advisory Committee on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue with Civil Society will... formulation of U.S. policies, proposals, and strategies for engagement with, and protection of, civil...

  6. Childrens mental health and civil society in the Gaza strip.

    PubMed

    Thirkell, Lucy

    2012-09-01

    The Gaza Strip, with a population of 1.7 million, over half of whom are under 18 years old, has existed in a state of ongoing conflict and containment for years, most notably since its closure in 2007. There is much concern for the mental health of the vast young generation who have little memory of other circumstances of existence, and even less exposure to the outside world. Their society forms the site of direct conflict and social destruction pertaining to untreated stress among the adults. However, leaving the social realm for the institutional for mental health treatment carries strong taboo, especially for adults. Civil society expert organisations offering a range of mental health work primarily pertaining to childrens social development can bypass some of this taboo and can also intervene at their schools and in their families, and may be most strategically located as social rather than institutional actors. Empowering the youth and seeking to strengthen Gazan society through them and for them causes some friction with the local government. However, despite the cultural and political challenges of mental health treatment for children within the Gaza Strip, the wider fact remains that however treated and psychosocially rehabilitated, society is predictably the site of renewed trauma in the short term and foreseeable future, enmeshing the mental health of its future generation inseparably with the international politics it inhabits.

  7. Crowding-in: how Indian civil society organizations began mobilizing around climate change.

    PubMed

    Ylä-Anttila, Tuomas; Swarnakar, Pradip

    2017-03-22

    This paper argues that periodic waves of crowding-in to 'hot' issue fields are a recurring feature of how globally networked civil society organizations operate, especially in countries of the Global South. We elaborate on this argument through a study of Indian civil society mobilization around climate change. Five key mechanisms contribute to crowding-in processes: (1) the expansion of discursive opportunities; (2) the event effects of global climate change conferences; (3) the network effects created by expanding global civil society networks; (4) the adoption and innovation of action repertoires; and (5) global pressure effects creating new opportunities for civil society. Our findings contribute to the world society literature, with an account of the social mechanisms through which global institutions and political events affect national civil societies, and to the social movements literature by showing that developments in world society are essential contributors to national mobilization processes.

  8. Making research matter: a civil society perspective on health research.

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, David; Labonte, Ronald; Baum, Fran; Chopra, Mickey

    2004-01-01

    Complex global public health challenges such as the rapidly widening health inequalities, and unprecedented emergencies such as the pandemic of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) demand a reappraisal of existing priorities in health policies, expenditure and research. Research can assist in mounting an effective response, but will require increased emphasis on health determinants at both the national and global levels, as well as health systems research and broad-based and effective public health initiatives. Civil society organizations (CSOs) are already at the forefront of such research. We suggest that there are at least three ways in which the participation of CSOs in research can be increased: namely, influencing commissioning and priority-setting; becoming involved in the review process and in conducting research; and through formal partnerships between communities and universities that link CSOs with academic researchers. PMID:15643797

  9. Reasons to Co-Operate: Co-Operative Solutions for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The NASUWT's landmark agreement with the Schools Co-operative Society has provided a new spur to co-operation, collaboration and collegiality in schools. Against a background of rapid and radical changes to the education landscape, co-operative schools are viewed by many as a means to maintaining public service ethos and values in education. The…

  10. Civil Society, Citizenship and Learning. Bochum Studies in International Adult Education, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bron, Agnieszka, Ed.; Schemmann, Michael, Ed.

    This second volume of the Bochum Studies in International Adult Education presents a variety of different perspectives on the topics of citizenship and civil society. Its goal is to give an overview of the European discourse on citizenship and civil society and on the discourse in some selected countries. Part I is comprised of the first of 14…

  11. The Political Economy of Civil Society: Implications for Adult and Community Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Mark

    Adult education theory and practice has long been involved in identifying spaces where counter-hegemonic learning can take place. Civil society is regarded as the site par-excellence for providing space in which to learn free from power and domination and from the state and economy. Another dimension to the recent focus on civil society as a site…

  12. Building a Civil Society: A New Role for the Human Sciences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piper, Martha C.

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that economic well-being rests on a thriving civil society. Discusses lines of inquiry in the human sciences necessary to building a civil society in Canada: (1) enabling individuals to better understand themselves, their values, and their roles as citizens; (2) defining Canadian identity and role as global citizen; and (3) informing the…

  13. Non-Formal Education and Civil Society in Post-Soviet Russia: What Is the Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, W. John; Kliucharev, Grigori A.

    2011-01-01

    The article describes collaborative research into the relationship between non-formal education and civil society in post-Soviet Russia. It shows how through social survey data and case studies of non-governmental organisations (NGOs) and other civil society organisations (CSOs), using a combination of social science perspectives, much can be…

  14. HIV, sex work, and civil society in China.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, Joan

    2011-12-01

    Harm reduction programs for sex workers have been hampered by the prioritization of law enforcement over AIDS prevention. For example, the April 2010 "strike-hard" campaign against prostitution in Beijing, during which bars, nightclubs, saunas, and karaoke bars were raided, created an atmosphere that critically impeded human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) outreach activities for sex workers. In China, criminalization has limited the growth of a coherent and cohesive set of nongovernmental organization (NGO) actors working with sex workers to prevent HIV infection. Compared with other risk groups for HIV sexual transmission, such as men who have sex with men, the NGO community for sex workers is fragmented and poorly coordinated with government efforts, and basic rights for sex workers are often violated. This article examines civil society groups working on AIDS prevention and care for female sex workers in China and reviews constraints to their operations. China's HIV prevention programs for sex workers are compared with sex worker HIV prevention in other Asian states where more well-developed NGOs exist and criminalization has been better balanced with harm reduction approaches, and recommendations are offered on improving China's policies and programs.

  15. Using global health initiatives to strengthen health systems: a civil society perspective.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Jennifer; Russell, Asia; Baker, Brook; Kayongo, Alice; Wanjiku, Esther; Davis, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Research into the effects of global health initiatives (GHIs) on health systems has largely left out the viewpoints and contributions of civil society. This study details civil society's perspective regarding the effects of two GHIs, the US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (GFATM), on country health systems and the added value of civil society interacting with GHIs to strengthen health systems. The study employed qualitative data collection methods using semi-structured interviews administered during focus groups and key informant interviews. A range of health system stakeholders were interviewed in Kenya, Malawi, Uganda and Zambia. Data were coded and analysed for themes and sub-themes. In total, 2910 civil society participants provided information individually or in focus groups. Respondents reported that GHIs have contributed to dramatic health benefits within and outside of a disease-specific focus, including health systems strengthening efforts. However, opportunities for synergy between GHIs and health systems have been missed, and GHIs have not worked sufficiently to close capacity gaps of grassroots civil society organisations. Despite some governance innovations, civil society's opportunities to participate meaningfully in GHI priority setting efforts are limited. Recommendations are included on how to best use GHIs to strengthen health systems by partnering with civil society.

  16. 76 FR 77585 - Meeting of Advisory Committee on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue With Civil Society

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ... of Advisory Committee on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue With Civil Society ACTION... Advisory Committee on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue With Civil Society will convene in..., proposals, and strategies for engagement with, and protection of, civil society worldwide. The objective...

  17. Classical Concepts of Social Solidarity as the Basis of Theoretical Studies on the Institutions of Modern Civil Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naletova, Irina Vladimirovna; Okatov, Alexander Vladimirovich; Zhulikova, Olga Valentinovna

    2016-01-01

    Current importance of this investigation has been stipulated by the modern trends in the development of civil society. Differentiated processes of its development, increased significance of certain institutions of the civil society often require not just empirical description of the principal trends of the functions of civil society, but also need…

  18. 78 FR 26100 - Advisory Committee on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue With Civil Society; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-03

    ... Committee on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue With Civil Society; Notice of the Renewal of an... Strategic Dialogue with Civil Society (hereinafter ``the Committee''). The Committee provides advice and... of, civil society worldwide. Functions of the Committee include, but are not limited to:...

  19. 76 FR 22160 - Advisory Committee on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue With Civil Society; Notice of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Committee on the Secretary of State's Strategic Dialogue With Civil Society; Notice of the Establishment of... of State's Strategic Dialogue with Civil Society (hereinafter ``the Committee''). The Committee will... engagement with, and protection of, civil society worldwide. Functions of the Committee include, but are...

  20. The role of civil society in health care reforms: an arena for hegemonic struggles.

    PubMed

    Filc, Dani

    2014-12-01

    The present paper argues that current mainstream understandings of civil society as ontologically different from the state and essentially positive (either normative or functionally) are problematic in order to understand the development of health care reforms. The paper proposes to ground an explanation of the role of civil society in health care reforms in a Gramscian understanding of civil society as analytically different from the state, and as an arena for hegemonic struggles. The study of health care reform in Israel serves as a case study for this claim.

  1. World Bank: harnessing civil society expertise in undertaking and disseminating research findings.

    PubMed

    Simms, Ben

    2013-01-01

    The UK Consortium on AIDS and International Development was an essential partner to the evaluation leaders in harnessing the contribution and expertise of civil society. This article describes what the partnership entailed, the additional value it brought and how civil society might use the evaluation findings both as a tool for advocacy and a means for improving its own engagement with the individuals directly affected by HIV and with those who care for them.

  2. Political repression, civil society and the politics of responding to AIDS in the BRICS nations.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Eduardo J; Harris, Joseph

    2016-02-01

    The policy responses to human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa (BRICS) nations have played out amid radically different political environments that have shaped state-civil society relations in critical ways. In contrasting these different environments, this article offers the first comparison of the policy response to AIDS in the BRICS nations and seeks to understand the way in which political context matters for conditioning the response to a major epidemic. Using a comparative historical approach, we find that while collaborative state-civil society relations have produced an aggressive response and successful outcomes in Brazil, democratic openness and state-civil society engagement has not necessarily correlated with an aggressive response or better outcomes in the other cases. Response to the epidemic has been worst by far in democratic South Africa, followed by Russia, where in the former, denialism and antagonistic state-civil society relations fuelled a delayed response and proved extremely costly in terms of human lives. In Russia, a lack of civil societal opportunity for mobilization and non-governmental organization (NGO) growth, political centralization and the state's unwillingness to work with NGOs led to an ineffective government response. Top-down bureaucratic rule and a reluctance to fully engage civil society in democratic India substantially delayed the state's efforts to engage in a successful partnership with NGOs. Nevertheless, China has done surprisingly well, in spite of its repressive approach and narrow engagement with civil society. And in all cases, we find the relationship between state and civil society to be evolving over time in important ways. These findings suggest the need for more research on the links between democratic openness, political repression and policy responses to epidemics.

  3. The Role of Civil Society in Shaping Democratic Civil-Military Relations During Political Transition in Nepal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    leadership , military control, democratic control 111 mechanisms, republic, monarchy, Maoist insm·gency, conflict, oversight. 16. PRICE CODE 17...military leadership . Civil society, with the essential function of “intermediation between state and citizens”2 in a democracy, may be the solution. A... leadership of major parties “consists almost exclusively of hill Brahmins, especially eastern Nepal, whose caste-based occupation, being priests and

  4. Civil society and the negotiation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control

    PubMed Central

    MAMUDU, H. M.

    2008-01-01

    Tobacco control civil society organisations mobilised to influence countries during the negotiation of the World Health Organization (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) between 1999 and 2003. Tobacco control civil society organisations and coalitions around the world embraced the idea of an international tobacco control treaty and came together as the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA), becoming an important non-state actor within the international system of tobacco control. Archival documents and interviews demonstrate that the FCA successfully used strategies including publication of a newsletter, shaming, symbolism and media advocacy to influence policy positions of countries during the FCTC negotiation. The FCA became influential in the negotiation process by mobilising tobacco control civil society organisations and resources with the help of the Internet and framing the tobacco control discussion around global public health. PMID:19333806

  5. Civil society organisations' roles in health development in Vietnam: HIV as a case study.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Tu-Anh

    2013-01-01

    Civil society in contemporary Vietnam has been recognised as an important force in public health. Based on qualitative interviews and observations of 30 organisations and networks in Hanoi and Ho Chi Minh City, this paper argues that civil society organisations (CSOs) focus almost exclusively on providing information and services, including care and treatment, in line with a state-sanctioned 'implementer' role for civil society, and that these organisations therefore miss an opportunity to act as agents for change. It was observed that the CSOs taking on roles involving advocacy and the monitoring of policy implementation were those that focus exclusively on HIV/AIDS prevention and control. However, the sustainability of these efforts is unclear.

  6. Addressing social determinants of health inequities: what can the state and civil society do?

    PubMed

    Blas, Erik; Gilson, Lucy; Kelly, Michael P; Labonté, Ronald; Lapitan, Jostacio; Muntaner, Carles; Ostlin, Piroska; Popay, Jennie; Sadana, Ritu; Sen, Gita; Schrecker, Ted; Vaghri, Ziba

    2008-11-08

    In this Health Policy article, we selected and reviewed evidence synthesised by nine knowledge networks established by WHO to support the Commission on the Social Determinants of Health. We have indicated the part that national governments and civil society can play in reducing health inequity. Government action can take three forms: (1) as provider or guarantor of human rights and essential services; (2) as facilitator of policy frameworks that provide the basis for equitable health improvement; and (3) as gatherer and monitor of data about their populations in ways that generate health information about mortality and morbidity and data about health equity. We use examples from the knowledge networks to illustrate some of the options governments have in fulfilling this role. Civil society takes many forms: here, we have used examples of community groups and social movements. Governments and civil society can have important positive roles in addressing health inequity if political will exists.

  7. From invited to uninvited participation (and back?): rethinking civil society engagement in technology assessment and development.

    PubMed

    Wehling, Peter

    2012-11-01

    In recent years, citizens' and civil society engagement with science and technology has become almost synonymous with participation in institutionally organized formats of participatory technology assessment (pTA) such as consensus conferences or stakeholder dialogues. Contrary to this view, it is argued in the article that beyond these standardized models of "invited" participation, there exist various forms of "uninvited" and independent civil society engagement, which frequently not only have more significant impact but are profoundly democratically legitimate as well. Using the two examples of patient associations and environmental and consumer organizations in the field of nanotechnology, it is illustrated that interest-based civil society interventions do play an important role in the polycentric governance of science and technology. In conclusion, some implications for the activities of TA institutions and the design of novel TA procedures are outlined.

  8. Civil society and the negotiation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

    PubMed

    Mamudu, H M; Glantz, S A

    2009-01-01

    Tobacco control civil society organisations mobilised to influence countries during the negotiation of the World Health Organisation (WHO) Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) between 1999 and 2003. Tobacco control civil society organisations and coalitions around the world embraced the idea of an international tobacco control treaty and came together as the Framework Convention Alliance (FCA), becoming an important non-state actor within the international system of tobacco control. Archival documents and interviews demonstrate that the FCA successfully used strategies, including publication of a newsletter, shaming symbolism and media advocacy to influence policy positions of countries during the FCTC negotiation. The FCA became influential in the negotiation process, by mobilising tobacco control civil society organisations and resources with the help of the Internet, and framing the tobacco control discussion around global public health.

  9. Civil society: the catalyst for ensuring health in the age of sustainable development.

    PubMed

    Smith, Julia; Buse, Kent; Gordon, Case

    2016-07-16

    Sustainable Development Goal Three is rightly ambitious, but achieving it will require doing global health differently. Among other things, progressive civil society organisations will need to be recognised and supported as vital partners in achieving the necessary transformations. We argue, using illustrative examples, that a robust civil society can fulfill eight essential global health functions. These include producing compelling moral arguments for action, building coalitions beyond the health sector, introducing novel policy alternatives, enhancing the legitimacy of global health initiatives and institutions, strengthening systems for health, enhancing accountability systems, mitigating the commercial determinants of health and ensuring rights-based approaches. Given that civil society activism has catalyzed tremendous progress in global health, there is a need to invest in and support it as a global public good to ensure that the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development can be realised.

  10. Preparing Leaders for Civil Society: A Framework for Professional Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisesi, Michael; Lidman, Russell

    2003-01-01

    Explores how professional education for public service careers must change to meet the new demands of a society that expects its services to be more customer-focused. Proposes eight principle of good teaching practice that would improve the instructional approaches used in public service education and promote the development of leadership…

  11. State Governance and Civil Society in Education: Revisiting the Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rockwell, Elsie; Vera, Eugenia Roldan

    2013-01-01

    ISCHE 33 was convened in San Luis Potosi to re-examine a relationship--that between society, education and the state--that had been largely taken for granted in official histories of education of modern nations. This theme was inspired by the bicentenary celebrations of the relatively early nineteenth-century movements (from 1804 to 1824) that…

  12. Schools and Civil Society: Corporate or Community Governance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranson, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    School improvement depends upon mediating the cultural conditions of learning as young people journey between their parochial worlds and the public world of cosmopolitan society. Governing bodies have a crucial role in including or diminishing the representation of different cultural traditions and in enabling or frustrating the expression of…

  13. Civil Society Organizations and the Functions of Global Health Governance: What Role within Intergovernmental Organizations?

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kelley

    2016-01-01

    Amid discussion of how global health governance should and could be strengthened, the potential role of civil society organizations has been frequently raised. This paper considers the role of Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in four health governance instruments under the auspices of the World Health Organization – the International Code on the Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes, Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, International Health Regulations and Codex Alimentarius - and maps the functions they have contributed to. The paper draws conclusions about the opportunities and limitations CSOs represent for strengthening global health governance (GHG). PMID:27274776

  14. Civil Society and Control of Corruption: Assessing Governance of Romanian Public Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mungiu-Pippidi, Alina; Dusu, Andra Elena

    2011-01-01

    Romania is perceived as the most corrupt EU member state according to Transparency International Corruption Perception Index. In 2008-2009, a grassroots coalition of civil society organizations and education stakeholders created the Coalition for Clean Universities which organized the first assessment of integrity of the Romanian higher education…

  15. The Financing of Adult Learning in Civil Society: A European Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belanger, Paul; Bochynek, Bettina

    The financing of adult learning in civil society in Europe was examined in an exploratory study that focused on the relationship between nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and the status of financing in the general field of adult learning. Adult education experts from the following countries were subcontracted to develop "country…

  16. Catalysing Educational Development or Institutionalising External Influence? Donors, Civil Society and Educational Policy Formation in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rappleye, Jeremy

    2011-01-01

    Recent pronouncements on the benefits of enlisting civil society in educational development have so far not attracted adequate scholarly analyses. This paper therefore seeks to present a critical perspective on this new trend by providing a fine-grained look at three concrete cases of NGO involvement in educational policy-making in Nepal. It also…

  17. Civil Society, State, and Institutions for Young Children in Modern Japan: The Initial Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uno, Kathleen

    2009-01-01

    Research on the history of children and childhood in modern Japan (1868-1945) reveals that issues related to civil society, state, and the establishment of institutions for young children can be explored beyond the transatlantic world. In this essay, after briefly surveying historiography, a few basic terms, and earlier patterns of state and…

  18. Non-Formal Education for Youth and Adults: The Perspective of Civil Society. New Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarti, Iliana Pereyra

    2006-01-01

    REPEM is a civil society organisation based in Uruguay. REPEM's mission is to contribute to the achievement of social and gender justice through alliance-building processes. In this article, the author, who works with REPEM, shares some reflections, lessons learned, and concerns about the issue of non-formal education for youth and adults. She…

  19. Making Space for Civil Society: Institutional Reforms and Local Democracy in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baiocchi, Gianpaolo; Heller, Patrick; Silva, Marcelo Kunrath

    2008-01-01

    This paper contributes to the growing body of research on participatory democracy and the literature on associational democracy by exploring the impact that institutional reforms have on local-level configurations of civil society. In the 1980s a wide range of participatory experiments were initiated in Brazil, most notably Participatory Budgeting…

  20. The Memorial Ceremony in Israeli Schools: Between the State and Civil Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lomsky-Feder, Edna

    2004-01-01

    Exploring memorial ceremonies conducted in Israeli schools over the past decade, this paper discusses the school memorial ceremony as a potential site for struggle over national identities, and schools as the social arena of an encounter between the State and civil society. Analysis of 50 ethnographies (elicited from semi-structured observations)…

  1. Affective and Behavioural Variables: Reforms as Experiments to Produce a Civil Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitz-Gibbon, Carol T.

    2006-01-01

    Affective and behavioural indicators of the effects of schooling, and of other interventions, might be more important than cognitive indicators, particularly in the long run and considering the urgent need for civil societies. Examples are provided of the statistical properties of affective and behavioural indicators, and of their current use in…

  2. Civic Education Partnerships: Civil Society Organisations, Donors and the State in Fiji

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baleinakorodawa, Paolo; Spence, Rebecca; O'Loughlin, Micheal

    2011-01-01

    This article reflects on some of the challenges and opportunities presented when working in partnership in the highly politicised and contested Fijian Civil Society environment over the past five years. The authors are practitioners who specialise in working with communities which experience conflict. The paper discusses and analyses the genesis…

  3. Sexuality Education in South African Schools: The Challenge for Civil Society Organisations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams Tucker, Leigh; George, Gavin; Reardon, Candice; Panday, Saadhna

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Drawing on the perceptions of various key stakeholders, the paper explores the strengths and limitations of involving civil society organisations in the delivery of HIV and AIDS and sexuality education in South African schools. Design: Qualitative study with a cross-sectional design. Setting: Research was conducted at 16 public…

  4. Online Deliberation among Regional Civil Society Groups--The Case of the Caribbean

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thakur, Dhanaraj G.

    2010-01-01

    Deliberative democracy has been promoted as a way improving legitimacy and political equality in policy debates. This dissertation seeks to understand how deliberation takes place within the intersection of two unique spaces: dialogue among members of regional civil society groups and communication in online fora. The motivation for this research…

  5. PROPOSAL OF USING WOOD IN CIVIL ENGINEERING FIELD AIMING FOR A SUSTAINABLE SOCIETY

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomimatsu, Yoshiharu; Numata, Atsunori; Hamada, Masanori; Miwa, Shigeru; Motoyama, Hiroshi

    Aiming for a sustainable society is one of the most important missions in the first half of the twenty-first century. In the civil engineering field, which normally focuses on carbon dioxide emissions, other techniques to attain a perfect sustainable ecosystem are considered expectable. For this, technical developments are needed to harmonize natural ecosystems for the reduction of carbon dioxide emissions or reduce carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The authors propose using a lot of wood in the civil engineering field. However, civil engineers do not have the chance to learn about wood science and some engineers have misconceptions about the use of wood. For these reasons, this paper explains the significance of using wood for a sustainable society. As a concrete measure, the authors proposed the use of wood as a countermeasure against poor, unstable ground and liquefiable ground.

  6. Creating Inquiry Between Technology Developers and Civil Society Actors: Learning from Experiences Around Nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Krabbenborg, Lotte

    2016-06-01

    Engaging civil society actors as knowledgeable dialogue partners in the development and governance of emerging technologies is a new challenge. The starting point of this paper is the observation that the design and orchestration of current organized interaction events shows limitations, particularly in the articulation of issues and in learning how to address the indeterminacies that go with emerging technologies. This paper uses Dewey's notion of 'publics' and 'reflective inquiry' to outline ways of doing better and to develop requirements for a more productive involvement of civil society actors. By studying four novel spaces for interaction in the domain of nanotechnology, this paper examines whether and how elements of Dewey's thought are visible and under what conditions. One of the main findings is that, in our society, special efforts are needed in order for technology developers and civil society actors to engage in a joint inquiry on emerging nanotechnology. Third persons, like social scientists and philosophers, play a role in this respect in addition to external input such as empirically informed scenarios and somewhat protected spaces.

  7. Resistance, rupture and repetition: Civil society strategies against intimate partner violence in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Lilja, Mona; Baaz, Mikael

    2016-01-01

    This paper offers a new interpretation of the 'resistance' carried out by local civil society organisations in Cambodia against intimate partner violence (IPV). In this, the paper explores the nexus between 'rupture', 'resistance' and 'repetition' and concludes that different 'repetitions' can contribute to acts of violence while simultaneously creating possibilities for resisting IPV. In regard to the latter, the concept of 'rupture' is investigated as a performative politics through which organisations try to disrupt the 'repetitions' of violent masculinities. Furthermore, it is argued that the importance of 'repetitions' and the concept of time should be acknowledged. The French criminal defence lawyer Jacques Vergès' understanding of 'rupture' and the French philosopher Gilles Deleuze's notions of 'repetition' inform the analysis. To exemplify our discussion and findings, the paper embraces stories of a number of civil society workers who facilitate various men's groups in Cambodia in order to negotiate the practice of IPV.

  8. The Relationship Between Islamism and Women in Civil Society: A Look at Turkey and Egypt

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    discomse that Muslim women need saving. This study reviews the effects of Islamism , especially when it influences political decisions , on women. In...influences political decisions , on women. In particular, the study focuses on whether there is a correlation between rising Islamism and women in civil...women to go back to the sacred texts to make the case that oppressive practices in many Islamic societies are not in fact Islamic .44 Instead of

  9. Who's making global civil society: philanthropy and US empire in world society.

    PubMed

    Vogel, Ann

    2006-12-01

    Theories of US hegemony commonly ignore the role of American philanthropy in the contemporary transformations of world society and the globalization of capitalism. In this essay, I suggest that the philanthropic foundation, and with it the institution of philanthropy, is being invigorated by the expansion of its domestic role to foreign activities and to globally framed activities within the USA. I propose that US philanthropy exports American understandings of democracy and simultaneously organizes global reflexivity through citizenship education for the US populace. I offer a preliminary theoretical interpretation of the empirical patterns of international grant-making activities by US foundations, considering John W. Meyer's concept of 'instrumental culture' and some arguments made by Foucauldian 'governmentality' scholars. I emphasize the need to conceptualize the cultural-symbolic and organizational dimensions of hegemony and suggest further sociological analysis of philanthropic activities as integral to current politically and economically led transformations of societies around the globe.

  10. [The Alliance for the Prevention of Colorectal Cancer in Spain. A civil commitment to society].

    PubMed

    Morillas, Juan Diego; Castells, Antoni; Oriol, Isabel; Pastor, Ana; Pérez-Segura, Pedro; Echevarría, José Manuel; Caballero, Begoña; González-Navarro, Andrés; Bandrés, Fernando; Brullet, Enric; Iniesta, Antonio; Carballo, Fernando; Bouzas, Rosa; Ariza, Aurelio; Ibisate, Alfredo; García-Alfonso, Pilar; Escudero, Beatriz; Camacho, Silvia; Fernández-Marcos, Ana; González, Teresa; Quintero, Enrique; Lanas, Angel; Marzo, Mercè; Mascort, Juanjo; Andréu, Monserrat; Cerezo, Laura; Vázquez-Sequeiros, Enrique; Borrás, Josep María; Salas, Dolores; Ascunce, Nieves; Portillo, Isabel; Herráiz, Mayte; Valle, María Luisa; Sotoca, Amalia; Nieto, Santiago; Hué, Carlos; Paz-Ares, Luis

    2012-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common malignant tumor in Spain, when men and women are considered together, and the second leading cause of cancer death. Every week in Spain over 500 cases of CRC are diagnosed, and nearly 260 people die from the disease. Epidemiologic estimations for the coming years show a significant increase in the number of annual cases. CRC is a perfectly preventable tumor and can be cured in 90% of cases if detected in the early stages. Population-based screening programs have been shown to reduce the incidence of CRC and mortality from the disease. Unless early detection programs are established in Spain, it is estimated that in the coming years, 1 out of 20 men and 1 out of 30 women will develop CRC before the age of 75. The Alliance for the Prevention of Colorectal Cancer in Spain is an independent and non-profit organization created in 2008 that integrates patients' associations, altruistic non-governmental organizations and scientific societies. Its main objective is to raise awareness and disseminate information on the social and healthcare importance of CRC in Spain and to promote screening measures, early detection and prevention programs. Health professionals, scientific societies, healthcare institutions and civil society should be sensitized to this highly important health problem that requires the participation of all sectors of society. The early detection of CRC is an issue that affects the whole of society and therefore it is imperative for all sectors to work together.

  11. Local governments and civil society lead breakthrough for tobacco control: lessons from Chandigarh and Chennai.

    PubMed

    Kashiwabara, Mina; Arul, Rathinum; Goswami, Hemant; Narain, Jai P; Armada, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Smoke-free legislation is gaining popularity; however, it must accompany effective implementation to protect people from secondhand smoke (SHS) which causes 600,000 deaths annually. Increasing numbers of smoke-free cities in the world indicate that municipalities have an important role in promoting smoke-free environments. The objectives were to describe the local initiative to promote smoke-free environments and identify the key factors that contributed to the process. Observations were based on a case study on the municipal smoke-free initiatives in Chandigarh and Chennai, India. India adopted the Cigarette and Other Tobacco Products Act in 2003, the first national tobacco control law including smoke-free provisions. In an effort to enforce the Act at the local level, a civil society organization in Chandigarh initiated activities urging the city to support the implementation of the provisions of the Act which led to the initiation of city-wide law enforcement. After the smoke-free declaration of Chandigarh in 2007, Chennai also initiated a smoke-free intervention led by civil society in 2008, following the strategies used in Chandigarh. These experiences resonate with other cases in Asian cities, such as Jakarta, Davao, and Kanagawa as well as cities in other areas of the world including Mexico City, New York City, Mecca and Medina. The cases of Chandigarh and Chennai demonstrate that civil society can make a great contribution to the enforcement of smoke-free laws in cities, and that cities can learn from their peers to protect people from SHS.

  12. Globalisation and health inequalities: can a human rights paradigm create space for civil society action?

    PubMed

    London, Leslie; Schneider, Helen

    2012-01-01

    While neoliberal globalisation is associated with increasing inequalities, global integration has simultaneously strengthened the dissemination of human rights discourse across the world. This paper explores the seeming contradiction that globalisation is conceived as disempowering nations states' ability to act in their population's interests, yet implementation of human rights obligations requires effective states to deliver socio-economic entitlements, such as health. Central to the actions required of the state to build a health system based on a human rights approach is the notion of accountability. Two case studies are used to explore the constraints on states meeting their human rights obligations regarding health, the first drawing on data from interviews with parliamentarians responsible for health in East and Southern Africa, and the second reflecting on the response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic in South Africa. The case studies illustrate the importance of a human rights paradigm in strengthening parliamentary oversight over the executive in ways that prioritise pro-poor protections and in increasing leverage for resources for the health sector within parliamentary processes. Further, a rights framework creates the space for civil society action to engage with the legislature to hold public officials accountable and confirms the importance of rights as enabling civil society mobilization, reinforcing community agency to advance health rights for poor communities. In this context, critical assessment of state incapacity to meet claims to health rights raises questions as to the diffusion of accountability rife under modern international aid systems. Such diffusion of accountability opens the door to 'cunning' states to deflect rights claims of their populations. We argue that human rights, as both a normative framework for legal challenges and as a means to create room for active civil society engagement provide a means to contest both the real and the

  13. The privatization of human services: myths, social capital and civil society.

    PubMed

    Martin, Lawrence L

    2004-01-01

    It is fashionable to point to privatization and the involvement of for-profits as the parties responsible for many, if not most, of the ills that plague the social welfare system today. This article takes a contrary point of view. Three arguments are made. First, private sector human service delivery and the use of for-profits in the United States predate privatization as a defined public policy. Second, the privatization of the human services is a world wide phenomenon that transcends politics and ideology. Third, the privatization of human services helps to promote civil society and generate social capital.

  14. Public or private? The role of the state and civil society in health and health inequalities across nations.

    PubMed

    Olafsdottir, Sigrun; Bakhtiari, Elyas; Barman, Emily

    2014-12-01

    Social scientists have long recognized that macro-level factors have the potential to shape the health of populations and individuals. Along these lines, they have theorized about the role of the welfare state in creating more equal opportunities and outcomes and how this intervention may benefit health. More recently, scholars and policymakers alike have pointed out how the involvement of civil society actors may replace or complement any state effort. Using data from the World Values Surveys and the European Values Study, combined with national-level indicators for welfare state and civil society involvement, we test the impact of each sector on health and health inequalities in 25 countries around the world. We find that both have a statistically significant effect on overall health, but the civil society sector may have a greater independent influence in societies with weaker welfare states. The health inequalities results are less conclusive, but suggest a strong civil society may be particularly beneficial to vulnerable populations, such as the low income and unemployed. Our paper represents an early step in providing empirical evidence for the impact of the welfare state and civil society on health and health inequalities.

  15. Governing AIDS through aid to civil society: Global solutions meet local problems in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Follér, Maj-Lis

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this article is to explore how international donors influence civil society organisations (CSOs) in Mozambique through funding mechanisms, the creation of partnerships, or inclusion in targeted programmes. The main focus is the relationship between donors and AIDS non-governmental organisations (NGOs). The main questions the paper aims to answer are: Who is setting the agenda? What power mechanisms are in place to fulfil planned projects and programmes? Are there any forms of resistance from civil society AIDS-organisations in the face of the donor interventions? The actions will be analysed through the lens of governmentality theory. The study concluded that donors have the power to set the agenda through predetermined programmes and using various technologies. Their strongest weapons are audit mechanisms such as the result based management model used as a control mechanism, and there is still a long way to go to achieve a situation with multiple forms of local resistance to the conditions set by economically powerful donors. The standardisation imposed through clustering donors into like-minded groups and other constellations gives them power to govern the politics of AIDS.

  16. The role of civil society organizations in the institutionalization of indigenous medicine in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Babis, Deby

    2014-12-01

    December 2013 marked a significant shift in Bolivia with the enactment of a law for the inclusion of indigenous doctors in the National Health System. This article traces the constellation of forces that led to the institutionalization of indigenous medicine in Bolivia. It identifies three factors contributing to this health policy change. The first factor is the crystallization of a strong indigenous movement fighting for the recognition of cultural rights through the foundation of civil society organizations. Second is the rise to power of Evo Morales, the first Latin American president of indigenous origin, who has promoted multicultural policies, formally supported through the promulgation of a new constitution. Lastly is the influence of the global acceptance of alternative medicine. Indigenous doctor organizations in Bolivia have been highly involved throughout the entire process of institutionalization and have played a crucial role in it. An analysis of the relationship between these civil society organizations and the Bolivian government reveals a strong partnership. This dynamic can be described in terms of Interdependence Theory, as each party relied on the other in the promotion and practice of the law to achieve the integration of indigenous medicine as part of the Bolivian Health System.

  17. Role of civil society, people's participation and gender equity in food security.

    PubMed

    Jones, G W

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents the views of an Australian demographer on the role of civil society, community participation, and gender equity in food security as a chief conference discussant. Professor Jones stated that sufficient food supplies did not assure equitable food accessibility. Food insecurity was greatest among poor and marginalized groups. Access to food was limited by limited purchasing power of populations, uneven income distribution, and inadequate storage and transportation systems. Food security was tied to the degree of political participation of a population in processes and plans that affected their lives. Cohesiveness of a society was related to the vulnerability of the poor during times of food scarcity. The greatest threats to socioeconomic development and to food security were from civil disorder or unrest. Governments are becoming aware of women's role in food production. This role in the past was obscured by data that were not aggregated by sex and that understated the importance of women's role. Women's invisible role in food production resulted in women's exclusion from cultural extension programs, credit schemes, and knowledge about improved technology. Women's participation in credit programs was linked with women's general level of empowerment and community participation. Research findings indicate that increases in women's status were associated with more even access to educational opportunities for women. Increased educational level was associated with improved family nutrition, higher economic productivity, and lower fertility, and consequently, better food security.

  18. The Role of Civil Society Organizations in Monitoring the Global AIDS Response.

    PubMed

    Smith, Julia; Mallouris, Christoforos; Lee, Kelley; Alfvén, Tobias

    2016-10-12

    Civil society organizations (CSOs) are recognized as playing an exceptional role in the global AIDS response. However, there is little detailed research to date on how they contribute to specific governance functions. This article uses Haas' framework on global governance functions to map CSO's participation in the monitoring of global commitments to the AIDS response by institutions and states. Drawing on key informant interviews and primary documents, it focuses specifically on CSO participation in Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting and in Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria processes. It argues that the AIDS response is unique within global health governance, in that CSOs fulfill both formal and informal monitoring functions, and considers the strengths and weaknesses of these contributions. It concludes that future global health governance arrangements should include provisions and resources for monitoring by CSOs because their participation creates more inclusive global health governance and contributes to strengthening commitments to human rights.

  19. Civil society development versus the peace dividend: international aid in the Wanni.

    PubMed

    Culbert, Vance

    2005-03-01

    Donors that provide aid to the Wanni region of Sri Lanka, which is controlled by the Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam (LTTE), are promoting initiatives that seek to advance the national peace process. Under the rubric of post-conflict reconstruction, the actions of political forces and structural factors have led to the prioritisation of two different approaches to peace-building: community capacity-building projects; and support for the 'peace dividend'. Both of these approaches face challenges. Cooperation with civil society actors is extremely difficult due to intimidation by the LTTE political authority and the authoritarian nature of its control. Peace-building successes with respect to the peace dividend are difficult to measure, and must be balanced against the negative effects of misdirected funds. Aid organisations must be careful not to consider the tasks of peacebuilding, humanitarian relief and community empowerment as either interchangeable or as mutually reinforcing endeavours.

