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Sample records for co2 laser welded

  1. CO2 laser welding fused silica.

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, Scott T.; MacCallum, Danny O'Neill; Knorovsky, Gerald Albert

    2005-08-01

    The feasibility of laser welding of fused silica (aka quartz) has been demonstrated recently by others. An application requiring hermetic sealing of a thin, pressure-bearing quartz diaphragm to a thicker frame led us to explore this technique. We found that laser welding techniques normally used for metallic parts caused scorching and uneven melting. Contrary to standard practices (near focus, high travel speed, high power density), successful welds in fused silica required a broad heat source applied over a large area under a slow rotation to gradually heat the glass through the annealing, softening and finally working temperatures. Furthermore, good mechanical contact between the parts to be joined played an even more important role in this process than in typical metallic joints. A 50 W CO2 laser with 4 f.l. ZnSe2 lens and rotary head was used to weld 0.425 OD, 0.006-0.010 thick, disks to 0.500 OD tubing with 0.125 walls. Several joint geometries and beam orientations were investigated. Temperature profiles were measured and compared to an FEM thermal model. We will discuss the effects of laser power, travel speed, number of passes, joint geometry and part thicknesses on achieving hermeticity and cosmetically-acceptable joints.

  2. CO2 laser welding of magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhahri, Mohammed; Masse, Jean Eric; Mathieu, J. F.; Barreau, Gerard; Autric, Michel L.

    2000-02-01

    Metallic alloys with a low mass density can be considered to be basic materials in aeronautic and automotive industry. Magnesium alloys have better properties than aluminum alloys in respect of their low density and high resistance to traction. The main problems of magnesium alloy welding are the inflammability, the crack formation and the appearance of porosity during the solidification. The laser tool is efficient to overcome the difficulties of manufacturing by conventional processing. Besides, the laser processing mainly using shielding gases allows an effective protection of the metal against the action of oxygen and a small heat affected zone. In this paper, we present experimental results about 5 kW CO2 laser welding of 4 mm-thick magnesium alloy plates provided by Eurocopter France. The focused laser beam has about 0.15 mm of diameter. We have investigated the following sample: WE43, alloy recommended in aeronautic and space applications, is constituted with Mg, Y, Zr, rare earth. More ductile, it can be used at high temperatures until 250 degrees Celsius for times longer than 5000 hours without effects on its mechanical properties. A sample of RZ5 (French Norm: GZ4TR, United States Norm ZE41) is composed of Mg, Zn, Zr, La, rare earth. This alloy has excellent properties of foundry and it allows to the realization of components with complex form. Also, it has a good resistance and important properties of tightness. The parameters of the process were optimized in the following fields: laser power: 2 to 5 kW, welding speed: 1 to 4.5 m/min, focal position: -3 mm to +3 mm below or on the top of the metal surface, shielding gas: helium with a flow of 10 to 60 l/min at 4 bars. Metallurgical analyses and mechanical control are made (macroscopic structure, microscopic structure, interpretations of the structures and localization of possible defects, analyse phases, chemical composition, hardness, tensile test etc.) to understand the parameters influence of welding

  3. CO2 laser welding of titanium aluminide intermetallic compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Gaku; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Nanri, Kenzo; Ootani, Masanori; Seto, Sachio; Arai, Mikiya; Fujioka, Tomoo

    2000-02-01

    Titanium aluminide intermetallic compound is studied to find out good welding conditions using CO2 laser irradiation. In the experiment, we used the casting titanium aluminide containing iron, vanadium and boron with a thickness of 2 mm. We carried out bead-on-plate laser welding at various initial temperatures of specimens varied from room temperature to 873 [K] in inert gas environment filled with argon. We measured fused depth, bead width and Vickers hardness. As a result of experiments, welding speeds that allow full bead-on- plate welding to be possible were strongly by dependent on the initial temperature, 3000 [mm/min], initial temperature 873 [K], 2600 [mm/mm], initial temperature 673 [K], and 2000 [mm/min] with 300 [K]. Transverse crack-free welding was achieved, when initial temperature was at 873 [K].

  4. A CO2 Laser Weld Shape-Predicting Neural Network

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerschbach, P.W.; Knorovsky, G.A.

    1998-10-05

    We describe two artificial neural networks (ANN) which predict CO2 partial penetration laser welds on grade 304 stainless steel. Given the laser irradiance and travel speed, one ANN (direct) predicts the resulting weld's depth, width, overall shape, energy transfer efficiency, melting efficiency and porosity likelihood in the weld fusion zone. Given the weld size and shape, the second ANN (inverse) predicts the irradiance and travel speed necessary to provide such a weld. The ANNs used 3 nodal layers and perception-type neurons. For the first ANN, with 2 inputs and 17 outputs (12 for shape, and 5 for size, efficiencies and porosity predictions), 12 to 17 intermediate layer neurons were necessary, while for the second, with 14 inputs and 2 outputs, 25 were necessary. Besides their description, data interpretation and weld schedule development via the ANNs will be shown.

  5. Interaction of both plasmas in CO2 laser-MAG hybrid welding of carbon steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutsuna, Muneharu; Chen, Liang

    2003-03-01

    Researches and developments of laser and arc hybrid welding has been curried out since in 1978. Especially, CO2 laser and TIG hybrid welding has been studied for increasing the penetration depth and welding speed. Recently laser and MIG/MAG/Plasma hybrid welding processes have been developed and applied to industries. It was recognized as a new welding process that promote the flexibility of the process for increasing the penetration depth, welding speed and allowable joint gap and improving the quality of the welds. In the present work, CO2 Laser-MAG hybrid welding of carbon steel (SM490) was investigated to make clear the phenomenon and characteristics of hybrid welding process comparing with laser welding and MAG process. The effects of many process parameters such as welding current, arc voltage, welding speed, defocusing distance, laser-to-arc distance on penetration depth, bead shape, spatter, arc stability and plasma formation were investigated in the present work. Especially, the interaction of laser plasma and MAG arc plasma was considered by changing the laser to arc distance (=DLA).

  6. Optical radiation hazards of laser welding processes. Part II: CO2 laser.

    PubMed

    Rockwell, R J; Moss, C E

    1989-08-01

    There has been an extensive growth within the last five years in the use of high-powered lasers in various metalworking processes. The two types of lasers used most frequently for laser welding/cutting processes are the Neodymium-yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) and the carbon dioxide (CO2) systems. When such lasers are operated in an open beam configuration, they are designated as a Class IV laser system. Class IV lasers are high-powered lasers that may present an eye and skin hazard under most common exposure conditions, either directly or when the beam has been diffusely scattered. Significant control measures are required for unenclosed (open beam), Class IV laser systems since workers may be exposed to scattered or reflected beams during the operation, maintenance, and service of these lasers. In addition to ocular and/or skin exposure hazards, such lasers also may present a multitude of nonlaser beam occupational concerns. Radiant energy measurements are reported for both the scattered laser radiation and the plasma-related plume radiations released during typical high-powered CO2 laser-target interactions. In addition, the application of the nominal hazard zone (NHZ) and other control measures also are discussed with special emphasis on Class IV industrial CO2 laser systems. PMID:2508455

  7. Influence of shielding gas pressure on welding characteristics in CO2 laser-MIG hybrid welding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yanbin; Lei, Zhenglong; Li, Liqun; Wu, Lin

    2006-01-01

    The droplet transfer behavior and weld characteristics have been investigated under different pressures of shielding gas in CO2 laser and metal inert/active gas (laser-MIG) hybrid welding process. The experimental results indicate that the inherent droplet transfer frequency and stable welding range of conventional MIG arc are changed due to the interaction between CO2 laser beam and MIG arc in laser-MIG hybrid welding process, and the shielding gas pressure has a crucial effect on welding characteristics. When the pressure of shielding gas is low in comparison with MIG welding, the frequency of droplet transfer decreases, and the droplet transfer becomes unstable in laser-MIG hybrid welding. So the penetration depth decreases, which shows the characteristic of unstable hybrid welding. However, when the pressure of shielding gas increases to a critical value, the hybrid welding characteristic is changed from unstable hybrid welding to stable hybrid welding, and the frequency of droplet transfer and the penetration depth increase significantly.

  8. Stainless Steel 18-10 CO2 Laser Welding And Plasma Diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Amar, Taibi; Michel, Laurent

    2008-09-23

    The welding of materials by CO2 laser took significant considerations in industry, for the reason of the quality of the carried out weldings, and for other many advantages, but the automation of the welding operation requires a control system in real time. The operation of welding is an operation of interaction between the radiation (laser), and the matter (welded part), which is characterized by the vaporization of the matter, formation of the keyhole in material, and appearance of plasma over the material. This study relates to the relation between the welding (molten material) and the plasma which is formed on material. The light emitted by plasma during laser welding was recorded by an OMA detector (Optical Multichannel Analyzer) over a wavelength width of 450 A ring . The analysis of this light allows to determine the composition of this plasma, its dimensions, and the state of its energy according to the laser parameters. The welded material is the stainless steel 18-10, it was found that the intensity of the light emitted by plasma depends on laser power, the welding speed, the flow rate of assist gas. The relation between the plasma and the state of the bead were analyzed for on-line monitoring welding.

  9. The effect of welding direction in CO2 LASER - MIG hybrid welding of mild steel plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abilash, M.; Senthil kumar, D.; Padmanabham, G.; Paniprabhakar; Padmanaban, R.; Thirumalini, S.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, hybrid laser-arc welding process has been studied based on the relative position of the laser and the arc (i.e. laser-leading and arc-leading arrangement) and, the effects of welding parameters, such as the laser power, arc current, arc voltage and the welding speed on the weld bead were investigated. The study indicates that the welding direction has a significant effect on the weld bead and weld pool behaviour. The result shows that laserleading configuration shows better bead characteristics when compared to arc-leading configuration. This is because in the laser-leading case molten metal flow is inward, while in the arc-leading case the metal flow is outward leading to variation in solidification front resulting in lack of synergic effects of both processes.

  10. Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Welded Joints with Laser and CO2-Shielded Arc

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahba, M.; Mizutani, M.; Katayama, S.

    2016-07-01

    With the objective of reducing the operating costs, argon-rich shielding gas was replaced by 100% CO2 gas in hybrid laser-arc welding of shipbuilding steel. The welding parameters were optimized to obtain buried-arc transfer in order to mitigate spatter formation. Sound butt joints could be successfully produced for plates of 14 and 17 mm thickness in one welding pass. Subsequently, the welded joints were subjected to different tests to evaluate the influence of CO2 shielding gas on the mechanical properties of the welded joints. All tensile-tested specimens failed in the base material, indicating the higher strength of the welded joints. The impact toughness of the welded joints, measured at -20 °C, reached approximately 76% of that of the base material, which was well above the limit set by the relevant standard. The microstructure of the fusion zone consisted of grain boundary ferrite and acicular ferrite uniformly over the plate thickness except for the joint root where the microstructure was chiefly ferrite with an aligned second phase. This resulted in higher hardness in the root region compared with the top and middle parts of the fusion zone.

  11. Weldability of mild steel with oxide film in high power CO2 laser welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, Kazuhiko; Adachi, Kaoru; Miyamoto, Isamu

    2003-03-01

    Influence of oxide film, such as laser cutting edge or mill-scale, on solidification crack formation in high power CO2 laser of mild steel was investigated. Laser welding test of butt joints were performed. Examinations were made on the solidification crack formation. The results of these experiments lead to understanding that (1) excess oxygen supplied from oxide film causes solidification crack as well as porosity and (2) influence of oxygen content is bigger than that of sulfur when there is excess oxygen in the weld. It is considered that these are attributed to change of molten metal flow and drop of melting point such as sulfur. These results suggest that reduction of oxide film thickness or killing oxygen activity by supplementary deoxidizing elements may produce acceptable weld.

  12. In-vivo CO2 laser rat urinary bladder welding with silver halide fiber optic radiometric temperature control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobel, Bernard; Eyal, Ophir; Belotserkovsky, Edward; Shenfeld, Ofer; Kariv, Noam; Goldwasser, Benad; Katzir, Abraham

    1995-05-01

    Laser welding has been used for connecting various tissues in the body. In urology such welding has the advantage of forming an immediate water tight seal. We have developed a fiberoptic system that makes it possible to monitor and control the temperature of the tissue during welding. In previous work we demonstrated that this system could be successfully used to weld punctures in the urinary bladder of rats. It was found that optimal welding was obtained at a temperature of 55 degree(s)C. In this work we used the same system for welding of large openings (cystotomy) in the urinary bladder of rats. In early experiments we used stay sutures and decompressing catheters. It was later found that complete closure can be obtained with CO2-laser welding alone. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using temperature controlled laser welding as an efficient surgical tool.

  13. Influence of CO2-Ar Mixtures as Shielding Gas on Laser Welding of Al-Mg Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukha, Zouhair; Sánchez-Amaya, José María; González-Rovira, Leandro; Rio, Eloy Del; Blanco, Ginesa; Botana, Javier

    2013-12-01

    In this study, AA5083 samples were butt welded under a conduction regime with high-power diode laser (HPDL). Various mixtures composed of Ar and CO2 were used as a shielding gas. The influence of the shielding gas composition on the microstructure and on the properties of laser welds was analyzed. The weld beads were deeply characterized by metallographic/microstructural studies, X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray energy dispersive spectrometry (X-EDS) chemical analyses, X-ray photoelectron spectra (XPS), microhardness, and tensile strength. The corrosion resistance of laser-remelted surfaces with different CO2/Ar ratios was also estimated by means of electrochemical tests. The addition of CO2 to the shielding gas results in a better weld penetration and oxidizes the weld pool surface. This addition also promotes the migration of Mg toward the surface of weld beads and induces the formation of magnesium aluminates spinel on the welds. The best corrosion resistance result is achieved with 20 pct CO2. The overall results indicate that the addition of small percentage of CO2 to Ar leads to improvements of the mechanical and corrosion properties of the aluminum welds.

  14. Fundamental study about CO2 laser welding of titanium aluminide intermetallic compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahara, Gaku; Yamaguchi, Shigeru; Nanri, Kenzo; Ootani, Masanori; Tetsuka, Masato; Seto, Sachio; Arai, Mikiya; Fujioka, Tomoo

    2000-11-01

    Titanium aluminide intermetallic compound is attracting attentions as heat-resistant and high-specific strength material in the next generation, especially, it is promising material in the field of aerospace components. Conventional machining process including welding, however, can be hardly applied due to its very low ductility. The objective of this study, as a first stage, is to find out paying attention to crack and hardness the fundamental good conditions of the bead-on-plate welding of TiAl intermetallic compound using CO2 laser irradiation. In the experiment, we used the casting gamma titanium aluminide contained iron, vanadium and boron with a thickness of 2mm. We carried out bead-on-plate laser welding in the titanium aluminide material in inert gas environment filled with argon. We measured fused depth, Vickers hardness, transverse crack numbers and so on as major parameters of welding speed from 1000 to 4600 mm/min and initial temperature of specimen from R.T. to 873 K with a beam spot size of 0.5 mm and an output power of 1.5 kW. In addition, the specimens were analyzed by Electron Probe X-ray Micro Analyzer, Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy and X-ray Diffractometry. As a result of experiments, transverse crack-free welding was achieved, when initial temperature was at 873 K. In every condition, the value of Vickers hardness of fused zone increased compared with base. We think the reason of it is an increase of (alpha) 2(Ti3Al) phase, which is caused by rapid cooling, taking in Oxygen, fine structure and so on.

  15. Study of metal transfer in CO2 laser+GMAW-P hybrid welding using argon-helium mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wang; Hua, Xueming; Liao, Wei; Li, Fang; Wang, Min

    2014-03-01

    The metal transfer in CO2 Laser+GMAW-P hybrid welding by using argon-helium mixtures was investigated and the effect of the laser on the mental transfer is discussed. A 650 nm laser, in conjunction with the shadow graph technique, is used to observe the metal transfer process. In order to analyze the heat input to the droplet and the droplet internal current line distribution. An optical emission spectroscopy system was employed to estimate default parameter and optimized plasma temperature, electron number densities distribution. The results indicate that the CO2 plasma plume have a significant impact to the electrode melting, droplet formation, detachment, impingement onto the workpiece and weld morphology. Since the current distribution direction flow changes to the keyhole, to obtain a metal transfer mode of one droplet per pulse, the welding parameters should be adjusted to a higher pulse time (TP) and a lower voltage.

  16. Multi-response optimization of CO 2 laser-welding process of austenitic stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benyounis, K. Y.; Olabi, A. G.; Hashmi, M. S. J.

    2008-02-01

    Recently, laser welding of austenitic stainless steel has received great attention in industry. This is due to its widespread application in petroleum refinement stations, power plants, the pharmaceutical industry and also in households. Therefore, mechanical properties should be controlled to obtain good welded joints. The welding process should be optimized by the proper mathematical models. In this research, the tensile strength and impact strength along with the joint-operating cost of laser-welded butt joints made of AISI304 was investigated. Design-expert software was used to establish the design matrix and to analyze the experimental data. The relationships between the laser-welding parameters (laser power, welding speed and focal point position) and the three responses (tensile strength, impact strength and joint-operating cost) were established. Also, the optimization capabilities in design-expert software were used to optimize the welding process. The developed mathematical models were tested for adequacy using analysis of variance and other adequacy measures. In this investigation, the optimal welding conditions were identified in order to increase the productivity and minimize the total operating cost. Overlay graphs were plotted by superimposing the contours for the various response surfaces. The process parameters effect was determined and the optimal welding combinations were tabulated.

  17. Effect of CO2 laser welding on the shape-memory and corrosion characteristics of TiNi alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Y. T.; Wang, Y. R.; Wu, S. K.; Chen, C.

    2001-03-01

    A CO2 laser has been employed to join binary Ti50Ni50 and Ti49.5Ni50.5 shape-memory alloys (SMAs), with an emphasis on the shape-memory and corrosion characteristics. Experimental results showed that a slightly lowered martensite start ( M S) temperature and no deterioration in shape-memory character of both alloys were found after laser welding. The welded Ti50Ni50, with an increased amount of B2 phase in the weld metal (WM), had higher strength and considerably lower elongation than the base metal (BM). Potentiodynamic tests revealed the satisfactory performance of laser-welded Ti50Ni50 in 1.5 M H2SO4 and 1.5 M HNO3 solutions. However, the WM exhibited a significantly higher corrosion rate and a less stable passivity than the BM in artificial saliva. On the other hand, the pseudoelastic behavior of the laser weld was investigated only for the Ti49.5Ni50.5 alloy, to facilitate tension cycling at room temperature. The cyclic deformation of Ti49.5Ni50.5 indicated that the stress required to form stress-induced martensite ( σ m) and the permanent residual strain ( ɛ p) were higher after welding at a given number of cycles ( N), which were certainly related to the more inhomogeneous nature of the WM.

  18. CO2 laser modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Barry

    1992-01-01

    The topics covered include the following: (1) CO2 laser kinetics modeling; (2) gas lifetimes in pulsed CO2 lasers; (3) frequency chirp and laser pulse spectral analysis; (4) LAWS A' Design Study; and (5) discharge circuit components for LAWS. The appendices include LAWS Memos, computer modeling of pulsed CO2 lasers for lidar applications, discharge circuit considerations for pulsed CO2 lidars, and presentation made at the Code RC Review.

  19. Coaxial hybrid CO2-MIG welding system and its application in welding of aluminum alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xudong; Chen, Wuzhu; Shuang, Yuanqing; Wang, Kangjian

    2005-01-01

    Hybrid laser-arc welding is becoming one of the most significant laser welding technologies in industry due to its higher welding efficiency, higher tolerance to gaps between plates, and adjustment of composition and microstructure of the weld metal. Comparing with common off axis hybrid laser-arc welding, coaxially combined laser beam and arc can provide a symmetrical circular thermal source on the workpiece surface, which is convenient for 3-D welding. This paper introduces a coaxial hybrid CO2 laser-pulsed MIG welding system and conducts experiments of welding Al-Mg alloy plates under different welding conditions. The basic physical phenomena during welding are observed and the weld bead shape (penetration depth, weld width) are measured. The results show that hybrid laser-MIG can stabilize the arc, remarkably increase the total welding efficiency and improve the quality of weld bead formation. In addition, process and control techniques for hybrid laser-MIG welding are also proposed.

  20. Effect of He-Ar ratio of side assisting gas on plasma 3D formation during CO2 laser welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Dawei; Cai, Yan; Wang, Yonggui; Wu, Yue; Wu, Yixiong

    2014-05-01

    Side assisting gas plays a very important role in the laser-induced plasma suppression and the gas mixture ratio directly influences the formation and behavior of the laser-induced plasma during the laser welding process. In this paper, a photography system was set up with three synchronous CCD cameras to record the plasma plume during CO2 laser welding under different He-Ar ratios for helium-argon mixed side assisting gas. Three-dimensional reconstruction of the laser-induced plasma based on the computed tomography (CT) technology was achieved from the images shot by the cameras. Four characteristics, including the volume, uniformity, parameter PA associated with plasma absorption and parameter PR associated with laser refraction, were extracted from the 3D plasma and analyzed to investigate the effect on the plasma plume morphology as well as the laser energy attenuation. The results indicated that the He-Ar ratio of the side assisting gas has a considerable influence on some characteristics while some other characteristics are not sensitive to the mixture ratio. In addition, the effect of He-Ar ratio on the laser-induced plasma varies a lot with the flow rate of the side assisting gas.

  1. Effect of welding wires on microstructure and mechanical properties of 2A12 aluminum alloy in CO 2 laser-MIG hybrid welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Jun; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Gao, Ming; Lai, Jian; Lin, Tianxiao

    2009-05-01

    This paper represented the effect of welding wires on microstructure and mechanical properties of 2A12 aluminum alloy in CO 2 laser-metal inter gas (MIG) hybrid welding. Plates of 2A12 aluminum alloy were welded by ER4043 and ER2319 welding wires, respectively. Full penetration joints without any defects were produced. The X-ray diffraction was used to analyze the phase composition, while the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was conducted to study the microstructure, segregation behaviors of major alloying elements and the eutectics formed at dendrite boundaries in the joints. The results showed that silicon and copper were concentrated at the dendrite boundaries and α-Al + Si + Al 2Cu + Mg 2Si eutectic was formed if the ER4043 welding wire was used. However, only copper was concentrated at the dendrite boundaries and α-Al + θ eutectic was formed by ER2319 welding wire. Finally, the tensile tests were performed and the fracture surfaces were analyzed. The results showed that the joint efficiency by ER2319 and ER4043 welding wires reached up to 78% and 69%, respectively. Coarse dimples and voids had been observed in the fractographs. The joints showed a transgranular type failure.

  2. The effect of CO2 laser beam welded AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel on the viability of fibroblast cells, in vitro.

    PubMed

    Köse, Ceyhun; Kaçar, Ramazan; Zorba, Aslı Pınar; Bağırova, Melahat; Allahverdiyev, Adil M

    2016-03-01

    It has been determined by the literature research that there is no clinical study on the in vivo and in vitro interaction of the cells with the laser beam welded joints of AISI 316L biomaterial. It is used as a prosthesis and implant material and that has adequate mechanical properties and corrosion resistance characteristics. Therefore, the interaction of the CO2 laser beam welded samples and samples of the base metal of AISI 316L austenitic stainless steel with L929 fibroblast cells as an element of connective tissue under in vitro conditions has been studied. To study the effect of the base metal and the laser welded test specimens on the viability of the fibroblast cells that act as an element of connective tissues in the body, they were kept in DMEMF-12 medium for 7, 14, 28 days and 18 months. The viability study was experimentally studied using the MTT method for 7, 14, 28 days. In addition, the direct interaction of the fibroblast cells seeded on 6 different plates with the samples was examined with an inverted microscope. The MTT cell viability experiment was repeated on the cells that were in contact with the samples. The statistical relationship was analyzed using a Tukey test for the variance with the GraphPad statistics software. The data regarding metallic ion release were identified with the ICP-MS method after the laser welded and main material samples were kept in cell culture medium for 18 months. The cell viability of the laser welded sample has been detected to be higher than that of the base metal and the control based on 7th day data. However, the laser welded sample's viability of the fibroblast cells has diminished by time during the test period of 14 and 28 days and base metal shows better viability when compared to the laser welded samples. On the other hand, the base metal and the laser welded sample show better cell viability effect when compared to the control group. According to the ICP-MS results of the main material and laser welded

  3. CO2 Laser Market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsson, Samuel

    1989-03-01

    It gives me a great deal of pleasure to introduce our final speaker of this morning's session for two reasons: First of all, his company has been very much in the news not only in our own community but in the pages of Wall Street Journal and in the world economic press. And, secondly, we would like to welcome him to our shores. He is a temporary resident of the United States, for a few months, forsaking his home in Germany to come here and help with the start up of a new company which we believe, probably, ranks #1 as the world supplier of CO2 lasers now, through the combination of former Spectra Physics Industrial Laser Division and Rofin-Sinar GMBH. Samuel Simonsson is the Chairman of the Board of Rofin-Sinar, Inc., here in the U.S. and managing director of Rofin-Sinar GMBH. It is a pleasure to welcome him.

  4. CO2 laser preionisation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiers, Gary D.

    1991-01-01

    The final report for work done during the reporting period of January 25, 1990 to January 24, 1991 is presented. A literature survey was conducted to identify the required parameters for effective preionization in TEA CO2 lasers and the methods and techniques for characterizing preionizers are reviewed. A numerical model of the LP-140 cavity was used to determine the cause of the transverse mode stability improvement obtained when the cavity was lengthened. The measurement of the voltage and current discharge pulses on the LP-140 were obtained and their subsequent analysis resulted in an explanation for the low efficiency of the laser. An assortment of items relating to the development of high-voltage power supplies is also provided. A program for analyzing the frequency chirp data files obtained with the HP time and frequency analyzer is included. A program to calculate the theoretical LIMP chirp is also included and a comparison between experiment and theory is made. A program for calculating the CO2 linewidth and its dependence on gas composition and pressure is presented. The program also calculates the number of axial modes under the FWHM of the line for a given resonator length. A graphical plot of the results is plotted.

  5. Narrow gap laser welding

    DOEpatents

    Milewski, J.O.; Sklar, E.

    1998-06-02

    A laser welding process including: (a) using optical ray tracing to make a model of a laser beam and the geometry of a joint to be welded; (b) adjusting variables in the model to choose variables for use in making a laser weld; and (c) laser welding the joint to be welded using the chosen variables. 34 figs.

  6. Narrow gap laser welding

    DOEpatents

    Milewski, John O.; Sklar, Edward

    1998-01-01

    A laser welding process including: (a) using optical ray tracing to make a model of a laser beam and the geometry of a joint to be welded; (b) adjusting variables in the model to choose variables for use in making a laser weld; and (c) laser welding the joint to be welded using the chosen variables.

  7. Industrial Applications of High Power CO2 Lasers - System Descriptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gukelberger, Armin

    1986-10-01

    The laser as a cutting tool for sheet metal cutting has beenl well accepted in industry for many years. Several hundreds of units are used for contour cutting of small and medium-sized series on plane metal sheets up to 6 mm thick. Within the last three years, cutting systems have been expanded in three ways: thicker material up to 12 mm can now be cut by using higher powered lasers (1500 W); with the introduction of flying optic systems which cover sheet dimensions up to 4 m x 3 m, the cutting of larger sized metal sheets is possible. In addition, the use of five or six axis systems allows cutting of three-dimensional plastic and metal material. Besides laser cutting, the acceptance of systems for laser welding applications is increa sing. Several systems have been running in production for a couple of years and laser wel ding will probably become the fastest growing market in laser material processing within the next five years. The laser technology is regarded as a beneficial tool for welding, whenever low heat input and, consequently, low heat distortion is requested. To day's main welding application areas are: components of car engines and transmissions, window spacer and stainless steel tube welding, and also car body welding with laser robots or five axis gantry type systems. The output power of CO2-lasers for welding applications is between 1 and 5 kw in most cases.

  8. Ultraviolet radiation emitted by CO(2) arc welding.

    PubMed

    Okuno, T; Ojima, J; Saito, H

    2001-10-01

    The arcs associated with arc welding emit high levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR), and this often causes acute injuries in the workplace, particularly photokeratoconjunctivitis. It is important to know the level of UVR emitted by arc welding under various conditions, as this information will help in evaluating potential UVR hazards in welding workplaces and taking protective measures against it. In this study, the ACGIH effective irradiance for UVR was measured experimentally for CO(2) arc welding in order to evaluate its UVR hazards. A welding robot was used in the experiment in order to realize reproducible and consistent welding operations. The effective irradiance at 1 m from the arc was in the range 0.28-7.85 W/m(2) (28-785 microW/cm(2)) under the study conditions. The corresponding permissible exposure time per day is only 4-100 s, suggesting that UVR from CO(2) arc welding is actually hazardous for the eye and skin. It was found that the effective irradiance is inversely proportional to the square of the distance from the arc, is strongly dependent on the direction of emission from the arc with a maximum at 50-60 degrees from the plate surface, and tends to increase with welding current.

  9. Longitudinally Excited CO2 Laser with Short Laser Pulse like TEA CO2 Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Kazuyuki; Nakamura, Kenshi; Goto, Tatsumi; Jitsuno, Takahisa

    2009-11-01

    We have developed a longitudinally excited CO2 laser with a short laser pulse similar to that of TEA and Q-switched CO2 lasers. A capacitor transfer circuit with a low shunt resistance provided rapid discharge and a sharp spike pulse with a short pulse tail. Specifically, a circuit with a resistance of 10 M Ω provided a spike pulse width of 103.3 ns and a pulse tail length of 61.9 μs, whereas a circuit with a shunt resistance of 100 Ω provided a laser pulse with a spike pulse width of 96.3 ns and a pulse tail length of 17.2 μs. The laser pulses from this longitudinally excited CO2 laser were used for processing a human tooth without carbonization and for glass marking without cracks.

  10. CO2 laser beam propagation with ZnSe optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, K. H.; Liu, Yi; Holdridge, D. J.

    Beam propagation characteristics of ZnSe optics used in kiloWatt power CO2 laser aided material processing applications are determined using the Prometec Laser Beam Analyzer. The laser used was a Rofin Sinar RS6000 CO2 laser with mode aperturing. Beam power varied from 500W to 6300W and beam modes used were TEM(sub 00), TEM(sub 01), TEM(sub 10), and TEM(sub 20). Both transmissive and reflective optics were examined. The ZnSe lenses tested included meniscus, diffractive, and cylindrical lenses of 5 in. focal length and a 10 in. focal length integrating lens. Reflective optics included an integrator and a 5 in. focal length parabolic mirror for welding. Parameters obtained included beam propagation profiles, intensity profiles, depth of focus, spot size, and back focal length. A subset of the data obtained is presented here. Details of the work will appear in a full length paper.

  11. The Role of the CO2 Laser and Fractional CO2 Laser in Dermatology

    PubMed Central

    Omi, Tokuya; Numano, Kayoko

    2014-01-01

    Background: Tremendous advances have been made in the medical application of the laser in the past few decades. Many diseases in the dermatological field are now indications for laser treatment that qualify for reimbursement by many national health insurance systems. Among laser types, the carbon dioxide (CO2) laser remains an important system for the dermatologist. Rationale: The lasers used in photosurgery have wavelengths that differ according to their intended use and are of various types, but the CO2 laser is one of the most widely used lasers in the dermatology field. With its wavelength in the mid-infrared at 10,600 nm, CO2 laser energy is wellabsorbed in water. As skin contains a very high water percentage, this makes the CO2 laser ideal for precise, safe ablation with good hemostasis. In addition to its efficacy in ablating benign raised lesions, the CO2 laser has been reported to be effective in the field of esthetic dermatology in the revision of acne scars as well as in photorejuvenation. With the addition of fractionation of the beam of energy into myriad microbeams, the fractional CO2 laser has offered a bridge between the frankly full ablative indications and the nonablative skin rejuvenation systems of the 2000s in the rejuvenation of photoaged skin on and off the face. Conclusions: The CO2 laser remains an efficient, precise and safe system for the dermatologist. Technological advances in CO2 laser construction have meant smaller spot sizes and greater precision for laser surgery, and more flexibility in tip sizes and protocols for fractional CO2 laser treatment. The range of dermatological applications of the CO2 laser is expected to continue to increase in the future. PMID:24771971

  12. Blackbody-pumped CO2 laser experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, W. H.; Insuik, R. J.

    1983-07-01

    Thermal radiation from a high temperature oven was used as an optical pump to achieve lasing from CO2 mixtures. Laser output as a function of blackbody temperature and gas conditions is described. This achievement represents the first blackbody cavity pumped laser and has potential for solar pumping. Previously announced in STAR as N83-10420

  13. CO2 laser cutting of natural granite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riveiro, A.; Mejías, A.; Soto, R.; Quintero, F.; del Val, J.; Boutinguiza, M.; Lusquiños, F.; Pardo, J.; Pou, J.

    2016-01-01

    Commercial black granite boards (trade name: "Zimbabwe black granite") 10 mm thick, were successfully cut by a 3.5 kW CO2 laser source. Cutting quality, in terms of kerf width and roughness of the cut wall, was assessed by means of statistically planned experiments. No chemical modification of the material in the cutting walls was detected by the laser beam action. Costs associated to the process were calculated, and the main factors affecting them were identified. Results reported here demonstrate that cutting granite boards could be a new application of CO2 laser cutting machines provided a supersonic nozzle is used.

  14. Laser weld jig

    SciTech Connect

    Haupt, D.L.; Van Blarigan, P.

    1982-11-09

    A system is provided for welding a workpiece along a predetermined weld line that may be of irregular shape, which includes the step of forming a lip on the workpiece to extend parallel to the weld line, and moving the workpiece by engaging the lip between a pair of rotatable members. Rotation of one of the members at a constant speed, causes the workpiece to move so that all points on the weld line sequentially pass a fixed point in space at a constant speed, so that a laser welding beam can be directed at that fixed point to form a weld along the weld line. The workpiece can include a reuseable jig forming the lip, and with the jig constructed to detachably hold parts to be welded at a position wherein the weld line of the parts extends parallel to the lip on the jig.

  15. Laser weld jig

    SciTech Connect

    Van Blarigan, Peter; Haupt, David L.

    1982-01-01

    A system is provided for welding a workpiece (10, FIG. 1) along a predetermined weld line (12) that may be of irregular shape, which includes the step of forming a lip (32) on the workpiece to extend parallel to the weld line, and moving the workpiece by engaging the lip between a pair of rotatable members (34, 36). Rotation of one of the members at a constant speed, causes the workpiece to move so that all points on the weld line sequentially pass a fixed point in space (17) at a constant speed, so that a laser welding beam can be directed at that fixed point to form a weld along the weld line. The workpiece can include a reuseable jig (24) forming the lip, and with the jig constructed to detachably hold parts (22, 20) to be welded at a position wherein the weld line of the parts extends parallel to the lip on the jig.

  16. Lasers for welding and their potential in production at GE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Marshall G.

    2014-02-01

    Laser technology has been used in manufacturing in industry since the late 1960s. Industry and GE businesses have leverage laser welding for productivity gains, cost savings, and quality. The presentation will high light several laser-based welding applications, old and new. Applications will include the welding of refractory materials (e.g. Mo and Nb) for lighting products; 40 foot long fuel rods are welded with 2 kW fiber lasers for the nuclear business; head-liner welding for the diesel engine for locomotives (14 kW fiber laser replaced CO2 laser); and X-ray components are welded in a two-station 11kW fiber laser (EB welding replaced by laser). The three fiber laser applications were all transitioned into GE businesses during 2011 and it demonstrates the emergence of fiber laser welding being used in GE for manufacturing, processing.

  17. CO2 laser in stapes surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Sergije; Schoenfeld, Uwe; Berghaus, Andreas; Fischer, R.; Scherer, Hans H.

    1993-07-01

    Stapedotomy is not only one of the most successful interventions in otology but also one of the most dangerous for the inner ear. To reduce the risk of damaging middle and inner ear structures through manipulations with conventional instruments, the CO2 laser beam is used for perforating the footplate and removing the suprastructures. This non-contact technique aims at precise and controlled management of middle ear structures. Consideration is given to the impact of experimental data on the clinical application of the CO2 laser in stapes surgery. The discussion covers the advantages and disadvantages with regard to optical and tissue-related properties and points out possible dangers to the inner ear. Our experimental and clinical experience is taken as a basis for examining the surgical technique and the varying demands made on the laser beam in treating the stapedial tendon, crura and footplate. Attention is called to the need for additional instruments. Effective energy parameters for CO2 laser stapedeotomy are evaluated for different lasers. Application of the CO2 laser contributes towards optimization of this high-precision intervention and promises to reduce the incidence of inner ear damages in large numbers of cases. This technique appears useful particularly in difficult anatomic situations and, above all, for revisional operations.

  18. Fine welding with lasers.

    PubMed

    MacLellan, D

    2008-01-01

    The need for micro joining metallic alloys for surgical instruments, implants and advanced medical devices is driving a rapid increase in the implementation of laser welding technology in research, development and volume production. This article discusses the advantages of this welding method and the types of lasers used in the process.

  19. Stereotactic CO2 laser therapy for hydrocephalus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozodoy-Pins, Rebecca L.; Harrington, James A.; Zazanis, George A.; Nosko, Michael G.; Lehman, Richard M.

    1994-05-01

    A new fiber-optic delivery system for CO2 radiation has been used to successfully treat non-communicating hydrocephalus. This system consists of a hollow sapphire waveguide employed in the lumen of a stereotactically-guided neuroendoscope. CO2 gas flows through the bore of the hollow waveguide, creating a path for the laser beam through the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This delivery system has the advantages of both visualization and guided CO2 laser radiation without the same 4.3 mm diameter scope. Several patients with hydrocephalus were treated with this new system. The laser was used to create a passage in the floor of the ventricle to allow the flow of CSF from the ventricles to the sub-arachnoid space. Initial postoperative results demonstrated a relief of the clinical symptoms. Long-term results will indicate if this type of therapy will be superior to the use of implanted silicone shunts. Since CO2 laser radiation at 10.6 micrometers is strongly absorbed by the water in tissue and CSF, damage to tissue surrounding the lesion with each laser pulse is limited. The accuracy and safety of this technique may prove it to be an advantageous therapy for obstructive hydrocephalus.

  20. CO 2 laser surgery in hemophilia treatment.

    PubMed

    Santos-Dias, A

    1992-08-01

    The use of CO 2 laser surgery between 1985 and 1991 in South Africa and Portugal for treatment of disorders in patients with mild to moderate cases of hemophilia A is discussed. Six cases of oral procedures and excision of skin tumors performed during this period are reported. In most of the cases of mild hemophilia no pre- or postoperative infusion of Factor VIII or desmopressin (DDAVP) was required. In some cases of moderate hemophilia, patients were infused with desmopressin (0.3 mug/kg body weight) and were treated postoperatively with the use of nasal desmopressin spray (150 mug to each nostril for four weeks following surgery). Factor VIII levels were measured before surgery. Follow up of four weeks was uneventful. The mean average power of the CO 2 laser was 20 W continuous and the pulse duration was 0.1 s for ablational procedures. For dermatologic procedures, a flexible plastic CO 2 laser hollow fiber was used (Flexilase, Sharplan, Allandale, NJ). We concluded that CO 2 laser surgery for hemophiliacs has a confirmed place in modern laser technology provided the standard precautions are taken and facilities are available.

  1. Welding method combining laser welding and MIG welding

    SciTech Connect

    Hamasaki, M.

    1985-03-26

    Welding of deep penetration is obtained in a sustrate by a method which comprises first melting the joint portion of the substrates by MIG welding and then focusing a laser beam in the bottom surface of a crater formed in consequence of the MIG welding thereby effecting laser welding of the crater.

  2. CO2 laser cold cathode research results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochuli, U.

    1973-01-01

    The construction and processing of four test lasers are discussed, and the test results are assessed. Tests show that the best performance was obtained from cathodes made from internally oxidized Ag-Cu alloys or pure Cu. Due to the cold cathode technology developments, sealed-off 1 w CO2 lasers with gas volumes of only 50 cu cm were duplicated, and have performed satisfactorily for more than 6000 hours.

  3. CO2 laser used in cosmetology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Chenglie

    1993-03-01

    Cases of various kinds of warts, nevi, papillomas, skin angiomas, ephilises, skin vegetation, scars and brandy noses were vaporized and solidified with a 2.5 - 8 W low power CO2 laser with an overall satisfaction rate up to 99.8% and the satisfaction rate for one time 92%.

  4. Uncooled receivers for CO2 laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granovskii, A. B.; Iakovlev, V. A.

    1986-01-01

    Published data on low-inertia, uncooled, single-element and matrix-type radiation receivers that have a high degree of reliability and are immune from interference from various external sources are systematically summarized. Three basic types of receivers are examined: photonic receivers, thermal receivers, and receivers based on wave interaction. Principal attention is given to the CO2 laser radiation receiver.

  5. High-power industrial pulsed CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, G. I.

    1983-12-01

    The use of a pulsed TEA CO2 laser (with maximum average power 1.0 kW; maximum pulse energy 3.5 J; repetition frequency 400-600 Hz; half-width pulse duration 15 microsec; circular-coupling-aperture beam diameter 6, 8, or 12 mm; and beam divergence 10 mrad) in industrial welding applications is investigated experimentally in carbon and stainless steels, Zr, Ti, and Ni of various thicknesses. The power required to melt the metals is found to be about 120-200 W/sq cm, or 5-6 times less than that for CW lasers. It is shown that deep narrow-seam welds with mechanical properties identical to those of the bulk metal can be obtained with little or no intercrystalline corrosion or thermal distortion of the surrounding area. Disadvantages such as the 65-dB noise level, low welding speed, formation of an overlap at the top and a crater at the bottom of the weld, and root porosity are considered the primary limitations on the applicability of the device tested.

  6. CO2 laser therapy of rhinophyma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voigt, Peggy; Jovanovic, Sergije; Sedlmaier, Benedikt W.

    2000-06-01

    Laser treatment of skin changes has become common practice in recent years. High absorption of the CO2 laser wavelength in water is responsible for its low penetration dpt in biological tissue. Shortening the tissue exposure time minimizes thermic side effects of laser radiation such as carbonization and coagulation. This can be achieved with scanner systems that move the focused laser beam over a defined area by microprocessor-controlled rapidly rotating mirrors. This enables controlled and reliable removal of certain dermal lesions, particularly hypertrophic scars, scars after common acne, wrinkles and rhinophyma. Laser ablation of rhinophyma is a stress-minimizing procedure for the surgeon and the patient, since it is nearly bloodless and can be performed under local anaesthesia. Cosmetically favorable reepithelization of the lasered surfaces is achieved within a very short period of time.

  7. Laser Welding in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Workman, Gary L.; Kaukler, William F.

    1989-01-01

    Solidification type welding process experiments in conditions of microgravity were performed. The role of convection in such phenomena was examined and convective effects in the small volumes obtained in the laser weld zone were observed. Heat transfer within the weld was affected by acceleration level as indicated by the resulting microstructure changes in low gravity. All experiments were performed such that both high and low gravity welds occurred along the same weld beam, allowing the effects of gravity alone to be examined. Results indicate that laser welding in a space environment is feasible and can be safely performed IVA or EVA. Development of the hardware to perform the experiment in a Hitchhiker-g platform is recomended as the next step. This experiment provides NASA with a capable technology for welding needs in space. The resources required to perform this experiment aboard a Shuttle Hitchhiker-pallet are assessed. Over the four year period 1991 to 1994, it is recommended that the task will require 13.6 manyears and $914,900. In addition to demonstrating the technology and ferreting out the problems encountered, it is suggested that NASA will also have a useful laser materials processing facility for working with both the scientific and the engineering aspects of materials processing in space. Several concepts are also included for long-term optimization of available solar power through solar pumping solid state lasers directly for welding power.

  8. Phase conjugation with CO 2 lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klingenberg, H. H.; Riede, W.; Hall, Th.

    1995-01-01

    A TEA CO 2 laser was used for the investigation of four-wave mixing (4WM) processes in sulfur hexafluoride (SF 6), an organic solvent (toluene), and III/V semiconductor wafers (InSb, InAs). The relevant involved grating mechanisms were probed by the 4WM technique. It was found that the decay times of the corresponding built-up transient gratings in the various nonlinear media differ by approximately six orders of magnitude. Furthermore, simulations of a phase conjugates mirror (PCM) were carried out by solving the Kirchhoff-Fresnel integral equations by complex conjugating the spatial field distribution at the PCM. Applying this technique an efficient production of low divergence high energy CO 2 laser pulses generated from a 4WM master oscillator/power amplifier (MOPA) scheme was predictable. For the modelling a large volume e-beam controlled CO 2 amplifier was placed along the signal beam. The optical homogeneity of the laser gas was disturbed by shock waves and by the laser-induced medium perturbation (LIMP) effect. The disturbing influence of both effects on the optical quality of the output radiation will be shown.

  9. Pulpotomies with CO2 laser in dogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Jose A. P.; Chavantes, Maria C.; Gioso, Marco A.; Pesce, Hildeberto F.; Jatene, Adib D.

    1995-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical aspects of dental pulps submitted to shallow pulpotomy followed by CO2 laser radiation at five different procedures. For this purpose, initially 66 dogs' teeth were opened and about 2 or 3 mm of coronal dental pulp was removed. Continuous irrigation with saline solution was implemented. The teeth were randomly divided into 6 groups of 11 each. After cessation of bleeding, in group I, CO2 laser (Xanar-20, USA) was irradiated for 1 second at a power of 5 watts; in group II, 2 seconds at 3 watts; in Group III, 2 seconds at 5 watts; in Group IV, 1 second at 3 watts; in Group V, a continuous mode at 3 watts; Group VI served as a control, with no laser irradiation. The results showed no clinical differences between the 3 W and 5 W powers. Time period of irradiation exposition influenced definitively the clinical appearance of the dental pulps. Groups I and IV (1 second) were unable to stop the bleeding, which persisted over 15 minutes for all teeth. This may be due to the intense heat generated by CO2 laser, causing vasodilatation. Groups II and III displayed a similar appearance, but bleeding stopped in about 10 minutes. Group V (continuous mode) had no bleeding after irradiation, but a plasma-like liquid would come out for almost 2 minutes. When comparing to the control (Group VI), all the pulps would assume a jelly-like aspect, with black granulated tissue on the surface, covering totally the pulps of Group V and partially the other groups. The histological results will be discussed in a further study. From the data obtained, it seems that CO2 laser irradiation for pulpotomies should be done in a continuous mode, for clinical convenience in terms of time taken and effective irradiation.

  10. Fire hazards and CO2 laser resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Wald, D; Michelow, B J; Guyuron, B; Gibb, A A

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the fire risk of laser resurfacing in the presence of supplemental oxygen. This study aims at defining safety parameters of variables such as laser energy level, oxygen flow rate, and "oxygen to laser target distance" when oxygen is delivered through a nasal cannula or nasopharyngeal tube. The typical operating room environment was simulated in the laboratory using the Yucatan minipig animal model. The energy source was a Coherent Ultrapulse CO2 laser. It was found that combustion did not occur at laser settings of 500 mJ, 50 W, 100 kHz, and a density of 5, used in conjunction with an oxygen flow rate of 6 liter/minute with the target area as close as 0.5 cm to the oxygen delivery. A total of 400 computer pattern generator treatments were delivered using this energy setting without observation of any combustion (p < 0.001). This provides evidence that while using even somewhat high laser settings and oxygen flow rate, laser induced fires can be avoided. We conclude that use of the laser in the presence of oxygen is safe, provided the target area is free of combustible fuels. Despite this assurance, laser mishaps are serious because they lead to both morbidity and mortality. It is our recommendation that close attention be constantly paid to all details, thus reducing the hazard potential of laser energy on local factors in an oxygen-rich environment. PMID:9427936

  11. Atmospheric effects on CO2 laser propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murty, S. S. R.; Bilbro, J. W.

    1978-01-01

    An investigation was made of the losses encountered in the propagation of CO2 laser radiation through the atmosphere, particularly as it applies to the NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center Pulsed Laser Doppler System. As such it addresses three major areas associated with signal loss: molecular absorption, refractive index changes in a turbulent environment, and aerosol absorption and scattering. In particular, the molecular absorption coefficients of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and nitrous oxide are calculated for various laser lines in the region of 10.6 mu m as a function of various pressures and temperatures. The current status in the physics of low-energy laser propagation through a turbulent atmosphere is presented together with the analysis and evaluation of the associated heterodyne signal power loss. Finally, aerosol backscatter and extinction coefficients are calculated for various aerosol distributions and the results incorporated into the signal-to-noise ratio equation for the Marshall Space Flight Center system.

  12. Sealing glass ampoules with CO2 lasers.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Junke; Wang, Xinbing; Tang, Wenlong

    2008-12-10

    Glass ampoules were always sealed by melting in the presence of a flame to create closures. Some poisonous gases were generated in this sealing process that pollute the injection drug and are physically harmful. In this study, CO(2) lasers were proposed for sealing glass ampoules. Because of the clean noncontact sealing process with lasers, there was nearly no pollution of the injection drug. To study in detail the principle of this sealing process, a mathematical model was put forward, and the temperature and the thermal stress field around the ampoule's neck were calculated by ANSYS software. Through experimental study, 1 ml and 5 ml ampoules were sealed successfully by a dual-laser-beam method. The results show that a laser source is an ideal heat source for sealing glass ampoules. PMID:19079460

  13. Sealing glass ampoules with CO2 lasers.

    PubMed

    Jiao, Junke; Wang, Xinbing; Tang, Wenlong

    2008-12-10

    Glass ampoules were always sealed by melting in the presence of a flame to create closures. Some poisonous gases were generated in this sealing process that pollute the injection drug and are physically harmful. In this study, CO(2) lasers were proposed for sealing glass ampoules. Because of the clean noncontact sealing process with lasers, there was nearly no pollution of the injection drug. To study in detail the principle of this sealing process, a mathematical model was put forward, and the temperature and the thermal stress field around the ampoule's neck were calculated by ANSYS software. Through experimental study, 1 ml and 5 ml ampoules were sealed successfully by a dual-laser-beam method. The results show that a laser source is an ideal heat source for sealing glass ampoules.

  14. CO2 laser milling of hard tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, Martin; Ivanenko, Mikhail; Harbecke, Daniela; Klasing, Manfred; Steigerwald, Hendrik; Hering, Peter

    2007-02-01

    Drilling of bone and tooth tissue belongs to recurrent medical procedures (screw- and pin-bores, bores for implant inserting, trepanation etc.). Small round bores can be in general quickly produced with mechanical drills. Problems arise however by angled drilling, by the necessity to fulfill the drilling without damaging of sensitive soft tissue beneath the bone, or by the attempt to mill precisely noncircular small cavities. We present investigations on laser hard tissue "milling", which can be advantageous for solving these problems. The "milling" is done with a CO2 laser (10.6 μm) with pulse duration of 50 - 100 μs, combined with a PC-controlled galvanic beam scanner and with a fine water-spray, which helps to avoid thermal side-effects. The damaging of underlying soft tissue can be prevented through control of the optical or acoustical ablation signal. The ablation of hard tissue is accompanied with a strong glowing, which is absent during the laser beam action on soft tissue. The acoustic signals from the diverse tissue types exhibit distinct differences in the spectral composition. Also computer image analysis could be a useful tool to control the operation. Laser "milling" of noncircular cavities with 1 - 4 mm width and about 10 mm depth is particularly interesting for dental implantology. In ex-vivo investigations we found conditions for fast laser "milling" of the cavities without thermal damage and with minimal tapering. It included exploration of different filling patterns (concentric rings, crosshatch, parallel lines and their combinations), definition of maximal pulse duration, repetition rate and laser power, optimal position of the spray. The optimized results give evidences for the applicability of the CO2 laser for biologically tolerable "milling" of deep cavities in the hard tissue.

  15. Ultraviolet photoionization in CO2 TEA lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, S. J.; Smith, A. L. S.

    1988-07-01

    The effects of gas composition and spark parameters on the UV emission in CO2 TEA laser gas mixtures were investigated together with the nature of photoionization process and the photoelectron-loss mechanism. A linear relationship was found between N2 concentration and photoionization (with no such dependence on C concentration, from CO and CO2), but the increases in photoionization that could be effected by optimizing the spark discharge circuit parameters were much higher than those produced by changes in gas composition. UV emission was directly proportional to the amount of stored electrical energy in the spark-discharge circuit and to the cube of the peak current produced in the spark by the discharge of this energy. Photoionization was also found to be proportional to the spark electrode gap. It was found that free-space sparks gave a considerably broader emission pattern than a surface-guided notched spark.

  16. [Laryngomalacia treated with CO2 laser].

    PubMed

    Larsen, Dalia Gustaityté; Berg, Jette Scheby; Illum, Peter

    2010-07-01

    Laryngomalacia is the most common laryngeal anomaly which causes inspiratory stridor in newborns. The disease is usually self-limiting and resolves before the age of two years. We present a case of severe laryngomalacia with feeding disorder and airway obstruction which needed surgical management--supraglottoplasty. The shortened aryepiglottic folds were incised using CO(2) laser and jet ventilation. The patient was observed at the hospital for one week after surgery and discharged. Four weeks after treatment, the patient was free of airway obstruction and feeding problems. PMID:20594541

  17. Recent advances in CO2 laser catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upchurch, B. T.; Schryer, D. R.; Brown, K. G.; Kielin, E. J.; Hoflund, G. B.; Gardner, S. D.

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses several recent advances in CO2 laser catalysts including comparisons of the activity of Au/MnO2 to Pt/SnO2 catalysts with possible explanations for observed differences. The catalysts are compared for the effect of test gas composition, pretreatment temperature, isotopic integrity, long term activity, and gold loading effects on the Au/MnO2 catalyst activity. Tests conducted to date include both long-term tests of up to six months continuous operation and short-term tests of one week or more that include isotopic integrity testing.

  18. Development of high-power CO2 lasers and laser material processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nath, Ashish K.; Choudhary, Praveen; Kumar, Manoj; Kaul, R.

    2000-02-01

    Scaling laws to determine the physical dimensions of the active medium and optical resonator parameters for designing convective cooled CO2 lasers have been established. High power CW CO2 lasers upto 5 kW output power and a high repetition rate TEA CO2 laser of 500 Hz and 500 W average power incorporated with a novel scheme for uniform UV pre- ionization have been developed for material processing applications. Technical viability of laser processing of several engineering components, for example laser surface hardening of fine teeth of files, laser welding of martensitic steel shroud and titanium alloy under-strap of turbine, laser cladding of Ni super-alloy with stellite for refurbishing turbine blades were established using these lasers. Laser alloying of pre-placed SiC coating on different types of aluminum alloy, commercially pure titanium and Ti-6Al-4V alloy, and laser curing of thermosetting powder coating have been also studied. Development of these lasers and results of some of the processing studies are briefly presented here.

  19. Spaceborne CO2 laser communications systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcelroy, J. H.; Mcavoy, N.; Johnson, E. H.; Goodwin, F. E.; Peyton, B. J.

    1975-01-01

    Projections of the growth of earth-sensing systems for the latter half of the 1980's show a data transmission requirement of 300 Mbps and above. Mission constraints and objectives lead to the conclusion that the most efficient technique to return the data from the sensing satellite to a ground station is through a geosynchronous data relay satellite. Of the two links that are involved (sensing satellite to relay satellite and relay satellite to ground), a laser system is most attractive for the space-to-space link. The development of CO2 laser systems for space-to-space applications is discussed with the completion of a 300 Mpbs data relay receiver and its modification into a transceiver. The technology and state-of-the-art of such systems are described in detail.

  20. A critical review of laser beam welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martukanitz, Richard P.

    2005-03-01

    The use of lasers for welding has exhibited tremendous growth over the last decade for improving efficiency and reducing costs in a broad range of industries. Much of these successes are based on the development and availability of enabling technologies, which include improvements in process understanding, enhancements in laser sources and systems, and continued development and progression in process technology for laser beam welding of macro and micro components. The development of accurate numerical simulation techniques has provided an unprecedented opportunity to view the transient nature of laser processing. Advancements in laser source technology include the introduction of higher-power Nd:YAG lasers, utilizing diode pumped rods or disks, and fiber lasers, both providing the capability for fiber optic beam delivery. Although CO2 laser systems continue to dominate thick section welding, this influence will be challenged by emerging source technologies, namely high power fiber lasers. One of the most promising advances in laser process technology is laser-arc hybrid welding, which is seeing considerable interest worldwide and is currently being evaluated for various applications within heavy industry and manufacturing. The benefit of hybrid welding is the synergistic effect of improved processing rates and joint accommodation over either of the processes viewed separately. Other processing methods are also being developed to increase the utility of laser beam welding for industry, such as the use of dual beams and beam manipulation. The continued advancement in process knowledge is seen as a key element for facilitating the development of new processes and encouraging the acceptance of new source technology.

  1. Plywood Inlays Thourgh CO2 Laser Cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pires, Margarida C.; Araujo, J. L.; Teixeira, M. Ribau; Rodrigues, F. Carvalho

    1989-07-01

    Furniture with inlays is rather expensive. This is so on two accounts: Firstly, furniture with inlays is generally manufactured with solid wood.Secondly,wood carving and figure cutting are both time consuming and they produce a high rate of rejections. To add to it all the cutting and carving of minute figures requires an outstanding craftmanship. In fact the craftman is in most instance the artist and also the manufacturer. While desiring that the high artistic level is maintained in the industry the search for new method to produce inlays for furniture in not son expensive materials and to produce them in a repetitive and flexible way laser cutting of plywood was found to be quite suitable. This paper presents the charts for CO2 laser cutting of both positive and negatives in several types of plywood. The main problem is not so much the cutting of the positive and negatives pieces but to be able to cut the piece in a way that the fitting is done without any problems caused by the ever present charring effect, which takes palce at the edges of the cut pieces. To minimise this aspect positive and negative pieces have to be cut under stringent focusing conditions and with slight different scales. The condittions for our machine are presented.

  2. Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer (CO2LAS) Aircraft Measurements of CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, Lance E.; Spiers, Gary D.; Menzies, Robert T.; Jacob, Joseph C.; Hyon, Jason

    2011-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer (CO2LAS) utilizes Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) at 2.05 microns to obtain CO2 column mixing ratios weighted heavily in the boundary layer. CO2LAS employs a coherent detection receiver and continuous-wave Th:Ho:YLF laser transmitters with output powers around 100 milliwatts. An offset frequency-locking scheme coupled to an absolute frequency reference enables the frequencies of the online and offline lasers to be held to within 200 kHz of desired values. We describe results from 2009 field campaigns when CO2LAS flew on the Twin Otter. We also describe spectroscopic studies aimed at uncovering potential biases in lidar CO2 retrievals at 2.05 microns.

  3. Laser weld jig. [Patent application

    DOEpatents

    Van Blarigan, P.; Haupt, D.L.

    1980-12-05

    A system is provided for welding a workpiece along a predetermined weld line that may be of irregular shape, which includes the step of forming a lip on the workpiece to extend parallel to the weld line, and moving the workpiece by engaging the lip between a pair of rotatable members. Rotation of one of the members at a constant speed, causes the workpiece to move so that all points on the weld line sequentially pass a fixed point in space at a constant speed, so that a laser welding beam can be directed at that fixed point to form a weld along the weld line. The workpiece can include a reusable jig forming the lip, and with the jig constructed to detachably hold parts to be welded at a position wherein the weld line of the parts extends parallel to the lip on the jig.

  4. Wavelength measurement of tunable TEA CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Yanchen; Ren, Deming; Hu, Xiaoyong; Liu, Fengmei; Zhang, Lili; Chen, Chunyu

    2005-01-01

    Due to their interesting physical and chemical parameters, tunable transversely excited atmospheric-pressure(TEA) CO2 lasers are widely utilized in scientific and industrial applications. The CO2 differential absorption lidar (DIAL) is an effective tool for remote measurement of pollutant gaseous concentration of the atmosphere over large areas. Many pollutant gases have strong absorption lines within the spectral range of CO2 laser wavelength tuning. In addition, the radiation of CO2 laser is well distributed in the atmosphere, coinciding with the "transparency window" of the atmosphere. Therefore the wavelength tunable TEA CO2 laser is an ideal optical source for DIAL. Most existing instruments for measuring the laser wavelength are only suitable for the measurement of continuous wave and stable frequency output. With the attempt of measuring the wavelength of pulsed TEA CO2 laser, an experimental setup is established which consists of two main portions, namely auto-scanning grating monochromator as the color dispersion system and Boxcar integrator. In the experiment of tuning TEA CO2 laser, the wavelength of CO2 laser is observed and measured by means of integrating method. The accuracy of measurement in the mid-infrared region attains 1nm.

  5. Blackbody pumped N2-CO2 transfer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Young, R. J.

    1984-06-01

    The power and intrinsic efficiency of a small N2-CO2 fluid mixing transfer laser has been measured. Powers of 1.4 watts and intrinsic efficiencies for 0.7 percent were found for N2 oven temperatures of 1473 K. Laser output was optimized for He, CO2 and N2 partial pressures, output mirror reflectivity, nozzle diameter and oven temperature.

  6. Industrial laser welding evaluation study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hella, R.; Locke, E.; Ream, S.

    1974-01-01

    High power laser welding was evaluated for fabricating space vehicle boosters. This evaluation was made for 1/4 in. and 1/2 in. aluminum (2219) and 1/4 in. and 1/2 in. D6AC steel. The Avco HPL 10 kW industrial laser was used to perform the evaluation. The objective has been achieved through the completion of the following technical tasks: (1) parameter study to optimize welding and material parameters; (2) preparation of welded panels for MSFC evaluation; and (3) demonstration of the repeatability of laser welding equipment. In addition, the design concept for a laser welding system capable of welding large space vehicle boosters has been developed.

  7. Effect of welding parameters on high-power diode laser welding on thin sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salminen, Antti; Jansson, Anssi; Kujanpaa, Veli

    2003-06-01

    High power diode laser (HPDL) is the newest laser tool for industrial manufacturing. The most promising areas of application of HPDL are thin sheet welding and hardening. The HPDL has several advantages and disadvantages compared to lasers CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers currently used for welding. There is quite a few industrial applications in which diode laser is the most suitable laser. A typical industrial installation consists of a HPDL, an industrial robot, work piece manipulation and safety enclosures. The HPDL welding process is at this moment conduction limited and has therefore different parameters than the keyhole welding. In this study the basic HPDL welding parameters and the effect of the parameters on the welding process, weld quality and efficiency are examined. Joint types tested are butt joint and fillet lap joint. The parameters tested are beam intensity, welding speed, spot size, beam impingement angle. The materials tested are common carbon steel and stainless steel. By the experiments carried out it can be seen that all of these parameters have an effect on the weld quality and the absorption of the laser power during welding. The higher the beam intensity is the shorter also the throughput time is. However, in case of fillet joint the maximum welding speed and best visual out look are achieved with totally different set of parameters. Based on these experiments it can, however, be seen that reliable welding parameters can be established for the welding of various industrial products. The beam quality of the diode laser is not optimum for high speed keyhole welding but it is a flexible tool to be used for different joint types.

