Science.gov

Sample records for co2-supersaturated water injection

  1. Atmospheric CO2 Supersaturation Observed in the Martian Polar Nights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, K.; Kuroda, T.; Hayashi, H.

    2016-09-01

    The present study shows the spatio-temporal distribution of the occurrence of CO2 supersaturation in the martian atmosphere by using the Mars Global Surveyor radio occultation data. We also compare the results with numerical simulation results.

  2. Water Injected Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    From antiquity, water has been a source of cooling, lubrication, and power for energy transfer devices. More recent applications in gas turbines demonstrate an added facet, emissions control. Fogging gas turbine inlets or direct injection of water into gas turbine combustors, decreases NOx and increases power. Herein we demonstrate that injection of water into the air upstream of the combustor reduces NOx by factors up to three in a natural gas fueled Trapped Vortex Combustor (TVC) and up to two in a liquid JP-8 fueled (TVC) for a range in water/fuel and fuel/air ratios.

  3. Corrosion control in water injection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, C.C. )

    1993-08-01

    Corrosion control in water injection systems encompasses a wide range of technologies, including chemicals (corrosion inhibitors, biocides, and oxygen scavengers); corrosion-resistant materials (metallic and nonmetallic); internal coatings and linings; mechanical removal of dissolved oxygen; velocity control; and prevention of oxygen entry and galvanic couples. This article reviews the way that these technologies are used in modern water-injection systems (both seawater and produced water) to provide an acceptable service life and high-quality injection water.

  4. Injected Water Augments Cooling In Turboshaft Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Berger, Brett; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.

    1989-01-01

    Report describes experiments in which water injected into compressor-bleed cooling air of aircraft turboshaft engine. Injection of water previously suggested as way to provide additional cooling needed to sustain operation at power levels higher than usual. Involves turbine-inlet temperatures high enough to shorten lives of first-stage high-pressure turbine blades. Latent heat of vaporization of injected water serves as additional heat sink to maintain blades at design operating temperatures during high-power operation.

  5. Assessing Atmospheric Water Injection from Oceanic Impacts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierazzo, E.

    2005-01-01

    Collisions of asteroids and comets with the Earth s surface are rare events that punctuate the geologic record. Due to the vastness of Earth s oceans, oceanic impacts of asteroids or comets are expected to be about 4 times more frequent than land impacts. The resulting injections of oceanic water into the upper atmosphere can have important repercussions on Earth s climate and atmospheric circulation. However, the duration and overall effect of these large injections are still unconstrained. This work addresses atmospheric injections of large amounts of water in oceanic impacts.

  6. Passive safety injection system using borated water

    SciTech Connect

    Conway, Lawrence E.; Schulz, Terry L.

    1993-01-01

    A passive safety injection system relies on differences in water density to induce natural circulatory flow patterns which help maintain prescribed concentrations of boric acid in borated water, and prevents boron from accumulating in the reactor vessel and possibly preventing heat transfer.

  7. Water alternating gas injection maximizes recoverable reserves

    SciTech Connect

    Opdal, S.T.

    1995-10-01

    In the North Sea, water alternating gas injection (WAG) can be an alternative to water flooding. The Gullfaks field is located in Block 34/10 in the Norwegian North Sea. Different methods have been investigated to improve the recovery from Gullfaks, including polymers, surfactants, WAG, hydraulic fracturing and horizontal wells. Several of these methods have been laboratory and field tested. Both horizontal wells and hydraulic fracturing are used on a regular basis. In addition, an area in the Lower Brent Formation was selected in 1991 as a pilot for the WAG method. WAG was initially proposed for gas-flooded fields as a method of controlling gas fingering and improving vertical sweep, particularly for miscible CO{sub 2} displacements. Effective at improving immiscible gas injection, WAG can also be beneficiary to fields that are being water flooded. This paper reviews the design problems associated with the WAG operation. It discusses the performance and sweep efficiency which resulted from the WAG.

  8. BOILING WATER REACTOR WITH FEED WATER INJECTION NOZZLES

    DOEpatents

    Treshow, M.

    1963-04-30

    This patent covers the use of injection nozzles for pumping water into the lower ends of reactor fuel tubes in which water is converted directly to steam. Pumping water through fuel tubes of this type of boiling water reactor increases its power. The injection nozzles decrease the size of pump needed, because the pump handles only the water going through the nozzles, additional water being sucked into the tubes by the nozzles independently of the pump from the exterior body of water in which the fuel tubes are immersed. The resulting movement of exterior water along the tubes holds down steam formation, and thus maintains the moderator effectiveness, of the exterior body of water. (AEC)

  9. Tracer injection techniques in flowing surface water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wörman, A.

    2009-04-01

    Residence time distributions for flowing water and reactive matter are commonly used integrated properties of the transport process for determining technical issues of water resource management and in eco-hydrological science. Two general issues for tracer techniques are that the concentration-vs-time relation following a tracer injection (the breakthrough curve) gives unique transport information in different parts of the curve and separation of hydromechanical and reactive mechanisms often require simultaneous tracer injections. This presentation discusses evaluation methods for simultaneous tracer injections based on examples of tracer experiments in small rivers, streams and wetlands. Tritiated water is used as a practically inert substance to reflect the actual hydrodynamics, but other involved tracers are Cr(III)-51, P-32 and N-15. Hydromechanical, in-stream dispersion is reflected as a symmetrical spreading of the spatial concentration distribution. This requires that the transport distance over water depth is larger than about five times the flow Peclet number. Transversal retention of both inert and reactive solutes is reflected in terms of the tail of the breakthrough curve. Especially, reactive solutes can have a substantial magnification of the tailing behaviour depending on reaction rates or partitioning coefficients. To accurately discriminate between the effects of reactions and hydromechanical mixing its is relevant to use simultaneous injections of inert and reactive tracers with a sequential or integrated evaluation procedure. As an example, the slope of the P-32 tailing is consistently smaller than that of a simultaneous tritium injection in Ekeby wetland, Eskilstuna. The same applies to N-15 injected in the same experiment, but nitrogen is affected also by a systematic loss due to denitrification. Uptake in stream-bed sediments can be caused by a pumping effect arising when a variable pressure field is created on the stream bottom due to bed

  10. Water Injection Feasibility for Boeing 747 Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.

    2005-01-01

    Can water injection be offered at a reasonable cost to large airplane operators to reduce takeoff NO( sub x) emissions? This study suggests it may be possible. This report is a contract deliverable to NASA Glenn Research Center from the prime contractor, The Boeing Commercial Airplane Company of Seattle, WA. This study was supported by a separate contract to the Pratt & Whitney Engine Company of Hartford, CT (contract number NNC04QB58P). Aviation continues to grow and with it, environmental pressures are increasing for airports that service commercial airplanes. The feasibility and performance of an emissions-reducing technology, water injection, was studied for a large commercial airplane (e.g., Boeing 747 with PW4062 engine). The primary use of the water-injection system would be to lower NOx emissions while an important secondary benefit might be to improve engine turbine life. A tradeoff exists between engine fuel efficiency and NOx emissions. As engines improve fuel efficiency, by increasing the overall pressure ratio of the engine s compressor, the resulting increased gas temperature usually results in higher NOx emissions. Low-NO(sub x) combustors have been developed for new airplanes to control the increases in NO(sub x) emissions associated with higher efficiency, higher pressure ratio engines. However, achieving a significant reduction of NO(sub x) emissions at airports has been challenging. Using water injection during takeoff has the potential to cut engine NO(sub x) emissions some 80 percent. This may eliminate operating limitations for airplanes flying into airports with emission constraints. This study suggests an important finding of being able to offer large commercial airplane owners an emission-reduction technology that may also save on operating costs.

  11. Improved Water Flooding through Injection Brine Modification

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, Eric Partridge; Thomas, Charles Phillip; Morrow, Norman

    2003-01-01

    Crude oil/brine/rock interactions can lead to large variations in the displacement efficiency of waterflooding, by far the most widely applied method of improved oil recovery. Laboratory waterflood tests show that injection of dilute brine can increase oil recovery. Numerous fields in the Powder River basin have been waterflooded using low salinity brine (about 500 ppm) from the Madison limestone or Fox Hills sandstone. Although many uncertainties arise in the interpretation and comparison of field production data, injection of low salinity brine appears to give higher recovery compared to brine of moderate salinity (about 7,000 ppm). Laboratory studies of the effect of brine composition on oil recovery cover a wide range of rock types and crude oils. Oil recovery increases using low salinity brine as the injection water ranged from a low of no notable increase to as much as 37.0% depending on the system being studied. Recovery increases using low salinity brine after establishing residual oil saturation (tertiary mode) ranged from no significant increase to 6.0%. Tests with two sets of reservoir cores and crude oil indicated slight improvement in recovery for low salinity brine. Crude oil type and rock type (particularly the presence and distribution of kaolinite) both play a dominant role in the effect that brine composition has on waterflood oil recovery.

  12. Modeling of Water Injection into a Vacuum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alred, John W.; Smith, Nicole L.; Wang, K. C.; Lumpkin, Forrest E.; Fitzgerald, Steven M.

    1997-01-01

    A loosely coupled two-phase vacuum water plume model has been developed. This model consists of a source flow model to describe the expansion of water vapor, and the Lagrangian equations of motion for particle trajectories. Gas/Particle interaction is modeled through the drag force induced by the relative velocities. Particles are assumed traveling along streamlines. The equations of motion are integrated to obtain particle velocity along the streamline. This model has been used to predict the mass flux in a 5 meter radius hemispherical domain resulting from the burst of a water jet of 1.5 mm in diameter, mass flow rate of 24.2 g/s, and stagnation pressure of 21.0 psia, which is the nominal Orbiter water dump condition. The result is compared with an empirical water plume model deduced from a video image of the STS-29 water dump. To further improve the model, work has begun to numerically simulate the bubble formation and bursting present in a liquid stream injected into a vacuum. The technique of smoothed particle hydrodynamics was used to formulate this simulation. A status and results of the on-going effort are presented and compared to results from the literature.

  13. Gel injection successfully shuts off excess water

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Unocal applied a high-temperature organic polymer gel in Feather field Well H-43 in the UK North Sea to reduce water production in them more-permeable upper perforated section of the Brent Sand. The operation and technical details of the polymer system developed by Unocal, and how it was applied, are described in paper SPE 30426, ``Water shut off in the North Sea; Testing a new polymer system in the Heather field, UKCS Block 2/5.`` The authors concluded that the new gel system successfully isolated the Upper Brent water production, increasing oil production and decreasing water production. Lower perforations were successfully isolated using sized calcium carbonate suspended in an HEC polymer--a technique difficult to monitor in the deviated well. Batch mixing provided ``excellent`` quality gel, closely matching lab measured performance. And the gel required no pre-cooling in the near-wellbore area. Some 1,100 bbl were injected without excessive wellhead pressure, at 1 bpm. A summary of the paper`s highlights is presented here.

  14. Geomechanics of subsurface water withdrawal and injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gambolati, Giuseppe; Teatini, Pietro

    2015-06-01

    Land subsidence and uplift, ground ruptures, and induced seismicity are the principal geomechanic effects of groundwater withdrawal and injection. The major environmental consequence of groundwater pumping is anthropogenic land subsidence. The first observation concerning land settlement linked to subsurface processes was made in 1926 by the American geologists Pratt and Johnson, who wrote that "the cause of subsidence is to be found in the extensive extraction of fluid from beneath the affected area." Since then, impressive progress has been made in terms of: (a) recognizing the basic hydrologic and geomechanic principles underlying the occurrence; (b) measuring aquifer compaction and ground displacements, both vertical and horizontal; (c) modeling and predicting the past and future event; and (d) mitigating environmental impact through aquifer recharge and/or surface water injection. The first milestone in the theory of pumped aquifer consolidation was reached in 1923 by Terzaghi, who introduced the principle of "effective intergranular stress." In the early 1970s, the emerging computer technology facilitated development of the first mathematical model of the subsidence of Venice, made by Gambolati and Freeze. Since then, the comprehension, measuring, and simulation of the occurrence have improved dramatically. More challenging today are the issues of ground ruptures and induced/triggered seismicity, which call for a shift from the classical continuum approach to discontinuous mechanics. Although well known for decades, anthropogenic land subsidence is still threatening large urban centers and deltaic areas worldwide, such as Bangkok, Jakarta, and Mexico City, at rates in the order of 10 cm/yr.

  15. Water-cooled insulated steam-injection wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Back, L. H.; Jaffe, L. D.

    1980-01-01

    Water is used as insulated coolant and heat-transfer medium for steam-injection oil wells. Approach is somewhat analogous to cooling system in liquid-propellant rocket. In addition to trapping and delivering heat to steam-injection point, water will also keep casing cooler, preventing or reducing casing failures caused by thermal stresses.

  16. Numerical simulation of water injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.

    1995-01-01

    Water injection into vapor-dominated reservoirs is a means of condensate disposal, as well as a reservoir management tool for enhancing energy recovery and reservoir life. We review different approaches to modeling the complex fluid and heat flow processes during injection into vapor-dominated systems. Vapor pressure lowering, grid orientation effects, and physical dispersion of injection plumes from reservoir heterogeneity are important considerations for a realistic modeling of injection effects. An example of detailed three-dimensional modeling of injection experiments at The Geysers is given.

  17. Multiphase Modeling of Water Injection on Flame Deflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Bruce T.; Bachchan, Nili; Peroomian, Oshin; Akdag, Vedat

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the use of an Eulerian Dispersed Phase (EDP) model to simulate the water injected from the flame deflector and its interaction with supersonic rocket exhaust from a proposed Space Launch System (SLS) vehicle. The Eulerian formulation, as part of the multi-phase framework, is described. The simulations show that water cooling is only effective over the region under the liquid engines. Likewise, the water injection provides only minor effects over the surface area under the solid engines.

  18. Water mist injection in oil shale retorting

    DOEpatents

    Galloway, T.R.; Lyczkowski, R.W.; Burnham, A.K.

    1980-07-30

    Water mist is utilized to control the maximum temperature in an oil shale retort during processing. A mist of water droplets is generated and entrained in the combustion supporting gas flowing into the retort in order to distribute the liquid water droplets throughout the retort. The water droplets are vaporized in the retort in order to provide an efficient coolant for temperature control.

  19. Reduction of Altitude Diffuser Jet Noise Using Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allgood, Daniel C.; Saunders, Grady P.; Langford, Lester A.

    2014-01-01

    A feasibility study on the effects of injecting water into the exhaust plume of an altitude rocket diffuser for the purpose of reducing the far-field acoustic noise has been performed. Water injection design parameters such as axial placement, angle of injection, diameter of injectors, and mass flow rate of water have been systematically varied during the operation of a subscale altitude test facility. The changes in acoustic far-field noise were measured with an array of free-field microphones in order to quantify the effects of the water injection on overall sound pressure level spectra and directivity. The results showed significant reductions in noise levels were possible with optimum conditions corresponding to water injection at or just upstream of the exit plane of the diffuser. Increasing the angle and mass flow rate of water injection also showed improvements in noise reduction. However, a limit on the maximum water flow rate existed as too large of flow rate could result in un-starting the supersonic diffuser.

  20. Reduction of Altitude Diffuser Jet Noise Using Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allgood, Daniel C.; Saunders, Grady P.; Langford, Lester A.

    2011-01-01

    A feasibility study on the effects of injecting water into the exhaust plume of an altitude rocket diffuser for the purpose of reducing the far-field acoustic noise has been performed. Water injection design parameters such as axial placement, angle of injection, diameter of injectors, and mass flow rate of water have been systematically varied during the operation of a subscale altitude test facility. The changes in acoustic far-field noise were measured with an array of free-field microphones in order to quantify the effects of the water injection on overall sound pressure level spectra and directivity. The results showed significant reductions in noise levels were possible with optimum conditions corresponding to water injection at or just upstream of the exit plane of the diffuser. Increasing the angle and mass flow rate of water injection also showed improvements in noise reduction. However, a limit on the maximum water flow rate existed as too large of flow rate could result in un-starting the supersonic diffuser.

  1. DETECTING WATER FLOW BEHIND PIPE IN INJECTION WELLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Regulations of the Environmental Protection Agency require that an injection well exhibit both internal and external mechanical integrity. The external mechanical integrity consideration is that there is no significant fluid movement into an underground source of drinking water ...

  2. High-pressure injection injury with river water.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, M I

    1978-06-01

    A case of high pressure injection and laceration of the calf with river water is reported, the first such case appearing in the literature. As with high pressure injection of grease, paint, paint thinner, mineral spirits, diesel oil, gasoline, and turpentine, this injury is a surgical emergency. All patients must be admitted for surgical debridement, irrigation, parenteral antibiotics, and observation. River water, contaminated by sewage and industrial wastes, has great irritative and infective potential. PMID:661048

  3. Reductions in Multi-Component Jet Noise by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norum, Thomas D.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental investigation was performed in the NASA Langley Low Speed Aeroacoustics Wind Tunnel to determine the extent of jet exhaust noise reduction that can be obtained using water injection in a hot jet environment. The effects of water parameters such as mass flow rate, injection location, and spray patterns on suppression of dominant noise sources in both subsonic and supersonic jets were determined, and extrapolations to full-scale engine noise reduction were made. Water jets and sprays were injected in to the shear layers of cold and hot circular jets operating at both subsonic and supersonic exhaust conditions. Use of convergent-divergent and convergent nozzles (2.7in. D) allowed for simulations of all major jet noise sources. The experimental results show that water injection clearly disrupts shock noise sources within the jet plume, with large reductions in radiated shock noise. There are smaller reductions in jet mixing noise, resulting in only a small decrease in effective perceived noise level when projections are made to full scale. The fact that the measured noise reduction in the direction upstream of the nozzle was consistently larger than in the noisier downstream direction contributed to keeping effective perceived noise reductions small. Variations in the operation of the water injection system clearly show that injection at the nozzle exit rather than further downstream is required for the largest noise reduction. Noise reduction increased with water pressure as well as with its mass flow, although the type of injector had little effect.

  4. Study methods for disinfection water for injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grishkanich, Alexander; Zhevlakov, Alexander; Kascheev, Sergey; Polyakov, Vladimir; Sidorov, Igor; Ruzankina, Julia; Yakovlev, Alexey; Mak, Andrey

    2016-04-01

    Experimental results presented in this study tends to explore viruses in the water for their further decontamination under the influence of laser radiation (λ=220-390 nm). Conducted a series of experiments to study the dependence of water quality from the effects of laser radiation. Correlation between degree of survival of viruses and power density. The results showed that all the analyzed samples of water is clearing from bacteria to 98%. Preliminary tests of the prototype laboratory system UFOVI has opened up new opportunities for water sterilizing.

  5. Water injected fuel cell system compressor

    DOEpatents

    Siepierski, James S.; Moore, Barbara S.; Hoch, Martin Monroe

    2001-01-01

    A fuel cell system including a dry compressor for pressurizing air supplied to the cathode side of the fuel cell. An injector sprays a controlled amount of water on to the compressor's rotor(s) to improve the energy efficiency of the compressor. The amount of water sprayed out the rotor(s) is controlled relative to the mass flow rate of air inputted to the compressor.

  6. Feasibility study on steam injector water injection system for JSBWR

    SciTech Connect

    Narabayashi, Tadashi; Yano, Takashi; Arai, Kanji

    1997-12-01

    A feasibility study has been conducted respecting a steam injector driven system (SIS) for low pressure core injection system (SI-LPCI) for a Japanese-type simplified BWR (JSBWR). The steam injector (SI) is a simple, compact passive pump driven by supersonic steam jet condensation. The feasibility and demonstration tests were conducted and water was successfully injected into the simulated injection line. The steam injector could operate under the condition of very low steam pressure, such as near atmospheric pressure (0.3 MPa), and it discharged water at 0.6 MPa by the time the gravity driven core injection system (GDCS) started operation. The system simplified the core depressurization system using large depressurization valves (DPV). 8 refs., 22 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Multi-Phase Modeling of Rainbird Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vu, Bruce T.; Moss, Nicholas; Sampson, Zoe

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a Volume of Fluid (VOF) multiphase model to simulate the water injected from a rainbird nozzle used in the sound suppression system during launch. The simulations help determine the projectile motion for different water flow rates employed at the pad, as it is critical to know if water will splash on the first-stage rocket engine during liftoff.

  8. Numerical modeling of water injection into vapor-dominatedgeothermal reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, Karsten

    2006-11-06

    Water injection has been recognized as a powerful techniquefor enhancing energy recovery from vapor-dominated geothermal systemssuch as The Geysers. In addition to increasing reservoir pressures,production well flow rates, and long-term sustainability of steamproduction, injection has also been shown to reduce concentrations ofnon-condensible gases (NCGs) in produced steam. The latter effectimproves energy conversion efficiency and reduces corrosion problems inwellbores and surface lines.This report reviews thermodynamic andhydrogeologic conditions and mechanisms that play an important role inreservoir response to water injection. An existing general-purposereservoir simulator has been enhanced to allow modeling of injectioneffects in heterogeneous fractured reservoirs in three dimensions,including effects of non-condensible gases of different solubility.Illustrative applications demonstrate fluid flow and heat transfermechanisms that are considered crucial for developing approaches to insitu abatement of NCGs.

  9. Nox Emission Reduction in Commercial Jets Through Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balepin, Vladimir; Ossello, Chris; Snyder, Chris

    2002-01-01

    This paper discusses a method of the nitrogen oxides (NOx) emission reduction through the injection of water in commercial turbofan engines during the takeoff and climbout cycles. In addition to emission reduction, this method can significantly reduce turbine temperature during the most demanding operational modes (takeoff and climbout) and increase engine reliability and life.

  10. Highly efficient 6-stroke engine cycle with water injection

    SciTech Connect

    Szybist, James P; Conklin, James C

    2012-10-23

    A six-stroke engine cycle having improved efficiency. Heat is recovered from the engine combustion gases by using a 6-stroke engine cycle in which combustion gases are partially vented proximate the bottom-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle, and water is injected proximate the top-dead-center position of the fourth stroke cycle.

  11. Broadband Shock Noise Reduction in Turbulent Jets by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max

    2008-01-01

    The concept of effective jet properties introduced by the author (AIAA-2007-3 645) has been extended to the estimation of broadband shock noise reduction by water injection in supersonic jets. Comparison of the predictions with the test data for cold underexpanded supersonic nozzles shows a satisfactory agreement. The results also reveal the range of water mass flow rates over which saturation of mixing noise reduction and existence of parasitic noise are manifest.

  12. Suppression of Tip Vortex Cavitation by Water and Polymer Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Natasha; Yakushiji, Ryo; Ceccio, Steven

    2008-11-01

    Tip vortex cavitation (TVC) is typically the first form of cavitation observed in propellers; therefore a delay of its inception is desirable. In this study, TVC inception was delayed via mass injection from the tip of a modified NACA-66 elliptic plan-form hydrofoil. The injected mass used were water and Polyox WSR 301 solutions with concentrations from 10 to 500 ppm. The free-stream nuclei content was measured using a Cavitation Susceptibility Meter, and the TVC inception event rate was quantified with a light scattering system. The vortical flow field in the region of inception was characterized using Stereo Particle Imaging and Velocimetry (SPIV), with measurements taken from 0.25 to 1 chord length at various concentrations and injection rates. It was observed that TVC inception was delayed with injection by a δσ of 0.03 to 1.8 from a baseline of σ = 3.5. Injection with higher polymer concentrations and higher volume flux led to larger delays. A saturation effect for the TVC suppression was observed for both the polymer concentration (125ppm) and volume flux rate (Qj/Qc = 0.48). These effects are related to the SPIV flow field.