  20. Incentives to improve farm management: EMS, supply-chains and civil society.

    PubMed

    Gunningham, Neil

    2007-02-01

    This paper focuses on impediments to environmentally sound management practices and how these might be overcome, with an emphasis on the role of environmental management systems, supply chains and civil society. It argues that: Farmers are under increased pressure to cut costs and improve production but with little opportunity to increase prices. Commonly short-term economic interest has damaging environmental implications. Current government policy, in Australia and in many other jurisdictions, relies heavily on voluntary arrangements, education and information, as the main policy instruments through which to persuade farmers to adopt better environmental farm management - e.g. the recent push to encourage the use of voluntary environmental management systems. However, there is good evidence to suggest that these can only make a valuable contribution when combined with a range of other policy instruments, including positive and negative incentives, intervention by third parties and in some cases, an underpinning of regulation. Arguably, what is needed is a strategy that builds on the strengths of voluntary environmental management arrangements while compensating for their weaknesses by combining them with other, complementary policy instruments. If so, we must engage with a range of questions that have not so far figured substantially in the policy debate. Although the principal focus has been on the role of government in bringing about on-farm change in management practices, supply chain pressure (at least in respect of agricultural chemicals and practices which threaten food safety) and civil society action are also potentially powerful mechanisms for bringing about change. Government can and should play a role in harnessing such forces in the interests of improved environmental on-farm practices.

  1. Civil Society Organizations in Post-War Liberia: The Role of Education and Training in Strengthening Organizational Capacity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duo, Samuel N.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the role of non-formal education and training in the organizational change process of Civil society organizations (CSOs) in post war Liberia. CSOs are the local foundation for democracy and development in Liberia, and serve a wide range of roles in local communities. For example, in post-war Liberia,…

  2. The Emergence of Cambodian Civil Society within Global Educational Governance: A Morphogenetic Approach to Agency and Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, D. Brent, Jr.; Brehm, William C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper uses Margaret Archer's morphogenetic approach to analyze the emergence of civil society within global educational governance. The purpose is to understand the intersection of historical structures with global actors and spaces that have accompanied the globalization of education. Based on findings from a study on the impact in Cambodia…

  3. Terrorism, Civil Liberties, and Preventive Approaches to Technology: The Difficult Choices Western Societies Face in the War on Terrorism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurgensen, Arnd

    2004-01-01

    This article explores public policy alternatives to the current war on terrorism. Western society's vulnerability to terrorism has been dealt with primarily by expanding the law enforcement and surveillance authority of governments at the expense of the freedoms and civil liberties of the public. This approach threatens to undermine the…

  4. Adult Learning in Political (Un-Civil) Society: Anti-Colonial Subaltern Social Movement (SSM) Pedagogies of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapoor, Dip

    2011-01-01

    Through a selective deployment of conceptualisations from subaltern studies, in particular the concepts of political (un-civil) society and an autonomous domain (or a people's politics that suggests the plausibility of dominance without hegemony), this article distinguishes a subaltern social movement (SSM) formation and related anti-colonial SSM…

  5. Some Partners Are More Equal than Others: EFA and Civil Society in Papua New Guinea and Vanuatu Education Policy Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Alexandra

    2011-01-01

    This article considers a parallel marginalisation of Education for All (EFA) as a holistic approach to education, and the civil society actors and coalitions who address sidelined Dakar goals of early childhood care and education, adult literacy, quality and non-formal education. I argue that in spite of over two decades of EFA rhetoric prizing…

  6. Contemporary Internet as a Means for Leveling Social Inequality in the Context of Relationships between Civil Society and the State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pronchev, Gennadi B.; Monakhov, Danila N.; Kovalchuk, Valerii K.

    2016-01-01

    The topicality of the research depends on the existence of social inequality which emerges as various social groups of the civil society interact with the state. With regard to this, the paper aims to find out the relation between the current social stratification and the usage level of modern information and communication technologies by…

  7. Understanding the Influence of Independent Civil Society Monitoring and Evaluation at the District Level: A Case Study of Ghana

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gildemyn, Marie

    2014-01-01

    In developing countries, an increasing number of civil society organizations (CSOs) engage in independent monitoring and evaluation (M&E) of government programs and policies. Most CSOs rely on a range of M&E tools in combination with advocacy strategies to hold government accountable and improve the implementation of programs and policies.…

  8. Arab Civil Society and Education in Israel: The Arab Pedagogical Council as a Contentious Performance to Achieve National Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agbaria, Ayman K.

    2015-01-01

    Focusing on recent developments in the field of education, this article grapples with the educational activism of Arab civil society in Israel. Specifically, it presents a case study of a recent initiative to establish an independent Arab Pedagogical Council (APC). I argue that this initiative, although controversial and challenging to the very…

  9. To whom do bureaucrats need to respond? Two faces of civil society in health policy.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seunghoo; Lee, Keon-Hyung; Suh, Hae Sun; Bae, Kwi-Hee

    2014-12-01

    The South Korean government implemented a law that separates the dispensing and prescribing (SDP) of drugs in July 2000. It was one of the most controversial issues in the Korean healthcare delivery system. Drawing on the conflict-cycle view and stakeholder analysis, which was used to examine how multiple stakeholders influenced this policymaking process, this study examines 1) the role of Korean civil society (i.e., civic and special interest groups) in SDP reform and 2) why SDP reform led to unintended consequences. We argue that bureaucrats in the Ministry of Health and Welfare (MoHW) should have played a central role in accommodating the public interest. Because they failed to do so, civic groups assumed major mediating and moderating roles. Due to the civic groups' lack of technical knowledge and professional experience, however, they played a limited role. In finalizing the proposal, therefore, bureaucrats were captured by strong interest groups, leading to unintended consequences, such as the increased use of non-covered services and higher healthcare expenditures. To ensure that the government serves the authentic public interest rather than special interest groups, bureaucrats should be responsible to the public rather than these interest groups. Moreover, civic groups should be strengthened (in relation to strongly organized interest groups) and included systematically in creating health policy.

  10. Civil society organizations: capacity to address the needs of the urban poor in Nairobi.

    PubMed

    Ekirapa, Akaco; Mgomella, George S; Kyobutungi, Catherine

    2012-11-01

    We conducted a needs assessment that describes the landscape of civil society organizations (CSOs) in three informal settlements around Nairobi, Kenya. The numbers of CSOs have rapidly increased in areas underserved by governments including poor urban neighbourhoods but little is known about CSOs capacity to meet the priority health needs of the urban poor. It is also unclear why, despite a proliferation of CSOs, residents still experience unimproved health outcomes. We collected data on core activities, financial management, and governance structures. Of the 952 CSOs assessed, 47 per cent reported HIV/AIDS counselling, prevention, and treatment as their core activity. Most CSOs reported good financial management systems and governance structures but responses were not validated. Representation in district health stakeholder fora was low; most CSOs did not have the capacity to effectively deliver services that would have impact. For CSOs to realize the desired goal to improve the well-being of low-income populations, programmes to build their management capacity are essential.

  11. Civil society perspectives on negative biomedical HIV prevention trial results and implications for future trials.

    PubMed

    Essack, Zaynab; Koen, Jennifer; Slack, Catherine; Lindegger, Graham; Newman, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    Community engagement is crucial to ongoing development and testing of sorely needed new biomedical HIV prevention technologies. Yet, negative trial results raise significant challenges for community engagement in HIV prevention trials, including the early termination of the Cellulose Sulfate microbicide trial and two Phase IIb HIV vaccine trials (STEP and Phambili). The present study aimed to explore the perspectives and experiences of civil society organization (CSO) representatives regarding negative HIV prevention trial results and perceived implications for future trials. We conducted in-depth interviews with 14 respondents from a broad range of South African and international CSOs, and analyzed data using thematic analysis. CSO representatives reported disappointment in response to negative trial results, but acknowledged such outcomes as inherent to clinical research. Respondents indicated that in theory negative trial results seem likely to impact on willingness to participate in future trials, but that in practice people in South Africa have continued to volunteer. Negative trial results were described as having contributed to improving ethical standards, and to a re-evaluation of the scientific agenda. Such negative results were identified as potentially impacting on funding for trials and engagement activities. Our findings indicate that trial closures may be used constructively to support opportunities for reflection and renewed vigilance in strategies for stakeholder engagement, communicating trial outcomes, and building research literacy among communities; however, these strategies require sustained resources for community engagement and capacity-building.

  12. Emergency contraception under attack in Latin America: response of the medical establishment and civil society.

    PubMed

    Faúndes, Aníbal; Távara, Luis; Brache, Vivian; Alvarez, Frank

    2007-05-01

    The concept that it is possible to prevent a pregnancy after coitus is not new, but has gained prominence over the last 10-15 years. It provides a second chance to women who do not want to get pregnant and who, voluntarily or not, have had unprotected intercourse. Emergency contraception has been under strong attack by the Catholic church and anti-choice organisations in Latin America, who claim that the interference with implantation of the fertilised ovum is equivalent to an early abortion. The accumulation of evidence, however, is that the mechanism of action of emergency contraception is to prevent ovulation and that it does not interfere with implantation. This has been ignored by the anti-choice movement. The pattern of opposition to emergency contraception has been the same all over the Latin America region. The medical establishment and civil society, including the International Consortium for Emergency Contraception, have played a key role in defending access to emergency contraception throughout the region. A positive consequence of the public opposition of the Catholic church is that the concept and the method have become better known, and emergency contraception has become widely used. The cases of Peru, Brazil and Chile are described as examples.

  13. Civil society and sanitation hydropolitics: A case study of South Africa’s Vaal River Barrage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tempelhoff, Johann W. N.

    The Vaal River Barrage, situated on the south-eastern border of the Gauteng Province, has been part of the hydrological landscape of South Africa’s most populous and economically active region for more than eight decades. After its completion in 1923 the Barrage was compromised by the construction, upstream, of the Vaal Dam (1930-1933). Today the Vaal River Barrage is primarily a storage facility of sewage and industrial waste water. South Africa’s transition to a multi-racial democracy in 1994 saw a number of socio-economic and political transformations that affected the water infrastructure. In the field of sanitation infrastructure in particular, conditions have deteriorated to the extent that the health of people in many parts of the country is being compromised. Using the Vaal River Barrage as a case study, this article outlines the efforts by civil society to make the relevant government sectors aware of this hazardous state of affairs. particular attention is given to save our Vaal environment (SAVE), a non-governmental organisation, at the helm of an active campaign to reduce pollution in the Vaal River Barrage.

  14. Civil society, political mobilization, and the impact of HIV scale-up on health systems in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Parker, Richard G

    2009-11-01

    This article examines the role of civil society in shaping HIV and AIDS policies and programs in Brazil. It focuses on the historical context of the redemocratization of Brazilian society during the 1980s, when the initial response to the epidemic took shape, and emphasizes the role of social movements linked to the progressive Catholic Church, the sanitary reform movement in public health, and the emerging gay rights movement in the early response to the epidemic in Brazil. It highlights the broad-based civil society coalition that took shape over the course of the 1990s and the political alliances that were built up shortly after the 1996 International AIDS Conference in Vancouver, Canada, to pass legislation guaranteeing the right to access to antiretroviral treatment. It emphasizes the continued importance of civil society organizations-in particular, AIDS-related nongovernmental organizations-and leading AIDS activists in exerting continued pressure to guarantee the sustainability of treatment access and the impact that action focused on HIV and AIDS has had on the Brazilian public health system more broadly, particularly through strengthening health infrastructures and providing a model for health-related social mobilization.

  15. [Strategies by civil society organizations for access to breast cancer drugs in the Brazilian Unified National Health System].

    PubMed

    Deprá, Aline Scaramussa; Ribeiro, Carlos Dimas Martins; Maksud, Ivia

    2015-07-01

    This study aims to identify and analyze strategies by civil society organizations working with breast cancer (CSOs) on access to drugs in Brazilian Unified National Health System (SUS) and the main social actors. A qualitative approach used the snowball technique, semi-structured interviews, and participant observation. Thematic analysis was based on the following categories: access to drugs for breast cancer treatment, relationship between CSOs and government, relationship between CSOs and the pharmaceutical industry, and other strategies used by CSOs. The results showed that civil society organizations have influenced access to drugs for breast cancer in the SUS and that their main strategies have focused on pressuring government at all levels. Meanwhile, the pharmaceutical industry sponsors some CSOs in order to strengthen them and expand its own market. The main difficulties in access to such drugs involve insufficient services, unequal treatment, and inclusion of technology in the SUS.

  16. Civil Society as a Game Changer: A Comparative Study of Political Transitions in Eastern Europe and the Middle East

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-12-01

    support and insight and guided me through the difficult process of thesis development. I also owe many thanks to my second reader, Glenn E. Robinson... process of transition is to compare cases across time and space. Eastern Europe, which went through the process of democratization in the 1990s, is a...democracy promotion initiatives, this thesis focuses on the study of civil society and its effects on the process of democratic transition. Specifically

  17. Involvement in civil society groups: Is it good for your health?

    PubMed Central

    Ziersch, A; Baum, F

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: To determine the involvement in civil society groups (CSGs) and the impact of this on health. Design: Case study, cross sectional, self completion questionnaire, and semi-structured interviews. Setting: Residents in two suburbs in Adelaide, South Australia. Participants: Every household (1038) received a questionnaire asking the adult with the next birthday to complete it. A total of 530 questionnaires were returned. Sixteen questionnaire respondents were also interviewed. Main results: 279 (53%) questionnaire respondents had been involved in a CSG in the past 12 months, 190 (36%) in locally based CSGs, and 188 (35%) in CSGs outside the area. Eleven of the 16 interviewees had been involved in a CSG. A path analysis examined the relation between demographic variables, CSG involvement, and mental and physical health, as measured by the SF-12. Physical health was negatively associated with CSG involvement and older age, and positively associated with working full time or part time and higher education level. Mental health was positively associated with older age, working full time or part time, and higher income but negatively associated with having a child under 18, speaking a language other than English and higher education level. Very few interviewees made a direct link between CSGs and positive individual health outcomes, though some positive community level outcomes were noted. More consistent were reports of the detrimental effects of CSG involvement on mental and physical health. Conclusions: Involvement in CSGs was significant but not always positive for health. It is possible that CSG involvement is good for a community but not necessarily for the individual. PMID:15143118

  18. Civil Society-Driven Drug Policy Reform for Health and Human Welfare-India.

    PubMed

    Vallath, Nandini; Tandon, Tripti; Pastrana, Tania; Lohman, Diederik; Husain, S Asra; Cleary, James; Ramanath, Ganpati; Rajagopal, M R

    2017-03-01

    The lack of adequate access to opioids in India as analgesics and for agonist therapies, forces millions to live with severe unalleviated pain, or languish with suffering associated with drug dependence. Although India is a major opium exporter, the excessively prohibitive 1985 narcotics law formulated to control harmful use of drugs, impeded the availability and access to opioids for medical and scientific purposes. Amendment of this law in 2014 established a new national regulatory framework for improved access to essential opioid analgesics. This article reflects on key elements and processes that led to this landmark achievement. Unlike quick timelines associated with effecting policy reforms for law enforcement, realizing the 2014 drug policy change primarily to mitigate human suffering, was a 22-year-long process. The most exacting challenges included recognizing the multilayered complexities of the prior policy framework and understanding their adverse impact on field practices to chart an appropriate and viable path for reform. The evolution of an informal civil society movement involving health care professionals, lawyers, media, policy analysts, government officials, and the public was pivotal in addressing these challenges and garnering momentum for reform. The success of the effort for improving access to opioid medications was underpinned by a three-pronged strategy of 1) persuading the executive arm of the government to take interim enabling measures; 2) leveraging judicial intervention through public interest litigation; and 3) crafting a viable policy document for legislative approval and implementation. We hope our findings are useful for realizing drug policy reforms, given the current transformed global policy mandates emphasizing humanitarian, healthcare, and quality-of-life considerations.

  19. What Political Framework Is Necessary to Reduce Malnutrition? A Civil Society Perspective.

    PubMed

    Walter, Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Around 800 million people worldwide are still starving. Around 2 billion are somehow able to allay their hunger yet remain malnourished because their food does not contain sufficient nutrients. There are many reasons for this: for people living in poverty and precarious conditions, the priority is to fill their stomach, and the quality of food seems less important. Since the 1960s, global food production has been focused on increasing yield, not food quality. Mass-produced convenience food with high fat and carbohydrate contents but containing few nutrients is on the rise and - as a result of price wars - often replaces healthier locally grown products. To overcome global hunger and malnutrition, civil society organizations urge governments to turn towards sustainable and human rights-based development, including sustainable agricultural and fishing policies, to contribute to the eradication of poverty. This development is first and foremost guided by the right to food. In a policy that enables farmers to produce enough food that is healthy and rich in nutrients, the following principles should be fulfilled. Governments should assume responsibility for the international impacts of their agricultural policy decisions. The food sovereignty of other countries should be respected. Policies should enable self-supply of the population with healthy food and should promote the protection of resources, the climate, biodiversity and animal welfare. Strengthening rural structures, local economies, labor rights and small-scale food producers, establishing public programs that provide locally produced food, applying stringent standards for food labeling and the regulation of unhealthy products and paying special attention to the first 1,000 days of life as the starting point of a good and healthy well-being are core elements of such a political framework.

  20. [The role of civil society in constructing scientific questions: focus on the work of the CESTM at the Aquarium La Rochelle].

    PubMed

    Pomade, Adélie

    2014-03-01

    The relation between experts and civil society raises profound questioning. The first of them is the role of civil society in their evaluation work and in their research. We note that the involvement of citizen leds not only to build scientifical questions, but also to enrich and to answer them. In that way, civil society becomes a key player and an irreplaceable actor of the scientific research. This article highlights action carry out by the Centre d'Etudes et de Soins pour les Tortues Marines of the Aquarium La Rochelle which asks civil society to help it everydays to fulfill his duties. At the end of a training period, or thanks to a spontaneous initiative, volunteers get involve to move research.

  1. The Global Fund and the re-configuration and re-emergence of 'civil society': widening or closing the democratic deficit?

    PubMed

    Kapilashrami, Anuj; O'Brien, Oonagh

    2012-01-01

    The past decade has witnessed a tremendous growth in the scale and policy influence of civil society in global health governance. The AIDS 'industry' in particular opens up spaces for active mobilisation and participation of non-state actors, which further crystallise with an ever-increasing dominance of global health initiatives. While country evaluations of global initiatives call for a greater participation of 'civil society', the evidence base examining the organisation, nature and operation of 'civil society' and its claims to legitimacy is very thin. Drawing on the case of one of the most visible players in the global response to HIV epidemic, the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, this article seeks to highlight the complex micropolitics of its interactions with civil society. It examines the nature of civil society actors involved in the Fund projects and the processes through which they gain credibility. We argue that the imposition of global structures and principles facilitates a reconfiguration of actors around newer forms of expertise and power centres. In this context, the notion of 'civil society' underplays differences and power dynamics between various institutions and conceals the agency of outsiders under the guise of autonomy of the state and people.

  2. A Challenge for Social Studies Educators: Increasing Civility in Schools and Society by Modeling Civic Virtues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, James

    2012-01-01

    Many scholars, teachers, parents, as well as others, are concerned with the decline of civility in public discourse and public schools. The sharp differences among various ideological groups, exacerbated by media incivility, are contributing factors to rising incivility. This ideological divide currently manifests itself in bitter partisan…

  3. [The role of civil society in building the field of Food and Nutrition in Brazil: elements for reflection].

    PubMed

    Burlandy, Luciene

    2011-01-01

    The inclusion of Food and Nutrition (FN) issues on the public agenda has gained progressive relevance in Brazil and the civil society (CS) has an important role in this process. This article examines how CS affects policies in this field based on a historical perspective of their influence in political arenas of the Federal Government. The analysis was based on the following questions: (1) the political and institutional participatory approaches; (2) the related issues and political demands; (3) the implications of this process in developing public policies. The research instruments have combined literature review and documentary analysis. It was concluded that the role of the civil society was crucial for the consolidation of the National Policy of FN and the National Policy of Food and Nutrition Security. The institutional engineering and the profile of social organizations were very different, ranging from social movements to policy networks. The topics on the agenda have changed over the period studied, with the strengthening of ethnic, racial and gender issues. The gains of this process depend on public sector capacity to regulate and support the functioning of these institutional arenas and to involve governmental segments that actually has decision making power.

  4. A comparative study of the use of the Istanbul Protocol amongst civil society organizations in low-income countries.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Toby; Jensen, Steffen; Koch Andersen, Morten; Christiansen, Catrine; Sharma, Jeevan Raj

    2016-01-01

    The Istanbul Protocol (IP) is one of the great success stories of the global anti-torture movement, setting out universal guidelines for the production of rigorous, objective and reliable evidence about allegations of torture and ill-treatment. The IP is explicitly designed to outline 'minimum standards for States'. However, it is all too often left to civil society organizations to investigate allegations of torture and ill-treatment. In this context, important questions remain as to how and where the IP can be used best by such organizations. These questions are particularly acute in situations where human rights groups may have limited institutional capacity. This paper explores the practical challenges faced by civil society in using the IP in Low-Income Countries. It is based on qualitative research in three case studies: Nepal, Kenya and Bangladesh. This research involved over 80 interviews with human rights practitioners. The conclusions of the paper are that the Istanbul Protocol provides a useful framework for documentation, but more comprehensive forms of documentation will often be limited to a very small - albeit important - number of legal cases. In many cases, the creation of precise and standardized forms of evidence is not necessarily the most effective form of documentation for redress or accountability. In the absence of legal systems willing and able to respond effectively to allegations of torture and ill-treatment, there are severe limitations on the practical effectiveness of detailed and technical forms of documentation.

  5. African civil society initiatives to drive a biobanking, biosecurity and infrastructure development agenda in the wake of the West African Ebola outbreak.

    PubMed

    Abayomi, Akin; Gevao, Sahr; Conton, Brian; Deblasio, Pasquale; Katz, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the formation of a civil society consortium, spurred to action by frustration over the Ebola crises, to facilitate the development of infrastructure and frameworks including policy development to support a harmonized, African approach to health crises on the continent. The Global Emerging Pathogens Treatment Consortium, or GET, is an important example of how African academics, scientists, clinicians and civil society have come together to initiate policy research, multilevel advocacy and implementation of initiatives aimed at building African capacity for timely and effective mitigations strategies against emerging infectious and neglected pathogens, with a focus on biobanking and biosecurity. The consortium has been able to establish it self as a leading voice, drawing attention to scientific infrastructure gaps, the importance of cultural sensitivities, and the power of community engagement. The GET consortium demonstrates how civil society can work together, encourage government engagement and strengthen national and regional efforts to build capacity.

  6. African civil society initiatives to drive a biobanking, biosecurity and infrastructure development agenda in the wake of the West African Ebola outbreak

    PubMed Central

    Abayomi, Akin; Gevao, Sahr; Conton, Brian; Deblasio, Pasquale; Katz, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the formation of a civil society consortium, spurred to action by frustration over the Ebola crises, to facilitate the development of infrastructure and frameworks including policy development to support a harmonized, African approach to health crises on the continent. The Global Emerging Pathogens Treatment Consortium, or GET, is an important example of how African academics, scientists, clinicians and civil society have come together to initiate policy research, multilevel advocacy and implementation of initiatives aimed at building African capacity for timely and effective mitigations strategies against emerging infectious and neglected pathogens, with a focus on biobanking and biosecurity. The consortium has been able to establish it self as a leading voice, drawing attention to scientific infrastructure gaps, the importance of cultural sensitivities, and the power of community engagement. The GET consortium demonstrates how civil society can work together, encourage government engagement and strengthen national and regional efforts to build capacity. PMID:28154625

  7. Making Co-Operative Ideas Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnold, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Reddish Vale Technology College was the first co-operative trust in England. The democratic and co-operative nature of the experiment mean that students have gained a greater voice in the organisation of the school. As a result, new social enterprises, environmental interventions, connections with the community and with the wider co-operative…

  8. Women and International Intellectual Co-Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Joyce

    2012-01-01

    The article explores ways in which intellectual co-operation at the League of Nations [SDN] provided a space for the engagement of culturally elite women in intellectual co-operation circles in Geneva, Paris and a range of national contexts stretching across Europe, Latin America and Asia. It discusses the language of the "international mind" and…

  9. The Co-Operative: Good with Schools?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coates, Max

    2015-01-01

    The article is a summary of a small-scale research project which considers the formation of Co-operative Trust Schools. This was carried out in 2013 at a time when the number of schools becoming Academies and Trust Schools through the Co-operative College was burgeoning. Through questionnaire, interview, documentary analysis and exploration of…

  10. Creek Women and the "Civilizing" of Creek Society, 1790-1820.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dysart, Jane E.

    Women in traditional Creek society, while making few decisions in the public domain, held almost absolute power in the domestic realm. When a Creek couple married, the husband moved into his wife's house and lived among her clan, her matrilineal kin. The house, household goods, fields, and children belonged to her. Boys were educated by their…

  11. Service Learning: Connecting Higher Education and Civil Society--Are We Meeting the Challenge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naidoo, B.; Devnarain, B.

    2009-01-01

    The decline in civic participation, dwindling support for social services and deficits in state budgets, has created a climate in which higher education, supported by several policies, has to make a commitment to contribute to the reconstruction and development of society by linking academic programmes to community-based priorities (Campbell…

  12. The expanding role of civil society in the global HIV/AIDS response: what has the President's Emergency Program For AIDS Relief's role been?

    PubMed

    Coutinho, Alex; Roxo, Uchechi; Epino, Henry; Muganzi, Alex; Dorward, Emily; Pick, Billy

    2012-08-15

    Civil society has been part of the HIV/AIDS response from the very beginning of the epidemic, often becoming engaged before national governments. Traditional roles of civil society--advocacy, activism, serving as government watchdog, and acting as community caretaker--have been critical to the response. In addition, civil society organizations (CSOs) play an integral part in providing world-class HIV prevention and treatment services and helping to ensure continuity of care. The President's Emergency Program for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) has significantly increased the global scale-up of combination antiretroviral therapy reaching for more than 5 million people in developing countries, as well as implementation of effective evidence-based combination prevention approaches. PEPFAR databases in 5 countries and annual reports from a centrally managed initiative were mined and analyzed to determine the numbers and types of CSOs funded by PEPFAR over a 5-year period (2006-2011). Data are also presented from Uganda showing the overall resource growth in CSO working for HIV. Case studies document the evolution of 3 indigenous CSOs that increased the capacity to implement activities with PEPFAR funding. A legacy of PEPFAR has been the growth of civil society to address social and health issues as well as recognition by governments that partnerships with beneficiaries and civil society result in better outcomes. Scale-up of the global response could not have happened without the involvement of civil society and people living with HIV. This game changing partnership to jointly tackle the problems that countries face may well be the greatest benefit emerging from the HIV epidemic.

  13. Toward a science for and of the people: promoting civil society through the application of developmental science.

    PubMed

    Lerner, R M; Fisher, C B; Weinberg, R A

    2000-01-01

    Applied developmental science (ADS) is scholarship that seeks to advance the integration of developmental research with actions-policies and programs-that promote positive development and/or enhance the life chances of vulnerable children and families. Through this integration ADS may become a major means to foster a science for and of the people. It may serve as an exemplar of the means through which scholarship, with community collaboration, may contribute directly to social justice. In so doing, ADS helps shift the model of amelioration, prevention, or optimization research from one demonstrating efficacy to one promoting outreach. When this contribution occurs in the context of university-community partnerships, ADS may serve also as a model of how higher education may engage policy makers, contribute to community capacity to sustain valued programs, and maintain and perpetuate civil society through knowledge-based, interinstitutional systems change.

  14. Improving brain computer interface research through user involvement - The transformative potential of integrating civil society organisations in research projects

    PubMed Central

    Wakunuma, Kutoma; Rainey, Stephen; Hansen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Research on Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) often aims to provide solutions for vulnerable populations, such as individuals with diseases, conditions or disabilities that keep them from using traditional interfaces. Such research thereby contributes to the public good. This contribution to the public good corresponds to a broader drive of research and funding policy that focuses on promoting beneficial societal impact. One way of achieving this is to engage with the public. In practical terms this can be done by integrating civil society organisations (CSOs) in research. The open question at the heart of this paper is whether and how such CSO integration can transform the research and contribute to the public good. To answer this question the paper describes five detailed qualitative case studies of research projects including CSOs. The paper finds that transformative impact of CSO integration is possible but by no means assured. It provides recommendations on how transformative impact can be promoted. PMID:28207882

  15. Improving brain computer interface research through user involvement - The transformative potential of integrating civil society organisations in research projects.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Bernd Carsten; Wakunuma, Kutoma; Rainey, Stephen; Hansen, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Research on Brain Computer Interfaces (BCI) often aims to provide solutions for vulnerable populations, such as individuals with diseases, conditions or disabilities that keep them from using traditional interfaces. Such research thereby contributes to the public good. This contribution to the public good corresponds to a broader drive of research and funding policy that focuses on promoting beneficial societal impact. One way of achieving this is to engage with the public. In practical terms this can be done by integrating civil society organisations (CSOs) in research. The open question at the heart of this paper is whether and how such CSO integration can transform the research and contribute to the public good. To answer this question the paper describes five detailed qualitative case studies of research projects including CSOs. The paper finds that transformative impact of CSO integration is possible but by no means assured. It provides recommendations on how transformative impact can be promoted.

  16. Engaging civil society through deliberative dialogue to create the first Mental Health Strategy for Canada: Changing Directions, Changing Lives.

    PubMed

    Mulvale, Gillian; Chodos, Howard; Bartram, Mary; MacKinnon, Mary Pat; Abud, Manon

    2014-12-01

    Citizen engagement through deliberative dialogue is increasingly being used to address 'wicked problems' in policy-making, such as the development of national mental health policy. In 2012, the Mental Health Commission of Canada (MHCC), a national organization funded by and operating at arm's length from the federal government, released the first Mental Health Strategy for Canada: Changing Directions, Changing Lives (Mental Health Commission of Canada, 2012). Despite much-needed reform, Canada, unlike most other industrialized countries, had never previously developed a national Mental Health Strategy (the Strategy). This was due to a mix of policy factors, including a federalist system of government where primary responsibility for healthcare resides with provincial and territorial governments and a highly diverse set of stakeholder groups with diverging core ideas for mental health reform that were rooted in deeply held value differences. In this case study, we review the essential role that engagement of civil society played in the creation of the Strategy, beginning with the efforts to create a national body to shine the light on the need for mental health reform in Canada, followed by the development of a framework of specific goals based on core principles to guide the development of the Strategy, and ultimately, the creation of the Strategy itself. We discuss the various approaches to civil society engagement in each step of this process and focus in particular on how deliberative approaches helped build trust and common ground amongst stakeholders around complex, and often contentious, issues. The nature and outcomes of the deliberative processes including the key tensions between different stakeholder perspectives and values are described. We close by highlighting the lessons learned in a process that culminated with a Strategy that received strong endorsement from stakeholders across Canada. Mental Health Commission of Canada (2012). Changing Directions

  17. The role of civil society in strengthening intercultural maternal health care in local health facilities: Puno, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Jeannie

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Peru's Ministry of Health has made efforts to increase the cultural inclusiveness of maternal health services. In 2005, the Ministry adopted an intercultural birthing policy (IBP) that authorizes and encourages the use of culturally acceptable birthing practices in government-run health facilities. However, studies suggest that indigenous women may receive inconsistent benefits from these kinds of policies. This article examines whether a grassroots accountability initiative based on citizen monitoring of local health facilities by indigenous women can help to promote the objectives of the IBP and improve intercultural maternal health care. Design Findings are drawn from a larger qualitative research study completed in 2015 that included fieldwork done between 2010 and 2011. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 women working as citizen monitors in local health facilities in Puno and 30 key informants, including frontline health workers, health officials, and civil society actors in Puno and Lima, and human rights lawyers from the Defensoría del Pueblo Office in Puno. Results Monitors confirmed from their own personal experiences in the 1990s and early 2000s that respect for intercultural aspects of maternal health care, including traditional indigenous birthing practices, were not readily accepted in publicly funded health facilities. It was also common for indigenous women to face discrimination when seeking health service provided by the state. Although the government's adoption of the IBP in 2005 was a positive step, considerable efforts are still needed to ensure high-quality, culturally appropriate maternal health care is consistently available in local health facilities. Conclusions Despite important progress in the past two decades, policies aimed at improving intercultural maternal health care are unevenly implemented in local health facilities. Civil society, in particular indigenous women themselves, can play an

  18. The role of civil society in strengthening intercultural maternal health care in local health facilities: Puno, Peru.

    PubMed

    Samuel, Jeannie

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective Peru's Ministry of Health has made efforts to increase the cultural inclusiveness of maternal health services. In 2005, the Ministry adopted an intercultural birthing policy (IBP) that authorizes and encourages the use of culturally acceptable birthing practices in government-run health facilities. However, studies suggest that indigenous women may receive inconsistent benefits from these kinds of policies. This article examines whether a grassroots accountability initiative based on citizen monitoring of local health facilities by indigenous women can help to promote the objectives of the IBP and improve intercultural maternal health care. Design Findings are drawn from a larger qualitative research study completed in 2015 that included fieldwork done between 2010 and 2011. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 23 women working as citizen monitors in local health facilities in Puno and 30 key informants, including frontline health workers, health officials, and civil society actors in Puno and Lima, and human rights lawyers from the Defensoría del Pueblo Office in Puno. Results Monitors confirmed from their own personal experiences in the 1990s and early 2000s that respect for intercultural aspects of maternal health care, including traditional indigenous birthing practices, were not readily accepted in publicly funded health facilities. It was also common for indigenous women to face discrimination when seeking health service provided by the state. Although the government's adoption of the IBP in 2005 was a positive step, considerable efforts are still needed to ensure high-quality, culturally appropriate maternal health care is consistently available in local health facilities. Conclusions Despite important progress in the past two decades, policies aimed at improving intercultural maternal health care are unevenly implemented in local health facilities. Civil society, in particular indigenous women themselves, can play an

  19. Civil society and the Health and Social Care Act in England and Wales: theory and praxis for the twenty-first century.

    PubMed

    Scambler, Graham; Scambler, Sasha; Speed, Ewen

    2014-12-01

    In this paper we revisit the notion of civil society in the light of recent attempts to privatize health care in England via the passing of the Health and Social Care Act of 2013. This legislation promises a re-commodification of the National Health Service (NHS) in England. The Bill was bitterly contested during its passage through parliament, most vigorously in 2011. Much of the opposition occurred at a time of widespread, global rebellion, most notably in the 'Arab uprisings' and through the 'occupy movement'. Despite a plethora of protests, we argue, a non-porous boundary between what we call the 'protest sector' of civil society and the wider public sphere of the lifeworld has become apparent in England. A good deal of collective action, whether campaign-focused (like opposition to the Health and Social Care Bill) or more generalized (like rejections of corporate greed), has so far proved ineffective, at least in the short-term; no crisis of legitimation is apparent. We highlight a new 'class/command dynamic', leading to oligarchic rule, in the present era of financial capitalism. We use this health care case-study to re-examine the notion of civil society and its changing properties in what Castells calls a 'networked society'. The contribution ends with a discussion of the role of the sociologist re-civil society and the advocacy of both 'action' and 'foresight sociologies'.

  20. Civilization and Contemporary Social Theory: Alternative Approaches to Armed Forces and Society

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-01

    model of Willam H. McNeill, and the post-structuralism of Michel Foucault view armed forces to be central actors in the historical emergence of Western...ENGLISH, John. "Canada’s Road to 1945". Journal of Canadian Studies. Vol 16, Nos. 3 and 4, 1981. Pp. 100-109. FOUCAULT , Michel . Discipline and Punish...of sacred truths concentrates on the legal and political strata of modern societies. Foucault extends this argument, as O’Neill (1986, l986a) has

  1. Empowering Civil Society To Monitor the Environment: Education for Students, Awareness for the Public, and Functional Literacy for Targeted Groups. WBI Working Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ariasingam, David Lakshmanan

    This paper uses case studies to show that by (1) empowering civil society to monitor the environment through environmental education for primary and secondary students, (2) providing environmental awareness programs for the public, and (3) supporting efforts to improve the functional literacy of targeted groups, the effectiveness and…

  2. Disaster, Civil Society and Education in China: A Case Study of an Independent Non-Government Organization Working in the Aftermath of the Wenchuan Earthquake

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menefee, Trey; Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald

    2012-01-01

    In May 2008 nearly 90,000 people died in the most powerful earthquake in modern Chinese history. Many were students killed in substandard schools, creating a sensitive disaster zone inside a nation whose civil society organizations are beginning to flourish. This paper examines the education earthquake relief program of an international NGO, and…

  3. The Earth Charter and the ESDinds Initiative: Developing Indicators and Assessment Tools for Civil Society Organisations to Examine the Values Dimensions of Sustainability Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Podger, Dimity; Piggot, Georgia; Zahradnik, Martin; Janouskova, Svatava; Velasco, Ismael; Hak, Tomas; Dahl, Arthur; Jimenez, Alicia; Harder, Marie K.

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive report outlines an innovative project in which Earth Charter International is actively involved. The project aims to develop approaches, indicators and tools for Civil Society Organisations (CSOs) to be able to measure values-based aspects and impacts of their work at the project level. Many CSOs have an intuitive feeling that…

  4. Participation in Civil Society and Political Life among Young People in Maharashtra: Findings from the Youth in India--Situation and Needs Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acharya, Rajib; Singh, Abhishek; Santhya, K. G.; Ram, Faujdar; Jejeebhoy, Shireen; Ram, Usha; Mohanty, Sanjay

    2010-01-01

    Youth participation in civil society and political life is increasingly recognised to be an important development objective. Nonetheless, research that sheds light on the extent to which youth participate in these arenas, and the factors that facilitate or inhibit such participation remain limited in most developing countries including India.…

  5. US "Partnership" with the Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood and its Effect on Civil Society and Human Rights.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Anne R

    2014-01-01

    Looking at Egypt before, during and after the Arab Spring, this paper examines the intersection of Christian Copts, the Muslim Brotherhood, the Egyptian army, moderate Muslims and secular groups. In turn, it examines the Obama administration's policies toward Egypt. It discloses the surprising finding that the only consistent aspect of the administration's policy toward Egypt has been outreach to and engagement with the Muslim Brotherhood. At no time before or after the Brotherhood's ascent to prominence in Egyptian politics and society did the administration make support of the Brotherhood conditional. At no time did it use US leverage - given the massive amount of financial and military aid Egypt was depending on, and given the new Egyptian government's desire for prestige in the world community-to pressure the Morsi government to respect human rights, religious liberty and the impartial rule of law. Arguing that American foreign policy at its best is rooted in democratic ideals, this paper asks whether the United States, while respecting that Egyptians must choose their leaders and their political system, could have done more to encourage a positive strategic, moral and political outcome.