  8. Treatment of Bartholin gland cyst with CO2 laser

    PubMed Central

    Speck, Neila Maria de Góis; Boechat, Karol Pereira Ruela; dos Santos, Georgia Mouzinho Lima; Ribalta, Julisa Chamorro Lascasas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To describe the results of treatment with CO2 laser for Bartholin gland cysts. Methods Thirty-one women with Bartholin gland cysts were treated with CO2 laser at an outpatient´s setting. Skin incision was performed with focused laser beam, the capsule was opened to drain mucoid content, followed by internal vaporization of impaired capsule. Results There were no complications. Five patients had recurrence of the cyst and were submitted to a second and successful session. Conclusion CO2 laser surgery was effective to treat Bartholin gland cysts with minimal or no complications, and can be performed at an outpatient´s setting. PMID:27074230

  9. Clinical effects of CO2 laser on equine diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindholm, Arne; Svensson, Ulf; Collinder, Eje

    2002-10-01

    CO2 lasers has been used for five years at Malaren Equine Hospital, as an alternative treatment of some equine diseases. The application of CO2 laser has been studied for evaluation of its appropriateness for treatment of the equine diseases sarcoids, lameness in fetlock joints or pulmonary haemorrhage. During the last five years, above 100 equine sarcoids have been removed by laser surgery (CO2 laser) and so far resulting in significantly few recurrences compared with results from usual excision surgery. In one study, acute traumatic arthritis in fetlock joints was treated three times every second day with defocalised CO2 laser. The therapeutic effectiveness of CO2 laser in this study was better than that of the customary therapy with betamethasone plus hyaluronan. During one year, chronic pulmonary bleeders, namely exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage, has been treated with defocalised CO2 laser. Six race horses have been treated once daily during five days. Until now, three of these horses have subsequently been successfully racing and no symptoms of pulmonary haemorrhage have been observed. These studies indicate that CO2 laser might be an appropriate therapy on sarcoids and traumatic arthritis, and probably also on exercise induced pulmonary haemorrhage. Other treatments for this pulmonary disease are few.

  10. [The CO2 laser in dermatotherapy--use and indications].

    PubMed

    Landthaler, M; Haina, D; Hohenleutner, U; Seipp, W; Waidelich, W; Braun-Falco, O

    1988-04-01

    Due to the high absorption of infrared light in water the CO2 laser (lambda = 10,600 nm) is suitable for cutting and vaporizing tissue. The ablation of pathological tissue by means of the CO2 laser can be exactly controlled. The treated area is usually dry and clear since blood and lymph vessels up to a diameter of 1 mm are sealed. Postoperative swelling and pain are reduced compared with electrosurgery. Important and frequent indications for CO2 laser application are HPV papillomas (condylomata acuminata, common warts, bowenoid papules) and the removal of tattoos. The CO2 laser is also suitable for the removal of benign and disseminated lesions such as angiofibromas, syringomas, trichoepitheliomas, epidermal nevi etc. Lesions of the oral mucosa (leukoplakias, mucosal warts) can be removed by means of the CO2 laser. Additionally, the treatment of vascular lesions (nevi flammei, lymphangiomas, telangiectasias) has been described, although the CO2 laser does not operate in a vessel-specific manner. As this review article demonstrates, the CO2 laser has a broad range of applications and represents an enrichment of dermatotherapy. PMID:3290162

  11. CO2 laser-forward looking infrared /FLIR/ integration concepts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osche, G. R.; Luck, C. F.; Seavey, R. E.; Phelan, R. K.

    1980-01-01

    A survey of techniques for combining active laser functions with passive thermal imaging systems is presented along with some recent accomplishments. Emphasis is placed on the advantages of integrating CO2 lasers with the 8 - 12 micron thermal sensors arising from the commonality of operating wavelengths. Compatibility of performance, eye safety, and sharing of optical components are pointed out as the primary driving factors which favor CO2 lasers. Recent accomplishments include the development of the first U.S. CO2 laser rangefinder which has been integrated with the thermal sensor for a high survivability test vehicle. A fully modularized, sealed-off CO2 TEA laser rangefinder developed for the U.S. Army is also described.

  12. Medical Applications Of CO2 Laser Fiber Optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCord, R. C.

    1981-07-01

    In 1978, Hughes Laboratories reported development of fiber optics that were capable of transmitting CO2 laser energy. These fibers are now being tested for medical applications. Wide ranging medical investigation with CO2 lasers has occurred during the twelve years since the first observations of laser hemostasis. Specialists in ophthalmology, neurosurgery, urology, gynecology, otolaryngology, maxillo-facial/plastic surgery, dermatology, and oncology among others, have explored its use. In principle, all these specialists use CO2 laser radiation at 10.6 microns to thermally destroy diseased tissues. As such, CO2 lasers compare and compete with electrosurgical devices. The fundamental difference between these modalities lies in how they generate heat in treated tissue.

  13. Application of Novel CO2 Laser-Suction Device.

    PubMed

    Straus, David; Moftakhar, Roham; Fink, Yoel; Patel, Deval; Byrne, Richard W

    2013-12-01

    Background Development of the flexible CO2 fiber has presented new opportunities for the use of precision laser cutting in cranial procedures. The efficacy of the CO2 scalpel is further enhanced by combining it with a fluid removal suction capability. Objectives We report our experience with a novel CO2 laser-suction device. Methods The novel laser-suction device was designed in conjunction with OmniGuide Inc. (Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA). We performed a case review of its use in firm tumors that were resistant to resection by bipolar, suction, and ultrasonic aspirator. Results The laser-suction device was applied in three tumors where resection with ultrasonic aspiration failed. Tumor resection using the laser-suction device was successful in all three cases. There were no complications related to the laser-suction device. There were no instances of intraoperative device malfunction. Discussion The CO2 laser combined with suction is a useful instrument for resection of firm tumors that prove to be resistant to ultrasonic aspiration. We also find it to be useful in settings where precise tissue incisions are desired with minimal manipulation. In our experience, the surgical efficiency of the CO2 laser is improved by the laser-suction device. This device allows the surgeon to utilize a suction device and laser in a single hand and enables concurrent use of bipolar electrocautery without repeated instrument changes.

  14. Interaction of CO 2 laser radiation with glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozhukharov, V.; Dimitrov, D.; Tonchev, D.

    1989-05-01

    An illustration of an interaction of pulsed multimode TEA CO 2 laser radiation, through or without a mask, as well as of a laser scanning process of a frequency Q-modulated cw CO 2 laser beam on glass surfaces has been shown. As an object of investigation glass articles with composition as a standard industrial potassium-boron silicate glass, we have used. A complex of investigations shows that the laser treatment leads to qualitative constant changes (well defined peeling structure) depending on the time surface treatment, defocusing and the pulse length of the laser output.

  15. Conveniently assembled multiple-electrode-pair CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Lihua; Li, Xiangyen; He, Anzhi

    2000-04-01

    A conveniently assembled multiple-electrode-pair (MEP) transversely excited amplify (TEA) CO2 laser is introduced in this paper. The laser is described from the view of device configuration, power supply, control circuit, and etc. The laser output is variable from single pulse to double pulse and multiple pulse with different assembly. We adopt a new alignment method for cavity. The pulse time interval given by control system is continuously adjustable from 0 to 150 microseconds. Experiments prove that the pulse series property is stable and that the pulse parameters are perfect. The conveniently assembled laser lay a foundation for the industry application of multiple-electrode-pair CO2 laser.

  16. CO2 laser devices and applications; Proceedings of the Seminar, Washington, DC, April 10, 11, 1980

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartwick, T. S.

    1980-01-01

    Studies contained in this volume provide an overview of the recent advances in CO2 lasers and CO2 laser systems and their commercial and military applications. Papers are presented on the development of a flyable CO2 laser beacon, a frequency-stabilized hybrid CO2 lasers, compact CO2 lasers, and pulsed CO2 lasers. Other papers include: carbon dioxide lasers in rangefinding, scanning laser Doppler anemometry system, wide-bandwidth CO2 laser photomixers, infrared fiber optics for CO2 laser applications, and industrial applications of far-infrared lasers.

  17. CO2 lasers and applications II; Proceedings of the Third European Congress on Optics, The Hague, Netherlands, Mar. 12-14, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opower, Hans (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Recent advances in CO2 laser technology and its applications are examined. Topics discussed include the excitation of CO2 lasers by microwave discharge, a compact RF-excited 12-kW CO2 laser, a robotic laser for three-dimensional cutting and welding, three-dimensional CO2-laser material processing with gantry machine systems, and a comparison of hollow metallic waveguides and optical fibers for transmitting CO2-laser radiation. Consideration is given to an aerodynamic window with a pump cavity and a supersonic jet, cutting and welding Al using a high-repetition-rate pulsed CO2 laser, speckle reduction in CO2 heterodyne laser radar systems, high-power-laser float-zone crystal growth, melt dynamics in surface processing with laser radiation, laser hardfacing, surface melting of AlSi10Mg with CO2 laser radiation, material processing with Cu-vapor lasers, light-induced flow at a metal surface, and absorption measurements in high-power CW CO2-laser processing of materials.

  18. Treatment of congenital melanocytic naevi with CO2 laser.

    PubMed

    Horner, Ben M; El-Muttardi, Naguib S; Mayou, Bryan J

    2005-09-01

    This study assesses the effectiveness of CO2 laser in treating congenital melanocytic naevi (CMN). A retrospective review of 12 patients with CMN treated with CO2 laser was carried out. In all cases, there was minimal visible naevus after treatment. Six patients developed hypertrophic scarring; this was significantly more likely following CO2 laser treatment on the anterior torso, flanks, or arms than on the back or buttocks (P = 0.01, 1-tailed Fisher exact test). We conclude that CO2 laser is an effective treatment for reducing visible pigmentation of CMN. However, it can cause hypertrophic scarring, which has not been reported before. This risk can be reduced by limited use in areas of the body where the dermis is thinner or there is a known risk of hypertrophic scarring. In addition, the cautious use of paint mode and prophylactic use of pressure or silicon dressings may also reduce the risk of hypertrophic scarring. PMID:16106167

  19. CO2 laser induced refractive index changes in optical polymers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qing; Chiang, Kin Seng; Reekie, Laurence; Chow, Yuk Tak

    2012-01-01

    We study the infrared photosensitivity properties of two optical polymer materials, benzocyclobutene (BCB) and epoxy OPTOCAST 3505, with a 10.6 μm CO2 laser. We discover that the CO2 laser radiation can lower the refractive index of BCB by as much as 5.5 × 10(-3), while inducing no measurable index change in the epoxy. As confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, the observed index change in BCB can be attributed to photothermal modification of chemical bonds in the material by the CO2 laser radiation. Our findings open up a new possibility of processing polymer materials with a CO2 laser, which could be further developed for application in the areas of post-processing and direct-writing of polymer waveguide devices.

  20. Laser Welding in Electronic Packaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The laser has proven its worth in numerous high reliability electronic packaging applications ranging from medical to missile electronics. In particular, the pulsed YAG laser is an extremely flexible and versatile too] capable of hermetically sealing microelectronics packages containing sensitive components without damaging them. This paper presents an overview of details that must be considered for successful use of laser welding when addressing electronic package sealing. These include; metallurgical considerations such as alloy and plating selection, weld joint configuration, design of optics, use of protective gases and control of thermal distortions. The primary limitations on use of laser welding electronic for packaging applications are economic ones. The laser itself is a relatively costly device when compared to competing welding equipment. Further, the cost of consumables and repairs can be significant. These facts have relegated laser welding to use only where it presents a distinct quality or reliability advantages over other techniques of electronic package sealing. Because of the unique noncontact and low heat inputs characteristics of laser welding, it is an ideal candidate for sealing electronic packages containing MEMS devices (microelectromechanical systems). This paper addresses how the unique advantages of the pulsed YAG laser can be used to simplify MEMS packaging and deliver a product of improved quality.

  1. 367 cases of CO2 laser therapy on facial acne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Yunqing; Liu, Songhao; Zhang, You; Liu, T. C.

    1996-09-01

    Since 1989, we have cured 367 persons of facial acne of different course by using direct irradiation of high-power CO2 laser combing with operative therapy of low-power CO2 laser. The cure rate is 100 percent. In this paper, we stated the therapeutic approach. It was shown that this therapeutic approach is simple and effective, and its recurrence rate is zero. There are no cicatrices after healing. It is easy to accept it, and is worthy of extension.

  2. Circumcision using CO2 laser: report of 860 cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wen B.; Chen, Zi-Fu; Zhan, Tian-qi; Gao, Xiang-Xun; Huang, Chao

    1993-03-01

    Eight-hundred-sixty cases of circumcision using CO2 laser are reported. The age of patients ranged from 9 - 65 years, with a mean age of 23.8 years. The technique was simple and can be quickly accomplished by a single operator. After local anesthesia the glans penis was protected by a protector. Then, circumcision was performed with a CO2 laser -- HeNe laser combined machine. There was an HeNe laser aiming system in this machine thus the surgeon had a three-dimensional visible indicator of the incision. The focusing CO2 laser beam was used for cutting the prepuce during the operation. There was almost no operative bleeding. All the patients needed no antibiotic postoperatively. Complications were minimal and satisfactory results were achieved.

  3. CO2 laser in revision stapes surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovanovic, Sergije; Schoenfeld, Uwe; Scherer, Hans H.

    1997-05-01

    Successful restoration of audition in revision stapedotomies involves precise identification and correction of the pathological condition without traumatizing the inner ear. Conventional surgical procedures often lead to unsatisfactory audition results and inner ear damages. In revision stapedotomy, the carbon-dioxide laser provides the ear surgeon with three important advantages over the conventional technique: (1) improved diagnostic and therapeutic precision, (2) better stabilization of the new prosthesis in the oval niche, and (3) reduction of inner ear trauma through non- contact atraumatic management. The surgical procedure of revision stapedotomies with the carbon dioxide laser is discussed, and case examples are used to illustrate the diversity of pathological conditions that can be treated by carbon-dioxide laser surgery. Our experience with revision carbon-dioxide laser stapedotomy suggests an improvement of postoperative audition compared to the conventional technique and demonstrates a significant elimination of sensorineural deafness. The carbon-dioxide laser enables the ear surgeon to precisely and reliably correct conduction deafness recurring after stapedotomy.

  4. 2-Micron Laser Transmitter for Coherent CO2 DIAL Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong

    2009-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) has been recognized as one of the most important greenhouse gases. It is essential for the study of global warming to accurately measure the CO2 concentration in the atmosphere and continuously record its variation. A high repetition rate, highly efficient, Q-switched 2-micron laser system as the transmitter of a coherent differential absorption lidar for CO2 measurement has been developed in NASA Langley Research Center. This laser system is capable of making a vertical profiling of CO2 from ground and column measurement of CO2 from air and space-borne platform. The transmitter is a master-slave laser system. The master laser operates in a single frequency, either on-line or off-line of a selected CO2 absorption line. The slave laser is a Q-switched ring-cavity Ho:YLF laser which is pumped by a Tm:fiber laser. The repetition rate can be adjusted from a few hundred Hz to 10 kHz. The injection seeding success rate is from 99.4% to 99.95%. For 1 kHz operation, the output pulse energy is 5.5mJ with the pulse length of 50 ns. The optical-to-optical efficiency is 39% when the pump power is 14.5W. A Ho:YLF laser operating in the range of 2.05 micrometers can be tuned over several characteristic lines of CO2 absorption. Experimentally, a diode pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser has been successfully used as the transmitter of coherent differential absorption lidar for the measurement of CO2 with a repetition rate of 5 Hz and pulse energy of 75 mJ. For coherent detection, high repetition rate is required for speckle averaging to obtain highly precise measurements. However, a diode pumped Ho:Tm:YLF laser can not operate in high repetition rate due to the large heat loading and up-conversion. A Tm:fiber laser pumped Ho:YLF laser with low heat loading can operate in high repetition rate. A theoretical model has been established to simulate the performance of Tm:fiber laser pumped Ho:YLF lasers. For continuous wave (CW) operation, high pump intensity with small beam

  5. Clinical application of CO2 laser in periodontal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayase, Yasuhiro

    1994-09-01

    CO2 lasers in particular are expected to have many dental applications because the CO2 laser beam exhibits strong tissue transpirative actions, such as instant coagulation, carbonization, and vaporization, and because its wavelength at 10.6 micrometers is fully absorbed by water so that the ability to make precise incisions with a high degree of safety is excellent, without damaging the deep tissues. However, clinical application of the CO2 laser has been slowed since a fiber which can conduct the laser beam to the oral cavity has only recently developed. This new fiber is an extremely flexible fiber with a minimum bending radius of 20 mm and utilizes pulse wave modes that have improved the handling characteristics in the mouth, and this has enabled us to apply the CO2 laser to a variety of periodontal conditions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of CO2 lasers for the early treatment of inflammation and pain relief of acute periodontitis, curettage of periodontal pockets, healing after excision of gingiva, and early improvement of gingivitis.

  6. Laser welding of fused quartz

    DOEpatents

    Piltch, Martin S.; Carpenter, Robert W.; Archer, III, McIlwaine

    2003-06-10

    Refractory materials, such as fused quartz plates and rods are welded using a heat source, such as a high power continuous wave carbon dioxide laser. The radiation is optimized through a process of varying the power, the focus, and the feed rates of the laser such that full penetration welds may be accomplished. The process of optimization varies the characteristic wavelengths of the laser until the radiation is almost completely absorbed by the refractory material, thereby leading to a very rapid heating of the material to the melting point. This optimization naturally occurs when a carbon dioxide laser is used to weld quartz. As such this method of quartz welding creates a minimum sized heat-affected zone. Furthermore, the welding apparatus and process requires a ventilation system to carry away the silicon oxides that are produced during the welding process to avoid the deposition of the silicon oxides on the surface of the quartz plates or the contamination of the welds with the silicon oxides.

  7. Use of CO2 laser and AgClBr infrared transmitting fibers for tympanoplasty: experiments on animal models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zilker, Zeev; Daykhovsky, Leon; Nageris, Ben I.; Feinmesser, R.; Papaioannou, Thanassis; Ravid, Avi; Kariv, Naam; Katzir, Abraham

    1999-06-01

    One of the most common ear disease is Chronic Otitis Media that leads to a tympanic membrane perforation. The treatment of this condition is by a surgical procedure, tympanoplasty that is often done under local or general anesthesia. During this procedure an autologous fascia is applied to close the perforation. Commonly, fixation of the fascia is achieved mostly by Gel-Form. During the last several years various fascia fixation techniques were suggested. These included a welding procedure based on using an Argon laser. The disadvantages of the latter is that the visible Argon laser is not absorbed well by the relatively thin tympanic membrane and the fascia. It does not lead to strong weld and it may heat the middle of the ear, causing neural hearing loss. The CO2 laser IR radiation is much more suitable for welding of these thin tissues, because of its very high absorption in tissues. There is still a need to deliver this radiation to the weld site using a thin and flexible optical fiber. In this work we have welded fascia on the tympanic membranes of guinea pigs using a CO2 laser. Holes of diameter 2-3 mm were punctured in the membranes and apiece of fascia was placed on the holes. Laser power of the order of 0.5W was delivered to the fascia using an IR transmitting AgClBr fiber. In experiments done on 11 animals and CO2 laser welding was successfully done on in 15 years. The success of these preliminary studies in the animal models shows that CO2 laser tympanoplasty could be a very valuable surgical technique.

  8. LaRC-developed catalysts for CO2 lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Upchurch, Billy T.; Kielin, Erik J.; Miller, Irvin M.

    1990-01-01

    Pulsed CO2 lasers have many remote sensing applications from space, airborne, and ground platforms. The NASA Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) system will be designed to measure wind velocities from polar earth orbit for a period of up to three years. Accordingly, this and other applications require a closed-cycle pulsed CO2 laser which necessitates the use of an efficient CO-O2 recombination catalyst for these dissociation products which otherwise would degrade the laser operation. The required catalyst must not only operate at low temperatures but also must operate efficiently for long time periods. The research effort at NASA LaRC has centered around development and testing of CO oxidation catalysts for closed-cycle, pulsed, common and rare-isotope CO2 lasers. Researchers examined available commercial catalysts both in a laser and under simulated closed-cycle laser conditions with efforts aimed toward a thorough understanding of the fundamental catalytic reaction. These data were used to design and synthesize new catalyst compositions to better meet the catalyst requirements for closed-cycle pulsed CO2 lasers. Syntheses and test results for catalysts developed at Langley Research Center which have significantly better long-term decay characteristics than previously available catalysts and at the same time operate quite well under lower temperature conditions are discussed.

  9. [Treatment of benign laryngeal diseases using a CO2 laser].

    PubMed

    Betka, J; Klozar, J; Kasík, P; Taudy, M; Tichý, S

    1989-05-01

    CO2 laser surgery is becoming a part of larynx surgery. The authors inform about their experience in benign larynx tumours treatment. They present analysis of concrete therapeutic procedures in individual larynx affections. They conclude that laser surgery is an advantegous method for benign larynx tumours treatment. PMID:2772545

  10. [Effect of pulsed CO2-laser irradiation on bone tissue].

    PubMed

    Kholodnov, S E

    1985-01-01

    Different dynamic effects on biological tissue caused by pulsed laser radiation are described. It is shown that the parameters of these effects which take place on the bone tissue affected by pulsed CO2-laser radiation are directly dependent on the parameters of these pulses and may be predicted for any concrete application. PMID:3931698

  11. Oral focal epithelial hyperplasia removed with CO2 laser.

    PubMed

    Luomanen, M

    1990-08-01

    A case of oral focal epithelial hyperplasia (FEH) treated with CO2 laser surgery is presented. Histological diagnosis is discussed. The association of human papillomavirus (HPV) type 32 with the lesions is demonstrated with DNA in situ hybridization technique. Laser surgery is suggested as a treatment of choice.

  12. A blackbody radiation-pumped CO2 laser experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, W. H.; Insuik, R. J.; Deyoung, R. J.

    1982-09-01

    Thermal radiation from a high temperature oven was used as an optical pump to achieve lasing from CO2 mixtures. Laser output as a function of blackbody temperature and gas conditions is described. This achievement represents the first blackbody cavity pumped laser and has potential for solar pumping.

  13. Clinical report on treatment of moles by CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Wei-Ren

    1998-11-01

    Moles usually occur on the face and neck. Some occasionally have hairs growing.Most of them are benign tumors. We had treated 1612 cases of 4718 moles by applying CO2 laser from laser year 1990-1996. Among them 4576 moles treated once were removed, accounting for 97 percent; 94 moles treated twice and 48 moles treated three times were removed, accounting for 2 percent and 1 percent respectively. After removal atrophic and neoplastic cicatrix occurred in 176 cases, for 3.7 percent and 39 cases, for 0.8 respectively. The patients with scar-inclined skin are not supposed to undertake the CO2 laser treatment.

  14. Predicting gas decomposition in an industrialized pulsed CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forbes, Andrew; Botha, Lourens R.

    2005-03-01

    A model is developed for the breakdown and regeneration of component gases in an industrialised TEA CO2 laser, both with and without internal catalysts, and is found to be in excellent agreement with experimental data. The laser was found to be stable at 02 levels in excess of 2%, whereas previously reported values suggest stable operation at values of less than 1%. This is thought to be related to the unusually high starting CO2 concentration of the gas mix, and the short time pulse of the laser ouput. Long term catalytic behaviour however shows a decay in the catalyst activity, corresponding to higher energy variation and lower average power.

  15. Fractional CO2 laser treatment for a skin graft.

    PubMed

    Stephan, Farid E; Habre, Maya B; Helou, Josiane F; Tohme, Roland G; Tomb, Roland R

    2016-01-01

    Skin grafts are widely used in reconstructive and plastic surgery, leaving an inevitable scar appearance on the body, affecting the quality of life of the patients. Fractional ablative lasers have become a leading procedure for the treatment of acne and burn scars. We report a case of a skin graft showing excellent improvement in overall appearance after three sessions of fractional CO2 laser. The undamaged tissue left between the microthermal treatment zones is responsible of collagen formation and reepithelialization. Remodeling and collagen formation are observed even 6 months after a fractional CO2 laser session. PMID:26052811

  16. [Removal of tattoos by CO2 laser and acetic acid].

    PubMed

    Di Quirico, R; Pallini, G; Di Domenicantonio, G; Astolfi, A; Bindi, F; Gianfelice, F

    1992-10-31

    The Authors pay attention to small tattoo removal by means of the utilization of the CO2 laser. Moreover, the Authors emphasize the drawback of double treatment which, usually, the patient suffers in tattoo removal by CO2 laser. Then, the pressure of the Authors is small sized tattoo removal in only one sitting achieving so an excellent esthetic result. Besides, the Authors, in this medical study, explains two methods for tattoo removal. In the study's results, the Authors describes the manner and the time of the two lesion recovery by the different manners of treatment. Finally, the Authors affirms the great consequence of the surgical CO2 laser, they don't fail, however, to affirm that the laser and acetic acid combination is an excellent procedure for small tattoo removal. PMID:1480288

  17. High temperature corrosion of welded ferritic stainless steel in flowing CO2 gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shariff, Nurul Atikah; Othman, Norinsan Kamil; Jalar, Azman; Hamid, Muhammad Azmi Abdul; Rahman, Irman Abdul

    2013-05-01

    The high temperature corrosion of welded structure of Ferritic Stainless Steel (FSS) in flowing Ar-75%CO2 gas at 700°C has been investigated. The welded structure of FSS joint using ER 308L filler metal by GTAW. The soundness of welded joint has been clarified by X-Ray CT Scan. Prior the high temperature exposure, the welded FSS compulsory passed the standard of ASME. The welded structure of FSS was heated in flowing CO2 gas for 50 h at 1 atm. The morphology and microstructure of oxide formation on welded FSS alloy was characterized by using SEM. The result shows that the different oxide morphologies were observed on parent and fusion metal. The formation of different oxide and element properties at the interface were revealed by X-Ray Diffraction. The differences of the physical condition and morphology microstructure of welded and parent metal were observed to respond to different exposure times. This phenomenon perhaps explained due to the differences of the minor alloying elements on both parent and filler metals. The high temperature corrosion behaviour was discussed in details in this paper regarding on the physical properties, morphology and the microstructure.

  18. Endoscopic removal of PMMA in hip revision surgery with a CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazy, John; Kollmer, Charles; Uppal, Gurvinder S.; Lane, Gregory J.; Sherk, Henry H.

    1991-05-01

    Purpose: to compare CO2 laser to mechanical means of PMMA removal in total hip arthroplasty revision surgery. Materials and methods: Forty-five patients requiring hip revision surgery were studied and compared to historical controls. Cement was removed from the femoral canal utilizing a 30 centimeter laparoscope. A CO2 laser waveguide was passed through the laparoscope into the femoral canal and a TV camera was placed over the eye piece to permit visualization of the depths of the femoral canal on a video monitor. The leg was placed in a horizontal position which avoided the pooling of blood or saline in the depths of the femur. Under direct vision the distal plug could be vaporized with a 40 centimeter CO2 laser waveguide. Power settings of 20 to 25 watts and a superpulsed mode were used. A 2 mm suction tube was welded to the outside of the laparoscope permitting aspiration of the products of vaporization. Results: Of 45 hip revisions there were no shaft perforation, fractures or undue loss of bone stock. There was no statistically different stay in hospital time, blood loss or operative time between the CO2 revision group compared to the non-laser revision group, in which cement was removed by mechanical methods. Conclusions: Mechanical methods used in removing bone cement using high speed burrs, reamers, gouges, and osteotomies is technically difficult and fraught with complications including shaft fracture, perforations, and unnecessary loss of bone stock. The authors' experience using the CO2 laser in hip revision surgery has permitted the removal of bone cement. Use of a modified laparoscope has allowed for precise, complete removal of bone cement deep within the femoral shaft without complication or additional operative time. The authors now advocate the use of a CO2 laser with modified laparoscope in hip revision surgery in which bone cement is to be removed from within the femoral shaft.

  19. The influence of shielding gas in hybrid LASER MIG welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tani, Giovanni; Campana, Giampaolo; Fortunato, Alessandro; Ascari, Alessandro

    2007-07-01

    Hybrid LASER-GMAW welding technique has been recently studied and developed in order to meet the needs of modern welding industries. The two sources involved in this process play, in fact, a complementary role: fast welding speed, deep bead penetration and high energy concentration can be achieved through the LASER beam, while gap bridgeability and cost-effectiveness are typical of the GMAW process. Particularly interesting, in this context, is the CO 2 LASER-MIG welding which differs from the Nd:YAG LASER-MIG technique for the high powers that can be exploited and for the good power/cost ratio of the process. This paper is a part of a wide study on the hybrid CO 2 LASER-MIG welding and investigates the influence of the shielding gas both on the stability of the process and on the dimensional characteristics of the weld bead. Two different parameters have been taken into consideration in order to develop this analysis: the shielding gas composition and the shielding gas flow. The experiment, performed on AISI 304 stainless steel plates, has been planned exploiting design of experiment techniques. The results have been analyzed through a statistical approach in order to determine the real influence of each parameter on the overall process.

  20. A blackbody-pumped CO2-N2 transfer laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deyoung, R. J.; Higdon, N. S.

    1984-08-01

    A compact blackbody-pumped CO2-N2 transfer laser was constructed and the significant operating parameters were investigated. Lasing was achieved at 10.6 microns by passing preheated N2 through a 1.5-mm-diameter nozzle to a laser cavity where the N2 was mixed with CO2 and He. An intrinsic efficiency of 0.7 percent was achieved for an oven temperature of 1473 K and N2 oven pressure of 440 torr. The optimum laser cavity consisted of a back mirror with maximum reflectivity and an output mirror with 97.5-percent reflectivity. The optimum gas mixture was 1CO2/.5He/6N2. The variation of laser output was measured as a function of oven temperature, nozzle diameter, N2 oven pressure, He and CO2 partial pressures, nozzle-to-oven separation, laser cell temperature, and output laser mirror reflectivity. With these parameters optimized, outputs approaching 1.4 watts were achieved.

  1. The effect of laser pulse tailored welding of Inconel 718

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccay, T. Dwayne; Mccay, Mary Helen; Sharp, C. Michael; Womack, Michael G.

    1990-01-01

    Pulse tailored laser welding has been applied to wrought, wrought grain grown, and cast Inconel 718 using a CO2 laser. Prior to welding, the material was characterized metallographically and the solid state transformation regions were identified using Differential Scanning Calorimetry and high temperature x-ray diffraction. Bead on plate welds (restrained and unrestrained) were then produced using a matrix of pulse duty cycles and pulsed average power. Subsequent characterization included heat affected zone width, penetration and underbead width, the presence of cracks, microfissures and porosity, fusion zone curvature, and precipitation and liquated region width. Pedigree welding on three selected processing conditions was shown by microstructural and dye penetrant analysis to produce no microfissures, a result which strongly indicates the viability of pulse tailored welding for microfissure free IN 718.

  2. Seventeen cases with subungual hematoma treated by CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Deming

    1996-09-01

    In order to find a therapy which doesn't have any influence upon the patients working and living and also makes no pain to the patients, CO2 laser is used to treat the 17 patients with subungual hematoma (SM). Satisfactory curative effect is obtained. Through the clinical observation on the treatment of the 17 cases with SM, the effective rate reached 98 percent. CO2 laser is sure to provide safe, simple operation and short curative course with no pain to the patients, it has a certain practical value for clinical application.

  3. Laser based spot weld characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonietz, Florian; Myrach, Philipp; Rethmeier, Michael; Suwala, Hubert; Ziegler, Mathias

    2016-02-01

    Spot welding is one of the most important joining technologies, especially in the automotive industry. Hitherto, the quality of spot welded joints is tested mainly by random destructive tests. A nondestructive testing technique offers the benefit of cost reduction of the testing procedure and optimization of the fabrication process, because every joint could be examined. This would lead to a reduced number of spot welded joints, as redundancies could be avoided. In the procedure described here, the spot welded joint between two zinc-coated steel sheets (HX340LAD+Z100MB or HC340LA+ZE 50/50) is heated optically on one side. Laser radiation and flash light are used as heat sources. The melted zone, the so called "weld nugget" provides the mechanical stability of the connection, but also constitutes a thermal bridge between the sheets. Due to the better thermal contact, the spot welded joint reveals a thermal behavior different from the surrounding material, where the heat transfer between the two sheets is much lower. The difference in the transient thermal behavior is measured with time resolved thermography. Hence, the size of the thermal contact between the two sheets is determined, which is directly correlated to the size of the weld nugget, indicating the quality of the spot weld. The method performs well in transmission with laser radiation and flash light. With laser radiation, it works even in reflection geometry, thus offering the possibility of testing with just one-sided accessibility. By using heating with collimated laser radiation, not only contact-free, but also remote testing is feasible. A further convenience compared to similar thermographic approaches is the applicability on bare steel sheets without any optical coating for emissivity correction. For this purpose, a proper way of emissivity correction was established.

  4. Effect of Defocused CO2 Laser on Equine Tissue Perfusion

    PubMed Central

    Bergh, A; Nyman, G; Lundeberg, T; Drevemo, S

    2006-01-01

    Treatment with defocused CO2 laser can have a therapeutic effect on equine injuries, but the mechanisms involved are unclear. A recent study has shown that laser causes an increase in equine superficial tissue temperature, which may result in an increase in blood perfusion and a stimulating effect on tissue regeneration. However, no studies have described the effects on equine tissue perfusion. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of defocused CO2 laser on blood perfusion and to correlate it with temperature in skin and underlying muscle in anaesthetized horses. Differences between clipped and unclipped haircoat were also assessed. Eight horses and two controls received CO2 laser treatment (91 J/cm2) in a randomised order, on a clipped and unclipped area of the hamstring muscles, respectively. The significant increase in clipped skin perfusion and temperature was on average 146.3 ± 33.4 perfusion units (334%) and 5.5 ± 1.5°C, respectively. The significant increase in perfusion and temperature in unclipped skin were 80.6 ± 20.4 perfusion units (264%) and 4.8 ± 1.4°C. No significant changes were seen in muscle perfusion or temperature. In conclusion, treatment with defocused CO2 laser causes a significant increase in skin perfusion, which is correlated to an increase in skin temperature. PMID:16722304

  5. Comparing Laser Welding Technologies with Friction Stir Welding for Production of Aluminum Tailor-Welded Blanks

    SciTech Connect

    Hovanski, Yuri; Carsley, John; Carlson, Blair; Hartfield-Wunsch, Susan; Pilli, Siva Prasad

    2014-01-15

    A comparison of welding techniques was performed to determine the most effective method for producing aluminum tailor-welded blanks for high volume automotive applications. Aluminum sheet was joined with an emphasis on post weld formability, surface quality and weld speed. Comparative results from several laser based welding techniques along with friction stir welding are presented. The results of this study demonstrate a quantitative comparison of weld methodologies in preparing tailor-welded aluminum stampings for high volume production in the automotive industry. Evaluation of nearly a dozen welding variations ultimately led to down selecting a single process based on post-weld quality and performance.

  6. Ultrasonic vibration aided laser welding of Al alloys: Improvement of laser-welding quality

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J.S.; Watanabe, T.; Yoshida, Y.

    1995-03-01

    Using a pulsed YAG laser, meltability of Al-Mg and Al-Mg-Si alloys were investigated by a single-pass irradiation. In order to improve the quality in laser welding, the effectiveness of the Ultrasonic Vibration Laser Welding (UVLW) method proposed in this paper was investigated experimentally. The proposed method was also compared with the traditional welding methods of Normal Laser Welding (NLW) and preHeating Laser Welding (HLW). The welding methods were evaluated from the geometry in the melt zone generated by a single pulse of the laser beam. It was suggested that ultrasonic vibration suppressed welding defects and improved the melt characteristics due to cavitation effects and dispersion of particles in the molten pool during laser welding. The influence on melt characteristics of the melt zone by preheating was also investigated. In these experiments, UVLW was the most useful laser welding method from the point of view of improving the laser welding quality of Al alloys.

  7. Development of an industrial CO2 laser for mask marking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Cheol Jung; Jung, Chin Mann; Kim, Jeong Mook; Kim, Kwang Suk; Kwon, Seong Ouk; Lee, Sang Mock; Kim, Duk Hyun

    1992-06-01

    We developed and commercialized an industrial pulsed TEA CO2 laser with high power and high repetition rate for printing characters and figures. Several commercial models have been investigated in design and performance. We improved its quality to the level of commercial TEA CO2 laser by an endurance test for each parts of laser system. The maximum pulse energy and repetition rate of our laser were above 5 J/pulse and 20 pps, respectively. Moreover, we designed the resolving power could be possible to 10 line/mm. Many optical parts were localized and lowered much in cost. Only few parts were imported and almost 90% in cost were localized. Also, to accelerate the commercialization by the joint company, the training and transfer of technology were pursued in the joint participation in design and assembly by company researchers from the early stage.

  8. Design Of High Power CO2 TEA Lasers And Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Von Bergmann, H. M.

    2008-09-01

    There are a number of key technologies involved in the successful design and construction of high power, Carbon Dioxide TEA lasers (Transverse Excitation Atmospheric). These include uniform field electrodes, excitation circuit design including high voltage switching, discharge preionisation and for high repetition, high power applications fast transverse gas flow and the management of acoustic waves. This paper provides a summary of the design aspects of high repetition rate, high average power CO2 TEA lasers. Experimental data measured on high power CO2 TEA laser systems delivering average outputs of several kW and kHz repetition rates will be reported showing the detrimental effect of acoustic waves on laser performance and the improvement that can be achieved through effective acoustic damping measures.

  9. Effects of a superpulsed CO2 laser on human teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murgo, Dirian O. A.; Cerruti, Blanche; Redigolo, Marcela L.; Chavantes, Maria C.

    2001-10-01

    The effects of laser exposure on mineralized tissues like enamel have been explored for years as a technique to remove caries and for dental hard-tissue preparation. However the efficiency of this technique has been questioned. In this work, six freshly-extracted third molars were irradiated by a superpulse of CO2 laser, generally used in Transmyocardio Revascularization, and submitted to Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analyzes. The cavities caused by laser irradiation on the dental tissues were analyzed considering its shape and depth. The CO2 superpulse presented a high efficiency in the removal of dental mass and no sign of carbonized tissue was found on the ablated surface. All cavities generated by laser irradiation presented a conic shape with average depth depending on energy density applied.

  10. Cold welded laser mirror assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Chaffee, E.G.

    1989-02-07

    A gas laser apparatus is described comprising: (a) a gas laser tube having a bore extending between cathode and anode ends; (b) the laser tube terminating at each end with a bellows assembly operative to extend the length of the tube bore; (c) each bellows assembly comprising: (i) an adjustably positionable metal bellows secured to a selected end of the tube; (ii) a tubular pedestal secured at one end to the bellows to form an extension thereof and at the opposite end providing a mirror mount surface; (iii) a mirror secured to the surface; (iv) a cold weld material located between the mirror and mirror mount surface; and (v) retaining means secured to the pedestal encasing the outer portion of the mirror and operative to apply pressure to the cold weld material to establish a cold weld seal between the mirror and mirror mount surface to retain the mirror on and prevent shifting of the mirror with respect to the mirror mount surface.

  11. Laser Assisted Plasma Arc Welding

    SciTech Connect

    FUERSCHBACH,PHILLIP W.

    1999-10-05

    Experiments have been performed using a coaxial end-effecter to combine a focused laser beam and a plasma arc. The device employs a hollow tungsten electrode, a focusing lens, and conventional plasma arc torch nozzles to co-locate the focused beam and arc on the workpiece. Plasma arc nozzles were selected to protect the electrode from laser generated metal vapor. The project goal is to develop an improved fusion welding process that exhibits both absorption robustness and deep penetration for small scale (< 1.5 mm thickness) applications. On aluminum alloys 6061 and 6111, the hybrid process has been shown to eliminate hot cracking in the fusion zone. Fusion zone dimensions for both stainless steel and aluminum were found to be wider than characteristic laser welds, and deeper than characteristic plasma arc welds.

  12. Low Voltage Gas Transport TE CO(2) Laser.

    PubMed

    Seguin, H J; Sedgwick, G

    1972-04-01

    The constructional and operational aspects of a low voltage transversely excited gas transport CO(2) laser are presented. This compact device incorporates a recirculating wind tunnel type geometry and possesses features of the gas dynamic, gas transport, and TEA lasers. The structure with an active length of 36 cm produced a cw power of approximately 200 W at an over-all system efficiency of 5% using a discharge potential of 1200 V.

  13. Laser Sounder Technique for Remotely Measuring Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abshire, J. B.; Collatz, G. J.; Sun, X.; Riris, H.; Andrews, A. E.; Krainak, M.

    2001-12-01

    We describe progress in developing a lidar technique for the remote measurement of the tropospheric CO2 concentrations. Our goal is to demonstrate a technique and technology that will permit measurements of the CO2 column abundance in the lower troposphere from aircraft at the few ppm level, with a capability of scaling to permit global CO2 measurements from orbit. Accurate remote sensing measurements of CO2 mixing ratio from aircraft and space appear difficult. Potential error sources include possible interferences from other trace gas species, the effects of clouds and aerosols in the path, and variability in dry air density caused by pressure or topographic changes. Some potential instrumental errors include frequency drifts in the transmitter and sensitivity drifts in the receiver. High signal-to-noise ratios are needed for estimates at the few ppm level. We are developing a laser sounder approach as a candidate for these measurements. It uses 3 laser transmitters to permit simultaneous measurement of CO2 and O2 extinction, and aerosol backscatter at 1064 nm in the same atmospheric path. It directs the co-aligned laser beams from the lidar toward nadir, and measures the energy of the laser backscatter from land and water surfaces. During each measurement period, the two narrow linewidth lasers are rapidly tuned on and off the selected CO2 and O2 absorption lines. The receiver records and averages the energies of the laser echoes. The column extinction and column densities of both CO2 and O2 are estimated via the differential absorption lidar technique. For the on-line wavelength, the side of the gas absorption line is used, which weights its measurements to 0-4 km in the troposphere. Simultaneous measurements of O2 column abundance are made using an identical approach using an O2 line near 770 nm. Atmospheric baskscatter profiles are measured with the 1064 nm channel, which permits identifying and excluding measurements containing clouds or aerosols backscatter

  14. A Precision Variable, Double Prism Attenuator for CO(2) Lasers.

    PubMed

    Oseki, T; Saito, S

    1971-01-01

    A precision, double prism attenuator for CO(2) lasers, calibrated by its gap capacitance, was constructed to evaluate its possible use as a standard for attenuation measurements. It was found that the accuracy was about 0.1 dB with a dynamic range of about 40 dB.

  15. CO2 laser photoacoustic detection of hydrazine based rocket fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loper, G. L.; Calloway, A. R.; Stamps, M. A.; Gelbwachs, J. A.

    1982-03-01

    This report describes recent work performed at The Aerospace Corporation to determine the capability of the CO2 laser photoacoustic technique to detect the rocket fuels hydrazine, monomethylhydrazine (MMH), and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH) at low parts-per-billion (ppb) levels in the ambient air in real time. These compounds are highly toxic and recent studies indicate that they may also be carcinogens. Estimates made from CO2 laser absorption cross section data determined for the hydrazines in a previous Aerospace study indicate that the hydrazines should be detectable by the CO2 laser photoacoustic technique at the desired low ppb levels even in the presence of the ambient levels of pollutants and water vapor found in urban atmospheres. To assess the validity of these hydrazine-fuel detection estimates by the CO2 laser photoacoustic technique, various laboratory photoacoustic detection systems were assembled and their minimum detectable absorptivity values were determined during the present study. The photoacoustic detection system that provided the best performance in this study possessed optically tandem sample and reference cells connected to a differential capacitance manometer. This system was designed to minimize the effects of spurious absorption at the photoacoustic cell windows.

  16. [Hardening of dental tissue by CO2 laser radiation].

    PubMed

    Aboites, V; Díaz, O; Cuevas, F

    1989-03-01

    A study was conducted to test the effects of CO2 laser irradiation on dental tissue. It was found that hardening of the dental tissue occurs. This was observed qualitatively by direct observation and by X-ray radiography. The hardening produced was also quantitatively measured using a hardness-meter on Rockwell scale.

  17. Computer modeling of pulsed CO2 lasers for lidar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiers, Gary D.

    1993-01-01

    The object of this effort is to develop code to enable the accurate prediction of the performance of pulsed transversely excited (TE) CO2 lasers prior to their construction. This is of particular benefit to the NASA Laser Atmospheric Wind Sounder (LAWS) project. A benefit of the completed code is that although developed specifically for the pulsed CO2 laser much of the code can be modified to model other laser systems of interest to the lidar community. A Boltzmann equation solver has been developed which enables the electron excitation rates for the vibrational levels of CO2 and N2, together with the electron ionization and attachment coefficients to be determined for any CO2 laser gas mixture consisting of a combination of CO2, N2, CO, He and CO. The validity of the model has been verified by comparison with published material. The results from the Boltzmann equation solver have been used as input to the laser kinetics code which is currently under development. A numerical code to model the laser induced medium perturbation (LIMP) arising from the relaxation of the lower laser level has been developed and used to determine the effect of LIMP on the frequency spectrum of the LAWS laser output pulse. The enclosed figures show representative results for a laser operating at 0.5 atm. with a discharge cross-section of 4.5 cm to produce a 20 J pulse with aFWHM of 3.1 microns. The first four plots show the temporal evolution of the laser pulse power, energy evolution, LIMP frequency chirp and electric field magnitude. The electric field magnitude is taken by beating the calculated complex electric field and beating it with a local oscillator signal. The remaining two figures show the power spectrum and energy distribution in the pulse as a function of the varying pulse frequency. The LIMP theory has been compared with experimental data from the NOAA Windvan Lidar and has been found to be in good agreement.

  18. Calibrating Laser Gas Measurements by Use of Natural CO2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Webster, Chris

    2003-01-01

    An improved method of calibration has been devised for instruments that utilize tunable lasers to measure the absorption spectra of atmospheric gases in order to determine the relative abundances of the gases. In this method, CO2 in the atmosphere is used as a natural calibration standard. Unlike in one prior calibration method, it is not necessary to perform calibration measurements in advance of use of the instrument and to risk deterioration of accuracy with time during use. Unlike in another prior calibration method, it is not necessary to include a calibration gas standard (and the attendant additional hardware) in the instrument and to interrupt the acquisition of atmospheric data to perform calibration measurements. In the operation of an instrument of this type, the beam from a tunable diode laser or a tunable quantum-cascade laser is directed along a path through the atmosphere, the laser is made to scan in wavelength over an infrared spectral region that contains one or two absorption spectral lines of a gas of interest, and the transmission (and, thereby, the absorption) of the beam is measured. The concentration of the gas of interest can then be calculated from the observed depth of the absorption line(s), given the temperature, pressure, and path length. CO2 is nearly ideal as a natural calibration gas for the following reasons: CO2 has numerous rotation/vibration infrared spectral lines, many of which are near absorption lines of other gases. The concentration of CO2 relative to the concentrations of the major constituents of the atmosphere is well known and varies slowly and by a small enough amount to be considered constant for calibration in the present context. Hence, absorption-spectral measurements of the concentrations of gases of interest can be normalized to the concentrations of CO2. Because at least one CO2 calibration line is present in every spectral scan of the laser during absorption measurements, the atmospheric CO2 serves

  19. Use of CO2 laser flexible waveguides during laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzafame, Raymond J.

    1992-06-01

    Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has revolutionized the management of symptomatic cholelithiasis and cholecystitis. Although electrosurgery devices are used by a majority of surgeons, laser technology is a valued addition to the armamentarium of the skilled laser laparoscopist. A variety of fiberoptic capable wavelengths have been applied successfully during this procedure. Use of the CO2 laser for this purpose has lagged due to difficulties encountered with free-beam and rigid waveguide dissections via the laparoscope. Recent developments in flexible waveguide technology have the potential to expand the role of the CO2 laser for laparoscopic cholecystectomy and other procedures. Twelve laparoscopic cholecystectomies were performed using Luxar (Bothell, WA) flexible microwaveguides of various configurations. In each case, dissection of the gallbladder from the gallbladder bed was accomplished with acceptable speed and hemostasis. There were no complications. Shortcomings include coupling and positioning with an articulated arm and occasional clogging of some waveguide tips with debris. Modifications of this technology are suggested. Flexible waveguides make the CO2 laser a practical alternative for surgical laparoscopy.

  20. New aspects of CO2 laser ablation in skin photosurgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedelcu, Ioan; Nedelcu, Dana M.; Dumitras, Dan C.; Dutu, Constantin A.

    1994-12-01

    This paper presents the latest developments in CO2, ancillary equipment, and advanced surgical techniques used in treating a variety of different dermatologic disorders. To improve our knowledge on the laser treatment of several cutaneous lesions, we have performed a study on 871 cases, of which 690 are benign skin tumors and 181 are malignant skin tumors. Based on this large number of cases, information on post-operative course, recovery time, the quality of scars and aesthetic results, recurrences and hemostasis of blood vessels is given. This study presents indications for performing laser surgery and describes how to avoid complications and limit the potential risks associated with lasers.

  1. The use of laser CO2 in salivary gland diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciolfi, C.; Rocchetti, F.; Fioravanti, M.; Tenore, G.; Palaia, G.; Romeo, U.

    2016-03-01

    Salivary gland diseases can include reactive lesions, obstructive lesions, and benign tumors. All these clinical entities are slow growing. Salivary glands reactive lesions, such as mucoceles, can result from extravasation of saliva into the surrounding soft tissue or from retention of saliva within the duct. Sialolithiasis, one of the most common obstructive lesions, is generally due to calculi, which are attributed to retention of saliva. Monomorphic adenoma is a salivary gland benign tumor, which is exclusively resulted from proliferation of epithelial cells, with no alterations interesting the connective tissue. The elective therapy of these lesions is surgical excision because sometimes they can be accompained by difficulties during chewing and phonation and can interfere with prosthesis's stability. The aim of the study is to evaluate the efficacy of CO2 laser in the treatment of patients with salivary gland diseases. Three different cases - a mucocele, a scialolithiasis and a monomorphic adenoma - were treated with CO2 laser excision (CW and 4W), under local anesthesia. Two different techniques were used: circumferential incision for the adenoma, and mucosa preservation technique for mucocele and sialolithiasis. In each case final haemostasis was obtained by thermocoagulation, but suture was applied to guarantee good healing by sewing up the flaps. The patients were checked after twenty days and the healing was good. The carbon dioxide laser (CO2 laser) was one of the earliest gas laser to be developed, and is still the highest-power continuous wave laser that is currently available. In dentistry the CO2 laser produces a beam of infrared light with the principal wavelength bands centering around 9.4 and 10.6 micrometers. Laser excision can be very useful in oral surgery. In the cases presented CO2 laser offered, differently from traditional surgery, simplified surgical technique, shorter duration of operation, minimal postoperative pain, minimal scarring

  2. TEA CO2 laser machining of CFRP composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, A.; Li, L.; Mativenga, P.; Whitehead, D.

    2016-05-01

    Carbon fibre-reinforced polymer (CFRP) composites have found wide applications in the aerospace, marine, sports and automotive industries owing to their lightweight and acceptable mechanical properties compared to the commonly used metallic materials. Machining of CFRP composites using lasers can be challenging due to inhomogeneity in the material properties and structures, which can lead to thermal damages during laser processing. In the previous studies, Nd:YAG, diode-pumped solid-state, CO2 (continuous wave), disc and fibre lasers were used in cutting CFRP composites and the control of damages such as the size of heat-affected zones (HAZs) remains a challenge. In this paper, a short-pulsed (8 μs) transversely excited atmospheric pressure CO2 laser was used, for the first time, to machine CFRP composites. The laser has high peak powers (up to 250 kW) and excellent absorption by both the carbon fibre and the epoxy binder. Design of experiment and statistical modelling, based on response surface methodology, was used to understand the interactions between the process parameters such as laser fluence, repetition rate and cutting speed and their effects on the cut quality characteristics including size of HAZ, machining depth and material removal rate (MRR). Based on this study, process parameter optimization was carried out to minimize the HAZ and maximize the MRR. A discussion is given on the potential applications and comparisons to other lasers in machining CFRP.

  3. High-repetition rate industrial TEA CO2 laser with average output power of 1.5 kW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Chongyi; Liu, Shiming; Zhou, Jinwen; Qi, Jilan; Yang, Xiaola; Wu, Jin; Tan, Rongqing; Wang, Lichun; Mei, Qichu

    1995-03-01

    High power high repetition rate TEA CO2 laser has potential importance in material processing such as shock hardening, glazing, drilling, welding, and cutting for high damage threshold materials, as well as in chemical reaction and isotope separation. This paper describes a transverse-flow closed-cycle UV-preionized TEA CO2 laser with peak pulse power of 20 MW, maximum average power of 1.5 KW at repetition rate of 300 HZ. The laser has compact constructure of gas flow circulation system using tangential fans. With addition of small amounts of H2 and CO to the normal CO2-N2-He gas mixture, one filling sealed operating lifetime is up to millions of pulses. A novel spark gap switch has been developed for very high repetition rate laser discharge in the condition of high pulse power.

  4. Removal of dogs' gingival pigmentation with CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Figueiredo, Jose A. P.; Chavantes, Maria C.; Gioso, Marco A.; Pesce, Hildeberto F.; Jatene, Adib D.

    1995-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the ability of CO2 laser to remove physiologic pigmentation of gingiva. Dogs were chosen for this study because of their intense black pigmentation on the gingiva, similar to what can be found in human negroes and other dark- skinned races. Three specimens were irradiated at the left side of the buccal aspect of the gingiva, while for comparison the right side was used as a control. CO2 laser in a continuous mode applying 3 watt power was used (Xanar-20, USA). The portion to be irradiated was continuously irrigated with saline solution, to prevent tissue damage from the excessive heat generated. The handpiece device irradiated the target easily and fast, with no bleeding. All the pigmentation could be removed from the portion exposed to the laser beam. A 45th day follow up showed very little repigmentation just in one of the specimens. It could be concluded that CO2 laser irradiation can be an alternative to remove pigmentation of the gingiva for cosmetic purposes. The risk of repigmentation exists, so the patients should be aware of this inconvenience, sometimes demanding further irradiation.

  5. Beam optimization of a TEA-CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Tobias; Ristau, Detlev; Wallas, Gordon; Dumitru, Gabriel; Sporea, Dan G.; Timus, Clementina A.

    1998-07-01

    The paper describes the methods used to adapt an industrial TEA- CO2 laser to the requirements of the ISO standard 11 254-2 for a laser induced damage threshold experimental facility. The goals were to improve the pulse energy stability and the laser beam spatial profile and the methods were: (1) finding the best discharge voltage; (2) adapting the laser cavity, (3) using suitable apertures. There is also presented the experimental set- up for beam characterization, which included a laser beam profiler (a line of 60 pyroelectric detectors), an energy-meter to monitor the pulse energies and KCl optical components for beam splitting and beam guiding. Every beam distribution was regarded as a linear combination of normalized Gauss-Hermite functions and the fitting algorithm allows the calculation of the coefficients of this combination.

  6. Hybrid laser welding techniques for enhanced welding efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Beyer, E.; Poprawe, R.; Brenner, B.

    1996-12-31

    One of the remarkable characteristics of the laser beam welding process is its thin deep welding seam. This thin seam is produced as a result of the high welding speed and the low heat input, leading to a low distortion. However, the overall electrical efficiency of a CO{sub 2}-laser is in the range of 5-7% and the efficiency of a Nd:YAG-laser is only approximately 2-3%. There are several applications in which the thin laser seam and the high welding speed, in particular, have technical advantages, making the whole process economical. However, there are also a lot of possible applications, for which laser welding is too expensive at the moment or, in which the thin seam leads to a lot of unsolved metallurgical problems. To avoid these problems, a welding technique is presently being developed at the ILT and IWS which combines laser keyhole welding with Tungsten inert gas and metal inert gas welding and introduces an inductor for a preheating and a controlled heat flow. The paper is divided into two sections. The first section describes recent investigations carried out by the ILT into the laser arc combination and the second section describes the combination of the laser and induction techniques, presenting also an application presently being used in production in the car industry. This work has been completed by the Fraunhofer-Institut fur Werkstoffphysik und Schichttechnologie IWS in Dresden.

  7. Development of technique for laser welding of biological tissues using laser welding device and nanocomposite solder.

    PubMed

    Gerasimenko, A; Ichcitidze, L; Podgaetsky, V; Ryabkin, D; Pyankov, E; Saveliev, M; Selishchev, S

    2015-08-01

    The laser device for welding of biological tissues has been developed involving quality control and temperature stabilization of weld seam. Laser nanocomposite solder applied onto a wound to be weld has been used. Physicochemical properties of the nanocomposite solder have been elucidated. The nature of the tissue-organizing nanoscaffold has been analyzed at the site of biotissue welding. PMID:26738200

  8. Electromagnetically driven closed-circle-type CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ono, S.; Teii, S.

    1983-11-01

    The electromagnetic induction produced by either a permanent magnet or an electromagnet is used, in place of a mechanical blower, to drive the gas mixtures in a closed cycle CO2 laser tube. A gas flow velocity of up to 0.8 m/sec has been obtained through the application of a magnetic field of 1.67 kG externally to a discharge current of 40 mA, at a steady gas pressure of 10 Torr. For the case of a gas mixture ratio CO2:N2:He of 2:1:7, a laser output is obtained which is larger than that for the stationary gas case by a factor of 3, for up to 1 hr of continuous operation.

  9. Water vapor-nitrogen absorption at CO2 laser frequencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, J. C.; Thomas, M. E.; Nordstrom, R. J.; Damon, E. K.; Long, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    The paper reports the results of a series of pressure-broadened water vapor absorption measurements at 27 CO2 laser frequencies between 935 and 1082 kaysers. Both multiple traversal cell and optoacoustic (spectrophone) techniques were utilized together with an electronically stabilized CW CO2 laser. Comparison of the results obtained by these two methods shows remarkable agreement, indicating a precision which has not been previously achieved in pressure-broadened studies of water vapor. The data of 10.59 microns substantiate the existence of the large (greater than 200) self-broadening coefficients determined in an earlier study by McCoy. In this work, the case of water vapor in N2 at a total pressure of 1 atm has been treated.

  10. Laser beam welding of any metal.

    SciTech Connect

    Leong, K. H.

    1998-10-01

    The effect of a metal's thermophysical properties on its weldability are examined. The thermal conductivity, melting point, absorptivity and thermal diffusivity of the metal and the laser beam focused diameter and welding speed influence the minimum beam irradiance required for melting and welding. Beam diameter, surface tension and viscosity of the molten metal affect weld pool stability and weld quality. Lower surface tension and viscosity increases weld pool instability. With larger beam diameters causing wider welds, dropout also increases. Effects of focused beam diameter and joint fitup on weldability are also examined. Small beam diameters are sensitive to beam coupling problems in relation to fitup precision in addition to beam alignment to the seam. Welding parameters for mitigating weld pool instability and increasing weld quality are derived from the above considerations. Guidelines are presented for the tailoring of welding parameters to achieve good welds. Weldability problems can also be anticipated from the properties of a metal.

  11. Heating of optical materials by pulsed CO2 laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, E. I.; Sakyan, A. S.; Starchenko, Aleksey N.; Goryachkin, Dmitri A.

    1998-12-01

    The results are presented on experimental investigations of action onto an optical glass BK-7 and some other materials of a CO2 laser radiation with the pulse duration of 20 - 70 microsecond(s) and the energy density of 0.1 - 3 J/cm2. The dynamics of a thermal response, temperature of heating and emissivity of irradiated glass samples are under consideration. The results obtained can be used in imaging techniques for objects selection.

  12. Applications Of Plastic Hollow Fibers In CO2 Laser Surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Isaac; Giller, Shamai; Dror, Jacob; Gannot, Israel; Croitoru, Nathan I.

    1989-06-01

    Plastic hollow fibers for the transmission of CO2 laser energy in curved path were produced by plating the inner face of plastic tubes with a metal film and a dielectric film. These fibers could transmit high power (25 watts) with low losses even through bendings. Bleeding ulcers in dogs' stomachs were successfully treated with the fibers which were inserted into the stomach through the oesophagus.

  13. CO2 laser irradiation on vertical root fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Silva, Luciana X.; Aun, Carlos E.; de Campos Ferraz, Jussara

    1997-05-01

    Vertical root fracture has been requested tooth extraction or root hemisection. There is no conservative treatment. The purpose of this paper was to analyze the CO2 laser effects on root fracture, associated with other materials. Forty two extracted human canines divided into 6 groups have their root vertically fractured. In groups A and B the CO2 laser was used with power of 5 W and 7 W respectively and the fracture line was covered with glass ionomer cement. In groups C and D the laser was used with 5 and 7 W and fracture line was covered with a dual composite. Groups E and F were controls, treated with glass ionomer cement and FLC dual composite. The teeth were placed in 5 percent methylene blue dye for 48 hs. The dye penetration was lowest in groups with glass ionomer cement and laser (A and B), at about (1.06mm). The difference between groups was statistically significant at 1 percent. All experimental groups showed dye penetration. The laser seemed to favor the sealing of the fracture line.

  14. CO2 laser on apical seal of retrofilled teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aun, Carlos E.; Gavini, Giulio; Clasen, Naya F.; Silva Kfouri, Luciana

    1997-05-01

    The CO2 laser has been suggested for occlusion of dentinal tubuli and sterilization of the beveled root surfaces, avoiding degrees of irritants from the root canal system into periapical tissues. This study has evaluated marginal leakage in 40 human single rooted teeth divided into 4 groups of 8 teeth which received retrofillings, and 2 control groups of 4 teeth each. Group A: Super EBA; group B: Super EBA and CO2 laser irradiation; group C: Glass Ionomer Cement; group D: Glass ionomer Cement and laser; group E: positive control; group F: negative control. In groups B and D the power set was 2 watts, 20 msec, with a CT3105 ceramic point. Teeth were placed in 5 percent methylene blue dye for 24 hs and the dye penetration was lower in B. The higher penetration was seen in C. Analysis of variance found statistical difference between groups. In this study the laser irradiation was able to change the amount of dye penetration. It can be assumed that Super EBA and Glass Ionomer Cement have their sealing abilities improved by laser irradiation.

  15. Parametric study of intersatellite CO2 laser data links

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonek, E.; Lutz, H.

    The performance capability of current CO2 laser communication tecnology for intersatellite data links is evaluated. The link parameters, such as the distance, bit rate, ac signal-to-noise ratio, are related to the masses and the prime power requirements of satellite laser terminals using variables like the telescope (antenna) aperture diameter and the transmitted laser power. It is found that high data rates could be readily transmitted with telescopes of the order of only 10 cm in diameter, with the complte laser data terminals weighing between 25 kg and 70 kg and consuming prime power in the 90-300 W range. In addition, these terminals would require only about 0.1 cu m or less of volume and a very low movable antenna mass, which would alleviate constraints on satellite attitude control units in remote sensing missions.