  13. CFD Validation of Gas Injection into Stagnant Water

    SciTech Connect

    Abdou, Ashraf A

    2007-01-01

    Investigations in the area of two-phase flow at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory's (ORNL) Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) facility are progressing. It is expected that the target vessel lifetime could be extended by introducing gas into the liquid mercury target. As part of an effort to validate the two-phase computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model, simulations and experiments of gas injection in stagnant water have been completed. The volume of fluid (VOF) method as implemented in ANSYS-CFX was used to simulate the unsteady two-phase flow of gas injection into stagnant water. Flow visualization data were obtained with a high-speed camera for the comparison of predicted and measured bubble sizes and shapes at various stages of the bubble growth, detachment, and gravitational rise. The CFD model is validated with these experimental measurements at different gas flow rates. The acoustic waves emitted at the time of detachment and during subsequent oscillations of the bubble were recorded with a microphone. The acoustic signature aspect of this validation is particularly interesting since it has applicability to the injection of gas into liquid mercury, which is opaque.

  14. Water Injection on Commercial Aircraft to Reduce Airport Nitrogen Oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C.; Fucke, Lars; Eames, David J. H.

    2010-01-01

    The potential nitrogen oxide (NO(x) reductions, cost savings, and performance enhancements identified in these initial studies of waterinjection technology strongly suggest that it be further pursued. The potential for engine maintenance cost savings from this system should make it very attractive to airline operators and assure its implementation. Further system tradeoff studies and engine tests are needed to answer the optimal system design question. Namely, would a low-risk combustor injection system with 70- to 90-percent NO(x) reduction be preferable, or would a low-pressure compressor (LPC) misting system with only 50-percent NO(x) reduction but larger turbine inlet temperature reductions be preferable? The low-pressure compressor injection design and operability issues identified in the report need to be addressed because they might prevent implementation of the LPC type of water-misting system. If water-injection technology challenges are overcome, any of the systems studied would offer dramatic engine NO(x) reductions at the airport. Coupling this technology with future emissions-reduction technologies, such as fuel-cell auxiliary power units will allow the aviation sector to address the serious challenges of environmental stewardship, and NO(x) emissions will no longer be an issue at airports.

  15. HYDERAULIC/CHEMICAL CHANGES DURING GROUND-WATER RECHARGE BY INJECTION.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, Scott N.

    1987-01-01

    Ground-water recharge by injection of reclaimed water is a feasible method of improving ground-water quality in the shallow aquifer system in the Palo Alto Baylands along the San Franciso Bay. Ground water was initially more saline than sea water. Reclaimed water was injected at a rate of 10 gallons per minute from June 5, 1980, to July 1, 1980. At the completion of injection, water from an observation well 31 feet from the injection well was 98 percent injected water - in essence, fresh water. An abrupt rise in the water level in the injection well of about 1. 5 feet during the initial injection test was the result of a 3. 5 percent density difference between injected fresh water and saline ground water. The arrival of injected water at observation wells showed the same effect, allowing monitoring of chemical and hydraulic changes entirely through water-level data. Prior to injection the saline ground water was super-saturated withn calcite. Dilution, as injection proceeded, eventually produced an undersaturation of calcite. An increase in well specific capacity indicates that calcite dissolved from the aquifer matrix, improving hydraulic conductivity.

  16. Subsurface injection of treated sewage into a saline-water aquifer at St. Petersburg, Florida - Water-quality changes and potential for recovery of injected sewage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, J.J.; Ehrlich, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    The city of St. Petersburg is testing subsurface injection of treated sewage into the Floridan aquifer as a means of eliminating discharge of sewage to surface waters and as a means of storing treated sewage for future nonpotable reuse. The injection zone at the test site at the start of injection contained saline water with chloride concentrations ranging from 14,000 to 20,000 milligrams per liter (mg/l). Treated sewage with a mean chloride concentration of 170 mg/ml was injected through a single well for 12 months at a mean rate of 4.7 x 105 cubic feet per day. The volume of water injected during the year was 1.7x108 cubic feet. Dissolved oxygen was contained in the sewage prior to injection. Water removed from the injection zone during injection was essentially free of oxygen. Probable growth of denitrifying bacteria and, thus, microbial denitrification, was suggested by bacterial counts in water from two observation wells that were close to the injection well. The volume fraction of treated sewage in water from wells located 35 feet and 733 feet from the injection well and open to the upper part of the injection zone stabilized at about 0.9 and 0.75, respectively. Chloride concentrations stabilized at about 1,900 mg/l in water from the well that was 35 feet from the injection well and stabilized at about 4,000 mg/l in water from the well that was 733 feet from the injection well. These and other data suggest that very little near injection-quality treated sewage would be recoverable from storage in the injection zone.The city of St. Petersburg is testing subsurface injection of treated sewage into the Floridan aquifer as a means of eliminating discharge of sewage to surface waters and as a means of storing treated sewage for future nonpotable reuse. The injection zone at the test site at the start of injection contained saline water with chloride concentrations ranging from 14,000 to 20,000 milligrams per liter (mg/l). Data suggest that very little near

  17. Aging study of boiling water reactor high pressure injection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Conley, D.A.; Edson, J.L.; Fineman, C.F.

    1995-03-01

    The purpose of high pressure injection systems is to maintain an adequate coolant level in reactor pressure vessels, so that the fuel cladding temperature does not exceed 1,200{degrees}C (2,200{degrees}F), and to permit plant shutdown during a variety of design basis loss-of-coolant accidents. This report presents the results of a study on aging performed for high pressure injection systems of boiling water reactor plants in the United States. The purpose of the study was to identify and evaluate the effects of aging and the effectiveness of testing and maintenance in detecting and mitigating aging degradation. Guidelines from the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission`s Nuclear Plant Aging Research Program were used in performing the aging study. Review and analysis of the failures reported in databases such as Nuclear Power Experience, Licensee Event Reports, and the Nuclear Plant Reliability Data System, along with plant-specific maintenance records databases, are included in this report to provide the information required to identify aging stressors, failure modes, and failure causes. Several probabilistic risk assessments were reviewed to identify risk-significant components in high pressure injection systems. Testing, maintenance, specific safety issues, and codes and standards are also discussed.

  18. Death by Water: Precautionary Water Submersion for Intravitreal Injection of Retinoblastoma Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Jasmine H; Xu, Xiaoliang L; Gobin, Y. Pierre; Marr, Brian P; Brodie, Scott E; Abramson, David H

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in intravitreal injections of chemotherapy for retinoblastoma. However, concerns for potential tumor seeding through the needle track has prompted the use of risk-reducing precautionary methods. Presented here is a novel technique, which can be easily replicated, requires minimal sophisticated equipment and with laboratory data supporting its concept. Sterile distilled water submersion for 3 minutes renders retinoblastoma cells nonviable and can be employed as a precautionary method following intravitreal injection in the technique described here. PMID:24949111

  19. Evaluation of Water Injection Effect on NO(x) Formation for a Staged Gas Turbine Combustor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fan, L.; Yang, S. L.; Kundu, K. P.

    1996-01-01

    NO(x) emission control by water injection on a staged turbine combustor (STC) was modeled using the KIVA-2 code with modification. Water is injected into the rich-burn combustion zone of the combustor by a single nozzle. Parametric study for different water injection patterns was performed. Results show NO(x) emission will decrease after water being injected. Water nozzle location also has significant effect for NO formation and fuel ignition. The chemical kinetic model is also sensitive to the excess water. Through this study, a better understanding of the physics and chemical kinetics is obtained, this will enhance the STC design process.

  20. Prediction of Turbulent Jet Mixing Noise Reduction by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max

    2008-01-01

    A one-dimensional control volume formulation is developed for the determination of jet mixing noise reduction due to water injection. The analysis starts from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for the confrol volume, and introduces the concept of effective jet parameters (jet temperature, jet velocity and jet Mach number). It is shown that the water to jet mass flow rate ratio is an important parameter characterizing the jet noise reduction on account of gas-to-droplet momentum and heat transfer. Two independent dimensionless invariant groups are postulated, and provide the necessary relations for the droplet size and droplet Reynolds number. Results are presented illustrating the effect of mass flow rate ratio on the jet mixing noise reduction for a range of jet Mach number and jet Reynolds number. Predictions from the model show satisfactory comparison with available test data on perfectly expanded hot supersonic jets. The results suggest that significant noise reductions can be achieved at increased flow rate ratios.

  1. Analysis of thrust augmentation of turbojet engines by water injection at compressor inlet including charts for calculating compression processes with water injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, E Clinton; Trout, Arthur M

    1951-01-01

    A psychrometric chart having total pressure (sum of partial pressures of air and water vapor) as a variable, a Mollier diagram for air saturated with water vapor, and charts showing the thermodynamic properties of various air-water vapor and exhaust gas-water vapor mixtures are presented as aids in calculating the thrust augmentation of a turbojet engine resulting from the injection of water at the compressor inlet. Curves are presented that show the theoretical performance of the augmentation method for various amounts of water injected and the effects of varying flight Mach number, altitude, ambient-air temperature, ambient relative humidity, compressor pressure ratio, and inlet-diffuser efficiency. Numerical examples, illustrating the use of the psychrometric chart and the Mollier diagram in calculating both compressor-inlet and compressor-outlet conditions when water is injected at the compressor inlet, are presented.

  2. On spurious water flow during numerical simulation of steam injection into water-saturated soil.

    PubMed

    Gudbjerg, J; Trötschler, O; Färber, A; Sonnenborg, T O; Jensen, K H

    2004-12-01

    Numerical simulation of steam injection into a water-saturated porous medium may be hindered by unphysical behavior causing the model to slow down. We show how spurious water flow may arise on the boundary between a steam zone and a saturated zone, giving rise to dramatic pressure drops. This is caused by the discretization of the temperature gradient coupled with the direct relation between pressure and temperature in the steam zone. The problem may be a severe limitation to numerical modeling. A solution is presented where the spurious water flow is blocked and this widely enhances the performance of the model. This new method is applied to a previously reported example exhibiting numerical problems. Furthermore, it is applied to the simulation of 2-D sandbox experiments where LNAPL is remediated from a smearing zone by steam injection. These experiments would have been difficult to analyze numerically without the adjustment to prevent spurious flow.

  3. Approximate solutions for Forchheimer flow during water injection and water production in an unconfined aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathias, Simon A.; Moutsopoulos, Konstantinos N.

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the hydraulics around injection and production wells in unconfined aquifers associated with rainwater and reclaimed water aquifer storage schemes is an issue of increasing importance. Much work has been done previously to understand the mathematics associated with Darcy's law in this context. However, groundwater flow velocities around injection and production wells are likely to be sufficiently large such as to induce significant non-Darcy effects. This article presents a mathematical analysis to look at Forchheimer's equation in the context of water injection and water production in unconfined aquifers. Three different approximate solutions are derived using quasi-steady-state assumptions and the method of matched asymptotic expansion. The resulting approximate solutions are shown to be accurate for a wide range of practical scenarios by comparison with a finite difference solution to the full problem of concern. The approximate solutions have led to an improved understanding of the flow dynamics. They can also be used as verification tools for future numerical models in this context.

  4. Engine Company Evaluation of Feasibility of Aircraft Retrofit Water-Injected Turbomachines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    This study supports the NASA Glenn Research Center and the U.S. Air Force Research Laboratory in their efforts to evaluate the effect of water injection on aircraft engine performance and emissions. In this study, water is only injected during the takeoff and initial climb phase of a flight. There is no water injection during engine start or ground operations, nor during climb, cruise, descent, or landing. This study determined the maintenance benefit of water injection during takeoff and initial climb and evaluated the feasibility of retrofitting a current production engine, the PW4062 (Pratt & Whitney, East Hartford, CT), with a water injection system. Predicted NO(x) emissions based on a 1:1 water-tofuel ratio are likely to be reduced between 30 to 60 percent in Environmental Protection Agency parameter (EPAP). The maintenance cost benefit for an idealized combustor water injection system installed on a PW4062 engine in a Boeing 747-400ER aircraft (The Boeing Company, Chicago, IL) is computed to be $22 per engine flight hour (EFH). Adding water injection as a retrofit kit would cost up to $375,000 per engine because of the required modifications to the fuel system and addition of the water supply system. There would also be significant nonrecurring costs associated with the development and certification of the system that may drive the system price beyond affordability.

  5. Fluoride transport due to injection of reject water from RO process into the ground water through downstream bore well.

    PubMed

    Babu, C Anand; Agarwal, Sourabh; Sujish, D; Rajan, K K

    2011-10-01

    Fluoride removal using Reverse Osmosis has appreciable amount of fluorine in the reject stream. Disposal of reject water to surface water further contaminates the water body. It is required to dispose of this reject into the environment with minimal pollution. So a study on disposal of fluoride contaminated reject inside the ground water through bore well is done through theoretical modelling using COMSOL multiphysics software. It has been established that the rise in fluoride concentration in ground water due to injection of fluoride contaminated reject through bore well depends on the injection rate of reject inside the bore well and not on the initial background concentration of fluoride in the ground water. It has been found that for reject injection rate of 30 m3/day the rise in fluoride concentration in ground water with respect to initial background concentration of fluoride is less than 10% at a distance above 600m from the injection source after 100 years. PMID:23505817

  6. Finding Balance Between Biological Groundwater Treatment and Treated Injection Water

    SciTech Connect

    Carlson, Mark A.; Nielsen, Kellin R.; Byrnes, Mark E.; Simmons, Sally A.; Morse, John J.; Geiger, James B.; Watkins, Louis E.; McFee, Phillip M.; Martins, K.

    2015-01-14

    At the U.S. Department of Energy’s Hanford Site, CH2M HILL Plateau Remediation Company operates the 200 West Pump and Treat which was engineered to treat radiological and chemical contaminants in groundwater as a result of the site’s former plutonium production years. Fluidized bed bioreactors (FBRs) are used to remove nitrate, metals, and volatile organic compounds. Increasing nitrate concentrations in the treatment plant effluent and the presence of a slimy biomass (a typical microorganism response to stress) in the FBRs triggered an investigation of nutrient levels in the system. Little, if any, micronutrient feed was coming into the bioreactors. Additionally, carbon substrate (used to promote biological growth) was passing through to the injection wells, causing biological fouling of the wells and reduced specific injectivity. Adjustments to the micronutrient feed improved microorganism health, but the micronutrients were being overfed (particularly manganese) plugging the injection wells further. Injection well rehabilitation to restore specific injectivity required repeated treatments to remove the biological fouling and precipitated metal oxides. A combination of sulfamic and citric acids worked well to dissolve metal oxides and sodium hypochlorite effectively removed the biological growth. Intensive surging and development techniques successfully removed clogging material from the injection wells. Ultimately, the investigation and nutrient adjustments took months to restore proper balance to the microbial system and over a year to stabilize injection well capacities. Carefully tracking and managing the FBRs and well performance monitoring are critical to balancing the needs of the treatment system while reducing fouling mechanisms in the injection wells.

  7. 40 CFR 60.4335 - How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... if I use water or steam injection? 60.4335 Section 60.4335 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection? (a) If you are using water or steam injection to... monitor and record the fuel consumption and the ratio of water or steam to fuel being fired in the...

  8. 40 CFR 60.4335 - How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... if I use water or steam injection? 60.4335 Section 60.4335 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection? (a) If you are using water or steam injection to... monitor and record the fuel consumption and the ratio of water or steam to fuel being fired in the...

  9. Deep injection of waste water in the Western Canada sedimentary basin.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Grant

    2015-01-01

    Injection of wastes into the deep subsurface has become a contentious issue, particularly in emerging regions of oil and gas production. Experience in other regions suggests that injection is an effective waste management practice and that widespread environmental damage is unlikely. Over the past several decades, 23 km(3) of water has been injected into the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin (WCSB). The oil and gas industry has injected most of this water but large amounts of injection are associated with mining activities. The amount of water injected into this basin during the past century is 2 to 3 orders magnitude greater than natural recharge to deep formations in the WCSB. Despite this large-scale disturbance to the hydrogeological system, there have been few documented cases of environmental problems related to injection wells. Deep injection of waste appears to be a low risk activity based on this experience but monitoring efforts are insufficient to make definitive statements. Serious uncharacterized legacy issues could be present. Initiating more comprehensive monitoring and research programs on the effects of injection in the WCSB could provide insight into the risks associated with injection in less developed sedimentary basins.

  10. Mechanical instability induced by water weakening in laboratory fluid injection tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, C.; Dautriat, J.; Sarout, J.; Delle Piane, C.; Menéndez, B.; Macault, R.; Bertauld, D.

    2015-06-01

    To assess water-weakening effects in reservoir rocks, previous experimental studies have focused on changes in the failure envelopes derived from mechanical tests conducted on rocks fully saturated either with water or with inert fluids. So far, little attention has been paid to the mechanical behavior during fluid injection under conditions similar to enhanced oil recovery operations. We studied the effect of fluid injection on the mechanical behavior of the weakly consolidated Sherwood sandstone in laboratory experiments. Our specimens were instrumented with 16 ultrasonic P wave transducers for both passive and active acoustic monitoring during loading and fluid injection to record the acoustic signature of fluid migration in the pore space and the development of damage. Calibration triaxial tests were conducted on three samples saturated with air, water, or oil. In a second series of experiments, water and inert oil were injected into samples critically loaded up to 80% or 70% of the dry or oil-saturated compressive strength, respectively, to assess the impact of fluid migration on mechanical strength and elastic properties. The fluids were injected with a low back pressure to minimize effective stress variations during injection. Our observations show that creep takes place with a much higher strain rate for water injection compared to oil injection. The most remarkable difference is that water injection in both dry and oil-saturated samples triggers mechanical instability (macroscopic failure) within half an hour whereas oil injection does not after several hours. The analysis of X-ray computed tomography images of postmortem samples revealed that the mechanical instability was probably linked to loss of cohesion in the water-invaded region.

  11. Drag reducing chemical enables increased sea water injection without increasing the oxygen corrosion rate

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, A.J.; Smith, P.S.; Lee, Y.

    1997-08-01

    Water soluble drag reducer chemicals have enabled significant increases in flow rates in many oilfield water injection systems. In some cases there is concern that this could lead to increased oxygen corrosion whenever the dissolved oxygen concentration strays above a typical injection target such as 20 ppb O{sub 2}. The effect of a chemical drag reducer on oxygen corrosion of carbon steel was examined in a large scale flow loop simulating a sea water injection line. Drag reduction (up to 48%) matched corrosion reduction (up to 39%). This means that drag reducer has a self compensating effect on oxygen corrosion: it permits higher flow rates without increasing the oxygen corrosion rate.

  12. Scale formation at various locations in a geothermal operation due to injection of imported waters

    SciTech Connect

    Vetter, O.J.; Kandarpa, V.

    1982-06-22

    The injection of waters that are not native to a geothermal formation generates various physical and chemical problems. The major chemical problem resulting from such injections is the formation of sulfate scales (particularly CaSO4, BaSO4 and SrSO4) at various locations starting from the injection well through the production well to the surface facilities of any geothermal operation. One of the ways to prevent this type of scale formation is by reducing the sulfate concentration of the injection waters. The effect of sulfate deionization on scale formation at various locations of the geothermal operations is studied. Some experimental results on the CaSO4 scale formation in porous media upon heating an injection water with and without addition of scale inhibitors are also given.

  13. Cerro Prieto cold water injection: effects on nearby production wells

    SciTech Connect

    Truesdell, A.H.; Lippmann, M.J.; De Leon, J.; Rodriguez, M.H.

    1999-07-01

    The liquid-dominated Cerro Prieto geothermal field of northern Baja California, Mexico has been under commercial exploitation since 1973. During the early years of operation, all waste brines were sent to an evaporation pond built west of the production area. In 1989, cooled pond brines began to be successfully injected into the reservoir along the western boundary of the geothermal system. The injection rate varied over the years, and is at present about 20% of the total fluid extracted. As expected under the continental desert conditions prevailing in the area, the temperature and salinity of the pond brines change with the seasons, being higher during the summer and lower during the winter. The chemistry of pond brines is also affected by precipitation of silica, oxidation of H{sub 2}S and reaction with airborne clays. Several production wells in the western part of the field (CP-I area) showed beneficial effects from injection. The chemical (chloride, isotopic) and physical (enthalpy, flow rate) changes observed in producers close to the injectors are reviewed. Some wells showed steam flow increases, in others steam flow decline rates flattened. Because of their higher density, injected brines migrated downward in the reservoir and showed up in deep wells.

  14. GROUND WATER ISSUE: STEAM INJECTION FOR SOIL AND AQUIFER REMEDIATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this Issue Paper is to provide to those involved in assessing remediation technologies for specific sites basic technical information on the use of steam injection for the remediation of soils and aquifers that are contaminated by volatile or semivolatile organic c...

  15. Insights into Cold Water Injection Stimulation Effects through Analytical Solutions to Flow and Heat Transport

    SciTech Connect

    M.A. Plummer

    2013-09-01

    Wells in traditional hydrothermal reservoirs are used to extract heat and to dispose of cooled water. In the first case, high productivity (the ratio of production flow rate to the pressure differential required to produce that rate) to is preferred in order to maximize power generation, while minimizing the parasitic energy loss of pumping. In the second case, high injectivity (the ratio of injection flow rate to the pressure differential required to produce that rate) is preferred, in order to reduce pumping costs. In order to improve productivity or injectivity, cold water is sometimes injected into the reservoir in an attempt to cool and contract the surrounding rock matrix and thereby induce dilation and/or extension of existing fractures or to generate new fractures. Though the increases in permeability associated with these changes are likely localized, by improving connectivity to more extensive high-permeability fractures they can at least temporarily provide substantially improved productivity or injectivity.

  16. Influence of Steam Injection and Water-in-Oil Emulsions on Diesel Fuel Combustion Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, Meagan

    Water injection can be an effective strategy for reducing NOx because water's high specific heat allows it to absorb heat and lower system temperatures. Introducing water as an emulsion can potentially be more effective at reducing emissions than steam injection due to physical properties (such as microexplosions) that can improve atomization and increase mixing. Unfortunately, the immiscibility of emulsions makes them difficult to work with so they must be mixed properly. In this effort, a method for adequately mixing surfactant-free emulsions was established and verified using high speed cinematography. As the water to fuel mass ratio (W/F) increased, emulsion atomization tests showed little change in droplet size and spray angle, but a shorter overall breakup point. Dual-wavelength planar laser induced fluorescence (D-PLIF) patternation showed an increase in water near the center of the spray. Steam injection flames saw little change in reaction stability, but emulsion flames experienced significant losses in stability that limited reaction operability at higher W/F. Emulsions were more effective at reducing NOx than steam injection, likely because of liquid water's latent heat of vaporization and the strategic injection of water into the flame core. OH* chemiluminescence showed a decrease in heat release for both methods, though the decrease was greater for emulsions. Both methods saw decreases in flame length for W/F 0.15. Lastly, flame imaging showed a shift towards a redder appearance with the addition or more water, as well as a reduction in flame flares.

  17. Simulation and experiment research on the proportional pressure control of water-assisted injection molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hua; Chen, Yinglong; Zhang, Zengmeng; Yang, Huayong

    2012-05-01

    Water-assisted injection molding (WAIM), a newly developed fluid-assisted injection molding technology has drawn more and more attentions for the energy saving, short cooling circle time and high quality of products. Existing research for the process of WAIM has shown that the pressure control of the injecting water is mostly important for the WAIM. However, the proportional pressure control for the WAIM system is quite complex due to the existence of nonlinearities in the water hydraulic system. In order to achieve better pressure control performance of the injecting water to meet the requirements of the WAIM, the proportional pressure control of the WAIM system is investigated both numerically and experimentally. A newly designed water hydraulic system for WAIM is first modeled in AMEsim environment, the load characteristics and the nonlinearities of water hydraulic system are both considered, then the main factors affecting the injecting pressure and load flow rate are extensively studied. Meanwhile, an open-loop model-based compensation control strategy is employed to regulate the water injection pressure and a feedback proportional integrator controller is further adopted to achieve better control performance. In order to verify the AMEsim simulation results WAIM experiment for particular Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS) parts is implemented and the measured experimental data including injecting pressure and flow rate results are compared with the simulation. The good coincidence between experiment and simulation shows that the AMEsim model is accurate, and the tracking performance of the load pressure indicates that the proposed control strategy is effective for the proportional pressure control of the nonlinear WAIM system. The proposed proportional pressure control strategy and the conclusions drawn from simulation and experiment contribute to the application of water hydraulic proportional control and WAIM technology.