  6. Activism: working to reduce maternal mortality through civil society and health professional alliances in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Ray, Sunanda; Madzimbamuto, Farai; Fonn, Sharon

    2012-06-01

    Partnerships between civil society groups campaigning for reproductive and human rights, health professionals and others could contribute more to the strengthening of health systems needed to bring about declines in maternal deaths in Africa. The success of the HIV treatment literacy model developed by the Treatment Action Campaign in South Africa provides useful lessons for activism on maternal mortality, especially the combination of a right-to-health approach with learning and capacity building, community networking, popular mobilisation and legal action. This paper provides examples of these from South Africa, Botswana, Kenya and Uganda. Confidential enquiries into maternal deaths can be powerful instruments for change if pressure to act on their recommendations is brought to bear. Shadow reports presented during UN human rights country assessments can be used in a similar way. Public protests and demonstrations over avoidable deaths have succeeded in drawing attention to under-resourced services, shortages of supplies, including blood for transfusion, poor morale among staff, and lack of training and supervision. Activists could play a bigger role in holding health services, governments, and policy-makers accountable for poor maternity services, developing user-friendly information materials for women and their families, and motivating appropriate human resources strategies. Training and support for patients' groups, in how to use health facility complaints procedures is also a valuable strategy.

  7. What can the World Health Organization learn from EU lessons in civil society engagement and participation for health?

    PubMed

    Battams, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    This article explores challenges for and the development of civil society engagement and stakeholder representation, transparency, and accountability measures in the European Union, with a specific focus on health policy. The stance of the European Union on stakeholder participation within reform debates of the World Health Organization (WHO) is also considered, along with EU lessons for multi-stakeholders at the WHO. The European Commission has developed a number of measures for stakeholder engagement and transparency; however, the European Union has been prone to lobbying interests and has found difficulty in leading and making accountable the private sector when it comes to achieving its own health policy goals. The strong influence of corporate lobbyists on the European Union has come to light, with concerns about a lack of transparency and accountability in decision-making processes. While the WHO could learn from the European Union in terms of its strategies for stakeholder engagement, it could also heed some of the important lessons for the European Union when it comes to working with a broad range of stakeholders.

  8. A neoliberalisation of civil society? Self-help groups and the labouring class poor in rural South India.

    PubMed

    Pattenden, Jonathan

    2010-01-01

    This paper notes the prominence of self-help groups (SHGs) within current anti-poverty policy in India, and analyses the impacts of government- and NGO-backed SHGs in rural North Karnataka. It argues that self-help groups represent a partial neoliberalisation of civil society in that they address poverty through low-cost methods that do not challenge the existing distribution of power and resources between the dominant class and the labouring class poor. It finds that intra-group savings and loans and external loans/subsidies can provide marginal economic and political gains for members of the dominant class and those members of the labouring classes whose insecure employment patterns currently provide above poverty line consumption levels, but provide neither material nor political gains for the labouring class poor. Target-oriented SHG catalysts are inattentive to how the social relations of production reproduce poverty and tend to overlook class relations and socio-economic and political differentiation within and outside of groups, which are subject to interference by dominant class local politicians and landowners.

  9. [Funding of a free healthcare campaign in a rural district of Cameroon: optimizing the role of civil society in sub-Saharan Africa].

    PubMed

    Keugoung, B; Fouelifack Ymele, F; Dongtsa Mabou, J; Nangue, C; Ngouadjio Kougoum, P; Takoudjou, L; Hercot, D; Meli, J

    2013-05-01

    Financial barriers represent a major obstacle to access to health care in sub-Saharan Africa and thus to the implementation of the Bamako Initiative. We describe an experience in which a civil society organization financed a free healthcare campaign in a rural health district in Cameroon. In all, 2,073 patients received free consultations, laboratory tests, and drugs. Adults older than 40 years accounted for 55.7% of all patients. The most frequent diseases were: osteoarticular conditions (24.1%), malaria (20.8%), and intestinal parasitosis (12.5%). In health systems financed mainly by cost recovery, some population needs remain uncovered by health services. There is a need to involve and reinforce the role of civil society in health system financing. It can help to pool more funds and improve the management of health resources to increase financial access to health care for poor people.

  10. Civil Society Organizations and medicines policy change: a case study of registration, procurement, distribution and use of misoprostol in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Atukunda, Esther Cathyln; Brhlikova, Petra; Agaba, Amon Ganafa; Pollock, Allyson M

    2015-04-01

    Misoprostol use for postpartum haemorrhage (PPH) has been promoted by Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) since the early 2000s. Yet, CSOs' role in improving access to misoprostol and shaping health policy at global and national levels is not well understood. We document the introduction of misoprostol in Uganda in 2008 from its registration, addition to treatment guidelines and national Essential Medicines List (EML), to its distribution and use. We then analyse the contribution of CSOs to this health policy change and service provision. Policy documents, procurement data and 82 key informant interviews with government officials, healthcare providers, and CSOs in four Ugandan districts of Kampala, Mbarara, Apac, Bundibugyo were collected between 2010 and 2013. Five key CSOs promoted and accelerated the rollout of misoprostol in Uganda. They supported the registration of misoprostol with the National Drug Authority, the development of clinical guidelines, and the piloting and training of health care providers. CSOs and National Medical Stores were procuring and distributing misoprostol country-wide to health centres two years before it was added to the clinical guidelines and EML of Uganda and in the absence of good evidence. The evidence suggests an increasing trend of misoprostol procurement and availability over the medicine of choice, oxytocin. This shift in national priorities has serious ramifications for maternal health care that need urgent evaluation. The absence of clinical guidelines in health centres and the lack of training preclude rational use of misoprostol. CSOs shifted their focus from the public to the private sector, where some of them continue to promote its use for off-label indications including induction of labour and abortion. There is an urgent need to build capacity to improve the robustness of the national and local institutions in assessing the safety and effectiveness of all medicines and their indications in Uganda.

  11. Drug policy and harm reduction in the Middle East and North Africa: The role of civil society.

    PubMed

    Aaraj, Elie; Jreij Abou Chrouch, Micheline

    2016-05-01

    Civil society organizations (CSOs) in Middle East and North Africa (MENA) are the principal partners of government in scaling up the response to HIV and in implementing national policies. In return, CSOs expect endorsement of their work by the governments. Some CSOs face weaknesses and need capacity-building in order for them to reach the level of response required for reducing drug-related harm in this region. Substance use and the transmission of HIV are increasing in the MENA region. The limited data available on drug use show that there are approximately 630,000 people who inject drugs (PWID) across the region. The HIV epidemic remains concentrated among PWID and other key populations in the region. Comprehensive harm reduction programs which include prevention, care, and HIV treatment for PWID are being implemented by CSOs. This could not happen without the presence of a conducive environment which has been facilitated by the CSOs, and which aims to lead to a positive response in health policies, and thus to harm reduction programs in some countries in the region. However, based on the international data, antiretroviral therapy (ART) coverage remains low in these countries, even if the number of people living with HIV (PLHIV) receiving ART is increasing. This increase can sometimes mask important challenges in equity: in several countries PWID are the most likely to be infected with HIV while being the least likely to be receiving care and ART. Therefore, concentrated efforts need to continue toward the goal of having mainstream harm reduction approaches in region.

  12. Has global fund support for civil society advocacy in the former Soviet Union established meaningful engagement or 'a lot of jabber about nothing'?

    PubMed

    Harmer, Andrew; Spicer, Neil; Aleshkina, Julia; Bogdan, Daryna; Chkhatarashvili, Ketevan; Murzalieva, Gulgun; Rukhadze, Natia; Samiev, Arnol; Walt, Gill

    2013-05-01

    Although civil society advocacy for health issues such as HIV transmission through injecting drug use is higher on the global health agenda than previously, its impact on national policy reform has been limited. In this paper we seek to understand why this is the case through an examination of civil society advocacy efforts to reform HIV/AIDS and drugs-related policies and their implementation in three former Soviet Union countries. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted in Georgia, Kyrgyzstan and Ukraine by national researchers with representatives from a sample of 49 civil society organizations (CSOs) and 22 national key informants. We found that Global Fund support resulted in the professionalization of CSOs, which increased confidence from government and increased CSO influence on policies relating to HIV/AIDS and illicit drugs. Interviewees also reported that the amount of funding for advocacy from the Global Fund was insufficient, indirect and often interrupted. CSOs were often in competition for Global Fund support, which caused resentment and limited collective action, further weakening capacity for effective advocacy.

  13. Missing--The People's Voice: Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pike, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Sustainable development in education for future economic growth has always been a global focal point for non-governmental agencies across the world. This article highlights the extensive work the Organisation for Economic Co-operation Development (OECD) has achieved over time, constructing contemporary society as we know it today, continually…

  14. Gender Differences in Job Satisfaction, Satisfaction with Society and Satisfaction from their Salary in Greek Civil Servants who are working under conditions of Labour—Intensive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonakas, Nikolaos; Mironaki, Amalia

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study is to determine empirically the existence of differences in three dimensions of satisfaction in Greek civil servants' gender, when they work under conditions of stress and tension. The three dimensions of satisfaction selected to be considered were job satisfaction, satisfaction with society and satisfaction from their salary. For this a two parts questionnaire was used. The first part included, besides sex and socially demographic characteristics of employees and the second part consisted of the above aspects of satisfaction. Used a sample of 290 employees and a factor analysis was conducted on the results of the questionnaire. The central question of this paper was whether the strength of the force of better wage, compared with the average civil servant, affects a different way to meet women and men's satisfaction who work under working conditions—intensity. The main finding of this study was the existence differences between women and men in the dimension of satisfaction from the salary.

  15. Co-Operation: The Antidote to Isolated Misery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    This is a case study demonstrating the impact the co-operative movement has had on one co-operative school in south-west England. Lipson Co-operative Academy in Plymouth was one of the first schools to convert to become a co-operative school in 2009. The article has been co-written by members of the Academy and focuses on three transformational…

  16. United States History: From Community to Society. Unit Six: Civil War and Reconstruction. Grade Six. Project Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota Univ., Minneapolis. Project Social Studies Curriculum Center.

    The cause of the Civil War is interpreted through cultural concepts in this sixth resource unit series designed for sixth grade students. Suggested activity units expose students in some depth to inhumane conditions of slaves, enslavement problems, black exploitation, and revolts stemming from denial of basic humanity, the African background of…

  17. An Analysis of the Curricula of Business Administration Departments in Turkish Universities with the Perspective of Civil Society Awareness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Aytul Ayse; Sarikaya, Muammer

    2009-01-01

    The authors' goal was to analyze the curricula of business administration departments in state and private universities in Turkey, which have been offering courses such as business and society, social responsibility, business ethics, and management of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs). Of the 74 universities with business administration…

  18. Co-Operative Schools: A Democratic Alternative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Audsley, Jamie; Cook, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Many fear that the pressures of running an Academy will be too great for individual schools, and that they will be forced to join chains run by private companies. These may offer hard-pressed school administrators valuable management expertise and back-office support, but seem to offer wider society little accountability and transparency. Are…

  19. The ambiguities of the 'partnership' between civil society and the state in Uganda's AIDS response during the 1990s and 2000s as demonstrated in the development of TASO.

    PubMed

    Grebe, Eduard

    2016-01-01

    This article critically investigates state-civil society relations in the Ugandan AIDS response by tracing the history of Uganda's 'multisectoral' and 'partnership' approaches, particularly as it pertains to The AIDS Support Organisation (TASO). It finds that the Ugandan government's reputation for good leadership on AIDS is more ambiguous than commonly supposed and that the much-vaunted 'partnership' approach has not enabled strong critical civil society voices to emerge or prevented the harmful impact of a socially conservative agenda. By the 1990s, TASO had become the most important provider of medical and psychosocial support services to HIV/AIDS patients, but was less effective in influencing policy or holding the state accountable (because the political context prevented a more activist stance). The effectiveness of civil society has been constrained by an authoritarian political culture and institutions that discourage vocal criticism. Despite these limitations, however, state-civil society partnership did contribute to the emergence of a relatively effective coalition for action against HIV/AIDS. Donors were essential in encouraging the emergence of this coalition.

  20. Recommendations to Strengthen Civil Society and Balance Michigan's State Budget, 2nd Edition. An Analysis of Fiscal-Year 2003-04 Appropriations and Recommendations for 2004-05. Revision of the March 2003 Study. A Mackinac Center Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFaive, Michael D.

    2004-01-01

    As the debate rages in Lansing over the size and scope of the 2004-2005 Fiscal Year state budget, the Mackinac Center for Public Policy is republishing and updating budget cutting ideas from its March 2003 study, "Recommendations to Strengthen Civil Society and Balance Michigan's Budget." The 2003 study made over 200 recommendations…

  1. Summary and Analysis of the Feedback from Civil Society as Part of the Consultation on the Commission's Memorandum on Lifelong Learning. Supporting Document to the Communication from the Commission Making a European Area of Lifelong Learning a Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Commission of the European Communities, Brussels (Belgium). Directorate-General for Education and Culture.

    This document presents a Consultation Platform formed by seven major networks to maximize impact of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and civil society organizations on development of the Communication on Lifelong Learning. Section 2 is a summary of platform conclusions structured according to these six key messages in the Memorandum on…

  2. The effects of national and international HIV/AIDS funding and governance mechanisms on the development of civil-society responses to HIV/AIDS in East and Southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Kevin J; Birdsall, Karen

    2010-01-01

    The study takes stock of the exponential growth in the number of new civil-society organisations (CSOs) working in the HIV/AIDS field in East and Southern Africa during the period 1996-2004. We researched this development through a survey of 439 CSOs in six countries and case studies focused on the evolution of community responses to HIV/AIDS in specific communities in eight countries. We describe the types of CSOs that emerged, their relationships with governments and donors, and their activities, organisational characteristics and funding requirements. The data presented show that the vision of social mobilisation of HIV/AIDS responses through community-level organisations has faced strong external challenges. Evidence from survey data, national HIV/AIDS spending assessments and case studies shows that in some respects the changing international aid environment undermines the prospects for development of the civil-society sector's contributions in HIV/AIDS responses. Of particular interest is to understand how the "Three Ones" and the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness have reshaped international funding for HIV/AIDS responses. There has been relatively little attention paid to the impact of the new management and funding modalities--including national performance frameworks, general budget support, joint funding arrangements and basket funds--on civil-society agencies at the forefront of community HIV/AIDS responses. Evidence is presented to show that in important respects the new modalities limit the unique contribution that CSOs can make to national HIV/AIDS responses. It is also shown that the drive to rapidly intensify the scale of HIV/AIDS responses has involved using community organisations as service providers for externally formulated programmes. We discuss this as a strong threat to the development of sustainable civil-society economies as well as to CSOs' diversity and responsiveness. The ways in which CSOs are responding to these challenges are

  3. [Developments in civil and disciplinary law. A view of the revision of the Netherlands Society for Dentistry (NMT) administration of justice].

    PubMed

    Brands, W G

    2004-06-01

    According to some people, the renewed Dutch civil disciplinary law is not fulfilling the expectations. Some procedures seem to be reductant for accused dentists. Besides the civil disciplinary law, also the professional disciplinary law of Dutch Dental Association is questionable. The Association is planning to change the current professional disciplinary law. However, the proposed amendments may have the consequence that a Dutch dentist more frequently will be faced with a civil disciplinary law procedure or normal civil law procedure.

  4. 'It looks like you just want them when things get rough': civil society perspectives on negative trial results and stakeholder engagement in HIV prevention trials.

    PubMed

    Koen, Jennifer; Essack, Zaynab; Slack, Catherine; Lindegger, Graham; Newman, Peter A

    2013-12-01

    Civil society organizations (CSOs) have significantly impacted on the politics of health research and the field of bioethics. In the global HIV epidemic, CSOs have served a pivotal stakeholder role. The dire need for development of new prevention technologies has raised critical challenges for the ethical engagement of community stakeholders in HIV research. This study explored the perspectives of CSO representatives involved in HIV prevention trials (HPTs) on the impact of premature trial closures on stakeholder engagement. Fourteen respondents from South African and international CSOs representing activist and advocacy groups, community mobilisation initiatives, and human and legal rights groups were purposively sampled based on involvement in HPTs. Interviews were conducted from February-May 2010. Descriptive analysis was undertaken across interviews and key themes were developed inductively. CSO representatives largely described positive outcomes of recent microbicide and HIV vaccine trial terminations, particularly in South Africa, which they attributed to improvements in stakeholder engagement. Ongoing challenges to community engagement included the need for principled justifications for selective stakeholder engagement at strategic time-points, as well as the need for legitimate alternatives to CABs as mechanisms for engagement. Key issues for CSOs in relation to research were also raised.

  5. Using information communication technologies to increase the institutional capacity of local health organisations in Africa: a case study of the Kenya Civil Society Portal for Health

    PubMed Central

    Juma, Charles; Sundsmo, Aaron; Maket, Boniface; Powell, Richard; Aluoch, Gilbert

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Achieving the healthcare components of the United Nations’ Millennium Development Goals is significantly premised on effective service delivery by civil society organisations (CSOs). However, many CSOs across Africalack the necessary capacity to perform this role robustly. This paper reports on an evaluation of the use, and perceived impact, of aknowledge management tool upon institutional strengthening among CSOs working in Kenya's health sector. Methods Three methods were used: analytics data; user satisfaction surveys; and a furtherkey informant survey. Results Satisfaction with the portal was consistently high, with 99% finding the quality and relevance of the content very good or good for institutional strengthening standards, governance, and planning and resource mobilisation. Critical facilitators to the success of knowledge management for CSO institutional strengthening were identified as people/culture (developed resources and organisational narratives) and technology (easily accessible, enabling information exchange, tools/resources available, access to consultants/partners). Critical barriers were identified as people/culture (database limitations, materials limitations, and lack of active users), and process (limited access, limited interactions, and limited approval process). Conclusion This pilot study demonstrated the perceived utility of a web-based knowledge management portal among developing nations’ CSOs, with widespread satisfaction across multiple domains, which increased over time. Providing increased opportunities for collective mutual learning, promoting a culture of data use for decision making, and encouraging all health organisations to be learning institutions should be a priority for those interested in promoting sustainable long-term solutions for Africa. PMID:26401217

  6. Al-qararal-wizari raqam 159 bi-tarikh 21/8/1968 fi sha'n al-jam'iyyat al-ta'awiniyya al-ta'limiyya (Ministerial Decree No.169, 21 August 1968, Concerning Educational Co-operative Societies).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Arab Republic.

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a Ministerial decree establishing educational cooperative societies, and spelling out their objectives, rules of procedure, fees, membership requirements, funding, administrative organization, voting procedures, distribution of profits, termination procedures,…

  7. National Health Service Principles as Experienced by Vulnerable London Migrants in "Austerity Britain": A Qualitative Study of Rights, Entitlements, and Civil-Society Advocacy

    PubMed Central

    Rafighi, Elham; Poduval, Shoba; Legido-Quigley, Helena; Howard, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Recent British National Health Service (NHS) reforms, in response to austerity and alleged ‘health tourism,’ could impose additional barriers to healthcare access for non-European Economic Area (EEA) migrants. This study explores policy reform challenges and implications, using excerpts from the perspectives of non-EEA migrants and health advocates in London. Methods: A qualitative study design was selected. Data were collected through document review and 22 in-depth interviews with non-EEA migrants and civil-society organisation representatives. Data were analysed thematically using the NHS principles. Results: The experiences of those ‘vulnerable migrants’ (ie, defined as adult non-EEA asylum-seekers, refugees, undocumented, low-skilled, and trafficked migrants susceptible to marginalised healthcare access) able to access health services were positive, with healthcare professionals generally demonstrating caring attitudes. However, general confusion existed about entitlements due to recent NHS changes, controversy over ‘health tourism,’ and challenges registering for health services or accessing secondary facilities. Factors requiring greater clarity or improvement included accessibility, communication, and clarity on general practitioner (GP) responsibilities and migrant entitlements. Conclusion: Legislation to restrict access to healthcare based on immigration status could further compromise the health of vulnerable individuals in Britain. This study highlights current challenges in health services policy and practice and the role of non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in healthcare advocacy (eg, helping the voices of the most vulnerable reach policy-makers). Thus, it contributes to broadening national discussions and enabling more nuanced interpretation of ongoing global debates on immigration and health. PMID:27694650

  8. Co-operativity in a nanocrystalline solid-state transition.

    PubMed

    White, Sarah L; Smith, Jeremy G; Behl, Mayank; Jain, Prashant K

    2013-01-01

    Co-operativity is a remarkable phenomenon mostly seen in biology, where initial reaction events significantly alter the propensity of subsequent reaction events, giving rise to a nonlinear tightly regulated synergistic response. Here we have found unique evidence of atomic level co-operativity in an inorganic material. A thousand-atom nanocrystal (NC) of the inorganic solid cadmium selenide exhibits strong positive co-operativity in its reaction with copper ions. A NC doped with a few copper impurities becomes highly prone to be doped even further, driving an abrupt transition of the entire NC to the copper selenide phase, as manifested by a strongly sigmoidal response in optical spectroscopy and electron diffraction measurements. The examples presented here suggest that cooperative phenomena may have an important role in the solid state, especially in the nucleation of new chemical phases, crystal growth, and other materials' transformations.

  9. Co-operativity in a nanocrystalline solid-state transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Sarah L.; Smith, Jeremy G.; Behl, Mayank; Jain, Prashant K.

    2013-12-01

    Co-operativity is a remarkable phenomenon mostly seen in biology, where initial reaction events significantly alter the propensity of subsequent reaction events, giving rise to a nonlinear tightly regulated synergistic response. Here we have found unique evidence of atomic level co-operativity in an inorganic material. A thousand-atom nanocrystal (NC) of the inorganic solid cadmium selenide exhibits strong positive co-operativity in its reaction with copper ions. A NC doped with a few copper impurities becomes highly prone to be doped even further, driving an abrupt transition of the entire NC to the copper selenide phase, as manifested by a strongly sigmoidal response in optical spectroscopy and electron diffraction measurements. The examples presented here suggest that cooperative phenomena may have an important role in the solid state, especially in the nucleation of new chemical phases, crystal growth, and other materials’ transformations.

  10. SMEs and their co-operation with academia.

    PubMed

    Antoine, Jean Michel; Strömqvist, Mats

    2005-01-01

    Co-operation between SMEs and Academia can be a win-win situation when each partner understands the constraints of the other. SMEs are often leaders in innovation; therefore more ready to share interest in research. They are flexible and dynamic. They need a short feed-back to sustain their co-operation. Academia is often more long-term oriented and more question- than answer-oriented. A code of conduct can ease the relationship because it can anticipate the potential problems.

  11. Co-Operative Training in the Sheffield Forging Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, R.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to give details of an operation carried out in Sheffield to increase the recruitment of young men into the steel forging industry. Design/methodology/approach: The Sheffield Forges Co-operative Training Scheme was designed to encourage boys to enter the forging industry and to provide them with training and…

  12. Impact of Co-Operative Learning Strategies in English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singaravelu, G.

    2010-01-01

    The study illuminates the effectiveness of Co-operative Learning Strategies in learning English Grammar for the learners at secondary level. Cooperative Learning is particularly beneficial for any student learning as a second language. It promotes peer interaction, which helps the development of language and the learning of concepts with content.…

  13. Interdisciplinary Co-operation (Part II of "Language Learning: Individual Needs, Interdisciplinary Co-operation, Bi- and Multilingualism").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1978

    The following papers on interdisciplinary cooperation in second language instruction are included: (1) "Language Teaching: Possibilities for Interdisciplinary Co-operation," by James E. Alatis; (2) "L'insegnamento della letteratura italiana (The Teaching of Italian Literature)," by Ezio Raimondi; (3) "Objective Evaluation and Transparency," by…

  14. Healthcare technology co-operatives: Innovative about innovation.

    PubMed

    Heron, Nicola M; Tindale, Wendy B

    2014-01-01

    The paper provides an introduction to the National Institute for Health Research Devices for Dignity Healthcare Technology Co-operative. Embedded within the NHS, Devices for Dignity identifies areas of unmet clinical need and translates these into research and development projects to develop new medical technologies. It addresses the needs of people living with long-term conditions, helping them to live more dignified and independent lives. Through partnerships with patients, universities, the NHS and industry, Devices for Dignity has developed an innovation methodology for successful medical technology innovation.

  15. On the road towards better health gain through co-operation in the European Union?

    PubMed

    Schutyser, K

    1999-01-01

    Explained are some 4 paradoxes, amongst many others, in healthcare and hospital policy and the turbulent "changes" and so-called changes they are going through all over Europe:--change vs being changed?--cost vs investment?--compete vs co-operate?--patients vs healthcare workers? There is certainly not yet a politically explicit option for a comprehensive European (Union) healthcare system. The national governments explicitly want to keep their part of the social organisation of society in their own hands. But at the same time the EU is active in the healthcare field when exercising its (reduced) competencies in public health and in data comparison as well as when acting in its very broad domains of the internal market. The informative and benchmarking role of the EU is immense and it has huge means to stimulate European networks and scientific research even in healthcare systems and policymaking. A strong message here is certainly to correctly invest in real health gain for patients and society through co-operation and networking among the many stakeholders in health and healthcare. The challenge for the future, for the numerous actors on the very slippery slope of health is to keep upright as moderate consumers, producers and rulers. This appeal to moderation, i.e. to prevention of exaggeration, which comes down to an attitude of subsidiarity, is a general conclusion, which may seem idealistic. However, one can qualify it also as "2000 realism" which our western social healthcare systems need for surviving, as they will have to see to a more solidarity-based coverage of health risks instead of reserving healthcare to the rich, and as they will have to open their social quality systems even more throughout the world.

  16. An Effect of the Co-Operative Network Model for Students' Quality in Thai Primary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khanthaphum, Udomsin; Tesaputa, Kowat; Weangsamoot, Visoot

    2016-01-01

    This research aimed: 1) to study the current and desirable states of the co-operative network in developing the learners' quality in Thai primary schools, 2) to develop a model of the co-operative network in developing the learners' quality, and 3) to examine the results of implementation of the co-operative network model in the primary school.…

  17. The Effectiveness of Structured Co-Operative Teaching and Learning in Greek Primary School Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaldi, Stavroula; Filippatou, Diamanto; Anthopoulou, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses upon the effectiveness of structured co-operative group work on primary school students, aged between 8.5 and 9.5 years old, regarding their content knowledge, attitudes towards co-operative group work, experiential learning and open-ended curriculum as well as students' social and learning behaviour during co-operative group…

  18. Moroccan Civil Society: Historical Traditions and Contemporary Challenges. Curriculum Projects of a Fulbright-Hays Seminar Abroad, June 25-July 29, 1998 (Morocco).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This collection of curriculum projects is the result of the participation of 15 teacher/authors in the 1998 Fulbright-Hays seminar in Morocco. Projects in the collection focus on various topics in Moroccan society. The following curriculum projects are outlined in the collection: "Studies in African Cultures: A Course Syllabus" (Dinker…

  19. Civil Rights

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA's Civil Rights Program enforces federal civil rights laws that prohibit discrimination against members of the public by recipients of EPA funds, and protects employees and applicants for employment from discrimination.

  20. Maternal-fetal resource allocation: co-operation and conflict.

    PubMed

    Fowden, A L; Moore, T

    2012-11-01

    Pregnancy is generally a co-operative interaction between mother and fetus in which the evolutionary genetic interests of both benefit from production of healthy offspring. While this view is largely supported by empirical data, Kinship Theory predicts that mother and fetus will disagree over the optimum level of maternal investment that maximises their respective fitnesses. This conflict will be more evident with polyandrous than monogamous mating systems, when resources are scarce and in late gestation when the fetus is growing maximally, particularly if conceptus mass is large relative to maternal mass. As the site of nutrient transfer, the placenta is pivotal in the tug-of-war between mother and fetus over resource allocation. It responds to both fetal signals of nutrient demand and maternal signals of nutrient availability and, by adapting its phenotype, regulates the distribution of available resources. These adaptations involve changes in placental size, morphology, transport characteristics, metabolism and hormone bioavailability. They are mediated by key growth regulatory, endocrine and nutrient supply genes responsive to mismatches between nutrient availability and the fetal genetic drive for growth. Indeed, evolution of genomic imprinting and placental secretion of hormones are believed to have been driven by maternal-fetal conflict over resource allocation. Although many of the specific mechanisms involved still have to be identified, the placenta confers optimal fitness on the offspring for its developmental environment by balancing conflict and cooperation in the allocation of resources through generation of nutrient transport phenotypes specific to the prevailing nutritional conditions and/or fetal genotype.

  1. Overcoming decommissioning challenges through client/laboratory co-operation

    SciTech Connect

    Wharton, Mike; Gray, Lesley

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Accelerated decommissioning projects of the type underway at the former gaseous diffusion plant at BNG Capenhurst, UK, involve characterisation and radiochemical fingerprinting of a variety of unusual materials derived from legacy wastes. The project management and technical challenges that can occur during such a program can be successfully surmounted if a close working relationship between the client and the analytical laboratory is achieved. The Capenhurst Integrated Decommissioning Program (IDP) is an example of how such co-operation can reduce costs and time scales by providing the analytical laboratory with key sample and technical information prior to the shipping of the samples to the lab. This ensures that challenges associated with unusual sample matrices can be anticipated and dealt with at an early stage in the project. Gamma spectrometry is the most common analytical technique when analysing samples for radioactive content as it is non-destructive, relatively inexpensive and fast. However, accurate measurement generally requires samples of a known density to be counted in calibrated geometries. This becomes a challenge as many legacy wastes comprise materials of uneven geometry and/or varying density, as has been the case during the Capenhurst IDP. Liaising with the client to ensure a representative sub-sample of the material is taken on-site, and a series of additional checks when analysing the sample ensure that accurate results are obtained even for non-routine materials. Often it is only one or two radionuclides that dominate the radioactive inventory for legacy wastes. (authors)

  2. The ACCEND program: a combined BS and MS program in environmental engineering that includes co-operative work experience.

    PubMed

    Bishop, P L; Keener, T C; Kukreti, A R; Kowel, S T

    2004-01-01

    Environmental engineering education has rapidly expanded in recent years and new teaching methods are needed. Many professionals and educators believe that a MS degree in environmental engineering should be the minimum in order to practice the profession, along with practical training. This paper describes an innovative program being offered at the University of Cincinnati that combines an integrated BS in civil engineering and an MS in environmental engineering with extensive practical co-operative education (co-op) experience, all within a five-year period. The program includes distance learning opportunities during the co-op periods. The result is a well-trained graduate who will receive higher pay and more challenging career opportunities, and who will have developed professionalism and maturity beyond that from traditional engineering programs.

  3. 'Part of the solution': Developing sustainable energy through co-operatives and learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duguid, Fiona C. B.

    After five years of development, WindShare Co-operative in Toronto, Ontario became the first urban wind turbine in North America and the first co-operatively owned and operated wind turbine in Canada. The development of WindShare Co-operative has spurred the growth of a green energy co-operative sector in Ontario. This study, which included 27 interviews and a focus group with members of WindShare Co-operative, focuses on the roles of community-based green energy co-operatives in advancing sustainable energy development and energy literacy. Sustainable energy development is firmly rooted in the triple bottom line of environmental, social and economic success, and green energy co-operatives can be a way to help achieve those successes. Green energy co-operatives are structures for providing renewable energy generation or energy conservation practices, both of which have important environmental impacts regarding climate change and pollution levels. Co-operative structures are supported by processes that include local ownership, democracy, participation, community organizing, learning and social change. These processes have a significant social impact by creating a venue for people to be directly involved in the energy industry, by involving learning through participation in a community-based organization, and by advancing energy literacy within the membership and the general public. In regards to the economic impacts, green energy co-operatives foster a local economy and local investment opportunities, which have repercussions regarding building expertise within Ontario's green energy and co-operative development future, and more generally, captures members' interest because they have a direct stake in the co-operative. This thesis shows that green energy co-operatives, like WindShare, play an important role in advancing sustainable energy development, energy literacy and the triple bottom line. Members of WindShare expressed resounding feelings of pride, efficacy

  4. Vitrification assistance program: international co-operation on vitrification technology

    SciTech Connect

    Penrice, Ch.; McGowan, B.; Garth, B.; Reed, J.; Prod'homme, A.; Sartelet, S.; Guerif, H.N.; Hollebecque, J.F.; Flament, T.; Prod'homme, A.

    2008-07-01

    With 10 vitrification lines in operation (3 on WVP in Sellafield, 1 on AVM in Marcoule and 6 on AVH in La Hague), Sellafield Ltd and Areva NC benefit from the most in-depth experience worldwide in the vitrification of highly active liquors within a framework of commercial operations. Based on the two-step process design, using a calciner and an induction-heated hot melter, which was initially deployed in Marcoule in 1978, core vitrification equipment has been continuously improved by the independent development programmes of the two companies. In March 2005, Sellafield Ltd and Areva NC signed the Vitrification Assistance Program (hereafter referred to as VAP); a co-operative project lasting 4 years during which Areva NC is to share some areas of their experience and expertise with Sellafield Ltd. Now at the halfway point of this project, this paper summarises the work performed by the VAP team to date, highlighting the early benefits and lessons learned. The following points will be developed: - Equipment delivery and preparation for implementation on WVP - Training organization and dissemination to WVP teams - Lessons learned from the early changes implemented in operations (Calciner, Melter, Dust Scrubber and Primary off gas system), and initial feedback from the first campaign using a VAP equipped line. In conclusion: The vitrification process and technology implemented at Sellafield and at La Hague, based on the two-step process, have proved to be efficient in treating high active liquor of various types. Ten lines based on this principle have been successfully operated for more than 15 years in France and in the UK. The process has also been demonstrated to be sufficiently versatile to benefit from continuous improvement and development programmes. VAP, as a complete package to support vitrification technology and knowledge transfer from AREVA NC to Sellafield Ltd, has provided the framework for fruitful technical exchanges and discussions between the two

  5. Ten thousand revolutions: conjectures about civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denning, Kathryn

    2011-02-01

    Ten thousand years ago, no-one on Earth was living a "civilized" life. What has happened since is remarkable and impossible to fully comprehend; yet, everyone has ideas about civilization, and how the world came to be as it is. Such understandings of civilizations on Earth inevitably influence speculation about extraterrestrial civilizations, in two ways. First, sometimes a specific Earth civilization or historical experience is explicitly used as a basis for inferences about extraterrestrial civilizations. Second, more general assumptions about the development and functioning of Earth's societies shape conjectures about alien societies. This paper focuses on the latter, general assumptions, with the aim of considering how we can use multidisciplinary approaches, and our knowledge of Earth's civilizations, to our best advantage in SETI.

  6. Co-Operative Problem-Solving at the Royal Docks Community School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    This article responds to Henry Tam's article in this issue of FORUM by exploring opportunities for co-operative problem-solving for staff and students of the Royal Docks Community School in the London Borough of Newham. Becoming a co-operative trust helped the school move out of special measures and develop a strategy of participation and…

  7. Co-Operative Education and the State, c.1895-1935

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon, Keith

    2013-01-01

    The co-operative movement is currently exploring ways of engaging with changes in government education policy to develop schools with a distinctive co-operative ethos. While drawing on the opportunities in changing policy, these initiatives can also be seen as offering alternatives to the prevailing tenor of government thinking. This is not the…

  8. The Learning Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Zee, Hendrik

    1991-01-01

    Strategic issues in the development of a learning society are (1) broadening the definition of learning; (2) making the goal of learning growth toward completeness; (3) increasing collective competence; (4) fostering autonomy in learners; and (5) stressing a political approach to learning (the right to learn as a civil right). (SK)

  9. Making the Good Society Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Field, John

    2010-01-01

    Everyone is talking about civil society. Perhaps it's the election, and the shock of seeing more voters at the polling booths than anyone had expected. Now David Cameron's idea of a "big society" is being translated into some early policy measures. Does today's debate have anything to do with adult learning? The author believes that the…

  10. India and Pakistan Civil-Military Relations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-21

    India and Pakistan Civil -Military Relations A Monograph by MAJ Brent Williams United States Army School of Advanced...2015 2. REPORT TYPE Master’s Thesis 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) JUN 2014 – MAY 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE India and Pakistan Civil Military...explains civil -military relationships throughout a wide range of interactions between a society and the society’s military. The monograph uses this

  11. Co-operation in Environmental Education at the Tertiary Level in the Asia-Pacific Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sato, Masahisa; Bhandari, Bishnu; Abe, Osamu

    2001-01-01

    Analyzes the co-operation in environmental education at the tertiary level with regard to sub-regions, which include North-East Asia, South-East Asia, South Asia, and the South Pacific. (Contains 17 references.) (YDS)

  12. Corruption drives the emergence of civil society

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Sherief; Sayed, Rasha; Rahwan, Iyad; LeVeck, Brad L.; Cebrian, Manuel; Rutherford, Alex; Fowler, James H.