  16. CO2 laser light absorption characteristics of metal powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haag, M.; Hügel, H.; Albright, C. E.; Ramasamy, S.

    1996-04-01

    Absorption characteristics of metal powders for 10.6 μm CO2 laser radiation were examined. Using a calorimetric method, absorptance measurements were performed on four different powder materials, including aluminum, copper, iron, and titanium aluminide. The experimental results showed that laser absorptance depends on powder porosity and material. The measured absorptance values at low laser intensities ranged between 28% and 43%. The titanium aluminide powders showed the highest absorptance values, and aluminum powders the lowest. As laser intensity was increased, the copper and iron powders showed strong signs of oxidation when irradiated in air, resulting in an increase in absorptance. Neither oxidation nor increased absorptance were observed when helium or argon were used as shielding gas.

  17. Passively cooled glass CO2 laser tubes for severe environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, H. E.; Johnson, E. H.

    1974-01-01

    The objective of this effort was to design a glass CO2 laser tube that could survive the Titan 3 C launch environment and at the same time provide adequate thermal conductivity to maintain the wall of the laser tube below approximately equal to 50 C for efficient lasing. The approach that was taken to satisfy these requirements was to pot the tube in an aluminum heat sink using a space qualified polyurethane potting material. Two configurations of the laser tube successfully passed the complete Titan 3 C qualification level sine and random vibration specification and satisfied the thermal requirements. Fabrication details and test results are presented that indicate this could be a practical solution for laser tubes used in a severe environment and where flowing coolants are impractical or undesirable.

  18. Application research of CO2 laser cutting natural stone plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Lixiu; Song, Jijiang

    2009-08-01

    Now, the processing of natural stone plates is the high performance sawing machine primarily,many researchers deeply studied the processing characters in the sawing process and the strength characters during the processing. In order to realize the profiled-processing and pattern- carving of the natural stone, It lays a solid foundation for the laser cutting and the pattern-carving technology of natural stone plate. The working principle, type and characteristics of laser cutting are briefly described. The paper selects 6 kinds stone plates of natural taken as experimental sample,the experimental sample was China Shanxi Black, Old Spain Golden Yellow, New Spain Golden Yellow, Jazz White, Maple Leaf Red, Cream White respectively. Use high power CO2 laser cutting system,the stone plates cutting experiment of 6 kinds different hardness, the best working speed are obtained,The experimental results indicate that: The laser cutting speed has no correlation with the ingredient content of stone plate.

  19. Compressive failure in sapphire under CO2 laser heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, P. A.; Gallagher, J.; Gentilman, R. L.

    1980-07-01

    Irreversible changes were observed in sapphire crystals subjected to surface heating by CO2 laser irradiation at levels above 300 watts/square centimeter. The changes are interpreted as due to plastic flow under compressive stress at temperatures above 900 C. The recognition of possible compressive failures in refractory oxides is of importance in defining laser tolerance levels in high power optics, in the design of laser heating experiments to assess the thermal shock resistance of materials, and possibly in the field of laser assisted machining of ceramics. A detailed thermomechanical analysis was carried out to predict the temperature and stress conditions throughout disk samples as a function of time, heat flux level and flux distribution. Compressive stresses in excess of 200,000 psi were generated. Compressive failure is likely to precede tensile fracture in most experiments where partially heated disks are used.

  20. CO2 laser drives extreme ultraviolet nano-lithography — second life of mature laser technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowak, K. M.; Ohta, T.; Suganuma, T.; Fujimoto, J.; Mizoguchi, H.; Sumitani, A.; Endo, A.

    2013-12-01

    It was shown both theoretically and experimentally that nanosecond order laser pulses at 10.6 micron wavelength were superior for driving the Sn plasma extreme ultraviolet (EUV) source for nano-lithography for the reasons of higher conversion efficiency, lower production of debris and higher average power levels obtainable in CO2 media without serious problems of beam distortions and nonlinear effects occurring in competing solid-state lasers at high intensities. The renewed interest in such pulse format, wavelength, repetition rates in excess of 50 kHz and average power levels in excess of 18 kiloWatt has sparked new opportunities for a matured multi-kiloWatt CO2 laser technology. The power demand of EUV source could be only satisfied by a Master-Oscillator-Power-Amplifier system configuration, leading to a development of a new type of hybrid pulsed CO2 laser employing a whole spectrum of CO2 technology, such as fast flow systems and diffusion-cooled planar waveguide lasers, and relatively recent quantum cascade lasers. In this paper we review briefly the history of relevant pulsed CO2 laser technology and the requirements for multi-kiloWatt CO2 laser, intended for the laser-produced plasma EUV source, and present our recent advances, such as novel solid-state seeded master oscillator and efficient multi-pass amplifiers built on planar waveguide CO2 lasers.

  1. Evolution of a Laser Hybrid Welding Map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplan, Alexander F. H.; Frostevarg, Jan; Ilar, Torbjörn; Bang, Hee-Seon; Bang, Han-Sur

    Laser arc hybrid welding combines the advantages but also the complex physical mechanisms of gas metal arc welding and laser keyhole welding. From manifold mainly experimental but also theoretical research results a map with versatile functions was initiated for the first time. The purpose is to survey the overall context and to facilitate navigation to the various phenomena that are shown through case studies accompanied by theoretical explanations and guidelines for optimization. Though not complete, the map enables systematic and graphical navigation to relevant publications. Based on a fundamental structure of the map, which was decided early, it is inherently extendable in the future by adding existing and new knowledge, also from other research groups, enabling evolution. The fundament of the map structure comprises gouge thickness, joint type and metal grade, in coherence with product and weld designers' starting points. The next hierarchy level of the map offers options in the joint type as well as in hybrid welding techniques. The latter contains techniques like double-sided welding, pulse shaping management of the arc or laser, CMT arcs, tandem arcs, or remelting of undercuts. In addition to laser-arc hybrid welding, other hybrid laser techniques like multilayer hot-wire laser welding of narrow gaps or hybrid laser friction stir welding can be taken into account. At the other end of the hierarchy, the map offers via a database-like archive electronic navigation to research results like weld macrographs, high speed imaging or numerical simulation results of the welding process.

  2. Low-fluence CO2 laser irradiation decreases enamel solubility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteves-Oliveira, M.; Apel, C.; Gutknecht, N.; Velloso, W. F.; Cotrim, M. E. B.; Eduardo, C. P.; Zezell, D. M.

    2008-04-01

    This study investigated whether subablative-pulsed CO2 laser (10.6 μm) irradiation, using fluences lower than 1 J/cm2, was capable of reducing enamel acid solubility. Fifty-one samples of bovine dental enamel were divided into three groups: control group, which was not irradiated (CG); group laser A (LA) irradiated with 0.3 J/cm2; and group laser B (LB) irradiated with 0.7 J/cm2. After irradiation, the samples were subjected to demineralization in an acetate buffer solution and were then analyzed by SEM. A finite-element model was used to calculate the temperature increase. The calcium and phosphorous content in the demineralization solution were measured with an ICP-OES. ANOVA and the t-test pairwise comparison ( p < 0.016) revealed that LB showed significantly lower mean Ca and P content values in the demineralization solution than other groups. A reduction in the enamel solubility can be obtained with pulsed CO2 laser irradiation (0.7 J/cm2, 135 mJ/pulse, 74 Hz, 100 μs) without any surface photomodification and a less than 2°C temperature increase at a 3-mm depth from the surface.

  3. Effect of CO2 laser amputation on hydra regeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Petrocellis, L.; Finizio, Andrea; Minei, R.; Mormile, Pasquale; Pierattini, Giovanni

    1994-08-01

    In order to investigate laser effects on biological specimens, Hydra, a coelenterate with high regeneration rate, was observed for ten days during regeneration after CO2 laser cutting. Control animals were cut with a razor blade immediately below the tentacle whorl under a dissecting microscope while they were in small glass petri dishes. They regenerated tentacles completely 8 to 10 days from the cutting. Hydra were cut in the same position with CO2 laser. As a first step, we studied the effect of the laser beam on the normal behaviour of hydra. For the cutting, we used four different power intensities: 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 W. At different power intensities the animals regenerated the tentacles. However in about 20% of the animals the amputation performed with 1 and 1.5 W originated a quicker regeneration of tentacles. No effect was observed on asexual reproduction of the polyps and therefore also no change of the bud index.

  4. Use of CO2 laser in lingual and labial frenectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorotti, Renata C.; Bellini, Bruno S.; Cassitas, Nilceu P.; Baldin, Diva H. Z.; Nicola, Ester M. D.

    2000-03-01

    Ankiloglossia or frenum lingual alteration leads to important tongue dysfunction, which, besides discomfort and pain during function, is generally responsible for the difficulty to express specific phonemes. In other cases, a heavy muscular abnormal attachment of labial frenum can promote clinical changes. In such case, an eventual orthodontic therapy is indicated and aesthetic alteration is observed. In both cases, surgical removal is indicated. The surgery, for prevention purposes, must be done as soon as possible, but considering that the majority of patients are young (5 - 14 years old), difficulties during surgery are expected to occur. Correction of speech or orthodontic dysfunction in advanced ages is much more complex and difficult than in childhood. In the present work we demonstrate that the use of CO2 lasers in these cases are advantageous and simple. The laser energy causes the tissue of the frenum to open in the classic shape with no bleeding and no need for suture, reducing the risk of cross- contamination and of postoperative infection. Scarring and other complications are also minimized. A CO2 laser (continuous, 8 W, 10.6 micrometers) was used assisted with local anesthesia. The major advantage of laser is the possibility of its application in early ages, preventing further problems.

  5. Techniques for laser welding polymeric devices.

    PubMed

    Jones, I A

    2003-04-01

    Recent advances in laser techniques mean that lasers are now being considered as an alternative to vibration, ultrasonic, dielectric, hot plate or hot bar welding, and adhesive bonding of plastics. The techniques required to put laser welding methods into practice are described for medical devices, tubular systems, films and synthetic fabrics.

  6. Symptomatic hemangioma of oral cavity treated with CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Ester M. D.; Coutinho, Adriana A.; Nicola, Jorge H.; Gusmao, Reinaldo J.

    1995-05-01

    The CO2 laser has been used by our group as a secure and efficient tool for the treatment of symptomatic oral cavity hemangiomas which can be responsible for disturbance for swallowing, phonation and in hygienic, besides discomfort and bleeding to patients. During the last four years, twelve patients with symptomatic oral cavity hemangioma were treated at the Laser Unit of our University. The treatment consisted in the application of CO2 laser at medium to low intensity according to characteristics and location of the lesions. For hemangiomas located at sites of easy surgical access such as anterior 1/3 of the tongue, lips, bucal vestibule we use 10 to 37 J/mm2 over the surface of the lesion. When the hemangioma was located at difficult surgical access sites, such as, tonsils, posterior 1/3 of tongue, or at pharyngeal wall we used 3.0 to 4.0 J/mm2 encircling the whole hemangioma. This causes reduction in the size of the lesion throughout sclerosis of nutrition vessels. After this initial procedure we applied 0.8 to 1.0 J/mm2 over the whole extent of the lesion. For both procedures we observed no significant bleeding or inflammatory reaction. The patients referred minimal post-operative discomfort with good cicatricial evolution. The evident reduction in the vascularization and size could be confirmed by photographic documentation. The good results described above, with disappearance of symptoms lead to the conclusion that CO2 laser is an efficient and secure method of treatment for symptomatic hemangioma of the oral cavity.

  7. Comparison Between Keyhole Weld Model and Laser Welding Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Wood, B C; Palmer, T A; Elmer, J W

    2002-09-23

    A series of laser welds were performed using a high-power diode-pumped continuous-wave Nd:YAG laser welder. In a previous study, the experimental results of those welds were examined, and the effects that changes in incident power and various welding parameters had on weld geometry were investigated. In this report, the fusion zones of the laser welds are compared with those predicted from a laser keyhole weld simulation model for stainless steels (304L and 21-6-9), vanadium, and tantalum. The calculated keyhole depths for the vanadium and 304L stainless steel samples fit the experimental data to within acceptable error, demonstrating the predictive power of numerical simulation for welds in these two materials. Calculations for the tantalum and 21-6-9 stainless steel were a poorer match to the experimental values. Accuracy in materials properties proved extremely important in predicting weld behavior, as minor changes in certain properties had a significant effect on calculated keyhole depth. For each of the materials tested, the correlation between simulated and experimental keyhole depths deviated as the laser power was increased. Using the model as a simulation tool, we conclude that the optical absorptivity of the material is the most influential factor in determining the keyhole depth. Future work will be performed to further investigate these effects and to develop a better match between the model and the experimental results for 21-6-9 stainless steel and tantalum.

  8. Rapid-flow combined-action industrial CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Generalov, N. A.; Zimakov, V. P.; Kosynkin, V. D.; Raizer, Iu. P.; Solovev, N. G.

    1982-08-01

    A general-purpose industrial CO2 laser intended for both CW and pulse-periodic operation and emitting pulses of a duration (up to 100 microsec) suitable for industrial applications is described. The operation derives from the method of creating a highly homogeneous glow discharge of large volume in a closed-cycle system. It involves setting up a high-power longitudinal (along the direction of the gas flow) on non-self-sustained discharge whose sole function is to provide laser pumping. The relatively low-power repetitive high-voltage pulses that ionize the gas are applied capacitatively to the discharge plasma without electrodes. The laser generates an average power of 1 kW at a pulse repetition frequency of 200 Hz, or 1.5 kW CW. The maximum output powers are, respectively, 1.5 and 2 kW.

  9. Combined Treatment Of Purulent Wounds With CO2 Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstych, P. I.; Skobelkin, O. K.; Derbenev, V. A.

    1988-06-01

    The authors have worked out a programme for combined treatment of purulent wounds with CO2 laser. It consists of following components: a) laserinsision of suppurative wounds,necrectomy,or irradiation of the incised wound with the defocused laser beam; b )diplication of proteinerses and antiseptics immobilized on the textile dressing and dranaige materials; c) applications of biocompatible materials with the immobilized antiseptics and enzyme agents; d) application of low energy laser irradiation in the postoperative period; e) lavage of the sutured wound if indicated. The points of the above-mentioned programme can be used separately as independed methods in several thousands of patients. Their combined applications has been studied on 400 patients. Such treatment allowed to refuse the antibioticotherapy in 98,3% of cases,to reduce the terms of trestment in I,5-2 % times as compared with traditional methods, and to low significantely costs.

  10. The TEA CO2-Lasers with High Output Emission Intensity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchenko, Yu. N.; Losev, V. F.; Puchikin, А. V.; Jun, Yao

    2014-03-01

    TEA CO2-lasers generating short pulse radiation and operating in a pulse-periodic mode with the repetition rate up to 10 Hz have been developed. It is shown that the addition of nitrogen up to 8% in the mixture of molecular gases СО2:H2 = 500:50 at a total pressure of P = 0.6 bar enhances the peak emission power maintaining the temporary pulse shape. An output beam intensity of 12.3 MW/cm2 was obtained for the 30 ns pulse at a laser efficiency of 2.8%. In a compact TEA СО2-laser with an active medium volume of 6 cm3, a beam with an output intensity of 24 MW/cm2 at pulse duration of 70 ns was obtained.

  11. CO2 laser polishing of microfluidic channels fabricated by femtosecond laser assisted carving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serhatlioglu, Murat; Ortaç, Bülend; Elbuken, Caglar; Biyikli, Necmi; Solmaz, Mehmet E.

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we investigate the effects of CO2 laser polishing on microscopic structures fabricated by femtosecond laser assisted carving (FLAC). FLAC is the peripheral laser irradiation of 2.5D structures suitable for low repetition rate lasers and is first used to define the microwell structures in fused silica followed by chemical etching. Subsequently, the bottom surface of patterned microwells is irradiated with a pulsed CO2 laser. The surfaces were characterized using an atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) in terms of roughness and high quality optical imaging before and after the CO2 laser treatment. The AFM measurements show that the surface roughness improves more than threefold after CO2 laser polishing, which promises good channel quality for applications that require optical imaging. In order to demonstrate the ability of this method to produce low surface roughness systems, we have fabricated a microfluidic channel. The channel is filled with polystyrene bead-laden fluid and imaged with transmission mode microscopy. The high quality optical images prove CO2 laser processing as a practical method to reduce the surface roughness of microfluidic channels fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation. We further compared the traditional and laser-based glass micromachining approaches, which includes FLAC followed by the CO2 polishing technique.

  12. Laser plant "Iguana" for transmyocardial revascularization based on kW-level waveguide CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panchenko, Vladislav Y.; Bockeria, L. A.; Berishvili, I. I.; Vasiltsov, Victor V.; Golubev, Vladimir S.; Ul'yanov, Valery A.

    2001-05-01

    For many years the Institute on Laser and Information Technologies RAN has been developing a concept of high-power industrial CO2 lasers with diffusion cooling of the working medium. The paper gives a description of the laser medical system Iguana for transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMLR) as an example of various applications of high-power waveguide CO2 lasers. The clinical results of the TMLR method application in surgical treatment are presented. The methods of determination of the time, when the laser beam passes through the demarcation line between myocardium tissue and blood, are discussed.

  13. Welding of transparent polymers using femtosecond laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roth, Gian-Luca; Rung, Stefan; Hellmann, Ralf

    2016-02-01

    Based on nonlinear absorption, we report on laser welding of cycloolefin copolymers without any additional absorption layer employing infrared femtosecond laser. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of ultrashort laser welding of this material class, revealing a remarkable high processing speed of 20 mm/s in a single pass mode. Using a 1028 nm laser having a pulse duration of 220 fs at a repetition rate of 571 kHz leads to a welding seam width between 38 and 137 μm, depending on the applied laser average power. The welded joint is characterized by a maximum shear strength of 40 MPa. The experimental results are compared to those reported for femtosecond laser welding of PMMA and to those published for using a Thulium fiber laser.

  14. Optical monitoring of laser-generated plasma during laser welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, John O.; Beirne, Gareth J.; O'Connor, Gerard M.; Glynn, Thomas J.; Conneely, Alan J.

    2000-03-01

    Process monitoring is a vital part of industrial laser applications that enables intelligent control of processes by observing acoustic, optical, thermal and other emissions. By monitoring these emission during laser processing, it is possible to ascertain characteristics that help diagnose features of the laser processed material and hence to optimize the technique. An experimental set up of observing plasmas during laser spot welding is described here. A pulsed Nd:YAG laser was used to spot-weld a variety of materials of different thickness, the plasmas generated during welding were monitored by a number of techniques, and the data obtained was used to characterize the welds. In the study photodiodes were set at different angles and observed the intensity and generation of the plasmas during the laser spot-welding process thereby giving a weld 'signature.' A portable spectrometer was used off-axis to obtain spectra of the emissions from the plasmas. Post process analysis was performed on the materials by mechanical polishing and chemical etching and observations of weld penetration depth and weld quality were correlated with the data collected on the plasmas. Different cover gases were also used during laser welding and the results of the effects of the various gases on the plasma are shown. The results indicate the relationship between laser weld generated plasma characteristics and weld features such as penetration depth. A direct correlation between the intensities of the photodiode and portable spectrometer signals was observed with weld penetration depth.

  15. CO2 lasers and temperature changes of titanium implants.

    PubMed

    Oyster, D K; Parker, W B; Gher, M E

    1995-12-01

    Lasers may be useful in uncovering submerged implants or in removing contaminants from "ailing" implants. The purposes of this study were to record temperature changes at the bone-titanium implant interface when using a CO2 laser to: 1) uncover the implant at second stage surgery; and 2) "decontaminate" exposed implant threads. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize surface changes of lased implants, both uncontaminated or contaminated with blood or saliva. In part one, 28 titanium implants, measuring 3.75 mm by 7 to 20 mm, were placed into room temperature, fresh, resected pig mandibles and covered with a flap of gingiva. The overlying tissue was removed with a CO2 laser at different power levels. Bone-implant interface temperatures were measured with a thermocouple near the top of the implant, and 5 to 7 mm apical to the osseous crest. The effects of implant size, power level, tissue thickness, and operation time were evaluated. In part two, 5 mm by 4 mm bony dehiscences were created on 3 implants in one mandible and the exposed fixture threads lased at varying times and power levels. The results from part one showed temperature increases at the top thermocouple ranged from 4.2 to 16.8 degrees C and increases at the bottom thermocouple ranged from 2.0 to 11.5 degrees C. The results from part two showed temperature increases at the top thermocouple ranged from 1.2 to 11.7 degrees C and increases at the bottom thermocouple from 0.0 to 5.0 degrees C. If baseline ambient temperatures are 37 degrees C, then the temperature at the bone-implant interface might exceed 50 degrees C. SEM revealed no gross surface changes in lased uncontaminated implants, but laser treatment alone of contaminated implants failed to completely remove saliva or blood. Further study is needed regarding temperature increases and surface changes induced by lasers that may adversely affect osseointegration.

  16. Laser-assisted hair transplantation: histologic comparison between holmium:YAG and CO2 lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Eugene A.; Rabinov, C. Rose; Wong, Brian J.; Krugman, Mark E.

    1999-06-01

    The histological effects of flash-scanned CO2 (λ=10.6μm) and pulsed Holmium:YAG (Ho:YAG, λ=2.12μm) lasers were evaluated in human scalp following the creation of hair transplant recipient channels. Ho:YAG laser irradiation created larger zones of thermal injury adjacent to the laser channels than irradiation with the CO2 laser device. When the two lasers created recipient sites of nearly equal depth, the Holmium:YAG laser caused a larger region of lateral thermal damage (589.30μm) than the CO2 laser (118.07μm). In addition, Holmium:YAG irradiated specimens exhibited fractures or discontinuities beyond the region of clear thermal injury. This shearing effect is consistent with the photoacoustic mechanism of ablation associated with pulsed mid-IR laser irradiation. In contrast, channels created with the CO2 exhibited minimal epithelial disruption and significantly less lateral thermal damage. While the Holmium:YAG laser is a useful tool for ablation soft tissue with minimal char in select applications (sinus surgery, arthroscopic surgery), this study suggests that the use of the CO2 laser for the creation of transplantation recipient channels result in significantly less lateral thermal injury for the laser parameters employed.

  17. Laser welding of micro plastic parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haberstroh, E.; Hoffmann, W.-M.

    2007-02-01

    Most welding processes for plastics do not meet the demands of micro technology and thus cannot be applied in this innovative industrial sector. One of the few techniques which are applicable in this sector is the laser transmission welding, which has distinctive advantages like low mechanical and thermal load of the joining parts. This makes the laser particularly suitable for the welding of micro plastics parts. Thereby, contour welding is a process variant of laser transmission welding enabling the welding of complex and even three-dimensional weld contours. But so far it has not yet been applied for welding plastics parts of micro scale in the industrial practice. Recent research at the Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV) at the RWTH Aachen University shows the feasibility of this process to weld small and complex micro parts. Good mechanical properties can be achieved. However, it is necessary to apply measures to reduce the formation of flash. Moreover, it can be shown that there is a strong influence of some material parameters on the laser welding process so that some plastics are more suitable than others for the contour welding in micro technology.

  18. Polarization effects of a high-power CO2 laser beam on aluminum alloy weldability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Shunichi; Takahashi, Kunimitsu; Mehmetli, Bülent

    1996-06-01

    Linearly polarized CO2 laser beams have been used to investigate the effects of polarization on aluminum alloy weldability. Bead-on-plate welding tests have been performed on A5083 (AlMg4.5Mn0.7) alloy plates with quasi-TEM00-mode beams whose polarization direction is parallel or perpendicular to the welding direction, referred to as the parallel or the perpendicular polarization beam, respectively. Comparison of the fusion zone shapes between the two cases shows that deeper penetration, and hence more efficient optical energy coupling to the work can be obtained with the parallel polarization beam. This effect can be interpreted as being due to the higher Fresnel absorption at the keyhole front wall for the parallel polarization beam than for the perpendicular polarization beam. It is also found that the polarization effect is much more evident in the case of He gas shielding than in the case of Ar gas shielding. The weaker polarization effects observed in the case of Ar may be due to more densely formed laser-induced plume or plasma because of lower ionization potential and much smaller thermal conductivity of Ar when compared with those of He. Under such conditions the energy coupling may be dominated by plasma absorption (the inverse bremsstrahlung absorption). It has so far been considered that in aluminum welding, the energy coupling is dominated by the plasma absorption, because relatively strong plasma is observed in aluminum welding. But our results indicate that the Fresnel absorption process has an important role on the energy coupling mechanism under certain conditions.

  19. Laser welding and collagen crosslinks

    SciTech Connect

    Reiser, K.M.; Last, J.A.; Small, W. IV; Maitland, D.J.; Heredia, N.J.; Da Silva, L.B.; Matthews, D.L.

    1997-02-20

    Strength and stability of laser-welded tissue may be influenced, in part, by effects of laser exposure on collagen crosslinking. We therefore studied effects of diode laser exposure (805 nm, 1-8 watts, 30 seconds) + indocyanine green dye (ICG) on calf tail tendon collagen crosslinks. Effect of ICG dye alone on crosslink content prior to laser exposure was investigated; unexpectedly, we found that ICG-treated tissue had significantly increased DHLNL and OHP, but not HLNL. Laser exposure after ICG application reduced elevated DHLNL and OHP crosslink content down to their native levels. The monohydroxylated crosslink HLNL was inversely correlated with laser output (p<0.01 by linear regression analysis). DHLNL content was highly correlated with content of its maturational product, OHP, suggesting that precursor-product relations are maintained. We conclude that: (1)ICG alone induces DHLNL and OHP crosslink formation; (2)subsequent laser exposure reduces the ICG-induced crosslinks down to native levels; (3)excessive diode laser exposure destroys normally occurring HLNL crosslinks.

  20. Miniaturized pulsed CO2 laser with sealed electron source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bychkov, Y. I.; Orlovskiy, V. M.; Osipov, V. V.; Poteryayev, A. G.

    1984-04-01

    A new miniature electron beam-controlled CO2 laser (the MIG-3) contains an electron accelerator, gas cell and DC supply in one large unit (0.22 x 0,16 x 0.7 m) and the accelerator power supply and laser control panel in a second smaller unit. The overall weight of the instrument in 30 kg. The electron beam is controlled by four vacuum diodes in parallel; a 180 KV pulse is fed to the vacuum diode inputs from a "NORA" series-produced X-ray source (the MIRA-3D) also is used). The total electron beam current from all diodes was 600 A following the foil with a half-height width of 10 ns. The lasing medium is CO2:N2 - 1:1 at 4.5 atm. The maximum stimulated emission pulse energy was 1 J with an efficiency of 8% when the pressure was 4 atm. With a pulse repetition rate of 4 Hz, the average power consumption of the unit was 100 W.

  1. Tunable diode laser measurements of hydrothermal/volcanic CO2 and implications for the global CO2 budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedone, M.; Aiuppa, A.; Giudice, G.; Grassa, F.; Francofonte, V.; Bergsson, B.; Ilyinskaya, E.

    2014-12-01

    Quantifying the CO2 flux sustained by low-temperature fumarolic fields in hydrothermal/volcanic environments has remained a challenge, to date. Here, we explored the potential of a commercial infrared tunable laser unit for quantifying such fumarolic volcanic/hydrothermal CO2 fluxes. Our field tests were conducted between April 2013 and March 2014 at Nea Kameni (Santorini, Greece), Hekla and Krýsuvík (Iceland) and Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy). At these sites, the tunable laser was used to measure the path-integrated CO2 mixing ratios along cross sections of the fumaroles' atmospheric plumes. By using a tomographic post-processing routine, we then obtained, for each manifestation, the contour maps of CO2 mixing ratios in the plumes and, from their integration, the CO2 fluxes. The calculated CO2 fluxes range from low (5.7 ± 0.9 t d-1; Krýsuvík) to moderate (524 ± 108 t d-1; La Fossa crater, Vulcano). Overall, we suggest that the cumulative CO2 contribution from weakly degassing volcanoes in the hydrothermal stage of activity may be significant at the global scale.

  2. Tunable diode laser measurements of hydrothermal/volcanic CO2, and implications for the global CO2 budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedone, M.; Aiuppa, A.; Giudice, G.; Grassa, F.; Francofonte, V.; Bergsson, B.; Ilyinskaya, E.

    2014-08-01

    Quantifying the CO2 flux sustained by low-temperature fumarolic fields in volcanic-hydrothermal environment has remained a challenge, to date. Here, we explored the potentiality of a commercial infrared tunable laser unit for quantifying such fumarolic volcanic/hydrothermal CO2 fluxes. Our field tests were conducted (between April 2013 and March 2014) at Nea Kameni (Santorini, Greece), Hekla and Krýsuvík (Iceland) and Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy). At these sites, the tunable laser was used to measure the path-integrated CO2 mixing ratios along cross-sections of the fumaroles' atmospheric plumes. By using a tomographic post-processing routine, we then obtained, for each manifestation, the contour maps of CO2 mixing ratios in the plumes and, from their integration, the CO2 fluxes. The so-calculated CO2 fluxes range from low (5.7 ± 0.9 t day-1; Krýsuvík) to moderate (524 ± 108 t day-1; "La Fossa" crater, Vulcano). Overall, we suggest that the cumulative CO2 contribution from weakly degassing volcanoes in hydrothermal stage of activity may be significant at global scale.

  3. Laser Micro Welding for Ribbon Bonding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehlmann, Benjamin; Gehlen, Elmar; Olowinsky, Alexander; Gillner, Arnold

    Laser ribbon bonding is a new field of application for laser micro welding in the electronics industry especially in the area of power electronics. Traditional ribbon bonding is conducted by using ultrasonic welding to create the bond between the aluminum or copper ribbon and a conductive surface. By adapting an ultrasonic ribbon bonder and equipping it with a fiber laser, a galvanometric scanner and a beam focusing and delivery system, a new technology for ribbon bonding is created. The presented work includes test results of the welding of copper ribbons with a thickness of 300 μm to DCB-substrates and the system design of the "laser bonder". For the laser welding of the ribbons spatial power modulation is being used and the effect of this approach on the welded ribbons is presented. The work concludes with advantages and limits of the technology especially concerning the applications compared to ultrasonic bonding.

  4. LaserHybrid welding for industrial applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staufer, H.

    2007-05-01

    In view of the demands made by the end users in the field of application of vehicle construction for an ever-higher product quality and improved performance, continuous innovations are considered to be absolutely decisive for being successful. This especially applies to the welding technology, and therefore the goal is to develop new, better and more powerful welding processes. In joining technology the high welding speed on the one and the good gap bridging ability on the other hand play a significant part. However, both features cannot be achieved by conventional laser welding processes. Therefore, a hybrid process is being. It is no doubt that the laser beam welding and the MIG welding have been established in the welding technology for very long, and that both processes allow a wide field of application in the joining technology. New possibilities and synergetic effects, however, are based on the combination of both processes.

  5. CO2 lasers and applications; Proceedings of the Meeting, Los Angeles, CA, Jan. 17, 18, 1989

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, James D.; Locke, Edward V.

    Recent advances in CO2 laser technology are discussed in reviews and reports. Topics examined include gain and power predictions, the discharge and output characteristics of a CW CO2 laser with auxiliary glow-dc discharge, wave-optics codes for the design and diagnostics of CO2 optical systems, military applications of CO2 waveguide lasers, and chirp measurements on a 10-J pulsed CO2 oscillator. Consideration is given to CO2 laser gain and energy extraction using C-12 and C-13 isotopes, laser-beam command guidance, gas-jet effects on laser cutting, and a galvanometric scanner for rapid tuning of CO2 lasers. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, and photographs are provided.

  6. Statistical modeling of laser welding of DP/TRIP steel sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisgen, U.; Schleser, M.; Mokrov, O.; Ahmed, E.

    2012-02-01

    In this research work, a statistical analysis of the CO 2 laser beam welding of dual phase (DP600)/transformation induced plasticity (TRIP700) steel sheets was done using response surface methodology. The analysis considered the effect of laser power (2-2.2 kW), welding speed (40-50 mm/s) and focus position (-1 to 0 mm) on the heat input, the weld bead geometry, uniaxial tensile strength, formability limited dome height and welding operation cost. The experimental design was based on Box-Behnken design using linear and quadratic polynomial equations for predicting the mathematical models. The results indicate that the proposed models predict the responses adequately within the limits of welding parameters being used and the welding speed is the most significant parameter during the welding process.

  7. Understanding metal vaporizaiton from laser welding.

    SciTech Connect

    DebRoy, Tarasankar; Fuerschbach, Phillip William; He, Xiuli; Norris, Jerome T.

    2003-09-01

    The production of metal vapor as a consequence of high intensity laser irradiation is a serious concern in laser welding. Despite the widespread use of lasers in manufacturing, little fundamental understanding of laser/material interaction in the weld pool exists. Laser welding experiments on 304 stainless steel have been completed which have advanced our fundamental understanding of the magnitude and the parameter dependence of metal vaporization in laser spot welding. Calculations using a three-dimensional, transient, numerical model were used to compare with the experimental results. Convection played a very important role in the heat transfer especially towards the end of the laser pulse. The peak temperatures and velocities increased significantly with the laser power density. The liquid flow is mainly driven by the surface tension and to a much less extent, by the buoyancy force. Heat transfer by conduction is important when the liquid velocity is small at the beginning of the pulse and during weld pool solidification. The effective temperature determined from the vapor composition was found to be close to the numerically computed peak temperature at the weld pool surface. At very high power densities, the computed temperatures at the weld pool surface were found to be higher than the boiling point of 304 stainless steel. As a result, vaporization of alloying elements resulted from both total pressure and concentration gradients. The calculations showed that the vaporization was concentrated in a small region under the laser beam where the temperature was very high.

  8. Laser Peening Effects on Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatamleh, Omar

    2011-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a welding technique that uses frictional heating combined with forging pressure to produce high strength bonds. It is attractive for aerospace applications. Although residual stresses in FSW are generally lower when compared to conventional fusion welds, recent work has shown that significant tensile residual stresses can be present in the weld after fabrication. Therefore, laser shock peening was investigated as a means of moderating the tensile residual stresses produced during welding. This slide presentation reviews the effect of Laser Peening on the weld, in tensile strength, strain, surface roughness, microhardness, surface wear/friction, and fatigue crack growth rates. The study concluded that the laser peening process can result in considerable improvement to crack initiaion, propagation and mechanical properties in FSW.

  9. Welding technology transfer task/laser based weld joint tracking system for compressor girth welds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Looney, Alan

    1991-01-01

    Sensors to control and monitor welding operations are currently being developed at Marshall Space Flight Center. The laser based weld bead profiler/torch rotation sensor was modified to provide a weld joint tracking system for compressor girth welds. The tracking system features a precision laser based vision sensor, automated two-axis machine motion, and an industrial PC controller. The system benefits are elimination of weld repairs caused by joint tracking errors which reduces manufacturing costs and increases production output, simplification of tooling, and free costly manufacturing floor space.

  10. Optical penetration sensor for pulsed laser welding

    DOEpatents

    Essien, Marcelino; Keicher, David M.; Schlienger, M. Eric; Jellison, James L.

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus and method for determining the penetration of the weld pool created from pulsed laser welding and more particularly to an apparatus and method of utilizing an optical technique to monitor the weld vaporization plume velocity to determine the depth of penetration. A light source directs a beam through a vaporization plume above a weld pool, wherein the plume changes the intensity of the beam, allowing determination of the velocity of the plume. From the velocity of the plume, the depth of the weld is determined.

  11. Laser-welded Dissimilar Steel-aluminum Seams for Automotive Lightweight Construction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimek, M.; Springer, A.; Kaierle, S.; Kracht, D.; Wesling, V.

    By reducing vehicle weight, a significant increase in fuel efficiency and consequently a reduction in CO 2 emissions can be achieved. Currently a high interest in the production of hybrid weld seams between steel and aluminum exists. Previous methods as laser brazing are possible only by using fluxes and additional materials. Laser welding can be used to join steel and aluminum without the use of additives. With a low penetration depth increases in tensile strength can be achieved. Recent results from laser welded overlap seams show that there is no compromise in strength by decreasing penetration depth in the aluminum.

  12. Effect Of Laser CO2 Parameters In Marking Of Glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanafi-Benghalem, Nafissa; Benghalem, Kamel; Boudoukha, Hassina

    2008-09-01

    Currently many techniques of marking are exploited in a great number of sectors, on various materials (cardboard, textile, wood, leather, plastic, metal, ceramics and glass). The printing is done on supports of great or small dimension for all geometrical forms (plane, round, conical and ovalised). We can print colour as much than we wish. The marking technology for the identification of the glass parts knows a remarkable development carried by the new needs for the industrialists using transparent materials such as the optical, chemical, pharmaceutical sectors, the luxury and drink industries or publicity and decoration (neon signs, advertising mirrors). The objective of our work consists particularly in engraving on glass the measurement scales forming a whole of ordered graduation which the goal is to carry out reading systems of measuring apparatus about 1/10 μm of precision. We used as tool for marking the laser CO2. Our choice is justified by the flexibility of the laser, the permanent lifespan of the graduations carried out and the guarantee of the facility of reading incidentally the precision and the accuracy of the measuring apparatus. The study parameters of the laser beam are the velocity (400, 600, 800, 1000 m/s.), the power (25, 75 and 80% of 25W) and the numbers pass (one, two and three pass). The optical observations results obtained suggest that the highest and the average power used remain the favourable parameters for the quality of the graduations carried out.

  13. Frequency stabilization in injection controlled pulsed CO2 lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, Robert T.; Ancellet, Gerard M.

    1987-01-01

    Longitudinal mode selection by injection has been demonstrated as a viable technique for tailoring a TEA-CO2 laser with pulse energies of a Joule or greater to fit the requirements of a coherent lidar transmitter. Once reliable generation of single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) pulses is obtained, one can study the intrapulse frequency variation and attempt to determine the sources of frequency sweeping, or chirp. These sources include the effect of the decaying plasma, the thermal gradient due to the energy dissipation associated with the laser mechanism itself, and the pressure shift of the center frequency of the laser transition. The use of the positive-branch unstable resonator as an efficient means of coupling a discharge with transverse spatial dimensions of the order of centimeters to an optical cavity mode introduces another concern: namely, what can be done to emphasize transverse mode discrimination in an unstable resonator cavity while maintaining high coupling efficiency. These issues are briefly discussed in the paper, and representative experimental examples are included.

  14. Study on CO2 laser weldability of Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chaoyu; Lin, Chengxin; Liu, Linlin

    2012-04-01

    In this study, a cross-flow laser with maximum out power of 5kW was applied to the welding of Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloys (SMA). The optimal welding processing parameters of 1mm thick Fe-Mn-Si SMA were established by orthogonal experiment. With the optimal processing parameters, power 1600W, welding speed 2.2m/min, defocusing distance 0.6mm, the tensile strength of the welded joint can achieve 93.5% of the base material, and the weld undercut and reinforcement transfer smoothly on the surface of the welding seam and the cross-section of the welding seam morphology presents "X" shape. The fracture appears in the weld fusion zone, so this area is weak during the laser welding. By the metallographic observation, the weld center structure is small equated, and the region of fusion zone is thick cellular crystal that decreases the strength of the welded joint, and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) test proves that the laser welding promotes the grain refinement. The micro-hardness analysis shows that the hardness of the fusion zone is lower than the other area clearly which is also associated to the weld structure. By the fracture scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, it is found that the fracture of Fe-Mn-Si SMA shows many small dimples with the optimal parameters, and the result is accorded with the base material which belongs to plastic fracture.

  15. Study on CO2 laser weldability of Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Chaoyu; Lin, Chengxin; Liu, Linlin

    2011-11-01

    In this study, a cross-flow laser with maximum out power of 5kW was applied to the welding of Fe-Mn-Si shape memory alloys (SMA). The optimal welding processing parameters of 1mm thick Fe-Mn-Si SMA were established by orthogonal experiment. With the optimal processing parameters, power 1600W, welding speed 2.2m/min, defocusing distance 0.6mm, the tensile strength of the welded joint can achieve 93.5% of the base material, and the weld undercut and reinforcement transfer smoothly on the surface of the welding seam and the cross-section of the welding seam morphology presents "X" shape. The fracture appears in the weld fusion zone, so this area is weak during the laser welding. By the metallographic observation, the weld center structure is small equated, and the region of fusion zone is thick cellular crystal that decreases the strength of the welded joint, and the X-ray diffraction (XRD) test proves that the laser welding promotes the grain refinement. The micro-hardness analysis shows that the hardness of the fusion zone is lower than the other area clearly which is also associated to the weld structure. By the fracture scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis, it is found that the fracture of Fe-Mn-Si SMA shows many small dimples with the optimal parameters, and the result is accorded with the base material which belongs to plastic fracture.

  16. Laser-TIG Welding of Titanium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turichin, G.; Tsibulsky, I.; Somonov, V.; Kuznetsov, M.; Akhmetov, A.

    2016-08-01

    The article presents the results of investigation the technological opportunity of laser-TIG welding of titanium alloys. The experimental stand for implementation of process with the capability to feed a filler wire was made. The research of the nature of transfer the filler wire into the welding pool has been demonstrated. The influence of distance between the electrode and the surface of the welded plates on the stability of the arc was shown. The relationship between welding velocity, the position of focal plane of the laser beam and the stability of penetration of plates was determined.

  17. Beam-diagnostics techniques for multiterawatt CO2 lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigio, I. J.; Jackson, S. V.; Laird, A.; Seagrave, J.

    1980-03-01

    The mechanical, optical and electrical designs of beam-diagnostics system for the eight-beam 10-kJ, Helios CO2 laser fusion facility at Los Alamos are described. The measurement of the prepulse, main pulse and postpulse regions of the temporal distribution of energy is discussed; signals are recorded by individually timed, linear gated, charge-integrating digitizers. For prepulse energy, photoconductive detectors with low-noise properties and fast rise time (about 0.5 nsec) are considered, while a simple photon-drag detector can be used for mainpulse vs. postpulse energy measurements. In addition, a combined pyroelectric detector and 5-GHz oscilloscope is suitable for measuring temporal pulse shape.

  18. Laser welding and post weld treatment of modified 9Cr-1MoVNb steel.

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Z.

    2012-04-03

    Laser welding and post weld laser treatment of modified 9Cr-1MoVNb steels (Grade P91) were performed in this preliminary study to investigate the feasibility of using laser welding process as a potential alternative to arc welding methods for solving the Type IV cracking problem in P91 steel welds. The mechanical and metallurgical testing of the pulsed Nd:YAG laser-welded samples shows the following conclusions: (1) both bead-on-plate and circumferential butt welds made by a pulsed Nd:YAG laser show good welds that are free of microcracks and porosity. The narrow heat affected zone has a homogeneous grain structure without conventional soft hardness zone where the Type IV cracking occurs in conventional arc welds. (2) The laser weld tests also show that the same laser welder has the potential to be used as a multi-function tool for weld surface remelting, glazing or post weld tempering to reduce the weld surface defects and to increase the cracking resistance and toughness of the welds. (3) The Vicker hardness of laser welds in the weld and heat affected zone was 420-500 HV with peak hardness in the HAZ compared to 240 HV of base metal. Post weld laser treatment was able to slightly reduce the peak hardness and smooth the hardness profile, but failed to bring the hardness down to below 300 HV due to insufficient time at temperature and too fast cooling rate after the time. Though optimal hardness of weld made by laser is to be determined for best weld strength, methods to achieve the post weld laser treatment temperature, time at the temperature and slow cooling rate need to be developed. (4) Mechanical testing of the laser weld and post weld laser treated samples need to be performed to evaluate the effects of laser post treatments such as surface remelting, glazing, re-hardening, or tempering on the strength of the welds.

  19. Low cost laser weld monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Leong, K.H.

    1997-04-01

    Laser beam welding is a joining technology that has gained increased acceptance because of its high speed, precision, and low heat effects compared to conventional arc welding methods. Argonne National Laboratory in collaboration with the automotive industry has developed a robust on-line weld monitor capable of sensing weld surface changes and penetration. The development of the weld monitor took tin account the constraints and operating environment of the factor floor in addition to monitoring needs for quality assurance. The on-line non-intrusive weld monitor developed is rugged and simple to use, does not require power to operate, is weld spatter protected and low cost; features that are desired for the factor floor. The weld monitoring technology is available for licensing. An exclusive license has been awarded to Spawr Industries for an inline weld monitor for CO{sub 2} laser applications. Licensing of the weld monitor for other implementations in CO{sub 2} and Nd:YAG laser applications are available.

  20. Laser Welding Dissimilar Reflective Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccay, M. H.; Gopinathan, S.; Kahlen, F.; Speigel, L.

    1993-01-01

    This project, jointly sponsored by Rocketdyne and CSTAR, involves the development of laser joining of materials which have heretofore been impractical to bond. Of particular interest are joints between stainless steel and copper and also aluminum 6061 to aluminum 2219. CSTAR has a unique opportunity in this area since both the process and development and diagnostics are of interest to industry. Initial results using the pulse tailored laser welding technique developed in CLA for joining crack sensitive materials have proven promising for the aluminum joints based upon metallurgical and electronic microprobe analysis. A declaration of success requires additional mechanical testing. A CW technique has been applied to the stainless-copper joining with some preliminary success. These joints are of significant interest for aeronautics and rocket propulsion applications and the project is expected to continue.

  1. [Significance of the CO2-laser angle, oral cavity endoscopes].

    PubMed

    Gáspár, L; Bakos, R; Kásler, M

    1991-10-01

    The CO2-laser ray guided at 90 degrees to the surface creates a crater of typical "v" shape. If the guide angle of the ray deviates therefrom and the smaller the angle of incidence than 90 degrees, destruction becomes the more astymmetric, the crater takes an ever more flattened eliptical shape. The lack of tissue becomes even more superficial, thus removal of a circumscribed pathological area requires the sacrifice of more ambient healthy tissue. Consterning the possible angle of incidence of the laser ray instrumental measurements were carried out. It has been ascertained that in the pharinx third of the mouth cavity behind the plain corresponding to the premolars, as a rule, only guide angles below 50 degrees, in the middle third of the mouth cavity corresponding to the area between the front teeth and the molars guide angles between 50-70 degrees, and in the front third mostly a ray guiding below 90 degrees are possible. In the middle and rear third of the mouth cavity the ideal rey-guiding at 90 degrees can be obtained but with reflection, certain areas even cannot be treated directly, are visible but in mirrors. By transforming the hand piece of the laser apparatus endoscopes with fixed mirror and rotating mirror have been constructed. By means of the endoscope with fixed mirror already all parts of the mouth cavity have been rendered accessible while the rotating mirror model became suitable even to admit the laser ray to the surfaces at the ideal angle of incidence of 90(2). PMID:1765203

  2. Femtosecond fiber laser welding of dissimilar metals.

    PubMed

    Huang, Huan; Yang, Lih-Mei; Bai, Shuang; Liu, Jian

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, welding of dissimilar metals was demonstrated for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, by using a high-energy high-repetition-rate femtosecond fiber laser. Metallurgical and mechanical properties were investigated and analyzed under various processing parameters (pulse energy, repetition rate, and welding speed). Results showed that the formation of intermetallic brittle phases and welding defects could be effectively reduced. Strong welding quality with more than 210 MPa tensile strength for stainless steel-aluminum and 175 MPa tensile strength for stainless steel-magnesium has been demonstrated. A minimal heat affected zone and uniform and homogenous phase transformation in the welding region have been demonstrated. This laser-welding technique can be extended for various applications in semiconductor, automobile, aerospace, and biomedical industries.

  3. Tracking and inspection for laser welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boillot, Jean-Paul; Uota, Koichi; Berthiaume, Etienne; Noruk, Jeffrey

    2003-03-01

    High precision, high productivity and high quality are the three absolute requirements in today's laser welding production. Automated laser welding places extreme demands on tool position accuracy. Accurate real-time tracking and inspection systems for laser materials processing make use of high-performance laser sensors. The reliability of the monitored signal can be significantly increased by using high resolution, digital CMOS sensors and high speed real-time image processing technologies. This paper presents the latest developments in high-performance optical joint tracking systems and optical inspection systems based on these technologies. Optical joint tracking systems allow for precise control of part fit-up, machine self-alignment, and adaptive process control; optical inspection systems allow for automated in-line verification, insuring laser welds meet quality standards and customer's specification. Geometric features of welds can be precisely measured and compared to allowable tolerances while undesirable attributes like surface porosities and external defects can be accurately detected.

  4. Monitoring of catalyst performance in CO2 lasers using frequency modulation spectroscopy with diode lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Liang-Guo; Sachse, Glen

    1990-01-01

    Closed-cycle CO2 laser operation with removal of O2 and regeneration of CO2 can be achieved by catalytic CO-O2 recombination. Both parametric studies of the optimum catalyst formulation and long-term performance tests require on line monitoring of CO, O2 and CO2 concentrations. There are several existing methods for molecular oxygen detection. These methods are either intrusive (such as electrochemical method or mass spectrometry) or very expensive (such as CARS, UV laser absorption). Researchers demonstrated a high-sensitivity spectroscopic measurement of O2 using the two-tone frequency modulation spectroscopy (FMS) technique with a near infrared GaAlAs diode laser. Besides its inexpensive cost, fast response time, nonintrusive measurements and high sensitivity, this technique may also be used to differentiate between isotopes due to its high spectroscopic resolution. This frequency modulation spectroscopy technique could also be applied for the on-line monitoring of CO and CO2 using InGaAsP diode lasers operation in the 1.55 microns region and H2O in the 1.3 microns region. The existence of single mode optical fibers at the near infrared region makes it possible to combine FMS with optical fiber technology. Optical fiber FMS is particularly suitable for making point-measurements at one or more locations in the CO2 laser/catalyst system.

  5. Microstructure characterization of laser welded Ti-6Al-4V fusion zones

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Pei-quan; Li, Leijun Zhang, Chunbo

    2014-01-15

    The as-welded microstructure of laser-welded Ti-6Al-4V is characterized as a function of CO2 key-hole mode laser welding speed. Martensitic α′ is the predominant phase, with some α and retained β. Phase transformation is affected by the cooling rate through laser welding speed. A higher welding speed of 1.6 to 2.0 m/min produced more martensite α′ and less retained β in the welds. 1.4 m/min welding speed produced small amounts of α, besides the martensite α′. A trace of δ titanium hydride phase seems to have formed in the weld fusion zone. Moiré fringes are a common feature in the TEM microstructure, due to abundance of multi-phase interfaces. Tensile twins and clusters of dislocations indicate that plastic deformation has happened in the as-welded microstructure, indicating the local stress levels to be approaching the yield stress on-cooling during laser welding.

  6. Comparison between hybrid laser-MIG welding and MIG welding for the invar36 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Xiaohong; Li, Yubo; Ou, Wenmin; Yu, Fengyi; Chen, Jie; Wei, Yanhong

    2016-11-01

    The invar36 alloy is suitable to produce mold of composite materials structure because it has similar thermal expansion coefficient with composite materials. In the present paper, the MIG welding and laser-MIG hybrid welding methods are compared to get the more appropriate method to overcome the poor weldability of invar36 alloy. According to the analysis of the experimental and simulated results, it has been proved that the Gauss and cone combined heat source model can characterize the laser-MIG hybrid welding heat source well. The total welding time of MIG welding is 8 times that of hybrid laser-MIG welding. The welding material consumption of MIG welding is about 4 times that of hybrid laser-MIG welding. The stress and deformation simulation indicate that the peak value of deformation during MIG welding is 3 times larger than that of hybrid laser-MIG welding.

  7. Improvement of Weld Characteristics by Laser-Arc Double-Sided Welding Compared to Single Arc Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Zhenglong; Zhang, Kezhao; Hu, Xue; Yang, Yuhe; Chen, Yanbin; Wu, Yichao

    2015-11-01

    The single arc welding and laser-arc double-sided welding (LADSW) processes are investigated by virtue of test welds. The impacts of the laser beam during the LADSW process on the weld characteristics are studied from weld geometry, crystal morphology, and the mechanical properties of the joints. Compared with the single arc welding, the LADSW process improves the energy density and reduces the range of arc action, which together leads to a doubling of weld penetration depth. When penetrated by the laser beam, the liquid metal of the arc welding pool experiences severe fluctuations, leading to a finer grain size in the range of 17-26 μm in the LADSW weld, a reduction of nearly 63% compared to the grains in the single arc weld. The tensile strength and elongation-to-failure of the LADSW weld were increased by nearly 10 and 100% over the single arc welding, respectively.

  8. Laser Doppler velocimetry based on the optoacoustic effect in a RF-excited CO2 laser.

    PubMed

    Lee, Teaghee; Choi, Jong Woon; Kim, Yong Pyung

    2012-09-01

    We present a compact optoacoustic laser Doppler velocimetry method that utilizes the self-mixing effect in a RF-excited CO(2) laser. A portion of a Doppler-shifted laser beam, produced by irradiating a single wavelength laser beam on a moving object, is mixed with an originally existing laser beam inside a laser cavity. The fine change of pressure in the laser cavity modulated by the Doppler-shifted frequency is detected by a condenser microphone in the laser tube. In our studies, the frequency of the Doppler signal due to the optoacoustic effect was detected as high as 50 kHz. Our measurements also confirmed that the signal varied linearly with the velocity of the external scatterer (the moving object) and the cosine of the angle between the laser beam and the velocity vector of the object.

  9. Hybrid Laser-Arc Welding Tanks Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turichin, G.; Tsibulskiy, I.; Kuznetsov, M.; Akhmetov, A.; Klimova-Korsmik, O.

    2016-04-01

    The results investigate hybrid laser-arc welding of high strength steels using design responsible metallic construction and the highest strength body of vehicles. Welds from modern high strength steels grade Hardox 400, Hardox 450, Armox 600T and AB were created. High power fiber laser LS-15 with output 15 kW and arc rectifier VDU - 1500 DC were used in the experiment. Results of the metallographic research and mechanical tests are presented.

  10. Multikilowatt TEA-CO2 laser system for molecular laser isotope separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronander, Einar; Rohwer, Erich G.

    1993-05-01

    Laser-induced chemistry has received much attention in the past few years. The economics of such applications are dominated by the costs of photons and the quantum yield of the specific reaction. For a typical multiple-IR-photon process the quantum yield can be as low as 10-4 which emphasizes the importance of reducing the cost of laser photons. Based on 1982 technology, CO2 TEA laser operating costs were approximately $100/watt per year for a laser with an electrical efficiency of 6% and an average power of more than 100 kW. Capital costs dominated the energy cost as well as the maintenance and labor costs. At the South African Atomic Energy Corp. we have been involved in the development of high pulse frequency, high average power TEA-CO2 lasers for the application in the field of laser-induced chemistry. Much of the attention, however, has been focused on the application to separate the isotopes of uranium via a multiwavelength infrared irradiation scheme. The progress that has been made towards the establishment of CO2-lasers and laser chains for industrial use has been quite outstanding.

  11. Combination of laser keyhole and conduction welding: Dissimilar laser welding of niobium and Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torkamany, M. J.; Malek Ghaini, F.; Poursalehi, R.; Kaplan, A. F. H.

    2016-04-01

    Pulsed Nd:YAG laser welding of pure niobium plate to titanium alloy Ti-6Al-4V sheet in butt joint is studied regarding the laser/metal interaction modes. To obtain the optimized process parameters in dissimilar welding of Ti-6Al-4V/Nb, the melting ratio of laser beam energy for each weld counterpart is evaluated experimentally. Different laser welding modes of keyhole and conduction are predicted regarding the absorbed energy from the similar laser pulses on each weld counterpart. Laser keyhole and conduction welding were observed simultaneously through direct visualization of laser interaction with dissimilar metals using High Speed Imaging (HSI) system.

  12. Component temperature versus laser-welding parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W.H.

    1983-01-01

    Applications have arisen in which the component temperature near a laser weld is critical because of possible damage to the explosive powder adjacent to the member being welded. To evaluate the thermal excursion experienced at the powder cavity wall, a study was conducted using assemblies that had been equipped with 0.05 mm diameter thermocouple wires. The main goal of the study was to determine how changes in the laser welding parameters owuld affect the powder cavity wall temperature. The objective lens-to-work distance, pulse rate, and beam power parameters were varied. The peak temperature varied from 117/sup 0/C to 311/sup 0/C in response to welding parameter changes. The study concluded that by utilizing a selected set of welding parameters, the design requirement of a 160/sup 0/C maximum powder cavity wall temperature could easily be satisfied.

  13. Comparative study on interactions between laser and arc plasma during laser-GTA welding and laser-GMA welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Minghua; Xu, Jiannan; Xin, Lijun; Zhao, Zuofu; Wu, Fufa

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes an investigation on differences in interactions between laser and arc plasma during laser-gas tungsten arc (LT) welding and laser-gas metal arc (LM) welding. The characteristics of LT heat source and LM heat source, such as plasma behavior, heat penetration ability and spectral information were comparably studied. Based on the plasma discharge theory, the interactions during plasma discharge were modeled and analyzed. Results show that in both LT and LM welding, coupling discharge between the laser keyhole plasma and arc happens, which strongly enhance the arc. But, the enhancing effect in LT welding is much more sensitive than that in LM welding when parameters are adjusted.

  14. A comparison of the physics of Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW), Electron Beam Welding (EBW), and Laser Beam Welding (LBW)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nunes, A. C., Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The physics governing the applicability and limitations of gas tungsten arc (GTA), electron beam (EB), and laser beam (LB) welding are compared. An appendix on the selection of laser welding systems is included.

  15. Glass drilling by longitudinally excited CO2 laser with short laser pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Takuya; Akitsu, Tetsuya; Jitsuno, Takahisa

    2015-03-01

    We developed a longitudinally excited CO2 laser that produces a short laser pulse. The laser was very simple and consisted of a 45-cm-long alumina ceramic pipe with an inner diameter of 9 mm, a pulse power supply, a step-up transformer, a storage capacitance, and a spark-gap switch. The laser pulse had a spike pulse and a pulse tail. The energy of the pulse tail was controlled by adjusting medium gas. Using three types of CO2 laser pulse with the same spike-pulse energy and the different pulse-tail energy, the characteristics of the hole drilling of synthetic silica glass was investigated. Higher pulse-tail energy gave deeper ablation depth. In the short laser pulse with the spike-pulse energy of 1.2 mJ, the spike pulse width of 162 ns, the pulse-tail energy of 24.6 mJ, and the pulse-tail length of 29.6 μs, 1000 shots irradiation produced the ablation depth of 988 μm. In the hole drilling of synthetic silica glass by the CO2 laser, a crack-free process was realized.

  16. Immediate retinal adhesion by CO2 laser irradiation using a fiberoptic intraocular probe.

    PubMed

    DeRowe, A; Bartov, E; Treister, G; Belkin, M; Katzir, A

    1992-01-01

    Using an experimental fiberoptically guided CO2 laser system, we produced lesions on fresh bovine retinas. These lesions were shown to achieve immediate measurable chorioretinal adhesion. This model provides preliminary data on the use of a fiberoptic CO2 laser probe to produce chorioretinal lesions and possible future use in intraocular surgery for retinal detachment. The advantages of using CO2 laser energy are minimal damage surrounding desired lesion and its versatility as a coagulator and cutter. With modifications, CO2 endolaser may have a role in intraocular surgery. PMID:1453861

  17. A power ramped pulsed mode laser piercing technique for improved CO 2 laser profile cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tirumala Rao, B.; Ittoop, M. O.; Kukreja, L. M.

    2009-11-01

    Laser piercing is one of the inevitable requirements of laser profile cutting process and it has a direct bearing on the quality of the laser cut profiles. We have developed a novel power ramped pulsed mode (PRPM) laser piercing technique to produce much finer pierced holes and to achieve a better control on the process parameters compared to the existing methodology based on normal pulsed mode (NPM). Experiments were carried out with both PRPM and NPM laser piercing on 1.5-mm-thick mild steel using an in-house developed high-power transverse flow continuous wave (CW)-CO 2 laser. Significant improvements in the spatter, circularity of the pierced hole and reproducibility were achieved through the PRPM technique. We studied, in detail, the dynamics of processes involved in PRPM laser piercing and compared that with those of the NPM piercing.

  18. Evaluation of catalyst for closed cycle operation of high energy pulsed CO2 lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rogowski, R. S.; Miller, I. M.; Wood, G.; Schryer, D. R.; Hess, R. V.; Upchurch, B. T.

    1983-01-01

    Several catalyst materials have been tested for efficiency of converting CO and O2 to CO2 for use in a high energy CO2 laser. The composition of the gas mixtures was monitored by mass spectrometry and gas chromatography. A copper/copper oxide catalyst and a platinum/tin oxide catalyst were used for closed cycle operation of a CO2 laser (0.7 joules/pulse), operating at 10 pulses/sec.

  19. Technology assessment of high pulse energy CO(2) lasers for remote sensing from satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. V.; Brockman, P.; Schryer, D. R.; Miller, I. M.; Bair, C. H.; Sidney, B. D.; Wood, G. M.; Upchurch, B. T.; Brown, K. G.

    1985-01-01

    Developments and needs for research to extend the lifetime and optimize the configuration of CO2 laser systems for satellite based on remote sensing of atmospheric wind velocities and trace gases are reviewed. The CO2 laser systems for operational satellite application will require lifetimes which exceed 1 year. Progress in the development of efficient low temperature catalysts and gas mixture modifications for extending the lifetime of high pulse energy closed cycle common and rare isotope CO2 lasers and of sealed CW CO2 lasers is reviewed. Several CO2 laser configurations are under development to meet the requirements including: unstable resonators, master oscillator power amplifiers and telescopic stable resonators, using UV or E-beam preionization. Progress in the systems is reviewed and tradeoffs in the system parameters are discussed.

  20. Effects of laser power density on static and dynamic mechanical properties of dissimilar stainless steel welded joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yan-Peng; Li, Mao-Hui; Yu, Gang; Wu, Xian-Qian; Huang, Chen-Guang; Duan, Zhu-Ping

    2012-10-01

    The mechanical properties of laser welded joints under impact loadings such as explosion and car crash etc. are critical for the engineering designs. The hardness, static and dynamic mechanical properties of AISI304 and AISI316 L dissimilar stainless steel welded joints by CO2 laser were experimentally studied. The dynamic strain-stress curves at the strain rate around 103 s-1 were obtained by the split Hopkinson tensile bar (SHTB). The static mechanical properties of the welded joints have little changes with the laser power density and all fracture occurs at 316 L side. However, the strain rate sensitivity has a strong dependence on laser power density. The value of strain rate factor decreases with the increase of laser power density. The welded joint which may be applied for the impact loading can be obtained by reducing the laser power density in the case of welding quality assurance.