  18. Experimental Investigation on Dilation Mechanisms of Land-Facies Karamay Oil Sand Reservoirs under Water Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Botao; Jin, Yan; Pang, Huiwen; Cerato, Amy B.

    2016-04-01

    The success of steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is strongly dependent on the formation of a homogeneous and highly permeable zone in the land-facies Karamay oil sand reservoirs. To accomplish this, hydraulic fracturing is applied through controlled water injection to a pair of horizontal wells to create a dilation zone between the dual wells. The mechanical response of the reservoirs during this injection process, however, has remained unclear for the land-facies oil sand that has a loosely packed structure. This research conducted triaxial, permeability and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) tests on the field-collected oil sand samples. The tests evaluated the influences of the field temperature, confining stress and injection pressure on the dilation mechanisms as shear dilation and tensile parting during injection. To account for petrophysical heterogeneity, five reservoir rocks including regular oil sand, mud-rich oil sand, bitumen-rich oil sand, mudstone and sandstone were investigated. It was found that the permeability evolution in the oil sand samples subjected to shear dilation closely followed the porosity and microcrack evolutions in the shear bands. In contrast, the mudstone and sandstone samples developed distinct shear planes, which formed preferred permeation paths. Tensile parting expanded the pore space and increased the permeability of all the samples in various degrees. Based on this analysis, it is concluded that the range of injection propagation in the pay zone determines the overall quality of hydraulic fracturing, while the injection pressure must be carefully controlled. A region in a reservoir has little dilation upon injection if it remains unsaturated. Moreover, a cooling of the injected water can strengthen the dilation potential of a reservoir. Finally, it is suggested that the numerical modeling of water injection in the Karamay oil sand reservoirs must take into account the volumetric plastic strain in hydrostatic loading.

  19. Construction of a Direct Water-Injected Two-Stroke Engine for Phased Direct Fuel Injection-High Pressure Charging Investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somsel, James P.

    1998-01-01

    The development of a water injected Orbital Combustion Process (OCP) engine was conducted to assess the viability of using the powerplant for high altitude NASA aircraft and General Aviation (GA) applications. An OCP direct fuel injected, 1.2 liter, three cylinder, two-stroke engine has been enhanced to independently inject water directly into the combustion chamber. The engine currently demonstrates low brake specific fuel consumption capability and an excellent power to weight ratio. With direct water injection, significant improvements can be made to engine power, to knock limits/ignition advance timing, and to engine NO(x) emissions. The principal aim of the testing was to validate a cyclic model developed by the Systems Analysis Branch at NASA Ames Research Center. The work is a continuation of Ames' investigations into a Phased Direct Fuel Injection Engine with High Pressure Charging (PDFI-ITPC).

  20. Turbine Inlet Analysis of Injected Water Droplet Behavior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargrave, Kevin

    Gas turbines have become widely used in the generation of power for cities. They are used all over the world and must operate under a wide variety of ambient conditions. Every turbine has a temperature at which it operates at peak capacity. In order to attain this temperature in the hotter months various cooling methods are used such as refrigeration inlet cooling systems, evaporative methods, and thermal energy storage systems. One of the more widely used is the evaporative systems because it is one of the safest and easiest to utilize method. However, the behavior of water droplets within the inlet to the turbine has not been extensively studied or documented. It is important to understand how the droplets behave within the inlet so that water droplets above a critical diameter will not enter the compressor and cause damage to the compressor blades. In order to do this a FLUENT simulation was constructed in order to determine the behavior of the water droplets and if any droplets remain at the exit of the inlet, along with their size. In order to do this several engineering drawings were obtained from SRP and studies in order to obtain the correct dimensions. Then the simulation was set up using data obtained from SRP and Parker-Hannifin, the maker of the spray nozzles. Then several sets of simulations were run in order to see how the water droplets behaved under various conditions. These results were then analyzed and quantified so that they could be easily understood. The results showed that the possible damage to the compressor increased with increasing temperature at a constant relative humidity. This is due in part to the fact that in order to keep a constant relative humidity at varying temperatures the mass fraction of water vapor in the air must be changed. As temperature increases the water vapor mass fraction must increase in order to maintain a constant relative humidity. This in turn makes it slightly increases the evaporation time of the water

  1. High-pressure water-gun injection injuries to the extremities. A report of six cases.

    PubMed

    Weltmer, J B; Pack, L L

    1988-09-01

    High-pressure water-gun injection injuries are different from injection injuries that are caused by other agents, in that they are associated with extensive subcutaneous emphysema but only slight soft-tissue inflammation or destruction. The cases of six patients who had such an injury were reviewed. It was found that local irrigation and débridement, together with a short course of penicillin or a broad-spectrum cephalosporin, resulted in complete recovery from this relatively benign variant of high-pressure injection injury. PMID:2901420

  2. High-pressure water-gun injection injuries to the extremities. A report of six cases.

    PubMed

    Weltmer, J B; Pack, L L

    1988-09-01

    High-pressure water-gun injection injuries are different from injection injuries that are caused by other agents, in that they are associated with extensive subcutaneous emphysema but only slight soft-tissue inflammation or destruction. The cases of six patients who had such an injury were reviewed. It was found that local irrigation and débridement, together with a short course of penicillin or a broad-spectrum cephalosporin, resulted in complete recovery from this relatively benign variant of high-pressure injection injury.

  3. Flow in a discrete slotted nozzle with massive injection. [water table tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, H. C.

    1974-01-01

    An experimental investigation has been conducted to determine the effect of massive wall injection on the flow characteristics in a slotted nozzle. Some of the experiments were performed on a water table with a slotted-nozzle test section. This has 45 deg and 15 deg half angles of convergence and divergence, respectively, throat radius of 2.5 inches, and throat width of 3 inches. The hydraulic analogy was employed to qualitatively extend the results to a compressible gas flow through the nozzle. Experimental results from the water table include contours of constant Froude and Mach number with and without injection. Photographic results are also presented for the injection through slots of CO2 and Freon-12 into a main-stream air flow in a convergent-divergent nozzle in a wind tunnel. Schlieren photographs were used to visualize the flow, and qualititative agreement between the results from the gas tunnel and water table is good.

  4. Assessment of ground water quality in a fractured aquifer under continue wastewater injection.

    PubMed

    Carrieri, C; Masciopinto, C

    2000-01-01

    Experimental studies have been carried out in a fractured coastal aquifer of the Salento Region (Nardò (Le), Italy), subject since 1991 to injection of 12,000 m3/d of treated municipal wastewater in a natural sink. The analytical parameters of ground water sampled in monitoring wells, have been compared before and after the injection started. The mound of water table (1.5 m), the reduction of seawater extent of 2 km and the spreading of pollutants injected were evaluated by means of mathematical model results. After ten years operation, the volume of the available resource for agricultural and drinking use has been increased, without notable decrease of the preexistent ground water quality. Moreover for preserving such resource from pollution, the mathematical model allowed the standards of wastewater quality for recharge to be identified. Around the sink, a restricted area was also defined with prohibition of withdrawals, to avoid infection and other risks on human health.

  5. A probabilistic assessment of waste water injection induced seismicity in central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goebel, T.; Hauksson, E.; Ampuero, J. P.; Aminzadeh, F.; Cappa, F.; Saleeby, J.

    2014-12-01

    The recent, large increase in seismic activity within the central and eastern U.S. may be connected to an increase in fluid injection activity since ~2001. Anomalous seismic sequences can easily be identified in regions with low background seismicity rates. Here, we analyze seismicity in plate boundary regions where tectonically-driven earthquake sequences are common, potentially masking injection-induced events. We show results from a comprehensive analysis of waste water disposal wells in Kern county, the largest oil-producing county in California. We focus on spatial-temporal correlations between seismic and injection activity and seismicity-density changes due to injection. We perform a probabilistic assessment of induced vs. tectonic earthquakes, which can be applied to different regions independent of background rates and may provide insights into the probability of inducing earthquakes as a function of injection parameters and local geological conditions. Our results show that most earthquakes are caused by tectonic forcing, however, waste water injection contributes to seismic activity in four different regions with several events above M4. The seismicity shows different migration characteristics relative to the injection sites, including linear and non-linear trends. The latter is indicative of diffusive processes which take advantage of reservoir properties and fault structures and can induce earthquakes at distances of up to 10 km. Our results suggest that injection-related triggering processes are complex, possibly involving creep, and delayed triggering. Pore-pressure diffusion may be more extensive in the presence of active faults and high-permeability damage zones thus altering the local seismic hazard in a non-linear fashion. As a consequence, generic "best-practices" for fluid injections like a maximum distance from the nearest active fault may not be sufficient to mitigate a potential seismic hazard increase.

  6. Laboratory investigations of compatibility of the Kuwait Group aquifer, Kuwait, with possible injection waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, A.; Al-Awadi, E.; Oskui, R.; Hadi, K.; Al-Ruwaih, F.; Turner, M.; Akber, A.

    2004-01-01

    A laboratory investigation of the compatibility of the Kuwait Group aquifer of Kuwait with desalinated seawater and reverse osmosis processed treated wastewater was carried out in anticipation of the artificial recharge of the aquifer in future. Even with the use of wax coating and freezing with liquid nitrogen, no core plugs could be extracted from the unconsolidated sections, and only the consolidated to semi-consolidated sections could be studied. The aquifer consists of silty and gravelly sand, and is often highly calcareous. The clay minerals present in the aquifer mostly belong to the montmorillonite and illite groups, with some palygorskite. Mercury injection porosimetry experiments on core plugs from the more cemented parts of the aquifer suggest that, to avoid significant clogging from suspended solids, particles down to a diameter of 8 μm should be filtered out of the injection water. Core flow experiments suggest that, for the samples examined, loss of permeability due to clay swelling is not very important. The blocking of pore throats by moving fines may be a more serious problem during injection. The geochemical simulation indicates that the possibility of scale formation when the injection waters come in contact with the Kuwait Group formation water is remote. Rather, there is a possibility of dissolution of carbonate minerals in the aquifer in contact with the injection waters.

  7. Water injection into vapor- and liquid-dominated reservoirs: Modeling of heat transfer and mass transport

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, K.; Oldenburg, C.; Moridis, G.; Finsterle, S.

    1997-12-31

    This paper summarizes recent advances in methods for simulating water and tracer injection, and presents illustrative applications to liquid- and vapor-dominated geothermal reservoirs. High-resolution simulations of water injection into heterogeneous, vertical fractures in superheated vapor zones were performed. Injected water was found to move in dendritic patterns, and to experience stronger lateral flow effects than predicted from homogeneous medium models. Higher-order differencing methods were applied to modeling water and tracer injection into liquid-dominated systems. Conventional upstream weighting techniques were shown to be adequate for predicting the migration of thermal fronts, while higher-order methods give far better accuracy for tracer transport. A new fluid property module for the TOUGH2 simulator is described which allows a more accurate description of geofluids, and includes mineral dissolution and precipitation effects with associated porosity and permeability change. Comparisons between numerical simulation predictions and data for laboratory and field injection experiments are summarized. Enhanced simulation capabilities include a new linear solver package for TOUGH2, and inverse modeling techniques for automatic history matching and optimization.

  8. Direct injection of water vapor into the stratosphere by volcanic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sioris, Christopher E.; Malo, Alain; McLinden, Chris A.; D'Amours, Real

    2016-07-01

    While theoretical studies show that water vapor (WV) can be directly injected into the stratosphere during a volcanic eruption, few observations of such a phenomenon exist. The Microwave Limb Sounder observed stratospheric injection of WV following the 2015 Calbuco eruption. Lower stratospheric mixing ratios exceeded 10 ppmv for a few days downwind of the injection location. Plume transport is confirmed by back trajectory modeling. Due to the short duration and limited spatial extent of the enhancement, climatic impact is expected to be negligible. This letter provides spatiotemporal analysis of a volcanogenic pulse of lower stratospheric WV as it dispersed. The inferred mass of stratospheric WV from this eruption of 2 megaton (Mt) and the rapid evanescence of the enhancement are similar to what has been observed for other eruptions, suggesting that injection by moderately explosive eruptions is not an effective mechanism for large-scale stratospheric hydration.

  9. Can Water-Injected Turbomachines Provide Cost-Effective Emissions and Maintenance Reductions?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Daggett, David L.; Shouse, Dale T.; Roquemore, William M.; Brankovic, Andreja; Ryder, Robert C., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    An investigation has been performed to evaluate the effect of water injection on the performance of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL, Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB)) experimental trapped vortex combustor (TVC) over a range of fuel-to-air and water-to-fuel ratios. Performance is characterized by combustor exit quantities: temperature and emissions measurements using rakes, and overall pressure drop, from upstream plenum to combustor exit. Combustor visualization is performed using gray-scale and color still photographs and high-frame-rate videos. A parallel investigation evaluated the performance of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for the prediction of the reacting flow in a liquid fueled combustor (e.g., TVC) that uses water injection for control of pollutant emissions and turbine inlet temperature. Generally, reasonable agreement is found between data and NO(x) computations. Based on a study assessing the feasibility and performance impact of using water injection on a Boeing 747-400 aircraft to reduce NO(x) emissions during takeoff, retrofitting does not appear to be cost effective; however, an operator of a newly designed engine and airframe might be able to save up to 1.0 percent in operating costs. Other challenges of water injection will be discussed.

  10. Numerical studies of cold water injection into vapor-dominated geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, C.H; Bodvarsson, G.S.

    1991-01-01

    Recent reservoir pressure and steam flow rate declines at The Geysers geothermal field in California have attracted interest in studies of increased cold water injection into this system. In this paper, numerical studies of such injection into a fractured vapor-dominated reservoir are conducted using a two-dimensional radial, double-porosity model. The results obtained indicate that cold water injection into superheated (low-pressure) zones will greatly enhance the productivities of steam wells. Injection into two-phase zones with significant liquid reserves in the matrix blocks does not appear to aid in steam recovery until most of the original liquid reserves are depleted. Sensitivity studies are conducted over the range of fracture and matrix permeabilities applicable to the Geysers. The sensitivity of the grid size is also conducted, and shows very large grid effects. A fine vertical space discretization near the bottom of the reservoir is necessary to accurately predict the boiling of the injected water. 28 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  11. Computer program calculates peripheral water injection cooling of axisymmetric subsonic diffuser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grey, J.

    1968-01-01

    Digital computer program calculates the cooling effectiveness and flow characteristics resulting from the mixing of a cool liquid injectant /water/ with a hot sonic or subsonic gas stream /hydrogen/. The output of the program provides pressure, temperature, velocity, density, composition, and Mach number profiles at any location in the mixing duct.

  12. Evaluation of Direct Aqueous Injection Method for Analysis of Chloroform in Drinking Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pfaender, Frederic K.; And Others

    1978-01-01

    A direct aqueous injection (DAI) technique was compared with the purge method for chloroform measurement in drinking water. The DAI method gave consistently higher values for chloroform than the purge method. The results indicated the need for caution in the interpretation of chloroform and other trihalomethane values generated by DAI. (Author/MA)

  13. Assessment of electrical conductivity as a surrogate measurement for water samples in a tracer injection experiment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transport behavior of solutes in streams depends on chemical, physical, biological, and hydrodynamic processes. Although it is a very complex system, it is known that this behavior is greatly influenced by surface and subsurface flows. For this reason, tracer injection in the water flows is one ...

  14. Estimation of Broadband Shock Noise Reduction in Turbulent Jets by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Lonerjan, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    The concept of effective jet properties introduced by the authors (AIAA-2007-3645) has been extended to the estimation of broadband shock noise reduction by water injection in supersonic jets. Comparison of the predictions with the test data for cold underexpanded supersonic nozzles shows a satisfactory agreement. The results also reveal the range of water mass flow rates over which saturation of mixing noise reduction and existence of parasitic noise are manifest.

  15. Is There Evidence of Convectively Injected Water Vapor in the Lowermost Stratosphere Over Boulder, Colorado?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurst, D. F.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Davis, S. M.; Hall, E. G.; Jordan, A. F.

    2014-12-01

    Anderson et al. (2012) reported the frequent presence of convectively injected water vapor in the lowermost stratosphere over North America during summertime, based on aircraft measurements. They asserted that enhanced catalytic ozone destruction within these wet stratospheric air parcels presents a concern for UV dosages in populated areas, especially if the frequency of deep convective events increases. Schwartz et al.(2013) analyzed 8 years of more widespread Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) measurements of lower stratospheric water vapor over North America and concluded that anomalously wet (>8 ppm) air parcels were present only 2.5% of the time during July and August. However, given the 3-km vertical resolution of MLS water vapor retrievals in the lowermost stratosphere, thin wet layers deposited by overshooting convection may be present but not readily detectable by MLS. Since 1980 the balloon-borne NOAA frost point hygrometer (FPH) has produced nearly 400 high quality water vapor profiles over Boulder, Colorado, at 5-m vertical resolution from the surface to the middle stratosphere. The 34-year record of high-resolution FPH profiles obtained over Boulder during summer months is evaluated for evidence of convectively injected water vapor in the lowermost stratosphere. A number of approaches are used to assess the contributions of deep convection to the Boulder stratospheric water vapor record. The results are compared to those based on MLS profiles over Boulder and the differences are discussed. Anderson, J. G., D. M. Wilmouth, J. B. Smith, and D. S. Sayres (2012), UV dosage levels in summer: Increased risk of ozone loss from convectively injected water vapor, Science, 337(6096), 835-839, doi:10.1126/science.1222978. Schwartz, M. J., W. G. Read, M. L. Santee, N. J. Livesey, L. Froidevaux, A. Lambert, and G. L. Manney (2013), Convectively injected water vapor in the North American summer lowermost stratosphere, Geophys. Res. Lett., 40, 2316-2321, doi:10

  16. The relationship analysis between water injection and microfacies of SHA1 reservoir of Liao He Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Lu, Zhanguo; Guo, Shiguang; Wang, Chao

    2014-01-01

    SHA1 is the representative reservoir in Liao He Basin. Through the introduction of curvature displayed on the gray scale, we determine the substructure and fractures. Geostatistical inversion method is used to help study the porosity of reservoir. The relationship between interval transit times and resistivity among mudstone and sandstone, before and after water injection, is analyzed. The relationship between porosity and permeability and the relationship between porosity and impedance from core analysis were studied. Through the whole information above, we divide the microfacies of SHA1 reservoir to distributary channel, mouth bar, the leading edge thin sand, and prodelta mud. The water injections in different microfacies are studied. The distributary channel should be used by large distant injection wells or smaller injection pressure injection. The smaller distant injection wells or large injection pressure should be used in the mouth bar. The arrangement of well injection need consider the different sedimentary microfacies.

  17. The relationship analysis between water injection and microfacies of SHA1 reservoir of Liao He Basin, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qing; Lu, Zhanguo; Guo, Shiguang; Wang, Chao

    2014-01-01

    SHA1 is the representative reservoir in Liao He Basin. Through the introduction of curvature displayed on the gray scale, we determine the substructure and fractures. Geostatistical inversion method is used to help study the porosity of reservoir. The relationship between interval transit times and resistivity among mudstone and sandstone, before and after water injection, is analyzed. The relationship between porosity and permeability and the relationship between porosity and impedance from core analysis were studied. Through the whole information above, we divide the microfacies of SHA1 reservoir to distributary channel, mouth bar, the leading edge thin sand, and prodelta mud. The water injections in different microfacies are studied. The distributary channel should be used by large distant injection wells or smaller injection pressure injection. The smaller distant injection wells or large injection pressure should be used in the mouth bar. The arrangement of well injection need consider the different sedimentary microfacies. PMID:24672345

  18. The Relationship Analysis between Water Injection and Microfacies of SHA1 Reservoir of Liao He Basin, China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing; Lu, Zhanguo; Guo, Shiguang; Wang, Chao

    2014-01-01

    SHA1 is the representative reservoir in Liao He Basin. Through the introduction of curvature displayed on the gray scale, we determine the substructure and fractures. Geostatistical inversion method is used to help study the porosity of reservoir. The relationship between interval transit times and resistivity among mudstone and sandstone, before and after water injection, is analyzed. The relationship between porosity and permeability and the relationship between porosity and impedance from core analysis were studied. Through the whole information above, we divide the microfacies of SHA1 reservoir to distributary channel, mouth bar, the leading edge thin sand, and prodelta mud. The water injections in different microfacies are studied. The distributary channel should be used by large distant injection wells or smaller injection pressure injection. The smaller distant injection wells or large injection pressure should be used in the mouth bar. The arrangement of well injection need consider the different sedimentary microfacies. PMID:24672345

  19. Simulation of altering residual water saturation near wellbore for CO2 injectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Y.; Lee, T.; Lee, S.; Park, K.

    2014-12-01

    Volumetric CO2 storage capacity in brine aquifers is one of the most important factor for large scale CCS projects. The maximum sustainable injection rate or the injectivity is another important criterion which is dependent on many reservoir specific properties including permeability, porosity, formation thickness, areal extent, pressure and relative permeability. Among those parameters, we focused on the residual wetting phase saturation expressed in relative permeability curve. From previous experiments, residual brine saturation is typically between 0.4 and 0.6. Higher displacement efficiency cannot be expected with those values because the displacement efficiency is inversely proportional to the residual oil saturation. Also, it is natural that the end-point relative permeability for CO2 should be low. The reason is that the high CO2-brine interfacial tension disturbs CO2 invasion into small pores. In this study, chemical flooding was assumed with surfactants or intermediate fluid which is miscible with both water and CO2 to reduce the interfacial tension. We didn't use the chemicals to improve the displacement efficiency all over the field but intend to improve the injectivity at least near the wellbore region swept by the chemicals. Once lower residual brine saturation was achieved, the higher CO2 saturation could be maintained and the better CO2 injectivity was shown. Injection tests using a commercial model showed that the increase of the injectivity was not very high but the enhancement was meaningful.

  20. Ground-Water Nutrient Flux to Coastal Waters and Numerical Simulation of Wastewater Injection at Kihei, Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Charles D.