    2014-01-01

    Centralized sanctioning institutions have been shown to emerge naturally through social learning, displace all other forms of punishment and lead to stable cooperation. However, this result provokes a number of questions. If centralized sanctioning is so successful, then why do many highly authoritarian states suffer from low levels of cooperation? Why do states with high levels of public good provision tend to rely more on citizen-driven peer punishment? Here, we consider how corruption influences the evolution of cooperation and punishment. Our model shows that the effectiveness of centralized punishment in promoting cooperation breaks down when some actors in the model are allowed to bribe centralized authorities. Counterintuitively, a weaker centralized authority is actually more effective because it allows peer punishment to restore cooperation in the presence of corruption. Our results provide an evolutionary rationale for why public goods provision rarely flourishes in polities that rely only on strong centralized institutions. Instead, cooperation requires both decentralized and centralized enforcement. These results help to explain why citizen participation is a fundamental necessity for policing the commons. PMID:24478283

  13. Corruption drives the emergence of civil society.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Sherief; Sayed, Rasha; Rahwan, Iyad; Leveck, Brad L; Cebrian, Manuel; Rutherford, Alex; Fowler, James H

    2014-04-06

    Centralized sanctioning institutions have been shown to emerge naturally through social learning, displace all other forms of punishment and lead to stable cooperation. However, this result provokes a number of questions. If centralized sanctioning is so successful, then why do many highly authoritarian states suffer from low levels of cooperation? Why do states with high levels of public good provision tend to rely more on citizen-driven peer punishment? Here, we consider how corruption influences the evolution of cooperation and punishment. Our model shows that the effectiveness of centralized punishment in promoting cooperation breaks down when some actors in the model are allowed to bribe centralized authorities. Counterintuitively, a weaker centralized authority is actually more effective because it allows peer punishment to restore cooperation in the presence of corruption. Our results provide an evolutionary rationale for why public goods provision rarely flourishes in polities that rely only on strong centralized institutions. Instead, cooperation requires both decentralized and centralized enforcement. These results help to explain why citizen participation is a fundamental necessity for policing the commons.

  14. Public health and the civilizing process.

    PubMed

    Goudsblom, J

    1986-01-01

    Since the Middle Ages, European society has passed through two successive stages in the "civilizing process." Each has been attended by profound changes in psychological and social codes. These are examined in relation to a greater concern with health and hygiene in response to four waves of epidemics: leprosy, plague, syphilis, and cholera. Speculations are offered about AIDS and the "civilizing process".

  15. Case Studies Involving Co-operation between Industry and Education in Australia's Northern Territory: The Role of the Professional Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, W. P.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide case studies of co-operation between education and industry in the Northern Territory in particular; the study also provides exemplars of co-operation between education and industry in Australia and worldwide. The existence of such co-operation is not surprising as education and industry share many common…

  16. Cleavages and co-operation in the UK alcohol industry: A qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background It is widely believed that corporate actors exert substantial influence on the making of public health policy, including in the alcohol field. However, the industry is far from being monolithic, comprising a range of producers and retailers with varying and diverse interests. With a focus on contemporary debates concerning the minimum pricing of alcohol in the UK, this study examined the differing interests of actors within the alcohol industry, the cleavages which emerged between them on this issue and how this impacted on their ability to organise themselves collectively to influence the policy process. We conducted 35 semi-structured interviews between June and November 2010 with respondents from all sectors of the industry as well as a range of non-industry actors who had knowledge of the alcohol policy process, including former Ministers, Members of the UK Parliament and the Scottish Parliament, civil servants, members of civil society organisations and professionals. Methods The paper draws on an analysis of publicly available documents and 35 semi-structured interviews with respondents from the alcohol industry (on- and off-trade including retailers, producers of wines, spirits and beers and trade associations) and a range of non-industry actors with knowledge of the alcohol policy process (including former Ministers, Members of Parliament and of the Scottish Parliament, civil servants, members of civil society organisations and professional groups). Interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using Nvivo qualitative analysis software. Processes of triangulation between data sources and different types of respondent sought to ensure we gained as accurate a picture as possible of industry participation in the policy process. Results Divergences of interest were evident between producers and retailers and within the retail sector between the on and off trade. Divisions within the alcohol industry, however, existed not only between these

  17. The Civil Behavior of Students: A Survey of School Professionals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Keely; Caldarella, Paul; Crook-Lyon, Rachel E.; Young, K. Richard

    2010-01-01

    Many authors regard education as a way of increasing civility in society, and some have implemented interventions to improve civility in schools. However, very little empirical data exist on the extent and nature of students' civil behavior. The present study systematically gathered data from 251 school professionals regarding their perceptions of…

  18. Civil Disobedience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue looks at three historical and recent instances of civil disobedience. The first article examines the Free Speech Movement, which arose on the Berkeley campus of the University of California in the 1960s. The second article recounts the struggle of Mahatma Gandhi to free India from the British Empire. The final article explores the…

  19. Society's expectations of health

    PubMed Central

    Leach, Edmund

    1975-01-01

    Sir Edmund Leach argues that doctors in the modern world, fortified by the traditional concept that the life of the sick person must at all costs be preserved, are to some extent guilty of the false antitheses current today between youth and age. Moreover youth means health, age illness and senility. Until this imbalance is corrected society will be in danger of `a kind of civil war between the generations'. Society must be taught again that mortality cannot be avoided or conquered by medical science, and at the same time that `health' is not enshrined in the young alone. PMID:1177271

  20. Co-operation between patient organisations and the drug industry in Finland.

    PubMed

    Hemminki, Elina; Toiviainen, Hanna K; Vuorenkoski, Lauri

    2010-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the co-operation between patient organizations and the drug industry in Finland prior to critical discussions on the topic. The data were gathered by a questionnaire survey of 85 patient organisations (response rate 65%, n = 55) and 20 drug firms (response rate 100%) in 2003, and by interviewing 13 organisations and surveying their web-pages and other documents in 2004. In the surveys, half of the patient organisations and 80% of the drug firms considered co-operation important. Most (71%) organisations reported financial support from the drug industry. Most organisations and drug firms had experienced problems. Common problems for organisations were too little or too unpredictable support from industry, and threats to independence and objectivity. Drug firms frequently mentioned unclear rules of co-operation. The patient organisation interviews exhibited similar themes and findings to those found in the surveys, revealing the complexity and importance of co-operation in organisation activities, and the variation between organisations. This case study from Finland showed that co-operation between patient organizations and the drug industry was common, many-sided and not usually transparent. The close connections between patient organizations and commercial companies, particularly drug firms, raise several policy issues and the need for action.

  1. The Emergence of Civilization [and] Case Studies in the Emergence of Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, Jack

    This secondary level anthropology textbook emphasizes the comparison of the patterns of culture change which resulted in complex societies (civilizations) in six different areas around the world. The textbook stresses problem-solving and is centered around three questions: In what manner and through what stages did these civilizations evolve? What…

  2. Benzoyl peroxide interferes with metabolic co-operation between cultured human epidermal keratinocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, N.J.; Parkinson, E.K.; Emmerson, A.

    1984-03-01

    The ability of benzoyl peroxide to inhibit metabolic co-operation in rodent cell cultures may be relevant to its recently reported tumour promoting activity in mouse epidermis. We show here that non-toxic doses of this compound reduce metabolic co-operation between human epidermal keratinocytes to approximately 30% of that found in controls. The doses of benzoyl peroxide used did not affect keratinocyte morphology or their rate of attachment to the culture substratum. These results could be important as benzoyl peroxide is widely used in industry.

  3. Implications of Civility for Children and Adolescents: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Keely; Caldarella, Paul; Crook-Lyon, Rachel; Young, K. Richard

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the literature exploring various definitions of civility, along with reasons why civility is vital to children and adolescents in any community. The authors examine definitions and components of civility in both historical and current contexts. The need for increased civility in modern society is described.…

  4. The Contribution of International Academic Co-operation and Exchange to the Development and Advancement of Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grothus, Ulrich

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the role of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) in the ongoing effort to internationalize German higher education. Describes efforts in Germany such as the introduction of bachelor's and master's degree-level programs and the restructuring of doctoral programs, as well as formation of networks with foreign universities. (EV)

  5. Are University Co-Operative Education Students Safe? Perceptions of Risk to Students on Work Terms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhook, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    As students venture off campus for university-sponsored activities, are they at risk, given that universities are better able to control risk factors on campus than they can for their off-campus activities? Co-operative education is a formalized and longstanding academic program that often sees students spend upwards of a third of their time off…

  6. Effects of a Co-operative Learning Strategy on Ninth-Graders' Understanding of Human Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soyibo, Kola; Evans, Hermel G.

    2002-01-01

    Looks at the effect of teaching strategies on a group's attitude toward biology and understanding human nutrition. Used an experimental group that participated in co-operative learning and a control group taught using the lecture method. Involves ninth graders (n=156) from two high schools in Jamaica. (Author/YDS)

  7. Gestalt Revisited: Spin-Offs and Assessment in International University Co-Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denman, Brian D.

    2004-01-01

    International university co-operation is in a constant state of metamorphosis. Its future rests upon extraneous forces such as globalization and internationalization and also upon those who make policy decisions. Many international university organizations are auditing their programs and initiatives to such a degree that the cost effectiveness of…

  8. The Formation and Development of Co-Operations among South African Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roebken, Heinke

    2008-01-01

    Organizational collaboration is "en vogue", especially in higher education. So far, little is known about the mechanisms that explain co-operation formation and their impact on the social structure of the research systems. By examining co-authored research papers written at South African universities between 1966 and 2006, co-operation…

  9. Jamming Transition of Point-To Traffic Through Co-Operative Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Jun; Qin, Zheng; Chen, Xiqun; Xu, Zhaohui

    2012-11-01

    We study the jamming transition of two-dimensional point-to-point traffic through co-operative mechanisms (DCM) using computer simulation. We propose two decentralized co-operative mechanisms CM which are incorporated into the point-to-point traffic models: stepping aside (CM-SA) and choosing alternative routes (CM-CAR). Incorporating CM-SA is to prevent a type of ping-pong jumps from happening when two objects standing face-to-face want to move in opposite directions. Incorporating CM-CAR is to handle the conflict when more than one object competes for the same point in parallel update. We investigate and compare four models mainly from fundamental diagrams, jam patterns and the distribution of co-operation probability. It is found that although it decreases the average velocity a little, the CM-SA increases the critical density and the average flow. Despite increasing the average velocity, the CM-CAR decreases the average flow by creating substantially vacant areas inside jam clusters. We investigate the jam patterns of four models carefully and explain this result qualitatively. In addition, we discuss the advantage and applicability of decentralized co-operation modeling.

  10. The Economic and Social Impact of the Arctic Co-operative Movement on the Canadian Eskimo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Kenneth D.

    Canada's Arctic co-operatives are designed to provide a means of encouraging Eskimos to participate directly in the economic development of the Arctic through the promotion of cooperative ownership and enterprise. They also seek to provide a method of maximizing economic returns in Arctic communities from local businesses and enterprise. Backed by…

  11. Using Peer Teaching to Support Co-Operative Learning in Undergraduate Pharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Depaz, Iris; Moni, Roger W.

    2008-01-01

    We report findings from the second phase of a study of co-operative, group-based assessment in Pharmacology for second-year undergraduates at The University of Queensland, Australia. Students (n = 285) enrolled in the 2006 Bachelor of Science degree program completed a group-based assessment task (weighted 10% of their course). Blended teaching…

  12. Environmental Engineering Education (E3) in the Gulf Co-Operation Countries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jassim, Majeed; Coskuner, Gulnur

    2007-01-01

    The six members of the Gulf Co-operation Countries (GCC)--Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Emirates--are facing enormous environmental challenges associated with rapid urbanisation and industrialisation, especially in the last three decades, due to its role as a global hydrocarbon energy centre. None of these…

  13. A mixture of "cheats" and "co-operators" can enable maximal group benefit.

    PubMed

    MaClean, R Craig; Fuentes-Hernandez, Ayari; Greig, Duncan; Hurst, Laurence D; Gudelj, Ivana

    2010-09-14

    Is a group best off if everyone co-operates? Theory often considers this to be so (e.g. the "conspiracy of doves"), this understanding underpinning social and economic policy. We observe, however, that after competition between "cheat" and "co-operator" strains of yeast, population fitness is maximized under co-existence. To address whether this might just be a peculiarity of our experimental system or a result with broader applicability, we assemble, benchmark, dissect, and test a systems model. This reveals the conditions necessary to recover the unexpected result. These are 3-fold: (a) that resources are used inefficiently when they are abundant, (b) that the amount of co-operation needed cannot be accurately assessed, and (c) the population is structured, such that co-operators receive more of the resource than the cheats. Relaxing any of the assumptions can lead to population fitness being maximized when cheats are absent, which we experimentally demonstrate. These three conditions will often be relevant, and hence in order to understand the trajectory of social interactions, understanding the dynamics of the efficiency of resource utilization and accuracy of information will be necessary.

  14. Autism Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... and fun! Register Today Improving the lives of all affected by autism. The Autism Society is the ... and advocacy. Learn more Improving the lives of all affected by autism. The Autism Society is the ...

  15. Power corrupts co-operation: cognitive and motivational effects in a double EEG paradigm.

    PubMed

    Kanso, Riam; Hewstone, Miles; Hawkins, Erin; Waszczuk, Monika; Nobre, Anna Christina

    2014-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of interpersonal power on co-operative performance. We used a paired electro-encephalogram paradigm: pairs of participants performed an attention task, followed by feedback indicating monetary loss or gain on every trial. Participants were randomly allocated to the power-holder, subordinate or neutral group by creating different levels of control over how a joint monetary reward would be allocated. We found that power was associated with reduced behavioural accuracy. Event-related potential analysis showed that power-holders devoted less motivational resources to their targets than did subordinates or neutrals, but did not differ at the level of early conflict detection. Their feedback potential results showed a greater expectation of rewards but reduced subjective magnitude attributed to losses. Subordinates, on the other hand, were asymmetrically sensitive to power-holders' targets. They expected fewer rewards, but attributed greater significance to losses. Our study shows that power corrupts balanced co-operation with subordinates.

  16. The rivers of civilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macklin, Mark G.; Lewin, John

    2015-04-01

    The hydromorphic regimes that underpinned Old World river-based civilizations are reviewed in light of recent research. Notable Holocene climatic changes varied from region to region, whilst the dynamics of floodplain environments were equally diverse, with river channel changes significantly affecting human settlement. There were longer-term trends in Holocene hydroclimate and multi-centennial length 'flood-rich' and 'flood-poor' episodes. These impacted on five identified flooding and settlement scenarios: (i) alluvial fans and aprons; (ii) laterally mobile rivers; (iii) rivers with well-developed levees and flood basins; (iv) river systems characterised by avulsions and floodouts; and (v) large river-fed wetlands. This gave a range of changes that were either more or less regular or incremental from year-to-year (and thus potentially manageable) or catastrophic. The latter might be sudden during a flood event or a few seasons (acute), or over longer periods extending over many decades or even centuries (chronic). The geomorphic and environmental impacts of these events on riparian societies were very often irreversible. Contrasts are made between allogenic and autogenic mechanism for imposing environmental stress on riverine communities and a distinction is made between channel avulsion and contraction responses. Floods, droughts and river channel changes can precondition as well as trigger environmental crises and societal collapse. The Nile system currently offers the best set of independently dated Holocene fluvial and archaeological records, and the contrasted effects of changing hydromorphological regimes on floodwater farming are examined. The persistence of civilizations depended essentially on the societies that maintained them, but they were also understandably resilient in some environments (Pharaonic Egypt in the Egyptian Nile), appear to have had more limited windows of opportunity in others (the Kerma Kingdom in the Nubian Nile), or required

  17. Generalized microscopic reversibility, kinetic co-operativity of enzymes and evolution.

    PubMed Central

    Ricard, J

    1978-01-01

    Generalized microscopic reversibility implies that the apparent rate of any catalytic process in a complex mechanism is paralleled by substrate desorption in such a way that this ratio is held constant within the reaction mechanism [Whitehead (1976) Biochem. J. 159, 449--456]. The physical and evolutionary significances of this concept, for both polymeric and monomeric enzymes, are discussed. For polymeric enzymes, generalized microscopic reversibility of necessity occurs if, within the same reaction sequence, the substrate stabilizes one type of conformation of the active site only. Generalized microscopic reversibility suppresses the kinetic co-operativity of the slow transition model [Ainslie, Shill & Neet (1972) J. Biol. Chem. 247, 7088--7096]. This situation is obtained if the free-energy difference between the corresponding transition states of the two enzyme forms is held constant along the reaction co-ordinate. This situation implies that the 'extra costs' of energy (required to pass each energy barrier) that are not covered by the corresponding binding energies of the transition states vary in a similar way along the two reaction co-ordinates. The regulatory behaviour of monomeric enzymes is discussed in the light of the concept of 'catalytic perfection' proposed by Albery & Knowles [(1976) Biochemistry 15, 5631--5640]. These authors claim that an enzyme will be catalytically 'perfect' when its catalytic efficiency is maximum. If this situation occurs for a monomeric enzyme obeying either the slow transition or the mnemonical model, it can be shown that the kinetic co-operativity disappears. In other words, kinetic co-operativity of a monomeric enzyme is 'paid for' at the expense of catalytic efficiency, and the monomeric enzyme cannot be simultaneously co-operative and catalytically very efficient. This is precisely what has been found experimentally in a number of cases. PMID:743234

  18. Planetary Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    Carl Sagan, Bruce Murray and Louis Friedman founded the non-profit Planetary Society in 1979 to advance the exploration of the solar system and to continue the search for extraterrestrial life. The Society has its headquarters in Pasadena, California, but is international in scope, with 100 000 members worldwide, making it the largest space interest group in the world. The Society funds a var...

  19. History and Civility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Larry

    2015-01-01

    Larry Schaefer's history of civility is a succinct summary of the implicit and evolving definitions of civility over 2500 years of civilization. Beginning with the Romans and the root word "civitas," meaning the rights and duties of citizenship, civility appears in classical literature as integral to the roots of democracy in the context…

  20. Implementing agreement on a co-operative program on inertial fusion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Latkowski, J; Hogan, W; Meier, W

    2000-01-04

    The Programme to be carried out by the Contracting Parties within the framework of this Agreement shall consist of co-operative research, development, demonstrations and exchanges of information regarding inertial fusion energy (IFE). This shall include: (1) Nuclear Technology, (2) Fusion Materials, (3) Environment, Safety and Economics, (4) Laser Drivers, (5) Ion Beam Drivers and Beam/Plasma Interactions, (6) Target Production, Injection and Tracking, (7) Fusion Diagnostics, (8) Driver/Plasma Interactions, (9) Fast Ignition and (10) Power Plant Design Studies. Annexes to this agreement will describe specific tasks in each area.

  1. Safety management in multiemployer worksites in the manufacturing industry: opinions on co-operation and problems encountered.

    PubMed

    Nenonen, Sanna; Vasara, Juha

    2013-01-01

    Co-operation between different parties and effective safety management play an important role in ensuring safety in multiemployer worksites. This article reviews safety co-operation and factors complicating safety management in Finnish multiemployer manufacturing worksites. The paper focuses on the service providers' opinions; however, a comparison of the customers' views is also presented. The results show that safety-related co-operation between providers and customers is generally considered as successful but strongly dependent on the partner. Safety co-operation is provided through, e.g., training, orientation and risk analysis. Problems encountered include ensuring adequate communication, identifying hazards, co-ordinating work tasks and determining responsibilities. The providers and the customers encounter similar safety management problems. The results presented in this article can help companies to focus their efforts on the most problematic points of safety management and to avoid common pitfalls.

  2. Scientific and Regulatory Policy Committee Review: Review of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) Guidance on the GLP Requirements for Peer Review of Histopathology.

    PubMed

    Fikes, James D; Patrick, Daniel J; Francke, Sabine; Frazier, Kendall S; Reindel, James F; Romeike, Annette; Spaet, Robert H; Tomlinson, Lindsay; Schafer, Kenneth A

    2015-10-01

    In 2014, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) issued guidance no. 16, Guidance on the GLP Requirements for Peer Review of Histopathology. The stated purpose of the guidance document is "to provide guidance to pathologists, test facility management, study directors and quality assurance personnel on how the peer review of histopathology should be planned, managed, documented, and reported in order to meet Good Laboratory Practice (GLP) expectations and requirements." On behalf of and in collaboration with the global societies of toxicologic pathology, the Society of Toxicologic Pathology initiated a review of OECD guidance no. 16. The objectives of this review are to provide a unified interpretation of the guidance, to recommend compliant processes for organizations to implement, and to avoid inconsistent process adaptations across the industry. This review of the guidance document is the product of a global collaboration with other societies of toxicologic pathology and provides a section-by-section international consensus view and interpretation of the OECD guidance on peer review.

  3. Development of co-operative Pan-European TMN systems: EURESCOM experiences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Covaci, Stefan; Mayordomo, Eduado; Zhang, Tianning

    1996-12-01

    During the last years EURESCOM has launched a set of projects in the area of TMN addressing the problems of pan- European broadband networks and services management. The X interfaces, which provide the means for co-operative management of different domains, are the emphasis in this context. Two such X interfaces are developed for the pan- European broadband SDH/ATM services: the Xcoop interfaces situated between two public management domains and the Xuser interface which is situated between a private and a public management domain. The Xcoop interfaces support the co- operations between the Public Network Operators in providing the global connectivities, whereas the Xuser offers a means of provisioning the connectivity to the customers by enabling the customer management entities in the private domains to subscribe for the service, to access and to manage the global connectivities or related resources. This paper presents the results of the EURESCOM project P408 in specifying, implementing and testing these X interfaces, and discusses the experiences obtained.

  4. Receptor co-operation in retrovirus entry: recruitment of an auxiliary entry mechanism after retargeted binding.

    PubMed Central

    Valsesia-Wittmann, S; Morling, F J; Hatziioannou, T; Russell, S J; Cosset, F L

    1997-01-01

    We have constructed Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV)-derived envelope glycoproteins (AMO) displaying an amino-terminal Ram-1-binding domain in which a variety of different amino acid spacers have been inserted between the displayed domain and the MoMLV surface (SU) subunit. Titres of retroviruses generated with these chimeric envelopes were enhanced on cells expressing both Ram-1 and Rec-1 receptors compared with the titres on cells expressing only one or other receptor type. The absolute viral titres and the degree of titre enhancement due to receptor cooperativity were highly variable between the different chimeric envelopes and were determined primarily by the properties of the interdomain spacer. An extreme example of receptor co-operativity was encountered when testing Ram-1-targeted AMOPRO envelopes with specific proline-rich interdomain spacers. AMOPRO viruses could not enter cells expressing only Rec-1 or only Ram-1 but could efficiently infect cells co-expressing both receptors. The data are consistent with a model for receptor co-operativity in which binding to the targeted (Ram-1) receptor triggers conformational rearrangements of the envelope that lead to complete unmasking of the hidden Rec-1-binding domain, thereby facilitating its interaction with the viral (Rec-1) receptor which leads to optimal fusion triggering. PMID:9135138

  5. A voice from the high wire: Public involvement in a co-operative siting process

    SciTech Connect

    Oates, D.J.L.

    1995-05-01

    The author is a public consultation and communications consultant to the Siting Task Force (STF), Low level Radioactive Waste Management. The STF is a Canadian government-appointed yet independent body implementing a voluntary, co-operative siting process for a long term storage or disposal facility for 1 million cubic metres of LLRW. The presentation will document the experiences of and lessons learned by the author during her role developing and implementing a public involvement program for the process. The Co-operative Siting Process is a new approach to siting controversial facilities. It is based on the belief that communities should accept such a facility in their backyard and not be forced against their will on technical or political grounds. A formal `ground rules-up-front` process was developed and is now being carried out, with completion slated for April, 1995. Putting these rules and theories into practice has resulted in significant changes being made to the work plan for technical activities, and in a sober second look at the intricacies involved in planning and carrying out a thorough and efficient public involvement program that remain practical and cost-effective. There is a delicate balancing act between meaningful public participation that lays the foundation for trust, confidence and consensus, and public involvement that can result in the process being side-tracked and legitimate solutions and technical activities becoming mired in political and personal agendas.

  6. Power corrupts co-operation: cognitive and motivational effects in a double EEG paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Kanso, Riam; Hewstone, Miles; Hawkins, Erin; Waszczuk, Monika; Nobre, Anna Christina

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of interpersonal power on co-operative performance. We used a paired electro-encephalogram paradigm: pairs of participants performed an attention task, followed by feedback indicating monetary loss or gain on every trial. Participants were randomly allocated to the power-holder, subordinate or neutral group by creating different levels of control over how a joint monetary reward would be allocated. We found that power was associated with reduced behavioural accuracy. Event-related potential analysis showed that power-holders devoted less motivational resources to their targets than did subordinates or neutrals, but did not differ at the level of early conflict detection. Their feedback potential results showed a greater expectation of rewards but reduced subjective magnitude attributed to losses. Subordinates, on the other hand, were asymmetrically sensitive to power-holders’ targets. They expected fewer rewards, but attributed greater significance to losses. Our study shows that power corrupts balanced co-operation with subordinates. PMID:23160813

  7. Situational trust and co-operative partnerships between physicians and their patients: a theoretical explanation transferable from business practice.

    PubMed

    Dibben, M R; Morris, S E; Lean, M E

    2000-01-01

    A model to explain interpersonal trust development, and its consequences for co-operative behaviour in doctor/patient partnerships derived from the context of business relationships is applied to patient/physician relationships. Threshold barriers exist against all human behaviours or actions and trust is the process by which barriers to co-operation and compliance are overcome. Dispositional trust (a psychological trait to be trusting) is dominant in the early stages of a relationship and contributes to the weight of subsequent trust development. Co-operative behaviour or compliance ultimately requires a secure situational trust emerging from consultations, which is carried forward as learnt trust and modified in each subsequent consultation. The model comprises three types of situational trust (calculus-based, knowledge-based, and identification trust) and five co-operation criteria from which to determine an individual's tendency for co- operative behaviour. These model components can be identified and mapped from a range of qualitative data, with the aim of enhancing co-operative behaviour and efficiently achieving optimal patient compliance.

  8. From Information Society to Knowledge Society: The Ontology Issue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roche, Christophe

    2002-09-01

    Information society, virtual enterprise, e-business rely more and more on communication and knowledge sharing between heterogeneous actors. But, no communication is possible, and all the more so no co-operation or collaboration, if those actors do not share the same or at least a compatible meaning for the terms they use. Ontology, understood as an agreed vocabulary of common terms and meanings, is a solution to that problem. Nevertheless, although there is quite a lot of experience in using ontologies, several barriers remain which stand against a real use of ontology. As a matter of fact, it is very difficult to build, reuse and share ontologies. We claim that the ontology problem requires a multidisciplinary approach based on sound epistemological, logical and linguistic principles. This article presents the Ontological Knowledge Station (OK Station©), a software environment for building and using ontologies which relies on such principles. The OK Station is currently being used in several industrial applications.

  9. Civil Law Glossary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Update on Law-Related Education, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Presents a glossary of civil law terms originally compiled for journalists by the American Bar Association. Defines many essential civil law concepts and practices including compensatory damages, jurisdiction, motion to dismiss, discovery, and remedy. (MJP)

  10. Caffeinated coffee enhances co-operative behavior in the Mixed Motive Game in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Tse, Wai S; Chan, Chi Choi S; Shiu, Shun Yan K; Chung, Pik Yee A; Cheng, Shuk Han

    2009-02-01

    Caffeinated drinks are commonly consumed in social gatherings. However, their effects on social behavior remain unclear. The present study examined the effects of caffeinated coffee on antidepressant-related co-operative behavior. Seventy-seven low-caffeine users took part in a randomized, double-blind, cross-over study of single dose of caffeinated coffee (150 mg caffeine) and decaffeinated coffee (9 mg caffeine) with at least a 3-day washout period. In each session, participants were asked to imagine a fictitious person and play the Mixed Motive Game with that person 45 min after coffee consumption. Heart rate, blood pressure, and state moods were measured at baseline and at 45 min post-coffee consumption. After caffeinated coffee, participants exhibited significantly higher blood pressure. They also allocated significantly fewer scores to themselves and sent significantly more sadness message during the game. These results suggest that caffeinated coffee may help to improve social support and depressive symptoms.

  11. A second international co-operative investigation into thioacetazone side-effects*

    PubMed Central

    Miller, A. B.; Nunn, A. J.; Robinson, D. K.; Ferguson, G. C.; Fox, Wallace; Tall, Ruth

    1970-01-01

    As part of a large-scale international, co-operative investigation into the side-effects produced by thioacetazone employed in the treatment of tuberculosis, an evaluation has been made of a supplement incorporating vitamins and an antihistamine as a prophylactic. Over a 12-week period of treatment, the additive supplement failed to reduce the over-all frequency of side-effects or the frequency of side-effects leading to a major departure from prescribed treatment. There was also no evidence that the more serious side-effects, particularly rashes, jaundice and agranulocytosis, were reduced by the additives, although the occurrence of vomiting, which was however infrequent, was reduced. In view of this lack of appreciable benefit, as well as the higher cost and impaired keeping properties of tablets containing thioacetazone plus isoniazid when the supplement is added, the use of the supplement as a prophylactic cannot be recommended. PMID:4098113

  12. Co-operation with eastern European countries taking ENAC as an example

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, D.

    1994-12-31

    In the aftermath of the Chernobyl accident, the European Community launched an ambitious programme of nuclear safety assistance. The purpose of this programme is to improve the safety of the Nuclear Power stations in Eastern Europe and the former Soviet Union plants. It was felt in the Western European nuclear industry that the emphasis should be on finding practical solutions to improve the most urgent problems. To achieve this objective, the nuclear industry in Western Europe founded a consortium called ENAC (European Nuclear Assistance Consortium) comprising companies form seven European countries (Great Britain, France, Germany, Spain, Belgium, Italy, Netherlands). The co-operation between these companies and the Russian designers would ensure that the solutions developed meet the approval of all interested parties.

  13. Co-operative action of calcium ions in dopamine release from rat brain synaptosomes.

    PubMed Central

    Nachshen, D A; Sanchez-Armass, S

    1987-01-01

    1. The release of [3H]dopamine from isolated presynaptic nerve terminals (synaptosomes) prepared from rat striata was measured as a function of the external Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]o). 2. In synaptosomes depolarized by the addition of 50 mM-K+, release of [3H]dopamine increased in a highly non-linear manner with [Ca2+]o. The release could be described as a third power function of [Ca2+]o. 3. Both 45Ca2+ influx and the change in the free cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i, measured with the fluorescent Ca2+ indicator fura-2) that were evoked by depolarization increased in a linear manner with [Ca2+]o. 4. These results suggest that non-linearity in the [Ca2+]o dependence of transmitter release originates in a co-operative relation between [Ca2+]i and exocytosis. PMID:3656180

  14. Surface Support Systems for Co-Operative and Integrated Human/Robotic Lunar Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Robert P.

    2006-01-01

    Human and robotic partnerships to realize space goals can enhance space missions and provide increases in human productivity while decreasing the hazards that the humans are exposed to. For lunar exploration, the harsh environment of the moon and the repetitive nature of the tasks involved with lunar outpost construction, maintenance and operation as well as production tasks associated with in-situ resource utilization, make it highly desirable to use robotic systems in co-operation with human activity. A human lunar outpost is functionally examined and concepts for selected human/robotic tasks are discussed in the context of a lunar outpost which will enable the presence of humans on the moon for extended periods of time.

  15. WHO Co-operative studies on a simple culture technique for the isolation of mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Šula, Ladislav

    1963-01-01

    Tuberculosis surveys are in progress in many countries that do not have adequate laboratory facilities for carrying out complicated bacteriological procedures. As part of a WHO co-operative research programme, studies have been undertaken with a view to developing a simple culture technique for the isolation of mycobacteria that does not require elaborate equipment. This paper is the first report on these co-operative studies. Storage and transport are known to affect adversely the viability of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in pathological specimens, thus giving rise to poor culture results and indicating the advisability of culturing such specimens on the spot. The preparation of the efficient and widely used Löwenstein-Jensen (L-J) culture medium, however, requires materials and facilities that are not easy available in developing countries. In an attempt to overcome this difficulty, the Tuberculosis Research Institute in Prague has developed a semi-synthetic liquid medium that can be prepared in bulk, concentrated and lyophilized, and sent even to distant laboratories. The present paper describes in detail the preparation of this lyophilized medium, which can be stored at room temperature for at least 6-12 months and is easy to reconstitute, and discusses the growth characteristics of mycobacteria multiplied in it. Experience in Czechoslovakia, where between 1953 and 1962 nearly 21 million cultures have been made with the medium, has shown that it is quite satisfactory and even slightly superior to L-J medium in certain respects. ImagesFIG. 1FIG. 2FIG. 3 & 4FIG. 9FIG. 10FIG. 11FIG. 12FIG. 5FIG. 6FIG. 7FIG. 8FIG. 13FIG. 14FIG. 15FIG. 16 PMID:14102036

  16. The Celestial Basis of Civilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masse, W. B.

    Scholars have long puzzled over the reasons for the ubiquity of celestial images in the residue of the world's earliest civilizations: in art, myth, religious cosmology, iconography, cosmogony, eschatological beliefs, and as portents for the conduct of royal and chiefly power. The general consensus is that these images represented a need by early societies to use the fixed celestial heavens in order to regulate ritual and agricultural cycles, and to satisfy a psychological need by people to relate themselves to their surrounding Universe. Such explanations are facile and miss an important aspect of the celestial heavens. The fixed celestial heavens served as the back-drop for a large number of often spectacular temporary naked-eye visible celestial events which animated the night and sometimes the daytime sky, and which created an 'otherworld' for virtually all cultural groups. In this paper I present a model derived from the detailed analysis of Hawaiian oral traditions and culture history in relation to historic astronomical records of temporary celestial events, and then apply this model to cultural traditions from Mesoamerica and other geographic regions in order to demonstrate that novae, supernovae, variable stars, comets, great meteor showers, aurorae, solar and lunar eclipses, and impacting Solar System debris, together played a critical role in the artistic, intellectual, and political development of early civilizations. These data not only provide important insights into the development of civilization, but also provide important details and longitudinal records of astronomical events and phenomena which are otherwise not readily available for scientific scrutiny.

  17. Wound care in primary health care: district nurses' needs for co-operation and well-functioning organization.

    PubMed

    Friman, Anne; Klang, Birgitta; Ebbeskog, Britt

    2010-01-01

    Most patients with leg- and foot ulcers are managed within non-institutional care. The aim of this study was to investigate the district nurses' wound management, including wound appearance, assignment of responsibility, guidelines for wound treatment and co-operation with other professional groups. The study has a descriptive quantitative approach. Data was collected using a wound registration form and a questionnaire. The selection of participants was made by random sampling. District nurses (n = 26) in five health-care centers situated in central Stockholm and two of its suburbs, participated in the study. The results show that the wound appearance is dominated by traumatic wounds. Approximately 40% of the wounds were not medically diagnosed. The area of responsibility of different professional groups was not defined and guidelines for wound treatment were mostly lacking. The decision about wound management was generally made by the district nurse. Co-operation with the general practitioner was lacking and when a consultation with dermatologist was required, the routines concerning referral were undefined. Co-operation with the assistant nurses consisted of redressing the wounds in home care. Interprofessional co-operation was regarded as important for wound healing. The paper provides insights into the district nurses' wound management and co-operation in wound care.

  18. Evidence for co-operativity in coenzyme binding to tetrameric Sulfolobus solfataricus alcohol dehydrogenase and its structural basis: fluorescence, kinetic and structural studies of the wild-type enzyme and non-co-operative N249Y mutant

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    The interaction of coenzyme with thermostable homotetrameric NAD(H)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase from the thermoacidophilic sulphur-dependent crenarchaeon Sulfolobus solfataricus (SsADH) and its N249Y (Asn-249→Tyr) mutant was studied using the high fluorescence sensitivity of its tryptophan residues Trp-95 and Trp-117 to the binding of coenzyme moieties. Fluorescence quenching studies performed at 25 °C show that SsADH exhibits linearity in the NAD(H) binding [the Hill coefficient (h)∼1) at pH 9.8 and at moderate ionic strength, in addition to positive co-operativity (h=2.0–2.4) at pH 7.8 and 6.8, and at pH 9.8 in the presence of salt. Furthermore, NADH binding is positively co-operative below 20 °C (h∼3) and negatively co-operative at 40–50 °C (h∼0.7), as determined at moderate ionic strength and pH 9.8. Steady-state kinetic measurements show that SsADH displays standard Michaelis–Menten kinetics between 35 and 45 °C, but exhibits positive and negative co-operativity for NADH oxidation below (h=3.3 at 20 °C) and above (h=0.7 at 70–80 °C) this range of temperatures respectively. However, N249Y SsADH displays non-co-operative behaviour in coenzyme binding under the same experimental conditions used for the wild-type enzyme. In loop 270–275 of the coenzyme domain and segments at the interface of dimer A–B, analyses of the wild-type and mutant SsADH structures identified the structural elements involved in the intersubunit communication and suggested a possible structural basis for co-operativity. This is the first report of co-operativity in a tetrameric ADH and of temperature-induced co-operativity in a thermophilic enzyme. PMID:15651978

  19. Mobile satellite services: International co-ordination, co-operation and competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundberg, Olof

    1988-01-01

    In the context of a discussion of international cooperation, coordination and competition regarding mobile satellite services, it is asserted that: there will be more than one civil mobile satellite service in the 1990's; competition between these separate mobile satellite systems is inevitable; no system should enjoy monopoly protection or subsidies; and coordination and cooperation are desirable and necessary, since the available L-band spectrum is in short supply.

  20. Schooling in a Post-Industrial Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doll, William E., Jr.

    American social trends and the consequent developments in educational approach and philosophy from the time of the Civil War to the present day are examined. The transition from an agricultural to an industrialized society is discussed in relation to American definitions and conceptions of educational structures. The socioeconomic environment of a…

  1. Management of recycling in the Gulf Co-operation Council states.

    PubMed

    Alhumoud, Jasem M; Al-Ghusain, Ibrahim; Al-Hasawi, Hamad

    2004-01-01

    Although some of the Gulf Co-operation Council (GCC) member states have placed recycling at the top of their waste management priorities, the low cost of landfill and the availability of land, usually old sand or gravel quarries, make recycling programs infeasible, uneconomical and unachievable. The only comprehensive form of recycling available within the GCC states is recycling of paper and cartons. The majority of the GCC states never set national or regional recycling targets. The cost of recycling in the GCC states region could be moderate to high depending on the collection system selected for the recycling program. Almost all of the cities within the GCC states use mechanised systems for daily collection of municipal solid waste (MSW). Therefore, the same daily collection system used for MSW might well be used for collection of recyclable materials, both on the same day and at the same time, or according to a different timetable. This paper provides strategies for developing an effective recycling marketing program and discusses regional co-ordination options.