  1. Contributions to the development of SLM TEA CO2 laser sources for high resolution molecular spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rob, Mohammad Abdur

    1989-03-01

    The emission spectrum of the carbon-dioxide (CO2) laser has an excellent overlap with the ro-vibrational absorption spectrum of a large number of polar molecules. Optical pumping of these molecules by CO2 lasers has produced well over 3000 far-infrared (FIR) laser lines. The molecular transitions for a large number of lines pumped by the narrow-band CW CO2 laser were identified. However, very few lines pumped by the pulsed TEA CO2 laser were assigned. This is due, in part, to the large uncertainty in both the pump and the FIR laser frequencies. Moreover, pumping with a given rotational line in the TEA CO2 laser output spectrum usually produces multiple FIR laser lines. This situation could be improved by the development of a narrow-band TEA CO2 laser, comparable in bandwidth to the width of typical absorption lines, in the FIR laser medium. Spectroscopic techniques making use of narrow-linewidth pulsed pump lasers would greatly facilitate the assignment of the infrared absorption transitions and the FIR laser lines. The narrow-linewidth pulsed laser would also be useful in many other applications. In the present series of experiments, three different techniques were investigated that produce high-power, tunable, single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) operation in a TEA CO2 laser. For the first time, the three SLM TEA CO2 laser configurations which were developed, along with another promising technique which is described in the literature, were analyzed on a common basis; so that their respective performance characteristics can be readily compared. This analysis facilitates the choice of the optimum laser system for a given task. Using a wedged etalon and a pyroelectric detector array combination, it was also shown directly that the intermodal tuning curve for the SLM TEA CO2 laser is a simple staircase function, with the laser output moving discontinuously from one mode to the next in a very regular fashion as the wavelength scan proceeds. To investigate the usefulness of

  2. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study on the corrosion of the weld zone of 3Cr steel welded joints in CO2 environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Li-ning; Zhu, Jin-yang; Lu, Min-xu; Zhang, Lei; Chang, Wei

    2015-05-01

    The welded joints of 3Cr pipeline steel were fabricated with commercial welding wire using the gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) technique. Potentiodynamic polarization curves, linear polarization resistance (LPR), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS) were used to investigate the corrosion resistance and the growth of a corrosion film on the weld zone (WZ). The changes in electrochemical characteristics of the film were obtained through fitting of the EIS data. The results showed that the average corrosion rate of the WZ in CO2 environments first increased, then fluctuated, and finally decreased gradually. The formation of the film on the WZ was divided into three stages: dynamic adsorption, incomplete-coverage layer formation, and integral layer formation.

  3. Laser Sounder Approach for Measuring Atmospheric CO2 from Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Andrews, Arlyn E.; Allan, Graham R.; Burris, John F.; Collatz, G. James; Riris, Harris; Stephen, Mark A.; Sun, Xiao-Li; Abshire, James B.

    2004-01-01

    We report on an active remote sensing approach using an erbium fiber amplifier based transmitter for atmospheric CO2 measurements in an overtone band near 1.57 microns and initial horizontal path measurements to less than 1% precision.

  4. Pulse shaping effects on weld porosity in laser beam spot welds : contrast of long- & short- pulse welds.

    SciTech Connect

    Ellison, Chad M.; Perricone, Matthew J.; Faraone, Kevin M.; Norris, Jerome T.

    2007-10-01

    Weld porosity is being investigated for long-pulse spot welds produced by high power continuous output lasers. Short-pulse spot welds (made with a pulsed laser system) are also being studied but to a much small extent. Given that weld area of a spot weld is commensurate with weld strength, the loss of weld area due to an undefined or unexpected pore results in undefined or unexpected loss in strength. For this reason, a better understanding of spot weld porosity is sought. Long-pulse spot welds are defined and limited by the slow shutter speed of most high output power continuous lasers. Continuous lasers typically ramp up to a simmer power before reaching the high power needed to produce the desired weld. A post-pulse ramp down time is usually present as well. The result is a pulse length tenths of a second long as oppose to the typical millisecond regime of the short-pulse pulsed laser. This study will employ a Lumonics JK802 Nd:YAG laser with Super Modulation pulse shaping capability and a Lasag SLS C16 40 W pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Pulse shaping will include square wave modulation of various peak powers for long-pulse welds and square (or top hat) and constant ramp down pulses for short-pulse welds. Characterization of weld porosity will be performed for both pulse welding methods.

  5. Atmospheric transmission of CO2 laser radiation with application to laser Doppler systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murty, S. S. R.

    1975-01-01

    The molecular absorption coefficients of carbon dioxide, water vapor, and nitrous oxide are calculated at the P16, P18, P20, P22, and P24 lines of the CO2 laser for temperatures from 200 to 300 K and for pressures from 100 to 1100 mb. The temperature variation of the continuum absorption coefficient of water vapor is taken into account semi-empirically from Burch's data. The total absorption coefficient from the present calculations falls within + or - 20 percent of the results of McClatchey and Selby. The transmission loss which the CO2 pulsed laser Doppler system experiences was calculated for flight test conditions for the five P-lines. The total transmission loss is approximately 7 percent higher at the P16 line and 10 percent lower at the P24 line compared to the P20 line. Comparison of the CO2 laser with HF and DF laser transmission reveals the P2(8) line at 3.8 micrometers of the DF laser is much better from the transmission point of view for altitudes below 10 km.

  6. Longitudinally excited CO2 laser with short laser pulse for hard tissue drilling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Kazuyuki; Hayashi, Hiroyuki; Akitsu, Tetsuya; Jitsuno, Takahisa

    2014-02-01

    We developed a longitudinally excited CO2 laser that produces a short laser pulse with a circular beam and a low divergence angle. The laser was very simple and consisted of a 45-cm-long alumina ceramic pipe with an inner diameter of 9 mm, a pulse power supply, a step-up transformer, a storage capacitance, and a spark-gap switch. The laser pulse had a spike pulse width of 103 ns and a pulse tail length of 32.6 μs. The beam cross-section was circular and the full-angle beam divergence was 1.7 mrad. The laser was used to drill ivory samples without carbonization at fluences of 2.3-7.1 J/cm2. The drilling depth of the dry ivory increased with the fluence. The drilling mechanism of the dry ivory was attributed to absorption of the laser light by the ivory.

  7. Advances in CO2 laser fabrication for high power fibre laser devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Keiron; Rees, Simon; Simakov, Nikita; Daniel, Jae M. O.; Swain, Robert; Mies, Eric; Hemming, Alexander; Clarkson, W. A.; Haub, John

    2016-03-01

    CO2 laser processing facilitates contamination free, rapid, precise and reproducible fabrication of devices for high power fibre laser applications. We present recent progress in fibre end-face preparation and cladding surface modification techniques. We demonstrate a fine feature CO2 laser process that yields topography significantly smaller than that achieved with typical mechanical cleaving processes. We also investigate the side processing of optical fibres for the fabrication of all-glass cladding light strippers and demonstrate extremely efficient cladding mode removal. We apply both techniques to fibres with complex designs containing multiple layers of doped and un-doped silica as well as shaped and circularly symmetric structures. Finally, we discuss the challenges and approaches to working with various fibre and glass-types.

  8. Optimization of laser welding of DP/TRIP steel sheets using statistical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisgen, U.; Schleser, M.; Mokrov, O.; Ahmed, E.

    2012-02-01

    Generally, the quality of a weld joint is directly influenced by the welding input parameter settings. Selection of proper process parameters is important to obtain the desired weld bead profile and quality. In this research work, numerical and graphical optimization techniques of the CO 2 laser beam welding of dual phase (DP600)/transformation induced plasticity (TRIP700) steel sheets were carried out using response surface methodology (RSM) based on Box-Behnken design. The procedure was established to improve the weld quality, increase the productivity and minimize the total operation cost by considering the welding parameters range of laser power (2-2.2 kW), welding speed (40-50 mm/s) and focus position (-1 to 0 mm). It was found that, RSM can be considered as a powerful tool in experimental welding optimization, even when the experimenter does not have a model for the process. Strong, efficient and low cost weld joints could be achieved using the optimum welding conditions.

  9. Hardening and welding with high-power diode lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehlers, Bodo; Herfurth, Hans-Joachim; Heinemann, Stefan

    2000-03-01

    Commercially available high power diode lasers (HPDLs) with output powers of up to 6 kW have been recognized as an interesting tool for industrial applications. In certain fields of application they offer many advantages over Nd:YAG and CO2 lasers because of their low maintenance, compact design and low capital costs. Examples of successful industrial implementation of HPDLs include plastic welding, surface hardening and heat conduction welding of stainless steel and aluminum. The joining of plastics with an HPDL offers the advantages of producing a weld seam with high strength, high consistency and superior appearance. One example is the keyless entry system introduced with the Mercedes E-class where the microelectronic circuits are embedded in a plastic housing. Other applications include instrument panels, cell phones, headlights and tail lights. Applications in the field of surface treatment of metals profit from the HPDL's inherent line-shaped focus and the homogeneous intensity distribution across this focus. An HPDL system is used within the industry to harden rails for coordinate measurement machines. This system contains a customized zoom optic to focus the laser light onto the rails. With the addition of a temperature control, even complex shapes can be hardened with a constant depth and minimum distortion.

  10. Laser detection of CO2 concentration in human breath at various diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ageev, Boris G.; Nikiforova, Olga Y.

    2015-12-01

    Absorption spectra of human breath in 10 μm region were recorded by the use of intracavity laser photo-acoustic gas analyzer based on tunable waveguide CO2 laser. Healthy persons and patients with various diseases were studied. For determination of CO2 concentration in exhalation samples gas analyzer was calibrated by reference gaseous mixture CO2-N2. It was obtained that CO2 concentration values in human breath of healthy persons are greater than that of patients with various diseases.

  11. Raman Spectroscopic Measurements of Co2 Dissolved in Seawater for Laser Remote Sensing in Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Somekawa, Toshihiro; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-06-01

    We examined the applicability of Raman lidar technique as a laser remote sensing tool in water. The Raman technique has already been used successfully for measurements of CO2 gas dissolved in water and bubbles. Here, the effect of seawater on CO2 Raman spectra has been evaluated. A frequency doubled Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (532 nm) was irradiated to CO2 gas dissolved in a standard seawater. In seawater, the Raman signals at 984 and 1060-1180 cm-1 from SO42- were detected, which shows no spectral interference caused by Raman signals derived from CO2.

  12. Cryogen spray cooling during laser tissue welding.

    PubMed

    Fried, N M; Walsh, J T

    2000-03-01

    Cryogen cooling during laser tissue welding was explored as a means of reducing lateral thermal damage near the tissue surface and shortening operative time. Two centimetre long full-thickness incisions were made on the epilated backs of guinea pigs, in vivo. India ink was applied to the incision edges then clamps were used to appose the edges. A 4 mm diameter beam of 16 W, continuous-wave, 1.06 microm, Nd:YAG laser radiation was scanned over the incisions, producing approximately 100 ms pulses. There was a delay of 2 s between scans. The total irradiation time was varied from 1-2 min. Cryogen was delivered to the weld site through a solenoid valve in spurt durations of 20, 60 and 100 ms. The time between spurts was either 2 or 4 s, corresponding to one spurt every one or two laser scans. Histology and tensile strength measurements were used to evaluate laser welds. Total irradiation times were reduced from 10 min without surface cooling to under 1 min with surface cooling. The thermal denaturation profile showed less denaturation in the papillary dermis than in the mid-dermis. Welds created using optimized irradiation and cooling parameters had significantly higher tensile strengths (1.7 +/- 0.4 kg cm(-2)) than measured in the control studies without cryogen cooling (1.0 +/- 0.2 kg cm(-2)) (p < 0.05). Cryogen cooling of the tissue surface during laser welding results in increased weld strengths while reducing thermal damage and operative times. Long-term studies will be necessary to determine weld strengths and the amount of scarring during wound healing.

  13. A new frontier in CO2 flux measurements using a highly portable DIAL laser system

    PubMed Central

    Queiβer, Manuel; Granieri, Domenico; Burton, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Volcanic CO2 emissions play a key role in the geological carbon cycle, and monitoring of volcanic CO2 fluxes helps to forecast eruptions. The quantification of CO2 fluxes is challenging due to rapid dilution of magmatic CO2 in CO2-rich ambient air and the diffuse nature of many emissions, leading to large uncertainties in the global magmatic CO2 flux inventory. Here, we report measurements using a new DIAL laser remote sensing system for volcanic CO2 (CO2DIAL). Two sites in the volcanic zone of Campi Flegrei (Italy) were scanned, yielding CO2 path-amount profiles used to compute fluxes. Our results reveal a relatively high CO2 flux from Campi Flegrei, consistent with an increasing trend. Unlike previous methods, the CO2DIAL is able to measure integrated CO2 path-amounts at distances up to 2000 m using virtually any solid surface as a reflector, whilst also being highly portable. This opens a new frontier in quantification of geological and anthropogenic CO2 fluxes. PMID:27652775

  14. Temperature control during laser vessel welding.

    PubMed

    Springer, T A; Welch, A J

    1993-02-01

    A technique is described for the computer control of temperature during laser vessel welding. The technique is based on the use of thermal feedback from a calibrated IR sensor. The utilization of thermalfeedback makes it possible for welding to be performed at a quasiconstant temperature. An experimentalsystem based on this concept has been developed and evaluated in mock anastomoses with vasculartissue. A computer simulation of laser vessel welding with a one-dimensional heat conduction model hasbeen performed. Model parameters have been adjusted so that the relative effect of laser penetrationdepth and tissue dehydration as well as the role of thermal feedback in limiting the peak surfacetemperature can be studied. The results of the mock anastomoses are discussed in light of the computer model.

  15. Laser assisted arc welding for aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerschbach, P.W.

    2000-01-01

    Experiments have been performed using a coaxial end-effector to combine a focused laser beam and a plasma arc. The device employs a hollow tungsten electrode, a focusing lens, and conventional plasma arc torch nozzles to co-locate the focused beam and arc on the workpiece. Plasma arc nozzles were selected to protect the electrode from laser generated metal vapor. The project goal is to develop an improved fusion welding process that exhibits both absorption robustness and deep penetration for small scale (<1.5 mm thickness) applications. On aluminum alloys 6061 and 6111, the hybrid process has been shown to eliminate hot cracking in the fusion zone. Fusion zone dimensions for both stainless steel and aluminum were found to be wider than characteristic laser welds, and deeper than characteristic plasma arc welds.

  16. CO2 laser arthroscopy-through the arthroscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrick, James G.

    1990-06-01

    Orthopedists have been among the last of the specialists to utilize lasers in surgery. Even today, laser usage in orthopedics is almost exclusively limited to arthroscopy procedures. Although other types of lasers have been approved for use in orthopedics, nearly all laser-assisted arthroscopic procedures have involved the carbon dioxide laser in the knee. These techniques involve skills and problems not previously encountered. In an attempt to simplify the usage and circumvent some of the problems, we describe a means of laser energy delivery through the arthroscope.

  17. Mode selection and frequency tuning by injection in pulsed TEA-CO2 lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flamant, P. H.; Menzies, R. T.

    1983-01-01

    An analytical model characterizing pulsed-TEA-CO2-laser injection locking by tunable CW-laser radiation is presented and used to explore the requirements for SLM pulse generation. Photon-density-rate equations describing the laser mechanism are analyzed in terms of the mode competition between photon densities emitted at two frequencies. The expression derived for pulsed dye lasers is extended to homogeneously broadened CO2 lasers, and locking time is defined as a function of laser parameters. The extent to which injected radiation can be detuned from the CO2 line center and continue to produce SLM pulses is investigated experimentally in terms of the analytical framework. The dependence of locking time on the detuning/pressure-broadened-halfwidth ratio is seen as important for spectroscopic applications requiring tuning within the TEA-laser line-gain bandwidth.

  18. Comparative study of upper lip frenectomy with the CO2 laser versus the Er, Cr: YSGG laser

    PubMed Central

    Pié-Sánchez, Jordi; España-Tost, Antonio J.; Arnabat-Domínguez, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To compare upper lip frenulum reinsertion, bleeding, surgical time and surgical wound healing in frenectomies performed with the CO2 laser versus the Er, Cr:YSGG laser. Study design: A prospective study was carried out on 50 randomized pediatric patients who underwent rhomboidal resection of the upper lip frenulum with either the CO2 laser or the Er,Cr:YSGG laser. Twenty-five patients were assigned to each laser system. All patients were examined at 7, 14, 21 days and 4 months after the operation in order to assess the surgical wound healing. Results: Insertion of the frenulum, which was preoperatively located between the upper central incisors, migrated to the mucogingival junction as a result of using both laser systems in all patients. Only two patients required a single dose of 650 mg of paracetamol, one of either study group. CO2 laser registered improved intraoperative bleeding control results and shorter surgical times. On the other hand, the Er,Cr:YSGG laser achieved faster healing. Conclusions: Upper lip laser frenectomy is a simple technique that results in minimum or no postoperative swelling or pain, and which involves upper lip frenulum reinsertion at the mucogingival junction. The CO2 laser offers a bloodless field and shorter surgical times compared with the Er,Cr:YSGG laser. On the other hand, the Er,Cr:YSGG laser achieved faster wound healing. Key words:Frenectomy, upper lip frenulum, CO2 laser, Er,Cr:YSGG laser, laser. PMID:22143683

  19. Processing of concretes with a high power CO 2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, B. Tirumala; Kumar, Harish; Nath, A. K.

    2005-07-01

    Laser material processing, being a non-contact process, minimizes many of the complexities involved in the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. A high power laser beam incident on a concrete surface can produce spalling, glazing or vaporization, depending upon the laser power density and scan speed. This paper presents effect of various laser processing parameters on the efficiency of material removal by surface spalling and glazing. The size of laser beam at constant fluence or energy density had significantly different effect on the spalling process. In thick concrete block cutting the flow or removal of molten material limits the cutting depth. By employing repeated laser glazing followed by mechanical scrubbing process cutting of 150 mm thick concrete block was carried out. Gravitation force was utilized for molten materials to flow out while drilling holes on vertical concrete walls. The dependence of the incident laser beam angle on drilling time was experimentally studied.

  20. High-power Laser Welding of Thick Steel-aluminum Dissimilar Joints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahdo, Rabi; Springer, André; Pfeifer, Ronny; Kaierle, Stefan; Overmeyer, Ludger

    According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), a worldwide reduction of CO2-emissions is indispensable to avoid global warming. Besides the automotive sector, lightweight construction is also of high interest for the maritime industry in order to minimize CO2-emissions. Using aluminum, the weight of ships can be reduced, ensuring lower fuel consumption. Therefore, hybrid joints of steel and aluminum are of great interest to the maritime industry. In order to provide an efficient lap joining process, high-power laser welding of thick steel plates (S355, t = 5 mm) and aluminum plates (EN AW-6082, t = 8 mm) is investigated. As the weld seam quality greatly depends on the amount of intermetallic phases within the joint, optimized process parameters and control are crucial. Using high-power laser welding, a tensile strength of 10 kN was achieved. Based on metallographic analysis, hardness tests, and tensile tests the potential of this joining method is presented.

  1. Shape memory effect of laser welded NiTi plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, J. P.; Fernandes, F. M. Braz; Schell, N.; Miranda, R. M.

    2015-07-01

    Laser welding is a suitable joining technique for shape memory alloys (SMAs). This paper reports the existence of shape memory effect (SME) on laser welded NiTi joints, subjected to bending tests, and correlates this effect with the microstructural analysis performed with X-ray diffraction (XRD). All welded samples were able to recover their initial shape after bending to 180°, which is a remarkable result for industrial applications of NiTi involving laser welding.

  2. Differences between Laser and Arc Welding of HSS Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Němeček, Stanislav; Mužík, Tomáš; Míšek, Michal

    Conventional welding processes often fail to provide adequate joints in high strength steels with multiphase microstructures. One of the promising techniques is laser beam welding: working without filler metal and with sufficient capacity for automotive and transportation industry (where the amount of AHSS steels increases each year, as well as the length of laser welds). The paper compares microstructures and properties of HSS (high strength steel) joints made by MAG (Metal Active Gas) and laser welding. The effects of main welding parameters (heat input, welding speed and others) are studied on multiphase TRIP 900 steel tubes and martensitic sheets DOCOL 1200, advanced materials for seat frames and other automotive components. Whereas the strength of conventional welds is significantly impaired, laser welding leaves strength of the base material nearly unaffected. As the nature of fracture changes during loading and depending on the welding method, failure mechanisms upon cross tension tests have been studied as well.

  3. Automatic laser welding of metal bellows with precision seam tracker

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, D.U.

    1996-12-31

    Metal bellows were laser edge-welded satisfactorily with the aid of a precision seam tracking system. The welding speed was five to ten times faster than conventional arc welding. The weld quality was excellent and the cost savings are expected to be substantial.

  4. Laser welding of bone: Successful in vitro experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mourant, J.R.; Anderson, G.D.; Bigio, I.J.; Johnson, T.M.

    1994-02-01

    A method for ``welding`` bones is being developed. Tensile joint strengths of chicken bones welded in vitro have exceeded one kilogram. Welding was performed with either a Nd:YAG (1064 nm) or a diode laser (820 nm). Light was delivered with an optical fiber held a few millimeters from the bone surface. A solder was developed to assist in the welding process.

  5. Scaling laws for the intrapulse frequency stability of an injection mode selected TEA CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willetts, D. V.; Harris, M. R.

    1983-05-01

    Heterodyne measurements of the intrapulse frequency behavior of an injection mode selected TEA CO2 laser are presented. The frequency rose as the square of time at a rate varying linearly with energy and strongly dependent on spot size. These results are in accordance with a laser induced medium perturbative (LIMP) model, which allows the chirp in any TEA laser system to be predicted.

  6. Simulation of planetary entry radiative heating with a CO2 gasdynamic laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lundell, J. H.; Dickey, R. R.; Howe, J. T.

    1975-01-01

    Heating encountered during entry into the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn, and Uranus is described, followed by a discussion of the use of a CO2 gasdynamic laser to simulate the radiative component of the heating. Operation and performance of the laser is briefly described. Finally, results of laser tests of some candidate heat-shield materials are presented.

  7. Transendoscopic application of CO2 laser irradiation using the OmniGuide fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Lloyd P., Jr.; Elce, Yvonne A.

    2005-04-01

    Transendoscopic laser surgery has been performed in large animals since 1984. It is used to treat many upper respiratory disorders, as well as urogenital diseases. Initially, the Nd:YAG laser was the laser of choice until the early 1990's, when smaller, more compact diode lasers entered the veterinary field. In the mid 1980's, several attempts were made to transmit CO2 laser energy transendoscopically. True success was not obtained until 2004 when the OmniGuide CO2 Laser Hollow Light Guide (fiber) was fabricated. Although there is attenuation of energy, this very flexible fiber allows the CO2 laser to be used transendoscopically for incision and ablation of tissue. Both healing and recuperation time are reduced, compared to other wavelengths transmitted through solid quartz fiber. The OmniGuide fiber can be coupled to the output ports of CO2 lasers commonly used in veterinary medicine. Transendoscopic application of the CO2 laser is advantageous in that there is no endoscopic white-out, no volume heating of tissue, and it provides accurate means of performing upper respiratory surgery in the standing large animal.

  8. Fiber optically guided CO2 laser myringotomy through an otoscope: animal experimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeRowe, Ari; Ophir, Dov; Katzir, Abraham

    1992-08-01

    We have developed an otoscope which contains an optical fiber capable of transmitting CO2 laser energy. Such a hand-held unit may prove useful in the treatment of acute otitis media and otitis media with effusion. We used crystalline fibers (0.9 mm diameter) capable of transmitting CO2 laser energy. Four guinea pigs were anaesthetized. In one ear a laser myringotomy was performed using 7.5 watts for 0.1 seconds. The diameter of the myringotomy was 1.5 mm. In the other ear a similar conventional myringotomy was performed. After three weeks three laser and three conventional myringotomies were closed. On the average conventional myringotomies closed 50% sooner than laser myringotomies. Temporal bones from three guinea pigs were removed and sectioned according to accepted methods. No histological differences were found between ears. This experiment has proven the feasibility of using an otoscope for fiberoptically guided CO2 laser myringotomy.

  9. A computer program for the design of optimum catalytic monoliths for CO2 lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinn, K.; Goldblum, S.; Noskowski, E.; Herz, R.

    1990-01-01

    Pulsed CO2 lasers have many applications in aeronautics, space research, weather monitoring and other areas. Full exploitation of the potential of these lasers is hampered by the dissociation of CO2 that occurs during laser operation. The development of closed-cycle CO2 lasers requires active CO-O2 recombination (CO oxidation) catalysts and design methods for implementation of catalysts inside lasers. The performance criteria and constraints involved in the design of catalyst configurations for use in a closed-cycle laser are discussed, and several design studies performed with a computerized design program that was written are presented. Trade-offs between catalyst activity and dimensions, flow channel dimensions, pressure drop, O2 conversion and other variables are discussed.

  10. 'Design of CO-O2 recombination catalysts for closed-cycle CO2 lasers'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinn, K.; Goldblum, S.; Noskowski, E.; Herz, R.

    1989-01-01

    Pulsed CO2 lasers have many applications in aeronautics, space research, weather monitoring and other areas. Full exploitation of the potential of these lasers is hampered by the dissociation of CO2 that occurs during laser operation. The development of closed-cycle CO2 lasers requires active CO-O2 recombination (CO oxidation) catalysts and design methods for implementation of catalysts inside lasers. This paper will discuss the performance criteria and constraints involved in the design of monolith catalyst configurations for use in a closed-cycle laser and will present a design study performed with a computerized design program that had been written. Trade-offs between catalyst activity and dimensions, flow channel dimensions, pressure drop, O2 conversion and other variables will be discussed.

  11. Predicting laser weld reliability with stochastic reduced-order models. Predicting laser weld reliability

    SciTech Connect

    Emery, John M.; Field, Richard V.; Foulk, James W.; Karlson, Kyle N.; Grigoriu, Mircea D.

    2015-05-26

    Laser welds are prevalent in complex engineering systems and they frequently govern failure. The weld process often results in partial penetration of the base metals, leaving sharp crack-like features with a high degree of variability in the geometry and material properties of the welded structure. Furthermore, accurate finite element predictions of the structural reliability of components containing laser welds requires the analysis of a large number of finite element meshes with very fine spatial resolution, where each mesh has different geometry and/or material properties in the welded region to address variability. We found that traditional modeling approaches could not be efficiently employed. Consequently, a method is presented for constructing a surrogate model, based on stochastic reduced-order models, and is proposed to represent the laser welds within the component. Here, the uncertainty in weld microstructure and geometry is captured by calibrating plasticity parameters to experimental observations of necking as, because of the ductility of the welds, necking – and thus peak load – plays the pivotal role in structural failure. The proposed method is exercised for a simplified verification problem and compared with the traditional Monte Carlo simulation with rather remarkable results.

  12. Predicting laser weld reliability with stochastic reduced-order models. Predicting laser weld reliability

    DOE PAGES

    Emery, John M.; Field, Richard V.; Foulk, James W.; Karlson, Kyle N.; Grigoriu, Mircea D.

    2015-05-26

    Laser welds are prevalent in complex engineering systems and they frequently govern failure. The weld process often results in partial penetration of the base metals, leaving sharp crack-like features with a high degree of variability in the geometry and material properties of the welded structure. Furthermore, accurate finite element predictions of the structural reliability of components containing laser welds requires the analysis of a large number of finite element meshes with very fine spatial resolution, where each mesh has different geometry and/or material properties in the welded region to address variability. We found that traditional modeling approaches could not bemore » efficiently employed. Consequently, a method is presented for constructing a surrogate model, based on stochastic reduced-order models, and is proposed to represent the laser welds within the component. Here, the uncertainty in weld microstructure and geometry is captured by calibrating plasticity parameters to experimental observations of necking as, because of the ductility of the welds, necking – and thus peak load – plays the pivotal role in structural failure. The proposed method is exercised for a simplified verification problem and compared with the traditional Monte Carlo simulation with rather remarkable results.« less

  13. Use of CO2 laser gingivoplasty in heart-transplant subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rysky, Carlo; Forni, Franco

    1992-08-01

    In this work we observed the result of CO2 laser surgery used to remove hyperplastic gingiva in patients who were under cyclosporine maintenance treatment after they underwent heart transplant. The objectives were to reduce, as much as possible, bleeding, to avoid any subsequent intervention to remove stitches, and to minimize the operatory and postoperatory discomfort for the patient. Our data confirm the advantages of CO2 laser surgery when used to remove overgrowing tissue in accessible areas.

  14. CO2 laser microsurgeries in treatment of larynx pathological changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kus, Jan; Osmolski, Antoni; Kubiczek-Jagielska, Marzena; Frenkiel, Zofia; Milczarek, Katarzyna

    1996-03-01

    The results of the laser microsurgical treatment of the 273 patients with different pathological changes in the larynx are presented in the paper. In this number are included cases with tumors (80), precancers (40), papillomatosis (17), and stenosis of the larynx (71). Patients were treated with carbon-dioxide surgical laser with the laser beam power ranging from 12 to 28 watts depending on the pathology and its advance. Positive results of the treatment were observed in 73% to 100% of cases in different groups of patients. The authors suggest that in some cases the carbon-dioxide laser is only an alternative tool but in many cases, e.g., in papillomatosis, it is much better than traditional equipment. There are also cases such as hemangioma where the laser is an unreplaceable surgical technique.

  15. High repetition rate sealed CO2 TEA lasers using heterogeneous catalysts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Price, H. T.; Shaw, S. R.

    1987-01-01

    The significant operational advantages offered by CO2 lasers, operating in the 10.6 micron region of the spectrum, over current solid state lasers, emitting in the near IR region, have prompted increased interest in the development of compact, reliable, rugged CO2 laser sources. Perhaps the most critical aspect associated with achieving a laser compatible with military use is the development of lasers which require no gas replenishment. Sealed, single shot, CO2 TEA lasers have been available for a number of years. Stark et al were first to demonstrate reliable sealed operation in single shot CO2 TEA lasers in 1975 using gas catalysis. GEC Avionics reported the compact, environmentally qualified, MKIII CO2 TEA laser with a pulse life of greater than 10 to the 6th power pulses in 1980. A sealed laser lifetime of greater than 10 to the 6th power pulses is acceptable for single shot cases, such as direct detection rangefinders for tank laser sights. However, in many other applications, such as tracking of fast moving targets, it is essential that a repetition rate of typically 30Hz to 100Hz is employed. In such cases, a pulse lifetime of 10 to the 6th power pulses is no longer sufficient and a minimum pulse lifetime 10 to the 7th power pulses is essential to ensure a useful service life. In 1983 Stark el al described a sealed, 100Hz CO2 TEA laser, with a life of greater than 2.6 x 10 to the 6th power, which employed heterogeneous catalysis. Following this pioneering work, GEC Avionics has been engaged in the development of sealed high repetition rate lasers with a pulse lifetime of 20 million pulses.

  16. Plasma Plume Oscillations Monitoring during Laser Welding of Stainless Steel by Discrete Wavelet Transform Application

    PubMed Central

    Sibillano, Teresa; Ancona, Antonio; Rizzi, Domenico; Lupo, Valentina; Tricarico, Luigi; Lugarà, Pietro Mario

    2010-01-01

    The plasma optical radiation emitted during CO2 laser welding of stainless steel samples has been detected with a Si-PIN photodiode and analyzed under different process conditions. The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) has been used to decompose the optical signal into various discrete series of sequences over different frequency bands. The results show that changes of the process settings may yield different signal features in the range of frequencies between 200 Hz and 30 kHz. Potential applications of this method to monitor in real time the laser welding processes are also discussed. PMID:22319311

  17. Measurements of sulfur compounds in CO 2 by diode laser atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Franzke, J.; Stancu, D. G.; Niemax, K.

    2003-07-01

    Two simple methods for the analysis of the total concentration of sulfur in CO 2 by diode laser atomic absorption spectrometry of excited, metastable sulfur atoms in a direct current discharge are presented. In the first method, the CO 2 sample gas is mixed with the plasma gas (Ar or He) while the second is based on reproducible measurements of the sulfur released from the walls in a helium discharge after being deposited as a result of operating the discharge in pure CO 2 sample gas. The detection limits obtained satisfy the requirements for the control of sulfur compounds in CO 2 used in the food and beverage industry.

  18. Latest MIG, TIG arc-YAG laser hybrid welding systems for various welding products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishide, Takashi; Tsubota, Shuho; Watanabe, Masao

    2003-03-01

    Laser welding is capable of high-efficiency low-strain welding, and so its applications are started to various products. We have also put the high-power YAG laser of up to 10 kW to practical welding use for various products. On the other hand the weakest point of this laser welding is considered to be strict in the welding gap aiming allowance. In order to solve this problem, we have developed hybrid welding of TIG, MIG arc and YAG laser, taking the most advantages of both the laser and arc welding. Since the electrode is coaxial to the optical axis of the YAG laser in this process, it can be applied to welding of various objects. In the coaxial MIG, TIG-YAG welding, in order to make irradiation positions of the YAG laser beams having been guided in a wire or an electrode focused to the same position, the beam transmitted in fibers is separated to form a space between the separated beams, in which the laser is guided. With this method the beam-irradiating area can be brought near or to the arc-generating point. This enables welding of all directions even for the member of a three-dimensional shape. This time we carried out welding for various materials and have made their welding of up to 1 mm or more in welding groove gap possible. We have realized high-speed 1-pass butt welding of 4m/min in welding speed with the laser power of 3 kW for an aluminum alloy plate of approximately 4 mm thick. For a mild steel plate also we have realized butt welding of 1m/min with 5 kW for 6 mm thick. Further, in welding of stainless steel we have shown its welding possibility, by stabilizing the arc with the YAG laser in the welding atmosphere of pure argon, and shown that this welding is effective in high-efficiency welding of various materials. Here we will report the fundamental welding performances and applications to various objects for the coaxial MIG, TIG-YAG welding we have developed.

  19. Effect of scanned quasi-cw CO2 laser irradiation on tissue thermal damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domankevitz, Yacov; Bua, Dominic; Chung, Jina; Hanel, Edward; Silver, Geoffrey; Nishioka, Norman S.

    1994-08-01

    Residual thermal damage produced by a scanned quasi cw CO2 laser was measured in pig skin. The effects of scan speed on thermal damage distribution for laser dwell times ranging between 1 and 150 msec were examined. Significantly larger thermal damage zones were produced along the crater wall for laser dwell times longer than 50 msec. Thermal damage along the crater base was constant independent of dwell time. The preliminary experimental results suggest that quasi cw CO2 can consistently produce less than 200 micrometers zones of thermal damage if laser parameters are carefully chosen.

  20. Life test results for an ensemble of CO2 lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peruso, C. J.; Degnan, J. J.; Hochuli, U. E.

    1978-01-01

    The effects of cathode material, cathode operating temperature, anode configuration, window materials, and hydrogen additives on laser lifetime are determined. Internally oxidized copper and silber-copper alloy cathodes were tested. The cathode operating temperature was raised in some tubes through the use of thermal insulation. Lasers incorporating thermally insulated silver copper oxide cathodes clearly yielded the longest lifetimes-typically in excess of 22,000 hours. The use of platinum sheet versus platinum pin anodes had no observable effect on laser lifetime. Similarly, the choice of germanium, cadmium telluride, or zinc selenide as the optical window material appears to have no impact on lifetime.

  1. 2.15 Micron Laser Welding Of Gallbladder Tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treat, Michael R.; Oz, Mehmet C.; Popp, Howard W.

    1989-09-01

    Laser welding of biliary tissues would be a valuable technique in conventional and endoscopic surgery. Laser welding would allow the avoidance of potentially lithogenic suture material as a sequela to biliary tract surgery. Laser welding would be compatable from the surgical technical standpoint with fiberoptic endoscopic intrumentation. The 2.15 micron thulium-holmium-chromium laser offers tissue penetration on the order of a few hundred microns. We have hypothesized that this laser might be well suited to performing biliary tissue welding. We evaluated this laser in vitro using canine gallbladder tissue and we were able to achieve histologically satisfactory tissue fusion and immediate bursting strengths above physiologically encountered biliary pressures.

  2. Development of a Pulsed 2-micron Laser Transmitter for CO2 Sensing from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Yu, Jirong; Bai, Yingxin; Petros, Mulugeta; Menzies, Robert T.

    2011-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC), in collaboration with NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), is engaged in the development and demonstration of a highly efficient, versatile, 2-micron pulsed laser that can be used in a pulsed Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL)/Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) instrument to make precise, high-resolution CO2 measurements to investigate sources, sinks, and fluxes of CO2. This laser transmitter will feature performance characteristics needed for an ASCENDS system that will be capable of delivering the CO2 measurement precision required by the Earth Science Decadal Survey (DS).

  3. Laser welding of automotive aluminum alloys to achieve defect-free, structurally sound and reliable welds

    SciTech Connect

    DebRoy, T.

    2000-11-17

    The objective of this program was to seek improved process control and weldment reliability during laser welding of automotive aluminum alloys while retaining the high speed and accuracy of the laser beam welding process. The effects of various welding variables on the loss of alloying elements and the formation of porosity and other geometric weld defects such as underfill and overfill were studied both experimentally and theoretically.

  4. Designing Catalytic Monoliths For Closed-Cycle CO2 Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinn, Keith; Herz, Richard K.; Goldblum, Seth; Noskowski, ED

    1992-01-01

    LASCAT (Design of Catalytic Monoliths for Closed-Cycle Carbon Dioxide Lasers) computer program aids in design of catalyst in monolith by simulating effects of design decisions on performance of laser. Provides opportunity for designer to explore tradeoffs among activity and dimensions of catalyst, dimensions of monolith, pressure drop caused by flow of gas through monolith, conversion of oxygen, and other variables. Written in FORTRAN 77.

  5. Effects of relative positioning of energy sources on weld integrity for hybrid laser arc welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shuangyu; Li, Yanqing; Liu, Fengde; Zhang, Hong; Ding, Hongtao

    2016-06-01

    This study is concerned with the effects of laser and arc arrangement on weld integrity for the hybrid laser arc welding processes. Experiments were conducted for a high-strength steel using a 4 kW Nd: YAG laser and a metal active gas (MAG) welding facility under two configurations of arc-laser hybrid welding (ALHW) and laser-arc hybrid welding (LAHW). Metallographic analysis and mechanical testing were performed to evaluate the weld integrity in terms of weld bead geometry, microstructure and mechanical properties. The morphology of the weld bead cross-section was studied and the typical macrostructure of the weld beads appeared to be cone-shaped and cocktail cup-shaped under ALHW and LAHW configurations, respectively. The weld integrity attributes of microstructure, phase constituents and microhardness were analyzed for different weld regions. The tensile and impact tests were performed and fracture surface morphology was analyzed by scanning electron microscope. The study showed that ALHW produced joints with a better weld shape and a more uniform microstructure of lath martensite, while LAHW weld had a heterogeneous structure of lath martensite and austenite.

  6. 10-year experience of CO2-laser application in ambulance gynecology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stachanov, Michael L.; Masychev, Victor I.; Velsher, Leonid Z.; Kirkin, Vladimir V.; Zhashkov, Roman V.; Kocharian, Emilia A.

    2000-10-01

    CO2-laser surgical systems have come to stay in everyday practice of modern physicians and are successfully used in colposcopic and laparoscopic surgery. Results, obtained in ambulance gynecology are especially impressing. CO2- laser provides high medical- and cost-effective treatment. Presented work describes many-years experience of CO2- laser application. 439 patients with various vulvaric and cervix diseases were operated within this period. Laser beam parameters were selected according to requirements ((tau) =4 J/cm2) treatment without carbonization. Analyses of the results showed that the laser successfully destructs uterine cervix erosion, endocervicosis, dysplasia, leukoplakia, eritoplakia of uterine cervix, various benignant pathologies and focus degenerative process in ambulate conditions.

  7. BESTIA - the next generation ultra-fast CO2 laser for advanced accelerator research

    DOE PAGES

    Pogorelsky, Igor V.; Babzien, Markus; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Skaritka, John; Polyanskiy, Mikhail N.

    2015-12-02

    Over the last two decades, BNL’s ATF has pioneered the use of high-peak power CO2 lasers for research in advanced accelerators and radiation sources. In addition, our recent developments in ion acceleration, Compton scattering, and IFELs have further underscored the benefits from expanding the landscape of strong-field laser interactions deeper into the mid-infrared (MIR) range of wavelengths. This extension validates our ongoing efforts in advancing CO2 laser technology, which we report here. Our next-generation, multi-terawatt, femtosecond CO2 laser will open new opportunities for studying ultra-relativistic laser interactions with plasma in the MIR spectral domain, including new regimes in the particlemore » acceleration of ions and electrons.« less

  8. BESTIA - The next generation ultra-fast CO2 laser for advanced accelerator research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pogorelsky, Igor V.; Babzien, Markus; Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Skaritka, John; Polyanskiy, Mikhail N.

    2016-09-01

    Over the last two decades, BNL's ATF has pioneered the use of high-peak power CO2 lasers for research in advanced accelerators and radiation sources. Our recent developments in ion acceleration, Compton scattering, and IFELs have further underscored the benefits from expanding the landscape of strong-field laser interactions deeper into the mid-infrared (MIR) range of wavelengths. This extension validates our ongoing efforts in advancing CO2 laser technology, which we report here. Our next-generation, multi-terawatt, femtosecond CO2 laser will open new opportunities for studying ultra-relativistic laser interactions with plasma in the MIR spectral domain, including new regimes in the particle acceleration of ions and electrons.

  9. Design of gas circulation system in the high power fast axial flow CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hongyan; Wang, Youqing; Li, Qing; Jia, Xinting

    2009-08-01

    Increasing the output power of the fast axial flow CO2 laser requires a proportional growth of the mass flow with the laser power for convective cooling of the active laser medium. The previous research on high power CO2 laser was mostly focused on gas discharge. However, little attention was focused on the gas circulation system, which is also an essential technology to ensure the long time stable work of the high power fast axial flow CO2 laser. Based on the analysis of the characteristics of the 7 KW fast axial flow CO2 laser, expounded the important role of the gas circulation system, and then analyzed the parameters, the structure and the design of the system. After that, this paper compared various types of blowers and heat exchangers, chose magnetic levitation radial turbine blower and rectangle finned heat exchanger, in light of the prominent performance and compact structure. Further more, this paper also supplied the methods of the blower and heat exchanger selection and design. The results indicate that the magnetic levitation radial turbine blower and rectangle finned heat exchanger which have been chosen are suitable to the 7 kW fast axial flow CO2 laser.

  10. Accelerator mass spectrometry 14C determination in CO2 produced from laser decomposition of aragonite.

    PubMed

    Rosenheim, Brad E; Thorrold, Simon R; Roberts, Mark L

    2008-11-01

    The determination of (14)C in aragonite (CaCO(3)) decomposed thermally to CO(2) using an yttrium-aluminum-garnet doped neodymium laser is reported. Laser decomposition accelerator mass spectrometry (LD-AMS) measurements reproduce AMS determinations of (14)C from the conventional reaction of aragonite with concentrated phosphoric acid. The lack of significant differences between these sets of measurements indicates that LD-AMS radiocarbon dating can overcome the significant fractionation that has been observed during stable isotope (C and O) laser decomposition analysis of different carbonate minerals. The laser regularly converted nearly 30% of material removed into CO(2) despite it being optimized for ablation, where laser energy breaks material apart rather than chemically altering it. These results illustrate promise for using laser decomposition on the front-end of AMS systems that directly measure CO(2) gas. The feasibility of such measurements depends on (1) the improvement of material removal and/or CO(2) generation efficiency of the laser decomposition system and (2) the ionization efficiency of AMS systems measuring continuously flowing CO(2).

  11. Effects of xenon cover gas in CO/sub 2/ laser welding

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrix, T.L.

    1980-07-01

    Weld spatter in CO/sub 2/ laser welding is detrimental to miniature components. The effects of using xenon gas as an inert laser welding atmosphere to reduce weld spatter are discussed. The laser plume characteristics, weld penetration, and weld spatter are evaluated.

  12. Speckle reduction in CO2 heterodyne laser radar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lutzmann, Peter; Ebert, Reinhard R.

    1990-10-01

    A limitation of heterodyne C02-laser radars results from the statistical properties of speckle effects. Suppression of speckle influence by adding uncorrelated speckle pattern was experimentally studied. Using a space separation technique involving a quadrant detector allows to 'look' at different parts of the laser spot on the target at the same time. By choosing the proper diameter of the receiver optics nearly uncorrelated signals are seen with the four detector elements. The signal statistics was measured for direct and heterodyne detection. The achieved improvement in the signal probability distribution and in the contrast were compared with theory. The measurements were done with both a laboratory setup and with the Ff0 Laser-Radar-System BASIS 2.

  13. The e-beam sustained CO2 laser amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, M. J.; Shaw, S. R.; Evans, M. H.; Smith, I. M.; Holman, W.

    1990-01-01

    The design features of an e-beam sustained CO2 amplifier are described. The amplifier is designed specifically as a catalyst test-bed to study the performance of room temperature precious metal CO-oxidation catalysts under e-beam sustained operation. The amplifier has been designed to provide pulse durations of 30 microseconds in a discharge volume of 2 litres. With a gas flow velocity of 2 metres per second, operation at repetition rates of 10 Hz is accommodated. The system is designed for sealed-off operation and a catalyst bed is housed in the gas circulation system downstream from the discharge region. CO and oxygen monitors are used for diagnosis of gas composition in the amplifier so that catalyst performance can be monitored in situ during sealed lifetests.

  14. Intraoral laser welding: ultrastructural and mechanical analysis to compare laboratory laser and dental laser.

    PubMed

    Fornaini, Carlo; Passaretti, Francesca; Villa, Elena; Rocca, Jean-Paul; Merigo, Elisabetta; Vescovi, Paolo; Meleti, Marco; Manfredi, Maddalena; Nammour, Samir

    2011-07-01

    The Nd:YAG laser has been used since 1970 in dental laboratories to weld metals on dental prostheses. Recently in several clinical cases, we have suggested that the Nd:YAG laser device commonly utilized in the dental office could be used to repair broken fixed, removable and orthodontic prostheses and to weld metals directly in the mouth. The aim of this work was to evaluate, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), the quality of the weld and its mechanical strength, comparing a device normally used in dental laboratory and a device normally used in the dental office for oral surgery, the same as that described for intraoral welding. Metal plates of a Co-Cr-Mo dental alloy and steel orthodontic wires were subjected to four welding procedures: welding without filler metal using the laboratory laser, welding with filler metal using the laboratory laser, welding without filler metal using the office laser, and welding with filler metal using the office laser. The welded materials were then analysed by SEM, EDS and DMA. SEM analysis did not show significant differences between the samples although the plates welded using the office laser without filler metal showed a greater number of fissures than the other samples. EDS microanalysis of the welding zone showed a homogeneous composition of the metals. Mechanical tests showed similar elastic behaviours of the samples, with minimal differences between the samples welded with the two devices. No wire broke even under the maximum force applied by the analyser. This study seems to demonstrate that the welds produced using the office Nd:YAG laser device and the laboratory Nd:YAG laser device, as analysed by SEM, EDS and DMA, showed minimal and nonsignificant differences, although these findings need to be confirmed using a greater number of samples.

  15. Vascular Welding Using The Argon Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, Rodney A.; Donayre, Carlos; Kopchok, George; White, Geoffrey; Abergel, R. Patrick; Lyons, Richard; Klein, Stanley; Dwyer, Richard; Uitto, Jouni

    1987-03-01

    This study compared the histology, biochemistry, and tensile strength of laser welded and sutured canine venotomies, arteriotomies and arteriovenous fistulas. Bilateral femoral, carotid or jugular vessels were studied with one repair (control) closed with interrupted 6-0 polypropylene sutures, and the contralatral repair (experimental) welded with the argon laser. Specimens were examined at weekly intervals from 1 to 4 weeks for each type of repair and evaluated histologically by hematoxylineosin, elastin and trichrome stains, biochemically by the formation of [3H] hyaroxyproline as an index of collagen synthesis, ana mechanically by tensile strength determinations. At removal, all experimental closures were patent without hematomas, aneurysms or luminal dilatation. Histologic and biochemical examination and tensile strength determinations suggest that laser welaing may be an alternative to sutures for repair of large diameter venotomies, arteriotomies and arteriovenous fistulas, as they heal comparable to suture repairs up to 4 weeks postoperatively.

  16. Numerical control system of battery welding with pulsed YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Guoshun; Yang, Zhaoxia; Zhang, Taishi; Wei, Zhigang; Li, Chaoyang

    1999-09-01

    This article briefly introduces the pulse YAG laser welding system, a new research achievement of my section. This system can weld the electric pole, the holly board and other aluminum parts of lithium battery, and the process of loading, unloading, compressing and welding can be completed automatically. Moreover, the software proprietary of the system is very good, and its interface is friendly too. In order to achieve optimum welding effect, we have designed special laser discharging waveform. Its rise delay time, fall delay time, and width are all designed specially. With this special technology, the welding spot we get is smooth like mirror, and the welding intensity can be controlled conveniently.

  17. Laser Wakefield Acceleration Driven by a CO2 Laser (STELLA-LW) - Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Wayne D

    2008-06-27

    The original goals of the Staged Electron Laser Acceleration – Laser Wakefield (STELLA-LW) program were to investigate two new methods for laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA). In pseudo-resonant LWFA (PR-LWFA), a laser pulse experiences nonlinear pulse steepening while traveling through the plasma. This steepening allows the laser pulse to generate wakefields even though the laser pulse length is too long for resonant LWFA to occur. For the conditions of this program, PR-LWFA requires a minimum laser peak power of 3 TW and a low plasma density (10^16 cm^-3). Seeded self-modulated LWFA (seeded SM-LWFA) combines LWFA with plasma wakefield acceleration (PWFA). An ultrashort (~100 fs) electron beam bunch acts as a seed in a plasma to form a wakefield via PWFA. This wakefield is subsequently amplified by the laser pulse through a self-modulated LWFA process. At least 1 TW laser power and, for a ~100-fs bunch, a plasma density ~10^17 cm^-3 are required. STELLA-LW was located on Beamline #1 at the Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). The ATF TW CO2 laser served as the driving laser beam for both methods. For PR-LWFA, a single bunch was to probe the wakefield produced by the laser beam. For seeded SM-LWFA, the ATF linac would produce two bunches, where the first would be the seed and the second would be the witness. A chicane would compress the first bunch to enable it to generate wakefields via PWFA. The plasma source was a short-length, gas-filled capillary discharge with the laser beam tightly focused in the center of the capillary, i.e., no laser guiding was used, in order to obtain the needed laser intensity. During the course of the program, several major changes had to be made. First, the ATF could not complete the upgrade of the CO2 laser to the 3 TW peak power needed for the PR-LWFA experiment. Therefore, the PR-LWFA experiment had to be abandoned leaving only the seeded SM-LWFA experiment. Second, the ATF discovered that the

  18. Development of laser welding techniques for vanadium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Strain, R.V.; Leong, K.H.; Smith, D.L.

    1996-04-01

    Laser welding is potentially advantageous because of its flexibility and the reduced amount of material affected by the weld. Lasers do not require a vacuum (as do electron beam welders) and the welds they produce high depth-to-width ratios. Scoping with a small pulsed 50 J YAG laser indicated that lasers could produce successful welds in vanadium alloy (V-5%Cr-5%Ti) sheet (1 mm thick) when the fusion zone was isolated from air. The pulsed laser required an isolating chamber filled with inert gas to produce welds that did not contain cracks and showed only minor hardness increases. Following the initial scoping tests, a series of tests were preformed with a 6 kW continuous CO{sub 2} laser. Successful bead-on-plate welds were made on V-4%Cr-4%Ti and V-5%Cr-5%Ti alloys to depths of about 4 mm with this laser.

  19. Progress Toward Measuring CO2 Isotopologue Fluxes in situ with the LLNL Miniature, Laser-based CO2 Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osuna, J. L.; Bora, M.; Bond, T.

    2015-12-01

    One method to constrain photosynthesis and respiration independently at the ecosystem scale is to measure the fluxes of CO2­ isotopologues. Instrumentation is currently available to makes these measurements but they are generally costly, large, bench-top instruments. Here, we present progress toward developing a laser-based sensor that can be deployed directly to a canopy to passively measure CO2 isotopologue fluxes. In this study, we perform initial proof-of-concept and sensor characterization tests in the laboratory and in the field to demonstrate performance of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) tunable diode laser flux sensor. The results shown herein demonstrate measurement of bulk CO2 as a first step toward achieving flux measurements of CO2 isotopologues. The sensor uses a Vertical Cavity Surface Emitting Laser (VCSEL) in the 2012 nm range. The laser is mounted in a multi-pass White Cell. In order to amplify the absorption signal of CO2 in this range we employ wave modulation spectroscopy, introducing an alternating current (AC) bias component where f is the frequency of modulation on the laser drive current in addition to the direct current (DC) emission scanning component. We observed a strong linear relationship (r2 = 0.998 and r2 = 0.978 at all and low CO2 concentrations, respectively) between the 2f signal and the CO2 concentration in the cell across the range of CO2 concentrations relevant for flux measurements. We use this calibration to interpret CO2 concentration of a gas flowing through the White cell in the laboratory and deployed over a grassy field. We will discuss sensor performance in the lab and in situ as well as address steps toward achieving canopy-deployed, passive measurements of CO2 isotopologue fluxes. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344. LLNL-ABS-675788

  20. On-Line Wavelength Calibration of Pulsed Laser for CO2 Differential Absorption LIDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, Chengzhi; Ma, Xin; Han, Ge; Liang, Ailin; Gong, Wei

    2016-06-01

    Differential absorption lidar (DIAL) remote sensing is a promising technology for atmospheric CO2 detection. However, stringent wavelength accuracy and stability are required in DIAL system. Accurate on-line wavelength calibration is a crucial procedure for retrieving atmospheric CO2 concentration using the DIAL, particularly when pulsed lasers are adopted in the system. Large fluctuations in the intensities of a pulsed laser pose a great challenge for accurate on-line wavelength calibration. In this paper, a wavelength calibration strategy based on multi-wavelength scanning (MWS) was proposed for accurate on-line wavelength calibration of a pulsed laser for CO2 detection. The MWS conducted segmented sampling across the CO2 absorption line with appropriate number of points and range of widths by using a tunable laser. Complete absorption line of CO2 can be obtained through a curve fitting. Then, the on-line wavelength can be easily found at the peak of the absorption line. Furthermore, another algorithm called the energy matching was introduced in the MWS to eliminate the backlash error of tunable lasers during the process of on-line wavelength calibration. Finally, a series of tests was conducted to elevate the calibration precision of MWS. Analysis of tests demonstrated that the MWS proposed in this paper could calibrate the on-line wavelength of pulsed laser accurately and steadily.

  1. Low-Temperature CO-Oxidation Catalysts for Long-Life CO2 Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schryer, David R. (Editor); Hoflund, Gar B. (Editor)

    1990-01-01

    Low-temperature CO-oxidation catalysts are necessary for closed-cycle pulsed CO2 lasers as well as for other applications, including air purification. The papers presented in this volume discuss several such catalysts, including information on catalyst preparation, techniques for enhancing catalyst performance, laboratory and laser test results, and mechanistic considerations.

  2. Effects of CO2, thulium, and erbium lasers on middle ear synthetic implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bottrill, Ian; Valtonen, Hannu J.; Poe, Dennis S.

    1995-05-01

    10.6 micrometers CO2, 2.01 micrometers Thulium:YAG (Tm:YAG) and 2.94 micrometers Erbium:YAG (Er:YAG) are currently being used or investigated for potential applications in otologic surgery. In addition to biologic tissue there are numerous synthetic materials (Gelfoam, Silastic, C-Flex, Silicone and Teflon), mineral components (Hydroxylapatite) and metals (stainless steel) that may be encountered during surgery. Their behavior in response to laser irradiation is, for the most part, unknown. We investigated the effects of these lasers, operated at clinically relevant parameters on these materials. We looked for signs of melting, perforation, charring, smoke formation and ignition. The results show that wet Gelfoam proved to be a partially effective barrier to all lasers. Silastic transmitted the energy of the Tm and Er:YAG with minimal damage, but charred, ignited or exploded with the CO2 depending on the energy applied. All lasers melted C-Flex at higher energies. On Silicon, CO2 produced flames, char and melting; the other lasers produced a tiny spark and less melting. Teflon charred and perforated when exposed to any laser, but only Tm:YAG produced a spark. All lasers at moderate and high energies shattered hydroxylapatite. Stainless steel was not affected by CO2, but was perforated by Tm:YAG and Er:YAG. The results suggest that none of the tested lasers are safe for all currently used prosthetic materials and therefore they should be used with caution.

  3. Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser treatment of cutaneous papillomas in a common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina.

    PubMed

    Raiti, Paul

    2008-06-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser was used to treat multiple cutaneous papillomas on an adult female common snapping turtle, Chelydra serpentina serpentina. A combination of excisional and ablative techniques provided excellent intraoperative visibility and postoperative results due to the laser's unique ability to incise and vaporize soft tissue. PMID:18634218

  4. Continued life test results for an ensemble of CO2 lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hochuli, U. E.

    1981-01-01

    The life test results of five 16 low pressure CW CO2 lasers with a nominal output of 1 watt are presented. One laser quickly died while the remaining four lasers reached half power output at 38,000, 40,000, 40,000 and 40,000 hours respectively. These results show the potential for a 50,000 hour laser while the average life of the 16 tested lasers was 22,500 hours. It is further indicated that the cathode sputtering products, which settle on the glass walls of the cathode sleeve, form an increasingly heavy film as the laser ages.

  5. Numerical calculations of a high power CW CO2 gas-dynamic laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Hawat, Sharif; Al-Mutaib, Kheir

    2008-03-01

    Numerical solution of gas-dynamic laser equations in a gas mixture CO2:N2:H2O was carried out, using five-temperature-model (one translational and four vibrational temperatures) by a computational program written in FORTRAN. The spatial distributions of population inversion, gain and temperatures of the gas flow, in addition to the laser intensity and power extraction were studied inside the cavity, for certain initial conditions like pressure (p0=20 atm), temperature (T0= 1500 K), ratio of gases in the laser mixture (CO2:N2:H2O ≡ 10:85:5).

  6. Dependence of injection locking of a TEA CO2 laser on intensity of injected radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oppenheim, U. P.; Menzies, R. T.; Kavaya, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    The results of an experimental study to determine the minimum required injected power to control the output frequency of a TEA CO2 laser are reported. A CW CO2 waveguide laser was used as the injection oscillator. Both the power and the frequency of the injected radiation were varied, while the TEA resonator cavity length was adjusted to match the frequency of the injected signal. Single-longitudinal mode (SLM) TEA laser radiation was produced for injected power levels which are several orders of magnitude below those previously reported. The ratio of SLM output power to injection power exceeded 10 to the 12th at the lowest levels of injected intensity.

  7. A Study on the Welding Characteristics of Tailor Welded Blank Metal Sheets Using GTAW and Laser Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thasanaraphan, Pornsak

    In this study, a computational and experimental effort was carried out to qualitatively understand the weld pool shape, distortion and residual stress for continuous laser welding and manual pulsed gas metal arc welding. For all the welding simulations given in this dissertation, a welding specific finite element package, SYSWELD, is used. This research focuses on the welding behavior observed in light-weight metal structures known as the tailor-welded blanks, TWBs. They are a combination of two or more metal sheets with different thickness and/or different materials that are welded together in a single plane prior to forming, e.g., stamping. They made from the low carbon steel. As laser welding experiment results show, the weld pool shape at the top and bottom surface, is strongly influenced by surface tension, giving it a characteristic hourglass shape. In order to simulate the hourglass shape, a new volumetric heat source model was developed to predict the transient temperature profile and weld pool shape, including the effect of surface tension. Tailor welded blanks with different thicknesses were examined in the laser welding process. All major physical phenomena such as thermal conduction, heat radiation and convection heat losses are taken into account in the model development as well as temperature-dependant thermal and mechanical material properties. The model is validated for the case of butt joint welding of cold rolled steel sheets. The results of the numerical simulations provide temperature distributions representing the shape of the molten pool, distortion and residual stress with varying laser beam power and welding speed. It is demonstrated that the finite element simulation results are in good agreement with the experiment results. This includes the weld pool shape and sheet metal distortion. While there is no experimental data to compare directly with residual stress results, the distorted shape provides an indirect measure of the welding

  8. In situ testing of CO2 laser on dental pulp function: Effects on microcirculation

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, S.; Liu, M.; Doerscher-Kim, J.K.; Kim, S. )

    1991-01-01

    The effect of CO2 laser irradiation on pulpal microcirculation was studied in cat canines. The enamel surfaces of 4 teeth were exposed with energy densities of 304-1440J/cm2, using either a handpiece or a microslad, with a focal spot of 0.21mm and 0.33mm respectively. Pulpal blood flow (PBF) before and following lasing was recorded through the intact tooth surface by a laser Doppler flowmeter. CO2 laser irradiation caused an increase in PBF, which was immediate and transient. The PBF increase was higher in a large pulp than in a small pulp, and it was inversely related to the focal spot size. These findings confirm that the dental pulp is thermally affected by CO2 lasing of the tooth surface, however, without extensive pulp coagulation. It is concluded that the effects of laser irradiation on the pulpal microcirculation may be studied in situ by means of the presented methodology.

  9. Electron Density Measurements in UV-Preionized XeCl and CO2 Laser Gas Mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takagi, Shigeyuki; Sato, Saburo; Goto, Tatsumi

    1989-11-01

    A Langmuir probe technique has been used to measure electron densities and temperatures in UV-preionized XeCl excimer and CO2 laser gas mixtures in a laser tube. For this experiment, only pin electrodes (preionization sparks) were operated with no discharge between the main electrodes. The measured electron densities were about 108 cm-3 in both the excimer and CO2 laser gases, compared with 1010 cm-3 in pure He gas. The electron density was found to increase due to the proximity of the main electrodes. The coefficients of absorption for excimer and CO2 laser gas were obtained from the characteristics of the electron densities vs the distance from the UV source. Based on the absorption coefficient for XeCl, 0.9 cm-1 atm-1, we propose pin-electrode arrangements for spatially uniform preionization.

  10. Clinical applications of CO2 laser resurfacing in the treatment of various pathologic skin disorders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giler, Shamai

    1997-12-01

    CO2 laser skin resurfacing devices are widely used in cosmetic surgery for the treatment of facial rhytides, acne scars and aging skin. This technique is also useful in the treatment of various benign and premalignant or multiple pathological skin conditions and disorders originating in the epidermal, dermal and skin appendages, vascular lesions, epidermal nevi, infected wounds and ulcers, and keloids. Various surgical techniques have been developed in our clinic using laser resurfacing in the treatment of more than 2,000 patients with various skin pathologic disorders. We describe our experience with the various techniques used. The precise depth control and ablation properties combined with the hemostatic and sterilizing effects of the CO2 laser beam, reduction of the possibility of bleeding, infection and damage to healthy tissues, make the CO2 laser resurfacing techniques the treatment of choice for cosmetic surgery and treatment of benign, premalignant and multiple pathologic skin conditions.