    2007-01-01

    Water sampling and numerical modeling were used to estimate ground-water nutrient fluxes in the Kihei area of Maui, where growth of macroalgae (seaweed) on coral reefs raises ecologic concerns and accumulation on beaches has caused odor and removal problems. Fluxes and model results are highly approximate, first-order estimates because very few wells were sampled and there are few field data to constrain model calibration. Ground-water recharge was estimated to be 22.6 Mgal/d (million gallons per day) within a 73-square-mile area having a coastline length of 8 miles or 13 km (kilometers). Nearly all of the recharge discharges at the coast because ground-water withdrawals are small. Another 3.0 Mgal/d of tertiary-treated wastewater effluent is injected into the regional aquifer at a County treatment plant midway along the coast and about a mile from shore. The injection plume is 0.93 miles wide (1.5 km) at the shore, as estimated from a three-dimensional numerical ground-water model. Wastewater injected beneath the brackish ground-water lens rises buoyantly and spreads out at the top of the lens, diverting and mixing with ambient ground water. Ground water discharging from the core of the injection plume is less than 5 years old and is about 60 percent effluent at the shore, according to the model. Dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations in treated effluent were 7.33 and 1.72 milligrams per liter, roughly 6 and 26 times background concentrations at an upgradient well. Background nitrogen and phosphorus fluxes carried by ground water are 7.7 and 0.44 kg/d-km (kilograms per day per kilometer of coast). Injected wastewater fluxes distributed across the plume width are 55 and 13 kg/d-km nitrogen and phosphorus, roughly 7 and 30 times background flux. However, not all of the injected load reaches coastal waters because nutrients are naturally attenuated in the oxygen-depleted effluent plume. Water from a downgradient well reflects this attenuation and provides a

  1. Assessment of nitrification potential in ground water using short term, single-well injection experiments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, R.L.; Baumgartner, L.K.; Miller, D.N.; Repert, D.A.; Böhlke, J.K.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrification was measured within a sand and gravel aquifer on Cape Cod, MA, using a series of single-well injection tests. The aquifer contained a wastewater-derived contaminant plume, the core of which was anoxic and contained ammonium. The study was conducted near the downgradient end of the ammonium zone, which was characterized by inversely trending vertical gradients of oxygen (270 to 0 ??M) and ammonium (19 to 625 ??M) and appeared to be a potentially active zone for nitrification. The tests were conducted by injecting a tracer solution (ambient ground water + added constituents) into selected locations within the gradients using multilevel samplers. After injection, the tracers moved by natural ground water flow and were sampled with time from the injection port. Rates of nitrification were determined from changes in nitrate and nitrite concentration relative to bromide. Initial tests were conducted with 15N-enriched ammonium; subsequent tests examined the effect of adding ammonium, nitrite, or oxygen above background concentrations and of adding difluoromethane, a nitrification inhibitor. In situ net nitrate production exceeded net nitrite production by 3- to 6- fold and production rates of both decreased in the presence of difluoromethane. Nitrification rates were 0.02-0.28 ??mol (L aquifer)-1 h-1 with in situ oxygen concentrations and up to 0.81 ??mol (L aquifer)-1 h-1 with non-limiting substrate concentrations. Geochemical considerations indicate that the rates derived from single-well injection tests yielded overestimates of in situ rates, possibly because the injections promoted small-scale mixing within a transport-limited reaction zone. Nonetheless, these tests were useful for characterizing ground water nitrification in situ and for comparing potential rates of activity when the tracer cloud included non-limiting ammonium and oxygen concentrations. ?? Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005.

  2. Control of oscillations and NOx concentrations in ducted premixed flames by spray injection of water

    SciTech Connect

    Sivasegaram, S.; Tsai, R.F.; Whitelaw, J.H.

    1995-12-31

    The antinodal rms pressure fluctuations of a ducted premixed flame has been reduced from 9 to 1.75 kPa by pulsed injection of water with heat removal of less than 3% of the total heat release of 150 kW. A corresponding benefit was the reduction in NO{sub x} emissions from 65 to 30 ppm. Several control strategies were considered and active control based on the oscillation of injection at the same phase as that of the oscillations was found to provide the best combination of attenuation and NO{sub x} reduction.

  3. Feasibility Study of Non-Radioactive Tracers for Monitoring Injected Water in Oil Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawamura, H.; Nishimura, K.; Mituishi, H.; Muta, T.; Schweitzer, J. S.

    This paper discusses the results of analyses conducted on non-radioactive tracers that can be used in combination with the sea water injected into a well for monitoring the water permeating through the oil reservoir by a nuclear logging tool utilizing a pulsed neutron generator. The model of the pulsed neutron tool is constructed to permit Monte Carlo Simulations to be performed of the tool response to the presence of non-radioactive tracers to achieve a desirable level of the neutron absorbing cross sections in the sea water injected into and permeating through the oil reservoirs. Sensitivity analyses of the tool response of the nuclear logging tool were performed for two types of non-radioactive tracers, ammonium tetraborate and gadolinium chloride.

  4. Inactivation of Bacteria in Oil Field Injected Water by a Pulsed Plasma Discharge Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xin, Qing; Li, Zhongjian; Lei, Lecheng; Yang, Bin

    2016-09-01

    Pulsed plasma discharge was employed to inactivate bacteria in the injection water for an oil field. The effects of water conductivity and initial concentration of bacteria on elimination efficiency were investigated in the batch and continuous flow modes. It was demonstrated that Fe2+ contained in injection water could enhance the elimination efficiency greatly. The addition of reducing agent glutathione (GSH) indicated that active radicals generated by pulsed plasma discharges played an important role in the inactivation of bacteria. Moreover, it was found that the microbial inactivation process for both batch and continuous flow mode well fitted the model based on the Weibull's survival function. supported by Zhejiang Province Welfare Technology Applied Research Project of China (No. 2014C31137), National Natural Science Foundation of China (Nos. 21436007 and U1462201), and the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities of China (No. 2015QNA4032)

  5. Detecting total toxicity in water using a mediated biosensor system with flow injection.

    PubMed

    Yong, Daming; Liu, Changyu; Zhu, Chengzhou; Yu, Dengbin; Liu, Ling; Zhai, Junfeng; Dong, Shaojun

    2015-11-01

    A novel total toxicity detection method based on a mediated biosensor system with flow injection (MB-FI) was developed to rapidly and reliably detect respiration inhibitors (i.e., As2O3, KCN, salicylic acid (SA), 2,4-dintirophenol (DNP)) in water. The mediated biosensor toxicity assessment using microorganisms immobilized in calcium alginate filaments can greatly simplify the testing process and save time. In the MB-FI system, ferricyanide together with a respiration inhibitor was injected into the bioreactor, inhibiting the respiration of the immobilized microorganisms. The degree of inhibition was measured by determining the ferrocyanide generated in the effluent, expressed as the 50% inhibition concentration (IC50). The IC50 values for the four respiration inhibitors obtained using this method were comparable to those obtained using the classic method, confirming that this approach is an alternative alert method. More importantly, this constructed biosensor system with flow injection will facilitate the application and commercialization of this toxicity monitoring technology.

  6. UV dosage levels in summer: increased risk of ozone loss from convectively injected water vapor.

    PubMed

    Anderson, James G; Wilmouth, David M; Smith, Jessica B; Sayres, David S

    2012-08-17

    The observed presence of water vapor convectively injected deep into the stratosphere over the United States can fundamentally change the catalytic chlorine/bromine free-radical chemistry of the lower stratosphere by shifting total available inorganic chlorine into the catalytically active free-radical form, ClO. This chemical shift markedly affects total ozone loss rates and makes the catalytic system extraordinarily sensitive to convective injection into the mid-latitude lower stratosphere in summer. Were the intensity and frequency of convective injection to increase as a result of climate forcing by the continued addition of CO(2) and CH(4) to the atmosphere, increased risk of ozone loss and associated increases in ultraviolet dosage would follow.

  7. Effect of water injection on nitric oxide emissions of a gas turbine combustor burning natural gas fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    The effect of direct water injection on the exhaust gas emissions of a turbojet combustor burning natural gas fuel was investigated. The results are compared with the results from similar tests using ASTM Jet-A fuel. Increasing water injection decreased the emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOX) and increased the emissions of carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons. The greatest percentage decrease in NOX with increasing water injection was at the lowest inlet-air temperature tested. The effect of increasing inlet-air temperature was to decrease the effect of the water injection. The reduction in NOX due to water injection was almost identical to the results obtained with Jet-A fuel. However, the emission indices of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and percentage nitric oxide in NOX were not.

  8. Water Misting and Injection of Commercial Aircraft Engines to Reduce Airport NOx

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daggett, David L.; Hendricks, Robert C. (Technical Monitor)

    2004-01-01

    This report provides the first high level look at system design, airplane performance, maintenance, and cost implications of using water misting and water injection technology in aircraft engines for takeoff and climb-out NOx emissions reduction. With an engine compressor inlet water misting rate of 2.2 percent water-to-air ratio, a 47 percent NOx reduction was calculated. Combustor water injection could achieve greater reductions of about 85 percent, but with some performance penalties. For the water misting system on days above 59 F, a fuel efficiency benefit of about 3.5 percent would be experienced. Reductions of up to 436 F in turbine inlet temperature were also estimated, which could lead to increased hot section life. A 0.61 db noise reduction will occur. A nominal airplane weight penalty of less than 360 lb (no water) was estimated for a 305 passenger airplane. The airplane system cost is initially estimated at $40.92 per takeoff giving an attractive NOx emissions reduction cost/benefit ratio of about $1,663/ton.

  9. Understanding and Quantifying Controls of Arsenic Mobility during Deepwell Re-injection of CSG Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, J. A.; Rathi, B.; Prommer, H.; Donn, M.; Siade, A. J.; Berg, M.

    2014-12-01

    In Australia, the injection of reverse-osmosis treated production water from coal seams into the surrounding, deep aquifers may provide the most viable method to dispose of large quantities of production water. The geochemical disequilibrium between the injectant water composition and the target aquifer can potentially drive a range of water-sediment interactions that must be clearly understood and quantified in order to anticipate and manage future water quality changes at both the local and regional scale. In this study, we use a multi-scale geochemical characterisation of a proposed reinjection site in combination with geochemical/reactive transport modeling to understand and predict the long-term fate of arsenic; and explore means for suitably mitigating an undesired increase of naturally occurring arsenic concentrations. We use a series of arsenic sorption experiments with the aquifer material from an injection trial site in Queensland, Australia to quantify As sorption/desorption from mineral surfaces in response to changes in site-specific geochemical conditions. Batch experiments with arsenite were performed under anoxic conditions to replicate the highly reducing in-situ conditions. The results showed significant arsenic mobility at pH >8. Competitive sorption effects with phosphate and the impact of varying temperatures were also tested in batch mode. A site-specific general composite (GC) surface complexation model (SCM) was derived through inverse geochemical modeling, i.e., selection of appropriate surface complexation reactions and optimization of sorption constants. The SCM was subsequently tested and further improved during the interpretation of data from column flow-through experiments and from a field injection trial. Eventually the uncertainty associated with estimates of sorption constants was addressed and the effects of this uncertainty on field-scale model predictions were analyzed.

  10. Toxicity of methylmercury injected into eggs when dissolved in water versus corn oil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heinz, G.H.; Hoffman, D.J.; Klimstra, J.D.; Stebbins, K.R.; Kondrad, S.L.

    2011-01-01

    In a previous study, the embryotoxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil was compared among 26 species of birds. Corn oil is not soluble in the water-based matrix that constitutes the albumen of an egg. To determine whether the use of corn oil limited the usefulness of this earlier study, a comparison was made of the embryotoxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil versus water. Mallard (Anas platyrhynchos) and chicken (Gallus gallus) eggs were injected with methylmercury chloride dissolved in corn oil or water to achieve concentrations of 0, 0.2, 0.4, 0.8, and 1.6??g/g mercury in the egg on a wet weight basis. Hatching success at each dose of mercury was compared between the two solvents. For mallards, 16.4% of the eggs injected with 1.6??g/g mercury dissolved in water hatched, which was statistically lower than the 37.6% hatch rate of eggs injected with 1.6??g/g mercury dissolved in corn oil, but no differences in hatching success were observed between corn oil and water at any of the other doses. With chicken eggs, no significant differences occurred in percentage hatch of eggs between corn oil and water at any of the mercury doses. Methylmercury dissolved in corn oil seems to have a toxicity to avian embryos similar to that of does methylmercury dissolved in water. Consequently, the results from the earlier study that described the toxicity of methylmercury dissolved in corn oil to avian embryos were probably not compromised by the use of corn oil as a solvent. ?? 2011 SETAC.

  11. Contingency power for a small turboshaft engine by using water injection into turbine cooling air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Klann, Gary A.

    1992-01-01

    Because of one-engine-inoperative (OEI) requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot-day, high-altitude take-off situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation by using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stress is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

  12. Contingency power for small turboshaft engines using water injection into turbine cooling air

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Biesiadny, Thomas J.; Berger, Brett; Klann, Gary A.; Clark, David A.

    1987-01-01

    Because of one engine inoperative requirements, together with hot-gas reingestion and hot day, high altitude takeoff situations, power augmentation for multiengine rotorcraft has always been of critical interest. However, power augmentation using overtemperature at the turbine inlet will shorten turbine life unless a method of limiting thermal and mechanical stresses is found. A possible solution involves allowing the turbine inlet temperature to rise to augment power while injecting water into the turbine cooling air to limit hot-section metal temperatures. An experimental water injection device was installed in an engine and successfully tested. Although concern for unprotected subcomponents in the engine hot section prevented demonstration of the technique's maximum potential, it was still possible to demonstrate increases in power while maintaining nearly constant turbine rotor blade temperature.

  13. Coal-water slurry spray characteristics of an electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caton, J.A.; Payne, S.E.; Terracina, D.P.; Kihm, K.D.

    1993-12-31

    Experiments have been complete to characterize coal-water slurry sprays from a electronically-controlled accumulator fuel injection system of diesel engine. The sprays were injected into a pressurized chamber equipped with windows. High speed movies, fuel pressures and needle lifts were obtained as a function of time, orifice diameter, coal loading, gas density in the chamber, and accumulator fuel pressure. For the base conditions 50% (by mass) coal loading, 0.4 mm diameter nozzle hole, coal-water slurry pressure of 82 MPa (12,000 psi), and a chamber density of 25 kg/m{sup 3}, the break-up time was 0. 30 ms. An empirical correlation for both spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity was developed. For the conditions of this study, the spray tip penetration and initial jet velocity were 15% greater for coal-water slurry than for diesel fuel or water. Cone angles of the sprays were dependent on the operating conditions and fluid, as well as the time and locations of the measurement. The time-averaged cone angle for the base case conditions was 13.6{degree}. Results of this study and the correlation are specific to the tested coal-water slurry and are not general for other coal-water slurry fuels.

  14. Ground-water quality and trends at two industrial wastewater-injection sites in northwestern Florida, 1975-91

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Andrews, W.J.

    1994-01-01

    Industrial wastewater from two synthetic-fiber manufacturing plants has been injected into the Lower Floridan aquifer near Pensacola, Florida, since 1963, and near Milton, Florida, since 1975. Trend analysis of selected water-quality characteristics in water from four monitoring wells at each of these plants indicates that injected wastewater has affected ground-water quality in the Lower Floridan aquifer, which contains nonpotable water, up to 1.5 miles from the injection wells at the plant near Pensacola and at least 0.3 mile from the injection wells at the plant near Milton. No evidence for upward seepage of injected wastewater through the overlying Bucatunna Clay to the Upper Floridan aquifer was found at either of the plants.

  15. Numerical investigation of CAI Combustion in the Opposed- Piston Engine with Direct and Indirect Water Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyszczek, R.; Mazuro, P.; Teodorczyk, A.

    2016-09-01

    This paper is focused on the CAI combustion control in a turbocharged 2-stroke Opposed-Piston (OP) engine. The barrel type OP engine arrangement is of particular interest for the authors because of its robust design, high mechanical efficiency and relatively easy incorporation of a Variable Compression Ratio (VCR). The other advantage of such design is that combustion chamber is formed between two moving pistons - there is no additional cylinder head to be cooled which directly results in an increased thermal efficiency. Furthermore, engine operation in a Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) mode at high compression ratios (CR) raises a possibility of reaching even higher efficiencies and very low emissions. In order to control CAI combustion such measures as VCR and water injection were considered for indirect ignition timing control. Numerical simulations of the scavenging and combustion processes were performed with the 3D CFD multipurpose AVL Fire solver. Numerous cases were calculated with different engine compression ratios and different amounts of directly and indirectly injected water. The influence of the VCR and water injection on the ignition timing and engine performance was determined and their application in the real engine was discussed.

  16. Effects of Water Injection into Fractured Geothermal Reservoirs: A Summary of Experience Worldwide

    SciTech Connect

    Horne, Roland N.

    1982-06-01

    Reinjection of water into fractured geothermal reservoirs holds potential both for improvement and degradation of total energy recovery. The replacement of reservoir fluid can mean support of placement of reservoir pressures and also more efficient thermal energy recovery, but at the same time the premature invasion of reinjected water back into production wells through high permeability fractures can reduce discharge enthalpy and hence deliverability and useful energy output. Increases in reservoir pressure and maintenance of field output have been observed in operating fields, but unfortunately so too have premature thermal breakthroughs. The design of reinjection schemes, therefore, requires careful investigation into the likely effects, using field experimentation. This paper summarizes field experience with reinjection around the world, with the intention of elucidating characteristics of possible problems. The results summarized in this paper fall into three categories of interest: permeability changes dye to injection (both increases and decreases); the path followed by injected water (as indicated by tracer tests); and the thermal and hydraulic influences of injection on the reinjection well itself and on surrounding producers. [DJE-2005

  17. Median Nerve Injury Due to High-Pressure Water Jet Injection: A Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Emre, Ufuk; Unal, Aysun

    2009-08-01

    High-pressure injuries that occur accidentally are potentially destructive injuries that often affect the nondominant hands of young men. A variety of products such as paint, gasoline, grease, fuel oil, cement, thinner and solvents have been reported as destructive agents. High-pressure water jet injection injuries to soft tissues have rarely been reported. In this study, we present the first case of median nerve injury due to high-pressure water jet injection by a water spray gun. PMID:26815059

  18. Automatic estimation of aquifer parameters using long-term water supply pumping and injection records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Ning; Illman, Walter A.

    2016-09-01

    Analyses are presented of long-term hydrographs perturbed by variable pumping/injection events in a confined aquifer at a municipal water-supply well field in the Region of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada). Such records are typically not considered for aquifer test analysis. Here, the water-level variations are fingerprinted to pumping/injection rate changes using the Theis model implemented in the WELLS code coupled with PEST. Analyses of these records yield a set of transmissivity ( T) and storativity ( S) estimates between each monitoring and production borehole. These individual estimates are found to poorly predict water-level variations at nearby monitoring boreholes not used in the calibration effort. On the other hand, the geometric means of the individual T and S estimates are similar to those obtained from previous pumping tests conducted at the same site and adequately predict water-level variations in other boreholes. The analyses reveal that long-term municipal water-level records are amenable to analyses using a simple analytical solution to estimate aquifer parameters. However, uniform parameters estimated with analytical solutions should be considered as first rough estimates. More accurate hydraulic parameters should be obtained by calibrating a three-dimensional numerical model that rigorously captures the complexities of the site with these data.

  19. Simple flow injection colorimetric system for determination of paraquat in natural water.

    PubMed

    Chuntib, Prakit; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2015-11-01

    A simple and low cost flow injection colorimetric system has been developed for determination of paraquat in natural water. The developed method is based on the reduction of paraquat by using sodium dithionite as a reducing agent in an alkaline medium to produce a blue free radical ion that can be detected by a simple light emitting diode-light dependent resistor (LED-LDR) colorimeter. The standard or sample solution was injected via a set of 3-way solenoid valves into a water carrier stream and flowed to merge with reagent to generate a colored product which is proportional to the concentration of paraquat ion in the solution. Under the optimum condition of the system, i.e., mixing coil length 30 cm, flow rate 2.0 mL min(-1), sample volume 100 μL, concentrations of dithionite 0.1% (w/v) and sodium hydroxide 0.06 mol L(-1), a linear calibration graph in the range of 0.2-10.0 mg L(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996, and a limit of detection of 0.15 mg L(-1) were achieved. Relative standard deviation for 9 replicate injections of 1 mg L(-1) paraquat is 3.7%. A sample throughput of 40 injections h(-1) was achieved. The limit of detection can be improved by off-line preconcentration of paraquat employing a column packed with Dowex 50WX8-100 (H) cation exchange resin and eluted with 10% (w/v) ammonium chloride in ammonium buffer solution pH 10. The eluting solution was then injected into the FI system for paraquat determination. The proposed system did not suffer from interferences of some possible ions in natural water and other herbicides. Recoveries obtained by spiking 0.5 and 5.0 mg L(-1) paraquat standard into water samples were in the range of 104-110% and 101-105%, respectively. The developed system can be conveniently applied for screening of paraquat contaminated in natural water.

  20. Simple flow injection colorimetric system for determination of paraquat in natural water.

    PubMed

    Chuntib, Prakit; Jakmunee, Jaroon

    2015-11-01

    A simple and low cost flow injection colorimetric system has been developed for determination of paraquat in natural water. The developed method is based on the reduction of paraquat by using sodium dithionite as a reducing agent in an alkaline medium to produce a blue free radical ion that can be detected by a simple light emitting diode-light dependent resistor (LED-LDR) colorimeter. The standard or sample solution was injected via a set of 3-way solenoid valves into a water carrier stream and flowed to merge with reagent to generate a colored product which is proportional to the concentration of paraquat ion in the solution. Under the optimum condition of the system, i.e., mixing coil length 30 cm, flow rate 2.0 mL min(-1), sample volume 100 μL, concentrations of dithionite 0.1% (w/v) and sodium hydroxide 0.06 mol L(-1), a linear calibration graph in the range of 0.2-10.0 mg L(-1) with a correlation coefficient of 0.9996, and a limit of detection of 0.15 mg L(-1) were achieved. Relative standard deviation for 9 replicate injections of 1 mg L(-1) paraquat is 3.7%. A sample throughput of 40 injections h(-1) was achieved. The limit of detection can be improved by off-line preconcentration of paraquat employing a column packed with Dowex 50WX8-100 (H) cation exchange resin and eluted with 10% (w/v) ammonium chloride in ammonium buffer solution pH 10. The eluting solution was then injected into the FI system for paraquat determination. The proposed system did not suffer from interferences of some possible ions in natural water and other herbicides. Recoveries obtained by spiking 0.5 and 5.0 mg L(-1) paraquat standard into water samples were in the range of 104-110% and 101-105%, respectively. The developed system can be conveniently applied for screening of paraquat contaminated in natural water. PMID:26452844

  1. Remediation of an Organic Fluid Present Below the Water Table by Steam Injection Above

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gudbjerg, J.; Jensen, K. H.; Sonnenborg, T. O.

    2001-12-01

    Injection of steam in the subsurface has been utilized to remediate contaminated sites where nonaqeuous phase liquid (NAPL) was present both above and below the water table. Steam injection is efficient because the vapor pressure of contaminants increase dramatically with temperature. Futhermore, since two immiscible liquids will boil when the sum of their vapor pressures is equal to the surrounding pressure all NAPLs will start to boil below the boiling point of water. This may be a dominant mechanism for the mass transfer of NAPL into the steam zone. In many cases a steady-state steam zone will be present above a saturated zone containing NAPL, which then will be heated by conduction. At a certain temperature boiling will occur and due to bouyancy gas will be transported from the saturated zone into the steam zone. This mass transfer mechanism is orders of magnitude faster than diffusionevaporation. Two-dimensional experiments in a sand box with the interior dimensions 122 \\times 58 \\times 8.5 cm were carried out to investigate this mechanism. The sand box was packed with a low permeable bottom layer and a high permeable top layer. TCE was injected at the top of the low permeable layer, which prevented it from further downward migration. The water table was located in the high permeable layer above the contaminant. Steam was injected in the left hand side of the sand box and effluent gasses were extracted at the right hand side. A steady-state steam zone formed in the top of the high permeable layer and the saturated zone below was only heated by conduction. When the temperature in the contaminated area reached approximately 74 oC boiling of TCE and water occured and the vapors were transported up in the unsaturated steam zone. This could be registered from the outflow of steam where separate phase TCE appeared in the condenser. The experiment was modeled using the numerical code T2VOC, which simulates multidimensional, non-isothermal, multiphase flow and

  2. Pure water injection into porous rock with superheated steam and salt in a solid state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montegrossi, G.; Tsypkin, G.; Calore, C.