  2. Concentrating on Solar Power in a Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Co-Operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trieb, F.; Kronshage, S.; Knies, G.

    2004-12-01

    Combining the large demand of clean electricity in Europe (EU) with the large potential of solar electricity generation from concentrating solar power stations (CSP) in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) can provide both climate protection and development for both regions and lead to environmental, economical and social sustainability. The presentation will address the concept of solar cogeneration of electricity and desalted water and the scope of generating clean power for MENA and Europe while providing large quantities of freshwater for the MENA countries. Costs and benefits of the concept will be quantified, and the first steps to realisation within the Trans-Mediterranean Renewable Energy Co-Operation TREC are presented. After running through the technology learning curve within about 10-15 years, concentrated solar electricity will be generated at a cost of roughly 4 ct/kWh. Importing solar power from North Africa to Europe, will add 1 ct/kWh, thus being competitive with new fuel fired plants. The total initial support of about 1 billion € needed to trigger CSP market introduction and to achieve forever low electricity costs in the EU and MENA, equals 25 % of the German annual coal subsidies, 1 month of EU agronomic-subsidies or 1 day of US military expenses and could be provided in form of public investment, soft loans or feed-in guaranties like the German Renewable Energy Act.

  3. Civil Navigation Signal Status

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-04-29

    2015 04 29 _GPS Civil Navigation Signal Status UNCLASSIFIED/APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE UNCLASSIFIED/APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE Space and Missile...Systems Center Maj Michael Zollars 29 Apr 15 Civil Navigation Signal Status Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public...2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Civil Navigation Signal Status 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d

  4. Examining the Research Base on University Co-Operative Education in Light of the Neoliberal Challenge to Liberal Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milley, Peter; Kovinthan, Thursica

    2014-01-01

    Debates have been taking place in higher education communities in Canada and other Anglo-American contexts between defenders of liberal education and promoters of neoliberalism. One development not addressed is the growth of co-operative education (co-op). The origins of co-op may reside in John Dewey's (1939, 1966) ideas about experience and…

  5. Environmental Co-Operatives as Instruments for Delivering Across-Farm Environmental and Rural Policy Objectives: Lessons for the UK

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franks, J. R.; Mc Gloin, A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper assesses the potential of environmental co-operatives (EC) to deliver environmental benefits and an integrated and strengthened rural economy in the UK. It is based on research into Dutch EC, which have about 10,000 members, of which a quarter are non-farmers. The paper details the benefits EC have delivered to their members, the Dutch…

  6. The Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development's International Early Learning Study: Opening for Debate and Contestation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Peter; Dahlberg, Gunilla; Grieshaber, Susan; Mantovani, Susanna; May, Helen; Pence, Alan; Rayna, Sylvie; Swadener, Beth Blue; Vandenbroeck, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development is initiating the International Early Learning Study, a cross-national assessment of early learning outcomes involving the testing of 5-year-old children in participating countries. The authors use this colloquium to inform members of the early childhood community about this project and to…

  7. Student Perceptions of Social Learning Space: Designing and Implementing a Co-Operative Assessment Task in Pharmacology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moni, Roger W.; Depaz, Iris; Lluka, Lesley J.

    2008-01-01

    We report findings from a case study of co-operative, group-based assessment in Pharmacology for second-year undergraduates at The University of Queensland, Australia. Students enrolled in the 2005 Bachelor of Science and 2006 Bachelor of Pharmacy degree programs, were early users of the university's new Collaborative Teaching and Learning Centre…

  8. Characteristics of Mother-Infant Communicative Interaction: Relations to the Ratings of Maternal Sensitivity and Infant Co-Operation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paavola, Leila; Kemppinen, Kaarina; Kunnari, Sari; Kumpulainen, Kirsti; Moilanen, Irma; Ebeling, Hanna

    2006-01-01

    The present article reports a study of communicative behaviour among mothers and infants who were grouped according to the ratings of sensitivity and co-operation, respectively. The participants were 27 Finnish-speaking mothers and their 10-month-old first-born infants (13 boys and 14 girls). The study is descriptive by nature, and the data were…

  9. Perceptions of Co-Operation and Collegiality by Participants of a One-Day Challenge Course Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Brent D.; Dattilo, John

    2007-01-01

    While many studies have sought to understand challenge courses and their benefits, less emphasis has been focused on understanding participants' perceptions of these programmes. In this study, 16 adults working at a dental office attended a one-day challenge course programme designed to teach lessons about co-operation. Data were collected via "in…

  10. Co-operative Learning for Students with Difficulties in Learning: A Description of Models and Guidelines for Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Ellen; Grey, Ian M.; Honan, Rita

    2005-01-01

    As part of a larger study regarding the inclusion of children with disabilities in mainstream classroom settings, Ellen Murphy, of the D Clin Psych programme at NUI Galway, with Ian Grey and Rita Honan, from Trinity College, Dublin, reviewed existing literature on co-operative learning in the classroom. In this article, they identify four models…

  11. Understanding the Civil Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshon, Robert E.; Bolduan, Linda M.

    1997-01-01

    Provides a concise and informative overview of the civil justice system. Examines various components and issues including the federal and state court systems, differences between civil and criminal law, background in common law, types of civil law, civil procedure, and the effect and implementation of civil law in everyday life. (MJP)

  12. The Development of Co-Operation and Competition in Japanese Public Schools: Two National Surveys.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shwalb, Barbara J.; Shwalb, David W.

    1985-01-01

    Japanese school teachers provided examples of cooperative and competitive student behaviors in order to construct rating scales. Further ranking and factor analysis resulted in nine competitive and eight cooperative items. Age differences are discussed, as well as the Japanese society's encouragement of cooperative activities. The items are…

  13. Report to the Government of Zambia on Co-Operative Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Labour Office, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This 1-year study was undertaken in the Reupublic of Zambia to survey and analyze needs in cooperative education and training and to plan and execute immediate courses with detailed curricula in this area. A brief history of Zambian cooperative societies and a description of the expert's study activities are followed by conclusions and…

  14. Laparoscopic and endoscopic co-operative surgery for non-ampullary duodenal tumors

    PubMed Central

    Ichikawa, Daisuke; Komatsu, Shuhei; Dohi, Osamu; Naito, Yuji; Kosuga, Toshiyuki; Kamada, Kazuhiro; Okamoto, Kazuma; Itoh, Yoshito; Otsuji, Eigo

    2016-01-01

    AIM To assess the safety and feasibility of laparoscopic and endoscopic co-operative surgery (LECS) for early non-ampullary duodenal tumors. METHODS Twelve patients with a non-ampullary duodenal tumor underwent LECS at our hospital. One patient had two mucosal lesions in the duodenum. The indication for this procedure was the presence of duodenal tumors with a low risk for lymph node metastasis. In particular, the tumors included small (less than 10 mm) submucosal tumors (SMT) and epithelial mucosal tumors, such as mucosal cancers or large mucosal adenomas with malignant suspicion. The LECS procedures, such as full-thickness dissection for SMT and laparoscopic reinforcement after endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) for epithelial tumors, were performed for the 13 early duodenal lesions in 12 patients. Here we present the short-term outcomes and evaluate the safety and feasibility of this new technique. RESULTS Two SMT-like lesions and eleven superficial epithelial tumor-like lesions were observed. Seven and Six lesions were located in the second and third parts of the duodenum, respectively. All lesions were successfully resected en bloc. The defect in the duodenal wall was manually sutured after resection of the duodenal SMT. For epithelial duodenal tumors, the ulcer bed was laparoscopically reinforced via manual suturing after ESD. Intraoperative perforation occurred in two out of eleven epithelial tumor-like lesions during ESD; however, they were successfully laparoscopically repaired. The median operative time and intraoperative estimated blood loss were 322 min and 0 mL, respectively. Histological examination of the tumors revealed one adenoma with moderate atypia, ten adenocarcinomas, and two neuroendocrine tumors. No severe postoperative complications (Clavien-Dindo classification grade III or higher) were reported in this series, but minor leakage secondary to pancreatic fistula occurred in one patient. CONCLUSION LECS can be a safe and minimally

  15. The PRISM data/model co-operative: current modelling activities, future plans and data requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haywood, Alan

    2010-05-01

    Here we review current activities and future model and data requirements associated with the palaeoclimate modelling arm of the PRISM data/model co-operative. The talk will begin with a description of modelling focussed on understanding the behaviour of climate phenomena that are responsible for generating significant regional decadal and sub-decadal climate variability (ENSO and NAO), and the challenges associated with linking such predictions to mid-Piacenzian palaeoenvironmental data. Secondly, we will examine current efforts to understand the role of changing sea-surface temperatures, in relation to other important boundary conditions, in driving global and regional climate/environmental shifts recognised in the proxy data. Thirdly, we will examine initial results from coupled climate and ice sheet modelling examining the response of the Greenland and East Antarctic Ice Sheets to orbital variations and how these predicted changes relate to current estimates of mid-Piacenzian mean sea level and sea level variability. Our future plans centre on (a) the development of the Pliocene Model Intercomparison Project, (b) understanding uncertainty in climate model predictions of mid-Piacenzian climates and (c) moving towards an Earth System Modelling framework for the PRISM interval. With the 4th iteration of the PRISM palaeoenvironmental data set under construction we briefly outline how the demands of modern climate and earth system models will partly shape PRISM4, as well as the new scientific opportunities that will stem from it (e.g. the advent of isotope enabled models, higher resolution boundary conditions, river routing schemes and palaeobathymetry).

  16. Schools and Civil Defense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office of Civil Defense (DOD), Washington, DC.

    Civil defense is a planned, coordinated action to protect the population during any emergency whether arising from thermonuclear attack or natural disaster. The Federal Government has assumed four responsibilities--(1) to keep track of the nature of the threat which the civil defense program must meet, (2) to prepare and disseminate information…

  17. Apps for Ancient Civilizations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Stephanie

    2011-01-01

    This project incorporates technology and a historical emphasis on science drawn from ancient civilizations to promote a greater understanding of conceptual science. In the Apps for Ancient Civilizations project, students investigate an ancient culture to discover how people might have used science and math smartphone apps to make their lives…

  18. Integrated Schooling, Life Course Outcomes, and Social Cohesion in Multiethnic Democratic Societies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mickelson, Roslyn Arlin; Nkomo, Mokubung

    2012-01-01

    Schools have a seminal role in preparing a society's children for their adult responsibilities as workers, parents, friends, neighbors, and citizens. The United States, countries of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Brazil, India, South Africa, and other multiethnic democratic nation-states have increasingly diverse…

  19. Abortion in a just society.

    PubMed

    Hunt, M E

    1993-01-01

    A female Catholic theologian imagines a just society that does not judge women who decide to undergo an abortion. The Church, practitioners, and the courts must trust that women do make person-enhancing choices about the quality of life. In the last 15 years most progress in securing a woman's right to abortion has been limited to white, well-educated, and middle or upper middle class women. A just society would consider reproductive options a human right. Abortion providers are examples of a move to a just society; they are committed to women's well-being. There are some facts that make one pessimistic about achieving abortion in a just society. The US Supreme Court plans to review important decisions establishing abortion as a civil right. Further, some men insist on suing women who want to make their own reproductive decisions--an anti-choice tactic to wear away women's right to reproductive choice. Bombings of abortion clinics and harassment campaigns by anti-choice groups are common. These behaviors strain pro-choice proponents emotionally, psychically, and spiritually. Their tactics often lead to theologians practicing self-censorship because they fear backlash. Abortion providers also do this. Further, the reaction to AIDS is that sex is bad. Anti-abortion groups use AIDS to further their campaigns, claiming that AIDS is a punishment for sex. Strategies working towards abortion in a just society should be education and persuasion of policymakers and citizens about women's right to choose, since they are the ones most affected by abortion. Moreover, only women can secure their rights to abortion. In a just society, every health maintenance organization, insurance company, and group practice would consider abortion a normal service. A just society provides for the survival needs of the most marginalized.

  20. Medical Journals in Louisiana before the Civil War *

    PubMed Central

    Olschner, Kay

    1972-01-01

    This study, an historical survey of medical journals in Louisiana before the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861, revealed that nine journals made an appearance during the period covered—all of them published in New Orleans. Of these, two were French language journals published by a French medical society. The others were all published by individuals rather than by professional societies. Medical practices, interests, and problems of the times were clearly reflected on the pages of the journals. It is evident that medical journalism reached a high plane in the era before the Civil War. Of the nine periodicals, only one emerged as a permanent publication after the War. PMID:4554217

  1. Design and implementation of co-operative control strategy for hybrid AC/DC microgrids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmud, Rasel

    This thesis is mainly divided in two major sections: 1) Modeling and control of AC microgrid, DC microgrid, Hybrid AC/DC microgrid using distributed co-operative control, and 2) Development of a four bus laboratory prototype of an AC microgrid system. At first, a distributed cooperative control (DCC) for a DC microgrid considering the state-of-charge (SoC) of the batteries in a typical plug-in-electric-vehicle (PEV) is developed. In DC microgrids, this methodology is developed to assist the load sharing amongst the distributed generation units (DGs), according to their ratings with improved voltage regulation. Subsequently, a DCC based control algorithm for AC microgrid is also investigated to improve the performance of AC microgrid in terms of power sharing among the DGs, voltage regulation and frequency deviation. The results validate the advantages of the proposed methodology as compared to traditional droop control of AC microgrid. The DCC-based control methodology for AC microgrid and DC microgrid are further expanded to develop a DCC-based power management algorithm for hybrid AC/DC microgrid. The developed algorithm for hybrid microgrid controls the power flow through the interfacing converter (IC) between the AC and DC microgrids. This will facilitate the power sharing between the DGs according to their power ratings. Moreover, it enables the fixed scheduled power delivery at different operating conditions, while maintaining good voltage regulation and improved frequency profile. The second section provides a detailed explanation and step-by-step design and development of an AC/DC microgrid testbed. Controllers for the three-phase inverters are designed and tested on different generation units along with their corresponding inductor-capacitor-inductor (LCL) filters to eliminate the switching frequency harmonics. Electric power distribution line models are developed to form the microgrid network topology. Voltage and current sensors are placed in the proper

  2. Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2013-10-01

    Humans are now the dominant driver of global climate change. From ocean acidification to sea level rise, changes in precipitation patterns, and rising temperatures, global warming is presenting us with an uncertain future. However, this is not the first time human civilizations have faced a changing world. In the AGU monograph Climates, Landscapes, and Civilizations, editors Liviu Giosan, Dorian Q. Fuller, Kathleen Nicoll, Rowan K. Flad, and Peter C. Clift explore how some ancient peoples weathered the shifting storms while some faded away. In this interview, Eos speaks with Liviu Giosan about the decay of civilizations, ancient adaptation, and the surprisingly long history of humanity's effect on the Earth.

  3. Vocational rehabilitation of the socially disadvantaged long-term sick: inter-organizational co-operation between welfare state agencies.

    PubMed

    Lindqvist, R; Grape, O

    1999-03-01

    Vocational rehabilitation targeted to the socially disadvantaged long-term sick requires that the client keep in touch with a number of welfare state agencies, all of which have different regulations, conflicting goals and various types of benefits. This is an arduous and time-consuming task for clients with medical, social and labour market problems. Many of these clients run the risk of ending up in a no-man's land or being endlessly circulated between agencies because their problems do not correspond to the profile of the typical client. Both government and welfare workers see institutional co-operation between welfare state agencies as the remedy to such problems. This article, which is based on interviews with participants in fourteen cooperating projects, focuses on difficulties and opportunities experienced in such co-operation. It is concluded that such cooperation, when initiated in local settings and supported by local players, is a way of rejuvenating the existing Swedish model.

  4. A portable inhalational induction device provides co-operative induction of anaesthesia in preanaesthetic area for children

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Mi-Ja; Na, Hyo-Seok; Shin, Young Duck; Han, Jun-Sung; Hwang, Jung-Won; Kim, Chong Soo

    2010-01-01

    Background We introduce a new, simple portable inhalational induction device (PD) that provides co-operative inhalational induction of anaesthesia using N2O and subsequent sevoflurane in the preanaesthetic induction area in children. Methods Forty-five children (30 to 94 months old age, <35 kg) who were scheduled to undergo simple operations were assigned randomly to one of three regimens. Patients were encouraged by their parents to inhale N2O followed by sevoflurane (PD N2O-sevo group) or sevoflurane (PD sevo group) using a portable inhalational induction device in the preanaesthetic induction area until they were unable to respond to their names. They were then transferred to the operating room while maintaining inhalation of sevoflurane via the device. The control group underwent conventional inhalational induction in the operating room with the parents in attendance. Results Patients in the PD N2O-sevo group had a higher co-operative inhalation frequency than the patients in the PD sevo or the control group. Anaesthesia induction in the PD N2O-sevo and the PD sevo groups were faster than in the control group. Parent satisfaction score (0-100) was higher for the PD N2O-sevo group than for the control group. Conclusions A new portable inhalational induction device allows faster induction in co-operation with parents present in the preanaesthetic induction area compared to conventional inhalational induction in the unfamiliar operating room with the parents in attendance. PMID:20589175

  5. Climate protection in Germany`s bilateral development co-operation with the People`s Republic of China

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, A.

    1996-12-31

    For globally sustainable development to be achieved, three concerns are central: productive economic growth, social justice and ecological sustainability. Development co-operation supports the realisation of these three goals in partner countries by helping to alleviate poverty, promote economic growth through private-sector development and protect vital natural resources. The aim of globally sustainable development can only be achieved if industrial countries too implement necessary reforms and structural adjustments at every level. Co-operation efforts with partners must therefore be complemented by coherent policies at home. This is a matter of credibility, but also of developmental far-sightedness. Internal reforms in the industrial countries secure financial leeway for their providing foreign assistance in the longer term. Environmental and resource protection as a focal point of Germany`s development co-operation with the PRC aims to preserve vital natural resources, shape economic development in their partner countries in an ecologically sound manner and put China in a position to participate in global endeavours to protect the environment. Climate protection measures figure prominently in this area. This is justified given China`s share of global CO{sub 2} emissions and the potential for energy-saving measures and measures to increase power intensity. This potential is derived primarily from the possibility of using energy-efficient technologies, increasing the relatively low energy prices and making use of renewable sources of energy.

  6. Analysis of the co-operative interaction between the allosterically regulated proteins GK and GKRP using tryptophan fluorescence

    PubMed Central

    Zelent, Bogumil; Raimondo, Anne; Barrett, Amy; Buettger, Carol W.; Chen, Pan; Gloyn, Anna L.; Matschinsky, Franz M.

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic glucose phosphorylation by GK (glucokinase) is regulated by GKRP (GK regulatory protein). GKRP forms a cytosolic complex with GK followed by nuclear import and storage, leading to inhibition of GK activity. This process is initiated by low glucose, but reversed nutritionally by high glucose and fructose or pharmacologically by GKAs (GK activators) and GKRPIs (GKRP inhibitors). To study the regulation of this process by glucose, fructose-phosphate esters and a GKA, we measured the TF (tryptophan fluorescence) of human WT (wild-type) and GKRP-P446L (a mutation associated with high serum triacylglycerol) in the presence of non-fluorescent GK with its tryptophan residues mutated. Titration of GKRP-WT by GK resulted in a sigmoidal increase in TF, suggesting co-operative PPIs (protein–protein interactions) perhaps due to the hysteretic nature of GK. The affinity of GK for GKRP was decreased and binding co-operativity increased by glucose, fructose 1-phosphate and GKA, reflecting disruption of the GK–GKRP complex. Similar studies with GKRP-P446L showed significantly different results compared with GKRP-WT, suggesting impairment of complex formation and nuclear storage. The results of the present TF-based biophysical analysis of PPIs between GK and GKRP suggest that hepatic glucose metabolism is regulated by a metabolite-sensitive drug-responsive co-operative molecular switch, involving complex formation between these two allosterically regulated proteins. PMID:24568320

  7. Improving retention and performance in civil society in Uganda.

    PubMed

    O'Neil, Mary L; Paydos, Michael

    2008-06-20

    This article is the second article in the Human Resources for Health journal's first quarterly feature. The series of seven articles has been contributed by Management Sciences for Health (MSH) under the theme of leadership and management in public health and will be published article-by-article over the next few weeks. The journal invited Dr Manuel M. Dayrit, Director of the WHO Department of Human Resources for Health and former Minister of Health for the Philippines to launch the feature with an opening editorial to be found in the journal's blog. This article--number two in the series--describes the experience of the Family Life Education Programme (FLEP), a reproductive health program that provides community-based health services through 40 clinics in five districts of Uganda, in improving retention and performance by using the Management Sciences for Health (MSH) Human Resource Management Rapid Assessment Tool. A few years ago, the FLEP of Busoga Diocese began to see an increase in staff turnover and a decrease in overall organizational performance. The workplace climate was poor and people stopped coming for services even though there were few other choices in the area. An external assessment found the quality of the health care services provided was deficient. An action plan to improve their human resource management (HRM) system was developed and implemented. To assess the strengths and weaknesses of their system and to develop an action plan, they used the Rapid Assessment Tool. The tool guides users through a process of prioritizing and action planning after the assessment is done. By implementing the various recommended changes, FLEP established an improved, responsive HRM system. Increased employee satisfaction led to less staff turnover, better performance, and increased utilization of health services. These benefits were achieved by cost-effective measures focused on professionalizing the organization's approach to HRM.

  8. Prerequisites for Democracy in Cuba: Promoting Liberalization Via Civil Society

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-06-01

    their frustrations about the scarcity of soap, pork, a nice pair of shoes, a favorite beer , the scarcity, in fact, of everything but personal freedom...underground; often they are known only through references made by Castro concerning " cockroaches who try to create fifth columns at the service of

  9. Beyond Rhetoric: A Recipe for Civil Society Action on Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanvir, Mohammad Muntasim

    2007-01-01

    On the eve of CONFINTEA VI, discussion and debates on promoting literacy is being revived. However, in most cases, the discussion limits itself to the definitional nuances of literacy and falls short of critiquing the global policy making inertia that violates the human rights obligations to the millions of adults remaining illiterate. This…

  10. EFA, Civil Society and the Post-2015 Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verger, Antoni; Sayed, Yusuf; Hiroshi, Ito; Croso, Camilla; Beardmore, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    The year 2015 is the deadline for most of the Education for All (EFA) goals. As this date gets closer, reviews about what has been done and reflection about future agendas will multiply. This Forum aims to contribute such a pressing debate, bringing together contributors from key international organisations within the EFA movement. They are…

  11. Producing Literacy and Civil Society: The Case of Senegal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nordtveit, Bjorn Harald

    2008-01-01

    Donor and financial institutions, such as the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund (IMF), and others, often promote market-based solutions for the delivery of public services in developing countries. This article examines the use of such market approaches by the World Bank to hire for-profit and nonprofit nongovernmental organizations…

  12. Shaping the Global Civil Society: An Interview with Michael Peters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heraud, Richard; Tesar, Marek

    2017-01-01

    Professor Michael A. Peters has worked in an era of transformation that has taken him from a labour-intensive paper-based form of production to the computerised reproduction of thought, and the current shift in the publishing landscape from a reader-subscription to an author-pays model. Most of what he has learned in publishing and editing he has…

  13. From Outreach to Engagement: Fostering Civil Society through Educational Partnerships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Jan; Tayebjee, Freny; Pearce, Ross

    2003-01-01

    Describes the development of the University of Western Sydney, Australia, from being a university with spasmodic and uncoordinated outreach programs to one that is truly engaged with its community. Presents two examples of educational partnerships in which the university exercises coherent purpose and strategic direction. (SLD)

  14. The barbarism of civilization: cultural genocide and the 'stolen generations'.

    PubMed

    van Krieken, R

    1999-06-01

    Norbert Elias suggested that 'civilization' involves the transformation of human habitus so that violence of all sorts is gradually subjected to greater and more sophisticated forms of management and control, whereas 'decivilization' encompasses processes which produce an increase in violence and a breakdown in the stability and consistency of on-going social relations. What remains unexplored is the extent to which 'civilizing offensives', the self-conscious attempts to bring about 'civilization', have revolved around essentially violent policies and practices. This paper examines the systematic removal of indigenous Australian children from their families, largely for the social engineering purpose of the gradual and systematic annihilation of Aboriginal cultural identity. At the time, these policies and practices were constructed by most observers as contributing to the 'welfare' of Australian Aborigines, and this intersection of welfare and violence raises the possibility that civilization and decivilization, rather than being different processes which may or may not run alongside each other, interpenetrate each other so that, under certain circumstances, societies are 'barbaric' precisely in their movement towards increasing civilization. It may also be possible to describe the move away from the systematic removal of Aboriginal children since the 1970s as itself part of a civilizing process, an increasing recognition of the human rights of Australian Aborigines and of the inhumanity of those policies and practices. The paper concludes by addressing the implications for theories of civilization and decivilization, as well as more generally for our contemporary understanding of what it means to be a 'civilized' modern citizen.

  15. Searching for extraterrestrial civilizations.

    PubMed

    Kuiper, T B; Morris, M

    1977-05-06

    We have argued that planning for a search for extraterrestrial intelligence should involve a minimum number of assumptions. In view of the feasibility (at our present level of understanding) of using nuclear fusion to effect interstellar travel at a speed of 0.1c, it appears unwarranted (at this time) to assume that it would not occur for at least some technologically advanced civilizations. One cannot even conclude that humans would not attempt this within the next few centuries. On the contrary, the most likely future situation, given the maintenance of technological growth and the absence of extraterrestrial interference, is that our civilization will explore and colonize our galactic neighborhood. A comparison of the time scales of galactic evolution and interstellar travel leads to the conclusion that the galaxy is either essentially empty with respect to technological civilizations or extensively colonized. In the former instance, a SETI would be unproductive. In the latter, a SETI could be fruitful if a signal has been deliberately directed at the earth or at an alien outpost, probe, or communication relay station in our solar system. In the former case, an existing antenna would probably be sufficient to detect the signal. In the latter case, success would depend on the way in which the communications were coded. Failure to detect a signal could permit any of the following conclusions: (i) the galaxy is devoid of technological civilizations, advanced beyond our own, (ii) such civilizations exist, but cannot (for some reason which is presently beyond our ken) engage in interstellar colonization, or (iii) such civilizations are not attempting overt contact with terrestrial civilizations and their intercommunications, if present, are not coded in a simple way. To plan at this time for a high-cost, large-array SETI based on the last two possibilities appears to be rather premature.

  16. Commentary: civil commitment and its reform.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Alexander I F

    2015-03-01

    Internationally, civil commitment laws have gone through substantial reforms in the past 50 years. Discernible shifts from the medically paternalistic to the excessively legalistic may be giving way to a blending of legislative intent under the rubric of therapeutic jurisprudence. In the light of those international movements, Shao and Xie describe how China's new mental health law shows the impact of these international and local influences on the development and practice of mental health law in China. The new Law was passed in 2012. It sets a broad vision for mental health services and mental health promotion in Chinese society as well as providing the legal framework for civil commitment. Practicalities of implementation may be highly significant in the success of the legislation.

  17. Professional Education in Civil Engineering: A Specific Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fordyce, Derek; Robinson, Simon

    1990-01-01

    Described is a professional development program at Heriot-Watt University in Scotland. Discussed are the teaching of the relationship of civil engineering to society and ethics, issues about the style of this type of course, and summative evaluation. Recommendations are provided. (CW)

  18. Acute pancreatitis in six non-transplanted uraemic children. A co-operative study from the French Society of Paediatric Nephrology.

    PubMed

    Boudailliez, B; André, J L; Broyer, M; Davin, J C; Landthaler, G; Palcoux, J B

    1988-10-01

    Ten clinical episodes of acute pancreatitis (AP) occurred in six patients (mean age 10 years, range 3-15 years) with chronic renal failure (CRF) during a 9-year period (1977-1986). The underlying cause of CRF was vesicoureteral reflux (2); urethral valves (1); ureterohydronephrosis (1); nephronopthisis (1) and a haemolytic uraemic syndrome which occurred 12 years before (1). In all patients a diagnosis of AP was established both on clinical grounds and with a serum amylase level of greater than 600 IU/l. In 3 patients laparotomy was performed because of suspected appendicitis. All patients required exclusive parenteral feeding (mean duration 25 days) and 2 patients had a partial pancreatectomy. No patient developed pancreatic pseudocysts, 2 patients experienced one relapse (3 and 21 months later) and 1 patient had two relapses and died. Mean duration of follow up was 3 years (range 1-10 years). Possible aetiological factors were: choledochal cyst (1); parotitis without a rise in mumps antibodies (1); familial dyslipidaemia but without AP in other family members (1), and aluminium intoxication with hypercalcaemia and convulsive encephalopathy treated with valproic acid in 1 patient. Severe hyperparathyroidism with radiological signs was absent in all patients. Transplantation had been performed either before AP in 2 patients (1 and 3 years before AP) or had followed AP in 1 patient (7 years after) without occurrence or relapse of AP.

  19. Cyber threats within civil aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitner, Kerri A.

    Existing security policies in civil aviation do not adequately protect against evolving cyber threats. Cybersecurity has been recognized as a top priority among some aviation industry leaders. Heightened concerns regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities surround components utilized in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) implementation. Automated Dependent Surveillance-B (ADS-B) and Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) have both been exploited through the research of experienced computer security professionals. Civil aviation is essential to international infrastructure and if its critical assets were compromised, it could pose a great risk to public safety and financial infrastructure. The purpose of this research was to raise awareness of aircraft system vulnerabilities in order to provoke change among current national and international cybersecurity policies, procedures and standards. Although the education of cyber threats is increasing in the aviation industry, there is not enough urgency when creating cybersecurity policies. This project intended to answer the following questions: What are the cyber threats to ADS-B of an aircraft in-flight? What are the cyber threats to EFB? What is the aviation industry's response to the issue of cybersecurity and in-flight safety? ADS-B remains unencrypted while the FAA's mandate to implement this system is rapidly approaching. The cyber threat of both portable and non-portable EFB's have received increased publicity, however, airlines are not responding quick enough (if at all) to create policies for the use of these devices. Collectively, the aviation industry is not being proactive enough to protect its aircraft or airport network systems. That is not to say there are not leaders in cybersecurity advancement. These proactive organizations must set the standard for the future to better protect society and it's most reliable form of transportation.

  20. Classification of extraterrestrial civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tong B.; Chang, Grace

    1991-06-01

    A scheme of classification of extraterrestrial intelligence (ETI) communities based on the scope of energy accessible to the civilization in question is proposed as an alternative to the Kardeshev (1964) scheme that includes three types of civilization, as determined by their levels of energy expenditure. The proposed scheme includes six classes: (1) a civilization that runs essentially on energy exerted by individual beings or by domesticated lower life forms, (2) harnessing of natural sources on planetary surface with artificial constructions, like water wheels and wind sails, (3) energy from fossils and fissionable isotopes, mined beneath the planet surface, (4) exploitation of nuclear fusion on a large scale, whether on the planet, in space, or from primary solar energy, (5) extensive use of antimatter for energy storage, and (6) energy from spacetime, perhaps via the action of naked singularities.

  1. Global Civil Unrest: Contagion, Self-Organization, and Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Braha, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Civil unrest is a powerful form of collective human dynamics, which has led to major transitions of societies in modern history. The study of collective human dynamics, including collective aggression, has been the focus of much discussion in the context of modeling and identification of universal patterns of behavior. In contrast, the possibility that civil unrest activities, across countries and over long time periods, are governed by universal mechanisms has not been explored. Here, records of civil unrest of 170 countries during the period 1919–2008 are analyzed. It is demonstrated that the distributions of the number of unrest events per year are robustly reproduced by a nonlinear, spatially extended dynamical model, which reflects the spread of civil disorder between geographic regions connected through social and communication networks. The results also expose the similarity between global social instability and the dynamics of natural hazards and epidemics. PMID:23119067

  2. Global civil unrest: contagion, self-organization, and prediction.

    PubMed

    Braha, Dan

    2012-01-01

    Civil unrest is a powerful form of collective human dynamics, which has led to major transitions of societies in modern history. The study of collective human dynamics, including collective aggression, has been the focus of much discussion in the context of modeling and identification of universal patterns of behavior. In contrast, the possibility that civil unrest activities, across countries and over long time periods, are governed by universal mechanisms has not been explored. Here, records of civil unrest of 170 countries during the period 1919-2008 are analyzed. It is demonstrated that the distributions of the number of unrest events per year are robustly reproduced by a nonlinear, spatially extended dynamical model, which reflects the spread of civil disorder between geographic regions connected through social and communication networks. The results also expose the similarity between global social instability and the dynamics of natural hazards and epidemics.

  3. Society of Reproductive Surgeons

    MedlinePlus

    The Society of Reproductive Surgeons Home About Us About SRS Mission Statement Officers The Role of Reproductive Surgeons For ... Fact Sheets and Booklets SRS is an affiliated society to the American Society for Reproductive Medicine . Below ...

  4. Analysis on the Load Carrying Mechanism Integrated as Heterogeneous Co-operative Manipulator in a Walking Wheelchair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajay Vedaraj, I. S.; Jain, Ritika; Rao, B. V. A.

    2014-07-01

    After industrial robots came into existence during 1960, the technology of robotics with the design and analysis of robots in various forms in industries as well as in domestic applications were developed. Nowadays, along with the automotive sector the robots are producing a great impact in the form of quality and production rate to register their existence reliable in various other sectors also. Robotic technology has undergone various phase translations from being tortured as humanoids to the present day manipulators. Depending upon the various forms of its existence, robot manipulators are designed as serial manipulators and parallel manipulators. Individually both types can be proved effective though both have various drawbacks in design and the kinematic analysis. The versatility of robots can be increased by making them work in an environment where the same work volume is shared by more than one manipulator. This work volume can be identified as co-operative work volume of those manipulators. Here the interference of manipulators in the work volume of other manipulators is possible and is made obstacle free. The main advantage of co-operative manipulators is that when a number of independent manipulators are put together in a cooperative work envelope the efficiency and ability to perform tasks is greatly enhanced. The main disadvantage of the co-operative manipulators lies in the complication of its design even for a simple application, in almost all fields. In this paper, a cooperative design of robot manipulators to work in co-operative work environment is done and analysed for its efficacy. In the industrial applications when robotic manipulators are put together in more numbers, the trajectory planning becomes the tough task in the work cell. Proper design can remove the design defects of the cooperative manipulators and can be utilized in a more efficient way. In the proposed research paper an analysis is made on such a type of cooperative manipulator

  5. European tendencies and co-operation in the field of ITS systems - national achievements and challenges in Hungary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindenbach, Ágnes

    2016-06-01

    The article presents the role of intelligent transport systems/services related to the implementation of the essential European and Hungarian transport policy objectives. The `ITS Directive' will provide a framework for the tasks/works to be performed in the forthcoming years within the priority areas of ITS. The European Commission published regulations / specifications for the priority actions in the form of delegated acts defining the tasks/responsibilities of Member States. Regional/European co-operation for Hungary started after the EU-accession of the country. Hungary was an active partner within the European CONNECT and EasyWay projects, currently Hungary is a member of the CROCODILE consortium.

  6. LTI system order reduction approach based on asymptotical equivalence and the Co-operation of biology-related algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryzhikov, I. S.; Semenkin, E. S.; Akhmedova, Sh A.

    2017-02-01

    A novel order reduction method for linear time invariant systems is described. The method is based on reducing the initial problem to an optimization one, using the proposed model representation, and solving the problem with an efficient optimization algorithm. The proposed method of determining the model allows all the parameters of the model with lower order to be identified and by definition, provides the model with the required steady-state. As a powerful optimization tool, the meta-heuristic Co-Operation of Biology-Related Algorithms was used. Experimental results proved that the proposed approach outperforms other approaches and that the reduced order model achieves a high level of accuracy.

  7. Searching for extraterrestrial civilizations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Morris, M.

    1977-01-01

    Three interrelated assumptions are critically examined in an attempt to outline a productive strategy for a search for extraterrestrial intelligence. Questions concerning the feasibility of interstellar travel are investigated. It is concluded that the probability of interstellar travel is high enough that, given a modest number of advanced civilizations, at least one of them will engage in interstellar voyages and colonize the galaxy. Assuming, however, that technological civilizations are rare the galaxy would be essentially unpopulated. Attention is given to the present lack of contact with extraterrestrial beings and frequencies for interstellar beacons.

  8. Tropical Climate Dynamics and Civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haug, G. H.; Yancheva, G.; Peterson, L. C.