  11. Laser welding on trough panel: 3D body part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirai, Masato; Hisano, Hirohiko

    2003-03-01

    Laser welding for automotive bodies has been introduced mainly by European car manufacturers since more than 10 years ago. Their purposes of laser welding introduction were mainly vehicle performance improvement and lightweight. And laser welding was applied to limited portion where shapes of panels are simple and easy to fit welded flanges. Toyota also has introduced laser welding onto 3 dimensional parts named trough panel since 1999. Our purpose of the introduction was common use of equipment. Trough panel has a complex shape and different shapes in each car type. In order to realize common use of welding equipment, we introduced parts locating equipment which had unique, small & simple jigs fo each car type and NC (Numerical Controlled) locators and air-cooled small laser head developed by ourselves to the trough welding process. Laser welding replaced spot welding and was applied linearly like stitches. Length of laser welding was determined according to comparison with statistic tensile strength and fatigue strength of spot welding.

  12. Closed-Cycle, Frequency-Stable CO2 Laser Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Batten, Carmen E. (Editor); Miller, Irvin M. (Editor); Wood, George M., Jr. (Editor); Willetts, David V. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    These proceedings contain a collection of papers and comments presented at a workshop on technology associated with long-duration closed-cycle operation of frequency-stable, pulsed carbon dioxide lasers. This workshop was held at the NASA Langley Research Center June 10 to 12, 1986. The workshop, jointly sponsored by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Royal Signals and Radar Establishment (RSRE), was attended by 63 engineers and scientists from the United States and the United Kingdom. During the 2 1/2 days of the workshop, a number of issues relating to obtaining frequency-stable operation and to the catalytic control of laser gas chemistry were discussed, and specific recommendations concerning future activities were drafted.

  13. Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum Treatment with Fractional CO2 Laser

    PubMed Central

    Remigio, Adelina Fátima do Nascimento; Moraes, Luciana Borsoi; Varoni, Andreza Cristina Camacho; Gemperli, Rolf; Ferreira, Marcus Castro

    2014-01-01

    Summary: Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PE) is a rare genetic disease characterized by calcification and fragmentation of elastic fibers of the skin, retina, and cardiovascular system. We report a case of PE in which fractional carbon dioxide laser treatment was successfully used to achieve improvement of the cervical skin with 2-year follow-up, in a patient with Fitzpatrick skin type IV. After the fifth session, the patient presented with a local herpes infection. The postlaser reaction of the PE skin was similar to that of the normal skin, in terms of the duration of redness, pain, swelling, and duration of crusting. The overall cosmetic result was satisfactory, with improvement in skin texture, irregularity, volume, and distensibility. The herpetic infection reinforces the value of antiviral prophylaxis during laser treatment of extrafacial areas. PMID:25426402

  14. Transmyocardial laser revascularization with a high-power (800 W) CO2 laser: clinical report with 50 cases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Zheng; Zhang, Zhaoguang; Ye, Jianguang; Yu, Jianbo

    1999-09-01

    This paper reports the clinical experience in transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMLR) with high power CO2 laser and evaluates the preliminary results of TMLR. TMLR may improve angina pectoris and myocardial perfusion significantly. To switch on the laser in proper order may be helpful to shorten duration of surgery. A gentle removal of fat on the apex may increase the successful transmyocardial penetration.

  15. CO2 TEA Laser-Enhanced Laser Ablation Molecular Isotopic Spectrometry (TELLAMIS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Staci R.; Akpovo, Charlemagne A.; Ford, Alan; Herbert, Kenley; Johnson, Lewis

    2014-03-01

    Recently, it has been shown that the relative abundance of isotopes in enriched materials can be determined via laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in a technique known as laser-ablation molecular isotopic spectroscopy (LAMIS). The original LAMIS work has focused on single-pulse (SP) LIBS for the excitation. However, dual-pulse (DP) LIBS reduces shot-to-shot variation and can lower detection limits of an element by about an order of magnitude or more. It also has the potential to improve the accuracy of the determination of the relative abundances of isotopes in LAMIS by minimizing the signal-to-noise ratio. In this work, a DP-LIBS technique for improving LAMIS relative-abundance information from a sample is presented. The new technique, called (TEA) Transverse-Excited breakdown in Atmosphere Laser-Enhanced Laser Ablation Molecular Isotopic Spectrometry (TELLAMIS), uses a carbon dioxide (CO2) laser to increase the breakdown emission from LIBS in the LAMIS method. This technique is demonstrated on a collection of relative abundance isotopes of boron- 10 and boron-11 in varying concentrations in boric acid. Least-squares fitting to theoretical models are used to deduce plasma parameters and understand reproducibility of results. DTRA.

  16. Chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) destruction by a CO2-laser spark production

    SciTech Connect

    Akhvlediani, Z.G.; Barkhudarov, E.M.; Gelashvili, G.V.

    1995-12-31

    It was proposed to use a gas discharge excited (in one way or another) in the atmosphere for its cleaning from contaminations destroying the ozone layer. A gas-discharge method based on the use of a high-power pulsed microwave radiation and intense neodim laser was modeled experimentally. In the present paper a study is made of the efficiency of destruction of CFC contaminations in air by a spark excited by a pulsed CO{sub 2} - laser radiation. The schematic of the experiment is shown. Here (1) is the TEA CO{sub 2} laser, (2) is the calorimeter, (3) is the working chamber (a cylinder made of a stainless steel 1 {congruent} 20cm long and d {congruent} 4cm in diameter); (4) is a NaCl focusing lens, (5) is a glass colb with NaCl windows, (6) is a colb aimed to analyze the gas content by a SPECORD-76 spectrophotometer (7), and (8) is a plate made of NaCl. CO, laser operates with a pulse (peak duration of 1{mu}s and low-intensity tail duration of 2.5 - 3.0{mu}s) radiation with energy of order E{approx}35 - 40 J. The working chamber in which a spark is excited was pumped out up to a pressure of p{sub 0} {approx} 10{sup -2} Torr and filled with an air - CFC-12 (CF{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}) mixture. Most of the experiments were carried out at a mixture pressure of p{sub CFC} {congruent} 30-100Torr.

  17. High power CO2 laser windows and reflection reducing coatings

    SciTech Connect

    Atanassov, G.A.; Peifu, G.

    1995-04-10

    This article describes evaluation standards for window materials. In conjunction with that, comparisons were made between the four types of materials Ge, GaAs, ZnSe, and KCl. It was discovered that KCl possesses optimum optical characteristics. In conjunction with this, reflection reducing films associated with good performance were designed and prepared. Measurements were done of their absorption and laser damage threshold values.

  18. A Laser-Based Vision System for Weld Quality Inspection

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Wei; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2011-01-01

    Welding is a very complex process in which the final weld quality can be affected by many process parameters. In order to inspect the weld quality and detect the presence of various weld defects, different methods and systems are studied and developed. In this paper, a laser-based vision system is developed for non-destructive weld quality inspection. The vision sensor is designed based on the principle of laser triangulation. By processing the images acquired from the vision sensor, the geometrical features of the weld can be obtained. Through the visual analysis of the acquired 3D profiles of the weld, the presences as well as the positions and sizes of the weld defects can be accurately identified and therefore, the non-destructive weld quality inspection can be achieved. PMID:22344308

  19. Laser penetration spike welding: a welding tool enabling novel process and design opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dijken, Durandus K.; Hoving, Willem; De Hosson, J. Th. M.

    2002-06-01

    A novel method for laser welding for sheet metal. is presented. This laser spike welding method is capable of bridging large gaps between sheet metal plates. Novel constructions can be designed and manufactured. Examples are light weight metal epoxy multi-layers and constructions having additional strength with respect to rigidity and impact resistance. Its capability to bridge large gaps allows higher dimensional tolerances in production. The required laser systems are commercially available and are easily implemented in existing production lines. The lasers are highly reliable, the resulting spike welds are quickly realized and the cost price per weld is very low.

  20. A study on an efficient prediction of welding deformation for T-joint laser welding of sandwich panel PART I : Proposal of a heat source model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jae Woong; Jang, Beom Seon; Kim, Yong Tai; Chun, Kwang San

    2013-09-01

    The use of I-Core sandwich panel has increased in cruise ship deck structure since it can provide similar bending strength with conventional stiffened plate while keeping lighter weight and lower web height. However, due to its thin plate thickness, i.e. about 4~6 mm at most, it is assembled by high power CO2 laser welding to minimize the welding deformation. This research proposes a volumetric heat source model for T-joint of the I-Core sandwich panel and a method to use shell element model for a thermal elasto-plastic analysis to predict welding deformation. This paper, Part I, focuses on the heat source model. A circular cone type heat source model is newly suggested in heat transfer analysis to realize similar melting zone with that observed in experiment. An additional suggestion is made to consider negative defocus, which is commonly applied in T-joint laser welding since it can provide deeper penetration than zero defocus. The proposed heat source is also verified through 3D thermal elasto-plastic analysis to compare welding deformation with experimental results. A parametric study for different welding speeds, defocus values, and welding powers is performed to investigate the effect on the melting zone and welding deformation. In Part II, focuses on the proposed method to employ shell element model to predict welding deformation in thermal elasto-plastic analysis instead of solid element model.

  1. Industrial 2-kW TEA CO2 laser for paint stripping of aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweizer, Gerhard; Werner, L.

    1995-03-01

    Paint stripping of aircraft with pulsed laser radiation has several advantages compared to traditional methods of depainting: selective removal of individual layers possible, suitable for sensitive surfaces, workpiece ready for immediate repainting, and considerable reduction of contaminated waste. For paint stripping of large aircraft pulsed lasers with average power of at least 2 kW are required. Amongst the various types of pulsed lasers technical and economical considerations clearly favor TEA CO2 lasers for this application. The first commercially available TEA CO2 laser with an average power in excess of 2 kW, especially designed for depainting, has been developed by Urenco. The key data of this laser are: pulse energy up to 9 J, repetition rate up to 330 Hz, and beam quality: `flat top'.

  2. Diffusion-cooled high-power single-mode waveguide CO2 laser for transmyocardial revascularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berishvili, I. I.; Bockeria, L. A.; Egorov, E. N.; Golubev, Vladimir S.; Galushkin, Michail G.; Kheliminsky, A. A.; Panchenko, Vladislav Y.; Roshin, A. P.; Sigaev, I. Y.; Vachromeeva, M. N.; Vasiltsov, Victor V.; Yoshina, V. I.; Zabelin, Alexandre M.; Zelenov, Evgenii V.

    1999-01-01

    The paper presents the results on investigations and development of multichannel waveguide CO2 laser with diffusion cooling of active medium excited by discharge of audio-frequency alternating current. The description of high-power single-mode CO2 laser with average beam power up to 1 kW is presented. The result of measurement of the laser basic parameters are offered, as well as the outcomes of performances of the laser head with long active zone, operating in waveguide mode. As an example of application of these laser, various capabilities a description of the developed medical system 'Genom' used in the transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMLR) procedure and clinical results of the possibilities of the TMLR in the surgical treatment are presented.

  3. Advanced Laser Transmission Welding Strategies for Fibre Reinforced Thermoplastics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wippo, V.; Jaeschke, P.; Brueggmann, M.; Suttmann, O.; Overmeyer, L.

    Laser transmission welding can be used to join endless fibre reinforced thermoplastics. The welding temperature is affected by the heat conduction along carbon fibresand depends on the local orientation of the fibres in the weld seam and the laser welding technique itself. In these investigations the heat development during the welding with quasi-static temperature fields, which is a combination of two laser welding techniques, is evaluated and compared to welding with a homogenized intensity distribution. In order to optimize the temperature distribution over the weld seam width for both linear and curved weld seams, different scanning structures have beenadapted. The experiments were conducted with a diode laser emitting at a wavelength of 940 nm and the process was monitored by aninfrared camera. The used thermoplastics consist of laminates based on unidirectional carbon fibre reinforced polyphenylenesulfide. With the developed scanning structures, a near-homogeneous temperature distribution was generated over the width of the weld seam for curved weld seams, which is not possible by welding with a homogenized laser radiation intensity distribution.

  4. Morphological analysis of the retrofilled apical dentin surfaces irradiated with CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aun, Carlos E.; Lage-Marques, Jose L.; Gavini, Giulio; Clasen, Naya F.; Matsumoto, Koukichi

    1998-04-01

    Countless researches conducted in these last years have compared the sealing capacity of various materials for retrofillings. Besides, the association of laser irradiation to traditional procedures inquires to increase the success of this kind of treatment. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes on dentin surface and the junction between retrofilling material and apical cavity, with different materials irradiated or not with CO2 laser, in scanning electron microscopy. The following materials were used: Group A yields Super EBA; group B yields Super EBA and CO2 laser irradiation (Luxar System); group C yields Glass Ionomer Cement; group D yields Glass Ionomer Cement and CO2 laser. In groups B and D the power set was 2 watts, 20 msec, with a CT3105 ceramic point, and the power density for the CO2 laser application was 397,93 w/cm2. The morphological analysis permitted to conclude that the dentin laser irradiation showed different and less intense superficial alteration when compared with retrofilling materials. In most cases, the alterations to the material surfaces showed cavities and craters. Group B presented more irregular and affected surfaces, creating blank spaces in the adjacent areas to the radicular dentinal surfaces after laser application, probably because of the carbonization.

  5. Carbon analysis for inspecting carbonation of concrete using a TEA CO2 laser-induced plasma.

    PubMed

    Kagawa, Kiichiro; Idris, Nasrullah; Wada, Munehide; Kurniawan, Hendrik; Tsuyuki, Kenichiro; Miura, Satoru

    2004-08-01

    It has been demonstrated that a spectrochemical analysis of carbon using the laser plasma method can be successfully applied to inspect the carbonation of concrete by detecting carbon produced in aged concrete by a chemical reaction of Ca(OH)2 with CO2 gas in environmental air, turning into CaCO3, which induces degradation of the quality of building concrete. A comparative study has been made using a TEA CO2 laser (500-1000 mJ) and a Q-switched Nd-YAG laser (50-200 mJ) to search for the optimum conditions for carbon analysis, proving the advantage of the TEA CO2 laser for this purpose. Also, it was clarified that laser irradiation with suitable defocusing conditions is a crucial point for obtaining high sensitivity in the detection of carbon. Practical experiments on the inspection of carbonation were carried out using both a concrete sample that had been intentionally carbonated by exposure to high concentrations of CO2 gas and a naturally carbonated concrete sample. As a result, good coincidence was observed between the laser method and the ordinary method, which uses the chemical indicator phenolphthalein, implying that this laser technique is applicable as an in situ quantitative method of inspection for carbonation of concrete. PMID:18070383

  6. Enhanced cold cloud clearing by pulsed CO(2) lasers.

    PubMed

    Waggoner, A P; Radke, L F

    1989-08-01

    We report that clearing a channel in clouds consisting of ice crystals requires much lower laser energy input to the channel than that required to clear a channel in droplet clouds. This result depends on the difference in water vapor saturation concentrations over liquid water and ice. A channel cleared in ice particle clouds will be resistant to recondensation that rapidly obscures the channel in droplet clouds. We model the conditions in which recondensation will obscure the channel in liquid and ice water droplet clouds. PMID:20555649

  7. Enhanced cold cloud clearing by pulsed CO(2) lasers.

    PubMed

    Waggoner, A P; Radke, L F

    1989-08-01

    We report that clearing a channel in clouds consisting of ice crystals requires much lower laser energy input to the channel than that required to clear a channel in droplet clouds. This result depends on the difference in water vapor saturation concentrations over liquid water and ice. A channel cleared in ice particle clouds will be resistant to recondensation that rapidly obscures the channel in droplet clouds. We model the conditions in which recondensation will obscure the channel in liquid and ice water droplet clouds.

  8. Airborne Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer for IPDA Measurements of Tropospheric CO2: Recent Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spiers, Gary D.; Menzies, Robert T.

    2008-01-01

    The National Research Council's decadal survey on Earth Science and Applications from Space[1] recommended the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission for launch in 2013-2016 as a logical follow-on to the Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) which is scheduled for launch in late 2008 [2]. The use of a laser absorption measurement technique provides the required ability to make day and night measurements of CO2 over all latitudes and seasons. As a demonstrator for an approach to meeting the instrument needs for the ASCENDS mission we have developed the airborne Carbon Dioxide Laser Absorption Spectrometer (CO2LAS) which uses the Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) Spectrometer [3] technique operating in the 2 micron wavelength region.. During 2006 a short engineering checkout flight of the CO2LAS was conducted and the results presented previously [4]. Several short flight campaigns were conducted during 2007 and we report results from these campaigns.

  9. Thermal measurements of short-duration CO2 laser resurfacing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, David M.; Fried, Daniel; Reinisch, Lou; Bell, Thomas; Lyver, Rex

    1997-05-01

    The thermal consequences of a 100 microsecond carbon-dioxide laser used for skin resurfacing were examined with infrared radiometry. Human skin was evaluated in a cosmetic surgery clinic and extirpated rodent skin was measured in a research laboratory. Thermal relaxation following single pulses of in vivo human and ex vivo animal skin were quantitatively similar in the 30 - 1000 msec range. The thermal emission from the area of the irradiated tissue increased monotonically with increasing incident laser fluence. Extremely high peak temperatures during the 100 microsecond pulse are attributed to plume incandescence. Ejecta thermal emission may also contribute to our measurements during the first several msecs. The data are combined into a thermal relaxation model. Given known coefficients, and adjusting tissue absorption to reflect a 50% water content, and thermal conductivity of 2.3 times that of water, the measured (both animal back and human forearm) and calculated values coincide. The high thermal conductance suggests preferential thermal conduction along the protein matrix. The clinical observation of a resurfacing procedure clearly shows thermal overlap and build-up is a result of sequential, adjacent pulses. A decrease of 4 - 6 degrees Celsius in surface temperature at the treatment site that appeared immediately post-Tx and gradually diminished over several days is possibly a sign of dermal convective and/or evaporative cooling.

  10. Clinical observation on the treatment of hemangioma by CO2 laser supplemented with He-Ne laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Zhigui

    1993-03-01

    Sixty-six cases of hemangioma were treated with CO2 laser alone (22 cases as a control group), or CO2 laser supplemented with He-Ne laser (44 cases of the treated group). Optimum power dosage was first sought on normal volunteers. Arteriolar vasculature and lymphatics were blocked 3 - 5 times with procaine hydrochloride (5:1) to minimize local blood congestion. Results show that the healing rate of the treated group was significantly higher than that of the control group (X3 equals 3.92, P < 0.05). Eleven cases (50%) were complicated with exudation in the control as compared with 3 cases (6.8%) in the treated group (P < 0.01). Of the 18 cases completely cured in the control group, the number of treatments averaged at 11.4 times, while of the 39 cases completely cured in the treated group, the average number of treatments was 5.9 times, which is also statistically significant (P < 0.01). It is considered that CO2 laser supplemented with He-Ne laser is superior than CO2 laser alone for the treatment of hemangioma. Furthermore, it is also proposed that the supplement of copper and Chinese herbal medicines may prevent the incidence of recurrence. Laser was used for the treatment of hemangioma in our country during the 1980s. In foreign literature, there were several reports using Nd:YAG and copper vapor laser for the treatment of agniomasimplex and nevus flammeus. Ar+ laser agglomeration was commonly used for the treatment of angioma conjunctive in our country, but the use of CO2 laser for the treatment of angioma epiderma is not well documented. We wish to report the use of CO2 laser supplemented with He-Ne laser for the treatment of hemangioma in our hospital from April 1988 to December 1989.

  11. Diode laser welding of aluminum to steel

    SciTech Connect

    Santo, Loredana; Quadrini, Fabrizio; Trovalusci, Federica

    2011-05-04

    Laser welding of dissimilar materials was carried out by using a high power diode laser to join aluminum to steel in a butt-joint configuration. During testing, the laser scan rate was changed as well as the laser power: at low values of fluence (i.e. the ratio between laser power and scan rate), poor joining was observed; instead at high values of fluence, an excess in the material melting affected the joint integrity. Between these limiting values, a good aesthetics was obtained; further investigations were carried out by means of tensile tests and SEM analyses. Unfortunately, a brittle behavior was observed for all the joints and a maximum rupture stress about 40 MPa was measured. Apart from the formation of intermeltallic phases, poor mechanical performances also depended on the chosen joining configuration, particularly because of the thickness reduction of the seam in comparison with the base material.

  12. CO2 laser for spaceborne Doppler wind lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willetts, David V.; Harris, Michael R.; Armandillo, Errico; Norrie, Callum J.; Schwarzenberger, Paul M.; Wallace, Steven; Schaeper, Wolfgang; Gollor, Matthias; Galletti, Enrico; Stucchi, Emanuele S.

    1994-12-01

    The transmitter laser is recognised to be one of the most critical technologies for space-based Doppler windlidar [1]. We present initial evaluation of the performance of an e-beam sustained device in the 1OJ, 10 Hz class. Lifetime issues are addressed in a subsidiary paper. We describe the design of the device and the results of a number of characterisation studies: 1) General nonoptical tests of gas circulation and heat exchanger efficiency. 2) Performance optimisation to maximise multimode efficiency as a function of energy loading, main discharge E/N and gas composition, all tests allowed for optimisation of cavity extraction. 3) Characterisation of the novel plasma anode electron gun with respect to beam uniformity, secondary electron concentration, and current constancy. 4) Optical characterisation to examine operating wavelength, pulse shape, beam profile in the near and far-field, output energy and electrical to optical conversion efficiency, and frequency behaviour during the pulse.

  13. Comparison of KTP, Thulium, and CO2 laser in stapedotomy using specialized visualization techniques: thermal effects.

    PubMed

    Kamalski, Digna M A; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M; de Boorder, Tjeerd; Vincent, Robert; Trabelzini, Franco; Grolman, Wilko

    2014-06-01

    High-speed thermal imaging enables visualization of heating of the vestibule during laser-assisted stapedotomy, comparing KTP, CO2, and Thulium laser light. Perforation of the stapes footplate with laser bears the risk of heating of the inner ear fluids. The amount of heating depends on absorption of the laser light and subsequent tissue ablation. The ablation of the footplate is driven by strong water absorption for the CO2 and Thulium laser. For the KTP laser wavelength, ablation is driven by carbonization of the footplate and it might penetrate deep into the inner ear without absorption in water. The thermal effects were visualized in an inner ear model, using two new techniques: (1) high-speed Schlieren imaging shows relative dynamic changes of temperatures up to 2 ms resolution in the perilymph. (2) Thermo imaging provides absolute temperature measurements around the footplate up to 40 ms resolution. The high-speed Schlieren imaging showed minimal heating using the KTP laser. Both CO2 and Thulium laser showed heating below the footplate. Thulium laser wavelength generated heating up to 0.6 mm depth. This was confirmed with thermal imaging, showing a rise of temperature of 4.7 (±3.5) °C for KTP and 9.4 (±6.9) for Thulium in the area of 2 mm below the footplate. For stapedotomy, the Thulium and CO2 laser show more extended thermal effects compared to KTP. High-speed Schlieren imaging and thermal imaging are complimentary techniques to study lasers thermal effects in tissue.

  14. Laser Sounder for Global Measurement of CO2 Concentrations in the Troposphere from Space: Update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abshire, J. B.; Riris, H.; Kawa, S. R.; Sun, X.; Krainak, M. A.; Mao, J.; Jian, P.; Collatz, G. J.; Stephen, M.

    2006-12-01

    We report progress in developing a laser technique for the remote measurement of the tropospheric CO2 concentrations from orbit. Our initial goal is to demonstrate a lidar technique and instrument technology that will permit measurements of the CO2 column abundance in the lower troposphere from aircraft. Our final goal is to develop a practical space instrument and mission approach for active CO2 measurements at the 1 ppmv level. This would allow continuous measurements of CO2 mixing ratio, both day and night, over land and ocean surfaces, under realistic atmospheric scattering conditions. Measuring the CO2 mixing ratio in the troposphere from space is quite challenging. High signal-to-noise ratios and measurement stabilities are needed for accurate mixing ratio estimates. Our laser sounder approach has some fundamental advantages over passive sensors which use sunlight. It always uses a common nadir/zenith measurement path and the narrow laser divergence angles produce small laser footprints. The laser source allows it to measure in sunlight and darkness over different surfaces giving full global coverage. It can measure continuously over the ocean, to cloud tops and through broken clouds. The lasers are pulsed and potential measurement errors from aerosol scattering can be greatly reduced by using time gating in the receiver. Our approach uses a dual channel laser altimeter/spectrometer, which continuously measures at nadir from a near polar circular orbit. It uses several tunable fiber lasers for simultaneous measurement of the absorption from CO2 and O2, and aerosol backscatter in the same path. It directs the narrow co-aligned laser beams from the instrument's lasers toward nadir, and measures the energy of the laser echoes reflected from land and water surfaces During the measurement its lasers are tuned on- and off- a selected CO2 line near 1572 nm and a selected O2 line near 768 nm in the Oxygen A band at kHz rates. The receiver uses a 1-m diameter

  15. Laser Sounder for Global Measurement of CO2 Concentrations in the Troposphere from Space: Progress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, J. B.; Krainak, M.; Riris, H. J.; Sun, X.; Riris, H.; Andrews, A. E.; Collatz, J.

    2004-01-01

    We describe progress toward developing a laser-based technique for the remote measurement of the tropospheric CO2 concentrations from orbit. Our goal is to demonstrate a lidar technique and instrument technology that will permit measurements of the CO2 column abundance in the lower troposphere from aircraft at the few ppm level, with a capability of scaling to permit global CO2 measurements from orbit. Accurate measurements of the tropospheric CO2 mixing ratio from space are challenging due to the many potential error sources. These include possible interference from other trace gas species, the effects of temperature, clouds, aerosols & turbulence in the path, changes in surface reflectivity, and variability in dry air density caused by changes in atmospheric pressure, water vapor and topographic height. Some potential instrumental errors include frequency drifts in the transmitter, small transmission and sensitivity drifts in the instrument. High signal-to-noise ratios and measurement stability are needed for mixing ratio estimates at the few ppm level. We have been developing a laser sounder approach as a candidate for a future space mission. It utilizes multiple different laser transmitters to permit simultaneous measurement of CO2 and O2 extinction, and aerosol backscatter in the same measurement path. It directs the narrow co-aligned laser beams from the instrument's fiber lasers toward nadir, and measures the energy of the strong laser echoes reflected from the Earth's land and water surfaces. During the measurement its narrow linewidth lasers are rapidly tuned on- and off- selected CO2 line near 1572 nm and an O2 absorption line near 770 nm. The receiver measures the energies of the laser echoes from the surface and any clouds and aerosols in the path with photon counting detectors. Ratioing the on- to off-line echo pulse energies for each gas permits the column extinction and column densities of CO2 and O2 to be estimated simultaneously via the

  16. Laser Sounder for Global Measurement of CO2 Concentrations in the Lower Troposphere from Space: Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abshire, J. B.; Krainak, M. A.; Riris, H.; Sun, X.; Burris, J.; Gates, A.; Collatz, J.

    2004-12-01

    We describe progress toward developing a laser-based technique for the remote measurement of the tropospheric CO2 concentrations from orbit. Our goal is to demonstrate a lidar technique and instrument technology that will permit measurements of the CO2 column abundance in the lower troposphere from aircraft at the few ppm level, with a capability of scaling to permit global CO2 measurements from orbit. Accurate measurements of the tropospheric CO2 mixing ratio from space are challenging due to the many potential error sources. These including possible interference from other trace gas species, the effects of temperature, clouds, aerosols & turbulence in the path, changes in surface reflectivity, and variability in dry air density caused by changes in atmospheric pressure, water vapor and topographic height. Some potential instrumental errors include frequency drifts in the transmitter, small transmission and sensitivity drifts in the instrument. High signal-to-noise ratios and measurement stability are needed for mixing ratio estimates at the few ppm level. We have been developing a laser sounder approach as a candidate for a future space mission. It utilizes multiple different laser transmitters to permit simultaneous measurement of CO2 and O2 extinction, and aerosol backscatter in the same measurement path. It directs the narrow co-aligned laser beams from the instrument's fiber lasers toward nadir, and measures the energy of the strong laser echoes reflected from the Earth's land and water surfaces. During the measurement its narrow linewidth lasers are rapidly tuned on- and off- selected CO2 line near 1572 nm and an O2 absorption line near 770 nm. The receiver measures the energies of the laser echoes from the surface and any clouds and aerosols in the path with photon counting detectors. Ratioing the on- to off-line echo pulse energies for each gas permits the column extinction and column densities of CO2 and O2 to be estimated simultaneously via the

  17. Nonpenetrating glaucoma surgery using the CO2 laser: experimental studies in human cadaver eyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assia, Ehud I.; Barequet, Irina S.; Rosner, Mordechai; Belkin, Michael

    2001-06-01

    Non-penetrating trabeculectomy (NPT) is a potential replacement to conventional trabeculectomy, as it eliminates the necessity of penetrating the eye which is the cause of most of the complications entailed by the latter operation. NPT however, requires considerable surgical skill, is time consuming and entails complications of its own. We have shown that it can be easily performed by using the CO2 laser to ablate the sclera and corneoscleral tissues to the required depth. The use of the CO2 laser eliminates the danger of inadvertent perforation, a common complication of NPT as the tissue ablation ceases when the end-point of the operation, the aqueous humor percolation, is reached. Our experiments, performed on animal and human cadaver eyes showed that CO2 laser NPT rapid is easily mastered and performed rapid and eliminates almost completely the risk of complications.

  18. Advanced concepts for high-power, short-pulse CO2 laser development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordon, Daniel F.; Hasson, Victor; von Bergmann, Hubertus; Chen, Yu-hsin; Schmitt-Sody, A.; Penano, Joseph R.

    2016-06-01

    Ultra-short pulse lasers are dominated by solid-state technology, which typically operates in the near-infrared. Efforts to extend this technology to longer wavelengths are meeting with some success, but the trend remains that longer wavelengths correlate with greatly reduced power. The carbon dioxide (CO2) laser is capable of delivering high energy, 10 micron wavelength pulses, but the gain structure makes operating in the ultra-short pulse regime difficult. The Naval Research Laboratory and Air Force Research Laboratory are developing a novel CO2 laser designed to deliver ~1 Joule, ~1 picosecond pulses, from a compact gain volume (~2x2x80 cm). The design is based on injection seeding an unstable resonator, in order to achieve high energy extraction efficiency, and to take advantage of power broadening. The unstable resonator is seeded by a solid state front end, pumped by a custom built titanium sapphire laser matched to the CO2 laser bandwidth. In order to access a broader range of mid infrared wavelengths using CO2 lasers, one must consider nonlinear frequency multiplication, which is non-trivial due to the bandwidth of the 10 micron radiation.

  19. Comparative study between conventional surgery and CO2 laser surgery in gingival hyperplasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Ester M. D.; de Abreu, Ennes M.; Gusmao, Reinaldo J.; Coutinho, Adriana A.

    1994-09-01

    In this study we present the results of two techniques in a group of 50 patients with gingival hyperplasia that were treated in the department of buco-maxillary surgery and laser unit. The majority of those patients had no teeth and had an incorrect adaptation of dental prosthesis. The first group (30 patients, 40 to 55 years) were submitted to conventional surgery with local anesthesia. The second group (20 patients, 40 to 55 years) were submitted to CO2 laser surgery with local anesthesia. We were able to verify that the group treated with CO2 laser had much less bleeding during laser procedure, had a better tolerance, and required less anesthesia. The immediate post-operative was smoother with almost no complaint of pain since edematous and inflammatory reaction were reduced. Concerning the late post-operative, the group submitted to conventional surgery presented a high degree of recidivous hyperplasia (60%) allowing a poor or no prosthesis readaptation. In the group treated with CO2 laser the recidivous hyperplasia occurred in only 35% allowing a much better rehabilitation. This comparative study demonstrated more benefits and effective results of CO2 laser surgery over conventional techniques.

  20. Longitudinally excited CO2 laser with tail-free short pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uno, Kazuyuki; Dobashi, Kazuma; Akitsu, Tetsuya; Jitsuno, Takahisa

    2014-11-01

    We developed a longitudinally excited CO2 laser with a tail-free short laser pulse. In a discharge tube, two structures were researched. One is a shingle scheme that is constituted of a 45 cm-long discharge tube. Another is a tandem that is constituted of two 30 cm-long discharge tubes connected with an intermediate electrode were used. In gas media, CO2- rich mixture (CO2: N2= 20: 1) was used to reduce a laser pulse tail. The laser system did not require expensive and scarce helium. A fast discharge (<1 μs) in a low gas pressure (<1.8 kPa) produced a tail-free laser pulse with the pulse width of about 100 ns. The single scheme produced an output energy of 4.7 mJ by a charging voltage of -36.3 kV, and the tandem scheme produced an output energy of 9.3 mJ by a charging voltage of -25.2 kV. The tandem scheme produced higher spike pulse by lower voltage than the single scheme. Therefore, the tandem scheme will be effective in longitudinally excited CO2 lasers with simple and compact designs.

  1. LASER BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Laser analysis of the 13C/12C isotope ratio in CO2 in exhaled air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, E. V.

    2002-11-01

    Tunable diode lasers (TDLs) are applied to the diagnostics of gastroenterological diseases using respiratory tests and preparations enriched with the stable 13C isotope. This method of the analysis of the 13C/12C isotope ratio in CO2 in exhaled air is based on the selective measurement of the resonance absorption at the vibrational — rotational structure of 12CO2 and 13CO2. The CO2 transmission spectra in the region of 4.35 μm were measured with a PbEuSe double-heterostructure TDL. The accuracy of carbon isotope ratio measurements in CO2 of exhaled air performed with the TDL was ~0.5%. The data of clinical tests of the developed laser-based analyser are presented.

  2. Comparison of effects of diode laser and CO2 laser on human teeth and their usefulness in topical fluoridation.

    PubMed

    González-Rodríguez, Alberto; de Dios López-González, Juan; del Castillo, Juan de Dios Luna; Villalba-Moreno, Juan

    2011-05-01

    Various authors have reported more effective fluoridation from the use of lasers combined with topical fluoride than from conventional topical fluoridation. Besides the beneficial effect of lasers in reducing the acid solubility of an enamel surface, they can also increase the uptake of fluoride. The study objectives were to compare the action of CO(2) and GaAlAs diode lasers on dental enamel and their effects on pulp temperature and enamel fluoride uptake. Different groups of selected enamel surfaces were treated with amine fluoride and irradiated with CO(2) laser at an energy power of 1 or 2 W or with diode laser at 5 or 7 W for 15 s each and compared to enamel surfaces without treatment or topical fluoridated. Samples were examined by means of environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). Surfaces of all enamel samples were then acid-etched, measuring the amount of fluoride deposited on the enamel by using a selective ion electrode. Other enamel surfaces selected under the same conditions were irradiated as described above, measuring the increase in pulp temperature with a thermocouple wire. Fluorination with CO(2) laser at 1 W and diode laser at 7 W produced a significantly greater fluoride uptake on enamel (89 ± 18 mg/l) and (77 ± 17 mg/l) versus topical fluoridation alone (58 ± 7 mg/l) and no treatment (20 ± 1 mg/l). Diode laser at 5 W produced a lesser alteration of the enamel surface compared to CO(2) laser at 1 W, but greater pulp safety was provided by CO(2) laser (ΔT° 1.60° ± 0.5) than by diode laser (ΔT° 3.16° ± 0.6). Diode laser at 7 W and CO(2) laser at 2 W both caused alterations on enamel surfaces, but great pulp safety was again obtained with CO(2) (ΔT° 4.44° ± 0.60) than with diode (ΔT° 5.25° ± 0.55). Our study demonstrates that CO(2) and diode laser irradiation of the enamel surface can both increase fluoride uptake; however, laser energy parameters must be carefully

  3. Monte-Carlo based Uncertainty Analysis For CO2 Laser Microchanneling Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, Shashi; Kumar, Nitish; Kumar, Subrata

    2016-09-01

    CO2 laser microchanneling has emerged as a potential technique for the fabrication of microfluidic devices on PMMA (Poly-methyl-meth-acrylate). PMMA directly vaporizes when subjected to high intensity focused CO2 laser beam. This process results in clean cut and acceptable surface finish on microchannel walls. Overall, CO2 laser microchanneling process is cost effective and easy to implement. While fabricating microchannels on PMMA using a CO2 laser, the maximum depth of the fabricated microchannel is the key feature. There are few analytical models available to predict the maximum depth of the microchannels and cut channel profile on PMMA substrate using a CO2 laser. These models depend upon the values of thermophysical properties of PMMA and laser beam parameters. There are a number of variants of transparent PMMA available in the market with different values of thermophysical properties. Therefore, for applying such analytical models, the values of these thermophysical properties are required to be known exactly. Although, the values of laser beam parameters are readily available, extensive experiments are required to be conducted to determine the value of thermophysical properties of PMMA. The unavailability of exact values of these property parameters restrict the proper control over the microchannel dimension for given power and scanning speed of the laser beam. In order to have dimensional control over the maximum depth of fabricated microchannels, it is necessary to have an idea of uncertainty associated with the predicted microchannel depth. In this research work, the uncertainty associated with the maximum depth dimension has been determined using Monte Carlo method (MCM). The propagation of uncertainty with different power and scanning speed has been predicted. The relative impact of each thermophysical property has been determined using sensitivity analysis.

  4. Identification of the origins of photoionisation in CO2 TEA lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, S. J.; Smith, A. L. S.

    1984-01-01

    In sealed CO2 spark preionized lasers, the preionization is largely due to photoionization of NO and NO2; in seeded TEA lasers it originates from the low ionization potential additive used. Unseeded and flowing gas lasers can still be successfully preionized but the source of this preionization has remained a mystery; previous attempts to isolate and identify low I.P. gaseous impurities have failed. These have now been identified, using a combination of cryogenic impurity concentration and mass spectroscopy and found to be a complex mixture of hydrocarbons (C2-C7). Of these hydrocarbons, the alkenes are found to be predominantly responsible for the photoionization and are present in concentrations of about 0.5 ppm. Deliberate addition of one of these alkenes, propene, to a UV preionized CO2 TEA laser was found to enhance the lasers performance at high energy loadings.

  5. Identification of the origins of photoionisation in CO2 TEA lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, S. J.; Smith, A. L. S.

    1984-01-01

    In sealed CO2 spark preionised lasers the preionisation is largely due to photoionisation of NO and NO2, in seeded TEA lasers it originates from the low ionisation potential additive used. Unseeded and flowing gas lasers can still be successfully preionised but the source of this preionisation has remained a mystery; previous attempts to isolate and identify low I.P. gaseous impurities have failed. We have now identified these, using a combination of cryogenic impurity concentration and mass spectroscopy and found them to be a complex mixture of hydrocarbons (C2-C7). Of these hydrocarbons, the alkenes are found to be predominantly responsible for the photoionisation and are present in concentrations of ˜ 0.5 ppm. Deliberate addition of one of these alkenes, propene, to a uv preionised CO2 TEA laser was found to enhance the lasers performance at high energy loadings.

  6. Fabricating fluorinated polyimide optical waveguide by CO2 laser direct-writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Xi; Zhu, Daqing; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2008-12-01

    Fluorinated polyimide waveguides were fabricated by CO2 laser direct-writing. The poly(amic acid) micro-region exposed by CO2 laser beam was measured with FT-IR micro-spectroscopy. The FT-IR spectra indicated that the laser imidized polyimide was semicrystalline, and the imidization degree of scanned micro-region increased with the rising of output laser power. The increased aspect ratio of waveguide and smoothness of surface can be achieved by increasing the pre-cured temperature (below 120 °C) and writing rate, and optimizing laser power and the distance between the lens and the annular aperture. The guided light was clearly confined to the core of the fabricated waveguide, which means this technique can be used for fluorinated polyimide waveguide fabrication.

  7. A Sulfur Hexafluoride Sensor Using Quantum Cascade and CO2 Laser-Based Photoacoustic Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Mila; Sthel, Marcelo; Lima, Guilherme; da Silva, Marcelo; Schramm, Delson; Miklós, András; Vargas, Helion

    2010-01-01

    The increase in greenhouse gas emissions is a serious environmental problem and has stimulated the scientific community to pay attention to the need for detection and monitoring of gases released into the atmosphere. In this regard, the development of sensitive and selective gas sensors has been the subject of several research programs. An important greenhouse gas is sulphur hexafluoride, an almost non-reactive gas widely employed in industrial processes worldwide. Indeed it is estimated that it has a radiative forcing of 0.52 W/m2. This work compares two photoacoustic spectrometers, one coupled to a CO2 laser and another one coupled to a Quantum Cascade (QC) laser, for the detection of SF6. The laser photoacoustic spectrometers described in this work have been developed for gas detection at small concentrations. Detection limits of 20 ppbv for CO2 laser and 50 ppbv for quantum cascade laser were obtained. PMID:22163412

  8. A near-surface plasma in the beam of a CW CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiltsov, V. V.; Zabelin, A. M.; Zakharkina, O. L.; Lebedev, F. V.; Minnebaev, K. F.

    1985-07-01

    The effect of CW radiation from a CO2 laser on the plasma forming near the surface of a heated metal has been investigated experimentally. The power density of the CO2 laser was 1 million W/sq cm and the metal samples included alloys of zinc, copper and aluminum. A stationary erosion flame was found forming on the surface of the metals in the absence of an optical test vapor. No ionization of the surrounding target air was observed when the power density of the laser was increased to 2 million W/sq cm, and the optical discharge did not move from the target along the path of the laser beam. The results are used to develop criteria for selecting the operating parameters of a laser-based metals processing system.

  9. A sulfur hexafluoride sensor using quantum cascade and CO2 laser-based photoacoustic spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Mila; Sthel, Marcelo; Lima, Guilherme; da Silva, Marcelo; Schramm, Delson; Miklós, András; Vargas, Helion

    2010-01-01

    The increase in greenhouse gas emissions is a serious environmental problem and has stimulated the scientific community to pay attention to the need for detection and monitoring of gases released into the atmosphere. In this regard, the development of sensitive and selective gas sensors has been the subject of several research programs. An important greenhouse gas is sulphur hexafluoride, an almost non-reactive gas widely employed in industrial processes worldwide. Indeed it is estimated that it has a radiative forcing of 0.52 W/m(2). This work compares two photoacoustic spectrometers, one coupled to a CO(2) laser and another one coupled to a Quantum Cascade (QC) laser, for the detection of SF(6). The laser photoacoustic spectrometers described in this work have been developed for gas detection at small concentrations. Detection limits of 20 ppbv for CO(2) laser and 50 ppbv for quantum cascade laser were obtained.

  10. Complications in CO2 Laser Transoral Microsurgery for Larynx Carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Chiesa Estomba, Carlos Miguel; Reinoso, Frank Alberto Betances; Velasquez, Alejandra Osorio; Fernandez, Jose Luis Rodriguez; Conde, Jose Luis Fariña; Hidalgo, Carmelo Santidrian

    2016-04-01

    Introduction Transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) has established itself as an effective option in the management of malignant tumors of the glottis, supraglottis, and hypopharynx. Nonetheless, TLM is not a harmless technique. Complications such as bleeding, dyspnea, or ignition of the air may appear in this type of surgery. Objective The aim of this study is to describe the complications that occurred in a group of patients treated for glottic and supraglottic carcinomas in all stages by TLM. Methods This study is a retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the glottis and supraglottis for all stages (T1, T2, T3, T4), N -/ + , M -/+ treated with TLM between January 2009 and March 2012 in a tertiary hospital. Results Ninety-eight patients met the inclusion criteria, which had undergone a total of 131 interventions. Ninety-four (95.9%) patients were male and 4 (4.1%) were female. The mean age was 64.2 years (± 10.7 years = min 45; max 88). The presence of intraoperative complications was low, affecting only 2% of patients. Immediate postoperative complications occurred in 6.1%, whereas delayed complications affected 13.2% of patients, without any of them being fatal. Conclusion TLM has shown good oncologic results and low complication rate compared with traditional open surgery during intervention, in the immediate and delayed postoperative period and in the long-term with respect to radiotherapy. PMID:27096020

  11. Complications in CO2 Laser Transoral Microsurgery for Larynx Carcinomas

    PubMed Central

    Chiesa Estomba, Carlos Miguel; Reinoso, Frank Alberto Betances; Velasquez, Alejandra Osorio; Fernandez, Jose Luis Rodriguez; Conde, Jose Luis Fariña; Hidalgo, Carmelo Santidrian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) has established itself as an effective option in the management of malignant tumors of the glottis, supraglottis, and hypopharynx. Nonetheless, TLM is not a harmless technique. Complications such as bleeding, dyspnea, or ignition of the air may appear in this type of surgery. Objective The aim of this study is to describe the complications that occurred in a group of patients treated for glottic and supraglottic carcinomas in all stages by TLM. Methods This study is a retrospective analysis of patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the glottis and supraglottis for all stages (T1, T2, T3, T4), N -/ + , M -/+ treated with TLM between January 2009 and March 2012 in a tertiary hospital. Results Ninety-eight patients met the inclusion criteria, which had undergone a total of 131 interventions. Ninety-four (95.9%) patients were male and 4 (4.1%) were female. The mean age was 64.2 years (± 10.7 years = min 45; max 88). The presence of intraoperative complications was low, affecting only 2% of patients. Immediate postoperative complications occurred in 6.1%, whereas delayed complications affected 13.2% of patients, without any of them being fatal. Conclusion TLM has shown good oncologic results and low complication rate compared with traditional open surgery during intervention, in the immediate and delayed postoperative period and in the long-term with respect to radiotherapy. PMID:27096020

  12. Pulsed Laser Propulsion Performance of 11-cm Parabolic `Bell' Engines: CO2 TEA vs. EDL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Koichi; Sasoh, Akihiro; Myrabo, Leik N.

    2006-05-01

    Single pulse laboratory experiments were carried out with a high-power CO2 Transversely-Excited Atmospheric (TEA) laser using three laser pulsejet engines, shaped as parabolic bells, measuring 11-cm in diameter. Assuming the vertex is set at the parabola's focus, the "calibration bell" engines had three different total divergence angles of 60, 87.2, and 120 degrees (i.e., viewing outward towards the 11-cm nozzle exit plane). The objective was to quantify and calibrate the effects of laser pulse duration upon the momentum coupling coefficient (Cm) performance from the two CO2 lasers, using laser pulse energy as the parametric variable. Bell engine performance data from the TEA laser are contrasted with former results from the PLVTS CO2 electron discharge laser (EDL). The single-pulse PLVTS tests were conducted in Sept. 2000 and Sept. 2001, revealing that the impulse and Cm performance of the 60° bell generally exceeded the 87.2° engine, which in turn outperformed the 120° bell. With PLVTS, the maximum single-pulse Cm varied from 275 to 375 N-sec/MJ. In contrast, the 2 microsecond TEA laser tests generated results that were distinctively different from that of the EDL. Both tests used a standard ballistic pendulum to measure airbreathing engine performance at a pressure of one atmosphere.

  13. Multi-criteria optimization in CO2 laser ablation of multimode polymer waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamrin, K. F.; Zakariyah, S. S.; Sheikh, N. A.

    2015-12-01

    High interconnection density associated with current electronics products poses certain challenges in designing circuit boards. Methods, including laser-assisted microvia drilling and surface mount technologies for example, are being used to minimize the impacts of the problems. However, the bottleneck is significantly pronounced at bit data rates above 10 Gbit/s where losses, especially those due to crosstalk, become high. One solution is optical interconnections (OI) based on polymer waveguides. Laser ablation of the optical waveguides is viewed as a very compatible technique with ultraviolet laser sources, such as excimer and UV Nd:YAG lasers, being used due to their photochemical nature and minimal thermal effect when they interact with optical materials. In this paper, the authors demonstrate the application of grey relational analysis to determine the optimized processing parameters concerning fabrication of multimode optical polymer waveguides by using infra-red 10.6 μm CO2 laser micromachining to etch acrylate-based photopolymer (Truemode™). CO2 laser micromachining offers a low cost and high speed fabrication route needed for high volume productions as the wavelength of CO2 lasers can couple well with a variety of polymer substrates. Based on the highest grey relational grade, the optimized processing parameters are determined at laser power of 3 W and scanning speed of 100 mm/s.

  14. Towards real time diagnostics of Hybrid Welding Laser/GMAW

    SciTech Connect

    McJunkin, T. R.; Kunerth, D. C.; Nichol, C. I.; Todorov, E.; Levesque, S.

    2014-02-18

    Methods are currently being developed towards a more robust system real time feedback in the high throughput process combining laser welding with gas metal arc welding. A combination of ultrasonic, eddy current, electronic monitoring, and visual techniques are being applied to the welding process. Initial simulation and bench top evaluation of proposed real time techniques on weld samples are presented along with the concepts to apply the techniques concurrently to the weld process. Consideration for the eventual code acceptance of the methods and system are also being researched as a component of this project. The goal is to detect defects or precursors to defects and correct when possible during the weld process.

  15. Towards Real Time Diagnostics of Hybrid Welding Laser/GMAW

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy Mcjunkin; Dennis C. Kunerth; Corrie Nichol; Evgueni Todorov; Steve Levesque; Feng Yu; Robert Danna Couch

    2013-07-01

    Methods are currently being developed towards a more robust system real time feedback in the high throughput process combining laser welding with gas metal arc welding. A combination of ultrasonic, eddy current, electronic monitoring, and visual techniques are being applied to the welding process. Initial simulation and bench top evaluation of proposed real time techniques on weld samples are presented along with the concepts to apply the techniques concurrently to the weld process. Consideration for the eventual code acceptance of the methods and system are also being researched as a component of this project. The goal is to detect defects or precursors to defects and correct when possible during the weld process.

  16. Laser Welding of Large Scale Stainless Steel Aircraft Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reitemeyer, D.; Schultz, V.; Syassen, F.; Seefeld, T.; Vollertsen, F.

    In this paper a welding process for large scale stainless steel structures is presented. The process was developed according to the requirements of an aircraft application. Therefore, stringers are welded on a skin sheet in a t-joint configuration. The 0.6 mm thickness parts are welded with a thin disc laser, seam length up to 1920 mm are demonstrated. The welding process causes angular distortions of the skin sheet which are compensated by a subsequent laser straightening process. Based on a model straightening process parameters matching the induced welding distortion are predicted. The process combination is successfully applied to stringer stiffened specimens.

  17. Mechanical loss of laser-welded fused silica fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harry, Gregory; Corbitt, Thomas; Freytsis, Marat; Ottaway, David; Mavalvala, Nergis; Penn, Steve

    2006-02-01

    The mechanical quality factor of a carbon dioxide laser-welded fiber was measured and compared to flame-welded fibers to determine the suitability of laser welding for attaching suspension fibers to test masses in precision experiments. The loss in the fiber was found to be limited primarily by thermoelastic damping and surface loss, rather than loss from the weld. This technique is attractive for the attachment of fused silica suspensions where low thermal noise and precision location of the weld are considered.

  18. Fabrication of microchannels on PMMA using a low power CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imran, Muhammad; Rahman, Rosly A.; Ahmad, Mukhtar; Akhtar, Majid N.; Usman, Arslan; Sattar, Abdul

    2016-09-01

    This study presents a cheap and quick method for the formation of microchannels on poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA). A continuous wave CO2 laser with a wavelength of 10.6 μm was used to inscribe periodic ripple structures on a PMMA substrate. A direct writing technique was employed for micromachining. As PMMA is very sensitive to such laser irradiations, a slightly low power CO2 laser was effective in inscribing such periodic structures. The results show that smooth and fine ripple structures can be fabricated by controlling the input laser parameters and interaction time of the laser beam. This direct laser writing technique is promising enough to prevent us from using complex optical arrangements. Laser power was tested starting from the ablation threshold and was gradually increased, together with the variation in scanning speed of the xy-translational stage, to observe the effects on the target surface in terms of depth and width of trenches. It was observed that the depth of the trenches increases on increasing the laser power, and the bulge formation on the outer sides of the trenches was also studied. It was evident that the formation of bulges across the trenches is dependent on the scanning speed and input laser power. The results depict that a focused laser beam with optimized parameters, such as controlling the scanning speed and laser power, results in fine, regular and tidy periodic structures.

  19. Micromachining of microchannel on the polycarbonate substrate with CO 2 laser direct-writing ablation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Heng; Chen, Tao; Yao, Liying; Zuo, Tiechuan

    2009-05-01

    Low-power CO 2 laser direct-writing ablation was used to micromachine a microchannel on the polycarbonate substrate in this work. The influence of the process parameters (the laser power, the moving velocity of the laser beam and the scanning times) on the micromachining quality (the depth, the width and their aspect ratio) of the microchannel was experimentally studied. The depth and width of microchannel both increase with the increase of the laser power and the decrease of the moving velocity of the laser beam. When higher laser power and slower moving velocity were used, the polycarbonate surface bore more heat irradiated from the CO 2 laser for longer time which results in the formation of deeper and wider molten pool, hence the ability to fabricate bigger microchannel. Because of the effect of the laser power on the depth and width of microchannels, higher aspect (depth/width) ratio could be achieved using slower moving velocity and higher laser power, and it would reach a steady state when the laser power increases to 9.0 W possibly caused by the effect of laser power on the different directions of microchannel. The polycarbonate-polycarbonate chip was bonded with hot-press bonding technique.

  20. Welded joints integrity analysis and optimization for fiber laser welding of dissimilar materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Yuewei; Shao, Xinyu; Jiang, Ping; Li, Peigen; Liu, Yang; Liu, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Dissimilar materials welded joints provide many advantages in power, automotive, chemical, and spacecraft industries. The weld bead integrity which is determined by process parameters plays a significant role in the welding quality during the fiber laser welding (FLW) of dissimilar materials. In this paper, an optimization method by taking the integrity of the weld bead and weld area into consideration is proposed for FLW of dissimilar materials, the low carbon steel and stainless steel. The relationships between the weld bead integrity and process parameters are developed by the genetic algorithm optimized back propagation neural network (GA-BPNN). The particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm is taken for optimizing the predicted outputs from GA-BPNN for the objective. Through the optimization process, the desired weld bead with good integrity and minimum weld area are obtained and the corresponding microstructure and microhardness are excellent. The mechanical properties of the optimized joints are greatly improved compared with that of the un-optimized welded joints. Moreover, the effects of significant factors are analyzed based on the statistical approach and the laser power (LP) is identified as the most significant factor on the weld bead integrity and weld area. The results indicate that the proposed method is effective for improving the reliability and stability of welded joints in the practical production.

  1. In vitro mesenchymal stem cell response to a CO2 laser modified polymeric material.

    PubMed

    Waugh, D G; Hussain, I; Lawrence, J; Smith, G C; Cosgrove, D; Toccaceli, C

    2016-10-01

    With an ageing world population it is becoming significantly apparent that there is a need to produce implants and platforms to manipulate stem cell growth on a pharmaceutical scale. This is needed to meet the socio-economic demands of many countries worldwide. This paper details one of the first ever studies in to the manipulation of stem cell growth on CO2 laser surface treated nylon 6,6 highlighting its potential as an inexpensive platform to manipulate stem cell growth on a pharmaceutical scale. Through CO2 laser surface treatment discrete changes to the surfaces were made. That is, the surface roughness of the nylon 6,6 was increased by up to 4.3μm, the contact angle was modulated by up to 5° and the surface oxygen content increased by up to 1atom %. Following mesenchymal stem cell growth on the laser treated samples, it was identified that CO2 laser surface treatment gave rise to an enhanced response with an increase in viable cell count of up to 60,000cells/ml when compared to the as-received sample. The effect of surface parameters modified by the CO2 laser surface treatment on the mesenchymal stem cell response is also discussed along with potential trends that could be identified to govern the mesenchymal stem cell response. PMID:27287173

  2. Multiparameter bifurcations and mixed-mode oscillations in Q-switched CO2 lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doedel, Eusebius J.; Pando L., Carlos L.

    2014-05-01

    We study the origin of mixed-mode oscillations and related bifurcations in a fully molecular laser model that describes CO2 monomode lasers with a slow saturable absorber. Our study indicates that the presence of isolas of periodic mixed-mode oscillations, as the pump parameter and the cavity-frequency detuning change, is inherent to Q-switched CO2 monomode lasers. We compare this model, known as the dual four-level model, to the more conventional 3:2 model and to a CO2 laser model for fast saturable absorbers. In these models, we find similarities as well as qualitative differences, such as the different nature of the homoclinic tangency to a relevant unstable periodic orbit, where the Gavrilov-Shilnikov theory and its extensions may hold. We also show that there are isolas of periodic mixed-mode oscillations in a model for CO2 lasers with modulated losses, as the pump parameter varies. The coarse-grained bifurcation diagrams of the periodic mixed-mode oscillations in these models suggest that these oscillations belong to similar classes.

  3. Application of the Flexible CO2 Laser in Minimally Invasive Laminectomies: Technical Note.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Namath S; Perez-Cruet, Mick

    2016-06-02

    Background Minimally invasive laminectomy is a very effective surgical method for treating lumbar stenosis. However, this technique can be technically difficult, especially in patients suffering from severe stenosis. The contralateral decompression from a unilateral approach can result in durotomy during removal of the hypertrophied ligamentum flavum. This complication can be difficult to treat through a small working channel. Objective To detail our group's operative experience with the CO2 laser and discuss our results and previous studies in the literature reporting results.  Methods The CO2 laser (Omniguide, Boston, MA) was investigated in the surgical ablation of the contralateral ligamentum flavum during minimally invasive laminectomies. Forty levels have been investigated thus far. The amount of voltage needed to adequately desiccate and remove the ligamentum flavum safely as well as the effectiveness of this technique were investigated. Results The contralateral ligamentum flavum could be removed effectively using the 9 to 11 watt continuous wavelength (10,600 nanometer) power setting on the CO2 laser. Shrinkage of the contralateral ligamentum flavum facilitated its removal using a number 2 Kerrison Punch. No durotomies occurred, and the use of the laser did not significantly lengthen operative times.  Conclusions The CO2 laser appears to be a useful tool in the armamentarium of instruments available to the minimally invasive spine surgeon and may help to reduce the incidence of durotomies when performing minimally invasive laminectomies.

  4. Application of the Flexible CO2 Laser in Minimally Invasive Laminectomies: Technical Note

    PubMed Central

    Perez-Cruet, Mick

    2016-01-01

    Background Minimally invasive laminectomy is a very effective surgical method for treating lumbar stenosis. However, this technique can be technically difficult, especially in patients suffering from severe stenosis. The contralateral decompression from a unilateral approach can result in durotomy during removal of the hypertrophied ligamentum flavum. This complication can be difficult to treat through a small working channel. Objective To detail our group’s operative experience with the CO2 laser and discuss our results and previous studies in the literature reporting results.  Methods The CO2 laser (Omniguide, Boston, MA) was investigated in the surgical ablation of the contralateral ligamentum flavum during minimally invasive laminectomies. Forty levels have been investigated thus far. The amount of voltage needed to adequately desiccate and remove the ligamentum flavum safely as well as the effectiveness of this technique were investigated. Results The contralateral ligamentum flavum could be removed effectively using the 9 to 11 watt continuous wavelength (10,600 nanometer) power setting on the CO2 laser. Shrinkage of the contralateral ligamentum flavum facilitated its removal using a number 2 Kerrison Punch. No durotomies occurred, and the use of the laser did not significantly lengthen operative times.  Conclusions The CO2 laser appears to be a useful tool in the armamentarium of instruments available to the minimally invasive spine surgeon and may help to reduce the incidence of durotomies when performing minimally invasive laminectomies. PMID:27433407

  5. CO2 laser micromachining of optical waveguides for interconnection on circuit boards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakariyah, Shefiu S.; Conway, Paul P.; Hutt, David A.; Wang, Kai; Selviah, David R.

    2012-12-01

    The introduction of microvia and surface mount technologies into the manufacturing process for printed circuit boards (PCBs) has significantly improved the interconnection density. However, as the speed of signals for data communication on the board approaches and begins to exceed 10 Gb/s, the loss and crosstalk of copper interconnections increase. To resolve these problems, optical interconnections (OI) have been suggested as a viable solution. Literature reports have proved the photochemical nature of excimer laser ablation with its minimal thermal effect, and other ultra-violet lasers are also being investigated for the fabrication of polymer waveguides by laser ablation. In this paper, the authors demonstrate the fabrication of multimode optical polymer waveguides by using infra-red 10.6 μm CO2 laser micromachining to etch acrylate-based photopolymer (Truemode™). CO2 lasers offer a low cost and high speed fabrication route as CO2 lasers can be used to cut through various engineering materials including polymers and metals. The paper characterises the relationship between the laser ablation power, the fabrication speed and the resulting effect on the waveguide optical insertion loss for the first time.

  6. Laser Sounder for Measuring Atmospheric CO2 Concentrations: Progress Toward Ascends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, J. B.; Kawa, S. R.; Riris, H.; Allan, G. R.; Sun, X.; Stephen, M. A.; Wilson, E.; Burris, J. F.; Mao, J.

    2008-01-01

    The next generation of space-based, active remote sensing instruments for measurement of tropospheric CO2 promises a capability to quantify global carbon sources and sinks at regional scales. Active (laser) methods will extend CO2 measurement coverage in time, space, and perhaps precision such that the underlying mechanisms for carbon exchange at the surface can be understood with .sufficient detail to confidently project the future of carbon-climate interaction and the influence of remediative policy actions. The recent Decadal Survey for Earth Science by the US National Research Council has recommended such a mission called the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) for launch in 2013-2016. We have been developing a laser technique for measurement of tropospheric CO2 for a number of years. Our immediate goal is to develop and demonstrate the method and instrument technology that will permit measurements of the CO2 column abundance over a horizontal path and from aircraft at the few-ppmv level. Our longer-term goal is to demonstrate the required capabilities of the technique, develop a space mission approach, and design the instrument for an ASCENDS-type mission. Our approach is to use a dual channel laser absorption spectrometer (i.e., differential absorption in altimeter mode), which continuously measures from a near-polar circular orbit. We use several co-aligned tunable fiber laser transmitters allowing simultaneous measurement of the absorption from a CO2 line in the 1570 nm band, O2 extinction in the oxygen A-band (near 765 nm), and aerosol backscatter in the same measurement path. We measure the energy of the laser echoes at nadir reflected from land and water surfaces, day and night. The lasers have spectral widths much narrower than the gas absorption lines and are turned on and off the selected CO2 and O2 lines at kHz rates. The gas extinction and column densities for the CO2 and O2 gases are estimated from the ratio of

  7. Carbon dioxide (CO2) laser treatment of bovine penile persistent frenulum and fibropapillomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tate, Lloyd P.

    1995-05-01

    Persistent Frenulum and Fibropapillomas are commonly encountered diseases of young bulls. Both are amenable to simple resection with ligation of bleeders followed by mucosa suturing. Sexual rest for several weeks is generally required. Carbon dioxide laser was applied in resection of both these two maladies in six bulls (2 Persistent Frenulum, 4 with fibropapillomas) without the need for ligation of bleeders or mucosal suturing. No immediate postsurgery complications occurred related to the laser being used and potential recurrence of fibropapilloma neoplasia did not occur. The CO2 laser, compared to the steel scalpel, provided better visibility and improved hemostatic capabilities for performing the resection. The CO2 laser incisions healed completely by two weeks postirradiation, and the bulls required only one week sexual rest to allow healing to progress prior to entering an active breeding program.