    2012-04-01

    Most of geothermal fields require injection of fluid into the hot rock to maintain pressure and productivity. The presence of solid salt in porous space may cause an unexpected change in the characteristics of the reservoir and produced fluids, and dramatically affect the profitability of the project. We consider an injection problem of pure water into high temperature geothermal reservoir, saturated with superheated vapour and solid salt. Pure water moves away from injection point and dissolves solid salt. When salty water reaches the low-pressure hot domain, water evaporation occurs and, consequently, salt precipitates. We develop a simplified analytical model of the process and derive the similarity solutions for a 1-D semi-infinite reservoir. These solutions are multi-valued and describe the reduction in permeability and porosity due to salt precipitation at the leading boiling front. If the parameters of the system exceed critical values, then similarity solution ceases to exist. We identify this mathematical behaviour with reservoir sealing in the physical system. The TOUGH2-EWASG code has been used to verify this hypothesis and investigate the precipitate formation for an idealized bounded 1-D geothermal system of a length of 500 m with water injection at one extreme and fluid extraction at the other one. Both boundaries are kept at constant pressure and temperature. The result for the semi-infinite numerical model show that the monotonic grow of the solid salt saturation to reach asymptotic similarity solution generally occurs over a very large length starting from the injection point. Reservoir sealing occurs if solid salt at the initial state occupies a considerable part of the porous space. Numerical experiments for the bounded 500 m system demonstrate that a small amount of salt is enough to get reservoir sealing. Generally, salt tend to accumulate near the production well, and salt plug forms at the elements adjacent to the extraction point. This type

  3. Direct electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry determination of nickel in sea water using multiple hot injection and Zeeman correction.

    PubMed

    Bermejo-Barrera, P; Moreda-Piñeiro, J; Moreda-Piñeiro, A; Bermejo-Barrera, A

    1998-03-01

    Methods for the direct determination of Ni in sea water samples by ETAAS were developed using Zeeman effect background correction system (ZEBC) and a multi-injection technique. A mass of palladium nitrate of 2.5 mug (for an injection volume of 100 mul) was used as chemical modifier. The optimum pyrolysis and atomization temperatures were 1700 and 2100 degrees C, respectively. The characteristic mass (m(0)) and characteristic concentration (C(0)), precision and accuracy were studied for different injection volumes (20, 100 and 200 mul). For an injection volume of 100 mul (five 20 mul aliquot) of sample the accuracy analysis of different certified materials (saline and non saline water) was agreeable. The total time of the proposed procedure is 6 min. A m(0) and C(0) of 34.5 pg and 0.3 mug l(-1), respectively were obtained for this injection volume (100 mul). Finally, interferences from major and minor components of sea water was studied.

  4. Development of a Fully Automated Flow Injection Analyzer Implementing Bioluminescent Biosensors for Water Toxicity Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Komaitis, Efstratios; Vasiliou, Efstathios; Kremmydas, Gerasimos; Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios G.; Georgiou, Constantinos

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an automated Flow Injection analyzer for water toxicity assessment. The analyzer is validated by assessing the toxicity of heavy metal (Pb2+, Hg2+ and Cu2+) solutions. One hundred μL of a Vibrio fischeri suspension are injected in a carrier solution containing different heavy metal concentrations. Biosensor cells are mixed with the toxic carrier solution in the mixing coil on the way to the detector. Response registered is % inhibition of biosensor bioluminescence due to heavy metal toxicity in comparison to that resulting by injecting the Vibrio fischeri suspension in deionised water. Carrier solutions of mercury showed higher toxicity than the other heavy metals, whereas all metals show concentration related levels of toxicity. The biosensor’s response to carrier solutions of different pHs was tested. Vibrio fischeri’s bioluminescence is promoted in the pH 5–10 range. Experiments indicate that the whole cell biosensor, as applied in the automated fluidic system, responds to various toxic solutions. PMID:22163592

  5. Development of a fully automated Flow Injection analyzer implementing bioluminescent biosensors for water toxicity assessment.

    PubMed

    Komaitis, Efstratios; Vasiliou, Efstathios; Kremmydas, Gerasimos; Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios G; Georgiou, Constantinos

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an automated Flow Injection analyzer for water toxicity assessment. The analyzer is validated by assessing the toxicity of heavy metal (Pb(2+), Hg(2+) and Cu(2+)) solutions. One hundred μL of a Vibrio fischeri suspension are injected in a carrier solution containing different heavy metal concentrations. Biosensor cells are mixed with the toxic carrier solution in the mixing coil on the way to the detector. Response registered is % inhibition of biosensor bioluminescence due to heavy metal toxicity in comparison to that resulting by injecting the Vibrio fischeri suspension in deionised water. Carrier solutions of mercury showed higher toxicity than the other heavy metals, whereas all metals show concentration related levels of toxicity. The biosensor's response to carrier solutions of different pHs was tested. Vibrio fischeri's bioluminescence is promoted in the pH 5-10 range. Experiments indicate that the whole cell biosensor, as applied in the automated fluidic system, responds to various toxic solutions. PMID:22163592

  6. The effect of water injection on nitric oxide emissions of a gas turbine combustor burning ASTM Jet-A fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchionna, N. R.; Diehl, L. A.; Trout, A. M.

    1973-01-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the effect of water injection on oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions of a full annular, ram induction gas turbine combustor burning ASTM Jet-A fuel. The combustor was operated at conditions simulating sea-level takeoff and cruise conditions. Water at ambient temperature was injected into the combustor primary zone at water-fuel ratios up to 2. At an inlet-air temperature of 589 K (600 F) water injection decreased the NOx emission index at a constant exponential rate: NOx = NOx (o) e to the -15 W/F power (where W/F is the water-fuel ratio and NOx(o) indicates the value with no injection). The effect of increasing combustor inlet-air temperature was to decrease the effect of the water injection. Other operating variables such as pressure and reference Mach number did not appear to significantly affect the percent reduction in NOx. Smoke emissions were found to decrease with increasing water injection.

  7. Emissions Prediction and Measurement for Liquid-Fueled TVC Combustor with and without Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brankovic, A.; Ryder, R. C., Jr.; Hendricks, R. C.; Liu, N.-S.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    An investigation is performed to evaluate the performance of a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool for the prediction of the reacting flow in a liquid-fueled combustor that uses water injection for control of pollutant emissions. The experiment consists of a multisector, liquid-fueled combustor rig operated at different inlet pressures and temperatures, and over a range of fuel/air and water/fuel ratios. Fuel can be injected directly into the main combustion airstream and into the cavities. Test rig performance is characterized by combustor exit quantities such as temperature and emissions measurements using rakes and overall pressure drop from upstream plenum to combustor exit. Visualization of the flame is performed using gray scale and color still photographs and high-frame-rate videos. CFD simulations are performed utilizing a methodology that includes computer-aided design (CAD) solid modeling of the geometry, parallel processing over networked computers, and graphical and quantitative post-processing. Physical models include liquid fuel droplet dynamics and evaporation, with combustion modeled using a hybrid finite-rate chemistry model developed for Jet-A fuel. CFD and experimental results are compared for cases with cavity-only fueling, while numerical studies of cavity and main fueling was also performed. Predicted and measured trends in combustor exit temperature, CO and NOx are in general agreement at the different water/fuel loading rates, although quantitative differences exist between the predictions and measurements.

  8. Stable isotope reactive transport modeling in water-rock interactions during CO2 injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidalgo, Juan J.; Lagneau, Vincent; Agrinier, Pierre

    2010-05-01

    Stable isotopes can be of great usefulness in the characterization and monitoring of CO2 sequestration sites. Stable isotopes can be used to track the migration of the CO2 plume and identify leakage sources. Moreover, they provide unique information about the chemical reactions that take place on the CO2-water-rock system. However, there is a lack of appropriate tools that help modelers to incorporate stable isotope information into the flow and transport models used in CO2 sequestration problems. In this work, we present a numerical tool for modeling the transport of stable isotopes in groundwater reactive systems. The code is an extension of the groundwater single-phase flow and reactive transport code HYTEC [2]. HYTEC's transport module was modified to include element isotopes as separate species. This way, it is able to track isotope composition of the system by computing the mixing between the background water and the injected solution accounting for the dependency of diffusion on the isotope mass. The chemical module and database have been expanded to included isotopic exchange with minerals and the isotope fractionation associated with chemical reactions and mineral dissolution or precipitation. The performance of the code is illustrated through a series of column synthetic models. The code is also used to model the aqueous phase CO2 injection test carried out at the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory site (Palisades, New York, USA) [1]. References [1] N. Assayag, J. Matter, M. Ader, D. Goldberg, and P. Agrinier. Water-rock interactions during a CO2 injection field-test: Implications on host rock dissolution and alteration effects. Chemical Geology, 265(1-2):227-235, July 2009. [2] Jan van der Lee, Laurent De Windt, Vincent Lagneau, and Patrick Goblet. Module-oriented modeling of reactive transport with HYTEC. Computers & Geosciences, 29(3):265-275, April 2003.

  9. Video- Water Injected Into Bubble Onboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    Saturday Morning Science, the science of opportunity series of applied experiments and demonstrations, performed aboard the International Space Station (ISS) by Expedition 6 astronaut Dr. Don Pettit, revealed some remarkable findings. In this video, Dr. Pettit demonstrates using a syringe to inject water into a bubble. The result amazed Dr. Pettit and his crew mates. They observed that the droplets may bounce around for 5 or 6 collisions within the bubble, and then may partially or all at once exchange masses with the bubble. Dr. Pettit speculates the dynamics as a possible interplay between tension forces of kinetic energy and momentum, and possibly even charged forces.

  10. Bacteria in the injection water differently impacts the bacterial communities of production wells in high-temperature petroleum reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Ren, Hongyan; Xiong, Shunzi; Gao, Guangjun; Song, Yongting; Cao, Gongze; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Water flooding is widely used for oil recovery. However, how the introduction of bacteria via water flooding affects the subsurface ecosystem remains unknown. In the present study, the distinct bacterial communities of an injection well and six adjacent production wells were revealed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. All sequences of the variable region 3 of the 16S rRNA gene retrieved from pyrosequencing were divided into 543 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on 97% similarity. Approximately 13.5% of the total sequences could not be assigned to any recognized phylum. The Unifrac distance analysis showed significant differences in the bacterial community structures between the production well and injection water samples. However, highly similar bacterial structures were shown for samples obtained from the same oil-bearing strata. More than 69% of the OTUs detected in the injection water sample were absent or detected in low abundance in the production wells. However, the abundance of two OTUs reached as high as 17.5 and 26.9% in two samples of production water, although the OTUs greatly varied among all samples. Combined with the differentiated water flow rate measured through ion tracing, we speculated that the transportation of injected bacteria was impacted through the varied permeability from the injection well to each of the production wells. Whether the injected bacteria predominate the production well bacterial community might depend both on the permeability of the strata and the reservoir conditions. PMID:26052321

  11. Bacteria in the injection water differently impacts the bacterial communities of production wells in high-temperature petroleum reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hongyan; Xiong, Shunzi; Gao, Guangjun; Song, Yongting; Cao, Gongze; Zhao, Liping; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2015-01-01

    Water flooding is widely used for oil recovery. However, how the introduction of bacteria via water flooding affects the subsurface ecosystem remains unknown. In the present study, the distinct bacterial communities of an injection well and six adjacent production wells were revealed using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and pyrosequencing. All sequences of the variable region 3 of the 16S rRNA gene retrieved from pyrosequencing were divided into 543 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) based on 97% similarity. Approximately 13.5% of the total sequences could not be assigned to any recognized phylum. The Unifrac distance analysis showed significant differences in the bacterial community structures between the production well and injection water samples. However, highly similar bacterial structures were shown for samples obtained from the same oil-bearing strata. More than 69% of the OTUs detected in the injection water sample were absent or detected in low abundance in the production wells. However, the abundance of two OTUs reached as high as 17.5 and 26.9% in two samples of production water, although the OTUs greatly varied among all samples. Combined with the differentiated water flow rate measured through ion tracing, we speculated that the transportation of injected bacteria was impacted through the varied permeability from the injection well to each of the production wells. Whether the injected bacteria predominate the production well bacterial community might depend both on the permeability of the strata and the reservoir conditions. PMID:26052321

  12. Water-hammer in the cold leg during an SBLOCA due to cold ECCS injection

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, M.G.; Ghan, L.S.

    1991-12-01

    Water-hammer might occur in the cold leg of pressurized water reactors (PWR) during small break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCA`s), when cold emergency core cooling system (ECCS) water is injected into a pipe that may be partially filled with saturated steam. The water may mix with the steam and cause it to condense abruptly. Depending on the flow regime present, slugs of liquid may then be accelerated towards each other or against the piping structure. The possibility of this phenomenon is of concern to us because it may become a dominant phenomenon and change the character of the transient. In performing the code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty study (CSAU) on a SBLOCA scenario, we had to examine the possibility that the transient being analyzed could experience water-hammer and thus depart from the scope of the study. Two criteria for water-hammer initiation were investigated and tested using a RELAP5/MOD3 simulation of the transient. Our results indicated a very low likelihood of occurrence of the phenomenon. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Water-hammer in the cold leg during an SBLOCA due to cold ECCS injection

    SciTech Connect

    Ortiz, M.G.; Ghan, L.S.

    1991-01-01

    Water-hammer might occur in the cold leg of pressurized water reactors (PWR) during small break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCA's), when cold emergency core cooling system (ECCS) water is injected into a pipe that may be partially filled with saturated steam. The water may mix with the steam and cause it to condense abruptly. Depending on the flow regime present, slugs of liquid may then be accelerated towards each other or against the piping structure. The possibility of this phenomenon is of concern to us because it may become a dominant phenomenon and change the character of the transient. In performing the code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty study (CSAU) on a SBLOCA scenario, we had to examine the possibility that the transient being analyzed could experience water-hammer and thus depart from the scope of the study. Two criteria for water-hammer initiation were investigated and tested using a RELAP5/MOD3 simulation of the transient. Our results indicated a very low likelihood of occurrence of the phenomenon. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Subsurface injection of treated sewage into a saline-water aquifer at St. Petersburg, Florida - Aquifer pressure buildup

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, J.J.

    1984-01-01

    The city of St. Petersburg has been testing subsurface injection of treated sewage into the Floridan aquifer as a means of eliminating discharge of sewage to surface waters and as a means of storing treated sewage for future nonpotable reuse. Treated sweage that had a mean chloride concentration of 170 milligrams per liter (mg/l) was injected through a single well for 12 months at a mean rate of 4. 7 multiplied by 10**5 cubic feet per day (ft**3/d). The volume of water injected during the year was 1. 7 multiplied by 10**8 cubic feet. Pressure buildup at the end of one year ranged from less than 0. 1 to as much as 2. 4 pounds per square inch (lb/in**2) in observation wells at the site. Pressure buildup in wells open to the upper part of the injection zone was related to buoyant lift acting on the mixed water in the injection zone in addition to subsurface injection through the injection well. Calculations of the vertical component of pore velocity in the semiconfining bed underlying the shallowest permeable zone of the Floridan aquifer indicate upward movement of native water.

  15. Quenching of a highly superheated porous medium by injection of water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fichot, F.; Bachrata, A.; Repetto, G.; Fleurot, J.; Quintard, M.

    2012-11-01

    Understanding of two-phase flow through porous medium with intense phase change is of interest in many situations, including nuclear, chemical or geophysical applications. Intense boiling occurs when the liquid is injected into a highly superheated medium. Under such conditions, the heat flux extracted by the fluid from the porous medium is mainly governed by the nucleation of bubbles and by the evaporation of thin liquid films. Both configurations are possible, depending on local flow conditions and on the ratio of bubble size to pore size. The present study is motivated by the safety evaluation of light water nuclear reactors in case of a severe accident scenario, such as the one that happened in Fukushima Dai-ichi plant in March, 2011. If water sources are not available for a long period of time, the reactor core heats up due to the residual power and eventually becomes significantly damaged due to intense oxidation of metals and fragmentation of fuel rods resulting in the formation of a porous medium where the particles have a characteristic length-scale of 1 to 5 mm. The coolability of the porous medium will depend on the water flow rate which can enter the medium under the available driving head and on the geometrical features of the porous matrix (average pore size, porosity). Therefore, it is of high interest to evaluate the conditions for which the injection of water in such porous medium is likely to stop the progression of the accident. The present paper addresses the issue of modelling two-phase flow and heat transfers in a porous medium initially dry, where water is injected. The medium is initially at a temperature well above the saturation temperature of water. In a first part, a summary of existing knowledge is provided, showing the scarcity of models and experimental data. In a second part, new experimental results obtained in an IRSN facility are analysed. The experiment consists in a bed of steel particles that are heated up to 700

  16. Effective Jet Properties for the Prediction of Turbulent Mixing Noise Reduction by Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kandula, Max; Lonergan, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    A one-dimensional control volume formulation is developed for the determination of jet mixing noise reduction due to water injection. The analysis starts from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy for the control volume, and introduces the concept of effective jet parameters (jet temperature, jet velocity and jet Mach number). It is shown that the water to jet mass flow rate ratio is an important parameter characterizing the jet noise reduction on account of gas-to-droplet momentum and heat transfer. Two independent dimensionless invariant groups are postulated, and provide the necessary relations for the droplet size and droplet Reynolds number. Results are presented illustrating the effect of mass flow rate ratio on the jet mixing noise reduction for a range of jet Mach number and jet Reynolds number. Predictions from the model show satisfactory comparison with available test data on supersonic jets. The results suggest that significant noise reductions can be achieved at increased flow rate ratios.

  17. Automated IR determination of petroleum products in water based on sequential injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Falkova, Marina; Vakh, Christina; Shishov, Andrey; Zubakina, Ekaterina; Moskvin, Aleksey; Moskvin, Leonid; Bulatov, Andrey

    2016-02-01

    The simple and easy performed automated method for the IR determination of petroleum products (PP) in water using extraction-chromatographic cartridges has been developed. The method assumes two stages: on-site extraction of PP during a sampling by using extraction-chromatographic cartridges and subsequent determination of the extracted PP using sequential injection analysis (SIA) with IR detection. The appropriate experimental conditions for extraction of the dissolved in water PP and for automated SIA procedure were investigated. The calibration plot constructed using the developed procedure was linear in the range of 3-200 μg L(-1). The limit of detection (LOD), calculated from a blank test based on 3σ was 1 µg L(-1). The sample volume was 1L. The system throughput was found to be 12 h(-1). PMID:26653498

  18. Flow injection method for the determination of silver concentration in drinking water for spacecrafts.

    PubMed

    Bruzzoniti, Maria Concetta; Kobylinska, Dorota Korte; Franko, Mladen; Sarzanini, Corrado

    2010-04-14

    A flow injection method has been developed for determination of silver. The method is based on a reduction reaction with sodium borohydride which leads to the formation of a colloidal species which is monitored at a wavelength of 390 nm. The reaction variables flow rate, sodium borohydride concentration and pH, which affect sensitivity, were investigated and their effects were established using a two-levels, three-factor experimental design. Further optimization of manifold variables (reaction coil and injection volume) allowed us to determine silver in the range 0.050-5.0 mg L(-1) with a minimum detectable concentration of 0.050 mg L(-1). Silver is added, as biocide, to drinking water for spacecrafts. The chemical species of silver, present in this kind of sample, were characterized by a procedure based on the selective retention of Ag(+) onto a 2.2.2. cryptand based substrate followed by determination of the non-bound and bound (after elution) Ag(+) by the FIA method. The method optimized was applied to a drinking water sample provided for the launch with the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) module Jule Verne to the International Space Station (March 9, 2008).

  19. Simulation of Reclaimed-Water Injection and Pumping Scenarios and Particle-Tracking Analysis near Mount Pleasant, South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petkewich, Matthew D.; Campbell, Bruce G.

    2009-01-01

    The effect of injecting reclaimed water into the Middendorf aquifer beneath Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, was simulated using a groundwater-flow model of the Coastal Plain Physiographic Province of South Carolina and parts of Georgia and North Carolina. Reclaimed water, also known as recycled water, is wastewater or stormwater that has been treated to an appropriate level so that the water can be reused. The scenarios were simulated to evaluate potential changes in groundwater flow and groundwater-level conditions caused by injecting reclaimed water into the Middendorf aquifer. Simulations included a Base Case and two injection scenarios. Maximum pumping rates were simulated as 6.65, 8.50, and 10.5 million gallons per day for the Base Case, Scenario 1, and Scenario 2, respectively. The Base Case simulation represents a non-injection estimate of the year 2050 groundwater levels for comparison purposes for the two injection scenarios. For Scenarios 1 and 2, the simulated injection of reclaimed water at 3 million gallons per day begins in 2012 and continues through 2050. The flow paths and time of travel for the injected reclaimed water were simulated using particle-tracking analysis. The simulations indicated a general decline of groundwater altitudes in the Middendorf aquifer in the Mount Pleasant, South Carolina, area between 2004 and 2050 for the Base Case and two injection scenarios. For the Base Case, groundwater altitudes generally declined about 90 feet from the 2004 groundwater levels. For Scenarios 1 and 2, although groundwater altitudes initially increased in the Mount Pleasant area because of the simulated injection, these higher groundwater levels declined as Mount Pleasant Waterworks pumping increased over time. When compared to the Base Case simulation, 2050 groundwater altitudes for Scenario 1 are between 15 feet lower to 23 feet higher for production wells, between 41 and 77 feet higher for the injection wells, and between 9 and 23 feet higher for

  20. Injection and Subsequent Evolution of a Water Sill in an Ice Shell: Application to Europa's Lenticulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manga, M.; Michaut, C.

    2014-12-01

    We study the injection and subsequent evolution of a water sill into an ice shell overlying an ocean and examine the resulting successive surface deformations. We assume that water spreads within the elastic part of the ice shell and show that the mechanical properties of ice exert a strong control on the lateral extent of the sill. At shallow depths, water makes room for itself by lifting the overlying ice layer and water weight promotes lateral spreading of the sill. In contrast, a deep sill bends the underlying elastic layer and its weight does not affect its spreading. As a result, the sill lateral extent is limited to about a few to a few tens of kilometers by the fracture toughness of ice. In that case, the sill can thicken substantially, until the feeder dyke closes, since downward flexure of the lower elastic layer provides a way of keeping the pressure high in the water source. Pits, domes, and small chaos on Europa's surface are quasi-circular features a few to a few tens of kilometers in diameter whose morphology could be explained by the subsequent evolution of such a thick sill. Indeed, cooling of the sill after emplacement warms the surrounding ice and thins the overlying elastic ice layer. As a result, preexisting stresses in the elastic part of the ice shell increase locally to the point that they may disrupt the ice above the sill (small chaos). Furthermore, disruption of the surface also allows for partial isostatic compensation of water weight, leading to a topographic depression at the surface (pit), of the order of ~102 m. Finally, complete water solidification causes expansion of the initial sill volume and results in an uplifted topography (dome) of ~102 m.

  1. A sequential injection system for the spectrophotometric determination of calcium, magnesium and alkalinity in water samples.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Raquel B R; Rangel, António O S S

    2004-08-01

    A sequential injection methodology for the spectrophotometric determination of calcium, magnesium and alkalinity in water samples is proposed. A single manifold is used for the determination of the three analytes, and the same protocol sequence allows the sequential determination of calcium and magnesium (the sum corresponds to the water hardness). The determination of both metals is based on their reaction with cresolphtalein complexone; mutual interference is minimized by using 8-hydroxyquinoline for the determination of calcium and ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) for the determination of magnesium. Alkalinity determination is based on a reaction with acetic acid, and corresponding color change of Bromcresol Green. Working ranges of 0.5 - 5 mg dm(-3) for Ca, 0.5 - 10 mg dm(-3) for Mg, and 10 - 100 mg HCO3- dm(-3), for alkalinity have been achieved. The results for water samples were comparable to those of the reference methods and to a certified reference water sample. RSDs lower than 5% were obtained, a low reagent consumption and a reduced volume of effluent have been accomplished. The determination rate for calcium and magnesium is 80 h(-1), corresponding to 40 h(-1) per element, while 65 determinations of alkalinity per hour could be carried out.