    2005-12-01

    Dr. James P. Kennett has been a leader in the area of rapid climate change. Jim and his son Douglas J. Kennett, a scientific archeologist, were among the first to make a serious effort to combine high-quality climate data with archeological information to study the impact of climate on societies. They argued about the 'strong relationship between climatically induced changes in environmental conditions and social, political, and economic responses' in coastal California during the past 2 millennia. One tropical climate archive with an appropriate memory for the most relevant sub-centennial to sub-decadal scale climate swings is the anoxic Cariaco Basin off northern Venezuela. Millimeter to micrometer-scale geochemical data in the laminated sediments of the Cariaco Basin have been interpreted to reflect variations in the hydrological cycle and the mean annual position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) over tropical South America during the past millennia. These data with decadal to (sub)annual resolution show that the Terminal Collapse of the Classic Maya civilization occurred during an extended dry period. In detail, the Cariaco record reveals evidence for three separate droughts during the period of Maya downfall, each lasting a decade or less. These data suggest that climate change was potentially one immediate cause of the demise of Mayan civilization, with a century-scale decline in rainfall putting a general strain on resources and several multi-year events of more intense drought pushing Mayan society over the edge. Here, we present a new data set of comparable quality and resolution from Southern China. In the sediments of lake Huguang Maar in coastal southeast China, the titanium content and redox-sensitive magnetic properties record the strength of winter monsoon winds at subdecadal resolution over the last 16 thousand years. The record indicates a stronger winter monsoon prior to the Boelling-Alleroed warming, during the Younger Dryas, and

  9. Creative Ventures: Ancient Civilizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Rebecca

    The open-ended activities in this book are designed to extend the imagination and creativity of students and encourage students to examine their feelings and values about historic eras. Civilizations addressed include ancient Egypt, Greece, Rome, Mayan, Stonehenge, and Mesopotamia. The activities focus upon the cognitive and affective pupil…

  10. European Civilization. Teacher's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leppert, Ella C.; Halac, Dennis

    The instructional materials in this teaching guide for Course II, Unit IV, follow and build upon a previous sequential course described in SO 003 169 offering ninth grade students a study on the development of Western European Civilization. Focus is upon four periods of high development: The High Middle Ages (12th Century), The Renaissance (15th…

  11. History and Undergraduate Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Peter

    1995-01-01

    It is argued that a traditional, historically-oriented course in 17th- and 18th-century French civilization continues to be an appropriate and effective approach for undergraduate French study, in preparation for later, more sophisticated cultural analysis. Four course components are discussed: class lectures; literary text selection; textbook…

  12. Righting Civil Wrongs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murrell, Dan S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The 1991 Civil Rights Act fills many gaps in existing employment laws, but its implications for higher education go beyond employment to admissions and students affairs. Trustees should direct administrators to review personnel policies and practices and liability insurance coverage in light of the new law. (Author/MSE)

  13. Civil Law: 12 Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dresbach, Debra

    These learning activities on civil law are intended to supplement the secondary level Scholastic materials "Living Law." Case studies, simulations, and role-play activities are included. Information provided for each activity includes a brief overview, background information, teacher instructions and a description of each activity.…

  14. Criminal Acts Against Civil Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    28 Soviet Union ...34 Feature Articles Civil Aviation in the Soviet Union ................................................................. 39 Attacks on Airline...relief transport aircraft or hijackings; none were related to the Gulf war. Likewise, in Asia, there were few criminal acts against civil aviation

  15. Civil partnerships five years on.

    PubMed

    Ross, Helen; Gask, Karen; Berrington, Ann

    2011-01-01

    The Civil Partnership Act 2004, which came into force in December 2005 allowing same-sex couples in the UK to register their relationship for the first time, celebrated its fifth anniversary in December 2010. This article examines civil partnership in England and Wales, five years on from its introduction. The characteristics of those forming civil partnerships between 2005 and 2010 including age, sex and previous marital/civil partnership status are examined. These are then compared with the characteristics of those marrying over the same period. Further comparisons are also made between civil partnership dissolutions and divorce. The article presents estimates of the number of people currently in civil partnerships and children of civil partners. Finally the article examines attitudes towards same-sex and civil partner couples both in the UK and in other countries across Europe.

  16. A new co-operative inversion strategy via fuzzy clustering technique applied to seismic and magnetotelluric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thong Kieu, Duy; Kepic, Anton

    2015-04-01

    Geophysical inversion produces very useful images of earth parameters; however, inversion results usually suffer from inherent non-uniqueness: many subsurface models with different structures and parameters can explain the measurements. To reduce the ambiguity, extra information about the earth's structure and physical properties is needed. This prior information can be extracted from geological principles, prior petrophysical information from well logs, and complementary information from other geophysical methods. Any technique used to constrain inversion should be able to integrate the prior information and to guide updating inversion process in terms of the geological model. In this research, we have adopted fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering technique for this purpose. FCM is a clustering method that allows us to divide the model of physical parameters into a few clusters of representative values that also may relate to geological units based on the similarity of the geophysical properties. This exploits the fact that in many geological environments the earth is comprised of a few distinctive rock units with different physical properties. Therefore FCM can provide a platform to constrain geophysical inversion, and should tend to produce models that are geologically meaningful. FCM was incorporated in both separate and co-operative inversion processing of seismic and magnetotelluric (MT) data with petrophysical constraints. Using petrophysical information through FCM assists the inversion to build a reliable earth model. In this algorithm, FCM plays a role of guider; it uses the prior information to drive the model update process, and also forming an earth model filled with rocks units rather than smooth transitions when the boundary is in doubt. Where petrophysical information from well logs or core measurement is not locally available the cluster petrophysics may be solved for in inversion as well if some knowledge of how many distinctive geological exist. A

  17. Integration is not enough: gender inequality and empowerment in Nicaraguan agricultural co-operatives.

    PubMed

    Mayoux, L

    1993-03-01

    Cooperatives have been seen as a means of increasing the productivity of the poor, increasing their income, and providing them with more political power. The aim of this article is to discuss the experiences of women in agricultural cooperatives in Matagalpa and Esteli Regions in Nicaragua under the Sandinistas at the end of 1988. Since the Revolution in 1979, women had been encouraged to participate in agricultural cooperatives, although gender issues were ignored in the wider cooperative policy. Discussion is directed to gender conflicts of interest, the effects of policy change on women's participation, the limits of integration, 4 case studies of integration, some problems, inadequate policy and the implications for feminist participatory strategy. The Nicaraguan experience suggests that the nature of empowerment of women is an important consideration; the extent of empowerment or whether all eligible women can be reached is debatable. Women and men have different needs and priorities in cooperatives because of the division of labor and power structures, both within the family and within society. Cooperative structures need to change in a way that deals with inequalities within and between families and with reproductive issues. Cooperatives were formed in the context of competing interests. There is dispute over whether current structures empower rural producers or are an imposition by the state in order to control production. The history of policy changes affecting the formation and extent of formation of different types of cooperatives are described. The Cooperative Law of 1981 formed the basis for women's right to equal involvement in cooperative organization and management. The Agrarian Reform Act of 1981 gave women equal access to land; land was not redistributed until 1983. The Labor Law of 1979 meant wages were paid directly to workers. Practices, however, changed little. The case studies show the extent of discrimination against women members. Women

  18. Joint Doctrine for Civil Affairs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Authorities ( MACA ), DODD 5525.5, DOD Cooperation with Civilian Law Enforcement Officials, and JP 3-07.7, Joint Doctrine for Civil Support. II-15 Civil Affairs...Joint Operation Planning and Execution System JP joint publication JTF joint task force LOAC law of armed conflict MACA military assistance to civil

  19. Civility in Classes and Sports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumpkin, Angela

    2010-01-01

    Civility is a polite or courteous act, expression, or standard of conduct, including the display of respect and tolerance to everyone. Teaching and modeling civility in classes and with sport teams is essential so students and athletes can learn the importance of and demonstrate civility in their interactions with others. Teachers and coaches…

  20. Olympic and world sport: making transnational society?

    PubMed

    Giulianotti, Richard; Brownell, Susan

    2012-06-01

    This paper introduces the special issue of the British Journal of Sociology on the subject of the transnational aspects of Olympic and world sport. The special issue is underpinned by the perspective that because sport provides a space for the forging of transnational connections and global consciousness, it is increasingly significant within contemporary processes of globalization and the making of transnational society. In this article, we examine in turn eight social scientific themes or problems that are prominent within the special issue: globalization, glocalization, neo-liberal ideologies and policies, transnational society, securitization, global civil society, transnational/global public sphere, and fantasy/imagination. We conclude by highlighting five 'circles' of future research inquiry within world sport that should be explored by social scientists.

  1. Galactic-scale civilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.

    1980-01-01

    Evolutionary arguments are presented in favor of the existence of civilization on a galactic scale. Patterns of physical, chemical, biological, social and cultural evolution leading to increasing levels of complexity are pointed out and explained thermodynamically in terms of the maximization of free energy dissipation in the environment of the organized system. The possibility of the evolution of a global and then a galactic human civilization is considered, and probabilities that the galaxy is presently in its colonization state and that life could have evolved to its present state on earth are discussed. Fermi's paradox of the absence of extraterrestrials in light of the probability of their existence is noted, and a variety of possible explanations is indicated. Finally, it is argued that although mankind may be the first occurrence of intelligence in the galaxy, it is unjustified to presume that this is so.

  2. Manifestations of advanced civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bracewell, R. N.

    A list of possible modes of detecting advanced civilizations elsewhere in the universe is provided, including EM Alfven, and gravity waves, matter transfer, and exotica such as tachyons, black hole tunneling, and telepathy. Further study is indicated for low frequency radio wave propagation, which may travel along magnetic fields to reach the earth while laser beams are not favored because of the power needed for transmitting quanta instead of waves. IR, X ray, and UV astronomy are noted to be suitable for detecting signals in those ranges, while Alfven wave communication will be best observed by probes outside the orbit of Jupiter, where local anomalies have less effect. Particle propagation communication is viewed as unlikely, except as a trace of an extinct civilization, but panspermia, which involves interstellar spreading of seeds and/or spores, receives serious attention, as does laser probe or pellet propulsion.

  3. Civil War vascular injuries.

    PubMed

    Blaisdell, F William

    2005-01-01

    As the result of the insistence of the Surgeon General during the United States Civil War, there was extensive documentation of injuries to major blood vessels and their resulting complications. The specific treatment of vascular injuries during the Civil War was ligation of the injured vessel or amputation. This was before there was any knowledge of the cause and prevention of infection. Overall, the results were dismal, with a mortality rate of nearly 60% for the more than 1000 soldiers treated by arterial ligation. The most important contribution of these medical reports was to define how the injuries should be diagnosed and managed. Many of the principles that developed as the result of this post-war review are as valid today as they were then. Unfortunately, it seems that many of these lessons have had to be relearned by the surgeons who have participated in each of our subsequent military conflicts.

  4. Genomic characterisation of Eμ-Myc mouse lymphomas identifies Bcor as a Myc co-operative tumour-suppressor gene.

    PubMed

    Lefebure, Marcus; Tothill, Richard W; Kruse, Elizabeth; Hawkins, Edwin D; Shortt, Jake; Matthews, Geoffrey M; Gregory, Gareth P; Martin, Benjamin P; Kelly, Madison J; Todorovski, Izabela; Doyle, Maria A; Lupat, Richard; Li, Jason; Schroeder, Jan; Wall, Meaghan; Craig, Stuart; Poortinga, Gretchen; Cameron, Don; Bywater, Megan; Kats, Lev; Gearhart, Micah D; Bardwell, Vivian J; Dickins, Ross A; Hannan, Ross D; Papenfuss, Anthony T; Johnstone, Ricky W

    2017-03-06

    The Eμ-Myc mouse is an extensively used model of MYC driven malignancy; however to date there has only been partial characterization of MYC co-operative mutations leading to spontaneous lymphomagenesis. Here we sequence spontaneously arising Eμ-Myc lymphomas to define transgene architecture, somatic mutations, and structural alterations. We identify frequent disruptive mutations in the PRC1-like component and BCL6-corepressor gene Bcor. Moreover, we find unexpected concomitant multigenic lesions involving Cdkn2a loss and other cancer genes including Nras, Kras and Bcor. These findings challenge the assumed two-hit model of Eμ-Myc lymphoma and demonstrate a functional in vivo role for Bcor in suppressing tumorigenesis.

  5. Microprocessor, Setx, Xrn2, and Rrp6 co-operate to induce premature termination of transcription by RNAPII.

    PubMed

    Wagschal, Alexandre; Rousset, Emilie; Basavarajaiah, Poornima; Contreras, Xavier; Harwig, Alex; Laurent-Chabalier, Sabine; Nakamura, Mirai; Chen, Xin; Zhang, Ke; Meziane, Oussama; Boyer, Frédéric; Parrinello, Hugues; Berkhout, Ben; Terzian, Christophe; Benkirane, Monsef; Kiernan, Rosemary

    2012-09-14

    Transcription elongation is increasingly recognized as an important mechanism of gene regulation. Here, we show that microprocessor controls gene expression in an RNAi-independent manner. Microprocessor orchestrates the recruitment of termination factors Setx and Xrn2, and the 3'-5' exoribonuclease, Rrp6, to initiate RNAPII pausing and premature termination at the HIV-1 promoter through cleavage of the stem-loop RNA, TAR. Rrp6 further processes the cleavage product, which generates a small RNA that is required to mediate potent transcriptional repression and chromatin remodeling at the HIV-1 promoter. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation coupled to high-throughput sequencing (ChIP-seq), we identified cellular gene targets whose transcription is modulated by microprocessor. Our study reveals RNAPII pausing and premature termination mediated by the co-operative activity of ribonucleases, Drosha/Dgcr8, Xrn2, and Rrp6, as a regulatory mechanism of RNAPII-dependent transcription elongation.

  6. Genomic characterisation of Eμ-Myc mouse lymphomas identifies Bcor as a Myc co-operative tumour-suppressor gene

    PubMed Central

    Lefebure, Marcus; Tothill, Richard W.; Kruse, Elizabeth; Hawkins, Edwin D.; Shortt, Jake; Matthews, Geoffrey M.; Gregory, Gareth P.; Martin, Benjamin P.; Kelly, Madison J.; Todorovski, Izabela; Doyle, Maria A.; Lupat, Richard; Li, Jason; Schroeder, Jan; Wall, Meaghan; Craig, Stuart; Poortinga, Gretchen; Cameron, Don; Bywater, Megan; Kats, Lev; Gearhart, Micah D.; Bardwell, Vivian J.; Dickins, Ross A.; Hannan, Ross D.; Papenfuss, Anthony T.; Johnstone, Ricky W.

    2017-01-01

    The Eμ-Myc mouse is an extensively used model of MYC driven malignancy; however to date there has only been partial characterization of MYC co-operative mutations leading to spontaneous lymphomagenesis. Here we sequence spontaneously arising Eμ-Myc lymphomas to define transgene architecture, somatic mutations, and structural alterations. We identify frequent disruptive mutations in the PRC1-like component and BCL6-corepressor gene Bcor. Moreover, we find unexpected concomitant multigenic lesions involving Cdkn2a loss and other cancer genes including Nras, Kras and Bcor. These findings challenge the assumed two-hit model of Eμ-Myc lymphoma and demonstrate a functional in vivo role for Bcor in suppressing tumorigenesis. PMID:28262675

  7. Graminicide insensitivity correlates with herbicide-binding co-operativity on acetyl-CoA carboxylase isoforms.

    PubMed

    Price, Lindsey J; Herbert, Derek; Moss, Stephen R; Cole, David J; Harwood, John L

    2003-10-15

    The sensitivity of grass species to important classes of graminicide herbicides inhibiting ACCase (acetyl-CoA carboxylase) is associated with a specific inhibition of the multifunctional ACCase located in the plastids of grasses. In contrast, the multisubunit form of ACCase found in the chloroplasts of dicotyledonous plants is insensitive and the minor cytosolic multifunctional isoforms of the enzyme in both types of plants are also less sensitive to inhibition. We have isolated, separated and characterized the multifunctional ACCase isoforms found in exceptional examples of grasses that are either inherently insensitive to these graminicides, or from biotypes showing acquired resistance to their use. Major and minor multifunctional enzymes were isolated from cell suspension cultures of Festuca rubra and the 'Notts A1'-resistant biotype of Alopecurus myosuroides, and their properties compared with those isolated from cells of wild-type sensitive A. myosuroides or from sensitive maize. Purifications of up to 300-fold were necessary to separate the two isoforms. The molecular masses (200-230 kDa) and K(m) values for all three substrates (ATP, bicarbonate and acetyl-CoA) were similar for the different ACCases, irrespective of their graminicide sensitivity. Moreover, we found no correlation between the ability of isoforms to carboxylate propionyl-CoA and their sensitivity to graminicides. However, insensitive purified forms of ACCase were characterized by herbicide-binding co-operativity, whereas, in contrast, sensitive forms of the enzymes were not. Our studies on isolated individual isoforms of ACCase from grasses support and extend previous indications that herbicide binding co-operativity is the only kinetic property that differentiates naturally or selected insensitive enzymes from the typical sensitive forms usually found in grasses.

  8. Co-operative signalling mechanisms required for erythroid precursor expansion in response to erythropoietin and stem cell factor.

    PubMed

    Arcasoy, Murat O; Jiang, Xiaohong

    2005-07-01

    The regeneration of circulating red blood cells in response to anaemia associated with blood loss or haemolysis involves an increased rate of erythropoiesis and expansion of proerythroblasts, the bone marrow precursor cells that terminally differentiate into mature erythrocytes. This study investigated the mechanisms by which erythropoietin (Epo) and stem cell factor (Scf) modulate the expansion of proerythroblasts. Homogenous populations of primary human proerythroblasts were generated in liquid cultures of CD34(+) cells. In serum-free cultures, proerythroblasts failed to survive in the presence of Epo or Scf alone, but exhibited synergistic proliferation in response to combined Epo and Scf treatment, exhibiting one-log expansion in 5 d. Intracellular signal transduction in response to Epo and Scf revealed that tyrosine phosphorylation of signal transducers and activators of transcription (Stat) 5, a downstream target for the non-receptor tyrosine kinase, Janus kinase 2 (Jak2), was mediated by Epo but not Scf. The mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) extracellular regulated kinase (Erk) 1-2 were phosphorylated in response to either Epo or Scf. Phosphorylation of Akt, a signalling molecule downstream of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), was observed following Scf but not Epo treatment. To determine the contribution of specific signalling pathways to synergistic expansion of proerythroblasts in response to co-operative effects of Epo and Scf, cells were treated with kinase inhibitors targeting Jak2, PI3K and MAPK kinase. There was a significant, dose-dependent inhibition of proerythroblast expansion in response to all three kinase inhibitors. In conclusion, Epo- and Scf-mediated co-operative, synergistic expansion of primary erythroid precursors requires selective activation of multiple signalling pathways, including the Jak-Stat, PI3K and MAPK pathways.

  9. CXCL8/IL-8 and CXCL12/SDF-1α Co-operatively Promote Invasiveness and Angiogenesis in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Matsuo, Yoichi; Ochi, Nobuo; Sawai, Hirozumi; Yasuda, Akira; Takahashi, Hiroki; Funahashi, Hitoshi; Takeyama, Hiromitsu; Tong, Zhimin; Guha, Sushovan

    2009-01-01

    CXC-chemokines are involved in the chemotaxis of neutrophils, lymphocytes and monocytes. However, role of these chemokines in tumorigenesis, especially with regard to interaction between tumor and its microenvironment, has not been clearly elucidated. The purpose of this study was to analyze the co-operative role of CXCL8 and CXCL12 in the tumor-stromal interaction in pancreatic cancer (PaCa). Using ELISA and RT-PCR, we initially confirmed the expression of ligands and receptors, respectively, of CXC-chemokines in PaCa and stromal cells. We examined the co-operative role of CXCL8 and CXCL12 in proliferation/invasion of PaCa and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and in HUVEC tube-formations through tumor-stromal interaction by MTS, Matrigel invasion, and angiogenesis assays, respectively. We detected expression of CXCR4, but not CXCR2, in all PaCa cells and fibroblasts. PaCa cells secreted CXCL8, and fibroblast cells secreted CXCL12. CXCL8 production in PaCa was significantly enhanced by CXCL12, and CXCL12 production in fibroblasts was significantly enhanced by co-culturing with PaCa. CXCL8 enhanced proliferation/invasion of HUVECs but did not promote proliferation/invasion of PaCa. Both recombinant and PaCa-derived CXCL8 enhanced tube formation of HUVECs that were co-cultured with fibroblast cells. CXCL12 enhanced the proliferation/invasion of HUVECs and the invasion of PaCa cells but had no effect on tube formation of HUVEC. We showed that PaCa-derived CXCL8 and fibroblast-derived CXCL12 cooperatively induced angiogenesis in vitro by promoting HUVEC proliferation, invasion, and tube formation. Thus, corresponding receptors CXCR2 and CXCR4 are potential antiangiogenic and antimetastatic therapeutic targets in PaCa. PMID:19035451

  10. Risk to civilization: A planetary science perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, Clark R.; Morrison, David

    1988-01-01

    One of the most profound changes in our perspective of the solar system resulting from the first quarter century of planetary exploration by spacecraft is the recognition that planets, including Earth, were bombarded by cosmic projectiles for 4.5 aeons and continue to be bombarded today. Although the planetary cratering rate is much lower now than it was during the first 0.5 aeons, sizeable Earth-approaching asteroids and comets continue to hit the Earth at a rate that poses a finite risk to civilization. The evolution of this planetary perspective on impact cratering is gradual over the last two decades. It took explorations of Mars and Mercury by early Mariner spacecraft and of the outer solar system by the Voyagers to reveal the significance of asteroidal and cometary impacts in shaping the morphologies and even chemical compositions of the planets. An unsettling implication of the new perspective is addressed: the risk to human civilization. Serious scientific attention was given to this issue in July 1981 at a NASA-sponsored Spacewatch Workshop in Snowmass, Colorado. The basic conclusion of the 1981 NASA sponsored workshop still stands: the risk that civilization might be destroyed by impact with an as-yet-undiscovered asteroid or comet exceeds risk levels that are sometimes deemed unacceptable by modern societies in other contexts. Yet these impact risks have gone almost undiscussed and undebated. The tentative quantitative assessment by some members of the 1981 workshop was that each year, civilization is threatened with destruction with a probability of about 1 in 100,000. The enormous spread in risk levels deemed by the public to be at the threshold of acceptability derives from a host of psychological factors that were widely discussed in the risk assessment literature. Slovic shows that public fears of hazards are greatest for hazards that are uncontrollable, involuntary, fatal, dreadful, globally catastrophic, and which have consequences that seem

  11. Risk to civilization: A planetary science perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Clark R.; Morrison, David

    One of the most profound changes in our perspective of the solar system resulting from the first quarter century of planetary exploration by spacecraft is the recognition that planets, including Earth, were bombarded by cosmic projectiles for 4.5 aeons and continue to be bombarded today. Although the planetary cratering rate is much lower now than it was during the first 0.5 aeons, sizeable Earth-approaching asteroids and comets continue to hit the Earth at a rate that poses a finite risk to civilization. The evolution of this planetary perspective on impact cratering is gradual over the last two decades. It took explorations of Mars and Mercury by early Mariner spacecraft and of the outer solar system by the Voyagers to reveal the significance of asteroidal and cometary impacts in shaping the morphologies and even chemical compositions of the planets. An unsettling implication of the new perspective is addressed: the risk to human civilization. Serious scientific attention was given to this issue in July 1981 at a NASA-sponsored Spacewatch Workshop in Snowmass, Colorado. The basic conclusion of the 1981 NASA sponsored workshop still stands: the risk that civilization might be destroyed by impact with an as-yet-undiscovered asteroid or comet exceeds risk levels that are sometimes deemed unacceptable by modern societies in other contexts. Yet these impact risks have gone almost undiscussed and undebated. The tentative quantitative assessment by some members of the 1981 workshop was that each year, civilization is threatened with destruction with a probability of about 1 in 100,000. The enormous spread in risk levels deemed by the public to be at the threshold of acceptability derives from a host of psychological factors that were widely discussed in the risk assessment literature. Slovic shows that public fears of hazards are greatest for hazards that are uncontrollable, involuntary, fatal, dreadful, globally catastrophic, and which have consequences that seem

  12. Automated Authority Control at the Genealogical Society of Utah.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clement, Charles R.

    This paper describes the development of an automated authority control system for the Genealogical Society of Utah, which has large holdings of microfilmed records from many nations, including civil registration, parish registers, local records, and census records. The key function of the library is the identification of people. From the…

  13. Still Not Equal: Expanding Educational Opportunity in Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, M. Christopher, II, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    "Still Not Equal: Expanding Educational Opportunity in Society" addresses the successes and failures of "Brown v. Board of Education" and the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as well as the continuing challenge of expanding educational opportunity in the United States and across the Black diaspora. The educational, political, and social influence…

  14. [Hamburg model-project for minors who are at risk for sexual offending: co-operation between the institutions in Hamburg, Germany].

    PubMed

    Spehr, Aranke; Driemeyer, Wiebke; Briken, Peer

    2010-01-01

    When children and adolescents show deviant sexual behavior, co-operation between institutions of the youth welfare service is necessary in order to prevent further assaults. As a part of the Hamburg model project for minors who are at risk for sexual offending we evaluated the existing case-unspecific co-operation between the city's institutions. Selection of the sample resulted in a diagram of co-operation between institutions that have or might have contact to sexual deviant children or juveniles. By analyzing 147 online-surveys, comprising quantitative as well as qualitative questions, revealed a comprehensive system rich in resources but only little case-unspecific cooperation. Highest average rating in co-operation was given to the non-governmental institutions and the police. The inquiry of reasons for the co-operation indicated a demand for specialized diagnostics and advice. Positively evaluated were an efficient and fast processing, an unbureaucratic handling of the case and constant availability. Pointed out negatively were "not-reacting", trivializing and a lack of capacities. In order to improve the level of information and the range of intervention programs, training of professionals in school and the youth welfare service is needed.

  15. Society for Vascular Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Certification with this new online course from the Society for Vascular Medicine. Learn more. Looking for a ... jobs are listed right now. Copyright © 2016 The Society for Vascular Medicine. All Rights Reserved.

  16. American Cancer Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... your friends, your family, and the American Cancer Society help you take a step closer toward a ... DNA Offers Lung Cancer Clues An American Cancer Society grantee discovers a non-coding gene that may ...

  17. Ehlers-Danlos Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Scientific Board Staff Volunteer Leaders The Ehlers-Danlos Society Center for EDS Research & Clinical Care Our History ... Message Boards Patient Resource Library The Ehlers-Danlos Society Center for EDS Research & Clinical Care Loose Connections ...

  18. American Rocket Society

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    In addition to Dr. Robert Goddard's pioneering work, American experimentation in rocketry prior to World War II grew, primarily in technical societies. This is an early rocket motor designed and developed by the American Rocket Society in 1932.

  19. Ehlers-Danlos Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Expert Panel Volunteer Leaders The Ehlers-Danlos Society Center for EDS Research & Clinical Care Our History ... Online Communities Patient Resource Library The Ehlers-Danlos Society Center for EDS Research & Clinical Care Loose Connections ...

  20. Society of Gynecologic Surgeons

    MedlinePlus

    ... Myers, MD SGS Mission The mission of the Society of Gynecologic Surgeons is to promote excellence in ... research, and professional and public education. Research The Society prides itself in mentoring young gynecologic surgeons and ...

  1. American Urogynecologic Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Patient Site » PFD Registry » Contact Us American Urogynecologic Society 1100 Wayne Avenue, Suite 670 Silver Spring, MD ... Us | Privacy Policy | HONcode Accredited © 2017 American Urogynecologic Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia

    MedlinePlus

    ... We Represent Ambulatory and Office-Based Anesthesia The Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia provides educational opportunities, encourages research ... 6620 | E-mail: info@sambahq.org Copyright | 2017 Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia Home | Search | Terms | Privacy Policy | ...

  3. Scoliosis Research Society

    MedlinePlus

    Scoliosis Research Society Close Menu Member Login Become a Member Home Find a Specialist | Calendar Contact | Donate Patients and Families Professionals ... Find a Specialist Calendar Contact Donate Scoliosis Research Society Dedicated to the optimal care of patients with ...

  4. Society for Vascular Medicine

    MedlinePlus

    ... Journal Scientific Sessions Website FAQ Copyright © 2017 The Society for Vascular Medicine. All Rights Reserved. Phone: +1- ... page Videos Training Programs Journal Access the Journal Society Communications Patient Information Pages Vascular Medicine Journal CME ...

  5. World History and Geography: Ancient Civilizations. Course Models for the History-Social Science Framework: Grade 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Ralph, Ed.; Brooks, Diane

    This document outlines ancient civilization teaching models for California sixth graders. It is another response to teachers' requests for practical assistance in implementing the "History-Social Science Framework." Units include: (1) Early Humankind and the Development of Human Societies; (2) The Beginnings of Civilization in the Near…

  6. "At the Head of the Aboriginal Remnant": Cherokee Construction of a "Civilized" Indian Identity during the Lakota Crisis of 1876

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelton, Paul

    2003-01-01

    In 1876 the bilingual Cherokee diplomat and lawyer William Penn Adair expressed great pride in the level of "civilization" that his nation had achieved. Defining civilization as commercial agriculture, literacy, Christianity, and republican government, Adair believed that his society has reached a sophistication that equaled and in certain areas…

  7. Civil space technology initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Civil Space Technology Initiative (CSTI) is a major, focused, space technology program of the Office of Aeronautics, Exploration and Technology (OAET) of NASA. The program was initiated to advance technology beyond basic research in order to expand and enhance system and vehicle capabilities for near-term missions. CSTI takes critical technologies to the point at which a user can confidently incorporate the new or expanded capabilities into relatively near-term, high-priority NASA missions. In particular, the CSTI program emphasizes technologies necessary for reliable and efficient access to and operation in Earth orbit as well as for support of scientific missions from Earth orbit.

  8. The medical aspects of civil defense in California.

    PubMed

    STEIN, J J

    1952-01-01

    Medical care for persons injured in atomic bomb attack or other far-reaching enemy action occupies an important place in civil defense plans that have been set up in California. Preparations have been made on the basis of suppositions as to where attacks might occur and estimates of the number of casualties. State and federal funds have been allocated for aid station equipment, antibiotics, plasma, blankets and litters. In the table of organization, use of all physicians, nurses and hospitals in the state is contemplated. Communities at the center of attacks would borrow facilities and medical personnel from areas not directly affected.County medical societies in California have appointed civil defense committees to work out local plans. Each physician has a part in these plans. If he does not know what his assignment is, be ought to get in touch with his county medical society headquarters immediately.

  9. THE MEDICAL ASPECTS OF CIVIL DEFENSE IN CALIFORNIA

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Justin J.

    1952-01-01

    Medical care for persons injured in atomic bomb attack or other far-reaching enemy action occupies an important place in civil defense plans that have been set up in California. Preparations have been made on the basis of suppositions as to where attacks might occur and estimates of the number of casualties. State and federal funds have been allocated for aid station equipment, antibiotics, plasma, blankets and litters. In the table of organization, use of all physicians, nurses and hospitals in the state is contemplated. Communities at the center of attacks would borrow facilities and medical personnel from areas not directly affected. County medical societies in California have appointed civil defense committees to work out local plans. Each physician has a part in these plans. If he does not know what his assignment is, be ought to get in touch with his county medical society headquarters immediately. PMID:14886752

  10. [Improving team-oriented co-operation between physicians and nursing staff--opening new opportunities with process orientation and extended nursing roles].

    PubMed

    Dahlgaard, Knut

    2010-01-01

    Co-ordination in terms of synergetic co-operation of the two professional groups is highly demanding and requires creative measures. Co-operation between doctors and nurses can be improved by an integrative organisational concept agreed-upon by the parties involved. The core elements of this KoPM model include jointly practised patient orientation, a process organisation approach to health care provision, successful communication as well as a process support framework. Another task that needs to be performed will be to refine this approach by improving communication efficiency, by employing qualification processes and by evaluating cooperation projects.

  11. Co-operation and conflict under hard and soft contracting regimes: case studies from England and Wales

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background This paper examines NHS secondary care contracting in England and Wales in a period which saw increasing policy divergence between the two systems. At face value, England was making greater use of market levers and utilising harder-edged service contracts incorporating financial penalties and incentives, while Wales was retreating from the 1990s internal market and emphasising cooperation and flexibility in the contracting process. But there were also cross-border spill-overs involving common contracting technologies and management cultures that meant that differences in on-the-ground contracting practices might be smaller than headline policy differences suggested. Methods The nature of real-world contracting behaviour was investigated by undertaking two qualitative case studies in England and two in Wales, each based on a local purchaser/provider network. The case studies involved ethnographic observations and interviews with staff in primary care trusts (PCTs) or local health boards (LHBs), NHS or Foundation trusts, and the overseeing Strategic Health Authority or NHS Wales regional office, as well as scrutiny of relevant documents. Results Wider policy differences between the two NHS systems were reflected in differing contracting frameworks, involving regional commissioning in Wales and commissioning by either a PCT, or co-operating pair of PCTs in our English case studies, and also in different oversight arrangements by higher tiers of the service. However, long-term relationships and trust between purchasers and providers had an important role in both systems when the financial viability of organisations was at risk. In England, the study found examples where both PCTs and trusts relaxed contractual requirements to assist partners faced with deficits. In Wales, news of plans to end the purchaser/provider split meant a return to less precisely-specified block contracts and a renewed concern to build cooperation between LHB and trust staff

  12. Issues of Media Education of the USA and Canada in the Information Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holovchenko, Hlib

    2014-01-01

    The experience of different countries concerning the formation of preconditions for the development of the information society has been considered. The consequences of "totalitarian" model during the transition to open democratic civil society and the role of education and educators in this process have been defined on the example of…

  13. 22 CFR 1006.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  14. 22 CFR 208.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Civil judgment. 208.920 Section 208.920 Foreign...) Definitions § 208.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  15. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and...) Definitions § 1404.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  16. 34 CFR 85.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil judgment. 85.920 Section 85.920 Education Office...) Definitions § 85.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  17. 22 CFR 1508.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  18. 22 CFR 1508.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1508.920 Section 1508.920...) Definitions § 1508.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  19. 2 CFR 180.915 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 180.915 Section 180.915... § 180.915 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  20. 22 CFR 208.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 208.920 Section 208.920 Foreign...) Definitions § 208.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  1. 22 CFR 1006.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Civil judgment. 1006.920 Section 1006.920...) Definitions § 1006.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  2. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and...) Definitions § 1404.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  3. 34 CFR 85.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 85.920 Section 85.920 Education Office...) Definitions § 85.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of... creates a civil liability for the complained of wrongful acts, or a final determination of liability...

  4. [The identity of civil police officers and successive mirroring studies].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Romeu; de Souza, Edinilsa Ramos

    2013-03-01

    The scope of this paper was to analyze the perceptions of civil police officers regarding their professional identity, the institution they belong to and their opinion concerning the image society has of their performance. The data are derived from a survey focused on their work and health conditions, using a questionnaire, interviews and focus groups including managers, sheriffs and officers. The relative frequency and average return for answers about working conditions, professional fulfillment and life quality improvement after joining the institution were then determined. Qualitative questions were selected about the officers' opinion of how society perceives the civil police and what it is to be a police officer in the area under study using sense interpretation method analysis. The results point to a negative image that the police officers believe society has about them, which reaffirms the bad image associated with the profession. Rejecting this negative identity, they try to distinguish the differences between the civil police and the military police officers. The conclusion is that action is required to improve working conditions and develop channels of dialogue with the community and promote health campaigns.

  5. A Cytotoxic, Co-operative Interaction Between Energy Deprivation and Glutamate Release From System xc− Mediates Aglycemic Neuronal Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Thorn, Trista L.; He, Yan; Jackman, Nicole A.; Lobner, Doug; Hewett, James A.

    2015-01-01

    The astrocyte cystine/glutamate antiporter (system xc−) contributes substantially to the excitotoxic neuronal cell death facilitated by glucose deprivation. The purpose of this study was to determine the mechanism by which this occurred. Using pure astrocyte cultures, as well as, mixed cortical cell cultures containing both neurons and astrocytes, we found that neither an enhancement in system xc− expression nor activity underlies the excitotoxic effects of aglycemia. In addition, using three separate bioassays, we demonstrate no change in the ability of glucose-deprived astrocytes—either cultured alone or with neurons—to remove glutamate from the extracellular space. Instead, we demonstrate that glucose-deprived cultures are 2 to 3 times more sensitive to the killing effects of glutamate or N-methyl-D-aspartate when compared with their glucose-containing controls. Hence, our results are consistent with the weak excitotoxic hypothesis such that a bioenergetic deficiency, which is measureable in our mixed but not astrocyte cultures, allows normally innocuous concentrations of glutamate to become excitotoxic. Adding to the burgeoning literature detailing the contribution of astrocytes to neuronal injury, we conclude that under our experimental paradigm, a cytotoxic, co-operative interaction between energy deprivation and glutamate release from astrocyte system xc− mediates aglycemic neuronal cell death. PMID:26553727

  6. Co-operative DNA binding by GAGA transcription factor requires the conserved BTB/POZ domain and reorganizes promoter topology.

    PubMed Central

    Katsani, K R; Hajibagheri, M A; Verrijzer, C P

    1999-01-01

    The POZ domain is a conserved protein-protein interaction motif present in a variety of transcription factors involved in development, chromatin remodelling and human cancers. Here, we study the role of the POZ domain of the GAGA transcription factor in promoter recognition. Natural target promoters for GAGA typically contain multiple GAGA-binding elements. Our results show that the POZ domain mediates strong co-operative binding to multiple sites but inhibits binding to single sites. Protein cross-linking and gel filtration chromatography experiments established that the POZ domain is required for GAGA oligomerization into higher order complexes. Thus, GAGA oligomerization increases binding specificity by selecting only promoters with multiple sites. Electron microscopy revealed that GAGA binds to multiple sites as a large oligomer and induces bending of the promoter DNA. Our results indicate a novel mode of DNA binding by GAGA, in which a large GAGA complex binds multiple GAGA elements that are spread out over a region of a few hundred base pairs. We suggest a model in which the promoter DNA is wrapped around a GAGA multimer in a conformation that may exclude normal nucleosome formation. PMID:9927429

  7. Paying for outpatient care in rural China: cost escalation under China's New Co-operative Medical Scheme.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wei; Wu, Xun

    2015-03-01

    China's New Co-operative Medical Scheme (NCMS), a government-subsidized health insurance programme, was launched in 2003 in response to deterioration in access to health services in rural areas. Initially designed to cover inpatient care, it has begun to expand its benefit package to cover outpatient care since 2007. The impacts of this initiative on outpatient care costs have raised growing concern, in particular regarding whether it has in fact reduced out-of-pocket (OOP) payments for services among rural participants. This study investigates the impacts on outpatient costs by analysing data from an individual-level longitudinal survey, the China Health and Nutrition Survey, for 2004 and 2009, years shortly before and after NCMS began coverage of outpatient services in 2007. Various health econometrics strategies were employed in the analysis of these data, including the Two-Part Model, the Heckman Selection Model and Propensity Score Matching with the Differences-in-Differences model, to estimate the effects of the 2007 NCMS initiative on per episode outpatient costs. We find that NCMS outpatient coverage starting in 2007 had little impact on reducing its participants' OOP payments for outpatient services. The new coverage may also have contributed to an observed increase in total per episode outpatient costs billed to the insured patients. This increase was more pronounced among village clinics and township health centres-the backbone of the health system for rural residents-than at county and municipal hospitals.