  8. CO2 and Er:YAG laser interaction with grass tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jaehun; Ki, Hyungson

    2013-01-01

    Plant leaves are multi-component optical materials consisting of water, pigments, and dry matter, among which water is the predominant constituent. In this article, we investigate laser interaction with grass using CO2 and Er:YAG lasers theoretically and experimentally, especially targeting water in grass tissues. We have first studied the optical properties of light absorbing constituents of grass theoretically, and then have identified interaction regimes and constructed interaction maps through a systematic experiment. Using the interaction maps, we have studied how interaction regimes change as process parameters are varied. This study reveals some interesting findings concerning carbonization and ablation mechanisms, the effect of laser beam diameter, and the ablation efficiency and quality of CO2 and Er:YAG lasers.

  9. Optimization of weld bead geometry in laser welding with filler wire process using Taguchi’s approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dongxia, Yang; xiaoyan, Li; dingyong, He; zuoren, Nie; hui, Huang

    2012-10-01

    In the present work, laser welding with filler wire was successfully applied to joining a new-type Al-Mg alloy. Welding parameters of laser power, welding speed and wire feed rate were carefully selected with the objective of producing a weld joint with the minimum weld bead width and the fusion zone area. Taguchi approach was used as a statistical design of experimental technique for optimizing the selected welding parameters. From the experimental results, it is found that the effect of welding parameters on the welding quality decreased in the order of welding speed, wire feed rate, and laser power. The optimal combination of welding parameters is the laser power of 2.4 kW, welding speed of 3 m/min and the wire feed rate of 2 m/min. Verification experiments have also been conducted to validate the optimized parameters.

  10. Impact of CO2 laser and stannous fluoride on primary tooth erosion.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Cristiane Tomaz; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso; Rodrigues-Júnior, Antonio Luiz; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated in vitro the effect of input power of CO2 laser, either associated or not to stannous fluoride (SnF2) gel, for the control of intrinsic erosion in primary teeth. One hundred four enamel slabs (3 × 3 × 2 mm) from human primary molars were flattened and polished. Adhesive tapes were placed on their surface leaving a window of 3 × 1 mm. Slabs were then cycled four times in 0.01 M hydrochloric acid (pH 2, 2 min) and in artificial saliva (2 h) for creation of erosive lesions. Specimens were randomly assigned into eight groups (n = 13) according to fluoride application [absent (control) or 0.4% stannous fluoride gel (SnF2)] and input power of CO2 laser [unlased (control), 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 W]. The CO2 laser irradiation was performed in an ultra-pulse mode (100 μs of pulse duration), 4-mm working distance, for 10 s. Specimens were then submitted to further erosive episodes for 5 days and evaluated for enamel relative permeability. Fluoride did not show any protective effect for any of the laser-treated groups or control (p = 0.185). However, a significant effect was detected for input power of CO2 laser (p = 0.037). Tukey's test showed that there was a significant statistically difference between specimens irradiated with 0.5 and 1.5 W (p = 0.028). The input power of 0.5 W showed lower permeability. Variation of input power CO2 laser can influence enamel permeability, at the power of 1.5 W which promoted greater permeability.

  11. Impact of CO2 laser and stannous fluoride on primary tooth erosion.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Cristiane Tomaz; Turssi, Cecilia Pedroso; Rodrigues-Júnior, Antonio Luiz; Corona, Silmara Aparecida Milori

    2016-04-01

    This study evaluated in vitro the effect of input power of CO2 laser, either associated or not to stannous fluoride (SnF2) gel, for the control of intrinsic erosion in primary teeth. One hundred four enamel slabs (3 × 3 × 2 mm) from human primary molars were flattened and polished. Adhesive tapes were placed on their surface leaving a window of 3 × 1 mm. Slabs were then cycled four times in 0.01 M hydrochloric acid (pH 2, 2 min) and in artificial saliva (2 h) for creation of erosive lesions. Specimens were randomly assigned into eight groups (n = 13) according to fluoride application [absent (control) or 0.4% stannous fluoride gel (SnF2)] and input power of CO2 laser [unlased (control), 0.5, 1.0 or 1.5 W]. The CO2 laser irradiation was performed in an ultra-pulse mode (100 μs of pulse duration), 4-mm working distance, for 10 s. Specimens were then submitted to further erosive episodes for 5 days and evaluated for enamel relative permeability. Fluoride did not show any protective effect for any of the laser-treated groups or control (p = 0.185). However, a significant effect was detected for input power of CO2 laser (p = 0.037). Tukey's test showed that there was a significant statistically difference between specimens irradiated with 0.5 and 1.5 W (p = 0.028). The input power of 0.5 W showed lower permeability. Variation of input power CO2 laser can influence enamel permeability, at the power of 1.5 W which promoted greater permeability. PMID:26886587

  12. Mechanical behavior study of laser welded joints for DP steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Qi

    2008-03-01

    Advanced High Strength Steels (AHSS) are gaining considerable market shares in the automotive industry. The development and application of Dual Phase (DP) steel is just a consistent step towards high-strength steel grades with improved mechanical behavior. Tailor welded blanks with DP steel are promoted in the application of Body-In-White (BIW) structure by the automotive industry. A tailor welded blank consists of several flat sheets that are laser welded together before stamping. Applied cases of tailor welded blanks of high strength steels on the automotive structural parts are investigated in this paper. The mechanical behavior of laser welded joints for DP steel is studied. Microstructure of laser welded joints for DP steel was observed by SEM. Martensite in the weld seam explains the higher strength of welded joints than the base metal. Results show that the strain safety tolerance of laser welded seam for high strength steel can meet the requirement of automobile parts for stamping if the location of laser welded seam is designed reasonably.

  13. Laser Sounder for Global Measurement of CO2 Concentrations in the Troposphere from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B.; Riris, Haris; Kawa, S. Randy; Sun, Xiaoli; Chen, Jeffrey; Stephen, Mark A.; Collatz, G. James; Mao, Jianping; Allan, Graham

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of tropospheric CO2 abundance with global-coverage, a few hundred km spatial and monthly temporal resolution are needed to quantify processes that regulate CO2 storage by the land and oceans. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) is the first space mission focused on atmospheric CO2 for measuring total column CO, and O2 by detecting the spectral absorption in reflected sunlight. The OCO mission is an essential step, and will yield important new information about atmospheric CO2 distributions. However there are unavoidable limitations imposed by its measurement approach. These include best accuracy only during daytime at moderate to high sun angles, interference by cloud and aerosol scattering, and limited signal from CO2 variability in the lower tropospheric CO2 column. We have been developing a new laser-based technique for the remote measurement of the tropospheric CO2 concentrations from orbit. Our initial goal is to demonstrate a lidar technique and instrument technology that will permit measurements of the CO2 column abundance in the lower troposphere from aircraft. Our final goal is to develop a space instrument and mission approach for active measurements of the CO2 mixing ratio at the 1-2 ppmv level. Our technique is much less sensitive to cloud and atmospheric scattering conditions and would allow continuous measurements of CO2 mixing ratio in the lower troposphere from orbit over land and ocean surfaces during day and night. Our approach is to use the 1570nm CO2 band and a 3-channel laser absorption spectrometer (i.e. lidar used an altimeter mode), which continuously measures at nadir from a near polar circular orbit. The approach directs the narrow co-aligned laser beams from the instrument's lasers toward nadir, and measures the energy of the laser echoes reflected from land and water surfaces. It uses several tunable fiber laser transmitters which allowing measurement of the extinction from a single selected CO2 absorption line in the 1570

  14. CO2 laser application in gynecology: experience in microsurgery of cervical lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, Piotr A.

    1995-03-01

    A CO2 laser device was used for treating cervical lesions in 1574 patients. Of the total, 163 were diagnosed as CIN. Patients were selected for the study as a result of mass screening during the period from 1988 to 1992 of Bialystok Province, Poland. Treatment of cervical lesions with laser proved to be effective. In the author's opinion it is an essential step in preventing cervical malignancy.

  15. Spectrally Tailored Pulsed Thulium Fiber Laser System for Broadband Lidar CO2 Sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heaps, William S.; Georgieva, Elena M.; McComb, Timothy S.; Cheung, Eric C.; Hassell, Frank R.; Baldauf, Brian K.

    2011-01-01

    Thulium doped pulsed fiber lasers are capable of meeting the spectral, temporal, efficiency, size and weight demands of defense and civil applications for pulsed lasers in the eye-safe spectral regime due to inherent mechanical stability, compact "all-fiber" master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) architectures, high beam quality and efficiency. Thulium fiber's longer operating wavelength allows use of larger fiber cores without compromising beam quality, increasing potential single aperture pulse energies. Applications of these lasers include eye-safe laser ranging, frequency conversion to longer or shorter wavelengths for IR countermeasures and sensing applications with otherwise tough to achieve wavelengths and detection of atmospheric species including CO2 and water vapor. Performance of a portable thulium fiber laser system developed for CO2 sensing via a broadband lidar technique with an etalon based sensor will be discussed. The fielded laser operates with approximately 280 J pulse energy in 90-150ns pulses over a tunable 110nm spectral range and has a uniquely tailored broadband spectral output allowing the sensing of multiple CO2 lines simultaneously, simplifying future potentially space based CO2 sensing instruments by reducing the number and complexity of lasers required to carry out high precision sensing missions. Power scaling and future "all fiber" system configurations for a number of ranging, sensing, countermeasures and other yet to be defined applications by use of flexible spectral and temporal performance master oscillators will be discussed. The compact, low mass, robust, efficient and readily power scalable nature of "all-fiber" thulium lasers makes them ideal candidates for use in future space based sensing applications.

  16. Development of tunable high pressure CO2 laser for lidar measurements of pollutants and wind velocities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, J. S.; Guerra, M.; Javan, A.

    1980-01-01

    The problem of laser energy extraction at a tunable monochromatic frequency from an energetic high pressure CO2 pulsed laser plasma, for application to remote sensing of atmospheric pollutants by Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) and of wind velocities by Doppler Lidar, was investigated. The energy extraction principle analyzed is based on transient injection locking (TIL) at a tunable frequency. Several critical experiments for high gain power amplification by TIL are presented.

  17. Dentin bond strength after ablation using a CO2 laser operating at high pulse repetition rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedayatollahnajafi, Saba; Staninec, Michal; Watanabe, Larry; Lee, Chulsung; Fried, Daniel

    2009-02-01

    Pulsed CO2 lasers show great promise for the rapid and efficient ablation of dental hard tissues. Our objective was to demonstrate that CO2 lasers operated at high repetition rates can be used for the rapid removal of dentin without excessive thermal damage and without compromising adhesion to restorative materials. Human dentin samples (3x3mm2) were rapidly ablated with a pulsed CO2 laser operating at a wavelength of 9.3-µm, pulse repetition rate of 300-Hz and an irradiation intensity of 18-J/cm2. The bond strength to composite was determined by the modified single plane shear test. There were 8 test groups each containing 10 blocks: negative control (non-irradiated non-etched), positive control (non-irradiated acid-etched), and six laser treated groups (three etched and three non-etched sets). The first and second etched and non-etched sets were ablated at a speed of 25 mm/sec and 50 mm/sec with water, respectively. The third set was also ablated at 50 mm/sec without application of water during laser irradiation. Minimal thermal damage was observed on the dentin surfaces for which water cooling was applied. Bond strengths exceeded 20 MPa for laser treated surfaces that were acid-etched after ablation (25-mm/sec: 29.9-MPa, 50-mm/sec: 21.3-MPa). The water-cooled etched laser groups all produced significantly stronger bonds than the negative control (p<0.001) and a lower bond strength than the positive control (p<0.05). These measurements demonstrate that dentin surfaces can be rapidly ablated by a CO2 lasers with minimal peripheral thermal damage. Additional studies are needed to determine if a lower bond strength than the acid-etched control samples is clinically significant where durability of these bonded restoration supersedes high bond strength.

  18. [Treatment of trophic ulcers and non-healing wounds with CO2 laser].

    PubMed

    Koshelev, V N; Glukhov, E I; Barkhatov, L N

    1985-02-01

    The authors used high and low intensity CO2 lasers for the treatment of 140 patients with trophic ulcers and continuously non-healing wounds. Choice of the method of treatment, parameters of laser radiation are based on concrete values of indices of the regeneration processes in the wounds and ulcers. In 83,6% of patients there was a complete recovery of the wounds, in 16,4% the recovery was partial. PMID:3923679

  19. 13CO2/12CO2 ratio analysis in exhaled air by lead-salt tunable diode lasers for noninvasive diagnostics in gastroenterology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stepanov, Eugene V.; Zyrianov, Pavel V.; Miliaev, Valerii A.; Selivanov, Yurii G.; Chizhevskii, Eugene G.; Os'kina, Svetlana; Ivashkin, Vladimir T.; Nikitina, Elena I.

    1999-07-01

    An analyzer of 13CO2/12CO2 ratio in exhaled air based on lead-salt tunable diode lasers is presented. High accuracy of the carbon isotope ratio detection in exhaled carbon dioxide was achieved with help of very simple optical schematics. It was based on the use of MBE laser diodes operating in pulse mode and on recording the resonance CO2 absorption at 4.2 micrometers . Special fast acquisition electronics and software were applied for spectral data collection and processing. Developed laser system was tested in a clinical train aimed to assessment eradication efficiency in therapy of gastritis associated with Helicobacter pylori infection. Data on the 13C-urea breath test used for P.pylori detection and obtained with tunable diode lasers in the course of the trail was compared with the results of Mass-Spectroscopy analysis and histology observations. The analyzer can be used also for 13CO2/12CO2 ratio detection in exhalation to perform gastroenterology breath test based on using other compounds labeled with stable isotopes.

  20. An overview of DREV's activities on pulsed CO2 laser transmitters: Frequency stability and lifetime aspects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruickshank, James; Pace, Paul; Mathieu, Pierre

    1987-01-01

    After introducing the desired features in a transmitter for laser radar applications, the output characteristics of several configurations of frequency-stable TEA-CO2 lasers are reviewed. Based on work carried out at the Defence Research Establishment Valcartier (DREV), output pulses are examined from short cavity lasers, CW-TEA hybrid lasers, and amplifiers for low power pulses. It is concluded that the technique of injecting a low-power laser beam into a TEA laser resonator with Gaussian reflectivity mirrors should be investigated because it appears well adapted to producing high energy, single mode, low chirp pulses. Finally, a brief report on tests carried out on catalysts composed of stannic oxide and noble metals demonstrates the potential of these catalysts, operating at close to room temperature, to provide complete closed-cycle laser operation.

  1. Rapid prototyping of biodegradable microneedle arrays by integrating CO2 laser processing and polymer molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, K. T.; Chung, C. K.

    2016-06-01

    An integrated technology of CO2 laser processing and polymer molding has been demonstrated for the rapid prototyping of biodegradable poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) microneedle arrays. Rapid and low-cost CO2 laser processing was used for the fabrication of a high-aspect-ratio microneedle master mold instead of conventional time-consuming and expensive photolithography and etching processes. It is crucial to use flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to detach PLGA. However, the direct CO2 laser-ablated PDMS could generate poor surfaces with bulges, scorches, re-solidification and shrinkage. Here, we have combined the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) ablation and two-step PDMS casting process to form a PDMS female microneedle mold to eliminate the problem of direct ablation. A self-assembled monolayer polyethylene glycol was coated to prevent stiction between the two PDMS layers during the peeling-off step in the PDMS-to-PDMS replication. Then the PLGA microneedle array was successfully released by bending the second-cast PDMS mold with flexibility and hydrophobic property. The depth of the polymer microneedles can range from hundreds of micrometers to millimeters. It is linked to the PMMA pattern profile and can be adjusted by CO2 laser power and scanning speed. The proposed integration process is maskless, simple and low-cost for rapid prototyping with a reusable mold.

  2. Recurrence of gingival overgrowth in CO2 laser-treated heart-transplant subjects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Rysky, Carlo; Forni, Franco

    1993-07-01

    In this work we update our report about CO2 laser surgery used to remove hypertrophic gingiva in patients under cyclosporine treatment after heart-transplant. The indications and basic results were confirmed, but we present two cases where a second surgery was needed to remove recurrent overgrowing gingival tissue.

  3. Laser Amplifier Development for the Remote Sensing of CO2 from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Abshire, James B.; Storm, Mark; Betin, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Accurate global measurements of tropospheric CO2 mixing ratios are needed to study CO2 emissions and CO2 exchange with the land and oceans. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is developing a pulsed lidar approach for an integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar to allow global measurements of atmospheric CO2 column densities from space. Our group has developed, and successfully flown, an airborne pulsed lidar instrument that uses two tunable pulsed laser transmitters allowing simultaneous measurement of a single CO2 absorption line in the 1570 nm band, absorption of an O2 line pair in the oxygen A-band (765 nm), range, and atmospheric backscatter profiles in the same path. Both lasers are pulsed at 10 kHz, and the two absorption line regions are sampled at typically a 300 Hz rate. A space-based version of this lidar must have a much larger lidar power-area product due to the approximately x40 longer range and faster along track velocity compared to airborne instrument. Initial link budget analysis indicated that for a 400 km orbit, a 1.5 m diameter telescope and a 10 second integration time, a approximately 2 mJ laser energy is required to attain the precision needed for each measurement. To meet this energy requirement, we have pursued parallel power scaling efforts to enable space-based lidar measurement of CO2 concentrations. These included a multiple aperture approach consists of multi-element large mode area fiber amplifiers and a single-aperture approach consists of a multi-pass Er:Yb:Phosphate glass based planar waveguide amplifier (PWA). In this paper we will present our laser amplifier design approaches and preliminary results.

  4. Digital image color printing on plastics using a slab RF-excited CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawarazaki, Masaru; Sakurada, Noriyo; Ishii, Yoshio; Kubota, Yuzuru; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    2003-11-01

    An innovative coloring method for whole plastic materials using a laser system (Laser Plastic Coloring: LPC method) has been developed in this work. Irradiating a laser beam to a dye which is diluted with water, the dye solution is heated and a material can be dyed at a laser exposed local area. A CO2 laser was used as a heating source since the absorptivity of a CO2 laser to water is higher than that of the others laser. Using this LPC method, laser color marking and color image expression has been attempted. Four colors of cyan, magenta, yellow, and black (CMYK) figures and characters have been created using laser marking method. By mixing the dots of two colors, another color printing have been created. It makes possible to create more other color printing that the mixing rate of the dots of two colors change variously. From digital image which includes color information, a colorful image expression on a plastic object has been successfully obtained using the LPC method combined with a segmented pixel drawing (SPD) method developed in our laboratory in order to make an artistic drawing.

  5. Polarization and wavelength insensitive optical feedback control systems for stabilizing CO2 lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jebali, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    Power scaling of multi-kilowatt fiber lasers has been driving the development of glass and fiber processing technology. Designed for processing of large diameter fibers, this technology is used for the fabrication of fiber-based components such as end-pump and side pump combiners, large diameter endcaps, ball lenses for collimators and focusers… The use of 10.6um CO2 lasers as a heating element provides incomparable flexibility, process control and repeatability when compared to conventional heating methods. This low maintenance technology provides an accurate, adjustable and uniform heating area by absorption of fused silica of the 10.6m laser radiation. However, commercially available CO2 lasers can experience power, polarization and mode instability, which becomes important at 20W levels and higher of output power. This paper presents a polarization and wavelength insensitive optical feedback control system for stabilizing commercially available CO2 lasers. Less than 1% power fluctuation was achieved at different laser power levels, ranging from as 5 to 40W.

  6. In vivo study on middle ear bone ablation with pulse CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xianzeng; Wang, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Zhenlin; Ye, Qing; Xie, Shusen

    2009-07-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of middle ear bone ablation in-vivo with pulse CO2 laser. Healthy male New Zealand rabbits were used in the experiment. Middle ear mastoid bone of animal model was completely exposed by surgeon with conventional method, and then Pulse CO2 laser with a wavelength of 10.6μm and pulse lengths of about 10ms was used to carry out the opening surgery. Laser fluence was 8.3 J/cm2 with a repetition rates of 60 Hz, the beam diameter was 1.0 mm. After opening surgery, whole middle ear mastoid bone was obtained and processed with traditional histological method, the morphology changes and thermal damage around the opening window were examined by light microscope. Total operation time and light irradiation time were recorded. It showed that pulse CO2 laser is suitable for the fenestration operation in middle ear bone, and this no-touch technique not only can obtain the similar outcome as traditional methods, but also present a lot of advantages compared to the traditional methods. With the development of laser technology and the appearance of relative instruments, especially when the thermal damage was efficiently controlled, fenestration operation in ear with laser systems will be possible in near future.

  7. Temperature and pressure dependence of dichloro-difluoromethane (CF2C12) absorption coefficients for CO2 waveguide laser radiation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harward, C. N.

    1977-01-01

    Measurements were performed to determine the pressure and temperature dependence of CFM-12 absorption coefficients for CO2 waveguide laser radiation. The absorption coefficients of CFM-12 for CO2 waveguide laser radiation were found to have no spectral structure within small spectral bandwidths around the CO2 waveguide laser lines in the CO2 spectral band for pressures above 20 torr. All of the absorption coefficients for the CO2 laser lines studied are independent of pressure above 100 torr, except for the P(36) laser CO2 spectral band. The absorption coefficients associated with the P(42) line in the same band showed the greatest change with temperature, and it also has the largest value of all the lines studied.

  8. CO2-laser-assisted processing of glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brecher, Christian; Emonts, Michael; Schares, Richard Ludwig; Stimpfl, Joffrey

    2013-02-01

    To fully exploit the potential of fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites (FRTC) and to achieve a broad industrial application, automated manufacturing systems are crucial. Investigations at Fraunhofer IPT have proven that the use of laser system technology in processing FRTC allows to achieve high throughput, quality, flexibility, reproducibility and out-of-autoclave processing simultaneously. As 90% of the FRP in Europe1 are glass fiber-reinforced a high impact can be achieved by introducing laser-assisted processing with all its benefits to glass fiber-reinforced thermoplastics (GFRTC). Fraunhofer IPT has developed the diode laser-assisted tape placement (laying and winding) to process carbon fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composites (CFRTC) for years. However, this technology cannot be transferred unchanged to process milky transparent GFRTC prepregs (preimpregnated fibers). Due to the short wavelength (approx. 980 nm) and therefore high transmission less than 20% of the diode laser energy is absorbed as heat into non-colored GFRTC prepregs. Hence, the use of a different wave length, e.g. CO2-laser (10.6 μm) with more than 90% laser absorption, is required to allow the full potential of laser-assisted processing of GFRTC. Also the absorption of CO2-laser radiation at the surface compared to volume absorption of diode laser radiation is beneficial for the interlaminar joining of GFRTC. Fraunhofer IPT is currently developing and investigating the CO2-laser-assisted tape placement including new system, beam guiding, process and monitoring technology to enable a resource and energy efficient mass production of GFRP composites, e.g. pipes, tanks, masts. The successful processing of non-colored glass fiber-reinforced Polypropylene (PP) and Polyphenylene Sulfide (PPS) has already been proven.

  9. Analysis and validation of laser spot weld-induced distortion

    SciTech Connect

    Knorovsky, G.A.; Kanouff, M.P.; Maccallum, D.O.; Fuerschbach, P.W.

    1999-12-09

    Laser spot welding is an ideal process for joining small parts with tight tolerances on weld size, location, and distortion, particularly those with near-by heat sensitive features. It is also key to understanding the overlapping laser spot seam welding process. Rather than attempting to simulate the laser beam-to-part coupling (particularly if a keyhole occurs), it was measured by calorimetry. This data was then used to calculate the thermal and structural response of a laser spot welded SS304 disk using the finite element method. Five combinations of process parameter values were studied. Calculations were compared to experimental data for temperature and distortion profiles measured by thermocouples and surface profiling. Results are discussed in terms of experimental and modeling factors. The authors then suggest appropriate parameters for laser spot welding.

  10. Laser amplifier development for IPDA Lidar measurements of CO2 from space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Anthony W.; Abshire, James B.; Storm, Mark; Betin, Alexander

    2015-02-01

    Accurate global measurements of tropospheric CO2 mixing ratios are needed to better understand the global carbon cycle and the CO2 exchange between land, oceans and atmosphere. NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is developing a pulsed lidar approach for an integrated path differential absorption (IPDA) lidar as a candidate for the NASA's planned ASCENDS mission to allow global measurements of atmospheric CO2 column densities from space. Our group has developed and demonstrated an airborne IPDA lidar for this purpose. It uses two tunable pulsed laser transmitters allowing simultaneous measurement of a single CO2 absorption line in the 1570 nm band, absorption of an O2 line pair in the oxygen A-band (765 nm), and atmospheric backscatter profiles in the same path. In the airborne lidar, both lasers are pulsed at 10 kHz, and the two absorption line regions are sampled at typically a 300 Hz rate. A space version of this lidar must have a much larger laser power-telescope area product to compensate for the signal losses in the ~40x longer range. An analysis of signal to noise ratios indicated that for a 400 km orbit, a 1.5 m diameter telescope and a 10 second integration time, that 1.5 to 2 mJ laser energy is required to attain the needed measurement precision. To meet the laser energy requirements we have pursued two parallel power-scaling approaches for the space laser. These include a single-amplifier approach consists of a multi-pass Er:Yb:Phosphate glass based planar waveguide amplifier (PWA) and a parallel amplifier approach using multiple (typically 8) large mode area (LMA) fiber amplifiers. In this paper we summarize the laser amplifier design approaches and preliminary results.

  11. Laser Sounder for Global Measurement of CO2 Concentrations in the Troposphere from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abshire, James B.; Riris, Haris; Kawa, S. Randy; Sun, Xiaoli; Chen, Jeffrey; Stephen, Mark A.; Collatz, G. James; Mao, Jianping; Allan, Graham

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of tropospheric CO2 abundance with global-coverage, a few hundred km spatial and monthly temporal resolution are needed to quantify processes that regulate CO2 storage by the land and oceans. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) is the first space mission focused on atmospheric CO2 for measuring total column CO, and O2 by detecting the spectral absorption in reflected sunlight. The OCO mission is an essential step, and will yield important new information about atmospheric CO2 distributions. However there are unavoidable limitations imposed by its measurement approach. These include best accuracy only during daytime at moderate to high sun angles, interference by cloud and aerosol scattering, and limited signal from CO2 variability in the lower tropospheric CO2 column. We have been developing a new laser-based technique for the remote measurement of the tropospheric CO2 concentrations from orbit. Our initial goal is to demonstrate a lidar technique and instrument technology that will permit measurements of the CO2 column abundance in the lower troposphere from aircraft. Our final goal is to develop a space instrument and mission approach for active measurements of the CO2 mixing ratio at the 1-2 ppmv level. Our technique is much less sensitive to cloud and atmospheric scattering conditions and would allow continuous measurements of CO2 mixing ratio in the lower troposphere from orbit over land and ocean surfaces during day and night. Our approach is to use the 1570nm CO2 band and a 3-channel laser absorption spectrometer (i.e. lidar used an altimeter mode), which continuously measures at nadir from a near polar circular orbit. The approach directs the narrow co-aligned laser beams from the instrument's lasers toward nadir, and measures the energy of the laser echoes reflected from land and water surfaces. It uses several tunable fiber laser transmitters which allowing measurement of the extinction from a single selected CO2 absorption line in the 1570

  12. Inspection of thick welded joints using laser-ultrasonic SAFT.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, D; Asaumi, Y; Lord, M; Bescond, C; Hatanaka, H; Tagami, M; Monchalin, J-P

    2016-07-01

    The detection of defects in thick butt joints in the early phase of multi-pass arc welding would be very valuable to reduce cost and time in the necessity of reworking. As a non-contact method, the laser-ultrasonic technique (LUT) has the potential for the automated inspection of welds, ultimately online during manufacturing. In this study, testing has been carried out using LUT combined with the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) on 25 and 50mm thick butt welded joints of steel both completed and partially welded. EDM slits of 2 or 3mm height were inserted at different depths in the multi-pass welding process to simulate a lack of fusion. Line scans transverse to the weld are performed with the generation and detection laser spots superimposed directly on the surface of the weld bead. A CCD line camera is used to simultaneously acquire the surface profile for correction in the SAFT processing. All artificial defects but also real defects are visualized in the investigated thick butt weld specimens, either completed or partially welded after a given number of passes. The results obtained clearly show the potential of using the LUT with SAFT for the automated inspection of arc welds or hybrid laser-arc welds during manufacturing. PMID:27062646

  13. Inspection of thick welded joints using laser-ultrasonic SAFT.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, D; Asaumi, Y; Lord, M; Bescond, C; Hatanaka, H; Tagami, M; Monchalin, J-P

    2016-07-01

    The detection of defects in thick butt joints in the early phase of multi-pass arc welding would be very valuable to reduce cost and time in the necessity of reworking. As a non-contact method, the laser-ultrasonic technique (LUT) has the potential for the automated inspection of welds, ultimately online during manufacturing. In this study, testing has been carried out using LUT combined with the synthetic aperture focusing technique (SAFT) on 25 and 50mm thick butt welded joints of steel both completed and partially welded. EDM slits of 2 or 3mm height were inserted at different depths in the multi-pass welding process to simulate a lack of fusion. Line scans transverse to the weld are performed with the generation and detection laser spots superimposed directly on the surface of the weld bead. A CCD line camera is used to simultaneously acquire the surface profile for correction in the SAFT processing. All artificial defects but also real defects are visualized in the investigated thick butt weld specimens, either completed or partially welded after a given number of passes. The results obtained clearly show the potential of using the LUT with SAFT for the automated inspection of arc welds or hybrid laser-arc welds during manufacturing.

  14. Development of laser welding techniques for vanadium alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Strain, R.V.; Leong, K.H.; Smith, D.L.

    1996-10-01

    Laser welding is potentially advantageous because of its flexibility and the reduced amount of material affected by the weld. Bead-on-plate and butt welds were previously performed to depths of about 4 mm with a 6-kW CO{sub 2} laser on V-4%Cr-4%Ti and V-5%Cr-5%Ti alloys. These welds were made at a speed of 0.042 m/s using argon purging at a flow rate of 2.8 m{sup 3}/s. The purge was distributed with a diffuser nozzle aimed just behind the laser beam during the welding operation. The fusion zones of welds made under these conditions consisted of very fine, needle-shaped grains and were also harder than the bulk metal (230-270 dph, compared to {approx}180 dph for the bulk metal). A limited number of impact tests showed that the as-welded ductile-brittle transition temperatures (DBTT) was above room temperature, but heat treatment at 1000{degrees}C for 1 h in vacuum reduced the DBTT to <{minus}25{degrees}C. Activities during this reporting period focused on improvements in the purging system and determination of the effect of welding speed on welds. A 2-kW continuous YAG laser at Lumonics Corp. in Livonia, MI, was used to make 34 test welds for this study.

  15. Dynamic cooling during laser skin welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Nathaniel M.; Walsh, Joseph T., Jr.

    1999-06-01

    Cryogen spray cooling of the tissue surface was investigated for laser welding applications. Benefits include reduced thermal damage to the papillary dermis and reduced operation time. Two-cm-long, full-thickness incisions were made on the backs of guinea pigs, in vivo. India ink was used as an absorber and clamps were used to appose the incision edges. Continuous-wave, 1.06-μm, Nd:YAG laser radiation was scanned over the incisions, producing ~100 ms pulses. A 4-mm-diameter laser spot was used with a constant power of 16 W. The total operation time was 60 or 120 s. Cryogen was delivered in spurt durations of 20, 60, or 100 ms, with 2 or 4 s between spurts. The working distance was approximately 12 cm, and the spray covered an area of about 5.0 x 5.0 cm. Control welds were irradiated for 20, 40, or 60 s. Total operation times were reduced from 10 min without dynamic cooling to 1 min with dynamic cooling. Optimal tensile strength was 1.7 +/- 0.7 kg/cm2, comparible to stengths of 2.1 +/- 0.7 kg/cm2 reported in previous studies without cryogen cooling (p>0.25). Thermal damage in the papillary dermis measured 320 +/- 80 μm.

  16. [Open-path online monitoring of ambient atmospheric CO2 based on laser absorption spectrum].

    PubMed

    He, Ying; Zhang, Yu-Jun; Kan, Rui-Feng; Xia, Hui; Geng, Hui; Ruan, Jun; Wang, Min; Cui, Xiao-Juan; Liu, Wen-Qing

    2009-01-01

    With the conjunction of tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technology (TDLAS) and the open long optical path technology, the system designing scheme of CO2 on-line monitoring based on near infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy technology was discussed in detail, and the instrument for large-range measurement was set up. By choosing the infrared absorption line of CO2 at 1.57 microm whose line strength is strong and suitable for measurement, the ambient atmospheric CO2 was measured continuously with a 30 s temporal resolution at an suburb site in the autumn of 2007. The diurnal atmospheric variations of CO2 and continuous monitoring results were presented. The results show that the variation in CO2 concentration has an obvious diurnal periodicity in suburb where the air is free of interference and contamination. The general characteristic of diurnal variation is that the concentration is low in the daytime and high at night, so it matches the photosynthesis trend. The instrument can detect gas concentration online with high resolution, high sensitivity, high precision, short response time and many other advantages, the monitoring requires no gas sampling, the calibration is easy, and the detection limit is about 4.2 x 10(-7). It has been proved that the system and measurement project are feasible, so it is an effective method for gas flux continuous online monitoring of large range in ecosystem based on TDLAS technology.

  17. Catalysts for long-life closed-cycle CO2 lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schryer, David R.; Sidney, Barry D.; Miller, Irvin M.; Hess, Robert V.; Wood, George M.; Batten, Carmen E.; Burney, Lewis G.; Hoyt, Ronald F.; Paulin, Patricia A.; Brown, Kenneth G.

    1987-01-01

    Long-life, closed-cycle operation of pulsed CO2 lasers requires catalytic CO-O2 recombination both to remove O2, which is formed by discharge-induced CO2 decomposition, and to regenerate CO2. Platinum metal on a tin (IV) oxide substrate (Pt/SnO2) has been found to be an effective catalyst for such recombination in the desired temperature range of 25 to 100 C. This paper presents a description of ongoing research at NASA-LaRC on Pt/SnO2 catalyzed CO-O2 recombination. Included are studies with rare-isotope gases since rare-isotope CO2 is desirable as a laser gas for enhanced atmospheric transmission. Results presented include: (1) achievement of 98% to 100% conversion of a stoichiometric mixture of CO and O2 to CO2 for 318 hours (greater than 1 x 10 to the 6th power seconds), continuous, at a catalyst temperature of 60 C, and (2) development of a technique verified in a 30-hour test, to prevent isotopic scrambling when CO-18 and O-18(2) are reacted in the presence of a common-isotope Pt/Sn O-16(2) catalyst.

  18. Stabilization of CO2 laser short-pulse oscillation by tickle pulse for dot processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokita, Daisaku; Sakurada, Noriyo; Ishii, Yoshio; Kubota, Yuzuru; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    2005-03-01

    Image drawing using a laser system has been attempted by Segmented Pixel Drawing (SPD) method and Laser Plastic Coloring (LPC) method in our laboratory. Laser dot processing by a short pulse oscillation of a CO2 laser is used for these laser methods. Stable short pulse oscillation is required for an accurate image drawing. That oscillation has a tendency to be unstable because of its long oscillation interval. A tickle pulse is known as one of a technique which is conventionally used for a continuous pulse oscillation of a CO2 laser in order to make rising rate of laser oscillation quick. In this study, this tickle pulse has been improved and applied to the short pulse oscillation in order to stable short pulse oscillation and high accurate laser dot processing. In the result, processed dots are appeared bigger with less variation in their sizes with the improved tickle pulse case compared with the conventional case. Short pulse oscillation is stabilized by these improved tickle pulse. Reproducibility and accuracy ofthe SPD method and LPC method might be realized by this stabilized dot processing.

  19. Color printing on plastics using a slab, RF-excited CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawarazaki, Masaru; Sakurada, Noriyo; Ishii, Yoshio; Kubota, Yuzuru; Watanabe, Kazuhiro

    2003-02-01

    A coloring method using a laser system has been proposed in our laboratory. This method has the features as follows. i) The processing objects are plastic materials such as acrylic, nylon, epoxy, polyester etc. ii) Heating the dye solution by the irradiation of a laser, a material can be dyed at a local area of laser irradiation. iii) The images which printed by this method have persistence for erasing such as washing or rubbing. iv) Since the absorptivity of CO2 laser to the dye solution is high, a slap, RF excited CO2 laser was used as a heating source. This method, however, could be expressed only one-color image. In order to perform expression based on the digital image, not one-color but the colors printing of the image has been required. In this study, the innovative laser coloring method has been introduced for the colors printing. This method combines the laser processing dots which are possessed different colors. For example, by combining the dots of two colors, another color printing can be created. Otherwise, by changing the combining rate of the dots of two colors, more other color printing has been possible. A color printing on plastics using the innovative laser coloring method has been successfully attempted.

  20. High Repetition Rate Pulsed 2-Micron Laser Transmitter for Coherent CO2 DIAL Measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Uprendra N.; Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Petzar, Paul J.; Trieu, Bo C.; Lee, Hyung

    2009-01-01

    A high repetition rate, highly efficient, Q-switched 2-micron laser system as the transmitter of a coherent differential absorption lidar for CO2 measurement has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center. Such a laser transmitter is a master-slave laser system. The master laser operates in a single frequency, either on-line or off-line of a selected CO2 absorption line. The slave laser is a Q-switched ring-cavity Ho:YLF laser which is pumped by a Tm:fiber laser. The repetition rate can be adjusted from a few hundred Hz to 10 kHz. The injection seeding success rate is from 99.4% to 99.95%. For 1 kHz operation, the output pulse energy is 5.5mJ with the pulse length of approximately 50 ns. The optical-to-optical efficiency is 39% when the pump power is 14.5W. The measured standard deviation of the laser frequency jitter is about 3 MHz.

  1. Picosecond laser welding of optical to metal components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carter, Richard M.; Troughton, Michael; Chen, Jinanyong; Elder, Ian; Thomson, Robert R.; Lamb, Robert A.; Esser, M. J. Daniel; Hand, Duncan P.

    2016-03-01

    We report on practical, industrially relevant, welding of optical components to themselves and aluminum alloy components. Weld formation is achieved through the tight focusing of a 5.9ps, 400kHz Trumpf laser operating at 1030nm. By selecting suitable surface preparation, clamping and laser parameters, the plasma can be confined, even with comparatively rough surfaces, by exploiting the melt properties of the glass. The short interaction time allows for a permanent weld to form between the two materials with heating limited to a region ~300 µm across. Practical application of these weld structures is typically limited due to the induced stress within the glass and, critically, the issues surrounding post-weld thermal expansion. We report on the measured strength of the weld, with a particular emphasis on laser parameters and surface preparation.

  2. Intraoral Laser Welding (ILW): ultrastructural and mechanical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornaini, Carlo; Passaretti, Francesca; Villa, Elena; Nammour, Samir

    2010-05-01

    Nd:YAG, currently used since 1970 in dental laboratories to weld metals on dental prostheses has some limits such great dimensions, high costs and fixed delivery system. Recently it was proposed the possibility to use the Nd:YAG laser device commonly utilised in dental office, to repair broken fixed, removable and orthodontic prostheses and to weld metals directly into the mouth. The aim of this work is to value, through SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope), EDS (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy) and DMA (Dynamic Mechanical Analysis), quality and mechanical strength of the welding process comparing a device normally used in dental lab and a device normally used in dental office for oral surgery. Sixteen CoCrMo metal plates and twenty steel orthodontic wires were divided in four groups: one was welded without metal apposition by laboratory laser, one was welded with metal apposition by laboratory laser, one was welded without metal apposition by office laser and one was welded with metal apposition by office laser. The welding process was analysed by SEM, EDS and DMA to compare the differences between the different samples. By SEM analysis it was seen that the plates welded by office laser without apposition metal showed a greater number of fissurations compared with the other samples. By EDS analysis it was seen a homogeneous composition of the metals in all the samples. The mechanical tests showed a similar elastic behaviour of the samples, with minimal differences between the two devices. No wire broke even under the maximum strength by the Analyser. This study seems to demonstrate that the welding process by office Nd:YAG laser device and the welding process by laboratory Nd:YAG laser device, analysed by SEM, EDS and DMA, showed minimal and not significant differences even if these data will be confirmed by a greater number of samples.

  3. Cosmetic and aesthetic skin photosurgery using a computer-assisted CO2 laser-scanning system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dutu, Doru C. A.; Dumitras, Dan C.; Nedelcu, Ioan; Ghetie, Sergiu D.

    1997-12-01

    Since the first application of CO2 laser in skin photosurgery, various techniques such as laser pulsing, beam scanning and computer-assisted laser pulse generator have been introduced for the purpose of reducing tissue carbonization and thermal necrosis. Using a quite simple XY optical scanner equipped with two galvanometric driven mirrors and an appropriate software to process the scanning data and control the interaction time and energy density in the scanned area, we have obtained a device which can improve CO2 laser application in cosmetic and aesthetic surgery. The opto-mechanical CO2 laser scanner based on two total reflecting flat mirrors placed at 90 degree(s) in respect to the XY scanning directions and independently driven through a magnetic field provides a linear movement of the incident laser beam in the operating field. A DA converter supplied with scanning data by the software enables a scanning with linearity better than 1% for a maximum angular deviation of 20 degree(s). Because the scanning quality of the laser beam in the operating field is given not only by the displacement function of the two mirrors, but also by the beam characteristics in the focal plane and the cross distribution in the laser beam, the surgeon can control through software either the scanning field dimensions or the distance between two consecutive points of the vertically and/or horizontally sweep line. The development of computer-assisted surgical scanning techniques will help control the surgical laser, to create either a reproducible incision with a controlled depth or a controlled incision pattern with minimal incision width, a long desired facility for plastic surgery, neurosurgery, ENT and dentistry.

  4. Autogeneous Laser and Hybrid Laser Arc Welding of T-joint Low Alloy Steel with Fiber Laser Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unt, A.; Lappalainen, E.; Salminen, A.

    This paper is focused on the welding of low alloy steels S355 and AH36 in thicknesses 6, 8 and 10 mm in T-joint configuration using either autogeneous laser welding or laser-arc hybrid welding (HLAW) with high power fiber lasers. The aim was to obtain understanding of the factors influencing the size of the fillet and weld geometry through methodologically studying effects of laser power, welding speed, beam alignment relative to surface, air gap, focal point position and order of processes (in case of HLAW) and to get a B quality class welds in all thicknesses after parameter optimization.

  5. CO2 laser scribe of chemically strengthened glass with high surface compressive stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xinghua; Vaddi, Butchi R.

    2011-03-01

    Chemically strengthened glass is finding increasing use in handheld, IT and TV cover glass applications. Chemically strengthened glass, particularly with high (>600MPa) compressive stress (CS) and deeper depth of layer (DOL), enable to retain higher strength after damage than non-strengthened glass when its surface is abraded. Corning Gorilla® Glass has particularly proven to be advantageous over competition in this attribute. However, due to high compressive stress (CS) and Central Tension (CT) cutting ion-exchanged glass is extremely difficult and often unmanageable where ever the applications require dicing the chemically strengthened mother glass into smaller parts. We at Corning have developed a CO2 laser scribe and break method (LSB) to separate a single chemically strengthened glass sheet into plurality of devices. Furthermore, CO2 laser scribe and break method enables debris-free separation of glass with high edge strength due to its mirror-like edge finish. We have investigated laser scribe and break of chemically strengthened glass with surface compressive stress greater than 600 MPa. In this paper we present the results of CO2 scribe and break method and underlying laser scribing mechanisms. We demonstrated cross-scribe repetitively on GEN 2 size chemically strengthened glass substrates. Specimens for edge strength measurements of different thickness and CS/DOL glass were prepared using the laser scribe and break technique. The specimens were tested using the standard 4-point bend method and the results are presented.

  6. Light-induced cooling of active medium of CW TEA CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azharonok, Viktor V.; Filatova, Irina I.; Shimanovich, Vladimir D.

    2003-10-01

    In the present paper a gas kinetic temperature change of active medium of high-power TEA CO2 laser that is conditioned by a self-influence of laser radiation on plasma parameters, is investigated. The active medium was pumped by a self-sustained transverse glow discharge. The gas kinetic temperature Tg of plasma has been deduced from the half-width of rotationally unresolved spectral bands of the (2+)N2. It is shown that the laser radiation propagation through the inverse medium causes a cooling of the active medium. The degree of the gas mixture cooling δTg~5K at W~2.2 W/2.2 W/cm3 and δTg~60 K at W~4.4 W/cm3. We suppose that the effect of the active medium cooling is connected with the change of a kinetic of V-T relaxation in asymmetrical mode of the active medium cooling is connected with the change of a kinetic of V-T relaxation in asymmetrical mode of the active medium cooling is connected with with the change of a kinetic of V-T relaxation in asymmetrical mode of vibrationally-excited CO2 molecule when the lasing takes place in the laser resonator. Analytical estimation of light-induced temperature change δT*g of fast-flow TEA CO2-laser active medium are compared with the experimental ones.

  7. Controlling the temperature of bones using pulsed CO2 lasers: observations and mathematical modeling

    PubMed Central

    Lévesque, Luc; Noël, Jean-Marc; Scott, Calum

    2015-01-01

    Temperature of porcine bone specimens are investigated by aiming a pulsed CO2 laser beam at the bone-air surface. This method of controlling temperature is believed to be flexible in medical applications as it avoids the uses of thermal devices, which are often cumbersome and generate rather larger temperature variations with time. The control of temperature using this method is modeled by the heat-conduction equation. In this investigation, it is assumed that the energy delivered by the CO2 laser is confined within a very thin surface layer of roughly 9 μm. It is shown that temperature can be maintained at a steady temperature using a CO2 laser and we demonstrate that the method can be adapted to be used in tandem with another laser beam. This method to control the temperature is believed to be useful in de-contamination of bone during the implantation treatment, in bone augmentation when using natural or synthetic materials and in low-level laser therapy. PMID:26713192

  8. Controlling the temperature of bones using pulsed CO2 lasers: observations and mathematical modeling.

    PubMed

    Lévesque, Luc; Noël, Jean-Marc; Scott, Calum

    2015-12-01

    Temperature of porcine bone specimens are investigated by aiming a pulsed CO2 laser beam at the bone-air surface. This method of controlling temperature is believed to be flexible in medical applications as it avoids the uses of thermal devices, which are often cumbersome and generate rather larger temperature variations with time. The control of temperature using this method is modeled by the heat-conduction equation. In this investigation, it is assumed that the energy delivered by the CO2 laser is confined within a very thin surface layer of roughly 9 μm. It is shown that temperature can be maintained at a steady temperature using a CO2 laser and we demonstrate that the method can be adapted to be used in tandem with another laser beam. This method to control the temperature is believed to be useful in de-contamination of bone during the implantation treatment, in bone augmentation when using natural or synthetic materials and in low-level laser therapy. PMID:26713192

  9. A study of laser-beam welding conducted at the Centre for Laser Technologies of Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoszewski, Bogdan; Gradoń, Ryszard; Trela, Paweł; Cendrowicz, Edward

    2013-01-01

    The study reported here is part of a larger research project on laser-beam welding conducted at the Centre for Laser Technologies of Metals. The primary objectives were to compare laser-beam welding with a conventional process when used for longitudinal seams in street lamp posts, to select the process parameters for girth welds in cylindrical high-strength steel machine elements, and to assess whether laser-beam welding can be used for magnesium alloys. The paper includes recommendations for the selection of welding parameters.

  10. Development of Laser, Detector, and Receiver Systems for an Atmospheric CO2 Lidar Profiling System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ismail, Syed; Koch, Grady; Abedin, Nurul; Refaat, Tamer; Rubio, Manuel; Singh, Upendra

    2008-01-01

    A ground-based Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) is being developed with the capability to measure range-resolved and column amounts of atmospheric CO2. This system is also capable of providing high-resolution aerosol profiles and cloud distributions. It is being developed as part of the NASA Earth Science Technology Office s Instrument Incubator Program. This three year program involves the design, development, evaluation, and fielding of a ground-based CO2 profiling system. At the end of a three-year development this instrument is expected to be capable of making measurements in the lower troposphere and boundary layer where the sources and sinks of CO2 are located. It will be a valuable tool in the validation of NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) measurements of column CO2 and suitable for deployment in the North American Carbon Program (NACP) regional intensive field campaigns. The system can also be used as a test-bed for the evaluation of lidar technologies for space-application. This DIAL system leverages 2-micron laser technology developed under a number of NASA programs to develop new solid-state laser technology that provides high pulse energy, tunable, wavelength-stabilized, and double-pulsed lasers that are operable over pre-selected temperature insensitive strong CO2 absorption lines suitable for profiling of lower tropospheric CO2. It also incorporates new high quantum efficiency, high gain, and relatively low noise phototransistors, and a new receiver/signal processor system to achieve high precision DIAL measurements.

  11. Emission Spectrochemical Analysis of Food Material Using TEA CO2 Laser-Induced Shock Wave Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagawa, Kiichiro; Deguchi, Yoji; Ogata, Akira; Kurniawan, Hendrick; Ikeda, Noriko; Takagi, Yasuhiro

    1991-11-01

    A new method for spectrochemical analysis of food materials is presented using a Transverse Excited Atmospheric (TEA) CO2 laser. Milk powders containing different amounts of Ca are mixed with KBr powder, and compressed to make pellets. The pellets are bombarded by the TEA CO2 laser (300 mJ, 100 ns) under the surrounding gas of 300 Pa. The shape of the luminous plasma is hemispherical. This plasma is excited by the shock wave induced by the laser bombardment. It is proved that the relative intensity of the Ca 422.6-nm emission line to that of the K 404.4-nm emission line is proportional to the Ca content. This method has a bright prospect as a direct analytical method of food materials.

  12. Regenerative therapy of deep peri-implant infrabony defects after CO2 laser implant surface decontamination.

    PubMed

    Romanos, Georgios E; Nentwig, Georg H

    2008-06-01

    The treatment of a peri-implant infrabony defect is difficult because of contamination of the implant surface and adjacent tissues. This case series addresses the ability of a carbon dioxide (CO2) laser to decontaminate failing implants in 15 patients. Clinical and radiologic data are presented with regard to using the laser in combination with bone grafting and a barrier. Augmentation with autogenous bone grafting material (n = 10) or a xenogenic bone grafting material (BioOss) (n = 9) was used, and bone grafts were covered with a collagen membrane. Clinical and radiologic parameters were evaluated postoperatively. After an observation period of 27 months (+/- 17.83), almost complete bone fill in the peri-implant defect was accomplished. These preliminary clinical and radiologic findings suggest that decontamination of the implant surfaces with the CO2 laser in combination with augmentative techniques can be an effective treatment method for peri-implantitis.

  13. Enhancing growth of cultured human skin cells using low-energy CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grossman, Nili; Reuveni, Haim; Halevy, Sima; Lubart, Rachel

    1997-12-01

    In view of the versatility and usage of the CO2 laser as a too. in surgery and dermatology, we have studied its effect on enhancing proliferation of cultured skin cells using an attenuated CO2 laser. Exposure of cultured keratinocytes or fibroblasts to continuous wave or pulse mode irradiation enhanced thymidine incorporation by 1.4 to 1.7 folds, and cell number by 1.25 to 1.4 folds, measured 24 and 48 hours later, depending on the fluency applied. As expected, these effects were not suppressed by added antioxidants, indicating that the mechanism involved in this newly observed effect, differ from photosensitization by low energy visible and near IR lasers.

  14. Heat Treatment With Beam Integrators Device For CO2 High Power Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botticelli, A.; Caneve, L.; Conserva, Dannille; Cruciani, Diego; Garifo, Luciano

    1989-03-01

    Reflective metallic optics for high power CO2 laser are very important in industrial application of laser surface modification processes (cladding, heat treatment, etc.). Copper wirrors fabricated by diamond turning method offer a very high reflectance in the IR spectral region. Usually, metallic mirrors are coated with protective films to preserve the surface from any kind of degradation. In the development of these optics, we have produced a system for heat treatment. Such a system uses a beam integrator convex mirror that divides the CO2 beam laser in several beams with a predetermined spot size. By a concave mirror all spots are overlapped on the surface which must be treated. In this way, it is possible to obtain a uniform intensity, distribution of radiation on the irradiated surface. Using different beam integrator convex mirrors, various spot sizes at the same focal distance can be achieved.

  15. Miniaturized Laser Heterodyne Radiometer for Measurements of CO2 in the Atmospheric Column

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, E. L.; Mclinden, M. L.; Miller, J. H.; Allan, G. R.; Lott, L. E.; Melroy, H. R.; Clarke, G. B.

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a low-cost, miniaturized laser heterodyne radiometer for highly sensitive measurements of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the atmospheric column. In this passive design, sunlight that has undergone absorption by CO2 in the atmosphere is collected and mixed with continuous wave laser light that is step-scanned across the absorption feature centered at 1,573.6 nm. The resulting radio frequency beat signal is collected as a function of laser wavelength, from which the total column mole fraction can be de-convolved. We are expanding this technique to include methane (CH4) and carbon monoxide (CO), and with minor modifications, this technique can be expanded to include species such as water vapor (H2O) and nitrous oxide (N2O).

  16. Study of CW Nd-Yag laser welding of Zn-coated steel sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabbro, Rémy; Coste, Frédéric; Goebels, Dominique; Kielwasser, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    The welding of Zn-coated steel thin sheets is a great challenge for the automotive industry. Previous studies have defined the main physical processes involved. For non-controlled conditions, the zinc vapour expelled from the interface of the two sheets violently expands inside the keyhole and expels the melt pool. When using CO2 lasers, we have previously shown that an elongated laser spot produces an elongated keyhole, which is efficient for suppressing this effect. We have adopted a similar approach for CW Nd : Yag laser welding and we observe that an elongated spot is not necessary for achieving good weld seams. Several diagnostics were used in order to understand these interesting results. High-speed video camera visualizations of the top and the bottom of the keyhole during the process show the dynamics of the keyhole hydrodynamic behaviour. It appears that the role of the reflected beam on the front keyhole wall for generating a characteristic rear wall deformation is crucial for an efficient stabilization of the process. Our dynamic keyhole modelling, which includes ray tracing, totally confirms this interpretation and explains the results for very different experimental conditions (effect of welding speed, laser intensity, variable sheet thickness, laser beam intensity distribution) that will be presented.

  17. Effect of CO{sub 2} laser irradiation on arc welding

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, Nobuyuki; Agano, Yasuo; Tsukamoto, Masahiro

    1996-12-31

    Combination welding was performed using a CO{sub 2} laser and MIG arc under various conditions to investigate the effectiveness of combining these two welding methods for high speed welding of thick plates. The penetration depth of combination welding was affected by the assist gas flow rate similar to when laser welding is performed at a low welding speed. Penetration was governed by the laser, while the bead width was governed by the arc. Laser-arc combination welding enabled welding of 12mm thick mild steel at a welding speed of 2000 mm/min with proper selection of the assist gas flow rate and root gap.

  18. Coagulation of egg white by thermal-feedback-controlled CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilesiz, Inci F.; Katzir, Abraham

    2000-11-01

    Temperature feedback control during laser-assisted tissue coagulation was investigated and demonstrated using the egg white model. Dynamics of photothermal denaturation during CO2 laser irradiation was observed by simultaneously controlling surface temperature and monitoring HeNe laser transmission of egg white samples. Once a quasi-constant surface temperature was established, transmission of egg white tended to decrease linearly with time. A first order rate process was observed. Our experiments demonstrated that thermal feedback can effectively control/limit photothermal damage.

  19. Research on catalysts for long-life closed-cycle CO2 laser oaperation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidney, Barry D.; Schryer, David R.; Upchurch, Billy T.; Hess, Robert V.; Wood, George M.

    1987-01-01

    Long-life, closed-cycle operation of pulsed CO2 lasers requires catalytic CO-O2 recombination both to remove O2, which is formed by discharge-induced CO2 decomposition, and to regenerate CO2. Platinum metal on a tin-oxide substrate (Pt/SnO2) has been found to be an effective catalyst for such recombination in the desired temperature range of 25 to 100 C. This paper presents a description of ongoing research at NASA-Langley on Pt/SnO2 catalyzed CO-O2 recombination. Included are studies with rare-isotope gases since rare-isotope CO2 is desirable as a laser gas for enhanced atmospheric transmission. Results presented include: (1) the effects of various catalyst pretreatment techniques on catalyst efficiency; (2) development of a technique, verified in a 30-hour test, to prevent isotopic scrambling when C(O-18) and (O-18)2 are reacted in the presence of a common-isotope Pt/Sn(O-16)2 catalyst; and (3) development of a mathematical model of a laser discharge prior to catalyst introduction.

  20. The use of electromagnetic body forces to enhance the quality of laser welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambrosy, Guenter; Berger, P.; Huegel, H.; Lindenau, D.

    2003-11-01

    The use of electromagnetic body forces in laser beam welding of aluminum alloys is a new method to shape the geometry and to enhance the quality of the weld seams. In this new approach, electromagnetic volume forces are utilized by applying magnetic fields and electric currents of various origins. Acting in the liquid metal, they directly affect the flow field and can lead to favourable conditions for the melt dynamics and energy coupling. Numerous welds with full and partial penetration using both CO2 and Nd:YAG lasers demonstrate that this method directly influences the seam geometry and top-bead topography as well as the penetration depth and the evolution of pores and cracks. In the case of full penetration, it is also possible to lift or to lower the weld pool. The method, therefore, can be used to shape the geometry and to enhance the quality of the weld seam. Depending on the orientation of an external magnetic field, significant impacts are achieved in CO2 welding, even without an external current: the shape of the cross-sectional area can be increased of up to 50% and also the seam width is changed. Whereas for such conditions with Nd:YAG lasers no significant effect could be observed, it turned out that, when an external electric current is applied, similar effects are present with both wavelengths. In further investigations, the effect of electromagnetic body forces resulting from the interaction of an external current and its self-induced magnetic field was studied. Hereby, the current was fed into the workpiece via a tungsten electrode or a filler wire. The resulting phenomena are the same independent from wavelength and means of current feed.

  1. Infrared radiation and inversion population of CO2 laser levels in Venusian and Martian atmospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordiyets, B. F.; Panchenko, V. Y.

    1983-01-01

    Formation mechanisms of nonequilibrium 10 micron CO2 molecule radiation and the possible existence of a natural laser effect in the upper atmospheres of Venus and Mars are theoretically studied. An analysis is made of the excitation process of CO2 molecule vibrational-band levels (with natural isotropic content) induced by direct solar radiation in bands 10.6, 9.4, 4.3, 2.7 and 2.0 microns. The model of partial vibrational-band temperatures was used in the case. The problem of IR radiation transfer in vibrational-rotational bands was solved in the radiation escape approximation.

  2. Study of issues in difficult-to-weld thick materials by hybrid laser arc welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazar Atabaki, Mehdi

    There is a high interest for the high strength-to-weight ratio with good ductility for the welds of advanced alloys. The concern about the welding of thick materials (Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) and 5xxx and 6xxx series of aluminum alloys) has stimulated the development of manufacturing processes to overcome the associated issues. The need to weld the dissimilar materials (AHSS and aluminum alloys) is also required for some specific applications in different industries. Hence, the requirement in the development of a state-of-the-art welding procedure can be helpful to fulfill the constraints. Among the welding methods hybrid laser/arc welding (HLAW) has shown to be an effective method to join thick and difficult-to-weld materials. This process benefits from both advantages of the gas metal arc welding (GMAW) and laser welding processes. The interaction of the arc and laser can help to have enough penetration of weld in thick plates. However, as the welding of dissimilar aluminum alloys and steels is very difficult because of the formation of brittle intermetallics the present work proposed a procedure to effectively join the alloys. The reports showed that the explosively welded aluminum alloys to steels have the highest toughness, and that could be used as an "insert" (TRICLAD) for welding the thick plates of AHSS to aluminum alloys. Therefore, the HLAW of the TRICLAD-Flange side (Aluminum alloy (AA 5456)) to the Web side (Aluminum alloys (AA 6061 and AA 5456)) and the TRICLAD-Flange side (ASTM A516) to the Web side (AHSS) was studied in the present work. However, there are many issues related to HLAW of the dissimilar steels as well as dissimilar aluminum alloys that have to be resolved in order to obtain sound welds. To address the challenges, the most recent welding methods for joining aluminum alloys to steels were studied and the microstructural development, mechanical properties, and on-line monitoring of the welding processes were discussed as well

  3. Experimental Investigation of Axial and Beam-Riding Propulsive Physics with TEA CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kenoyer, D. A.; Salvador, I.; Myrabo, L. N.; Notaro, S. N.; Bragulla, P. W.

    2010-10-01

    A twin Lumonics K922M pulsed TEA CO2 laser system (pulse duration of approximately 100 ns FWHM spike, with optional 1 μs tail, depending upon laser gas mix) was employed to experimentally measure both axial thrust and beam-riding behavior of Type ♯200 lightcraft engines, using a ballistic pendulum and Angular Impulse Measurement Device (AIMD, respectively. Beam-riding forces and moments were examined along with engine thrust-vectoring behavior, as a function of: a) laser beam lateral offset from the vehicle axis of symmetry; b) laser pulse energy (˜12 to 40 joules); c) pulse duration (100 ns, and 1 μs); and d) engine size (97.7 mm to 161.2 mm). Maximum lateral momentum coupling coefficients (CM) of 75 N-s/MJ were achieved with the K922M laser whereas previous PLVTS laser (420 J, 18 μs duration) results reached only 15 N-s/MJ—an improvement of 5x. Maximum axial CM performance with the K922M reached 225 N-s/MJ, or about ˜3x larger than the lateral CM values. These axial CM results are sharply higher than the 120 N/MW previously reported for long pulse (e.g., 10-18 μs) CO2 electric discharge lasers.

  4. Direct acceleration of electrons by a CO2 laser in a curved plasma waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Longqing; Pukhov, Alexander; Shen, Baifei

    2016-06-01

    Laser plasma interaction with micro-engineered targets at relativistic intensities has been greatly promoted by recent progress in the high contrast lasers and the manufacture of advanced micro- and nano-structures. This opens new possibilities for the physics of laser-matter interaction. Here we propose a novel approach that leverages the advantages of high-pressure CO2 laser, laser-waveguide interaction, as well as micro-engineered plasma structure to accelerate electrons to peak energy greater than 1 GeV with narrow slice energy spread (~1%) and high overall efficiency. The acceleration gradient is 26 GV/m for a 1.3 TW CO2 laser system. The micro-bunching of a long electron beam leads to the generation of a chain of ultrashort electron bunches with the duration roughly equal to half-laser-cycle. These results open a way for developing a compact and economic electron source for diverse applications.