  2. Indian primacy procedures handbook for the public water system supervision (PWSS) program and the underground injection control (UIC) program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The handbook defines primacy, the responsibilities of primacy, primacy's advantages and limitations, and how to seek primacy. Primacy is a provision in the 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). It allows Indian Tribes the opportunity to assume principal responsibility in the enforcement of public drinking water and/or underground injection control (UIC) regulations within the Indian Tribe's jurisdiction. To attain primacy a Tribe must have drinking water and underground injection control regulations which are at least as strict as EPA regulations, and must have an independent agency or organization within the Tribal government that has the power to enforce its regulations.

  3. Tracing and age-dating recycled waste water recharged for potable reuse in a seawater injection barrier, southern California, USA

    SciTech Connect

    Davisson, M L; Esser, B K; Herndon, R L; Hudson, G B

    1998-12-02

    In this report we outline an investigative approach that combines isotopic tracers and tritium-helium-3 (3H-3He) dating to directly measure groundwater mixing and ages. These data can be used to test regulatory compliance in potable water reuse projects (Davisson et al., 1998). We provide an example from a seawater injection barrier located in Orange County, California, which has been injecting advanced- treated waste water into a coastal aquifer for the past 25 years to prevent seawater intrusion. Treatment comprises lime coagulation of secondary waste effluents, followed by re-carbonation, sand filtration, and reverse osmosis. The finished water has a very low TDS (-100 mg/L), which is blended -50% with a low TDS (288 mg/L) native groundwater, making an injection water of -200 mg/L.

  4. Thermoelectric and electrochemical self-potential anomalies induced by water injection into hydrocarbon reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulamali, Murtaza; Leinov, Eli; Jackson, Matthew; Pain, Christopher

    2010-05-01

    Downhole measurements of electrokinetic (EK) streaming potential, using electrodes mounted on the outside of insulated casing, has been shown to be useful for informing production strategies in oil and gas reservoirs. However, spontaneous potentials due to thermoelectric (TE) and/or electrochemical (EC) effects may also be present during production and may contribute to the signal measured at the production well. We present a study of the contribution of these effects based on numerical models of subsurface potentials during production. We find that the injection of seawater, which typically has a different temperature and salinity to the formation brine, leads to the generation of both TE and EC potential signals in an oil reservoir, which may be measured at the production well along with EK potential signals. In particular, there is a peak in the TE potential before and after the temperature front, with a change in sign occurring close to the midpoint of the front, and the signal decaying with distance from the front. The EC potential has a similar profile, with a change in sign occurring close to the location of the salinity front. In both cases, the absolute magnitude of the signal is related to the overall temperature and/or salinity contrast between the injected fluids and the formation brine, and the magnitude of the TE and EC coupling coefficient. When we use the maximum theoretical magnitude for the TE and EC coupling coefficients, in the case of a perfect membrane, the lag in the temperature front relative to the saturation front leads to a negligible TE potential signal at the production well until long after water breakthrough occurs. In contrast, the EC potential contributes significantly to the spontaneous potential measured at the production well before the waterfront arrives, as the salinity front and the saturation front approximately coincide. The dependence of the TE and EC coupling coefficients upon temperature, salinity and/or partial water

  5. In Situ Evaluation of Water-Rock Reactions during Carbon Dioxide Injection in Basaltic and Metasedimentary Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matter, J. M.; Assayag, N.; Goldberg, D.; Takahashi, T.

    2006-12-01

    Large differences between laboratory and field derived mineral reaction rates underscore the importance of evaluating mineral-fluid reactions under in situ conditions in a natural environment. This study investigates the extent of in situ water-rock reactions in basaltic and metasedimentary rocks (rich in Ca, Mg silicates) after the injection of CO2 enriched water, with the objective of providing information pertinent to permanent storage of anthropogenic CO2 in geologic reservoirs. CO2 injections were conducted using a single-well push-pull testing strategy. CO2 saturated water (pH 3.5) was injected into a hydraulically isolated and permeable aquifer in a 300-m experimental borehole. Water samples were retrieved after the CO2 injection. Mass transfer terms for Ca, Mg, Na, and Si were determined by using the measured ion concentrations. Using the mass balance, the weeks-long incubation time of the injected solution, and geometric estimates of the reactive surface area of the host rocks, in situ bulk rock dissolution rates of aquifer material were estimated. In addition, δ13C data coupled with total CO2 concentration were used as a tracer to quantitatively evaluate processes such as carbonate dissolution and precipitation, oxidation of organic matter and biological activity within the aquifer. Results show that the injected CO2 was neutralized within several days by two processes; mixing with aquifer water, and rock-water reactions. Calculated bulk rock dissolution rates decrease with increasing pH. The pH dependence of the dissolution rate for Ca is twice as large as for Mg, strongly favoring Ca release and possibly suggesting an additional source of Ca besides silicate minerals. Analyses of δ13C on water and rock samples confirm dissolution of calcium carbonates within the aquifer.

  6. Photodegradation and flow-injection determination of dithiocarbamate fungicides in natural water with chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Amir; Yaqoob, Mohammad; Nabi, Abdul

    2009-03-01

    A simple and rapid flow-injection method is reported for the determination of dithiocarbamate fungicides (maneb, nabam and thiram) based on chemiluminescence detection. The method involves the photodegradation of dithiocarbamate fungicides via UV light in an alkaline medium. Photoproducts are then reacted with luminol in the absence of an oxidant. Linear calibration graphs were obtained in the range 0.01 - 4.0 mg L(-1) for maneb and nabam and 0.05 - 1.0 mg L(-1) for thiram with relative standard deviations (n = 4) in the range 1.0 - 2.6%. The detection limits (S/N = 3) of maneb, nabam and thiram were 10, 8.0 and 5.0 ng mL(-1), respectively, with a sample throughput of 100 h(-1). The method was successfully applied to determine these dithiocarbamate fungicides in spiked natural water samples.

  7. Design, testing, and evaluation of a water injection grouting system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-11-01

    The necessity of grouting vertical ground heat exchanger boreholes is well established. The use of chip bentonite was investigated as an alternative to slurry grouting methods for backfilling geothermal bores. Grouting a geothermal bore with chip bentonite has many potential benefits if the bore can be completely grouted from bottom to top. High solids content grouts that are possible with chip bentonite could increase the thermal conductivity of the grout and make it less susceptible to performance reductions associated with drying of the grout. The lower price of chip bentonite compared to powder bentonite grouts would reduce the cost of grouting. Chip bentonites would also have an advantage over powder bentonite grouts by reducing the amount of dust created during the grouting process. The proposed grouting system would use water to transport chip bentonite through a tremie pipe into the bore. The properties of chip bentonite grouts were first examined by pouring chip bentonite into a standing column of water. Chip bentonite grouts had percent solids ranging from 50% to 60% and thermal conductivity from 0.46 to 0.52 Btu/hr ft F. Tests were also performed with a thermal additive mixed with the bentonite chips. Additives tested included pea rock, masonry sand, and crushed quartzite. The additive in the wet grout accumulated in pockets, creating possible avenues for hydraulic movement. Total percent solids of bentonite and additive mixtures ranged from 60% to 80%. Thermal conductivity results were varied, but generally increased with increasing percentages of additive. The feasibility of transporting bentonite chips with water through a tremie pipe was studied with two types of water injection systems. Both systems incorporated a pressurized solids tank to keep water from hydrating the chips prior to entering the water stream. A low pressure system was able to transfer pea rock successfully through a short length of tremie pipe. The use of bentonite chips caused

  8. Groundwater thermal-effective injection systems in shallow aquifers: possible alternatives to vertical water wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Russo, Stefano; Taddia, Glenda; Cerino Abdin, Elena

    2014-05-01

    areal extent of the thermal plume that develops around the area of injection minimizing the time and the space needed for the disappearance of the thermal plume and the restoration of undisturbed temperature conditions. The reduction in plan and temporal extension of the thermal plume would have several benefits, minimizing the use of large areas around the buildings involved by the thermal perturbation, with direct implementation benefits. In order to investigate alternatives to traditional drilled water well for the re-injection and dispersion of water in aquifer downstream of the heat pump, we modeled with FEFLOW the possible reverse use of commercial draining gabions in various types of ground configuration, geometry and interconnection with systems of pre-fabricated vertical drains on a possible reliable test-site. The results highlighted that they can represent a good and efficient alternative for the groundwater dispersion in the aquifers.

  9. Comparison of Microbial Community Compositions of Injection and Production Well Samples in a Long-Term Water-Flooded Petroleum Reservoir

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Hong-Yan; Zhang, Xiao-Jun; Song, Zhi-yong; Rupert, Wieger; Gao, Guang-Jun; Guo, Sheng-xue; Zhao, Li-Ping

    2011-01-01

    Water flooding plays an important role in recovering oil from depleted petroleum reservoirs. Exactly how the microbial communities of production wells are affected by microorganisms introduced with injected water has previously not been adequately studied. Using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) approach and 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis, the comparison of microbial communities is carried out between one injection water and two production waters collected from a working block of the water-flooded Gudao petroleum reservoir located in the Yellow River Delta. DGGE fingerprints showed that the similarities of the bacterial communities between the injection water and production waters were lower than between the two production waters. It was also observed that the archaeal composition among these three samples showed no significant difference. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene clone libraries showed that the dominant groups within the injection water were Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria and Methanomicrobia, while the dominant groups in the production waters were Gammaproteobacteria and Methanobacteria. Only 2 out of 54 bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and 5 out of 17 archaeal OTUs in the injection water were detected in the production waters, indicating that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection water may not survive to be detected in the production waters. Additionally, there were 55.6% and 82.6% unique OTUs in the two production waters respectively, suggesting that each production well has its specific microbial composition, despite both wells being flooded with the same injection water. PMID:21858049

  10. Analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to achieve high Mach numbers and high thrust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henneberry, Hugh M.; Snyder, Christopher A.

    1993-01-01

    An analysis of gas turbine engines using water and oxygen injection to enhance performance by increasing Mach number capability and by increasing thrust is described. The liquids are injected, either separately or together, into the subsonic diffuser ahead of the engine compressor. A turbojet engine and a mixed-flow turbofan engine (MFTF) are examined, and in pursuit of maximum thrust, both engines are fitted with afterburners. The results indicate that water injection alone can extend the performance envelope of both engine types by one and one-half Mach numbers at which point water-air ratios reach 17 or 18 percent and liquid specific impulse is reduced to some 390 to 470 seconds, a level about equal to the impulse of a high energy rocket engine. The envelope can be further extended, but only with increasing sacrifices in liquid specific impulse. Oxygen-airflow ratios as high as 15 percent were investigated for increasing thrust. Using 15 percent oxygen in combination with water injection at high supersonic Mach numbers resulted in thrust augmentation as high as 76 percent without any significant decrease in liquid specific impulse. The stoichiometric afterburner exit temperature increased with increasing oxygen flow, reaching 4822 deg R in the turbojet engine at a Mach number of 3.5. At the transonic Mach number of 0.95 where no water injection is needed, an oxygen-air ratio of 15 percent increased thrust by some 55 percent in both engines, along with a decrease in liquid specific impulse of 62 percent. Afterburner temperature was approximately 4700 deg R at this high thrust condition. Water and/or oxygen injection are simple and straightforward strategies to improve engine performance and they will add little to engine weight. However, if large Mach number and thrust increases are required, liquid flows become significant, so that operation at these conditions will necessarily be of short duration.

  11. Geochemical changes in pore water and reservoir rock due to CO2 injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huq, Farhana; Blum, Philipp; Nowak, Marcus; Haderlein, Stefan; Grathwohl, Peter

    2010-05-01

    In response to current global warming, carbon capture and storage has been identified as one of the promising option. Thus, it can be an interim solution that is indeed a bridge to the future renewable energy without altering the present mode of energy consumption. Although large natural CO2 sinks are terrestrial eco-system and oceans, geological media or more specifically large sedimentary basins are now the most feasible options for carbon sequestration. At the study site, a former gas field (Altmark), which is located in the South of the Northeast German Basin, CO2 is planned to be injected into the reservoir with high pressure (> 50 bar) and temperature (125°C). Afterwards, CO2 dissolves into the pore water leading to acidification and follow up reactions such as dissolution/precipitation, which potentially change the porosity-permeability of the reservoir and the wetting properties of the mineral surfaces. The Altmark site was chosen due to its large storage capacity, well explored reservoir, high seal integrity due to the presence of massive salt layer (cap rock) and existing infrastructure required for enhanced gas recovery. The main objective of the current study is to quantify the CO2 trapping in aqueous solution under in situ reservoir condition. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the geochemical changes in fluid composition due to dissolution of minerals under controlled laboratory conditions and to quantify the concentrations of complexing agents that might influence the concentration of total dissolved CO2 in aqueous solution over time. To observe these geochemical and hydraulic changes due to the injection of CO2, a closed system (batch system) technique is developed to study the influence of salinity, temperature, pressure and kinetics on mineral reactions. In addition to the closed system, a flow through (open) autoclave system was constructed. Water saturated sedimentary rock cores (e.g. from the Altmark site; 5cm long, 3cm diameter) are

  12. Determination of Trace Nickel in Natural Water by Flow Injection Analysis with Cetrimonium Bromide as Sensitizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Z. X.; Zhang, C. X.; Li, N.; Zhang, X. S.

    2015-11-01

    2-(5-Bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol (5-Br-PADAP) is a highly sensitive chromogenic reagent that can react with most of the transition and alkaline earth metals. The Ni(II)-5-Br-PADAP complex is more stable than other metal-5-Br-PADAP complexes. In the presence of seignette salt, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) can decompose most of the 5-Br-PADAP complexes with metals except for iron, cobalt, and nickel. Cetrimonium bromide (CTMAB) as a sensitizer for the color reaction forms a ternary complex with nickel and 5-Br-PADAP with maximum absorption wavelength at 561 nm. CTMAB can significantly improve the sensitivity and selectivity of nickel determination, as well as the stability and solubility of compounds. In this study, the determination of trace nickel in natural water samples was performed by flow injection analysis. The calibration lines were established in the range of 0-200 μg/l of nickel (n ≥ 3), and the limit of detection was 0.093 μg/l. The relative standard deviation was 2.55% for the determination of 25 μg/l nickel (n ≥ 20). The recoveries of this method ranged from 91.0 to 101% for environmental water samples. A large amount of aluminum, calcium, cadmium, copper, bicarbonate, magnesium, zinc, and iron, except for cobalt, did not interfere with the determination of nickel.

  13. Pre-injection Comparison of Methods for Sampling Formation Water and Associated Gas from a Monitoring Well at a Carbon Dioxide Injection Site, Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conaway, C.; Thordsen, J. J.; Manning, M. A.; Cook, P. J.; Abedini, A. A.; Trautz, R. C.; Thomas, B.; Kharaka, Y. K.

    2012-12-01

    The chemical composition of formation water and associated gases from the lower Cretaceous Paluxy Formation was determined using four different sampling methods at a well in the Citronelle Oil Field, Alabama, a site that will be used for a carbon dioxide injection experiment. Prior to each of the two sampling periods, the well was cleaned from the drilling fluids and KCl solutions by producing at least three pore volumes of formation water. Accurate measurements of the chemical composition of groundwater or formation water, including dissolved gasses, and gas samples is essential in understanding subsurface geochemical processes occurring as a result of geologic carbon dioxide injection, which is used for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) and has been proposed as a means of carbon sequestration. In this study, formation water and gas samples for geochemical analyses were obtained from well D-9-8 #2 at Citronelle using nitrogen lift, submersible pump, U-Tube, and a downhole (Kuster) sampler. Field chemical analyses included electrical conductivity, hydrogen sulfide, alkalinity, and pH, and laboratory analyses included major, minor and trace elements by mass spectrometry and ion chromatography, dissolved carbon, organic acid anions, free and dissolved gas species. The formation water obtained from this well is a Na-Ca-Cl brine with a salinity of 160,000 and 200,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS). Differences were evident between sampling methodologies, particularly in pH, Fe and alkalinity measurements. The results of the comparison demonstrate the difficulty and importance of preserving volatile analytes in samples, with the downhole sampler and U-Tube system performing most favorably in this aspect.

  14. Quality of water recovered from a municipal effluent injection well in the Floridan aquifer system, Pompano Beach, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKenzie, D.J.; Irwin, G.A.

    1984-01-01

    Approximately 69 million gallons of backflow from an injection well used for the disposal of secondary treated municipal effluent in the Floridan aquifer system near Pompano Beach, Florida, was periodically sampled for inorganic quality from March 1975 through March 1977. Analyses of the backflow effluent showed a concomitant increase in dissolved solids and a change in ionic composition as a function of cumulative volume of backflow. Both the increase in dissolved solids and the change in major ionic composition were directly related to an estimated 6 to 7 percent mixing of the moderately saline water in the Florida aquifer system with the injected system with the injected effluent. Although an estimated 3.5 billion gallons of effluent was injected into the aquifer system during the 16-year operation of the Collier Manor treatment plant, only 65 to 70 million gallons was backflowed before the chloride concentration approached 250 milligrams per liter. (USGS)

  15. Geohydrology and water quality in northern Portage County, Ohio, in relation to deep-well brine injection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eberts, S.M.

    1991-01-01

    Geohydrology and water quality of the principal freshwater aquifers near oilfield and gasfield brine-injection wells in northern Portage County, Ohio, were evaluated. Since 1975, 13 wells in this part of the Country have been used to dispose of more than 4.5 million barrels of brine by injection into Silurian carbonate and sandstone rocks that generally are greater than 3,500 feet below land surface. More than 3,000 feet of interbedded shales, sandstones, carbonates, and evaporites separate the freshwater aquifers from these brine-injection zones. The shallowest brine-injection zone is greater than 2,200 feet below sea level. Native fluids in the injection zones have dissolved-solids concentrations greater than 125,000 milligrams per liter and are hydraulically isolated from the freshwater aquifers. No known faults or fracture systems are present in northern Portage County, although abandoned oil and gas wells could exist and serve as conduits for migration of injected brine. Pennsylvanian clastic units are freshwater bearing in northern Portage County, and two bedrock aquifers generally are recognized. The shallower bedrock aquifer (Connoquenessing Sandstone Member of the Pottsville Formation) principally consists of sandstone; this aquifer is separated from a deeper sandstone and conglomerate aquifer in the lower part of the Sharon Member (Pottsville Formation) by shale in the upper part of the Sharon Member that acts as a confining unit. The upper sandstone aquifer is the surficial aquifer where overlying glacial deposits are unsaturated in the uplands; glacial deposits comprise the surficial aquifer in buried valleys where the sandstone is absent. These two surficial aquifers are hydraulically connected and act as a single unit. The lower sandstone and conglomerate aquifer is the most areally extensive aquifer within the project area. From November 1987 through August 1988, ground-water levels remained at least 60 feet higher in the upper sandstone aquifer than

  16. Microbial Biomass, Activity, and Community Structure of Water and Particulates Retrieved by Backflow from a Waterflood Injection Well

    PubMed Central

    McKinley, Vicky L.; Costerton, J. William; White, David C.

    1988-01-01

    Oil field injection water was allowed to back flow from two wells at the Packard drill site in Los Angeles, Calif., and was sampled at various times to obtain information about the biomass, potential activity, and community structure of the microbiota in the reservoir formation and in the injection water. Biomass was greatest in water samples that came from the zone near the injection site and dropped off sharply in subsequent samples, which were assumed to come from zones farther away from the well. Samples obtained from near the well also had visible exopolysaccharide blankets, as seen in scanning electron microscopic preparations. In one of the wells that was sampled, rates of glucose or acetate incorporation into microbial lipids correlated with biomass; but in the other well, activities correlated with the sampling time (volume of water that back flowed). Transmission electron micrographs showed a diverse, gram-negative bacterial population in a variety of physiological states. The analysis of the phospholipid ester-linked fatty acid profiles of the samples revealed consistently large proportions of 18:1ω7c fatty acids, indicating the presence of many anaerobes, facultative organisms, or both. Proportions of cyclopropyl fatty acids and ratios of trans/cis monoenoic compounds increased with the volume of water that back flowed (analogous with the distance into the formation), while the ratio of unsaturated/saturated compounds decreased, possibly indicating higher levels of stress or starvation in the microbial communities farthest from the injection well. Greater than 90% of the total biomass was trapped on glass fiber filters, indicating that the microbiota were largely attached to particles or were clumped. These sampling techniques and analytical methods may prove useful in monitoring for problems with microbes (e.g., plugging) in waterflood operations and in the preparation of water injection wells for enhanced oil recovery by the use of microbes. Images

  17. Microbial biomass, activity, and community structure of water and particulates retrieved by backflow from a waterflood injection well.

    PubMed

    McKinley, V L; Costerton, J W; White, D C

    1988-06-01

    Oil field injection water was allowed to back flow from two wells at the Packard drill site in Los Angeles, Calif., and was sampled at various times to obtain information about the biomass, potential activity, and community structure of the microbiota in the reservoir formation and in the injection water. Biomass was greatest in water samples that came from the zone near the injection site and dropped off sharply in subsequent samples, which were assumed to come from zones farther away from the well. Samples obtained from near the well also had visible exopolysaccharide blankets, as seen in scanning electron microscopic preparations. In one of the wells that was sampled, rates of glucose or acetate incorporation into microbial lipids correlated with biomass; but in the other well, activities correlated with the sampling time (volume of water that back flowed). Transmission electron micrographs showed a diverse, gram-negative bacterial population in a variety of physiological states. The analysis of the phospholipid ester-linked fatty acid profiles of the samples revealed consistently large proportions of 18:1omega7c fatty acids, indicating the presence of many anaerobes, facultative organisms, or both. Proportions of cyclopropyl fatty acids and ratios of trans/cis monoenoic compounds increased with the volume of water that back flowed (analogous with the distance into the formation), while the ratio of unsaturated/saturated compounds decreased, possibly indicating higher levels of stress or starvation in the microbial communities farthest from the injection well. Greater than 90% of the total biomass was trapped on glass fiber filters, indicating that the microbiota were largely attached to particles or were clumped. These sampling techniques and analytical methods may prove useful in monitoring for problems with microbes (e.g., plugging) in waterflood operations and in the preparation of water injection wells for enhanced oil recovery by the use of microbes. PMID

  18. Detecting potential impacts of deep subsurface CO2 injection on shallow drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyth, R. C.; Yang, C.; Romanak, K.; Mickler, P. J.; Lu, J.; Hovorka, S. D.

    2012-12-01

    Presented here are results from one aspect of collective research conducted at Gulf Coast Carbon Center, BEG, Jackson School at UT Austin. The biggest hurdle to public acceptance of CCS is to show that drinking water resources will not be impacted. Since late 1990s our group has been supported by US DOE NETL and private industry to research how best to detect potential impacts to shallow (0 to ~0.25 km) subsurface drinking water from deep (~1 to 3.5 km) injection of CO2. Work has and continues to include (1) field sampling and testing, (2) laboratory batch experiments, (3) geochemical modeling. The objective has been to identify the most sensitive geochemical indicators using data from research-level investigations, which can be economically applied on an industrial-scale. The worst-case scenario would be introduction of CO2 directly into drinking water from a leaking wellbore at a brownfield site. This is unlikely for a properly screened and/or maintained site, but needs to be considered. Our results show aquifer matrix (carbonate vs. clastic) to be critical to interpretation of pH and carbonate (DIC, Alkalinity, and δ13C of DIC) parameters because of the influence of water-rock reaction (buffering vs. non-buffering) on aqueous geochemistry. Field groundwater sampling sites to date are Cranfield, MS and SACROC, TX CO2-EOR oilfields. Two major aquifer types are represented, one dominated by silicate (Cranfield) and the other by carbonate (SACROC) water-rock reactions. We tested sensitivity of geochemical indicators (pH, DIC, Alkalinity, and δ13C of DIC) by modeling the effects of increasing pCO2 on aqueous geochemistry, and laboratory batch experiments, both with partial pressure of CO2 gas (pCO2) at 1x105 Pa (1 atm). Aquifer matrix and groundwater data provided constraints for the geochemical models. We used results from modeling and batch experiments to rank geochemical parameter sensitivity to increased pCO2 into weakly, mildly and strongly sensitive

  19. Field test of a cross-injection scheme for stimulating in situ denitrification near a municipal water supply well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gierczak, R.; Devlin, J. F.; Rudolph, D. L.