  8. Sympathetic control of skeletal muscle function: possible co-operation between noradrenaline and neuropeptide Y in rabbit jaw muscles.

    PubMed

    Grassi, C; Deriu, F; Roatta, S; Santarelli, R; Azzena, G B; Passatore, M

    1996-07-19

    Stimulation of the cervical sympathetic nerve at 10/s increases by 12.9 +/- 0.7% peak tension of maximal twitches in the directly stimulated jaw muscles and markedly depresses (41.6 +/- 1.3%) the tonic vibration reflex (TVR) elicited in the same muscles by vibration of the mandible. Both effects are not significantly influenced by administration of beta-adrenoceptor antagonists. When both alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptors are blocked, sympathetic stimulation induces a very small increase in twitch tension (3.8 +/- 0.7%), while no detectable change in the TVR is observed. Close arterial injection of alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine mimics the effects induced by sympathetic stimulation on twitch tension and TVR, dose-dependently. The noradrenaline co-transmitter neuropeptide Y also produces a long-lasting, dose-dependent increase in the twitch tension which is unaffected by blockade of adrenergic receptors as well as of the neuromuscular junctions. Contribution of neuropeptide Y to the sympathetically-induced reduction of the stretch reflex is not clearly demonstrated. These data suggest that co-operation between noradrenaline and neuropeptide Y may be effective in determining sympathetic modulation of skeletal muscle function.

  9. Site selection and characterization for historic low-level radioactive wastes in Ontario, Co-operative Siting Process

    SciTech Connect

    Paktunc, A.D.

    1993-12-31

    The Co-operative Siting Process is a non-confrontational way to site a low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) management facility in Ontario. The facility will be designed to accommodate approximately 880,000 m{sup 3} of LLRW. Four sets of general facility concepts, appropriate for the physical and chemical characteristics of the wastes and the general site conditions, are being considered. These include engineered mounds, shallow burial in trenches, burial in open pit with previous surround, and intermediate depth rock disposal concepts. The communities interested in offering a site are located in the Canadian Shield where the topography is dominated by rolling hills with reliefs of up to 50 meters and hydrogeological conditions are primarily controlled by fractures in the rock and by the types and distribution of glacial sediments. Climatic conditions can be classified as humid-continental. The objective of site characterization activity is to assess the suitability of potential sites for long-term containment of LLRW in the geosphere and their safe isolation from the biosphere. An initial phase involves exploratory studies designed to reduce larger areas to smaller areas and eventually to candidate sites. The second phase involves site-specific studies designed to maximize the changes of identifying more than one site for different facility requirements and complying with the regulatory requirements and performance expectations.

  10. Co-operative Bmp- and Fgf-signaling inputs convert skin wound healing to limb formation in urodele amphibians.

    PubMed

    Makanae, Aki; Mitogawa, Kazumasa; Satoh, Akira

    2014-12-01

    Urodele amphibians have remarkable organ regeneration capability, and their limb regeneration capability has been investigated as a representative phenomenon. In the early 19th century, nerves were reported to be an essential tissue for the successful induction of limb regeneration. Nerve substances that function in the induction of limb regeneration responses have long been sought. A new experimental system called the accessory limb model (ALM) has been established to identify the nerve factors. Skin wounding in urodele amphibians results in skin wound healing but never in limb induction. However, nerve deviation to the wounded skin induces limb formation in ALM. Thus, nerves can be considered to have the ability to transform skin wound healing to limb formation. In the present study, co-operative Bmp and Fgf application, instead of nerve deviation, to wounded skin transformed skin wound healing to limb formation in two urodele amphibians, axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) and newt (Pleurodeles waltl). Our findings demonstrate that defined factors can induce homeotic transformation in postembryonic bodies of urodele amphibians. The combination of Bmp and Fgf(s) may contribute to the development of novel treatments for organ regeneration.

  11. Zika virus evades interferon-mediated antiviral response through the co-operation of multiple nonstructural proteins in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yaoxing; Liu, Qingxiang; Zhou, Jie; Xie, Weihong; Chen, Cheng; Wang, Zefang; Yang, Haitao; Cui, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) serves as the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Inhibition of IFN-triggered signaling cascade by Zika virus (ZIKV) plays a critical role for ZIKV to evade antiviral responses from host cells. Here we demonstrate that ZIKV nonstructural proteins NS1, NS4B and NS2B3 inhibit the induction of IFN and downstream IFN-stimulated genes through diverse strategies. NS1 and NS4B of ZIKV inhibit IFNβ signaling at TANK-binding kinase 1 level, whereas NS2B-NS3 of ZIKV impairs JAK–STAT signaling pathway by degrading Jak1 and reduces virus-induced apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, co-operation of NS1, NS4B and NS2B3 further enhances viral infection by blocking IFN-induced autophagic degradation of NS2B3. Hence, our study reveals a novel antagonistic system employing multiple ZIKV nonstructural proteins in restricting the innate antiviral responses. PMID:28373913

  12. Zika virus evades interferon-mediated antiviral response through the co-operation of multiple nonstructural proteins in vitro.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yaoxing; Liu, Qingxiang; Zhou, Jie; Xie, Weihong; Chen, Cheng; Wang, Zefang; Yang, Haitao; Cui, Jun

    2017-01-01

    Type I interferon (IFN) serves as the first line of defense against invading pathogens. Inhibition of IFN-triggered signaling cascade by Zika virus (ZIKV) plays a critical role for ZIKV to evade antiviral responses from host cells. Here we demonstrate that ZIKV nonstructural proteins NS1, NS4B and NS2B3 inhibit the induction of IFN and downstream IFN-stimulated genes through diverse strategies. NS1 and NS4B of ZIKV inhibit IFNβ signaling at TANK-binding kinase 1 level, whereas NS2B-NS3 of ZIKV impairs JAK-STAT signaling pathway by degrading Jak1 and reduces virus-induced apoptotic cell death. Furthermore, co-operation of NS1, NS4B and NS2B3 further enhances viral infection by blocking IFN-induced autophagic degradation of NS2B3. Hence, our study reveals a novel antagonistic system employing multiple ZIKV nonstructural proteins in restricting the innate antiviral responses.

  13. Civil Engineering Technology Needs Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oakland Community Coll., Farmington, MI. Office of Institutional Planning and Analysis.

    In 1991, a study was conducted by Oakland Community College (OCC) to evaluate the need for a proposed Civil Engineering Technology program. An initial examination of the literature focused on industry needs and the job market for civil engineering technicians. In order to gather information on local area employers' hiring practices and needs, a…

  14. Environmental Ethics and Civil Engineering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesilind, P. Aarne

    1987-01-01

    Traces the development of the civil engineering code of ethics. Points out that the code does have an enforceable provision that addresses the engineer's responsibility toward the environment. Suggests revisions to the code to accommodate the environmental impacts of civil engineering. (TW)

  15. Defense Support to Civil Authorities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-22

    Response Authority and Other Military Assistance to Civil Authority ( MACA ) [on-line pamphlet], The Army Lawyer (Charlottesville, VA: Judge Advocate...City Bombing: Immediate Response Authority and Other Military Assistance to Civil Authority ( MACA ). The Army Lawyer. [Charlottesville, VA]: Judge

  16. Introducing Islamic Civilization: Course Syllabus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Reuben W., Ed.

    The syllabus reflects a course in Islamic civilization taught at the University of Chicago and includes the recommendations of participants at a conference on the problems of presenting such a course. The "civilization approach" offers a panoramic view of various related fields, affords a perspective on the problems of analyzing changes over time,…

  17. Nurse Leaders' Response to Civil Unrest in the Urban Core.

    PubMed

    Lavin, Roberta; Goodwin Veenema, Tener; Calvert, Wilma J; Grigsby, Sheila R; Cobbina, Jennifer

    Inequalities in society, culture, and finance have resulted in civil unrest, rioting, and intentional violence throughout our history. Nowhere is this currently more apparent than in the cities of Ferguson and Baltimore. It is not the civil unrest itself, but the resulting rioting and intentional violence that can create a disaster situation. This increases the care burden of health care providers during times when the governmental structure may be overwhelmed or functioning in a less than optimal manner. Beginning with the death of Michael Brown, civil unrest over the last 2 years has necessitated a closer examination of the role nurse leaders play in preparing their staff and facilities for potential results of this civil unrest. The similarities between the results of rioting and violence and natural disaster are obvious, but the differences are significant. Without adequate preparation, providers may not offer the appropriate response. Attention to the 10 "musts" for preparedness for civil unrest will facilitate a planning process and provide for a better response and recovery when communities face these issues.

  18. Civil conflicts are associated with the global climate.

    PubMed

    Hsiang, Solomon M; Meng, Kyle C; Cane, Mark A

    2011-08-24

    It has been proposed that changes in global climate have been responsible for episodes of widespread violence and even the collapse of civilizations. Yet previous studies have not shown that violence can be attributed to the global climate, only that random weather events might be correlated with conflict in some cases. Here we directly associate planetary-scale climate changes with global patterns of civil conflict by examining the dominant interannual mode of the modern climate, the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO). Historians have argued that ENSO may have driven global patterns of civil conflict in the distant past, a hypothesis that we extend to the modern era and test quantitatively. Using data from 1950 to 2004, we show that the probability of new civil conflicts arising throughout the tropics doubles during El Niño years relative to La Niña years. This result, which indicates that ENSO may have had a role in 21% of all civil conflicts since 1950, is the first demonstration that the stability of modern societies relates strongly to the global climate.

  19. Nurse Leaders' Response to Civil Unrest in the Urban Core

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin Veenema, Tener; Calvert, Wilma J.; Grigsby, Sheila R.; Cobbina, Jennifer

    2017-01-01

    Inequalities in society, culture, and finance have resulted in civil unrest, rioting, and intentional violence throughout our history. Nowhere is this currently more apparent than in the cities of Ferguson and Baltimore. It is not the civil unrest itself, but the resulting rioting and intentional violence that can create a disaster situation. This increases the care burden of health care providers during times when the governmental structure may be overwhelmed or functioning in a less than optimal manner. Beginning with the death of Michael Brown, civil unrest over the last 2 years has necessitated a closer examination of the role nurse leaders play in preparing their staff and facilities for potential results of this civil unrest. The similarities between the results of rioting and violence and natural disaster are obvious, but the differences are significant. Without adequate preparation, providers may not offer the appropriate response. Attention to the 10 “musts” for preparedness for civil unrest will facilitate a planning process and provide for a better response and recovery when communities face these issues. PMID:28263274

  20. High speed civil transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogardus, Scott; Loper, Brent; Nauman, Chris; Page, Jeff; Parris, Rusty; Steinbach, Greg

    1990-01-01

    The design process of the High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT) combines existing technology with the expectation of future technology to create a Mach 3.0 transport. The HSCT was designed to have a range in excess of 6000 nautical miles and carry up to 300 passengers. This range will allow the HSCT to service the economically expanding Pacific Basin region. Effort was made in the design to enable the aircraft to use conventional airports with standard 12,000 foot runways. With a takeoff thrust of 250,000 pounds, the four supersonic through-flow engines will accelerate the HSCT to a cruise speed of Mach 3.0. The 679,000 pound (at takeoff) HSCT is designed to cruise at an altitude of 70,000 feet, flying above most atmospheric disturbances.

  1. 22 CFR 42.24 - Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption and the Intercountry Adoption Act... Limitations of INA 201 and 202 § 42.24 Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and...

  2. 22 CFR 42.24 - Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption and the Intercountry Adoption Act... Limitations of INA 201 and 202 § 42.24 Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and...

  3. 22 CFR 42.24 - Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption and the Intercountry Adoption Act... Limitations of INA 201 and 202 § 42.24 Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and...

  4. 22 CFR 42.24 - Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption and the Intercountry Adoption Act... Limitations of INA 201 and 202 § 42.24 Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and...

  5. 22 CFR 42.24 - Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and Co-operation in Respect of Intercountry Adoption and the Intercountry Adoption Act... Limitations of INA 201 and 202 § 42.24 Adoption under the Hague Convention on Protection of Children and...

  6. Perceptions of Student Teachers towards the Effectiveness of Co-Operating Teachers, School Principals and University Supervisors Participating in the Teacher Education Program in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albasheer, Akram; Khasawneh, Samer; Nabah, Abdallah Abu; Hailat, Salah

    2008-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine perceptions of student teachers regarding the effectiveness of university supervisors, school principals and co-operating teachers participating in the teacher education program at the Hashemite University in Jordan. A total of 120 student teachers participated in the study by completing the…

  7. Example of International Co-Operation in the Frame of the Project Phare (TEMPUS) in Innovations in Teaching of Environmental Hydrogeology in Engineering Education in the Czech Republic.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grmela, Arnost; Rapantova, Nadia

    The international TEMPUS (Trans-European Co-operating and Mobility Scheme for Higher Education between Central/Eastern Europe and European Union) project lasted from 1995-1997. In the framework of TEMPUS, a material and knowledge background was developed in order to ensure the education of the branch Geological Engineering with specialization in…

  8. OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development): A Guide to Publications and Data Available in the Libraries of Duke University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basefsky, Stuart, Comp.

    Designed to make Duke University's collection of OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-Operation and Development) publications and data more readily accessible, this guide is divided into the following sections: Introduction to OECD and Its Publications; General References about OECD and Its Activities; Indexes and Other Sources for Accessing OECD…

  9. Going Boldly Into the Future: A Series of Case Studies of Co-Operative Research Centres and Their Relationships with the VET Sector.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrier, Fran; Trood, Clifford; Whittingham, Karen

    This document presents case studies of 10 cooperative research centers (CRCs) across Australia and their relationships with the vocational education and training (VET) sector. The CRCs profiled in the case studies are as follows: Co-operative Research Centre for Sustainable Rice Production; Cast Alloy and Solidification Technology Co-operative…

  10. Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Canedo, Luis

    2008-08-11

    In July 2007 physicians, biologists and physicists that have collaborated in previous meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society constituted the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism with the purpose of promote scientific study of the interaction of electromagnetic energy (at frequencies ranging from zero Hertz through those of visible light) and acoustic energy with biological systems. A second goal was to increase the contribution of medical and biological professionals in the meetings of the medical branch of the Mexican Physical Society. The following paragraphs summarize some objectives of the Mexican Society of Bioelectromagnetism for the next two years.

  11. Civil Commitment in the United States

    PubMed Central

    West, Sara G.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews the academic literature on the psychiatric practice of civil commitment. It provides an overview of the history of involuntary psychiatric hospitalization in the United States—from the creation of the first asylum and the era of institutionalization to the movement of deinstitutionalization. The ethical conflict that the practice of involuntary hospitalization presents for providers, namely the conflict between the ethical duties of beneficence and respect for patient autonomy, is presented. The evolution of the United States commitment standards, from being based on a right to treatment for patients with mental illness to being based on dangerousness, as well as the implications that the changes in commitment criteria has had on patients and society, are discussed. Involuntary hospitalization of patient populations that present unique challenges for psychiatry (e.g., not guilty by reason of insanity acquittees, sex offenders, and individuals with eating disorders, substance use disorders, and personality disorders) is discussed. Finally, an overview of outpatient commitment is provided. By reading this article, one will learn the history of involuntary psychiatric hospitalization in the United States and gain an understanding of the ethical issues that make civil commitment one of the most controversial practices in modern psychiatry. PMID:22778709

  12. Civil Code, 11 December 1987.

    PubMed

    1988-01-01

    Article 162 of this Mexican Code provides, among other things, that "Every person has the right freely, responsibly, and in an informed fashion to determine the number and spacing of his or her children." When a marriage is involved, this right is to be observed by the spouses "in agreement with each other." The civil codes of the following states contain the same provisions: 1) Baja California (Art. 159 of the Civil Code of 28 April 1972 as revised in Decree No. 167 of 31 January 1974); 2) Morelos (Art. 255 of the Civil Code of 26 September 1949 as revised in Decree No. 135 of 29 December 1981); 3) Queretaro (Art. 162 of the Civil Code of 29 December 1950 as revised in the Act of 9 January 1981); 4) San Luis Potosi (Art. 147 of the Civil Code of 24 March 1946 as revised in 13 June 1978); Sinaloa (Art. 162 of the Civil Code of 18 June 1940 as revised in Decree No. 28 of 14 October 1975); 5) Tamaulipas (Art. 146 of the Civil Code of 21 November 1960 as revised in Decree No. 20 of 30 April 1975); 6) Veracruz-Llave (Art. 98 of the Civil Code of 1 September 1932 as revised in the Act of 30 December 1975); and 7) Zacatecas (Art. 253 of the Civil Code of 9 February 1965 as revised in Decree No. 104 of 13 August 1975). The Civil Codes of Puebla and Tlaxcala provide for this right only in the context of marriage with the spouses in agreement. See Art. 317 of the Civil Code of Puebla of 15 April 1985 and Article 52 of the Civil Code of Tlaxcala of 31 August 1976 as revised in Decree No. 23 of 2 April 1984. The Family Code of Hidalgo requires as a formality of marriage a certification that the spouses are aware of methods of controlling fertility, responsible parenthood, and family planning. In addition, Article 22 the Civil Code of the Federal District provides that the legal capacity of natural persons is acquired at birth and lost at death; however, from the moment of conception the individual comes under the protection of the law, which is valid with respect to the

  13. Problems of Bi- and Multilingualism (Part III of "Language Learning: Individual Needs, Interdisciplinary Co-operation, Bi- and Multilingualism").

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1978

    The following papers on the issue of multilingualism in second language instruction are included: (1) "Problemes linguistiques dans les societes plurilingues (Linguistic Problems in Multilingual Societies)," by Amadou-Mahtar M'Bow; (2) "Aim: Multilingualism. The Dismantling of Resistance and Prejudice," by Eva Koberski; (3)…

  14. Expanding the role of women as nurses during the American Civil War.

    PubMed

    Lesniak, Rhonda Goodman

    2009-01-01

    Using the method of social history, this article looks at the many roles filled by women during the American Civil War. Through primary documents such as letters and diaries, the article captures a moment in time when society began to accept an expansion of women's allowed behaviors because of the war. One such field of endeavor was nursing, in which, contrary to Victorian notions, women proved their ability to withstand gruesome conditions in an effort to care for injured and ill soldiers. The purpose of this article is to reconstruct a brief period in which society began to accept role expansion for American women because of the demands of the American Civil War.

  15. Amino acid catalyzed bulk-phase gelation of organoalkoxysilanes via a transient co-operative self-assembly.

    PubMed

    Shen, Shukun; Hu, Daodao; Sun, Peipei; Zhang, Xiaoru; Parikh, Atul N

    2009-10-15

    We report acceleration in the rate of bulk phase gelation of an organoalkoxysilane, 3-methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane (MAPTMS), in the presence of an amphiphilic additive, N-phenyl glycine (NPG). The MAPTMS gelation occurs within 30 min in the presence of 0.5 wt % NPG, which took several months in the absence of NPG. Using a combination of ATR-FT IR, (29)Si NMR, (1)H NMR, viscosity analysis, SEM, UV-vis, and pi-A isotherm measurements, we elucidate the molecular-level details of the structural changes during NPG-catalyzed MPTMS gelation rate. On the basis of these results, we propose a gelation mechanism in which a transient cooperative self-assembly process fosters hydrolysis and retards early condensation thereby promoting the formation of extended three-dimensionally cross-linked gels. Specifically, the amphiphilic character of the hydrolysis product of MAPTMS, consisting of a hydrophobic tail R = -CH(2)CH(2)CH(2)O(CO)C(CH(3)) horizontal lineCH(2) and a hydrophilic Si-OH headgroup, promotes micelle formation at high MAPTMS/water ratio. NPG readily inserts within these micelles thus retarding the topotactic condensation of silanols at the micellar surface. This in turn allows for a more complete hydrolysis of Si-OCH(3) groups prior to condensation in MAPTMS. With increased silanol concentration at the micellar periphery, a delayed condensation phase initiates. This formation of a covalently bonded Si-O-Si framework (and possibly also the formation of the methanol byproduct) likely destabilizes the micellar motif thus promoting its transformation into condensed mesophases (e.g., lamellar microstructure) upon gelation. Because of the generality of this transient and co-operative organic-inorganic self-assembly between hydrolyzed amphiphilic organoalkoxysilanes and surfactant-like amino acid additives, we envisage applications in controlling bulk phase gelation of many chain-substituted organoalkoxysilanes.

  16. International co-operation in the development of a new paradigm for the emissions inventory program in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Snow, C.; Fields, P.; Oliver, W.R.; Figueroa, V.H.P.; Sarmiento, J.

    1999-07-01

    In 1983, the governments of both the US of America and the United Mexican States signed the Agreement on Co-Operation for the Protection and Improvement of the Environment in the Border Area, otherwise known as the La Paz Agreement. Through this agreement both the US and Mexico agreed to cooperate in the field of environmental protection in the border area on the basis of equality, reciprocity and mutual benefit. Both countries agreed to coordinate their efforts, in conformity with their own national legislation and existing bilateral agreements, to address problems of air, land and water pollution in the border area. In the US, the Western Governors' Association (WGA) coordinated with Mexico's environmental agency, the National Institute of Ecology (INE), to develop a new paradigm for INE's air emissions inventory program. The development of this program began with a review of INE's current system and how it could be modified to reduce the air pollution in the country's major metropolitan areas. The primary objectives of this program are to build capacity in Mexico for developing emission inventories, and develop and test emission inventory methods developed especially for Mexican sources. In addition to the WGA's contracted professional consultants, a Binational Advisory Committee, composed of qualified emissions inventory professionals in both Mexico and the US, was organized to review, comment and make recommendations during the development of the program. Through their collective expertise in emissions inventories, the participants in this process have been successful in developing a series of training manuals designed for INE's engineers to implement the new emissions inventory program throughout Mexico. Other accomplishments of this program include conducting training of University Autonama Metropolitan faculty, INE staff, and Mexican industry representatives.

  17. How to create more supportive supervision for primary healthcare: lessons from Ngamiland district of Botswana: co-operative inquiry group

    PubMed Central

    Nkomazana, Oathokwa; Mash, Robert; Wojczewski, Silvia; Kutalek, Ruth; Phaladze, Nthabiseng

    2016-01-01

    Background Supportive supervision is a way to foster performance, productivity, motivation, and retention of health workforce. Nevertheless there is a dearth of evidence of the impact and acceptability of supportive supervision in low- and middle-income countries. This article describes a participatory process of transforming the supervisory practice of district health managers to create a supportive environment for primary healthcare workers. Objective The objective of the study was to explore how district health managers can change their practice to create a more supportive environment for primary healthcare providers. Design A facilitated co-operative inquiry group (CIG) was formed with Ngamiland health district managers. CIG belongs to the participatory action research paradigm and is characterised by a cyclic process of observation, reflection, planning, and action. The CIG went through three cycles between March 2013 and March 2014. Results Twelve district health managers participated in the inquiry group. The major insights and learning that emerged from the inquiry process included inadequate supervisory practice, perceptions of healthcare workers’ experiences, change in the managers’ supervision paradigm, recognition of the supervisors’ inadequate supervisory skills, and barriers to supportive supervision. Finally, the group developed a 10-point consensus on what they had learnt regarding supportive supervision. Conclusion Ngamiland health district managers have come to appreciate the value of supportive supervision and changed their management style to be more supportive of their subordinates. They also developed a consensus on supportive supervision that could be adapted for use nationally. Supportive supervision should be prioritised at all levels of the health system, and it should be adequately resourced. PMID:27345024

  18. High Caesarean section rate in rural China: is it related to health insurance (New Co-operative Medical Scheme)?

    PubMed

    Long, Qian; Klemetti, Reija; Wang, Yang; Tao, Fangbiao; Yan, Hong; Hemminki, Elina

    2012-08-01

    The epidemic of Caesarean section (CS) is worldwide, and it has been argued that it is mainly due to non-medical factors, including healthcare financing patterns. We investigated the use of CS in rural China and the related factors, particularly health insurance in the form of the New Co-operative Medical Scheme introduced in 2003. A cross-sectional survey of women who gave birth in 2008-2009 was conducted in five rural counties in central and western China. Of the 5049 new mothers, 73% were interviewed. The association between health insurance coverage and self-reported CS (divided into emergency and non-emergency CS) were examined by cross-tabulation and logistic regression, adjusting for maternal age, education, occupation, household income, previous abortions, parity and type of birth health facility. We found that 46% of all births (3550) were CSs, with 13% having an emergency and 33% a non-emergency CS. Women reported that half of the non-emergency CSs were recommended by a doctor and half were requested by themselves. In those counties with mid-range CS rates (28%-63%), health insurance coverage was associated with having CS, and particularly with having non-emergency CS. In those counties with the highest (82%) and lowest (13%) rate, there was no statistically significant association. The findings suggest that health insurance coverage may have facilitated the overuse of CS. Further studies are needed to develop appropriate interventions to reduce non-medically indicated CS, focussing on payment mechanisms, healthcare provider practice patterns, and maternal requests.

  19. Technical Civilizations in the Galaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry

    2005-01-01

    Are there other technical civilizations in the galaxy? Past analyses come to different conclusions. Cocconi and Morrison demonstrated in 1959 that interstellar radio communication was possible and Drake conducted the first search for beacons in 1960. The Drake equation estimates the number of galactic civilizations that are transmitting beacons as the product of the rate of star formation in the galaxy, the fraction of stars with planets, their average number of earthlike planets, the fraction with intelligent life and interstellar communication, and the average lifetime of a technical civilization. The Drake model of the galaxy contains many technical civilizations with communication but no interstellar travel. Michael Hart in 1975 strongly challenged this model. Starting with the fact that no extraterrestrials have been observed on Earth, and assuming that interstellar colonization is possible, he concluded that it was very likely that we are the first civilization in our galaxy and that searching or beacons is probably a waste of time and money. The Fermi paradox similarly reasons that if extraterrestrials exist: they should be here, and asks, Where are they? The Hart/Fermi model of the galaxy contains only our civilization and suggests we may colonize the galaxy. A third galactic model is that we are alone but will never develop interstellar travel. The fourth alternate model has many technical civilizations, with interstellar travel and colonization. The possibilities are clear and momentous. Either we are the only technical civilization in the galaxy or there are others. Technical civilizations will colonize the galaxy or not. We have four cosmic conjectures - one or many, colonization or not - but however unlikely they seem based on our limited evidence, one of these four models must be collect.

  20. Indian Vacuum Society: The Indian Vacuum Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, T. K.

    2008-03-01

    The Indian Vacuum Society (IVS) was established in 1970. It has over 800 members including many from Industry and R & D Institutions spread throughout India. The society has an active chapter at Kolkata. The society was formed with the main aim to promote, encourage and develop the growth of Vacuum Science, Techniques and Applications in India. In order to achieve this aim it has conducted a number of short term courses at graduate and technician levels on vacuum science and technology on topics ranging from low vacuum to ultrahigh vacuum So far it has conducted 39 such courses at different parts of the country and imparted training to more than 1200 persons in the field. Some of these courses were in-plant training courses conducted on the premises of the establishment and designed to take care of the special needs of the establishment. IVS also regularly conducts national and international seminars and symposia on vacuum science and technology with special emphasis on some theme related to applications of vacuum. A large number of delegates from all over India take part in the deliberations of such seminars and symposia and present their work. IVS also arranges technical visits to different industries and research institutes. The society also helped in the UNESCO sponsored post-graduate level courses in vacuum science, technology and applications conducted by Mumbai University. The society has also designed a certificate and diploma course for graduate level students studying vacuum science and technology and has submitted a syllabus to the academic council of the University of Mumbai for their approval, we hope that some colleges affiliated to the university will start this course from the coming academic year. IVS extended its support in standardizing many of the vacuum instruments and played a vital role in helping to set up a Regional Testing Centre along with BARC. As part of the development of vacuum education, the society arranges the participation of

  1. Towards the Learning Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranson, Stewart

    1992-01-01

    Britain's education system is a beleaguered service accused of failing young people who leave school early without developing their potential. Education will always fail if youngsters' capacities are sectioned off to match a pyramidal, hierarchical society. The conditions for a learning society are basically political, requiring creation of a…

  2. Schools, Violence, and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Allan M., Ed.

    The seeming increase of violence in American society and its schools has become a pressing issue. Some researchers argue that the American education system mirrors the dynamics of society. The articles in this book address the following issues: the extent of violence in American schools; the forms that violence takes; its root causes; the effects…

  3. Geologists' Role in Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bally, A. W.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    At a meeting sponsored by the Geological Society of America, earth scientists examined their function in society. Participants concluded that earth scientists are not providing a rationale for value judgments concerning the use and limitations of the earth and a program aimed at understanding solid-Earth resource systems is needed. (BT)

  4. Civil Defense, U. S. A.: A Programmed Orientation to Civil Defense. Unit 5. Governmental Responsibilities for Civil Defense.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Civil Preparedness Agency (DOD), Battle Creek, MI.

    A description of the laws and orders that provide necessary legal authorization for civil defense activities is provided. In addition, an outline of the responsibilities of all governments and the role of the private sector in civil defense is presented. Topics discussed include: (1) Legal authority for civil defense, (2) Civil defense…

  5. High speed civil transport

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This report discusses the design and marketability of a next generation supersonic transport. Apogee Aeronautics Corporation has designated its High Speed Civil Transport (HSCT): Supercruiser HS-8. Since the beginning of the Concorde era, the general consensus has been that the proper time for the introduction of a next generation Supersonic Transport (SST) would depend upon the technical advances made in the areas of propulsion (reduction in emissions) and material composites (stronger, lighter materials). It is believed by many in the aerospace industry that these beforementioned technical advances lie on the horizon. With this being the case, this is the proper time to begin the design phase for the next generation HSCT. The design objective for a HSCT was to develop an aircraft that would be capable of transporting at least 250 passengers with baggage at a distance of 5500 nmi. The supersonic Mach number is currently unspecified. In addition, the design had to be marketable, cost effective, and certifiable. To achieve this goal, technical advances in the current SST's must be made, especially in the areas of aerodynamics and propulsion. As a result of these required aerodynamic advances, several different supersonic design concepts were reviewed.

  6. Credit and civilization.

    PubMed

    Newton, Tim

    2003-09-01

    This paper analyses financial credit in order to re-examine the work of Norbert Elias, particularly his association of interdependency complexity with social discipline, and his approach to contradiction. Following a discussion of these issues, the paper examines Elias's writing on money and explores the emergence of financial credit networks in early modern England. Attention is paid to credit networks and social discipline, to credit and the state, and to the contradictory images associated with the transition to modern cash economies. From one perspective, early modern credit networks might be read as a confirmation of Elias, particularly his argument that interdependency complexity, changing power balances and self-restraint are interwoven. Yet the development of modern cash money raises questions, not just in relation to Elias's treatment of money, but also with regard to his assumptions about social discipline and his approach to ambivalence and contradiction. Drawing on the foregoing discussion, the paper argues that the relation between interdependency complexity and social discipline is contingent and variable, and that interdependency complexity may simultaneously encourage contradictory processes, such as those of civilizing and barbarity.

  7. Job Prospects for Civil Engineers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basta, Nicholas

    1988-01-01

    Discusses civil engineering employment opportunities; indicates that the field is shrinking. Presents national placement and enrollment statistics. Identifies building and construction materials, and public works as areas of current and expanding opportunities. (CW)

  8. 77 FR 70710 - Civil Penalties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-27

    ... Reform Act of 1995, Public Law 104-4, requires agencies to prepare a written assessment of the cost... Mandates assessment will be prepared. Executive Order 12778 (Civil Justice Reform) This rule does not...

  9. 75 FR 79978 - Civil Penalties

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... Law 104-4, requires agencies to prepare a written assessment of the cost, benefits and other effects... assessment will be prepared. ] Executive Order 12778 (Civil Justice Reform) This final rule does not have...

  10. Partnering Guide for Civil Missions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    charter, and even grade each other on a scorecard . All of these collaborative processes can be helpful at different points in the Civil Works program...sign a charter, and even grade each other on a scorecard . All of these collaborative processes can be helpful at different points in the Civil...participants’ credibility is on the line. If specific targets are set in the charter, they should be balanced between realism on the one hand and

  11. 5 CFR 919.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 919.920 Section 919.920 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.920 Civil judgment. Civil...

  12. 21 CFR 1404.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Civil judgment. 1404.920 Section 1404.920 Food and Drugs OFFICE OF NATIONAL DRUG CONTROL POLICY GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1404.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court...

  13. 29 CFR 1471.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision, settlement... 29 Labor 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Civil judgment. 1471.920 Section 1471.920 Labor...

  14. 30 CFR 912.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil penalties. 912.845 Section 912.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for...

  15. 30 CFR 922.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil penalties. 922.845 Section 922.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for...

  16. 30 CFR 921.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil penalties. 921.845 Section 921.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed...

  17. 30 CFR 947.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil penalties. 947.845 Section 947.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed...

  18. 2 CFR 180.915 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil judgment. 180.915 Section 180.915... GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 180.915 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by...

  19. 29 CFR 1471.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil judgment. 1471.920 Section 1471.920 Labor Regulations... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision,...

  20. 29 CFR 98.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil judgment. 98.920 Section 98.920 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent...

  1. 30 CFR 910.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil penalties. 910.845 Section 910.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for...

  2. 48 CFR 3.807 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Civil penalties. 3.807... Federal Transactions 3.807 Civil penalties. Agencies shall impose and collect civil penalties pursuant to the provisions of the Program Fraud and Civil Remedies Act, 31 U.S.C. 3803 (except subsection...

  3. 30 CFR 942.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil penalties. 942.845 Section 942.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply to the assessment of civil penalties...

  4. 30 CFR 939.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil penalties. 939.845 Section 939.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed...

  5. 14 CFR 406.9 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil penalties. 406.9 Section 406.9... § 406.9 Civil penalties. (a) Civil penalty liability. Under 49 U.S.C. 70115(c), a person found by the... civil penalty of not more than $110,000 for each violation, as adjusted for inflation. A...

  6. 30 CFR 941.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil penalties. 941.845 Section 941.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed...

  7. 30 CFR 905.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil penalties. 905.845 Section 905.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply to the assessment of civil penalties...

  8. 31 CFR 19.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil judgment. 19.920 Section 19.920... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision,...

  9. 5 CFR 919.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil judgment. 919.920 Section 919.920 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT (CONTINUED) CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 919.920 Civil judgment. Civil...

  10. 30 CFR 937.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil penalties. 937.845 Section 937.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for...

  11. 30 CFR 903.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil penalties. 903.845 Section 903.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, applies to the assessment of civil penalties for...

  12. 30 CFR 933.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil penalties. 933.845 Section 933.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chaper, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed...

  13. Communication Needs of Thai Civil Engineering Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaewpet, Chamnong

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an examination of the communication needs of a group of Thai civil engineering students. Twenty-five stakeholders helped identify the communication needs of the students by participating in individual interviews. These included employers, civil engineers, civil engineering lecturers, ex-civil engineering students of the…

  14. 28 CFR 31.202 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil rights. 31.202 Section 31.202....202 Civil rights. (a) To carry out the State's Federal civil rights responsibilities the plan must: (1) Designate a civil rights contact person who has lead responsibility in insuring that all applicable...

  15. 14 CFR 1274.924 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Civil rights. 1274.924 Section 1274.924... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.924 Civil rights. Civil Rights July 2002 Work on NASA cooperative agreements is subject to the provisions of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of...

  16. 28 CFR 31.202 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Civil rights. 31.202 Section 31.202....202 Civil rights. (a) To carry out the State's Federal civil rights responsibilities the plan must: (1) Designate a civil rights contact person who has lead responsibility in insuring that all applicable...

  17. 14 CFR 1274.924 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Civil rights. 1274.924 Section 1274.924... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.924 Civil rights. Civil Rights July 2002 Work on NASA cooperative agreements is subject to the provisions of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of...

  18. 7 CFR 2500.056 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Civil rights. 2500.056 Section 2500.056 Agriculture... Closeout § 2500.056 Civil rights. Awardees must comply with the civil rights requirements of 7 CFR part 15, subpart A—USDA implementation of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended. In accordance,...

  19. 14 CFR 1274.924 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Civil rights. 1274.924 Section 1274.924... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.924 Civil rights. Civil Rights July 2002 Work on NASA cooperative agreements is subject to the provisions of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of...

  20. 28 CFR 31.202 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Civil rights. 31.202 Section 31.202....202 Civil rights. (a) To carry out the State's Federal civil rights responsibilities the plan must: (1) Designate a civil rights contact person who has lead responsibility in insuring that all applicable...

  1. 14 CFR 1274.924 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 1274.924 Section 1274.924... FIRMS Other Provisions and Special Conditions § 1274.924 Civil rights. Civil Rights July 2002 Work on NASA cooperative agreements is subject to the provisions of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of...