  5. Direct acceleration of electrons by a CO2 laser in a curved plasma waveguide

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Longqing; Pukhov, Alexander; Shen, Baifei

    2016-01-01

    Laser plasma interaction with micro-engineered targets at relativistic intensities has been greatly promoted by recent progress in the high contrast lasers and the manufacture of advanced micro- and nano-structures. This opens new possibilities for the physics of laser-matter interaction. Here we propose a novel approach that leverages the advantages of high-pressure CO2 laser, laser-waveguide interaction, as well as micro-engineered plasma structure to accelerate electrons to peak energy greater than 1 GeV with narrow slice energy spread (~1%) and high overall efficiency. The acceleration gradient is 26 GV/m for a 1.3 TW CO2 laser system. The micro-bunching of a long electron beam leads to the generation of a chain of ultrashort electron bunches with the duration roughly equal to half-laser-cycle. These results open a way for developing a compact and economic electron source for diverse applications. PMID:27320197

  6. The threshold of vapor channel formation in water induced by pulsed CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Wenqing; Zhang, Xianzeng; Zhan, Zhenlin; Xie, Shusen

    2012-12-01

    Water plays an important role in laser ablation. There are two main interpretations of laser-water interaction: hydrokinetic effect and vapor phenomenon. The two explanations are reasonable in some way, but they can't explain the mechanism of laser-water interaction completely. In this study, the dynamic process of vapor channel formation induced by pulsed CO2 laser in static water layer was monitored by high-speed camera. The wavelength of pulsed CO2 laser is 10.64 um, and pulse repetition rate is 60 Hz. The laser power ranged from 1 to 7 W with a step of 0.5 W. The frame rate of high-speed camera used in the experiment was 80025 fps. Based on high-speed camera pictures, the dynamic process of vapor channel formation was examined, and the threshold of vapor channel formation, pulsation period, the volume, the maximum depth and corresponding width of vapor channel were determined. The results showed that the threshold of vapor channel formation was about 2.5 W. Moreover, pulsation period, the maximum depth and corresponding width of vapor channel increased with the increasing of the laser power.

  7. Method for laser welding a fin and a tube

    DOEpatents

    Fuerschbach, Phillip W.; Mahoney, A. Roderick; Milewski, John O

    2001-01-01

    A method of laser welding a planar metal surface to a cylindrical metal surface is provided, first placing a planar metal surface into approximate contact with a cylindrical metal surface to form a juncture area to be welded, the planar metal surface and cylindrical metal surface thereby forming an acute angle of contact. A laser beam, produced, for example, by a Nd:YAG pulsed laser, is focused through the acute angle of contact at the juncture area to be welded, with the laser beam heating the juncture area to a welding temperature to cause welding to occur between the planar metal surface and the cylindrical metal surface. Both the planar metal surface and cylindrical metal surface are made from a reflective metal, including copper, copper alloys, stainless steel alloys, aluminum, and aluminum alloys.

  8. Hybrid CO2 laser/waterjet (CO2-LWJ) cutting of Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride (PCBN) blanks with phase transformation induced fracture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhuoru; Melaibari, Ammar A.; Molian, Pal; Shrotriya, Pranav

    2015-07-01

    The present paper investigates a transformation induced fracture mechanism for the cutting of Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride (PCBN) sample by a hybrid CO2 laser/waterjet (CO2-LWJ) manufacturing process. In CO2-LWJ machining, a laser was used for local heating followed by waterjet quenching leading to fracture propagation along the sample surface. Cutting results indicate that as line energy of the laser was increased the sample response transitioned from scribing to through cutting. Raman spectroscopy analysis of the cut surface indicates that laser heated PCBN undergoes chemical phase transformation from sp3-bonded cubic Boron Nitride (cBN) into hexagonal Boron Nitride (hBN) and other sp2-bonded phases. The sp2-bonded structure occupies more volume than sp3-bonded structure such that the transformed material has a tendency to expand the original material and leads to surface deformation around the cutting path. Surface profile of the cut samples was experimentally measured using profilometry and compared with numerical predictions in order to estimate the expansion strain and dimensions of transformation region. Based on the obtained expansion strain and transformation zone, stress fields and crack driving forces were computed for channeling cracks that result in material separation. Comparison of the crack driving forces with fracture toughness of PCBN shows that transformation induced crack propagation is the feasible mechanism for cutting during CO2-LWJ machining.

  9. Influence of secondary treatment with CO2 laser irradiation for mitigation site on fused silica surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Yong; Zhou, Qiang; Qiu, Rong; Gao, Xiang; Wang, Hui-Li; Yao, Cai-Zhen; Wang, Jun-Bo; Zhao, Xin; Liu, Chun-Ming; Xiang, Xia; Zu, Xiao-Tao; Yuan, Xiao-Dong; Miao, Xin-Xiang

    2016-10-01

    The ablation debris and raised rim, as well as residual stress and deep crater will be formed during the mitigation of damage site with a CO2 laser irradiation on fused silica surface, which greatly affects the laser damage resistance of optics. In this study, the experimental study combined with numerical simulation is utilized to investigate the effect of the secondary treatment on a mitigated site by CO2 laser irradiation. The results indicate that the ablation debris and the raised rim can be completely eliminated and the depth of crater can be reduced. Notable results show that the residual stress of the mitigation site after treatment will reduce two-thirds of the original stress. Finally, the elimination and the controlling mechanism of secondary treatment on the debris and raised rim, as well as the reasons for changing the profile and stress are analyzed. The results can provide a reference for the optimization treatment of mitigation sites by CO2 laser secondary treatment. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61505170, 61505171, and 51535003), the Joint Fund of the National Natural Science Foundation of China, the Chinese Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant No. U1530109), and the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (Grant No. 2016M592709).

  10. Benefits of CO2 laser heating for high reliability fiber splicing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duke, Douglas M.; Nasir, Usman; Saravanos, Elli

    2016-03-01

    The use of a CO2 laser as a heat source became commercially available for optical fiber splicing and component fabrication only in recent years. In addition to long-term trouble-free and low-maintenance heat source operation, laser fusion splicing offers unique benefits for fabricating high-power optical components, as well as for splice reliability. When used as the heating method for fiber splicing, the energy of the CO2 laser beam is efficiently absorbed by the outer layer of the glass, and is then conducted inwards. This heating method is well controlled, and results in a smooth and contamination-free glass surface. Other heating methods, such as arc fusion or resistive heating, may leave tungsten, graphite, or metal oxide deposits on the spliced fiber surface. By contrast, with CO2 laser splicing, the lack of surface irregularities and contamination enables remarkable spliced-fiber strength results, with some strength results nearly within the range of coated fiber breaking strength.

  11. Decomposition experiment of hydro-fluorocarbon gas by pulsed TEA CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeno, Kazuo; Udagawa, Shinsuke; Toyada, Kazuhiro

    2005-03-01

    This paper deals with a trial experiment of decomposition of environmental gas R-12 by the pulsed TEA CO2 laser. Nowadays refrigerant R-12 and other hydro-chlorofluorocarbon gases are strongly prohibited to produce, as these gases have both strong ozone-depleting effects and green-house effects. The gases of already produced by huge amount should be decomposed as fast as possible by suitable technical methods. Along with the conventional kiln furnace of cement, arc discharge and the HG discharge are good methods for the freon decomposition. Both methods, however, have the weakness of electrode damages (arcing) or low-pressure operation (HF discharge). High power CO2 laser seems to have good properties for such decomposition with favorable wavelength for the absorption. In our small-scale experiment of gas decomposition a pulsed TEA CO2 laser of several joules is utilized to produce the plasma in R-12 flow channel of glass tube. The withdrawal of decomposed gases is performed by Ca alkalized water. The deposit mass is measured, and powder X-ray diffraction measurement is carried out on the deposit powder. The possibility of our laser gas decomposition is discussed.

  12. CO2 laser as auxiliary in the debonding of ceramic brackets.

    PubMed

    Macri, Rodrigo Teixeira; de Lima, Fabrício Augusto; Bachmann, Luciano; Galo, Rodrigo; Romano, Fábio Lourenço; Borsatto, Maria Cristina; Matsumoto, Mírian Aiko Nakane

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluated the temperature in the bonding composite and in the pulp chamber, the shear bond strength after the irradiation of CO2 lasers, and the Adhesive Remnant Index (ARI) after debonding of ceramic bracket. A hundred and five premolars were used: 30 to evaluate the temperature and 75 to test the resistance to shear and the ARI. To assess the temperature, different irradiation times (3 and 5 s), pulse duration (0.001 and 0.003 s), and output power (5, 8, and 10 W) were tested (total of 12 groups). During all the irradiation, specimens were immersed in thermal bath water at 37 °C. In the test and ARI evaluation, premolars were divided into five groups (n = 15) and were submitted to the following regimens of CO2 laser irradiation: I (5 W, pulse duration = 0.01 s, application time = 3 s), II (5 W, 0.03 s, 3 s), III (8 W, 0.01 s, 3 s), and IV (1 0 W, 0.01 s, 3 s). Group C (control) was not subjected to irradiation. ARI was measured after debonding of the bracket. Following irradiation of the lasers, the pulpal temperature was not higher than 5.5 °C in four of the study groups. Results were submitted to the ANOVA and Duncan's test. CO2 laser irradiation regimen IV was one in which the strength of debonding is 7.33 MPa. Therefore, CO2 laser may aid removal of ceramic brackets; it decreased the bond strength without increasing the excessive temperature excessively. PMID:25410302

  13. Eco-efficiency of laser welding applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaierle, Stefan; Dahmen, Martin; Güdükkurt, Okan

    2011-05-01

    As widely known laser materials processing has some advantages regarding local heat input and controllability. In many fields applications were developed which are not accessible for conventional thermal processing. In other fields laser-supported manufacturing techniques are a valuable alternative. On the one hand laser techniques enable increased processing speed and less post-processing, leading to an increased productivity. On the other hand low efficiencies in the energy conversion seem to be a major drawback and apparently limit the range of applications. In the frame of conventional processing schemes laser beam welding requires a high utilization in order to run economically. Main advantages lie in the reduced consumption of material and the reduced efforts in post processing. Because of the locally concentrated heat input process emissions are lower which reduces energy and material consumption in the auxiliary chain. To make full use of the often-conjured flexibility a multitude of manufacturing schemes had been developed and adapted. In order to appraise the versatility of laser driven processing techniques a cost and benefit analysis based on a life-cycle approach is conducted including both, economics and ecology. Eco-efficiency is rated by a variation of the BASF method. Taking into account the reduced consumption of consumables, reduced effort for preparation and post-processing, and focusing on specific application ranges a positive environmental impact can be proven.

  14. Microsecond enamel ablation with 10.6μm CO2 laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Góra, W. S.; McDonald, A.; Hand, D. P.; Shephard, J. D.

    2016-02-01

    Lasers have been previously been used for dental applications, however there remain issues with thermally-induced cracking. In this paper we investigate the impact of pulse length on CO2 laser ablation of human dental enamel. Experiments were carried in vitro on molar teeth without any modification to the enamel surface, such as grinding or polishing. In addition to varying the pulse length, we also varied pulse energy and focal position, to determine the most efficient ablation of dental hard tissue and more importantly to minimize or eradicate cracking. The maximum temperature rise during the multi pulse ablation process was monitored using a set of thermocouples embedded into the pulpal chamber. The application of a laser device in dental surgery allows removal of tissue with higher precision, which results in minimal loss of healthy dental tissue. In this study we use an RF discharge excited CO2 laser operating at 10.6μm. The wavelength of 10.6 μm overlaps with a phosphate band (PO3-4) absorption in dental hard tissue hence the CO2 laser radiation has been selected as a potential source for modification of the tissue. This research describes an in-depth analysis of single pulse laser ablation. To determine the parameters that are best suited for the ablation of hard dental tissue without thermal cracking, a range of pulse lengths (10-200 μs), and fluences (0-100 J/cm2) are tested. In addition, different laser focusing approaches are investigated to select the most beneficial way of delivering laser radiation to the surface (divergent/convergent beam). To ensure that these processes do not increase the temperature above the critical threshold and cause the necrosis of the tissue a set of thermocouples was placed into the pulpal chambers. Intermittent laser radiation was investigated with and without application of a water spray to cool down the ablation site and the adjacent area. Results show that the temperature can be kept below the critical threshold

  15. Fabrication of a microresonator-fiber assembly maintaining a high-quality factor by CO₂ laser welding.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhiwei; Lin, Jintian; Wang, Min; Liu, Zhengming; Yao, Jinping; Qiao, Lingling; Cheng, Ya

    2015-10-19

    We demonstrate fabrication of a microtoroid resonator of a high-quality (high-Q) factor using femtosecond laser three-dimensional (3D) micromachining. A fiber taper is reliably assembled to the microtoroid using CO2 laser welding. Specifically, we achieve a high-Q-factor of 2.12 × 10(6) in the microresonator-fiber assembly by optimizing the contact position between the fiber taper and the microtoroid. PMID:26480452

  16. Minimal invasive method to treat hemangiomas of the oral cavity with a CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicola, Ester M. D.; Nicola, Jorge H.; Gusmao, Reinaldo J.; Coutinho, Adriana A.; Cassitas, Nilceu P.

    1997-05-01

    During the last six years we have developed a new CO2 laser technique for the treatment of symptomatic oral cavity hemangioma. Our new technique, named 'laser encircling technique', has especially succeeded during hemangioma buccal maxillary surgeries. The treatment consisted in the application of a line of points of CO2 laser circling the lesion. Depending on the position and size of the lesion, we used from 0.4 to 4.0 Joules/mm2 laser energy density per pulse, causing reduction in the size of the lesion throughout the sclerosis of nutritional vessels which led to reduction in size, volume and color of the hemangiomas with no significant bleeding or inflammatory reaction. In this work forty male and female patients, twelve to fifty years old, presenting medium to small size hemangiomas situated in different sites of the oral cavity such as the tongue, mouth vestibule, pharynx, tonsil area and lips were treated by the procedure described above. The number of laser applications was defined by the peculiarities of each case, varying form 3 to 6 sessions at 4 week intervals, always under local or topic anesthesia. The patients complained about minimal posit operative discomfort and had good cicatrix evolution. The good results achieved by this technique lead to the conclusion that CO2 laser for these types of hemangioma is an efficient and very secure method of treatment. An important aspect of our technique is the fact that using relatively low laser power we do not perform real surgery but a less aggressive alternative of treatment.

  17. Caries inhibition in vital teeth using 9.6-μm CO2-laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rechmann, Peter; Fried, Daniel; Le, Charles Q.; Nelson, Gerald; Rapozo-Hilo, Marcia; Rechmann, Beate M. T.; Featherstone, John D. B.

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that in a short-term clinical pilot trial short-pulsed 9.6 μm CO2-laser irradiation significantly inhibits demineralization in vivo. Twenty-four subjects scheduled for extraction of bicuspids for orthodontic reasons (age 14.9 +/- 2.2 years) were recruited. Orthodontic brackets were placed on bicuspids (Transbond XT, 3M). An area next to the bracket was irradiated with a CO2-laser (Pulse System Inc, Los Alamos, New Mexico), wavelength 9.6 μm, pulse duration 20 μs, pulse repetition rate 20 Hz, beam diameter 1100 μm, average fluence 4.1 +/- 0.3J/cm2, 20 laser pulses per spot. An adjacent nonirradiated area served as control. Bicuspids were extracted after four and twelve weeks, respectively, for a quantitative assessment of demineralization by cross-sectional microhardness testing. For the 4-week arm the mean relative mineral loss ΔZ (vol% × μm) for the laser treated enamel was 402 +/- 85 (mean +/- SE), while the control showed significantly higher mineral loss (ΔZ 738 +/- 131; P = 0.04, t-test). The difference was even larger after twelve weeks (laser arm ΔZ 135 +/- 98; control 1067 +/- 254; P = 0.002). The laser treatment produced 46% demineralization inhibition for the 4-week and a marked 87% inhibition for the 12-week arm. This study shows, for the first time in vivo, that the short-pulsed 9.6 μm CO2-laser irradiation successfully inhibits demineralization of tooth enamel in humans.

  18. Experimental Investigation of Airbreathing Laser Propulsion Engines: CO2TEA vs. EDL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mori, Koichi; Sasoh, Akihiro; Myrabo, Leik N.

    2005-04-01

    Single pulse laboratory experiments were carried out with a high-power CO2 Transversely-Exited Atmospheric (TEA) laser using parabolic laser propulsion (LP) engines of historic interest: 1) an original Pirri/ AERL bell engine, and 2) a scaled-up 11-cm diameter version with identical geometry. The objective was to quantify the effects of pulse duration upon the impulse coupling coefficient performance — with pulse energy as the parametric variable. Performance data from the TEA laser are contrasted with former results derived from AVCO Everett Research Laboratory and PLVTS CO2 electron discharge lasers (EDL). The `short-pulse' 2-microsecond TEA laser tests generated results that were distinctively different from that of the `long-pulse' EDL sources. The TC-300 TEA laser employed an unstable resonator to deliver up to 380 joules, and the square output beam measured 15-cm on a side, with a hollow 8-cm center. A standard ballistic pendulum was employed to measure the performance.

  19. Treatment of laryngeotracheal papillomatosis with the CO2 and Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sedlmaier, Benedikt W.; Jovanovic, Sergije

    2000-06-01

    Papillomas are the most common benign neoplasms of the larynx and trachea. There are two types with different biological behavior, both caused by the human papilloma virus: the form that usually manifest itself in adults as a solitary, rarely recurring lesion, whereas one form that manifests in children and adults. It involves multiple lesions with a tendency to spread and recur. There is still no alternative to repeated surgical removal of the papillomas. In a retrospective study the results of laser surgery are compared with the results of instrumental removal of papillomas. The larynges were treated with the CO2 laser applied via high-precision micromanipulators combined with different scanner systems. In cases where the disease has spread into the cervical trachea, the papilloma foci were exposed by special subglottoscopes prior to transglottic removal with the CO2 laser via the operating microscope. The Nd:YAG laser applied through a jet ventilation tracheoscope via optical fibers has proven useful for involvement of the intrathoracic trachea. The use of the laser has not reduce the recurrency rate but the rate of late complications such as anterior synechia. Furthermore in extensive disease laser therapy enables a controlled bloodless removal even in the thoracic trachea and bronchi.

  20. CO2 surgical laser in the treatment of some types of pathology of pets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serra, Christian; Pinna, Stefania; Venturini, Antonio; Rossi, Giacomo; Fortuna, Damiano

    2002-10-01

    We have treated with CO2 laser surgery 40 cases which contemplated: stomatitis and other oral pathologies, anorectal, cutaneous, subcutaneous lesions, and other ophthalmic ones. The parameters employed to evaluate surgical treatment success were: histological analyses, time of healing process and incidence (per cent) of relapses. During the T/3 period (45 days) all cases of feline stomatitis relapsed. The 83% of pets that suffered of anorectal pathologies healed up to 21 days and no relapse was observed in T/4 period (180 days). The cutaneous and subcutaneous nodules vaporization caused lesions that healed during 7 days (T/1) and no relapse was observed after laser treatment. In cutaneous chronic ulcers and in reptilian abscesses we had the lesions reparation by second intention healing in T/3. A case of feline oral squamocellular carcinoma relapsed in T/3 after laser treatment. The results showed three different level of utility: indispensable, useful but unnecessary, inefficacious. The CO2 laser application resulted the best treatment for anorectal pathologies, cutaneous ulcerations and reptilian abscesses. The laser surgery was only useful but unnecessary in treatment of cutaneous and subcutaneous neoformations and also in oral and peri-ophthalmic pathologies. Finally, the laser application appeared inefficacious in squamocellular carcinoma and in chronic phlogosis of feline oral cavity.

  1. An audit of the use of the CO2 laser in oral and maxillofacial surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.; Santos de Almeida, Darcy

    2004-09-01

    The use of the Carbon dioxide Laser to perform surgical procedures in the oral cavity has been described as a successful method for the treatment of several conditions affecting the maxillofacial region. Several benefits of the use of the CO2 Laser have been reported and includes reduction of postoperative pain and edema, local hemosthasis, reduction of scaring and wound contraction and infection. The aim of this work is to present our clinical experience in performing several surgical procedures using the CO2 Laser to treat soft tissue pathologies of both benign and malign origin as well as on performing pre-prosthetic surgery, apical surgery and on the treatment of pre-malignancies. Our experience demonstrate that the use of the Carbon dioxide Laser in treating oral soft-tissue pathology presents advantages over conventional techniques and local discomfort and pain are the most common complaints after Laser surgery. The Carbon dioxide Laser does not offer any enhanced cure-rate for oral pathology, but rather it is a precise means of removing soft tissue lesions with little upset afterwards.

  2. Osteoblast cell response to a CO 2 laser modified polymeric material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waugh, D. G.; Lawrence, J.; Brown, E. M.

    2012-02-01

    Lasers are an efficient technology, which can be applied for the surface treatment of polymeric biomaterials to enhance insufficient surface properties. That is, the surface chemistry and topography of biomaterials can be modulated to increase the biofunctionality of that material. By employing CO 2 laser patterning and whole area processing of nylon 6,6 this paper details how the surface properties were significantly modified. Samples, which had undergone whole area processing, followed the current theory in which the advancing contact angle, θ, with water decreased and the polar component, γp, increased upon an increase in surface roughness. For the patterned samples it was observed that θ increased and γP decreased. This did not follow the current theory and can be explained by a mixed-state wetting regime. By seeding osteoblast cells onto the samples for 24 h and 4 days the laser surface treatment gave rise to modulated cell response. For the laser whole area processing, θ and γP correlated with the observed cell count and cover density. Owed to the wetting regime, the patterned samples did not give rise to any correlative trend. As a result, CO 2 laser whole area processing is more likely to allow one to predict biofunctionality prior to cell seeding. Moreover, for all samples, cell differentiation was evidenced. On account of this and the modulation in cell response, it has been shown that laser surface treatment lends itself to changing the biofunctional properties of nylon 6,6.

  3. Range Resolved CO2 Atmospheric Backscattering Measurements Using Fiber Lasers and RZPN Code Modulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burris, John

    2011-01-01

    We report the use of a return-to- zero (RZPN) pseudo noise modulation technique for making range resolved measurements of CO2 within the planetary boundary layer (PBL) using commercial, off-the-shelf, components. Conventional, range resolved, DIAL measurements require laser pulse widths that are significantly shorter than the desired spatial resolution and necessitate using pulses whose temporal spacing is such that scattered returns from only a single pulse are observed by the receiver at any one time (for the PBL pulse separations must be greater than approximately 20 microseconds). This imposes significant operational limitations when using currently available fiber lasers because of the resulting low duty cycle (less than approximately 0.0005) and consequent low average laser output power. The RZPN modulation technique enables a fiber laser to operate at much higher duty cycles (approaching 0.04) thereby more effectively utilizing the amplifier's output. This increases the counts received by approximately two orders of magnitude. Our approach involves employing two distributed feedback lasers (DFB), each modulated by a different RPZN code, whose outputs are then amplified by a CW fiber amplifier. One laser is tuned to a CO2 absorption line; the other operates offline thereby permitting the simultaneous acquisition of both on and offline signals using independent RZPN codes. This minimizes the impact of atmospheric turbulence on the measurement. The on and offline signals are retrieved by deconvolving the return signal using the appropriate kernels.

  4. 13CO2/12CO2 isotope ratio analysis in human breath using a 2 μm diode laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Mingguo; Cao, Zhensong; Liu, Kun; Wang, Guishi; Tan, Tu; Gao, Xiaoming; Chen, Weidong; Yinbo, Huang; Ruizhong, Rao

    2015-04-01

    The bacterium H. pylori is believed to cause peptic ulcer. H. pylori infection in the human stomach can be diagnosed through a CO2 isotope ratio measure in exhaled breath. A laser spectrometer based on a distributed-feedback semiconductor diode laser at 2 μm is developed to measure the changes of 13CO2/12CO2 isotope ratio in exhaled breath sample with the CO2 concentration of ~4%. It is characterized by a simplified optical layout, in which a single detector and associated electronics are used to probe CO2 spectrum. A new type multi-passes cell with 12 cm long base length , 29 m optical path length in total and 280 cm3 volume is used in this work. The temperature and pressure are well controlled at 301.15 K and 6.66 kPa with fluctuation amplitude of 25 mK and 6.7 Pa, respectively. The best 13δ precision of 0.06o was achieved by using wavelet denoising and Kalman filter. The application of denoising and Kalman filter not only improved the signal to noise ratio, but also shorten the system response time.

  5. Interactions between laser and arc plasma during laser-arc hybrid welding of magnesium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liming; Chen, Minghua

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents the results of the investigation on the interactions between laser and arc plasma during laser-arc hybrid welding on magnesium alloy AZ31B using the spectral diagnose technique. By comparably analyzing the variation in plasma information (the shape, the electron temperature and density) of single tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding with the laser-arc hybrid welding, it is found that the laser affects the arc plasma through the keyhole forming on the workpiece. Depending on the welding parameters there are three kinds of interactions taking place between laser and arc plasma.

  6. Isotope selective analysis of CO(2) with tunable diode laser (TDL) spectroscopy in the NIR.

    PubMed

    Horner, Gerald; Lau, Steffen; Kantor, Zoltan; Lohmannsroben, Hans-Gerd

    2004-08-01

    The performance of a home-built tunable diode laser (TDL) spectrometer, aimed at multi-line detection of carbon dioxide, has been evaluated and optimized. In the regime of the (30(0)1)(III) <-- (000) band of (12)CO(2) around 1.6 microm, the dominating isotope species (12)CO(2), (13)CO(2), and (12)C(18)O(16)O were detected simultaneously without interference by water vapor. Detection limits in the range of few ppmv were obtained for each species utilizing wavelength modulation (WM) spectroscopy with balanced detection in a long-path absorption cell set-up. High sensitivity in conjunction with high precision -- typically +/-1 (per thousand) and +/-6 (per thousand) for 3% and 0.7% of CO(2), respectively -- renders this experimental approach a promising analytical concept for isotope-ratio determination of carbon dioxide in soil and breath gas. For a moderate (12)CO(2) line, the pressure dependence of the line profile was characterized in detail, to account for pressure effects on sensitive measurements.

  7. Laser welding of dissimilar materials for lightweight construction and special applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schimek, Mitja; Springer, André; Pfeifer, Ronny; Kaierle, Stefan

    2013-02-01

    Against the background of climate objectives and the desired reduction of CO2-emissions, optimization of existing industrial products is needed. To counter rising raw material costs, currently used materials are substituted. This will places new requirements on joining technologies for dissimilar material classes. The main difficulty lies in joining these materials cohesively without changing the properties of the base materials. Current research work at the LZH on joining dissimilar materials is being carried out for the automotive sector and for solar absorbers. For the automotive industry, a laser welding process for joining steel and aluminum without using additives is being investigated, equipped with a spectroscopic welding depth control to increase tensile strength. With a specially constructed laser processing head, it is possible to regulate welding penetration depth in the aluminum sheet, reducing the formation of intermetallic phases. Flat plate solar collectors are favorable devices for generating heat from solar energy. The solar absorber is the central part of a collector, consisting of an aluminum sheet and a copper tube which is attached to the aluminum sheet. Research on new laser welding processes aims at reducing the amount of energy required for production of these solar absorbers. In the field of joining dissimilar materials, laser joining processes, especially for special applications, will complement established joining techniques.

  8. Cloud clearing with a CO(2) laser in a cirrus cloud simulation facility.

    PubMed

    Waggoner, A P; Radke, L F; Buonadonna, V; Dowling, D R

    1992-09-20

    We report experiments that confirm our prediction that clouds consisting of ice crystals with properties similar to those of cirrus clouds can be cleared with relatively low pulsed CO(2) laser energy density and that the cleared channel is resistant to obscuration by recondensation of the evaporated water. For the experiments reported here, we use a unique cloud-generating apparatus consisting of a low-speed wind tunnel with water spray injectors to generate water droplets or, with ice nucleus seeding at low temperatures, ice crystals. The air temperature can be controlled over the range of ambient to -40 degrees C. A significant clearing of ice crystal clouds was observed with pulsed CO(2) laser fluence in the range 0.2 to 1.5 J/cm(2) and, as expected, recondensation was found to depend on ice particle mass concentration. At ice particle concentrations similar to those found in cirrus clouds, recondensation did not occur.

  9. Delrin® for Propulsion with CO2 Laser: Carbon Doping Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinko, John E.; Pakhomov, Andrew V.; Millen, Stewart; Zhu, Jane; Sinko, Robert J.; Potts, Kenneth

    2008-04-01

    Polyoxymethylene (POM) a.k.a. Delrin has been commonly used for propulsion with carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers as a solid fuel providing excellent combination of coupling coefficient and specific impulse. In this paper the propulsive characteristics of white and black (carbon-doped) Delrin will be examined and compared. A Transverse Electric discharge in gas at Atmospheric pressure (TEA) CO2 laser with 300 ns pulse width was operated at up to 20 J pulse energy to produce irradiances on the order of 1-500 MW/cm2 on Delrin targets. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, time-resolved force sensors, a ballistic pendulum, and Schlieren imaging techniques were used to determine absorption spectra, coupling coefficient, specific impulse, and internal efficiency of Delrin. An analysis will be made of the possible routes for force generation.

  10. Theoretical gain optimization studies in 16-micron CO2 gasdynamic lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reddy, N. M.; Reddy, K. P. J.

    The governing equations for gas flows in 16-micron CO2-N2-H2 gasdynamic lasers using conical or hyperbolic nozzles, have been presented in a universal form, so that the solutions depend on a single parameter which combines all other parameters of the laser system. The solutions of these equations are used to compute the optimum values of small-signal-optical gain, and the corresponding optimum values of the area ratio, the reservoir temperature and the binary scaling parameter which is a product of reservoir pressure and nozzle shape factor for a wide range of gas mixture compositions. The results are presented in the form of graphs. An optimum value of 2.06 percent per cm gain has been obtained for the gas composition of CO2:N2:H2 = 15:65:20.

  11. CO2 Laser Surgery and Prosthetic Management for the Treatment of Epulis Fissuratum

    PubMed Central

    de Arruda Paes-Junior, Tarcisio José; Cavalcanti, Sâmia Carolina Mota; Nascimento, Daniela Fernandes Figueira; Saavedra, Guilherme de Siqueira Ferreira Anzaloni; Kimpara, Estevão Tomomitsu; Borges, Alexandre Luiz Souto; Niccoli-Filho, Walter; Komori, Paula Carolina de Paiva

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present a case report of the surgical removal of hyperplasia in the oral cavity, using carbon dioxide (CO2) laser radiation and rehabilitation with a complete denture. Epulis fissuratum occurs in complete denture patients, because a constant irritative action induces the mucosa to grow under poorly fitting dentures. These lesions must be removed, and to avoid a relapse, new complete dentures should be made to maintain healthy surgical tissues. The clinical sequence presented in this case shows a completely edentulous patient with epulis fissuratum on the lower alveolar ridge extending to the vestibular sulcus of the anterior region of mandible. Immediate complete dentures were made prior to the lesion removal with CO2 laser radiation, providing satisfactory results in oral function and tissue health. PMID:21991461

  12. CO2 laser improves 45S5 bioglass interaction with dentin.

    PubMed

    Bakry, A S; Takahashi, H; Otsuki, M; Sadr, A; Yamashita, K; Tagami, J

    2011-02-01

    Bioglass 45S5 is a bioactive glass that can create a layer of calcium-phosphate crystals on mineralized hard tissues. In this study, 45S5 bioglass was mixed with phosphoric acid and irradiated with CO(2) laser and examined as a possible aid in the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity. The dentinal surface modified by the aforementioned technique was chemically and micro-morphologically examined with a field emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM) equipped with an energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscope (EDS), and the crystalline structures of the examined dentinal surfaces were examined by x-ray diffraction (XRD). Moreover, the mechanical properties of the newly formed layer were examined by nanoindentation. The results showed that 45S5 bioglass could occlude the dentinal tubule orifices with calcium-phosphate crystals. The application of CO(2) laser potentially improved the mechanical organization of these crystals. PMID:21084716

  13. COMPONENTS OF LASER SYSTEMS AND PROCESSES OCCURRING IN THEM: Properties of an array of phase-locked CO2 lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachurin, O. R.; Lebedev, F. V.; Napartovich, A. P.

    1988-09-01

    An experimental investigation was made of the emission characteristics of a coherently operating array of waveguide CO2 lasers. The lasers were phase locked by self-reproduction of periodic light fields. Three supermodes of the array were found to exist, an investigation was made of the radiation power distribution over the aperture as a function of the active medium pumping level, and the efficiency in the coherent lasing regime was determined.

  14. Electron beam, laser beam and plasma arc welding studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banas, C. M.

    1974-01-01

    This program was undertaken as an initial step in establishing an evaluation framework which would permit a priori selection of advanced welding processes for specific applications. To this end, a direct comparison of laser beam, electron beam and arc welding of Ti-6Al-4V alloy was undertaken. Ti-6Al-4V was selected for use in view of its established welding characteristics and its importance in aerospace applications.

  15. Effect of CO2 laser on root caries inhibition around composite restorations: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    de Melo, Jociana Bandeira; Hanashiro, Fernando Seishim; Steagall, Washington; Turbino, Miriam Lacalle; Nobre-dos-Santos, Marinês; Youssef, Michel Nicolau; de Souza-Zaroni, Wanessa Christine

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro effect of CO2 laser on the inhibition of root surface demineralization around composite resin restorations. For this purpose, 30 blocks obtained from human molar roots were divided into three groups: group 1 (negative control), cavity prepared with cylindrical diamond bur + acid etching + adhesive + composite resin restoration; group 2, cavity prepared with cylindrical diamond bur + CO2 laser (5.0 J/cm(2)) + acid etching + adhesive + composite resin; and group 3, cavity prepared with cylindrical diamond bur + CO2 laser (6.0 J/cm(2)) + acid etching + adhesive + composite resin. After this procedure, the blocks were submitted to thermal and pH cycling. Root surface demineralization around the restorations was measured by microhardness analysis. The hardness results of the longitudinally sectioned root surface were converted into percentage of mineral volume, which was used to calculate the mineral loss delta Z (ΔZ). The percentage of mineral volume, ΔZ, and the percentage of demineralization inhibition of the groups were statistically analyzed by using analysis of variance and Tukey-Kramer test. The percentage of mineral volume was higher in the irradiated groups up to 80 μm deep. The ΔZ was significantly lower in the irradiated groups than in the control group. The percentage of reduction in demineralization ranged from 19.73 to 29.21 in position 1 (50 μm), and from 24.76 to 26.73 in position 2 (100 μm), when using 6 and 5 J/cm(2), respectively. The CO2 laser was effective in inhibiting root demineralization around composite resin restorations. PMID:23291879

  16. Voice evaluation following endoscopic laser CO2 cordectomy and conventional cordectomy

    PubMed Central

    Lachowska, Magdalena; Osuch-Wójcikiewicz, Ewa; Bruzgielewicz, Antoni

    2011-01-01

    Introduction An analysis of long term voice quality outcomes of two different types of surgical intervention for Tis and T1 glottic carcinoma: laryngofissure conventional cordectomy and endoscopic laser CO2 cordectomy, with or without additional radiation therapy. Material and methods Total of 46 patients with Tis and T1 glottic carcinoma served as subjects. All have been treated surgically with laryngofissure conventional cordectomy (32.61%) or endoscopic laser CO2 cordectomy (67.39%). The surgeries were performed in the Department of Otolaryngology at the Medical University of Warsaw (1990-2004). The presented voice assessments were made at least 3 years following the surgery, in between January 2006 and February 2007. Results In patients after the endoscopic laser CO2 cordectomy the following findings are more often observed: the unrestrained voice production, wider range of Fo in a spoken sentence, longer maximum phonation time, better intensity of phonation for normal and loud speaking, lower degree of hoarseness based on the Yanagihara’s classification, and the lower VHI. No significant influence of the performed additional radiotherapy on voice parameters was found. Conclusions Patients after endoscopic laser CO2 cordectomy, compared to laryngofissure conventional cordectomy, present better voice quality. The amount of the excised vocal fold tissue, which in our study was slightly larger in case of the conventional cordectomy, could account for the results mentioned above. This may also be explained by the necessity of the anterior thyrotomy, which is required for conventional cordectomy via external approach, and often results in anterior synechia and level difference between the neocord and the contralateral vocal fold. PMID:22291748

  17. Cloud hole boring with long pulse CO(2) lasers: theory and experiment.

    PubMed

    Quigley, G P; Webster, R B; Caramana, E J; Morse, R L; York, G W

    1991-07-20

    Chemically generated CO(2) laser pulses at 10.6 microm have been used to clear a 5-cm diameter hole through a stratus-like cloud in a laboratory cloud chamber. The results show that 100% clearing can be achieved. The mechanism is shown to be droplet shattering followed by evaporation. In the experimental conditions, the channel closure is effected by turbulent mixing and droplet recondensation.

  18. CO2 Laser Beat-Wave Experiment in an Unmagnetized Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fei; Hwang, David; Horton, Robert; Hong, Sean; Evans, Russell

    2012-10-01

    The ability to remotely generate plasma current in dense plasmas is a basic yet important investigation in experimental plasma physics and fusion energy research. It is even more advantageous if the wave penetration is independent of the electron acceleration process. Plasma current can be generated through beat-wave mixing process by launching two intense electromagnetic waves (φ>>φpe) into plasma. The beat wave formation process can be efficient if the difference frequency of the two pump waves is matched to a local resonant frequency of the medium, i.e. in this case the local plasma frequency. Beat wave can accelerate plasma electrons via quasi-linear Landau process, which has been demonstrated in a low-density plasma using microwaves.footnotetextRogers, J. H. and Hwang, D. Q., Phys. Rev. Lett. v68 p3877 (1992). The CO2 lasers provide the high tunability for the wave-particle interaction experiment at a variety of plasma densities with plasma frequency in THz range. Two sections of Lumonics TEA CO2 lasers have been modified to serve as the two pump wave sources with peak power over 100MW. The development of the tunable CO2 lasers, a high-density plasma target source and diagnostics system will be presented. The initial results of unbalanced beat-wave experiment using one high-power pulsed and one low-power CW CO2 lasers will be presented and discussed using the independent plasma source to control the φpe of the interaction region. This work is supported by U.S. DOE under Contract No. DE-FG02-10ER55083.

  19. Bactericidal effect of the CO2 laser in the root canal: an in-vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutknecht, Norbert; Wilkert-Walter, Cornelia; Lampert, Friedrich

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the bactericidal effect of a CO2 laser used in a continuous mode. Classically prepared root canals were irradiated under standardized conditions with power settings of 2, 4, and 6 Watts. The mean elimination of Enterococcus faecalis in prepared and infected root canals of extracted teeth was 98.97%, 99.51% and 99.34% respectively. Minimum elimination was 91.67% and maximum 99.696%.

  20. On the use of the cross section concept as applied to pulsed CO2 laser dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flamant, P. H.; Menzies, R. T.

    1985-01-01

    The 'cross sections' which are commonly used in combination with the molecular vibrational level densities to describe induced transition rates are time dependent in a pulsed discharge. This greatly affects the relative rates of buildup of radiation at the various lines of a molecular gain medium in a nondispersive cavity, and the consequences for line selection by injection in a TEA-CO2 laser are discussed.

  1. Method for laser welding ultra-thin metal foils

    DOEpatents

    Pernicka, J.C.; Benson, D.K.; Tracy, C.E.

    1996-03-26

    A method for simultaneously cutting and welding ultra-thin foils having a thickness of less than 0.002 inches wherein two ultra-thin films are stacked and clamped together. A pulsed laser such as of the Neodymium: YAG type is provided and the beam of the laser is directed onto the stacked films to cut a channel through the films. The laser is moved relative to the stacked foils to cut the stacked foils at successive locations and to form a plurality of connected weld beads to form a continuous weld. 5 figs.

  2. Method for laser welding ultra-thin metal foils

    DOEpatents

    Pernicka, John C.; Benson, David K.; Tracy, C. Edwin

    1996-01-01

    A method for simultaneously cutting and welding ultra-thin foils having a thickness of less than 0.002 inches wherein two ultra-thin films are stacked and clamped together. A pulsed laser such as of the Neodymium: YAG type is provided and the beam of the laser is directed onto the stacked films to cut a channel through the films. The laser is moved relative to the stacked foils to cut the stacked foils at successive locations and to form a plurality of connected weld beads to form a continuous weld.

  3. CO2 laser conditioning of porcelain surfaces for bonding metal orthodontic brackets.

    PubMed

    Ahrari, Farzaneh; Heravi, Farzin; Hosseini, Mohsen

    2013-07-01

    Bonding to porcelain remains to be a challenge in orthodontic treatments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of CO2 laser conditioning of porcelain surfaces on shear bond strength (SBS) of orthodontic brackets. Eighty feldspathic porcelain specimens were divided into four groups of 20. In each group, half of the porcelain surfaces were deglazed, while the others remained glazed. The specimens in groups 1 to 3 were treated with a fractional CO2 laser for 10 s using 10 mJ of energy, frequency of 200 Hz and powers of 10 W (group 1), 15 W (group 2) and 20 W (group 3). In group 4, a 9.6 % hydrofluoric (HF) acid gel was used for 2 min. A silane coupling agent was applied before bracket bonding, and the SBS was measured with a universal testing machine after 24 h. Deglazing caused significant increase in SBS of laser treated porcelain surfaces (p < 0.05), but had no significant effect on SBS when HF acid was used for etching (p = 0.137). ANOVA revealed no significant difference in SBS values of the study groups when glazed surfaces were compared (p = 0.269). However, a significant between group difference was found among the deglazed specimens (p < 0.001). Tukey test revealed that the bond strengths of 10 W and 15 W laser groups were significantly higher than that of the HF acid group (p < 0.05). Laser conditioning with a fractional CO2 laser can be recommended as a suitable alternative to hydrofluoric acid for deglazed feldspathic porcelain.

  4. Laser tissue welding mediated with a protein solder

    SciTech Connect

    Small, W. IV; Heredia, N.J.; Celliers, P.M.

    1996-02-01

    A study of laser tissue welding mediated with an indocyanine green dye-enhanced protein solder was performed. Freshly obtained sections of porcine artery were used for the experiments. Sample arterial wall thickness ranged from two to three millimeters. Incisions approximately four millimeters in length were treated using an 805 nanometer continuous-wave diode laser coupled to a one millimeter diameter fiber. Controlled parameters included the power delivered by the laser, the duration of the welding process, and the concentration of dye in the solder. A two-color infrared detection system was constructed to monitor the surface temperatures achieved at the weld site. Burst pressure measurements were made to quantify the strengths of the welds immediately following completion of the welding procedure.

  5. Temperature increases during surface decontamination of titanium implants using CO2 laser.

    PubMed

    Mouhyi, J; Sennerby, L; Nammour, S; Guillaume, P; Van Reck, J

    1999-02-01

    The purpose of the present in vitro investigation was to measure temperature changes at the implant surface when using pulsed CO2 laser in a simulated implant surface decontamination protocol. Six threaded titanium implants were placed in a fresh resected pig mandible. A 4 x 4 mm defect was created buccally to each implant in order to expose the implant head and approximately 5 threads. Temperature changes were monitored by two thermocouples placed near the dehiscence and at the apical part of the implant. Several setting combinations of the CO2 laser with regard to output power, pulse width, pulse repetition rate and irradiation time were tested on dry and wet (distilled water) surfaces. Only minor temperature increases were measured when lasing wet titanium surfaces, while the temperature at dry surfaces exceeded the proposed thresholds for bone damage at clinically relevant settings. It is concluded that the CO2 laser when used on a wet implant surface in a pulsed mode at 8 W/10 ms/20 hz during 5 s induces a temperature increase of less than 3 degrees C. This would minimize the risk of temperature induced tissue damage as a result of lasing implant surfaces.

  6. Diffractive beam shaping for enhanced laser polymer welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauschenberger, J.; Vogler, D.; Raab, C.; Gubler, U.

    2015-03-01

    Laser welding of polymers increasingly finds application in a large number of industries such as medical technology, automotive, consumer electronics, textiles or packaging. More and more, it replaces other welding technologies for polymers, e. g. hot-plate, vibration or ultrasonic welding. At the same rate, demands on the quality of the weld, the flexibility of the production system and on processing speed have increased. Traditionally, diode lasers were employed for plastic welding with flat-top beam profiles. With the advent of fiber lasers with excellent beam quality, the possibility to modify and optimize the beam profile by beam-shaping elements has opened. Diffractive optical elements (DOE) can play a crucial role in optimizing the laser intensity profile towards the optimal M-shape beam for enhanced weld seam quality. We present results on significantly improved weld seam width constancy and enlarged process windows compared to Gaussian or flat-top beam profiles. Configurations in which the laser beam diameter and shape can be adapted and optimized without changing or aligning the laser, fiber-optic cable or optical head are shown.

  7. Thermal and molecular investigation of laser tissue welding

    SciTech Connect

    Small, W., IV

    1998-06-01

    Despite the growing number of successful animal and human trials, the exact mechanisms of laser tissue welding remain unknown. Furthermore, the effects of laser heating on tissue on the molecular scale are not fully understood. To address these issues, a multi-front attack oil both extrinsic (solder/patch mediated) and intrinsic (laser only) tissue welding was launched using two-color infrared thermometry, computer modeling, weld strength assessment, biochemical assays, and vibrational spectroscopy. The coupling of experimentally measured surface temperatures with the predictive numerical simulations provided insight into the sub-surface dynamics of the laser tissue welding process. Quantification of the acute strength of the welds following the welding procedure enabled comparison among trials during an experiment, with previous experiments, and with other studies in the literature. The acute weld integrity also provided an indication of tile probability of long-term success. Molecular effects induced In the tissue by laser irradiation were investigated by measuring tile concentrations of specific collagen covalent crosslinks and characterizing the Fourier-Transform infrared (FTIR) spectra before and after the laser exposure.

  8. Two-color CO2/HeNe laser interferometer for C-2 experiment.

    PubMed

    Gornostaeva, O; Deng, B H; Garate, E; Gota, H; Kinley, J; Schroeder, J; Tuszewski, M

    2010-10-01

    A six-channel two-color interferometer has been developed for plasma electron density measurements in the C-2 field reversed configuration experiment. A CO(2) laser is utilized as the main probe beams, while copropagating visible HeNe laser beams are mainly sensitive to vibration. Density measurements in C-2 plasmas have shown that this is a reliable turn-key system. The maximum residual phase noise after vibration compensation is less than ±5°, corresponding to a line integral density of 3×10(18) m(-2). The time resolution for routine operation is 2 μs.

  9. Output power characteristics of thin film-coated waveguide CO2 lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Wagatsuma, Yoshihiko; Nishida, Shigeo; Hongo, Akihito

    1987-02-01

    An output power efficiency of 9 percent is achieved in a germanium-coated brass waveguide CO2 laser at a gas pressure of 50 Torr and input RF power of 40 W. Pyrex glass is used as the insulator, and the germanium layer has a thickness of 0.5 micron. The direction of the polarization in the germanium coated brass-pyrex glass composite waveguide laser is found to be parallel to the metal plates. It is shown that the oscillating mode is the lowest-order mode, and that the profile can be approximately described by a Gaussian distribution when the noise level is properly subtracted.

  10. Intracavity Beam Behavior in Hybrid Resonator Planar-Waveguide CO(2) Lasers.

    PubMed

    Wasilewski, B; Baker, H J; Hall, D R

    2000-11-20

    We describe a combined computer simulation and experimental investigation of the intracavity spatial beam profile characteristics of a planar-waveguide rf-excited CO(2) laser that incorporates a hybrid waveguide confocal unstable negative-branch resonator. The study includes results for the intracavity lateral beam intensity profile and output power of the laser as a function of resonator mirror misalignment. In addition, the behavior of the unstable resonator, observed experimentally and predicted by the simulation, in generating localized high intensity hot-spots when it is subjected to relatively large misalignment angles is reported. PMID:18354625

  11. [Validation of the use of the CO2 laser in operations on the brain].

    PubMed

    Babichenko, E I; Kolesov, V N; Zhikharev, A P; Grigor'ev, S N; Tsukanov, V A

    1989-01-01

    It is reported that the CO2-laser can be used in operations on the brain. Information is given on the response of the brain structures to irradiation with a wave length of 10.6 microns. The optimal regimens of the device operation were elaborated depending on the concrete object of the various stages of the surgical intervention. The medical laser device Skal'pel'-1 was used in the clinic in 109 operations. The low traumatization of such operations and the favourable course of the postoperative period are pointed out. PMID:2629442

  12. [The biological effects of the CO2 laser studied in experimental intestinal resections].

    PubMed

    Aloise, G; Mezi, S; Filippini, A; Signorelli, G; Mazzacurati, V; Marzullo, A; Arceri, S; Modica, A; Giuliante, A; Di Matteo, F M

    1995-01-01

    An histological and E.M. study has been performed on rat's intestinal tract resection to evaluate CO2 laser effects. Necrotic effect of laser is evident up to 120 micron. While the intestinal tissue results normal at 480 micron from resection line. Muscular and fibrous components appear more resistant to damage while E.M. presents a new organization of its components forming a new compact and continue tissue. This new organization may be involved in the protection of the subepithelial spaces, and may have an important role in intestinal anastomosis scar process.

  13. Direct CO(2) laser-based generation of holographic structures on the surface of glass.

    PubMed

    Wlodarczyk, Krystian L; Weston, Nicholas J; Ardron, Marcus; Hand, Duncan P

    2016-01-25

    A customized CO(2) laser micromachining system was used for the generation of phase holographic structures directly on the surface of fused silica (HPFS(®)7980 Corning) and Borofloat(®)33 (Schott AG) glass. This process used pulses of duration 10µs and nominal wavelength 10.59µm. The pulse energy delivered to the glass workpiece was controlled by an acousto-optic modulator. The laser-generated structures were optically smooth and crack free. We demonstrated their use as diffractive optical elements (DOEs), which could be exploited as anti-counterfeiting markings embedded into valuable glass-made components and products. PMID:26832525

  14. Analysis of therapeutical effects of Er:YAG and CO2 laser post treatments of small hemangiomas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remlová, E.; Vránová, J.; Rosina, J.; Navrátil, L.

    2011-09-01

    The main goal of our study was the evaluation of treatment efficiency of two types of ablative laser-CO2 and Er:YAG (or ERB) treatment. 183 patients (Er:YAG—105 patients, CO2—78 patients) were analyzed to compare the curative effects and adverse events, such as loss of pigment and appearance of scars caused by these two lasers. The results of the study showed the slightly better effectiveness of Er:YAG laser radiation in comparison with CO2 laser in the case of treatment of small hemangiomas up to 3 mm in diameter. In the Er:YAG laser application the curative effect was in 99%, hypo-pigmentation occurred in 18%, and scars in 70% of all treatments. In the CO2 laser application the curative effect was in 97%, hypo-pigmentation in 52%, and scars in 77% from all treatments.

  15. Thermo-Mechanical Modeling of Laser-Mig Hybrid Welding (lmhw)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kounde, Ludovic; Engel, Thierry; Bergheau, Jean-Michel; Boisselier, Didier

    2011-01-01

    Hybrid welding is a combination of two different technologies such as laser (Nd: YAG, CO2…) and electric arc welding (MIG, MAG / TIG …) developed to assemble thick metal sheets (over 3 mm) in order to reduce the required laser power. As a matter of fact, hybrid welding is a lso used in the welding of thin materials to benefit from process, deep penetration and gap limit. But the thermo-mechanical behaviour of thin parts assembled by LMHW technology for railway cars production is far from being controlled the modeling and simulation contribute to the assessment of the causes and effects of the thermo mechanical behaviour in the assembled parts. In order to reproduce the morphology of melted and heat-affected zones, two analytic functions were combined to model the heat source of LMHW. On one hand, we applied a so-called "diaboloïd" (DB) which is a modified hyperboloid, based on experimental parameters and the analysis of the macrographs of the welds. On the other hand, we used a so-called "double ellipsoïd" (DE) which takes the MIG only contribution including the bead into account. The comparison between experimental result and numerical result shows a good agreement.

  16. The stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157, given locally, improves CO2 laser healing in mice.

    PubMed

    Bilic, M; Bumber, Z; Blagaic, A Boban; Batelja, L; Seiwerth, S; Sikiric, P

    2005-05-01

    The stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (GEPPPGKPADDAGLV; mol. wt. 1419), which is at present in phase II clinical trials for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease, has been shown to counteract healing impairment by systemic corticosteroids in burned mice, both in vivo and in vitro, in the absence of carrier or protease inhibitor. Because of the particular healing problems associated with laser use, we have now studied the effect of pentadecapeptide BPC 157 on CO(2) laser injuries (Sharplan 1075 laser: 20 W, distance 12.5 cm, spot size 0.8 mm and exposure time 1s) created on the dorsal skin of anaesthetised male NMRI-Hannover mice. The injury was either not treated or treated by topical application of a thin layer of neutral cream containing pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (1 microg, 1 ng or 1 pg (dissolved in saline)/g) or vehicle only, once daily, with the first application 60 min after injury and the last 24 h before killing (1, 7 and 21 days after the laser application). BPC 157 consistently improved healing after the CO(2) laser injury, both macroscopically and microscopically. The effect was produced with a simple method of application and favourable peptide stability (no carrier), and confirms the effectiveness of an ointment containing 1 microg BPC 157 (dissolved in saline)/g neutral cream. PMID:15774286

  17. Bidimensional codes recorded on an oxide glass surface using a continuous wave CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeta, M. R. B.; Cunha, L. S.; Vales, L. F.; Caraschi, L. C.; Jasinevicius, R. G.

    2011-02-01

    Surface heat treatment in glasses and ceramics, using CO2 lasers, has attracted the attention of several researchers around the world due to its impact in technological applications, such as lab-on-a-chip devices, diffraction gratings and microlenses. Microlens fabrication on a glass surface has been studied mainly due to its importance in optical devices (fiber coupling, CCD signal enhancement, etc). The goal of this work is to present a systematic study of the conditions for microlens fabrications, along with the viability of using microlens arrays, recorded on the glass surface, as bidimensional codes for product identification. This would allow the production of codes without any residues (like the fine powder generated by laser ablation) and resistance to an aggressive environment, such as sterilization processes. The microlens arrays were fabricated using a continuous wave CO2 laser, focused on the surface of flat commercial soda-lime silicate glass substrates. The fabrication conditions were studied based on laser power, heating time and microlens profiles. A He-Ne laser was used as a light source in a qualitative experiment to test the viability of using the microlenses as bidimensional codes.

  18. Thermo-mechanical simulations of CO2 laser-fused silica interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doualle, T.; Gallais, L.; Cormont, P.; Hébert, D.; Combis, P.; Rullier, J.-L.

    2016-03-01

    CO2 laser heating of silica glass is used in many scientific and industrial applications. Particularly, localized CO2 laser heating of silica glass has demonstrated its ability to mitigate surface damage on optics used for high power laser applications. To develop such applications, the control of temperature, heat affected area, and resulting mechanical stresses are critical. Therefore, it is necessary to understand the silica transformation, the material ejection, and the thermo-mechanical stresses induced by the laser heating and subsequent cooling. In this paper, we detail the development of comprehensive thermo-mechanical numerical simulations of these physical processes, based on finite-element method. The approach is developed for 2D or 3D cases to tackle the case of a moving beam at the surface of the sample, and we particularly discuss the choice of the different parameters based on bibliographic inputs. The thermal and mechanical numerical results have been compared to different dedicated experimental studies: infrared thermography measurements at the surface of the irradiated area, optical profilometry measurements of the laser-processed sites, and photo-elastic measurements. Very consistent results are obtained between numerical and experimental results for the description of the temperature gradients, the material ejection, and the residual stresses.

  19. Simulations of an airborne laser absorption spectrometer for atmospheric CO2 measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, B.; Ismail, S.; Harrison, F. W.; Browell, E. V.; Dobler, J. T.; Refaat, T.; Kooi, S. A.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric column amount of carbon dioxide (CO2), a major greenhouse gas of the atmosphere, has significantly increased from a preindustrial value of about 280 parts per million (ppm) to more than 390 ppm at present. Our knowledge about the spatiotemporal change and variability of the greenhouse gas, however, is limited. Thus, a near-term space mission of the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) is crucial to increase our understanding of global sources and sinks of CO2. Currently, NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) and ITT Exelis are jointly developing and testing an airborne laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) as a prototype instrument for the mission. To assess the space capability of accurate atmospheric CO2 measurements, accurate modeling of the instrument and practical evaluation of space applications are the keys for the success of the ASCENDS mission. This study discusses the simulations of the performance of the airborne instrument and its CO2 measurements. The LAS is a multi-wavelength spectrometer operating on a 1.57 um CO2 absorption line. The Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) approach is implemented in the instrument. To reach accurate CO2 measurements, transmitted signals are monitored internally as reference channels. A model of this kind of instrument includes all major components of the spectrometer, such as modulation generator, fiber amplifier, telescope, detector, transimpedance amplifier, matched filter, and other signal processors. The characteristics of these components are based on actual laboratory tests, product specifications, and general understanding of the functionality of the components. For simulations of atmospheric CO2 measurements, environmental conditions related to surface reflection, atmospheric CO2 and H2O profiles, thin clouds, and aerosol layers, are introduced into the model. Furthermore, all major noise sources such as those from detectors, background radiation, speckle, and

  20. Factors That Determine The Specification Of A CO2 Laser Machining System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llewellyn, Steven A.

    1986-11-01

    This paper will outline the basic information that determines the approach that a prospective CO2 laser cutting user will take to the purchase of a system. The ability of this type of machine to cut a wide range of materials will be reviewed along with speed and edge-quality parameters. A discussion of the choices available in the marketplace for each of the basic components in a laser maching system will be presented. Three commercially available laser machining systems will be described and compared and the widely different approach taken by each of the design engineering groups involved will be detailed. The effect of upcoming innovations in CAD-CAM and Robotics on the laser cutting systems of the future will also be discussed.

  1. Photoreduction processes and nanocluster formation induced by a CO2 laser on silicate surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondar', A. M.; Mukhamedgalieva, A. F.; Shvedov, I. M.

    2009-09-01

    The photoreduction processes stimulated either the cw (power density 105-106 W/cm2) or pulsed (pulse energy 3-4 J, pulse duration 200 ns, effective laser spot diameter 1 mm) radiation of a CO2 laser on the surfaces of fused and crystalline quartz, as well as of natural silicates (nepheline KNa3[AlSiO4]4, rhodonite CaMn4[Si5O15], and zircon ZrSiO4), are studied. The X-ray emission analysis of irradiated surfaces showed that the laser irradiation of these materials leads to the sublimation of silicon oxides and the enrichment of surfaces with constituent metal elements. Laser radiation also stimulates the formation of silicon and metal nanoclusters on irradiated surfaces. The appearance of these nanoclusters is confirmed by both photoluminescence and X-ray emission studies of irradiated surfaces.

  2. Rb-stabilized laser at 1572 nm for CO2 monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthey, R.; Moreno, W.; Gruet, F.; Brochard, P.; Schilt, S.; Mileti, G.

    2016-06-01

    We have developed a compact rubidium-stabilized laser system to serve as optical frequency reference in the 1.55-μm wavelength region, in particular for CO2 monitoring at 1572 nm. The light of a fiber-pigtailed distributed feedback (DFB) laser emitting at 1560 nm is frequency-doubled and locked to a sub-Doppler rubidium transition at 780 nm using a 2-cm long vapor glass cell. Part of the DFB laser light is modulated with an electro-optical modulator enclosed in a Fabry-Perot cavity, generating an optical frequency comb with spectral coverage extending from 1540 nm to 1580 nm. A second slave DFB laser emitting at 1572 nm and offset-locked to one line of the frequency comb shows a relative frequency stability of 1.10-11 at 1 s averaging time and <4.10-12 from 1 hour up to 3 days.

  3. The effects of laser welding parameters on the microstructure of ferritic and duplex stainless steels welds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekkarinen, J.; Kujanpää, V.

    This study is focused to determine empirically, which microstructural changes occur in ferritic and duplex stainless steels when heat input is controlled by welding parameters. Test welds were done autogenously bead-on-plate without shielding gas using 5 kW fiber laser. For comparison, some gas tungsten arc welds were made. Used test material were 1.4016 (AISI 430) and 1.4003 (low-carbon ferritic) type steels in ferritic steels group and 1.4162 (low-alloyed duplex, LDX2101) and 1.4462 (AISI 2205) type steels in duplex steels group. Microstructural changes in welds were identified and examined using optical metallographic methods.

  4. Osteogenesis differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells by CO2 laser-treatment stimulating macrophages via BMP2 signalling pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Wen-Hui; Chen, Yi-Jyun; Hung, Chi-Jr; Huang, Tsui-Hsien; Kao, Chia-Tze; Shie, Ming-You

    2014-11-01

    Immune reactions play an important role in determining the biostimulation of bone formation, either in new bone formation or inflammatory fibrous tissue encapsulation. Macrophage cell, the important effector cells in the immune reaction, which are indispensable for osteogenesis and their heterogeneity and plasticity, render macrophages a primer target for immune system modulation. However, there are very few studies about the effects of macrophage cells on laser treatment-regulated osteogenesis. In this study, we used CO2 laser as a model biostimulation to investigate the role of macrophage cells on the CO2 laser stimulated osteogenesis. Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) was also significantly up regulated by the CO2 laser stimulation, indicating that macrophage may participate in the CO2 laser stimulated osteogenesis. Interestingly, when laser treatment macrophage-conditioned medium were applied to human periodontal ligament cells (hPDLs), the osteogenesis differentiation of hPDLs was significantly enhanced, indicating the important role of macrophages in CO2 laser-induced osteogenesis. These findings provided valuable insights into the mechanism of CO2 laser-stimulated osteogenic differentiation, and a strategy to optimize the evaluation system for the in vitro osteogenesis capacity of laser treatment.

  5. Advanced 2-micron Solid-state Laser for Wind and CO2 Lidar Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yu, Jirong; Trieu, Bo C.; Petros, Mulugeta; Bai, Yingxin; Petzar, Paul J.; Koch, Grady J.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2006-01-01

    Significant advancements in the 2-micron laser development have been made recently. Solid-state 2-micron laser is a key subsystem for a coherent Doppler lidar that measures the horizontal and vertical wind velocities with high precision and resolution. The same laser, after a few modifications, can also be used in a Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system for measuring atmospheric CO2 concentration profiles. The world record 2-micron laser energy is demonstrated with an oscillator and two amplifiers system. It generates more than one joule per pulse energy with excellent beam quality. Based on the successful demonstration of a fully conductive cooled oscillator by using heat pipe technology, an improved fully conductively cooled 2-micron amplifier was designed, manufactured and integrated. It virtually eliminates the running coolant to increase the overall system efficiency and reliability. In addition to technology development and demonstration, a compact and engineering hardened 2-micron laser is under development. It is capable of producing 250 mJ at 10 Hz by an oscillator and one amplifier. This compact laser is expected to be integrated to a lidar system and take field measurements. The recent achievements push forward the readiness of such a laser system for space lidar applications. This paper will review the developments of the state-of-the-art solid-state 2-micron laser.