    2007-01-01

    A pilot-scale test of an in situ denitrification scheme was undertaken to assess an adaptation of the nutrient injection wall (NIW) technology for treating a deep (30-40 m) nitrate contamination problem (N-NO 3- ˜ 10-12 mg/L). The adaptation is called the Cross-Injection Scheme (CIS). It duplicates the NIW method without a wall; wells are installed and operated directly in the aquifer and high-flux zones of the aquifer are preferentially targeted for treatment. The test was conducted on the site of a municipal water supply well field, with the supply well pumping between 15-80 m 3/h. Acetate was periodically injected into the aquifer between an injection-extraction well pair positioned across the normal direction of flow. The injected pulses were then permitted to move with the water toward the municipal wells, providing a carbon supply to drive the desired denitrification. The fate of nitrate, nitrite, acetate and sulphate were monitored at multilevel wells located between the injection location and the municipal wells. The acetate pulsing interval was approximately weekly (9 h injections), so that the system was operating passively 95% of the time. Previous work on the site has established that the highest solute fluxes were associated with a 1-3 m thick zone about 35 m below surface. This zone was found to respond to the acetate additions as a function of the municipal pumping rate and the carbon-to-nitrogen ratio (i.e., determined by the injected acetate concentration). Initially, acetate was injected just below the theoretical stoichiometric requirement for complete denitrification and nitrate disappearance was accompanied by nitrite production. Increasing the C:N ratio (doubling the acetate injection concentration) increased the removal of nitrate and diminished the occurrence of nitrite. Slowing the municipal pumping rate, with a C:N ratio of 1.2-1.6, resulted in complete nitrate attenuation with no nitrite production and no sulfate reduction. The

  20. Assessment of hydrogeologic conditions with emphasis on water quality and wastewater injection, southwest Sarasota and west Charlotte Counties, Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Hutchinson, C.B. )

    1991-01-01

    The 250 sq mi area of southwest Sarasota and west Charlotte Counties is underlain by a complex geohydrologic system having diverse groundwater quality. The surficial and intermediate aquifer systems and the Upper Floridan aquifer of the Floridan aquifer system contain six separate aquifers, or permeable zones, and have a total thickness of about 2,000 ft. Water in the clastic surficial aquifer system is potable and is tapped by hundreds of shallow, low-yielding, supply wells. Water in the mixed clastic and carbonate intermediate aquifer system is potable in the upper part, but in the lower part, because of increasing salinity, it is used primarily for reverse osmosis desalinization feed water and irrigation. Potential groundwater contamination problems include flooding by storm tides, upward movement of saline water toward pumping centers by natural and induced leakage or through improperly constructed and abandoned wells, and injected into deep zones. The study area encompasses seven wastewater injection sites that have a projected capacity for injecting 29 million gallons per day (gpd) into the zone 1,100 to 2,050 ft below land surface. There are six additional sites within 20 miles. The numerical model was used to simulate injection through a representative well at a rate of 1 million gpd for 10 years. 63 refs., 38 figs., 9 tabs.

  1. ANALYSIS OF LOW-LEVEL PESTICIDES FROM HIGH-ELEVATION LAKE WATERS BY LARGE VOLUME INJECTION GCMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes the method development for the determination of ultra-low level pesticides from high-elevation lake waters by large-volume injection programmable temperature vaporizer (LVI-PTV) GC/MS. This analytical method is developed as a subtask of a larger study, backgr...

  2. 40 CFR 60.4335 - How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection? 60.4335 Section 60.4335 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of Performance for...

  3. Flow injection spectrophotometry coupled with a crushed barium sulfate reactor column for the determination of sulfate ion in water samples.

    PubMed

    Burakham, Rodjana; Higuchi, Keiro; Oshima, Mitsuko; Grudpan, Kate; Motomizu, Shoji

    2004-12-15

    A new type of a reactor column, a crushed BaSO(4) reactor column used for the flow injection spectrophotometric determination of sulfate ion using the exchange reaction of sulfate ion and barium-dimethylsulfonazo III is proposed. The column is very simple and economical. It can be continuously used for 8h before washing with water for repeated usage of at least 1 month. The procedure is sensitive. Application to various water samples was demonstrated.

  4. Assessment of hydrogeologic conditions with emphasis on water quality and wastewater injection, southwest Sarasota and West Charlotte counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hutchinson, C.B.

    1992-01-01

    The 250-square-mile area of southwest Sarasota and west Charlotte Counties is underlain by a complex hydrogeologic system having diverse ground-water quality. The surficial and intermediate aquifer systems and the Upper Floridan aquifer of the Floridan aquifer system contain six separate aquifers, or permeable zones, and have a total thickness of about 2,000 feet. Water in the clastic surficial aquifer system is potable and is tapped by hundreds of shallow, low-yielding supply wells. Water in the mixed clastic and carbonate intermediate aquifer system is potable in the upper part, but in the lower part, because of increasing salinity, it is used primarily for reverse-osmosis desalinization feed water and irrigation. Within the Upper Floridan aquifer, limestone and dolomite of the Suwannee permeable zone are tapped by irrigation and reverse-osmosis supply wells. The underlying, less permeable limestone of the Suwannee-Ocala semiconfining unit generally encompasses the transition zone between freshwater and very saline water. Interbedded limestone and dolomite of the Ocala-Avon Park moderately permeable zone and Avon Park highly permeable zone compose the deep, very saline injection zone. Potential ground-water contamination problems include flooding by storm tides, upward movement of saline water toward pumping centers by natural and induced leakage or through improperly constructed and abandoned wells, and lateral and vertical movement of treated sewage and reverse-osmosis wastewater injected into deep zones. Effects of flooding are evident in coastal areas where vertical layering of fresh and saline waters is observed. Approximately 100 uncontrolled flowing artesian wells that have interaquifer flow rates as high as 350 gallons per minute have been located and scheduled for plugging by the Southwest Florida Water Management District--in an attempt to improve ground-water quality of the shallow aquifers. Because each aquifer or permeable zone has unique head and

  5. Water injection as a means for reducing non-condensible andcorrosive gases in steam produced from vapor-dominated reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Pruess, Karsten; Spycher, Nicolas; Kneafsey, Timothy J.

    2007-01-08

    Large-scale water injection at The Geysers, California, hasgenerated substantial benefits in terms of sustaining reservoir pressuresand production rates, as well as improving steam composition by reducingthe content of non-condensible gases (NCGs). Two effects have beenrecognized and discussed in the literature as contributing to improvedsteam composition, (1) boiling of injectate provides a source of "clean"steam to production wells, and (2) pressurization effects induced byboiling of injected water reduce upflow of native steam with large NCGconcentrations from depth. In this paper we focus on a possibleadditional effect that could reduce NCGs in produced steam by dissolutionin a condensed aqueous phase.Boiling of injectate causes pressurizationeffects that will fairly rapidly migrate outward, away from the injectionpoint. Pressure increases will cause an increase in the saturation ofcondensed phase due to vapor adsorption on mineral surfaces, andcapillary condensation in small pores. NCGs will dissolve in theadditional condensed phase which, depending upon their solubility, mayreduce NCG concentrations in residual steam.We have analyzed thepartitioning of HCl between vapor and aqueous phases, and have performednumerical simulations of injection into superheated vapor zones. Oursimulations provide evidence that dissolution in the condensed phase canindeed reduce NCG concentrations in produced steam.

  6. Flow Rates Measurement and Uncertainty Analysis in Multiple-Zone Water-Injection Wells from Fluid Temperature Profiles.

    PubMed

    Reges, José E O; Salazar, A O; Maitelli, Carla W S P; Carvalho, Lucas G; Britto, Ursula J B

    2016-07-13

    This work is a contribution to the development of flow sensors in the oil and gas industry. It presents a methodology to measure the flow rates into multiple-zone water-injection wells from fluid temperature profiles and estimate the measurement uncertainty. First, a method to iteratively calculate the zonal flow rates using the Ramey (exponential) model was described. Next, this model was linearized to perform an uncertainty analysis. Then, a computer program to calculate the injected flow rates from experimental temperature profiles was developed. In the experimental part, a fluid temperature profile from a dual-zone water-injection well located in the Northeast Brazilian region was collected. Thus, calculated and measured flow rates were compared. The results proved that linearization error is negligible for practical purposes and the relative uncertainty increases as the flow rate decreases. The calculated values from both the Ramey and linear models were very close to the measured flow rates, presenting a difference of only 4.58 m³/d and 2.38 m³/d, respectively. Finally, the measurement uncertainties from the Ramey and linear models were equal to 1.22% and 1.40% (for injection zone 1); 10.47% and 9.88% (for injection zone 2). Therefore, the methodology was successfully validated and all objectives of this work were achieved.

  7. Flow Rates Measurement and Uncertainty Analysis in Multiple-Zone Water-Injection Wells from Fluid Temperature Profiles.

    PubMed

    Reges, José E O; Salazar, A O; Maitelli, Carla W S P; Carvalho, Lucas G; Britto, Ursula J B

    2016-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the development of flow sensors in the oil and gas industry. It presents a methodology to measure the flow rates into multiple-zone water-injection wells from fluid temperature profiles and estimate the measurement uncertainty. First, a method to iteratively calculate the zonal flow rates using the Ramey (exponential) model was described. Next, this model was linearized to perform an uncertainty analysis. Then, a computer program to calculate the injected flow rates from experimental temperature profiles was developed. In the experimental part, a fluid temperature profile from a dual-zone water-injection well located in the Northeast Brazilian region was collected. Thus, calculated and measured flow rates were compared. The results proved that linearization error is negligible for practical purposes and the relative uncertainty increases as the flow rate decreases. The calculated values from both the Ramey and linear models were very close to the measured flow rates, presenting a difference of only 4.58 m³/d and 2.38 m³/d, respectively. Finally, the measurement uncertainties from the Ramey and linear models were equal to 1.22% and 1.40% (for injection zone 1); 10.47% and 9.88% (for injection zone 2). Therefore, the methodology was successfully validated and all objectives of this work were achieved. PMID:27420068

  8. Flow Rates Measurement and Uncertainty Analysis in Multiple-Zone Water-Injection Wells from Fluid Temperature Profiles

    PubMed Central

    Reges, José E. O.; Salazar, A. O.; Maitelli, Carla W. S. P.; Carvalho, Lucas G.; Britto, Ursula J. B.

    2016-01-01

    This work is a contribution to the development of flow sensors in the oil and gas industry. It presents a methodology to measure the flow rates into multiple-zone water-injection wells from fluid temperature profiles and estimate the measurement uncertainty. First, a method to iteratively calculate the zonal flow rates using the Ramey (exponential) model was described. Next, this model was linearized to perform an uncertainty analysis. Then, a computer program to calculate the injected flow rates from experimental temperature profiles was developed. In the experimental part, a fluid temperature profile from a dual-zone water-injection well located in the Northeast Brazilian region was collected. Thus, calculated and measured flow rates were compared. The results proved that linearization error is negligible for practical purposes and the relative uncertainty increases as the flow rate decreases. The calculated values from both the Ramey and linear models were very close to the measured flow rates, presenting a difference of only 4.58 m³/d and 2.38 m³/d, respectively. Finally, the measurement uncertainties from the Ramey and linear models were equal to 1.22% and 1.40% (for injection zone 1); 10.47% and 9.88% (for injection zone 2). Therefore, the methodology was successfully validated and all objectives of this work were achieved. PMID:27420068

  9. Helicopter payload gains utilizing water injection for hot day power augmentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stroub, R. H.

    1972-01-01

    An analytical investigation was undertaken to assess the gains in helicopter mission payload through the use of water injection to produce power augmentation in an altitude-hot day environment. Substantial gains are shown for two representative helicopters, the UH-lH and CH-47B. The UH-lH payload increased 86.7 percent for a 50 n.mi. (92.6 km) radius mission involving two out-of-ground effect (OGE) hover take-offs of 2 minutes each at 5000 ft. (1525 m) 35 C ambient conditions. The CH-47B payload increased 49.5 percent for a 50 n.mi. (92.6 km) radius mission with sling loaded cargo as the outbound payload and a 3000 lb. (1360 kg) internal cargo on the return leg. The mission included two 4 min. OGE hovers at 6000 ft. (1830 m) 35 C. An improvement in take off performance and maximum performance climb also resulted as a consequence of the OGE hover capability and higher maximum power available.

  10. Intraperitoneal injection of saline modulates hippocampal brain receptor complex levels but does not impair performance in the Morris Water Maze.

    PubMed

    Sase, Ajinkya; Khan, Deeba; Höger, Harald; Lubec, Gert

    2012-08-01

    The involvement of the hippocampus in pain has been demonstrated but key players, i.e. the major brain receptors have not been shown to be modulated by pain. It was therefore the aim of the study to show the concerted action and pattern of brain receptor complex levels in a non-invasive model of moderate pain. C57BL/6J mice were divided into four groups of 14 animals each: trained injected, trained non-injected, yoked injected and yoked non-injected. Animals were tested in the open field and the elevated plus maze for behavioural evaluation and cognitive functions were tested using the Morris Water Maze. Hippocampi were taken 6 h following sacrification. Membrane proteins were prepared by ultracentrifugation and run on blue native gels to keep the native state, blotted to membranes and western blotting was carried out using the primary antibodies against serotonin receptor 5HT1A, muscarinic acetylcholine receptor M1 (mAChR-M1), nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha7 (nAChR-alpha7), glutamate (AMPA) receptor (GluR1) and neurokinin receptor 1 (NK-1). There was no difference between performance in behaviour or in the MWM between groups. Brain receptor level changes involved all receptors given above. Pain affected mAChR-M1, GluR1 and NK-1 complex levels when yoked-injected were compared with yoked non-injected animals. Memory mechanisms affected mAChR-M1 complex levels when trained non-injected animals were compared with yoked non-injected controls. Taken together, the neurochemical basis for testing receptor agonists/antagonists on the role of pain and the hippocampus was generated that may be useful for interpretations of the role of this complex area in moderate pain.

  11. Performance of 4600-pound-thrust centrifugal-flow-type turbojet engine with water-alcohol injection at inlet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glasser, Philip W

    1950-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the effects of injecting a water-alcohol mixture of 2:1 at the compressor inlet of a centrifugal-flow type turbojet engine was conducted in an altitude test chamber at static sea-level conditions and at an altitude of 20,000 feet with a flight Mach number of 0.78 with an engine operating at rated speed. The net thrust was augmented by 0.16 for both flight conditions with a ratio of injected liquid to air flow of 0.05. Further increases in the liquid-air ratio did not give comparable increases in thrust.

  12. One-way distribution system for water for injection: process management, microbiological quality control, and meeting regulatory requirements.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, M

    2001-01-01

    The specifications for pharmaceutical water, the qualification and validation of water preparation facilities, strategies to prevent contamination by water-borne bacteria and lastly, the monitoring of microbiological purity are the topics of frequent seminars on Pharma Water Total Quality Management. The same subdivisions are used in the following paper on the process management and microbiological control of a one-way distribution system for Water for Injection. Since 1990, such a system has been in use in the production department of Pharma Hameln GmbH, a contract manufacturer of parenterals. Using this system as an example, the twin needs for flawless microbiological process control and for suitable measures to monitor water quality are discussed, which, together with extensive documentation of the qualification of the production and distribution system, ultimately led to acceptance of the system by regulatory authorities. PMID:11212418

  13. One-way distribution system for water for injection: process management, microbiological quality control, and meeting regulatory requirements.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, M

    2001-01-01

    The specifications for pharmaceutical water, the qualification and validation of water preparation facilities, strategies to prevent contamination by water-borne bacteria and lastly, the monitoring of microbiological purity are the topics of frequent seminars on Pharma Water Total Quality Management. The same subdivisions are used in the following paper on the process management and microbiological control of a one-way distribution system for Water for Injection. Since 1990, such a system has been in use in the production department of Pharma Hameln GmbH, a contract manufacturer of parenterals. Using this system as an example, the twin needs for flawless microbiological process control and for suitable measures to monitor water quality are discussed, which, together with extensive documentation of the qualification of the production and distribution system, ultimately led to acceptance of the system by regulatory authorities.

  14. Temperature and injection water source influence microbial community structure in four Alaskan North Slope hydrocarbon reservoirs

    PubMed Central

    Piceno, Yvette M.; Reid, Francine C.; Tom, Lauren M.; Conrad, Mark E.; Bill, Markus; Hubbard, Christopher G.; Fouke, Bruce W.; Graff, Craig J.; Han, Jiabin; Stringfellow, William T.; Hanlon, Jeremy S.; Hu, Ping; Hazen, Terry C.; Andersen, Gary L.

    2014-01-01

    A fundamental knowledge of microbial community structure in petroleum reservoirs can improve predictive modeling of these environments. We used hydrocarbon profiles, stable isotopes, and high-density DNA microarray analysis to characterize microbial communities in produced water from four Alaskan North Slope hydrocarbon reservoirs. Produced fluids from Schrader Bluff (24–27°C), Kuparuk (47–70°C), Sag River (80°C), and Ivishak (80–83°C) reservoirs were collected, with paired soured/non-soured wells sampled from Kuparuk and Ivishak. Chemical and stable isotope data suggested Schrader Bluff had substantial biogenic methane, whereas methane was mostly thermogenic in deeper reservoirs. Acetoclastic methanogens (Methanosaeta) were most prominent in Schrader Bluff samples, and the combined δD and δ13C values of methane also indicated acetoclastic methanogenesis could be a primary route for biogenic methane. Conversely, hydrogenotrophic methanogens (e.g., Methanobacteriaceae) and sulfide-producing Archaeoglobus and Thermococcus were more prominent in Kuparuk samples. Sulfide-producing microbes were detected in all reservoirs, uncoupled from souring status (e.g., the non-soured Kuparuk samples had higher relative abundances of many sulfate-reducers compared to the soured sample, suggesting sulfate-reducers may be living fermentatively/syntrophically when sulfate is limited). Sulfate abundance via long-term seawater injection resulted in greater relative abundances of Desulfonauticus, Desulfomicrobium, and Desulfuromonas in the soured Ivishak well compared to the non-soured well. In the non-soured Ivishak sample, several taxa affiliated with Thermoanaerobacter and Halomonas predominated. Archaea were not detected in the deepest reservoirs. Functional group taxa differed in relative abundance among reservoirs, likely reflecting differing thermal and/or geochemical influences. PMID:25147549

  15. A New Treatment Strategy for Inactivating Algae in Ballast Water Based on Multi-Trial Injections of Chlorine.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jinyang; Wang, Junsheng; Pan, Xinxiang; Yuan, Haichao

    2015-06-09

    Ships' ballast water can carry aquatic organisms into foreign ecosystems. In our previous studies, a concept using ion exchange membrane electrolysis to treat ballast water has been proven. In addition to other substantial approaches, a new strategy for inactivating algae is proposed based on the developed ballast water treatment system. In the new strategy, the means of multi-trial injection with small doses of electrolytic products is applied for inactivating algae. To demonstrate the performance of the new strategy, contrast experiments between new strategies and routine processes were conducted. Four algae species including Chlorella vulgaris, Platymonas subcordiformis, Prorocentrum micans and Karenia mikimotoi were chosen as samples. The different experimental parameters are studied including the injection times and doses of electrolytic products. Compared with the conventional one trial injection method, mortality rate time (MRT) and available chlorine concentration can be saved up to about 84% and 40%, respectively, under the application of the new strategy. The proposed new approach has great potential in practical ballast water treatment. Furthermore, the strategy is also helpful for deep insight of mechanism of algal tolerance.

  16. A New Treatment Strategy for Inactivating Algae in Ballast Water Based on Multi-Trial Injections of Chlorine

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jinyang; Wang, Junsheng; Pan, Xinxiang; Yuan, Haichao

    2015-01-01

    Ships’ ballast water can carry aquatic organisms into foreign ecosystems. In our previous studies, a concept using ion exchange membrane electrolysis to treat ballast water has been proven. In addition to other substantial approaches, a new strategy for inactivating algae is proposed based on the developed ballast water treatment system. In the new strategy, the means of multi-trial injection with small doses of electrolytic products is applied for inactivating algae. To demonstrate the performance of the new strategy, contrast experiments between new strategies and routine processes were conducted. Four algae species including Chlorella vulgaris, Platymonas subcordiformis, Prorocentrum micans and Karenia mikimotoi were chosen as samples. The different experimental parameters are studied including the injection times and doses of electrolytic products. Compared with the conventional one trial injection method, mortality rate time (MRT) and available chlorine concentration can be saved up to about 84% and 40%, respectively, under the application of the new strategy. The proposed new approach has great potential in practical ballast water treatment. Furthermore, the strategy is also helpful for deep insight of mechanism of algal tolerance. PMID:26068239

  17. A New Treatment Strategy for Inactivating Algae in Ballast Water Based on Multi-Trial Injections of Chlorine.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jinyang; Wang, Junsheng; Pan, Xinxiang; Yuan, Haichao

    2015-01-01

    Ships' ballast water can carry aquatic organisms into foreign ecosystems. In our previous studies, a concept using ion exchange membrane electrolysis to treat ballast water has been proven. In addition to other substantial approaches, a new strategy for inactivating algae is proposed based on the developed ballast water treatment system. In the new strategy, the means of multi-trial injection with small doses of electrolytic products is applied for inactivating algae. To demonstrate the performance of the new strategy, contrast experiments between new strategies and routine processes were conducted. Four algae species including Chlorella vulgaris, Platymonas subcordiformis, Prorocentrum micans and Karenia mikimotoi were chosen as samples. The different experimental parameters are studied including the injection times and doses of electrolytic products. Compared with the conventional one trial injection method, mortality rate time (MRT) and available chlorine concentration can be saved up to about 84% and 40%, respectively, under the application of the new strategy. The proposed new approach has great potential in practical ballast water treatment. Furthermore, the strategy is also helpful for deep insight of mechanism of algal tolerance. PMID:26068239

  18. Synchronized droplet size measurements for coal-water-slurry (CWS) diesel sprays of an electronically-controlled fuel injection system

    SciTech Connect

    Kihm, K.D.; Terracina, D.P.; Payne, S.E.; Caton, J.A.

    1993-12-31

    Experiments were completed to study intermittent coal-water slurry (CWS) fuel sprays injected from an electronically-controlled accumulator injector system. A laser diffraction particle analyzing (LDPA) technique was used to measure the spray diameters (Sauter mean diameter, SMD) assuming the Rosin-Rammler two parameter model. In order to ensure an accurate synchronization of the measurement with the intermittent sprays, a new synchronization technique was developed using the light extinction signal as a triggering source for the data taking initiation. This technique allowed measurement of SMDs near the spray tip where the light extinction was low and the data were free from the multiscattering bias. Coal-water slurry fuel with 50% coal loading in mass containing 5 {mu}m mass median diameter coal particulates was considered. Injection pressures ranging from 28 to 110 MPa, two different nozzle orifice diameters, 0.2 ad 0.4 mm, and four axial measurement locations from 60 to 120 mm from the nozzle orifice were studied. Measurements were made for pressurized (2.0 MPa in gauge) and for ambient chamber conditions. The spray SMD showed an increase with the distance of the axial measurement location and with the ambient gas density, and showed a decrease with increasing injection pressure. A correlation of the Sauter mean diameter with the injection conditions was determined. The results were also compared with previous SMD correlations that were available only for diesel fuel sprays.