  2. 7 CFR 2500.056 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Civil rights. 2500.056 Section 2500.056 Agriculture... Closeout § 2500.056 Civil rights. Awardees must comply with the civil rights requirements of 7 CFR part 15, subpart A—USDA implementation of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended. In accordance,...

  3. 7 CFR 2500.056 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Civil rights. 2500.056 Section 2500.056 Agriculture... Closeout § 2500.056 Civil rights. Awardees must comply with the civil rights requirements of 7 CFR part 15, subpart A—USDA implementation of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended. In accordance,...

  4. 28 CFR 31.202 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Civil rights. 31.202 Section 31.202....202 Civil rights. (a) To carry out the State's Federal civil rights responsibilities the plan must: (1) Designate a civil rights contact person who has lead responsibility in insuring that all applicable...

  5. 30 CFR 933.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 933.845 Section 933.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE NORTH CAROLINA § 933.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chaper, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed...

  6. 30 CFR 922.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 922.845 Section 922.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MICHIGAN § 922.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for...

  7. 30 CFR 937.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 937.845 Section 937.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE OREGON § 937.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for...

  8. 29 CFR 98.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Civil judgment. 98.920 Section 98.920 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 98.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent...

  9. 30 CFR 921.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 921.845 Section 921.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE MASSACHUSETTS § 921.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed...

  10. 7 CFR 3017.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil judgment. 3017.920 Section 3017.920 Agriculture... AGRICULTURE GOVERNMENTWIDE DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 3017.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction,...

  11. 30 CFR 942.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 942.845 Section 942.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE TENNESSEE § 942.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply to the assessment of civil penalties...

  12. 30 CFR 912.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 912.845 Section 912.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE IDAHO § 912.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for...

  13. 30 CFR 941.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 941.845 Section 941.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE SOUTH DAKOTA § 941.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed...

  14. 14 CFR 406.9 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil penalties. 406.9 Section 406.9... § 406.9 Civil penalties. (a) Civil penalty liability. Under 49 U.S.C. 70115(c), a person found by the... civil penalty of not more than $100,000 for each violation, as adjusted for inflation. A...

  15. 30 CFR 905.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 905.845 Section 905.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE CALIFORNIA § 905.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply to the assessment of civil penalties...

  16. 48 CFR 3.807 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil penalties. 3.807... Federal Transactions 3.807 Civil penalties. Agencies shall impose and collect civil penalties pursuant to the provisions of the Program Fraud and Civil Remedies Act, 31 U.S.C. 3803 (except subsection...

  17. 29 CFR 1471.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 1471.920 Section 1471.920 Labor Regulations... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 1471.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision,...

  18. 30 CFR 939.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 939.845 Section 939.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE RHODE ISLAND § 939.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed...

  19. 30 CFR 947.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 947.845 Section 947.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE WASHINGTON § 947.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed...

  20. 31 CFR 19.920 - Civil judgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil judgment. 19.920 Section 19.920... SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) Definitions § 19.920 Civil judgment. Civil judgment means the disposition of a civil action by any court of competent jurisdiction, whether by verdict, decision,...

  1. 30 CFR 903.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 903.845 Section 903.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE ARIZONA § 903.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, applies to the assessment of civil penalties for...

  2. 30 CFR 910.845 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Civil penalties. 910.845 Section 910.845... PROGRAMS FOR THE CONDUCT OF SURFACE MINING OPERATIONS WITHIN EACH STATE GEORGIA § 910.845 Civil penalties. Part 845 of this chapter, Civil Penalties, shall apply when civil penalties are assessed for...

  3. 50 CFR 697.11 - Civil procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil procedures. 697.11 Section 697.11 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION....11 Civil procedures. The civil procedure regulations at 15 CFR part 904 apply to civil...

  4. Co-operative agreements and the EU Water Framework Directive in conjunction with the Common Agricultural Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, I.

    2008-05-01

    This paper discusses the significance of voluntary arrangements for the water and agricultural policies in the European Union. The current implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) require new approaches in water management. As many case studies have shown, co-operative agreements (CAs) between water companies, farmers and authorities can help to reduce environmental pressures on water bodies. The main reasons for that are: i) water companies are ready to advise and financially support farmers in changing production methods; ii) changes of farming practices are tailored to the site-specific requirements; iii) farmers and water companies are interested in minimising the costs and environmental pressures as they benefit, for example, from modernization of farming methods, and reductions in cost of water treatment, and iv) voluntarily agreed commitments to change farming practices are often stricter than statutory rules. Moreover, precautionary rather than remedial measures are preferred. Tackling diffuse pollution is one of the main concerns of the WFD. CAs can enhance the cost-effectiveness of actions within the programmes of measures so that good water status is achieved by 2015. In CAs all relevant stakeholders, located in catchment areas of agricultural usage, can be involved. Thus, they can help to foster integrated water resources management. In particular, disproportionate costs of changing farming practices can be identified. With regard to the recent CAP reform, financial support for farmers will be linked to compliance with environmental standards and further commitments. This concerns both direct payments and agri-environmental programmes. The experience gained in CAs can provide information on best agricultural practices. Informed farmers are more ready to meet environmental requirements. Because CAs implement the most cost-effective changes in farming practice, it can be assumed

  5. Co-operative agreements and the EU Water Framework Directive in conjunction with the Common Agricultural Policy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinz, I.

    2007-06-01

    This paper discusses the significance of voluntary arrangements for the water and agricultural policies in the European Union. The current implementation of the European Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the reform of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) require new approaches in water management. As many case studies have shown, co-operative agreements (CAs) between water companies, farmers and authorities can help to reduce environmental pressures on water bodies. The main reasons for that are: i) water companies are ready to advise and financially support farmers in changing production methods; ii) changes of farming practices are tailored to the site-specific requirements; iii) farmers and water companies are interested in minimising the costs and environmental pressures as they benefit, for example, from modernization of farming methods, and reductions in cost of water treatment, and iv) voluntarily agreed commitments to change farming practices are often stricter than statutory rules. Moreover, precautionary rather than remedial measures are preferred. Tackling diffuse pollution is one of the main concerns of the WFD. CAs can enhance the cost-effectiveness of actions within the programmes of measures so that good water status is achieved by 2015. In CAs all relevant stakeholders, located in catchment areas of agricultural usage, can be involved. Thus, they can help to foster integrated water resources management. In particular, disproportionate costs of changing farming practices can be identified. With regard to the recent CAP reform, financial support for farmers will be linked to compliance with environmental standards and further commitments. This concerns both direct payments and agri-environmental programmes. The experience gained in CAs can provide information on best agricultural practices. Informed farmers are more ready to meet environmental requirements. Because CAs implement the most cost-effective changes in farming practice, it can be assumed

  6. Space civil engineering - A new discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadeh, Willy Z.; Criswell, Marvin E.

    1991-01-01

    Space Civil Engineering is an emerging engineering discipline that focuses on extending and expanding the Civil Engineering know-how and practice to the development and maintenance of infrastructure on celestial bodies. Space Civil Engineering is presently being developed as a new discipline within the Department of Civil Engineering at Colorado State University under a recently established NASA Space Grant College Program. Academic programs geared toward creating Space Civil Engineering Options at both undergraduate and graduate levels are being formulated. Basic ideas and concepts of the curriculum in the Space Civil Engineering Option at both undergraduate and graduate levels are presented. The role of Space Civil Engineering in the Space Program is discussed.

  7. [Introduction of a school-based intervention method targeted for drug using students. Barriers related to the co-operation between parents and teachers].

    PubMed

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, Katarzyna; Borucka, Anna; Pisarska, Agnieszka

    2003-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyse the process of implementing a school-based intervention method, for drug using students and barriers, related to the parent-school co-operation, impeding this process. Data were collected during the qualitative evaluation of the intervention implementation into 11 schools representing various educational levels and local communities. Results indicate that in 6 schools at least some of proposed system modifications were implemented and in 7 schools teachers used key elements of the intervention method while solving problems related to students' conduct or drug use. The teachers' attitude and expectations related to the idea of family-school co-operation were important from the very beginning of the programme implementation - at the stage of establishing a sense of urgency of the change. In proceeding stages, good communication and openness in parent-school contacts were crucial for the programme effectiveness. These were also a source of positive reinforcement for the people involved.

  8. Thank you, Royal Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toumey, Chris

    2015-04-01

    More than a decade after it was first published, Chris Toumey revisits a report from the Royal Society on the opportunities and uncertainties of nanotechnology, and finds that it still has plenty to offer.

  9. American Headache Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... NEWS VIEW ALL NEWS FIRST ANNUAL “MIGRAINE MOMENT” FILM CONTEST WINNERS The American Headache Society and American ... RT @mrobbinsmd : A7 See the recent @amfmigraine #MigraineMoment film competition & stories like @brainstorm83 to understand the gravity & ...

  10. American Epilepsy Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Epilepsy Society CLINICAL RESOURCES FAQs GUIDELINES IOM EPILEPSY MEDICAL MARIJUANA SUDEP SURGERY DEVICES GENETICS TREATMENTS Drug Alerts and ... RESOURCES Navigation CLINICAL RESOURCES FAQs GUIDELINES IOM EPILEPSY MEDICAL MARIJUANA SUDEP SURGERY DEVICES GENETICS TREATMENTS Drug Alerts and ...

  11. North American Menopause Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Advertisements NAMS in the News Press Room Assistance Society Overview Top 10 reasons why NAMS is your ... fully updated and referenced 5th edition of the Society’s leading professional resource, featuring the latest comprehensive clinical ...

  12. Society of Interventional Radiology

    MedlinePlus

    ... decoded SIR’s Health Policy and Economics team provides information on the varied activities the society engages in to ensure proper coding of interventional radiology services. SIR is committed to assisting you, your institution ...

  13. Radiation and Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Edward I.

    1974-01-01

    Presents a discussion of the risks, to society, from radiation-associated technologies and urges that science teachers help the public understand the decision-making process relative to nuclear power as well as the problems and alternatives. (PEB)

  14. Consumption in the Information Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zherebin, V. M.; Ermakova, N. A.; Makhrova, O. N.

    2010-01-01

    The current state of the economy in the developed countries make it possible to characterize them using concepts and terms such as the postindustrial society, the new economy, the service economy, the creative economy, the posteconomic society, the information society, the knowledge society, and the consumer society. Among these terms and…

  15. The significance of abrupt transitions in Lineweaver-Burk plots with particular reference to glutamate dehydrogenase. Negative and positive co-operativity in catalytic rate constants.

    PubMed

    Engel, P C; Ferdinand, W

    1973-01-01

    1. Lineweaver-Burk plots for glutamate dehydrogenase, glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase and several other enzymes show one or more abrupt transitions between apparently linear sections. These transitions correspond to abrupt increases in the apparent K(m) and V(max.) with increasing concentration of the varied substrate. 2. The generalized reciprocal initial-rate equation for a multi-site enzyme requires several restrictions to be put on it in order to generate such plots. These mathematical conditions are explored. 3. It is shown that the effective omission of a term in the denominator of the reciprocal initial-rate equation represents a minimal requirement for generation of abrupt transitions. This corresponds in physical terms to negative co-operativity followed by positive co-operativity affecting the catalytic rate constant for the reaction. 4. Previous models for glutamate dehydrogenase cannot adequately account for the results. On the other hand, the model based on both negative and positive co-operativity gives a good fit to the experimental points. 5. The conclusions are discussed in relation to current knowledge of the structure and mechanism of glutamate dehydrogenase.

  16. The Civil Rights Act of 1990: Advancing Civil Rights?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Executive Officer, Civilian Institution Programs DTIC S ELECTE OCT24 19901 76 UNCLASSIFIED 4 THE CIVIL FIGHTI’S ACI’ OCF 1990 ADVA~NCING CIVIL RIGHTS...where it recruits, where it advertises, when it 42 irntten statement of Lawrence Z. Lorber before the Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources...S. at .TS. Wr:::en statement :f "haries Fr:ei ’efore ti. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources, ,4. at p,3. 22 Any reflection on how the

  17. [125 years' of the Serbian Medical Society].

    PubMed

    Sulović, V; Pavlović, B

    1998-01-01

    In the second half of the last century and under the influence of the European civilization, Serbia abandoned the conservative and patriarchal way of life and began to introduce a new, contemporary political, cultural and social spirit into the country. The development of these civilizing features was under the influence of young intelectuals who, as former scholarship holders of the Serbian government, were educated in many European countries. Among them, there was a group of physicians who returned to the country after having completed their education. They were carriers and holders of the contemporary medical science in Serbia and the neighbouring areas. On April 22, 1872 a group of 15 physicians founded the Serbian Medical Society with the intention to offer an organized medical help and care to the population. The first president was Dr. Aćim Medović and the first secretary Dr. Vladan Dordević. At the meeting held on May 15, 1872 the text of the Statute of the Society was accepted and immediately submitted for approval to the Ministry of Internal Affairs. In the letter addressed to the minister of internal affairs the following reasons were cited: "... The Belgrade physicians feeling a need for having the main office for their professional and scientific meetings, for which they will find the opportunity and the funds, and in spite of their hard medical labor which requires almost all their time, decided to establish the Serbian Medical Society because they wish to be in trend and follow-up the medical progress and exchange the latest medical information not only among them but also with other graduated doctors living in areas with the Serblan population as well as with all scientists who are willing to contribute to the development of medical science in Serbia...". In the first year of its existence the Serbian Medical Society had 9 regular members, 1 honorary member and 34 corresponding members from Serbia, Slavic and other foreign countries. On August 5

  18. [Mentally ill and dangerous: civil commitment or internment? The Belgian judicial framework].

    PubMed

    Smets, H; Verelst, R; Vandenberghe, J

    2009-01-01

    There are two important Belgian laws referring to psychiatric disturbances that may prove dangerous. The Civil Code includes the law relating to the protection of the mentally ill person, dated 26th June 1990, better known as the law of civil commitment of the mentally ill. Since April, 2007, the Penal Code has contained a new law on the internment of people with a psychiatric disorder; this new law replaces the old law of the 1st July, 1964, meant to protect the society. Although the two laws apply to different fields, in clinical practice there are sometimes 'grey areas' where it is not immediately evident which legal framework is applicable. Starting from a case study in which the civil judge ordered the civil commitment of a detainee, we explore these 'grey areas' and compare the two legal frameworks. We base our study on the new law on internment, clarify it and sketch the legal history of internment in Belgium.

  19. Advanced information society(2)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuyama, Keiichi

    Our modern life is full of information and information infiltrates into our daily life. Networking of the telecommunication is extended to society, company, and individual level. Although we have just entered the advanced information society, business world and our daily life have been steadily transformed by the advancement of information network. This advancement of information brings a big influence on economy, and will play they the main role in the expansion of domestic demands. This paper tries to view the image of coming advanced information society, focusing on the transforming businessman's life and the situation of our daily life, which became wealthy by the spread of daily life information and the visual information by satellite system, in the development of the intelligent city.

  20. Space Civil Engineering option - A progress report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Criswell, Marvin E.; Sadeh, Willy Z.

    1992-01-01

    Space Civil Engineering is an emerging engineering discipline that focuses on extending and expanding Civil Engineering to the development, operation, and maintenance of infrastructures on celestial bodies. Space Civil Engineering is presently being developed as a new discipline within the Department of Civil Engineering at Colorado State University and with support of the NASA Space Grant College Program. Academic programs geared toward creating Space Civil Engineering Options at both undergraduate and graduate levels are being formulated. Basic ideas and concepts and the current status of the curriculum in the Space Civil Engineering Option primarily at the undergraduate level are presented.

  1. Suggestions for Popularizing Civil Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    The public generally is taking very little interest in the progress of Civil Aviation, and the time has come to educate the public in aeronautics and to make them realize the far-reaching importance of air transport. Briefly, the whole problem resolves itself into discovering and applying means for bringing some of the many aspects and effects of civil aviation into the everyday lives of the public. The report suggests three principal groups of methods: (1) Bring aviation into daily contact with the public. (2) Bring the public into daily contact with aviation. (3) General publicity.

  2. Science and Society Colloquium

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-10

    Mr. Randi will give an update of his lecture to the American Physical Society on the occasion of his award of the 1989 Forum Prize. The citation said: "for his unique defense of Science and the scientific method in many disciplines, including physics, against pseudoscience, frauds and charlatans. His use of scientific techniques has contributed to refuting suspicious and fraudulent claims of paranormal results. He has contributed significantly to public understanding of important issues where science and society interact". He is a professional magician and author of many books. He worked with John Maddox, the Editor of Nature to investigate the claims of "water with memory".

  3. Advanced information society(7)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiba, Toshihiro

    Various threats are hiding in advanced informationalized society. As we see car accident problems in motorization society light aspects necessarily accompy shady ones. Under the changing circumstances of advanced informationalization added values of information has become much higher. It causes computer crime, hacker, computer virus to come to the surface. In addition it can be said that infringement of intellectual property and privacy are threats brought by advanced information. Against these threats legal, institutional and insurance measures have been progressed, and newly security industry has been established. However, they are not adequate individually or totally. The future vision should be clarified, and countermeasures according to the visions have to be considered.

  4. Science and Society Colloquium

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    Mr. Randi will give an update of his lecture to the American Physical Society on the occasion of his award of the 1989 Forum Prize. The citation said: "for his unique defense of Science and the scientific method in many disciplines, including physics, against pseudoscience, frauds and charlatans. His use of scientific techniques has contributed to refuting suspicious and fraudulent claims of paranormal results. He has contributed significantly to public understanding of important issues where science and society interact". He is a professional magician and author of many books. He worked with John Maddox, the Editor of Nature to investigate the claims of "water with memory".

  5. Values and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jack L.

    The idea of a democratic society based on human rights and social justice is the social issue examined in this book which is one of a series on challenges and choices in American values. The format followed in the series includes the following for secondary students: case studies illustrating the issue by focusing on human institutions, factual…

  6. The School in Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tasmanian Education Dept., Hobart (Australia).

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of the role of school in Tasmania as seen in a report by a committee appointed to determine that question. At present, Tasmanian children are required to attend school between the ages of 6 and 16. About 20% of children attend private schools. The demands of society for…

  7. Man--Society--Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taxis, Linda A., Ed.

    The 32nd annual American Industrial Arts Association (AIAA) Convention was held in Louisville in 1970. Topics for the AIAA general session addresses were: (1) "Industrial Arts--The Blender Between Social Form and Technical Function," (2) "Technology and Society: Present and Future Challenges," (3) "A Student-Oriented Industrial Arts," (4) "Man:…

  8. Teaching Global Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peet, Richard

    2002-01-01

    Describes the course, "Global Society," for first-year International Studies students at a Massachusetts liberal arts college. The course, which takes a historical approach, informs students about the nature, history, and present characteristics of the global system, taking theoretical, historical, and critical approaches that stress the…

  9. Time and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kazancigil, Ali, Ed.

    1986-01-01

    The articles in this issue review the history of the sociological study of different societies' conceptions of time. Social time is the way people regard and employ time dependent on economic conditions, the organization of daily life, the cultural setting, and religion. (JDH)

  10. Art, Society and Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ralph A.

    1976-01-01

    In considering the relation of art with society the author comments on the ideas of the American philosopher, John Dewey, the art historian, Lord Kenneth Clark, a popular humanistic educator, Clifton Fadiman, and a major cultural critic, Jacques Barzun. (Author/RK)

  11. Education for Jobless Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sidorkin, Alexander M.

    2017-01-01

    The advent of societies with low employment rates will present a challenge to education. Education must move away from the discourse of skills and towards the discourse of meaning and motivation. The paper considers three kinds of non-waged optional labor that may form the basis of the future economy: prosumption, volunteering, and self-design.…

  12. Big Society, Big Deal?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Alastair

    2011-01-01

    Political leaders like to put forward guiding ideas or themes which pull their individual decisions into a broader narrative. For John Major it was Back to Basics, for Tony Blair it was the Third Way and for David Cameron it is the Big Society. While Mr. Blair relied on Lord Giddens to add intellectual weight to his idea, Mr. Cameron's legacy idea…

  13. Air pollution and society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brimblecombe, P.

    2010-12-01

    Air pollution is as much a product of our society as it is one of chemistry and meteorology. Social variables such as gender, age, health status and poverty are often linked with our exposure to air pollutants. Pollution can also affect our behaviour, while regulations to improve the environment can often challenge of freedom.

  14. Science Serves Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneed, G. C.

    This book discusses how some of the topics taught in a conventional physics course have been used to solve interesting technical problems in industry, medicine, agriculture, transportation, and other areas of society. The topics include heat, optics, magnetism and electricity, nuclear physics, and sound. (MLH)

  15. Education, Change and Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karmel, Peter, Ed.

    The conference papers in this publication focus on the interrelationship between change in the education sector and change in the wider society. The papers were generated by an invitational conference held in 1980 to mark the golden jubilee year of the Australian Council for Educational Research. While many of the papers have an Australian…

  16. The New Rural Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldmark, Peter C.

    The New Rural Society project concerns itself with the deterioration of America through urban overcrowding and rural depletion. Coupled with experimentation and pilot testing, the study is designed to demonstrate that imaginative application of telecommunication will enable business and government departments to function effectively though their…

  17. Homeland Security and Civil Liberties

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-06-01

    liberties, immigration policy, privacy issues, first amendment rights, and the balance of executive and judicial power in relation to civil liberties and...homeland security is extraordinarily complex with immigration policy, criminal law, privacy, First Amendment , and separation of powers dimensions

  18. Getting the Civil War Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewen, James W.

    2011-01-01

    William Faulkner famously wrote, "The past is never dead. It's not even past." He would not be surprised to learn that Americans, 150 years after the Civil War began, are still getting it wrong. Did America's most divisive war start over slavery or states' rights? The author says that too many people--including educators--get it wrong. The author…

  19. Civil Engineering Technology Program Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Vocational Education.

    This program guide presents civil engineering technology curriculum for technical institutes in Georgia. The general information section contains the following: purpose and objectives; program description, including admissions, typical job titles, and accreditation and certification; and curriculum model, including standard curriculum sequence and…

  20. Computers, Costs, and Civil Liberties

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Verne R.; Weston, Hanna B.

    1975-01-01

    The need to control costs has led many state mental health systems to set up automated data banks in which a patient's name is directly linked with his record. Many consider this a primary threat to confidentiality and civil liberties. (Author)

  1. Civil law problems and morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Pleasence, P; Balmer, N; Buck, A; O'Grady, A; Genn, H

    2004-01-01

    Study objective: In the United Kingdom, recognition of the links between social and health problems has led to government initiatives such as health action zones. The principles of civil law apply to many types of social problem, and the civil justice system provides one means through which they can be tackled. However, little research has been undertaken into the particular links between problems to which civil legal principles and processes can be applied and morbidity. This study examines these links, and the role of legal advice and services in preventing ill health. Design: This study examined survey respondents' self reports of longstanding illness/disability and experience of 18 problems to which legal principles can be applied. Setting: A random national survey conducted across England and Wales. Participants: 5611 adults drawn from 3348 residential households. Main results: Significant associations were found between illness/disability and 13 of the problem types. Moreover, experience of greater numbers of problems increased the likelihood of reported illness/disability. In attempting to resolve problems respondents' health also frequently suffered. Conclusions: This study highlights the contribution that public legal education and legal advice can make to the promotion of public health, and the importance of further integration of health and civil justice initiatives through health action zones, community legal service partnerships, etc, to further this end. PMID:15194714

  2. Primary Sources Enliven Civil War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2011-01-01

    Today, a growing number of teachers are moving beyond the textbook in teaching about the war, and U.S. history more broadly. Teachers are digging directly into primary sources and harnessing technology, all in an attempt to help students better understand the past and bring it to life. Doing so may be especially important with the Civil War,…

  3. Promoting Civil Discourse on Campus

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bornstein, Rita

    2010-01-01

    During the past several decades, off campus and on, much of the discourse on controversial issues has been personal, vicious, and divisive. On the national scene, politics has become permeated with incivility. It now appears that Americans have been naive about their ability and willingness to engage in civil discourse and compromise. How can…

  4. The Civil War and Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    This journal issue explores Iowa's participation in the U.S. Civil War and primarily focuses on what happened to the men, women, and children who remained at home. A number of social, political, and economic changes are examined, including: (1) the increased responsibilities of women and children; (2) the growth of abolitionism; (3) the role of…

  5. The Last Day of Civilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Willard J.

    1982-01-01

    A narrative account of what might occur the first day of a nuclear war is interspersed with facts about the nuclear arms race and about the destructive power of weapons already stockpiled in the United States and the Soviet Union. A plea is made for preserving civilization from such a catastrophe. (PP)

  6. Extraterrestrial civilizations: Problems of their evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leskov, L. V.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of finding extraterrestrial civilizations and establishing contact with them is directly related to the problem of their evolution. Possible patterns in this evolution and the stages in the evolution of extraterrestrial civilizations are examined.

  7. Co-operative leukemogenesis in acute myeloid leukemia and acute promyelocytic leukemia reveals C/EBPα as a common target of TRIB1 and PML/RARA

    PubMed Central

    Keeshan, Karen; Vieugué, Pauline; Chaudhury, Shahzya; Rishi, Loveena; Gaillard, Coline; Liang, Lu; Garcia, Elaine; Nakamura, Takuro; Omidvar, Nader; Kogan, Scott C.

    2016-01-01

    The PML/RARA fusion protein occurs as a result of the t(15;17) translocation in the acute promyelocytic leukemia subtype of human acute myeloid leukemia. Gain of chromosome 8 is the most common chromosomal gain in human acute myeloid leukemia, including acute promyelocytic leukemia. We previously demonstrated that gain of chromosome 8-containing MYC is of central importance in trisomy 8, but the role of the nearby TRIB1 gene has not been experimentally addressed in this context. We have now tested the hypothesis that both MYC and TRIB1 have functional roles underlying leukemogenesis of trisomy 8 by using retroviral vectors to express MYC and TRIB1 in wild-type bone marrow and in marrow that expressed a PML/RARA transgene. Interestingly, although MYC and TRIB1 readily co-operated in leukemogenesis for wild-type bone marrow, TRIB1 provided no selective advantage to cells expressing PML/RARA. We hypothesized that this lack of co-operation between PML/RARA and TRIB1 reflected a common pathway for their effect: both proteins targeting the myeloid transcription factor C/EBPα. In support of this idea, TRIB1 expression abrogated the all-trans retinoic acid response of acute promyelocytic leukemia cells in vitro and in vivo. Our data delineate the common and redundant inhibitory effects of TRIB1 and PML/RARA on C/EBPα providing a potential explanation for the lack of selection of TRIB1 in human acute promyelocytic leukemia, and highlighting the key role of C/EBPs in acute promyelocytic leukemia pathogenesis and therapeutic response. In addition, the co-operativity we observed between MYC and TRIB1 in the absence of PML/RARA show that, outside of acute promyelocytic leukemia, gain of both genes may drive selection for trisomy 8. PMID:27390356

  8. Climate Change and Civil Violence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Vink, G.; Plancherel, Y.; Hennet, C.; Jones, K. D.; Abdullah, A.; Bradshaw, J.; Dee, S.; Deprez, A.; Pasenello, M.; Plaza-Jennings, E.; Roseman, D.; Sopher, P.; Sung, E.

    2009-05-01

    The manifestations of climate change can result in humanitarian impacts that reverse progress in poverty- reduction, create shortages of food and resources, lead to migration, and ultimately result in civil violence and conflict. Within the continent of Africa, we have found that environmentally-related variables are either the cause or the confounding factor for over 80% of the civil violence events during the last 10 years. Using predictive climate models and land-use data, we are able to identify populations in Africa that are likely to experience the most severe climate-related shocks. Through geospatial analysis, we are able to overlay these areas of high risk with assessments of both the local population's resiliency and the region's capacity to respond to climate shocks should they occur. The net result of the analysis is the identification of locations that are becoming particularly vulnerable to future civil violence events (vulnerability hotspots) as a result of the manifestations of climate change. For each population group, over 600 social, economic, political, and environmental indicators are integrated statistically to measures the vulnerability of African populations to environmental change. The indicator time-series are filtered for data availability and redundancy, broadly ordered into four categories (social, political, economic and environmental), standardized and normalized. Within each category, the dominant modes of variability are isolated by principal component analysis and the loadings of each component for each variable are used to devise composite index scores. Comparisons of past vulnerability with known environmentally-related conflicts demonstrates the role that such vulnerability hotspot maps can play in evaluating both the potential for, and the significance of, environmentally-related civil violence events. Furthermore, the analysis reveals the major variables that are responsible for the population's vulnerability and therefore

  9. Leprosy control in the Republic of Yemen: co-operation between government and non-government organizations, 1989-2003.

    PubMed

    Al Samie, Abdul Rahim; Al Qubati, Yasin

    2004-06-01

    Although the prevalence rate of leprosy in the Republic of Yemen has dropped below the WHO elimination level of less than one case per 10,000 of the population, it is still regarded as a serious public health problem calling for continued vigilance, notably in the detection and treatment of hidden and undiagnosed cases. In the past, religious misinterpretation has generated adverse behaviour patterns towards people affected by leprosy, characterized by aggression, negligence and isolation. Until about 1982, following a visit of a leprologist (Dr S. K. Noordeen) from the World Health Organization, there was no leprosy control programme and attempts to establish one remained ineffective until in 1989, when an agreement was signed between the Ministry of Public Health and Population and the German Leprosy Relief Association. This led to the development of a leprosy control programme in four governorates, later extended to the rest of the country. This paper describes the progress made in the control of leprosy in the Yemen, 1989-2003, by the Ministry of Health and Population and the GLRA, in association with two local societies.

  10. 13 CFR 302.20 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Civil rights. 302.20 Section 302... TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR INVESTMENT ASSISTANCE § 302.20 Civil rights. (a) Discrimination is prohibited... 601 of Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, as amended (42 U.S.C. 2000d et seq.)...

  11. 39 CFR 233.12 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil penalties. 233.12 Section 233.12 Postal... Civil penalties. False representation and lottery orders— (a) Issuance. Pursuant to 39 U.S.C. 3005, the... be liable to the United States for a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed $11,000 for each...

  12. 49 CFR 228.21 - Civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Civil penalty. 228.21 Section 228.21..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HOURS OF SERVICE OF RAILROAD EMPLOYEES Records and Reporting § 228.21 Civil... requirement is subject to a civil penalty of at least $650 and not more than $25,000 per violation,...

  13. 32 CFR 310.46 - Civil actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil actions. 310.46 Section 310.46 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE (CONTINUED) PRIVACY PROGRAM DOD PRIVACY PROGRAM Privacy Act Violations § 310.46 Civil actions. An individual may file a civil...

  14. 14 CFR 1212.800 - Civil remedies.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Civil remedies. 1212.800 Section 1212.800... Comply With Requirements of This Part § 1212.800 Civil remedies. Failure to comply with the requirements of the Privacy Act and this part could subject NASA to civil suit under the provisions of 5...

  15. 34 CFR 303.424 - Civil action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Civil action. 303.424 Section 303.424 Education... Civil action. Any party aggrieved by the findings and decision regarding an administrative complaint has the right to bring a civil action in State or Federal court under section 639(a)(1) of the...

  16. 34 CFR 300.516 - Civil action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Civil action. 300.516 Section 300.516 Education... DISABILITIES Procedural Safeguards Due Process Procedures for Parents and Children § 300.516 Civil action. (a... aggrieved by the findings and decision under § 300.514(b), has the right to bring a civil action...

  17. 12 CFR 215.11 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil penalties. 215.11 Section 215.11 Banks... OFFICERS, DIRECTORS, AND PRINCIPAL SHAREHOLDERS OF MEMBER BANKS (REGULATION O) § 215.11 Civil penalties... subject to civil penalties as specified in section 29 of the Federal Reserve Act (12 U.S.C. 504)....

  18. 49 CFR 233.11 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Civil penalties. 233.11 Section 233.11..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION SIGNAL SYSTEMS REPORTING REQUIREMENTS § 233.11 Civil penalties. Any person (an... subject to a civil penalty of at least $650 and not more than $25,000 per violation, except...

  19. 10 CFR 824.4 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil penalties. 824.4 Section 824.4 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY PROCEDURAL RULES FOR THE ASSESSMENT OF CIVIL PENALTIES FOR CLASSIFIED INFORMATION SECURITY VIOLATIONS § 824.4 Civil penalties. (a) Any person who violates a classified information...

  20. 43 CFR 3163.2 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Civil penalties. 3163.2 Section 3163.2..., Assessments, and Penalties § 3163.2 Civil penalties. (a) Whenever an operating rights owner or operator, as... for a civil penalty of up to $500 per violation for each day such violation continues, dating from...

  1. 33 CFR 401.102 - Civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil penalty. 401.102 Section... TRANSPORTATION SEAWAY REGULATIONS AND RULES Penalties-Violations of Seaway Regulations § 401.102 Civil penalty. (a) A person, as described in § 401.101(b), who violates a regulation is liable to a civil penalty...

  2. 32 CFR 643.114 - Civil disturbances.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil disturbances. 643.114 Section 643.114... ESTATE Additional Authority of Commanders § 643.114 Civil disturbances. Without reference to higher... facilities during civil disturbance for not more than 30 days to the National Guard and to municipal,...

  3. 22 CFR 127.10 - Civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Civil penalty. 127.10 Section 127.10 Foreign... Civil penalty. (a) The Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs is authorized to impose a civil penalty in an amount not to exceed that authorized by 22 U.S.C. 2778, 2779a and 2780...

  4. 49 CFR 218.9 - Civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Civil penalty. 218.9 Section 218.9 Transportation... TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES General § 218.9 Civil penalty. Any person (an entity of any type... requirement of this part or causes the violation of any such requirement is subject to a civil penalty of...

  5. 24 CFR 4.28 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Civil penalties. 4.28 Section 4.28... REFORM ACT Prohibition of Advance Disclosure of Funding Decisions § 4.28 Civil penalties. Whenever any... civil money penalty on the employee in accordance with the provisions of 24 CFR part 30....

  6. 10 CFR 110.64 - Civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil penalty. 110.64 Section 110.64 Energy NUCLEAR... Enforcement § 110.64 Civil penalty. (a) In response to a violation, the Commission may institute a proceeding to impose a civil penalty under section 234 of the Atomic Energy Act by issuing a notice to...

  7. 31 CFR 1010.820 - Civil penalty.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Civil penalty. 1010.820 Section 1010... § 1010.820 Civil penalty. (a) For any willful violation, committed on or before October 12, 1984, of any... participates in the violation, a civil penalty not to exceed $1,000. (b) For any willful violation...

  8. 50 CFR 300.40 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Civil penalties. 300.40 Section 300.40... South Pacific Tuna Fisheries § 300.40 Civil penalties. The procedures of 15 CFR part 904 apply to the assessment of civil penalties, except as modified by the requirements of section 8 of the Act....

  9. 12 CFR 229.21 - Civil liability.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Civil liability. 229.21 Section 229.21 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM... Availability Policies § 229.21 Civil liability. (a) Civil liability. A bank that fails to comply with...

  10. 43 CFR 10.12 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony in Museums and Federal Collections § 10.12 Civil penalties. (a) The Secretary's authority to assess civil penalties. The Secretary is authorized by section 9 of the Act to assess civil penalties on any museum...

  11. 43 CFR 10.12 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony in Museums and Federal Collections § 10.12 Civil penalties. (a) The Secretary's authority to assess civil penalties. The Secretary is authorized by section 9 of the Act to assess civil penalties on any museum...

  12. 43 CFR 10.12 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony in Museums and Federal Collections § 10.12 Civil penalties. (a) The Secretary's authority to assess civil penalties. The Secretary is authorized by section 9 of the Act to assess civil penalties on any museum...

  13. 43 CFR 10.12 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony in Museums and Federal Collections § 10.12 Civil penalties. (a) The Secretary's authority to assess civil penalties. The Secretary is authorized by section 9 of the Act to assess civil penalties on any museum...

  14. 43 CFR 10.12 - Civil penalties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... REPATRIATION REGULATIONS Human Remains, Funerary Objects, Sacred Objects, or Objects of Cultural Patrimony in Museums and Federal Collections § 10.12 Civil penalties. (a) The Secretary's authority to assess civil penalties. The Secretary is authorized by section 9 of the Act to assess civil penalties on any museum...

  15. Civil Highway Curriculum Evaluation. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prindiville, Gerald

    The purpose of the civil highway curriculum evaluation was to provide data for course review and revision. As civil engineering is a rapidly changing occupational field, it is important to determine what skills are currently essential for civil highway technicians. The associate degree programs in the four Wisconsin technical institutes offering…

  16. 50 CFR 401.22 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Civil rights. 401.22 Section 401.22..., DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.22 Civil rights. Each application for Federal assistance, grant-in-aid award... Assisted Programs of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and with the Secretary's regulations...

  17. 28 CFR 33.52 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Civil rights. 33.52 Section 33.52... Block Grants Additional Requirements § 33.52 Civil rights. The Justice Assistance Act provides that “no... the provisions of title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964; section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act...

  18. 7 CFR 3560.2 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Civil rights. 3560.2 Section 3560.2 Agriculture... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS General Provisions and Definitions § 3560.2 Civil rights. (a... prohibition under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 42 U.S.C. 2000d and Title VI regulations...

  19. 28 CFR 65.52 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Civil rights. 65.52 Section 65.52... Additional Requirements § 65.52 Civil rights. The Act provides that “no person in any state shall on the... funds under the Act are also subject to the provisions of title VI of the Civil Rights Act of...

  20. 7 CFR 3550.3 - Civil rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Civil rights. 3550.3 Section 3550.3 Agriculture... DIRECT SINGLE FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS General § 3550.3 Civil rights. RHS will administer its... amended by Executive Order 12259, as applicable. The civil rights compliance requirements for RHS are in...