  6. Microstructure characteristics of laser MIG hybrid welded mild steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Ming; Zeng, Xiaoyan; Yan, Jun; Hu, Qianwu

    2008-07-01

    To deepen the understanding of laser-arc hybrid welding, the weld shape and microstructure characteristics of laser-metal inert gas hybrid welded mild steel were analyzed. The results showed typical hybrid weld could be classified as two parts: the wide upper zone and the narrow nether zone, which were defined as arc zone and laser zone, respectively. In the hybrid weld, the microstructure, alloy element distribution and microhardness all have evident difference between laser zone and arc zone. The microstructure of arc zone consists of coarse columnar dendrite and fine acicular dendrite between the columnar dendrites, but that of laser zone is composed of fine equiaxed dendrite in weld center and columnar dendrite around the equiaxed dendrite. Compared to arc zone, laser zone has finer grain size, higher microhardness, smaller alloy element content in the fusion zone and narrower heat affected zone. The discussions demonstrated that the observed difference was caused by the difference of temperature gradient, crystallizing and the effects of arc pressure on the molten pool between laser zone and arc zone.

  7. Feasibility evaluations for the integration of laser butt welding of tubes in industrial pipe coil production lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penasa, Mauro; Colombo, Enrico; Giolfo, Mauro

    1994-09-01

    Due to the good performance shown by laser welded joints, to the quality and repeatability achievable by this welding technique and to its high process productivity, a feature inherent to the laser technology which, together with its high flexibility, allows different operations to be performed by a single source, consistent savings in a production line may be obtained. Therefore laser welding techniques may be of high relevance for industrial applications, provided that a sufficient attention is paid to avoiding a low utilization time to the operating laser source. The paper describes a feasibility study for the integration of a laser source as an automatic unit for circumferential butt welding of tubes in production lines of pipe coils, just before the cold bending station. Using a 6 kW CO2 source, thickness ranging from 3.5 to 11.2 mm in carbon, low alloyed Cr-Mo and austenitic stainless steels, have been successfully welded. Cr-Mo steels require on line preheating treatment, which however can be achieved by laser defocused passes just before welding. The results of the preliminary qualification performed on laser welded joints of the involved topologies of product (materials, diameters and thicknesses) are described together with technological tests required for approval: laser circumferential butt welding of tubes has proven to be effective, with satisfactory and repeatable results and good joint performances. An exhaustive comparison with current welding techniques (TIG, MIG) is then carried out, along with a detailed analysis of the potential advantages and benefits which may be expected by using the laser welding technique, as well as with a first estimation of the investments and running costs. Since laser productivity is saturated only at a rough 35% during the year, an accurate analysis of other possible applications and of a possible lay out of a laser working cell integrated in the factory production lines is performed. Usually little attention is

  8. Nd:YAG laser welding of coated sheet steel

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, M.P.; Kerr, H.W.; Weckman, D.C.

    1994-12-31

    Coated sheet steels are used extensively in the automotive industry for the fabrication of automobile body components; however, their reduced weldability by the traditional welding processes has led to numerous studies into the use of alternate process such as laser welding. In this paper, we present a modified joint geometry which allows high quality lap welds of coated sheet steels to be made by laser welding processes. Hot-dipped galvanized sheet (16 gauge), with a 60 g/m zinc coating was used in this study. A groove was created in the top sheet of a specimen pair by pressing piano wires of various diameters into the sheet. The specimens were clamped together in a lag-joint configuration such that they were in contacted only along the grove projection. A parametric study was conducted using the variables of welding speed, laser mean power (685 W, 1000 W and 1350 W), and grove size. Weld quality and weld pool dimensions were assessed using metallurgical cross-sections and image analysis techniques. Acceptable quality seam welds were produced in the galvanized sheet steel with both grove sizes when using 1000 W and 1350 W laser mean powers and a range of welding speeds. Results of the shear-tensile tests showed that high loads to failure, with failure occurring in the parent material, were predominately found in welds produced at speeds over 1.2 m/min and when using the high mean laser powers: 1000 W and 1350 W. A modified lap joint geometry, in which a groove is pre-placed in the top sheet of the lap-joint configuration, has been developed which permits laser welding of coated sheet steels. Good quality seam welds have been produced in 16 gauge galvanized sheet steels at speeds up to 2.7 m/min using a 2 kW CW Nd:YAG laser operating at 1350 W laser mean power. Weld quality was not affected by changes in groove size.

  9. High Power Laser Beam Welding of Thick-walled Ferromagnetic Steels with Electromagnetic Weld Pool Support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritzsche, André; Avilov, Vjaceslav; Gumenyuk, Andrey; Hilgenberg, Kai; Rethmeier, Michael

    The development of modern high power laser systems allows single pass welding of thick-walled components with minimal distortion. Besides the high demands on the joint preparation, the hydrostatic pressure in the melt pool increases with higher plate thicknesses. Reaching or exceeding the Laplace pressure, drop-out or melt sagging are caused. A contactless electromagnetic weld support system was used for laser beam welding of thick ferromagnetic steel plates compensating these effects. An oscillating magnetic field induces eddy currents in the weld pool which generate Lorentz forces counteracting the gravity forces. Hysteresis effects of ferromagnetic steels are considered as well as the loss of magnetization in zones exceeding the Curie temperature. These phenomena reduce the effective Lorentz forces within the weld pool. The successful compensation of the hydrostatic pressure was demonstrated on up to 20 mm thick plates of duplex and mild steel by a variation of the electromagnetic power level and the oscillation frequency.

  10. High Power Laser Hybrid Welding - Challenges and Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nielsen, Steen Erik

    High power industrial lasers at power levels up to 100 kW is now available on the market. Therefore, welding of thicker materials has become of interest for the heavy metal industry e.g. shipyards and wind mill producers. Further, the power plant industry, producers of steel pipes, heavy machinery and steel producers are following this new technology with great interest. At Lindø Welding Technology (LWT), which is a subsidiary to FORCE Technology, a 32-kwatt disc laser is installed. At this laser facility, welding procedures related to thick section steel applications are developed. Material thicknesses between 40 and 100 mm are currently of interest. This paper describes some of the challenges that are related to the development of the high power hybrid laser welding process as well as to the perspectives for the technology as a production tool for the heavy metal industry.

  11. Spatter Formation in Laser Welding with Beam Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schweier, M.; Heins, J. F.; Haubold, M. W.; Zaeh, M. F.

    The investigation presented in this paper aims on a quantitative analysis of spatter formation in laser beam welding with superposed beam oscillation. After a discussion of design space limitations, which result from the scanner dynamics and theoretical considerations on the welding process itself, an optimal experimental design is created. By the use of high speed camera imaging, spatters were captured during statistically designed welding experiments and correlations between the number of spatters and the welding parameters have been derived. To evaluate the spatter characteristics in the high speed videos, a state space approach was applied, which is based on automated image data processing.

  12. Laser-spectrometric gas analysis: CO2-TDLAS at 2 µm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nwaboh, Javis A.; Werhahn, Olav; Ortwein, Pascal; Schiel, Detlef; Ebert, Volker

    2013-01-01

    Employing direct absorption spectroscopy and using a spectrometer comprising a single-pass and a multipass white cell, we probed the R(12) line of carbon dioxide (CO2) in the combination band around 2 µm. Gravimetric gas standards containing CO2, between 300 and 60 000 µmol mol-1 (0.03% to 6%), in N2 were quantified by means of the TILSAM method. The spectrometric results were compared with the gravimetric reference values. We describe our implementation of the ‘Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurements’ to infrared laser-spectrometric gas analysis. Data quality objectives are addressed by uncertainty and traceability flags. Uncertainty budgets are presented to show the quality of the results and to demonstrate software-assisted uncertainty assessment. The relative standard uncertainties of the spectrometrically measured CO2 amount fractions at, e.g., ambient levels of 360 µmol mol-1 and at exhaled breath gas levels of 50 mmol mol-1 were 1.4% and 0.7%, respectively. Our detection limit was 2.2 µmol mol-1. The reproducibility of individual results was in the ±1% range. Furthermore, we measured collisional broadening coefficients of the R(12) line of CO2 at 4987.31 cm-1. The relative standard uncertainties of the measured self-, nitrogen-, oxygen- and air-broadening coefficients were in the ±1.7% range.

  13. Laser transmission welding of Clearweld-coated polyethylene glycol terephthalate by incremental scanning technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. Y.; Wang, A. H.; Weng, Z. K.; Xia, H. B.

    2016-06-01

    Transmission laser welding using Incremental Scanning Technique(TWIST) mode and conventional contour welding mode were adopted to investigate laser transmission welding of 0.5 mm thick PET plate. A 1064 nm fiber laser was used to weld PET at the (TWIST) mode, and an 808 nm diode laser was applied to conduct the conventional contour welding. The Clearweld coating was used as laser absorbing material. The influences of laser parameters (i.e. defocusing distance, distance between two circles) on the quality of weld seams were analyzed by optical microscopy. Moreover, geometry and shear strength of the weld zone were tested to optimize laser parameters. Additionally, the water vapor permeability (WVP) of weld seams was measured to test hermetical capacity. Results show that the shear strength and hermetic capacity of weld seam by TWIST mode are at the same level in comparison with that of the conventional contour welding.

  14. Histologic evaluation of porcine skin incisions produced by CO2 laser, electrosurgery, and scalpel.

    PubMed

    Arashiro, D S; Rapley, J W; Cobb, C M; Killoy, W J

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to histologically compare the healing of porcine skin incisions made by CO2 laser, electrosurgery, and conventional scalpel. Incisions were made on the dorsal thorax of two microswine at staggered time intervals allowing the harvest of specimens at 0, 4, 7, 14, and 21 days postsurgery at the time of sacrifice. Each of the following histologic zones were identified and measured for both laser and electrosurgery incisions: (1) zone of tissue ablation. (2) zone of thermal necrosis, and (3) width of surface damage. The depth of cut and width of surface opening was measured for the scalpel incision. Furthermore, for each specimen, the presence and character of inflammatory cell infiltrate was noted, as well as the relative times at which bridging of the incision by connective tissue and coverage of the wound by an intact epithelial layer had occurred. Results showed that in this wound-healing model, the scalpel incisions produced more defined borders, healed more rapidly, and resulted in less collateral tissue damage than those produced by CO2 laser or electrosurgery. It was also noted that to create a wound 1.29 mm in depth required at least five passes of the laser beam within the same line of incision using 206.4 J/cm2 (6 W, continuous mode). PMID:9084320

  15. Outcome assessment in patients with chronic obstructive rhinitis CO2 laser treated

    PubMed Central

    Testa, D; Motta, G; Galli, V; Iovine, R; Guerra, G; Marenzi, G; Testa, B

    2006-01-01

    Summary Surgical lasers have been used to restore nasal flow in chronic obstructive rhinitis, with a significant improvement in symptoms having been reported in almost all cases. However, evidence supporting the efficacy at long-term, and studies on the assessment of quality of life remain limited. In the present study, efficacy at long term and improvement in the quality of life were assessed in patients with chronic obstructive rhinitis, treated with CO2 laser. A total of 308 patients with chronic obstructive rhinitis were enrolled. The primary outcome measure assessed was the change in score regarding specific and general symptoms, between baseline to 2-4.5 and 7.8 mean years follow-up. Laser turbinotomy restored nasal flow and induced a change in total score which was statistically significant, for specific and general symptoms at the first, second and third follow-up, p < 0.01. CO2 laser turbinate surgery improved symptoms and quality of life in patients with chronic obstructive rhinitis as observed at 2-4.5 and 7.8 mean years follow-up. PMID:18383755

  16. Laser welding of biological tissue: experimental studies in ophthalmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pini, Roberto; Rossi, Francesca; Menabuoni, Luca

    2006-04-01

    In this paper we present an original approach to laser welding of ocular media. Attention is focused on laser welding of the cornea and lens capsule. The process is based on the interaction of near infrared diode laser radiation (at 810 nm) with tissue that was previously stained with an Indocyanine Green solution in sterile water. The topical application of the chromophore makes possible a selective heating of the tissue, which results in a homogenous welding effect with low thermal damage to the surrounding tissue. Experimental tests were performed ex vivo on both capsule and cornea, and in vivo (rabbits) only on the cornea, in order to characterize the process as a whole. Spectrophotometric, biomechanical, and thermal measurements were carried out in order to study the laser-tissue interaction, while morphological, histological and auto-florescence microscopy analyses made during a follow-up study provided information on the healing process in welded rabbit corneas. The welding procedure was set up according to the type of tissue, with the staining procedure and irradiation conditions being optimized in each case. Our test indicated that: 1) laser welding of corneal wounds, which is a non contact technique performed at low continuous wave laser power (12 W/cm2), can be proposed as a support to or substitute for the standard suturing technique in cataract surgery and in penetrating keratoplasty (in corneal transplants); 2) laser welding of the lens capsule requires a "contact irradiating technique" in order to be efficiently performed, since the tissue is in underwater conditions, with single spot pulses of about 100 J/cm2 fluence and pulse duration around 100 ms. In the latter case, laser welding was proposed as a tool for assisting closure of the lens capsule after the lens refilling procedure (Phaco-ersatz), or for repairing capsular breaks induced by accidental traumas or produced intraoperatively.

  17. Silver nanoparticles generated by pulsed laser ablation in supercritical CO2 medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machmudah, Siti; Sato, Takayuki; Wahyudiono; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Goto, Motonobu

    2012-03-01

    Pulsed laser ablation (PLA) has been widely employed in industrial and biological applications and in other fields. The environmental conditions in which PLA is conducted are important parameters that affect both the solid particle cloud and the deposition produced by the plume. In this work, the generation of nanoparticles (NPs) has been developed by performing PLA of silver (Ag) plates in a supercritical CO2 medium. Ag NPs were successfully generated by allowing the selective generation of clusters. Laser ablation was performed with an excitation wavelength of 532 nm under various pressures and temperatures of CO2 medium. On the basis of the experimental result, both surface of the irradiated Ag plate and structure of Ag NPs were significantly affected by the changes in supercritical CO2 pressure and temperature. With increasing irradiation pressure, plume deposited in the surrounding crater created by the ablation was clearly observed. In Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) the image of the generated Ag NPs on the silicon wafer and the morphology of Ag particles were basically a sphere-like structure. Ag particles contain NPs with large-varied diameter ranging from 5 nm to 1.2 μm. The bigger Ag NPs melted during the ablation process and then ejected smaller spherical Ag NPs, which formed nanoclusters attached on the molten Ag NPs. The smaller Ag NPs were also formed around the bigger Ag NPs. Based on the results, this new method can also be used to obtain advanced nano-structured materials.

  18. TEA CO2 laser surface modification of titanium ceramic thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gakovic, Biljana M.; Trtica, Milan S.; Nenadovic, Tomislav M.

    2002-09-01

    The surface modification of titanium based ceramics thin films, induced by pulsed laser beam, was investigated in this work. Thin films of titanium nitride (TiN) and titanium diboride (TiB2) were deposited on austenitic stainless steel substrate by two Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD) techniques and exposed in air atmosphere to a focused Transversely Excited Atmosphere (TEA) CO2 laser irradiation. In these experiments two types of laser pulses have been used. One pulse was composed of an initial spike (FWHM equals 120 ns) with a tail (duration of 2 microseconds) while the other contained only the initial spike (FWHM equals 80 ns). Morphological changes of deposited ceramics, induced by successive laser pulses, have shown a dependence on the laser beam parameters (pulse energy, laser pulse duration, peak power density, number of pulses, etc.) and thin films characteristics. Thin films, investigated in this work, possessed reflectivity above 90% at wavelength of about 10 microns. Pulse peak power densities of 100 and 170 MW/cm2 were used in these experiments and have induced the surface modifications of TiN and TiB2 thin films. Depending on laser beam parameters, a change of color, grain growth, hydrodynamic effects, in TiN thin film were registered while on TiB2 we noticed a change in color of the thin film, cracking and exfoliation.

  19. Investigation of the accuracy of M2 measurement of CO2 laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Brooke A.; Assa, Shlomo; Davis, Brian W.; Edwards, Christopher B.; Muys, Peter F.

    1995-04-01

    The propagation parameters of CO2 laser beams have been investigated using second moment and knife-edge width measurement techniques. The characteristics of two laser types have been measured: a low power stabilized single frequency instrument and a prototype 3 kW laser. The propagation parameters have been estimated by using two commercial beam analyzing instruments: a rotating drum knife-edge device and a 2D array scanner. The propagation of errors through the analysis procedures has been investigated. The experiments were designed to assess the viability of the draft ISO standard for the measurement of beam width and propagation characteristics of real laser beams. Uncertainties in the estimated beam parameters, resulting from the propagation of errors, are taken into account when assessing the relative merits of the width measurement procedures. It was found that, for the high quality laser beam investigated, there were some small but systematic variations in estimating the width of waists of subject laser beams. In the case of the lower quality, high power laser beam, both the knife-edge and second moment techniques produced estimates of the input beam waist properties that were within the experimental uncertainty limits but again some inconsistency was displayed. It is suggested that the source of the inconsistency is diffraction by hard-edge apertures in the beam path. Nevertheless, the ISO standard procedures are judged to be suitable for the measurement of important beam parameters with an accuracy that is sufficient for the majority of industrial applications.

  20. Periodically tapered photonic crystal fibre based strain sensor fabricated by a CO2 laser technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrell, Gerald; Bo, Lin; Guan, Chunying; Semenova, Yuliya; Wang, Pengfei

    2014-05-01

    A focused CO2 laser beam has been previously used to successfully fabricate both symmetric and asymmetric long period fiber gratings which have been used for a variety of sensing applications. However fabrication by a CO2 laser beam demands a time consuming laser scanning process which increases the difficulty and cost of fabrication. In this paper a fibre sensor based on a fibre heterostructure with a simple configuration consisting of a series of periodical tapers in a photonic crystal fibre (PCF) sandwiched between two singlemode fibres is proposed and investigated experimentally. The tapers are periodically fabricated along the PCF section using a CO2 laser beam. The proposed fibre heterostructure can be used for strain sensing by measuring the wavelength blueshift of the multimode interference dip of the transmission spectrum as a function of strain. An average stain sensitivity of -68.4 pm/μ ɛ has been experimentally achieved over a microstrain range from 0 to 100 μ ɛ. Assuming in practice that the sensor is interrrogated with a ratiometric power measurement system, then the strain resolution is estimated to be better than 1.18×10-2 microstrain. The mechanisms for refractive index modulation periodically tapered PCF under tensile strain measurements are complex but may be regarded as a combination of stress-relaxation and refractive index perturbations over the length of the tapered PCF induced by strain and by tapering. The proposed fibre strain sensor has the advantage of low temperature sensitivity (average 8.4 pm/°C) and an experimental demonstration of this reduced sensitivity is also presented. The proposed strain sensor benefits from simplicity of fabrication and achieves a competitive sensitivity compared with other existing fibre-optic sensors.

  1. Surface treatment of dental porcelain: CO2 laser as an alternative to oven glaze.

    PubMed

    Sgura, Ricardo; Reis, Mariana Cavalcante; Hernandes, Antonio Carlos; de Abreu Fantini, Márcia Carvalho; Andreeta, Marcello Rubens Barsi; Medeiros, Igor Studart

    2015-02-01

    This work tested continuous CO2 laser as a surface treatment to dental porcelain and compared it to oven glaze (auto-glaze) by means of roughness and color parameters. Three commercial veneering porcelains with different crystalline content were tested: VM7, VM9, and VM13. Porcelain discs (3.5 × 2.0 mm, diameter × height) were sintered and had one side ground by a diamond bur (45 μm) simulating a chairside adjustment in a clinical office. Specimens (n = 7) were divided into the following groups: C--control (no treatment), G--auto-glaze (oven), and L--surface continuous irradiation with CO2 laser (Gem Laser, Coherent; λ = 10.6 μm). Laser was tested in three exposure times (3, 4, or 5 min) and two irradiances (45 and 50 W/cm(2)). Roughness parameters (Ra, Rz, and Rpm/Rz) were measured using a rugosimeter (Surftest 301, Mitutoyo). Color differences (ΔE) between the G and L groups were calculated (VITA Easyshade); ΔE values up to 3.3 were considered as not perceivable. A surface analysis was conducted by stereomicroscopy (Olympus SZ61) and SEM (Stereoscan 440, LEO). Crystalline content of specimens from groups C and L (50 W/cm(2), 5 min) was assessed by X-ray diffraction and then compared. Surface roughness (Ra and Rz) observed for laser-irradiated groups was similar to G for all studied porcelains. Rpm/Rz ratios were near 1.0 for all groups that indicated a sharp ridge profile for all specimens. Only one laser condition studied (50 W/cm(2), 3 min) from VM7 porcelain resulted in color difference (ΔE = 3.5) to G. Specimens irradiated with 50 W/cm(2) for 5 min presented the smoother surface observed by SEM, comparable to G. X-ray diffraction data revealed an increase in leucite crystallite size for VM9 and VM13 porcelains after laser treatment. Regarding roughness, continuous CO2 laser applied on porcelain surface was as effective as conventional oven auto-glaze.

  2. Surface treatment of dental porcelain: CO2 laser as an alternative to oven glaze.

    PubMed

    Sgura, Ricardo; Reis, Mariana Cavalcante; Hernandes, Antonio Carlos; de Abreu Fantini, Márcia Carvalho; Andreeta, Marcello Rubens Barsi; Medeiros, Igor Studart

    2015-02-01

    This work tested continuous CO2 laser as a surface treatment to dental porcelain and compared it to oven glaze (auto-glaze) by means of roughness and color parameters. Three commercial veneering porcelains with different crystalline content were tested: VM7, VM9, and VM13. Porcelain discs (3.5 × 2.0 mm, diameter × height) were sintered and had one side ground by a diamond bur (45 μm) simulating a chairside adjustment in a clinical office. Specimens (n = 7) were divided into the following groups: C--control (no treatment), G--auto-glaze (oven), and L--surface continuous irradiation with CO2 laser (Gem Laser, Coherent; λ = 10.6 μm). Laser was tested in three exposure times (3, 4, or 5 min) and two irradiances (45 and 50 W/cm(2)). Roughness parameters (Ra, Rz, and Rpm/Rz) were measured using a rugosimeter (Surftest 301, Mitutoyo). Color differences (ΔE) between the G and L groups were calculated (VITA Easyshade); ΔE values up to 3.3 were considered as not perceivable. A surface analysis was conducted by stereomicroscopy (Olympus SZ61) and SEM (Stereoscan 440, LEO). Crystalline content of specimens from groups C and L (50 W/cm(2), 5 min) was assessed by X-ray diffraction and then compared. Surface roughness (Ra and Rz) observed for laser-irradiated groups was similar to G for all studied porcelains. Rpm/Rz ratios were near 1.0 for all groups that indicated a sharp ridge profile for all specimens. Only one laser condition studied (50 W/cm(2), 3 min) from VM7 porcelain resulted in color difference (ΔE = 3.5) to G. Specimens irradiated with 50 W/cm(2) for 5 min presented the smoother surface observed by SEM, comparable to G. X-ray diffraction data revealed an increase in leucite crystallite size for VM9 and VM13 porcelains after laser treatment. Regarding roughness, continuous CO2 laser applied on porcelain surface was as effective as conventional oven auto-glaze. PMID:23881534

  3. Molten pool characterization of laser lap welded copper and aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Zhiqing; Hu, Shengsun; Zuo, Di; Cai, Wayne; Lee, Dongkyun; Elijah, Kannatey-Asibu, Jr.

    2013-12-01

    A 3D finite volume simulation model for laser welding of a Cu-Al lap joint was developed using ANSYS FLUENT to predict the weld pool temperature distribution, velocity field, geometry, alloying element distribution and transition layer thickness—all key attributes and performance characteristics for a laser-welded joint. Melting and solidification of the weld pool was simulated with an enthalpy-porosity formulation. Laser welding experiments and metallographic examination by SEM and EDX were performed to investigate the weld pool features and validate the simulated results. A bowl-shaped temperature field and molten pool, and a unique maximum fusion zone width were observed near the Cu-Al interface. Both the numerical simulation and experimental results indicate an arch-shaped intermediate layer of Cu and Al, and a gradual transition of Cu concentration from the aluminum plate to the copper plate with high composition gradient. For the conditions used, welding with Cu on top was found to result in a better weld joint.

  4. Estimating cutting front temperature difference in disk and CO2 laser beam fusion cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scintilla, L. D.; Tricarico, L.

    2012-07-01

    A three-dimensional, semi-stationary, simplified thermal numerical model was developed. The average cutting front temperature difference in disk and CO2 laser beam fusion cutting of 90MnCrV8 was estimated by computing the conductive power loss. Basing on heat affected zone extension experimentally measured and using an inverse methodology approach, the unknown thermal load on the cutting front during laser cutting was calculated. The accuracy of the numerical power loss estimation was evaluated comparing the results from simulation with the ones from analytical models. A good agreement was found for all the test cases considered in this study. The conduction losses estimation was used for justifying the lower quality of disk laser cuts due to the lower average cut front temperature. This results in the increase of viscosity of molten material and in the subsequent more difficult ejection of the melted material from the cut kerf.

  5. Review of the frequency stabilization of TEA CO2 laser oscillators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willetts, David V.

    1987-01-01

    Most applications of TEA CO2 lasers in heterodyne radar systems require that the transmitter has a high degree of frequency stability. This ensures good Doppler resolution and maximizes receiver sensitivity. However, the environment within the device is far from benign with fast acoustic and electrical transients being present. Consequently the phenomena which govern the frequency stability of pulsed lasers are quite different from those operative in their CW counterparts. This review concentrates on the mechanisms of chirping within the output pulse; pulse to pulse frequency drift may be eliminated by frequency measurement and correction on successive pulses. It emerges that good stability hinges on correct cavity design. The energy-dependent laser-induced frequency sweep falls dramatically as mode diameter is increased. Thus, it is necessary to construct resonators with good selectivity for single mode operation while having a large spot size.

  6. Frequency stabilization and transverse mode discrimination in injection-seeded unstable resonator TEA CO2 lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ancellet, G. M.; Menzies, R. T.; Brothers, A. M.

    1987-01-01

    Longitudinal mode selection by injection has been demonstrated as a viable technique for TEA-CO2 lasers with pulse energies of a Joule or greater. Once reliable generation of single-longitudinal-mode (SLM) pulses is obtained, the characteristics and the causes of intrapulse frequency variation can be studied. These include the effect of the decaying plasma, the thermal gradient due to the energy dissipation associated with the laser mechanism itself, and the pressure shift of the center frequency of the laser transition. The use of the positive-branch unstable resonator as an efficient means of coupling a discharge with large spatial dimensions to an optical cavity mode introduces another concern: namely, what can be done to emphasize transverse mode discrimination in an unstable resonator cavity while maintaining high coupling efficiency. These issues are discussed in this paper, and relevant experimental results are included.

  7. Ablation studies of Y-Ba-Cu-oxide in oxygen using a pulsed CO 2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyer, P. E.; Key, P. H.; Monk, P.

    1992-01-01

    The depth of ablation of Y-Ba-Cu-oxide pellets as a function of pulsed CO 2 laser fluence has been measured. Up to fluences of ˜ 5 J cm -2 the data can be well fitted to a Beer's law dependence with absorption coefficient ∝ = 10 4 cm -1 and threshold fluence for ablation of 0.85 J cm -2. At higher fluences a self-regulating ablation rate regime, due to plasma formation, is encountered. Particulate deposits from 10.6 μm laser ablation are found to be much greater than with shorter wavelenghts and evidence of large particle formation by accretion of smaller ablation products is observed. The range of the ablation plume in low pressure oxygen has been studied as a function of laser fluence, irradiation spot size and ambient gas pressure and is compared with modelling.

  8. Habituation of single CO2 laser-evoked responses during interictal phase of migraine.

    PubMed

    de Tommaso, Marina; Libro, Giuseppe; Guido, Marco; Losito, Luciana; Lamberti, Paolo; Livrea, Paolo

    2005-09-01

    A reduced habituation of averaged laser-evoked potential (LEP) amplitudes was previously found in migraine patients. The aim of the present study was to assess the habituation of single LEP responses and pain sensation during the interictal phase in migraine patients. Fourteen migraine patients were compared with ten control subjects. The pain stimulus was laser pulses, generated by CO2 laser, delivered to right supraorbital zone. Patients were evaluated during attack-free conditions. The LEP habituation was studied by measuring the changes of LEP amplitudes across and within three consecutive repetitions of 21 non-averaged trials. In migraine patients the N2-P2 wave amplitudes did not show a tendency toward habituation across and, above all, within the three repetitions. Anomalous behaviour of nociceptive cortex during the interictal phase of migraine may predispose patients to headache occurrence and persistence. PMID:16362662

  9. Habituation of single CO2 laser-evoked responses during interictal phase of migraine.

    PubMed

    de Tommaso, Marina; Libro, Giuseppe; Guido, Marco; Losito, Luciana; Lamberti, Paolo; Livrea, Paolo

    2005-09-01

    A reduced habituation of averaged laser-evoked potential (LEP) amplitudes was previously found in migraine patients. The aim of the present study was to assess the habituation of single LEP responses and pain sensation during the interictal phase in migraine patients. Fourteen migraine patients were compared with ten control subjects. The pain stimulus was laser pulses, generated by CO2 laser, delivered to right supraorbital zone. Patients were evaluated during attack-free conditions. The LEP habituation was studied by measuring the changes of LEP amplitudes across and within three consecutive repetitions of 21 non-averaged trials. In migraine patients the N2-P2 wave amplitudes did not show a tendency toward habituation across and, above all, within the three repetitions. Anomalous behaviour of nociceptive cortex during the interictal phase of migraine may predispose patients to headache occurrence and persistence.

  10. Modeling the Performance of a Spaceborne Laser Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric CO2 Column Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, B.; Ismail, S.; Harrison, F. W.; Browell, E. V.; Nehrir, A. R.; Dobler, J. T.; Moore, B.; Refaat, T.; Kooi, S. A.

    2013-12-01

    Accurate global observations of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with a laser-based space mission, such as the NASA ASCENDS (Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons) mission, are crucial to improving our understanding of global CO2 sources and sinks. This study focuses on modeling of the performance of a spaceborne laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) system for CO2 column measurements. The model accounts for all of the fundamental physics of the instrument subsystems and components and the influences of measurement environments. The characteristics of simulated LAS systems and their components are based on existing technologies and the implementation of operational systems. The modeled instrument is specifically assumed to be an Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (IM-CW) LAS system like the Exelis airborne Multifunctional Fiber Laser Lidar (MFLL) operating in the 1.57 um CO2 absorption band. Environmental effects such as gas absorption, solar radiation, scattering of aerosols and thin clouds, atmospheric turbulence, and surface reflection are also considered in the model. The modeled results are presented statistically from simulation ensembles of multiple model runs to accurately represent the random nature of all of the noise sources and uncertainties related to the LAS instruments and the measurement environments. Model simulations demonstrate very good agreement when compared to prior airborne and ground based MFLL measurements. The model predicted lidar return powers for various calibrated surface targets show good agreement with those measured by the MFLL instrument during ground tests at NASA Langley Research Center in the summer of 2012. The difference between modeled and measured signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) of the LAS CO2 column optical depths (Tau_d) for the summer 2011 flight campaign on board the NASA DC-8 over Railroad Valley (RRV), NV is generally within 20%. The simulations for spaceborne Tau_d measurements over RRV indicate

  11. A four kHz repetition rate compact TEA CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yijun; Tan, Rongqing

    2013-09-01

    A compact transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO2 laser with high repetition-rate was reported. The size of the laser is 380 mm×300 mm×200 mm, and the discharge volume is 12×103 mm3. The laser cavity has a length of 320mm and consists of a totally reflective concave mirror with a radius of curvature of 4 m (Cu metal substrate coated with Au) and a partially reflecting mirror. The ultraviolet preionization makes the discharge even and stable,the output energy can be as high as 28 mJ under the circumstance of free oscillation, and the width of the light pulse is 60ns.To acquire the high wind velocity, a turbocharger is used in the system of the fast-gas flow cycle. When the wind speed is 100m/s, the repetition rate of the transversely excited atmospheric CO2 laser is up to 2 kHz. On this basis, a dual modular structure with two sets of the gas discharge unit is adopted to obtain a higher pulse repetition frequency output. The dual discharge unit composed two sets of electrodes and two sets of turbo fan. Alternate trigger technology is used to make the two sets of discharge module work in turn with repetition frequency of 2 kHz, the discharge interval of two sets of the gas discharge unit can be adjusted continuously from 20 microseconds to 250 microseconds. Under the conditions of maintaining the other parameters constant, the repetition frequency of the laser pulse is up to 4 kHz. The total size of laser with dual modular structure is 380mm×520mm×200mm, and the discharge volume is 24×103 mm3 with the cavity length of 520mm.

  12. CO2 laser debonding of a ceramic bracket bonded with orthodontic adhesive containing thermal expansion microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Saito, Ayano; Namura, Yasuhiro; Isokawa, Keitaro; Shimizu, Noriyoshi

    2015-02-01

    We have been studying an easy bracket debonding method using heating of an orthodontic adhesive containing thermal expansion microcapsules. However, heating with a high-temperature heater brings obvious risks of burns around the oral cavity. Thus, we examined safer and more effective bracket debonding methods. The purpose of this in vitro study was to examine the reduction in debonding strength and the time taken using a bracket bonded with an orthodontic adhesive containing thermal expansion microcapsules and a CO2 laser as the heating method while maintaining safety. Ceramic brackets were bonded to bovine permanent mandibular incisors using bonding materials containing various microcapsule contents (0, 30, and 40 wt%), and the bond strengths were measured after laser irradiation for 4, 5, and 6 s and compared with nonlaser-treated groups. Subsequently, the temperature in the pulp chamber during laser irradiation was measured. After laser irradiation for 5 or 6 s, the bond strengths of the adhesive containing 40 wt% microcapsules were significantly decreased to ∼0.40 - 0.48-fold (4.6-5.5 MPa) compared with the nonlaser groups. The mean temperature rise of the pulp chamber was 4.3 °C with laser irradiation for 6 s, which was less than that required to induce pulp damage. Based on these results, we conclude that the combined use of a CO2 laser and an orthodontic adhesive containing thermal expansion microcapsules can be effective and safe for debonding ceramic brackets with less enamel damage or tooth pain. PMID:24220847

  13. Fiber Lasers Application for Welding of Titanium Alloys With 16 mm Thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evtihiev, N. N.; Grezev, N. V.; Markushov, Y. V.; Murzakov, M. A.

    2016-09-01

    This article illustrates the use of fiber laser welding of a titanium alloy with 16 mm thickness. The basic advantages of the laser welding process over the traditional methods of arc welding of titanium are demonstrated. Destructive testing of welds was performed to confirm the quality of the welding. The results of the static tensile tests, static bending and toughness at room temperature are presented. All tests confirmed the high quality of the welded joint.

  14. Mechanical properties of thin films of laser-welded titanium and their associated welding defects.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yulu; Xin, Haitao; Zhang, Chunbao; Tang, Zhongbin; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Wang, Weifeng

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of thin films of laser-welded cast titanium using an interference strain/displacement gauge (ISDG) and to analyze factors that affect laser welding. Dog-bone-shaped small specimens of cast titanium were prepared by wire cutting after they were laser-welded. The specimens were divided into three groups according to the gap distance of the laser weld; the control was non-welded titanium. Small specimens without cast defects detected by X-ray screening were measured by a tensile test machine using ISDG, and stress-strain curves were drawn. Finally, the fracture texture was analyzed. The ultimate tensile strengths (UTSs) of specimens with a gap distance of 0.00, 0.25, and 0.50 mm were 492.16 ± 33.19, 488.09 ± 43.18, and 558.45 ± 10.80 MPa, respectively. There were no significant differences in UTS between the test groups and the control group (p > 0.05). However, the plastic deformation and the percent elongation increased as the gap distance increased. Incomplete penetration defects appeared in groups that had small gap distances, which may have affected the properties of the laser-welded titanium. However, the welding material was still pure titanium. These results suggest that an appropriate gap distance should be maintained to improve the application of dental laser welding.

  15. Monolithic thermally bonded Er3+, Yb3+:glass/Co2+:MgAl2O4 microchip lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynczak, Jaroslaw; Belghachem, Nabil

    2015-12-01

    The highest ever reported 10 kW peak power in monolithic thermally bonded Er3+, Yb3+:glass/Co2+:MgAl2O4 microchip laser was achieved. To show the superiority of monolithic microchip lasers over those with external mirrors the laser generation characteristics of the same samples in both cases were compared.

  16. Ablation velocity and thermal damage of myocardial tissue using a CO2 laser for transmyocardial laser revascularization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sachinopoulou, Anna; Beek, Johan F.; van Leeuwen, Ton G. J. M.; Beek, W. J.

    1999-02-01

    Transmyocardial Laser Revascularization (TMLR) is a new experimental method for relief of angina pectoris in patients with severe coronary artery disease. TMLR aims at revascularizing chronic hibernating myocardium by creating transmural channels. One of the working mechanism hypotheses is that the endocardial side of the channels remains open, enabling perfusion of the hibernating myocardium directly from the left ventricle. Although the working mechanism of TMLR is still unknown (perfusion through patent channels, induction of angiogenesis, relief of angina through destruction of sympatic innervation, others?), first clinical studies are successful. Currently, the Heart LaserTM and other CO2 lasers, XeCl Excimer laser and Ho:YAG laser are under investigation for TMLR. The initial attempts of TMR with needles were soon replaced by laser induced channels. Efforts were focused on developing a CO2 laser that could penetrate a beating heart during its relaxation phase. Later, the position of the beam could be fixed in the myocardial wall using lasers with fiber delivery systems and perforation was achieved within multiple cycles. Various researchers reported on both patent and non-patent channels after TMLR. Our belief is that the extent of laser induced thermal damage is one of the factors that determine the clinical outcome and the extent of angiogenesis (and, possibly, the patency of the channel). The purpose of this study is to present a simple theoretical model to predict the extent of thermal damage around a transmyocardial channel. In vitro experiments were performed on myocardial bovine tissue and damage was assessed. The results were used to determine the final parameters of the approximating theoretical equation. To evaluate our results, we compared our results to in vitro data using the Heart LaserTM from the literature. Ablation velocities were also measured and the results were compared to ablation velocity calculations using a model described by Ostegar

  17. A new modality for minimally invasive CO2 laser surgery: flexible hollow-core photonic bandgap fibers.

    PubMed

    Shurgalin, Max; Anastassiou, Charalambos

    2008-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers have become one of the most common surgical lasers due to excellent tissue interaction properties that offer precise control of cutting and ablation depth, minimal thermal damage to surrounding tissue, and good hemostasis. However, realization of the benefits offered by using surgical CO2 lasers in many endoscopic, minimally invasive surgical procedures has been inhibited by the absence of reliable, flexible fiber laser beam delivery systems. Recently, novel hollow-core photonic bandgap optical fibers for CO2 lasers were developed that offer high flexibility and mechanical robustness with good optical performance under tight bends. These fibers can be used through rigid and flexible endoscopes and various handpieces and will allow surgeons to perform delicate and precise laser surgery procedures in a minimally invasive manner. This paper describes the basic design of laser beam delivery system, different surgical fiber designs and their characteristics, and usage with existing surgical CO2 laser models. A few examples of successful CO2 laser surgeries performed with these fibers are presented.

  18. Simulation and initial experiments of a high power pulsed TEA CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torabi, R.; Saghafifar, H.; Koushki, A. M.; Ganjovi, A. A.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the output characteristics of a UV pin array pre-ionized TEA CO2 laser have been simulated and compared with the associated experimental data. In our simulation, a new theoretical model has been improved for transient behavior analysis of the discharge current pulse. The laser discharge tube was modeled by a nonlinear RLC electric circuit as a real model for electron density calculation. This model was coupled with a six-temperature model (6TM) in order to simulation dynamic emission processes of the TEA CO2 laser. The equations were solved numerically by the fourth order Runge-Kutta numerical method and some important variables such as current and voltage of the main discharge, resistance of the plasma column and electron density in the main discharge region, were calculated as functions of time. The effects of non-dissociation factor, rotational quantum number and output coupler reflectivity were also studied theoretically. The experimental and simulation results are in good agreement.

  19. Novel shaping optics of CO2 laser beam: LSV optics--principles and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miyamoto, Isamu; Horiguchi, Yukihiro; Maruo, Hiroshi

    1990-10-01

    A novel beam shaping optics, Linear-polarized Shape Variable (LSV) optics for high power CO2 laser beam has been developed, which provides a beam spot with variable beam shape in terms of different aspect ratios, and negligible shaping loss of 5% with high beam absorptivity of 50% in non-coated steel, which is as high as carbon coated steel, The high efficiencies both in shaping and metal heating are attained by utilizing linear-polarized CO2 laser beam. In laser hardening, the case depth larger than 2mm (width=l5mm) was obtained without any absorption coating. By changing the beam width in the direction of beam motion, D, in accordance with the traveling speed, hardened depth from 0.3mm to 2.5mm (width=l5mm) was obtained at constant surface temperature of 1400 C at 3kW power level. LSV optics was also used for local heating up to 1100 C in brazing Si3N4 ceramics with insertion of Al foil, and joint strength as high as 400 MPa was obtained in an irradiation time of about 20 sec without any preheating.

  20. Investigation of laser tissue welding dynamics via experiment and modeling.

    PubMed

    Small, W; Maitland, D J; Heredia, N J; Eder, D C; Celliers, P M; Da Silva, L B; London, R A; Matthews, D L

    1997-02-01

    An in vitro study of laser tissue welding mediated with a dye-enhanced protein solder was performed. Freshly harvested sections of porcine aorta were used for the experiments. Arteriotomies approximately 4 mm in length were treated using an 805 nm continuous-wave diode laser coupled to a 1-mm diameter fiber. Temperature histories of the surface of the weld site were obtained using a fiberoptic-based infrared thermometer. The experimental effort was complemented by the LATIS (LAser-TISsue) computer code, which numerically simulates the exposure of tissue to near-infrared radiation using coupled Monte Carlo, thermal transport, and mass transport models. Comparison of the experimental and simulated thermal results shows that the inclusion of water transport and evaporative losses in the model is necessary to determine the thermal distributions and hydration state in the tissue. The hydration state of the weld site was correlated with the acute weld strength.

  1. A low-cost rapid prototyping method for metal electrode fabrication using a CO2 laser cutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toossi, A.; Daneshmand, M.; Sameoto, D.

    2013-04-01

    In this note, a novel approach on the use of a low-power CO2 laser cutter is proposed to pattern thin metal electrode prototypes. Although low-power CO2 laser cutters have been used to etch and cut a wide range of materials, based on our knowledge, metal electrode patterning has not been previously explored. Using the proposed approach, metal electrodes can be patterned on the substrates that are good absorbers of CO2 wavelength. Here, polymethylmethacrylate substrates are selected and metal electrode patterning using the commercial CO2 laser cutter of VLS 3.50 Versa Laser is investigated. This approach has a wide range of applications, and two of those examples for microwave heating and antenna applications are presented.

  2. Fabrication Quality Analysis of a Fiber Optic Refractive Index Sensor Created by CO2 Laser Machining

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chien-Hsing; Yeh, Bo-Kuan; Tang, Jaw-Luen; Wu, Wei-Te

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the CO2 laser-stripped partial cladding of silica-based optic fibers with a core diameter of 400 μm, which enables them to sense the refractive index of the surrounding environment. However, inappropriate treatments during the machining process can generate a number of defects in the optic fiber sensors. Therefore, the quality of optic fiber sensors fabricated using CO2 laser machining must be analyzed. The results show that analysis of the fiber core size after machining can provide preliminary defect detection, and qualitative analysis of the optical transmission defects can be used to identify imperfections that are difficult to observe through size analysis. To more precisely and quantitatively detect fabrication defects, we included a tensile test and numerical aperture measurements in this study. After a series of quality inspections, we proposed improvements to the existing CO2 laser machining parameters, namely, a vertical scanning pathway, 4 W of power, and a feed rate of 9.45 cm/s. Using these improved parameters, we created optical fiber sensors with a core diameter of approximately 400 μm, no obvious optical transmission defects, a numerical aperture of 0.52 ± 0.019, a 0.886 Weibull modulus, and a 1.186 Weibull-shaped parameter. Finally, we used the optical fiber sensor fabricated using the improved parameters to measure the refractive indices of various solutions. The results show that a refractive-index resolution of 1.8 × 10−4 RIU (linear fitting R2 = 0.954) was achieved for sucrose solutions with refractive indices ranging between 1.333 and 1.383. We also adopted the particle plasmon resonance sensing scheme using the fabricated optical fibers. The results provided additional information, specifically, a superior sensor resolution of 5.73 × 10−5 RIU, and greater linearity at R2 = 0.999. PMID:23535636

  3. Fabrication quality analysis of a fiber optic refractive index sensor created by CO2 laser machining.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Hsing; Yeh, Bo-Kuan; Tang, Jaw-Luen; Wu, Wei-Te

    2013-03-26

    This study investigates the CO2 laser-stripped partial cladding of silica-based optic fibers with a core diameter of 400 μm, which enables them to sense the refractive index of the surrounding environment. However, inappropriate treatments during the machining process can generate a number of defects in the optic fiber sensors. Therefore, the quality of optic fiber sensors fabricated using CO2 laser machining must be analyzed. The results show that analysis of the fiber core size after machining can provide preliminary defect detection, and qualitative analysis of the optical transmission defects can be used to identify imperfections that are difficult to observe through size analysis. To more precisely and quantitatively detect fabrication defects, we included a tensile test and numerical aperture measurements in this study. After a series of quality inspections, we proposed improvements to the existing CO2 laser machining parameters, namely, a vertical scanning pathway, 4 W of power, and a feed rate of 9.45 cm/s. Using these improved parameters, we created optical fiber sensors with a core diameter of approximately 400 μm, no obvious optical transmission defects, a numerical aperture of 0.52 ± 0.019, a 0.886 Weibull modulus, and a 1.186 Weibull-shaped parameter. Finally, we used the optical fiber sensor fabricated using the improved parameters to measure the refractive indices of various solutions. The results show that a refractive-index resolution of 1.8 × 10(-4) RIU (linear fitting R2 = 0.954) was achieved for sucrose solutions with refractive indices ranging between 1.333 and 1.383. We also adopted the particle plasmon resonance sensing scheme using the fabricated optical fibers. The results provided additional information, specifically, a superior sensor resolution of 5.73 × 10(-5) RIU, and greater linearity at R2 = 0.999.

  4. High-Brightness Picosecond Proton Beam Source Based on BNL TW CO2 Laser: Proof-of-Principle Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Pogorelsky, I. V.; Pavlishin, I. V.; Yakimenko, V.; Shkolnikov, P. L.; Pukhov, A.

    2006-11-27

    We initiate study of a high-brightness multi-MeV ion and proton beam source driven by a picosecond CO2 laser. High-energy, collimated particle beams will originate from the rear surface of laser-irradiated foils by a process called Target Normal Sheath Acceleration (TNSA). The expected advantage of using a CO2 gas laser for this application rather than the ultra-fast solid state lasers is the 100-fold increase of the electron ponderomotive potential for the same laser intensity due to a 10 times longer CO2 laser wavelength. This promises to provide substantial enhancement in energy efficiency and particle yield, and will facilitate the advancement of the TNSA technique towards practical applications.

  5. Weld Bead Size, Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Zirconium Alloys Joints Welded by Pulsed Laser Spot Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Chuang; Li, Liqun; Tao, Wang; Peng, Genchen; Wang, Xian

    2016-07-01

    Pulsed laser spot welding of intersection points of zirconium alloys straps was performed. Weld bead size, microstructure and the corrosion behavior of weld bead were investigated. With the increasing laser peak power or number of shots, the weld width of the beads increased, the protrusion decreased and the dimple increased with further increase in heat input. The fusion zone consisted of a mixture of αZr and residual βZr phases. After annealing treatment, βNb and Zr(Fe, Nb)2 second phase particles were precipitated inter- and intragranular of αZr grains adequately. The oxide thickness of annealed weld bead was about 3.90 μm, decreased by about 18.1% relative to the 4.76 μm of as-welded specimen corroded at 400 °C and 10.3 MPa for 20 days. The corrosion resistance of annealed specimen was better than that of as-welded specimen, since the second phase particles exerted better corrosion resistance, and the content of Nb in βZr and the fraction of βZr decreased after the annealing treatment.

  6. Weld Bead Size, Microstructure and Corrosion Behavior of Zirconium Alloys Joints Welded by Pulsed Laser Spot Welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Chuang; Li, Liqun; Tao, Wang; Peng, Genchen; Wang, Xian

    2016-09-01

    Pulsed laser spot welding of intersection points of zirconium alloys straps was performed. Weld bead size, microstructure and the corrosion behavior of weld bead were investigated. With the increasing laser peak power or number of shots, the weld width of the beads increased, the protrusion decreased and the dimple increased with further increase in heat input. The fusion zone consisted of a mixture of αZr and residual βZr phases. After annealing treatment, βNb and Zr(Fe, Nb)2 second phase particles were precipitated inter- and intragranular of αZr grains adequately. The oxide thickness of annealed weld bead was about 3.90 μm, decreased by about 18.1% relative to the 4.76 μm of as-welded specimen corroded at 400 °C and 10.3 MPa for 20 days. The corrosion resistance of annealed specimen was better than that of as-welded specimen, since the second phase particles exerted better corrosion resistance, and the content of Nb in βZr and the fraction of βZr decreased after the annealing treatment.

  7. Histological and SEM analysis of root cementum following irradiation with Er:YAG and CO2 lasers.

    PubMed

    Almehdi, Aslam; Aoki, Akira; Ichinose, Shizuko; Taniguchi, Yoichi; Sasaki, Katia M; Ejiri, Kenichiro; Sawabe, Masanori; Chui, Chanthoeun; Katagiri, Sayaka; Izumi, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the Er:YAG and CO(2) lasers have been applied in periodontal therapy. However, the characteristics of laser-irradiated root cementum have not been fully analyzed. The aim of this study was to precisely analyze the alterations of root cementum treated with the Er:YAG and the CO(2) lasers, using non-decalcified thin histological sections. Eleven cementum plates were prepared from extracted human teeth. Pulsed Er:YAG laser contact irradiation was performed in a line at 40 mJ/pulse (14.2 J/cm(2)/pulse) and 25 Hz (1.0 W) under water spray. Continuous CO(2) laser irradiation was performed in non-contact mode at 1.0 W, and ultrasonic instrumentation was performed as a control. The treated samples were subjected to stereomicroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light microscopy and SEM energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The Er:YAG laser-treated cementum showed minimal alteration with a whitish, slightly ablated surface, whereas CO(2) laser treatment resulted in distinct carbonization. SEM analysis revealed characteristic micro-irregularities of the Er:YAG-lased surface and the melted, resolidified appearance surrounded by major and microcracks of the CO(2)-lased surface. Histological analysis revealed minimal thermal alteration and structural degradation of the Er:YAG laser-irradiated cementum with an affected layer of approximately 20-μm thickness, which partially consisted of two distinct affected layers. The CO(2)-lased cementum revealed multiple affected layers showing different structures/staining with approximately 140 μm thickness. Er:YAG laser irradiation used with water cooling resulted in minimal cementum ablation and thermal changes with a characteristic microstructure of the superficial layer. In contrast, CO(2) laser irradiation produced severely affected distinct multiple layers accompanied by melting and carbonization.

  8. Histological and SEM analysis of root cementum following irradiation with Er:YAG and CO2 lasers.

    PubMed

    Almehdi, Aslam; Aoki, Akira; Ichinose, Shizuko; Taniguchi, Yoichi; Sasaki, Katia M; Ejiri, Kenichiro; Sawabe, Masanori; Chui, Chanthoeun; Katagiri, Sayaka; Izumi, Yuichi

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the Er:YAG and CO(2) lasers have been applied in periodontal therapy. However, the characteristics of laser-irradiated root cementum have not been fully analyzed. The aim of this study was to precisely analyze the alterations of root cementum treated with the Er:YAG and the CO(2) lasers, using non-decalcified thin histological sections. Eleven cementum plates were prepared from extracted human teeth. Pulsed Er:YAG laser contact irradiation was performed in a line at 40 mJ/pulse (14.2 J/cm(2)/pulse) and 25 Hz (1.0 W) under water spray. Continuous CO(2) laser irradiation was performed in non-contact mode at 1.0 W, and ultrasonic instrumentation was performed as a control. The treated samples were subjected to stereomicroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), light microscopy and SEM energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS). The Er:YAG laser-treated cementum showed minimal alteration with a whitish, slightly ablated surface, whereas CO(2) laser treatment resulted in distinct carbonization. SEM analysis revealed characteristic micro-irregularities of the Er:YAG-lased surface and the melted, resolidified appearance surrounded by major and microcracks of the CO(2)-lased surface. Histological analysis revealed minimal thermal alteration and structural degradation of the Er:YAG laser-irradiated cementum with an affected layer of approximately 20-μm thickness, which partially consisted of two distinct affected layers. The CO(2)-lased cementum revealed multiple affected layers showing different structures/staining with approximately 140 μm thickness. Er:YAG laser irradiation used with water cooling resulted in minimal cementum ablation and thermal changes with a characteristic microstructure of the superficial layer. In contrast, CO(2) laser irradiation produced severely affected distinct multiple layers accompanied by melting and carbonization. PMID:22580557

  9. Anomalous enhancement of drilling rate in carbon fiber reinforced plastic using azimuthally polarized CO2 laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endo, Masamori; Araya, Naohiro; Kurokawa, Yuki; Uno, Kazuyuki

    2016-09-01

    We developed an azimuthally polarized pulse-periodic CO2 laser for high-performance drilling applications. We discovered an anomalous enhancement in the drilling rate with the azimuthally polarized beam compared to that with radially or randomly polarized beams. We drilled 0.45 mm-thick carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) using a focusing lens with a focal length of 50 mm and a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.09. The conditions other than polarization states were identical for all the experiments. The azimuthally polarized beam exhibited a drilling rate more than 10 times greater on average than those of the other two polarizations.

  10. Hybrid stable-unstable resonators for diffusion-cooled CO(2) slab lasers.

    PubMed

    Lapucci, A; Labate, A; Rossetti, F; Mascalchi, S

    1996-06-20

    We present the numerical and experimental study that we carried out to compare the performances of two hybrid stable-unstable resonators for diffusion-cooled CO(2) slab lasers. The two resonators are designed to fit a 320 mm × 60 mm ×2 mm rf-discharge channel and are both guided in the narrow transverse direction. They differ in the other transverse direction, consisting of a positive- or a negative-branch unstable resonator scheme. The two solutions have been characterized in terms of modal structure, power extraction, stability, and quality of the extracted beam. PMID:21102698

  11. The use of CO(2) laser in the treatment of peri-implantitis.

    PubMed

    Romanos, George; Ko, Hua-Hsin; Froum, Stuart; Tarnow, Dennis

    2009-06-01

    Different techniques have been used for the treatment of peri-implant defects. However, there are always questions about the issue of reosseointegration. The present paper explores the recent literature on the topic of peri-implantitis therapy, and presents a surgical protocol for implant surface decontamination using the CO(2) laser, grafting of the defect, and coverage with a membrane according to a clinical case. The results appear to be promising and may improve the long-term clinical outcomes of failing dental implants.

  12. CO2 laser photoacoustic spectra and vibrational modes of heroin, morphine and narcotine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, R. L.; Thakur, S. N.; Bhar, G. C.

    2002-09-01

    Heroin, morphine and narcotine are very large molecules having 50, 40 and 53 atoms respectively. Moderately high resolution photoacoustic (PA) spectra have been recorded in 9.6 mum and 10.6 mum regions of CO_2 laser. It is very difficult to assign the modes of vibrations for PA bands by comparison with conventional low resolution IR spectra. The ab initio quantum chemical calculations were used for determining the molecular geometries and normal mode frequencies of vibrations of these molecules for assignments of PA spectra.

  13. Tunable mode and line selection by injection in a TEA CO2 laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Menzies, R. T.; Flamant, P. H.; Kavaya, M. J.; Kuiper, E. N.

    1984-01-01

    Tunable mode selection by injection in pulsed CO2 lasers is examined, and both analytical and numerical models are used to compute the required injection power for a variety of experimental cases. These are treated in two categories: mode selection at a desired frequency displacement from the center frequency of a transition line in a dispersive cavity and mode (and line) selection at the center frequency of a selected transition line in a nondispersive cavity. The results point out the potential flexibility of pulsed injection in providing wavelength tunable high-energy single-frequency pulses.

  14. Dynamics of CO(2) laser pulse filamentation in air influenced by spectrally selective molecular absorption.

    PubMed

    Geints, Yuri E; Zemlyanov, Alexander A

    2014-09-01

    The theoretical aspects of self-focusing and filamentation of high-power pulsed CO(2) laser radiation with carrier wavelength 10.6 μm in air are considered. The spectrally selective molecular absorption of realistic atmospheric air is included in the theoretical model. In the conditions of strong pulse self-phase modulation and pulse spectral broadening, the supercontinual radiation spectrum is substantially influenced by the selective atmospheric absorption that destabilizes the filamentation process and results in considerable shortening of the filamentation length. PMID:25321358

  15. Experimental Study of Coupling Coefficients for Propulsion on TEA CO2 Laser

    SciTech Connect

    Tan Rongqing; Lin Jun; Hughes, Jeremy; Pakhomov, Andrew V.

    2004-03-30

    The original purpose of this study was to address a partition of propulsive energy between air and metal, when the breakdown is initiated at the metal surface and/or in adjacent air space. Coupling coefficient as a function of air pressure varied in the range 4 mTorr - 1 atm is presented. The experiments were conducted by focusing output pulses of a TEA CO2 laser system (0.2-{mu}s pulsewidth at 10.6 {mu}m wavelength and {approx} 10.0 J energy) on aluminum targets. Coupling coefficients were derived from the pendulum displacements.

  16. Tritium isotope separation by CO2-laser irradiation at low temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takeuchi, K.; Satooka, S.; Makide, Y.

    1984-02-01

    Tritium isotope separation by CO2-laser induced multiphoton dissociation of CTF3 is investigated. For the optimization of the performance of this working substance, trifluoromethane, the conditions to yield high-selectivity at high-operating pressure and low-critical fluence for complete dissociation are studied using our deconvolution procedure. The irradiation conditions are varied over the following ranges; wavenumber: 1052 1087 cm-1, gas temperature: 25°C to -78°C, CHF3 pressure: 5 205 Torr. The selectivities exceeding 104 are observed for 85 205 Torr CHF3 at -78°C by the irradiation at 1057 cm-1.

  17. Laser-Hybrid welding, an innovative technology to join automotive body parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieben, Manuel; Brunnecker, Frank

    The design of Tail lamps has been changed dramatically since cars built. At modern lamps, the lenses are absolutely transparent and allow a direct view onto the weld seam. Conventional welding technologies, such as vibration and hot plate welding cannot compete with this demand. Focused on this targeted application, LPKF Laser & Electronics AG has developed in cooperation with the Bavarian Laser Centre a unique Laser welding technology called hybrid welding.

  18. Er,CR:YSGG lasers induce fewer dysplastic-like epithelial artefacts than CO2 lasers: an in vivo experimental study on oral mucosa.

    PubMed

    González-Mosquera, A; Seoane, J; García-Caballero, L; López-Jornet, P; García-Caballero, T; Varela-Centelles, P

    2012-09-01

    Our aim was to assess wounds made by lasers (CO(2) and Er,Cr:YSGG) for their epithelial architectural changes and width of damage. We allocated 60 Sprague-Dawley(®) rats into groups: glossectomy by CO(2) laser at 3 different wattages (n=10 in each); glossectomy by Er,Cr:YSGG laser at two different emissions (n=10 in each), and a control group (n=10). Histological examination assessed both prevalence and site of thermal artefacts for each group. Both lasers (CO(2) and Er,Cr:YSGG) caused the same type of cytological artefacts. The 3W Er,Cr:YSGG laser produced the fewest cytological artefacts/specimen, and was significantly different from the other experimental groups: 3W CO(2) laser (95% CI=0.8 to 1.0); the 6W CO(2) laser (95% CI=0.1 to 2.0) and the 10W CO(2) laser (95% CI=1.1 to 3.0). CO(2) lasers (3-10W) generate epithelial damage that can simulate dysplastic changes with cytological atypia that affects mainly the basal and suprabasal layers. Irradiation with Er,CR:YSGG laser (2-4W) produces significantly fewer cellular artefacts and less epithelial damage, which may be potentially useful for biopsy of oral mucosa.

  19. A new CO2 laser technique for the treatment of pediatric hypertrophic burn scars

    PubMed Central

    Żądkowski, Tomasz; Nachulewicz, Paweł; Mazgaj, Maciej; Woźniak, Magdalena; Cielecki, Czesław; Wieczorek, Andrzej Paweł; Beń-Skowronek, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Treatment of hypertrophic scars arising as a result of thermal burns in children is still a big problem. The results of the treatment are not satisfactory for patients and parents, and new methods of treatment are still investigated. We present the use of one of the most modern carbon dioxide (CO2) lasers (Lumenis Encore laser equipped with a Synergistic Coagulation and Ablation for Advanced Resurfacing module) in the treatment of hypertrophic scars in children after burns. From March to April of 2013, a group of 47 patients aged 6 to 16 years underwent 57 laser surgery treatments. The average time from accident was 7.5 years. The results of treatment were investigated in 114 areas. The assessed areas were divided into 2 groups: 9-cm2 area 1, where the thickness of the scar measured by physician was the lowest and 9-cm2 area 2, where the thickness of the scar was the biggest. The results were considered on the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) independently by the surgeon and by parents 1, 4, and 8 months after the procedure. In addition, ultrasound evaluation of the scar thickness before and after laser procedure was made. VSS total score improved in all areas assessed by both the physician and parents. The biggest change in total VSS score in area 1 in the evaluation of the investigator was obtained at follow-up after the 1st month of treatment (average 7.23 points before and 5.18 points after the 1st month after surgery—a difference of 2.05 points). Scar ratings by parents and the physician did not differ statistically (P < 0.05). In the ultrasound assessment, the improvement was statistically significant, more frequently for both minimum and maximum thickness of the scars (B-mode measures) (P < 0.05). The use of a CO2 laser in the treatment of hypertrophic scars in children is an effective and safe method. The use of a CO2 laser improves the appearance and morphology of scarring assessed using the VSS by both the parents and the physician. The

  20. Effect of CO2 laser on Class V cavities of human molar teeth under a scanning electron microscope.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, I; Lopes, R A; Brugnera, A; Katayama, A Y; Gardini, A E

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of CO2 laser on dentin of class V cavities of extracted human molar teeth using a scanning electron microscope. SEM showed a smooth area with concentric lines formed by melting with subsequent recrystallization of dentin, areas of granulation, vitrified surface, numerous cracks, and irregular areas of descamative dentin. These data indicate that CO2 laser (4 and 6 watts) produces dentin alterations and limit its clinical applications.