  19. Diversity of Microbial Communities in Production and Injection Waters of Algerian Oilfields Revealed by 16S rRNA Gene Amplicon 454 Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Lenchi, Nesrine; İnceoğlu, Özgül; Kebbouche-Gana, Salima; Gana, Mohamed Lamine; Llirós, Marc; Servais, Pierre; García-Armisen, Tamara

    2013-01-01

    The microorganisms inhabiting many petroleum reservoirs are multi-extremophiles capable of surviving in environments with high temperature, pressure and salinity. Their activity influences oil quality and they are an important reservoir of enzymes of industrial interest. To study these microbial assemblages and to assess any modifications that may be caused by industrial practices, the bacterial and archaeal communities in waters from four Algerian oilfields were described and compared. Three different types of samples were analyzed: production waters from flooded wells, production waters from non-flooded wells and injection waters used for flooding (water-bearing formations). Microbial communities of production and injection waters appeared to be significantly different. From a quantitative point of view, injection waters harbored roughly ten times more microbial cells than production waters. Bacteria dominated in injection waters, while Archaea dominated in production waters. Statistical analysis based on the relative abundance and bacterial community composition (BCC) revealed significant differences between production and injection waters at both OTUs0.03 and phylum level. However, no significant difference was found between production waters from flooded and non-flooded wells, suggesting that most of the microorganisms introduced by the injection waters were unable to survive in the production waters. Furthermore, a Venn diagram generated to compare the BCC of production and injection waters of one flooded well revealed only 4% of shared bacterial OTUs. Phylogenetic analysis of bacterial sequences indicated that Alpha-, Beta- and Gammaproteobacteria were the main classes in most of the water samples. Archaeal sequences were only obtained from production wells and each well had a unique archaeal community composition, mainly belonging to Methanobacteria, Methanomicrobia, Thermoprotei and Halobacteria classes. Many of the bacterial genera retrieved had already

  20. Preliminary report on isotope abundance measurements in groundwater samples from the Talbert Injection Barrier Area, Orange County Water District

    SciTech Connect

    Hudson, G.B.; Davisson, M.L.; Velsko, C.; Niemeyer, S.; Esser, B.; Beiriger, J.

    1995-02-01

    This report discusses isotope abundance measurements made on a collection of groundwater samples from the Orange County Water District. The water samples were collected in May, 1994 as part of a preliminary study conducted by LLNL to assess the feasibility of tracing and dating reclaimed water used in the Talbert Injection Barrier. A set of samples were collected both near to and far from the barrier and also at different depths in available monitoring wells. A variety of elements were selected for isotopic analysis; hydrogen (tritium), helium, neon, carbon, chlorine and strontium. The tritium abundance combined with the {sup 3}He and {sup 20}Ne abundance provides a method for age dating young (< 40 yr.) groundwater. The abundance of {sup 14}C provides an age dating technique for older (1,000--50,000 yr.) groundwater. The concentrations of {sup 36}Cl and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr give information on sea water mixing and water-rock chemical interactions.

  1. Comparison of WAG (water-alternating-gas) and continuous enriched-gas injection as miscible processes in Sadlerochit core

    SciTech Connect

    Spence, A.P.; Ostrander, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    Short core displacements were conducted to evaluate miscible condensing-gas drive for the Sadlerochit reservoir of the Prudhoe Bay field. The cores were from well No. DS 14-5. The enriched gas was a 60 to 40 blend on a mole basis of rich Sadlerochit gas and the liquids from the Field Fuel Gas Unit and the separators at Flow Station 3. The experimental program consisted of 4 floods conducted in each of 4 cores for a total of 16 displacements. The floods consisted of gravity-stabilized continuous gas injection displacements with the core (1) at connate water saturation or (2) at waterflood residual oil saturation; and simultaneous injection brine enriched-gas floods at a 4 to 1 brine-to-gas ratio with the core (1) at connate water saturation or (2) at waterflood residual oil saturation.

  2. The feasibility of water injection into the turbine coolant to permit gas turbine contingency power for helicopter application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Fossen, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    It is pointed out that in certain emergency situations it may be desirable to obtain power from a helicopter engine at levels greater than the maximum rating. Yost (1976) has reported studies concerning methods of power augmentation in the one engine inoperative (OEI) case. It was found that a combination of water/alcohol injection into the inlet and overtemperature/overspeed could provide adequate emergency power. The present investigation is concerned with the results of a feasibility study which analytically investigated the maximum possible level of augmentation with constant gas generator turbine stress rupture life as a constraint. In the proposed scheme, the increased engine output is obtained by turbine overtemperature, however, the temperature of the compressor bleed air used for hot section cooling is lowered by injecting and evaporating water.

  3. Wastewater injection, aquifer biogeochemical reactions, and resultant groundwater N fluxes to coastal waters: Kā'anapali, Maui, Hawai'i.

    PubMed

    Fackrell, Joseph K; Glenn, Craig R; Popp, Brian N; Whittier, Robert B; Dulai, Henrietta

    2016-09-15

    We utilize N and C species concentration data along with δ(15)N values of NO3(-) and δ(13)C values of dissolved inorganic C to evaluate the stoichiometry of biogeochemical reactions (mineralization, nitrification, anammox, and denitrification) occurring within a subsurface wastewater plume that originates as treated wastewater injection and enters the coastal waters of Maui as submarine groundwater discharge. Additionally, we compare wastewater effluent time-series data, injection rates, and treatment history with submarine spring discharge time-series data. We find that heterotrophic denitrification is the primary mechanism of N loss within the groundwater plume and that chlorination for pathogen disinfection suppresses microbial activity in the aquifer responsible for N loss, resulting in increased coastal ocean N loading. Replacement of chlorination with UV disinfection may restore biogeochemical reactions responsible for N loss within the aquifer and return N-attenuating conditions in the effluent plume, reducing N loading to coastal waters. PMID:27339740

  4. Effect of administration of water enriched in O2 by injection or electrolysis on transcutaneous oxygen pressure in anesthetized pigs

    PubMed Central

    Charton, Antoine; Péronnet, François; Doutreleau, Stephane; Lonsdorfer, Evelyne; Klein, Alexis; Jimenez, Liliana; Geny, Bernard; Diemunsch, Pierre; Richard, Ruddy

    2014-01-01

    Background Oral administration of oxygenated water has been shown to improve blood oxygenation and could be an alternate way for oxygen (O2) supply. In this experiment, tissue oxygenation was compared in anesthetized pigs receiving a placebo or water enriched in O2 by injection or a new electrolytic process. Methods Forty-two pigs randomized in three groups received either mineral water as placebo or water enriched in O2 by injection or the electrolytic process (10 mL/kg in the stomach). Hemodynamic parameters, partial pressure of oxygen in the arterial blood (PaO2), skin blood flow, and tissue oxygenation (transcutaneous oxygen pressure, or TcPO2) were monitored during 90 minutes of general anesthesia. Absorption and tissue distribution of the three waters administered were assessed using dilution of deuterium oxide. Results Mean arterial pressure, heart rate, PaO2, arteriovenous oxygen difference, and water absorption from the gut were not significantly different among the three groups. The deuterium to protium ratio was also similar in the plasma, skin, and muscle at the end of the protocol. Skin blood flow decreased in the three groups. TcPO2 slowly decreased over the last 60 minutes of the experiment in the three groups, but when compared to the control group, the values remained significantly higher in animals that received the water enriched in O2 by electrolysis. Conclusions In this protocol, water enriched in O2 by electrolysis lessened the decline of peripheral tissue oxygenation. This observation is compatible with the claim that the electrolytic process generates water clathrates which trap O2 and facilitate O2 diffusion along pressure gradients. Potential applications of O2-enriched water include an alternate method of oxygen supply. PMID:25210438

  5. Use of solid phase extraction for the sequential injection determination of alkaline phosphatase activity in dynamic water systems.

    PubMed

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

    2012-08-30

    In this work, a solid phase extraction sequential injection methodology for the determination of alkaline phosphatase activity in dynamic water systems was developed. The determination of the enzymatic activity was based on the spectrophotometric detection of a coloured product, p-nitrophenol, at 405 nm. The p-nitrophenol is the product of the catalytic decomposition of p-nitrophenyl phosphate, a non-coloured substrate. Considering the low levels expected in natural waters and exploiting the fact of alkaline phosphatase being a metalloprotein, the enzyme was pre-concentrated in-line using a NTA Superflow resin charged with Zn(2+) ions. The developed sequential injection method enabled a quantification range of 0.044-0.441 unit mL(-1) of enzyme activity with a detection limit of 0.0082 unit mL(-1) enzyme activity (1.9 μmol L(-1) of pNP) and a determination rate of 17 h(-1). Recovery tests confirmed the accuracy of the developed sequential injection method and it was effectively applied to different natural waters and to plant root extracts. PMID:22939148

  6. A Highly Efficient Six-Stroke Internal Combustion Engine Cycle with Water Injection for In-Cylinder Exhaust Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, Jim; Szybist, James P

    2010-01-01

    A concept is presented here that adds two additional strokes to the four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle that has the potential to increase fuel efficiency of the basic cycle. The engine cycle can be thought of as a 4 stroke Otto or Diesel cycle followed by a 2-stroke heat recovery steam cycle. Early exhaust valve closing during the exhaust stroke coupled with water injection are employed to add an additional power stroke at the end of the conventional four-stroke Otto or Diesel cycle. An ideal thermodynamics model of the exhaust gas compression, water injection at top center, and expansion was used to investigate this modification that effectively recovers waste heat from both the engine coolant and combustion exhaust gas. Thus, this concept recovers energy from two waste heat sources of current engine designs and converts heat normally discarded to useable power and work. This concept has the potential of a substantial increase in fuel efficiency over existing conventional internal combustion engines, and under appropriate injected water conditions, increase the fuel efficiency without incurring a decrease in power density. By changing the exhaust valve closing angle during the exhaust stroke, the ideal amount of exhaust can be recompressed for the amount of water injected, thereby minimizing the work input and maximizing the mean effective pressure of the steam expansion stroke (MEPsteam). The value of this exhaust valve closing for maximum MEPsteam depends on the limiting conditions of either one bar or the dew point temperature of the expansion gas/moisture mixture when the exhaust valve opens to discard the spent gas mixture in the sixth stroke. The range of MEPsteam calculated for the geometry of a conventional gasoline spark-ignited internal combustion engine and for plausible water injection parameters is from 0.75 to 2.5 bars. Typical combustion mean effective pressures (MEPcombustion) of naturally aspirated gasoline engines are up to 10 bar, thus this

  7. Unit operation optimization for the manufacturing of botanical injections using a design space approach: a case study of water precipitation.

    PubMed

    Gong, Xingchu; Chen, Huali; Chen, Teng; Qu, Haibin

    2014-01-01

    Quality by design (QbD) concept is a paradigm for the improvement of botanical injection quality control. In this work, water precipitation process for the manufacturing of Xueshuantong injection, a botanical injection made from Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma, was optimized using a design space approach as a sample. Saponin recovery and total saponin purity (TSP) in supernatant were identified as the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of water precipitation using a risk assessment for all the processes of Xueshuantong injection. An Ishikawa diagram and experiments of fractional factorial design were applied to determine critical process parameters (CPPs). Dry matter content of concentrated extract (DMCC), amount of water added (AWA), and stirring speed (SS) were identified as CPPs. Box-Behnken designed experiments were carried out to develop models between CPPs and process CQAs. Determination coefficients were higher than 0.86 for all the models. High TSP in supernatant can be obtained when DMCC is low and SS is high. Saponin recoveries decreased as DMCC increased. Incomplete collection of supernatant was the main reason for the loss of saponins. Design space was calculated using a Monte-Carlo simulation method with acceptable probability of 0.90. Recommended normal operation region are located in DMCC of 0.38-0.41 g/g, AWA of 3.7-4.9 g/g, and SS of 280-350 rpm, with a probability more than 0.919 to attain CQA criteria. Verification experiment results showed that operating DMCC, SS, and AWA within design space can attain CQA criteria with high probability.

  8. Effect of Sodium Bisulfite Injection on the Microbial Community Composition in a Brackish-Water-Transporting Pipeline▿†

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyung Soo; Chatterjee, Indranil; Dong, Xiaoli; Wang, Sheng-Hung; Sensen, Christoph W.; Caffrey, Sean M.; Jack, Thomas R.; Boivin, Joe; Voordouw, Gerrit

    2011-01-01

    Pipelines transporting brackish subsurface water, used in the production of bitumen by steam-assisted gravity drainage, are subject to frequent corrosion failures despite the addition of the oxygen scavenger sodium bisulfite (SBS). Pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes was used to determine the microbial community composition for planktonic samples of transported water and for sessile samples of pipe-associated solids (PAS) scraped from pipeline cutouts representing corrosion failures. These were obtained from upstream (PAS-616P) and downstream (PAS-821TP and PAS-821LP, collected under rapid-flow and stagnant conditions, respectively) of the SBS injection point. Most transported water samples had a large fraction (1.8% to 97% of pyrosequencing reads) of Pseudomonas not found in sessile pipe samples. The sessile population of PAS-616P had methanogens (Methanobacteriaceae) as the main (56%) community component, whereas Deltaproteobacteria of the genera Desulfomicrobium and Desulfocapsa were not detected. In contrast, PAS-821TP and PAS-821LP had lower fractions (41% and 0.6%) of Methanobacteriaceae archaea but increased fractions of sulfate-reducing Desulfomicrobium (18% and 48%) and of bisulfite-disproportionating Desulfocapsa (35% and 22%) bacteria. Hence, SBS injection strongly changed the sessile microbial community populations. X-ray diffraction analysis of pipeline scale indicated that iron carbonate was present both upstream and downstream, whereas iron sulfide and sulfur were found only downstream of the SBS injection point, suggesting a contribution of the bisulfite-disproportionating and sulfate-reducing bacteria in the scale to iron corrosion. Incubation of iron coupons with pipeline waters indicated iron corrosion coupled to the formation of methane. Hence, both methanogenic and sulfidogenic microbial communities contributed to corrosion of pipelines transporting these brackish waters. PMID:21856836

  9. An injectable hybrid nanoparticle-in-oil-in-water submicron emulsion for improved delivery of poorly soluble drugs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuo; Wang, Hua; Liang, Wenquan; Huang, Yongzhuo

    2012-01-01

    Poor drugability problems are commonly seen in a class of chemical entities with poor solubility in water and oil, and moreover, physicochemical instability of these compounds poses extra challenges in design of dosage forms. Such problems contribute a significant high failure rate in new drug development. A hybrid nanoparicle-in-oil-in-water (N/O/W) submicron emulsion was proposed for improved delivery of poorly soluble and unstable drugs (e.g., dihydroartemisinin (DHA)). DHA is known for its potent antimalarial effect and antitumor activity. However, its insolubility and instability impose big challenges for formulations, and so far, no injectable dosage forms are clinically available yet. Therefore, an injectable DHA N/O/W system was developed. Unlike other widely-explored systems (e.g., liposomes, micelles, and emulsions), in which low drug load and only short-term storage are often found, the hybrid submicron emulsion possesses three-fold higher drug-loading capacity than the conventional O/W emulsion. Of note, it can be manufactured into a freeze-drying form and can render its storage up to 6 months even in room temperature. The in vivo studies demonstrated that the PK profiles were significantly improved, and this injectable system was effective in suppressing tumor growth. The strategy provides a useful solution to effective delivery of such a class of drugs. PMID:22502598

  10. An injectable hybrid nanoparticle-in-oil-in-water submicron emulsion for improved delivery of poorly soluble drugs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuo; Wang, Hua; Liang, Wenquan; Huang, Yongzhuo

    2012-04-01

    Poor drugability problems are commonly seen in a class of chemical entities with poor solubility in water and oil, and moreover, physicochemical instability of these compounds poses extra challenges in design of dosage forms. Such problems contribute a significant high failure rate in new drug development. A hybrid nanoparicle-in-oil-in-water (N/O/W) submicron emulsion was proposed for improved delivery of poorly soluble and unstable drugs (e.g., dihydroartemisinin (DHA)). DHA is known for its potent antimalarial effect and antitumor activity. However, its insolubility and instability impose big challenges for formulations, and so far, no injectable dosage forms are clinically available yet. Therefore, an injectable DHA N/O/W system was developed. Unlike other widely-explored systems (e.g., liposomes, micelles, and emulsions), in which low drug load and only short-term storage are often found, the hybrid submicron emulsion possesses three-fold higher drug-loading capacity than the conventional O/W emulsion. Of note, it can be manufactured into a freeze-drying form and can render its storage up to 6 months even in room temperature. The in vivo studies demonstrated that the PK profiles were significantly improved, and this injectable system was effective in suppressing tumor growth. The strategy provides a useful solution to effective delivery of such a class of drugs.

  11. Flow injection analysis of water. Part 1: Automatic preconcentration determination of sulphate, ammonia and iron(II)/iron(III).

    PubMed

    Cosano, J S; de Castro, M D; Valcárcel, M

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a simple flow-injection (FI) manifold for the determination of a variety of species in industrial water. The chemical systems involved in the determination of ammonia (formation of Indophenol Blue), sulfate (precipitation with Ba(II)), and iron (complexation with 1,10-phenanthroline with the help of a prior redox reaction for speciation) were selected so that a common manifold could be used for the sequential determination of batches of each analyte. A microcolumn of a suitable ion exchange material was used for on-line preconcentration of each analyte prior to injection; linear ranges for the determination of the analytes at the ng/ml levels were obtained with good reproducibility. The manifold and methods are ready for full automation.

  12. Impact of maternal morphine and saline injections on behavioral responses to a cold water stressor in adult male and female progeny.

    PubMed

    Slamberová, Romana; Schindler, Cheryl J; Vathy, Ilona

    2002-04-15

    The purpose of the present study was to test the effects of maternal morphine and saline injections on chronic cold water stress responses in three groups of adult male and female rats: prenatally morphine-exposed adult progeny, prenatally saline-exposed adult progeny, and control groups. All male rats were gonadally intact, and female rats were ovariectomized (OVX) in adulthood, and half of them were injected with estradiol benzoate (EB). All animals were exposed to a cold water stressor daily for 2 weeks and tested before (baseline) and after (stress effects) the chronic cold water stressor in a swim test and an open field test. In the swim test, both adult males and OVX, EB-treated adult females born to mothers injected with morphine or saline displayed more floating behavior during the swim test than their controls, both before and after the cold water stressor. Male rats exposed to morphine or saline prenatally also spent more time struggling during the swim tests than controls, and this was further increased after the cold water stressor. In the open field test, males and OVX, EB-treated females born to morphine- or saline-injected mothers were less active and displayed fewer rearings than controls. No differences were observed in OVX females as a result of prenatal injections. Thus, the present study demonstrates that maternal injections, regardless of injection content, induce long-lasting effects on stress responsiveness in adult progeny.

  13. Strontium isotopes test long-term zonal isolation of injected and Marcellus formation water after hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Courtney A Kolesar; Capo, Rosemary C; Stewart, Brian W; Wall, Andrew J; Schroeder, Karl T; Hammack, Richard W; Guthrie, George D

    2014-08-19

    One concern regarding unconventional hydrocarbon production from organic-rich shale is that hydraulic fracture stimulation could create pathways that allow injected fluids and deep brines from the target formation or adjacent units to migrate upward into shallow drinking water aquifers. This study presents Sr isotope and geochemical data from a well-constrained site in Greene County, Pennsylvania, in which samples were collected before and after hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale. Results spanning a 15-month period indicated no significant migration of Marcellus-derived fluids into Upper Devonian/Lower Mississippian units located 900-1200 m above the lateral Marcellus boreholes or into groundwater sampled at a spring near the site. Monitoring the Sr isotope ratio of water from legacy oil and gas wells or drinking water wells can provide a sensitive early warning of upward brine migration for many years after well stimulation. PMID:25024106

  14. Strontium isotopes test long-term zonal isolation of injected and Marcellus formation water after hydraulic fracturing.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Courtney A Kolesar; Capo, Rosemary C; Stewart, Brian W; Wall, Andrew J; Schroeder, Karl T; Hammack, Richard W; Guthrie, George D

    2014-08-19

    One concern regarding unconventional hydrocarbon production from organic-rich shale is that hydraulic fracture stimulation could create pathways that allow injected fluids and deep brines from the target formation or adjacent units to migrate upward into shallow drinking water aquifers. This study presents Sr isotope and geochemical data from a well-constrained site in Greene County, Pennsylvania, in which samples were collected before and after hydraulic fracturing of the Middle Devonian Marcellus Shale. Results spanning a 15-month period indicated no significant migration of Marcellus-derived fluids into Upper Devonian/Lower Mississippian units located 900-1200 m above the lateral Marcellus boreholes or into groundwater sampled at a spring near the site. Monitoring the Sr isotope ratio of water from legacy oil and gas wells or drinking water wells can provide a sensitive early warning of upward brine migration for many years after well stimulation.

  15. Flow injection analysis of trace chromium (VI) in drinking water with a liquid waveguide capillary cell and spectrophotometric detection.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jian; Yuan, Dongxing; Byrne, Robert H

    2014-01-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) is an acknowledged hazardous material in drinking waters. As such, effective monitoring and assessment of the risks posed by Cr(VI) are important analytical objectives for both human health and environmental science. However, because of the lack of highly sensitive, rapid, and simple procedures, a relatively limited number of studies have been carried out in this field. Here we report a simple and sensitive analytical procedure of flow injection analysis (FIA) for sub-nanomolar Cr(VI) in drinking water samples with a liquid core waveguide capillary cell (LWCC). The procedure is based on a highly selective reaction between 1, 5-diphenylcarbazide and Cr(VI) under acidic conditions. The optimized experimental parameters included reagent concentrations, injection volume, length of mixing coil, and flow rate. Measurements at 540 nm, and a 650-nm reference wavelength, produced a 0.12-nM detection limit. Relative standard deviations for 1, 2, and 10 nM samples were 5.6, 3.6, and 0.72 % (n = 9), and the analysis time was <2 min sample(-1). The effects of salinity and interfering ions, especially Fe(III), were evaluated. Using the FIA-LWCC method, different sources of bottled waters and tap waters were examined. The Cr(VI) concentrations of the bottled waters ranged from the detection limit to ∼20 nM, and tap waters collected from the same community supply had Cr(VI) concentration around 14 nM.

  16. The long term observed effect of air and water injection into a fracture hydrothermal system

    SciTech Connect

    Mario Cesar Suarez Arriaga; Mirna Tello Lopez; Luis de Rio; Hector Gutierrez Puente

    1992-01-01

    Injection of atmospheric air mixed with waste reinjection liquid, has been occurring since 1982 at the Los Azufres, Mexico volcanic hydrothermal system. Several chemical and thermodynamical evidences show that air injection into this fractured geothermal field, could be considered as a long term natural tracer test. Nitrogen and Argon separated from the air mixture migrate from reinjection wells to production zones following preferential paths closely related to high permeability conduits. These paths can be detected, looking into the N2 solubility evolution of production wells. The anisotropic nature of the fractured volcanic rock, would demand considerably amounts of artificial tracer in order to be detected at the producing wells, specially when fluid extraction is low. This explains the unsuccessful recovery of the artificial tracer tests performed in past years at Tejamaniles, the southern field's sector. On the other hand, chloride concentrations and other salts, are increasing in the liquid produced by the oldest wells of the sector.

  17. Flow Simulation of Solid Rocket Motors. 1; Injection Induced Water-Flow Tests from Porous Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramachandran, N.; Yeh, Y. P.; Smith, A. W.; Heaman, J. P.

    1999-01-01

    Prior to selecting a proper porous material for use in simulating the internal port flow of a solid rocket motor (SRM), in cold-flow testing, the flow emerging from porous materials is experimentally investigated. The injection-flow emerging from a porous matrix always exhibits a lumpy velocity profile that is spatially stable and affects the development of the longitudinal port flow. This flow instability, termed pseudoturbulence, is an inherent signature of the porous matrix and is found to generally increase with the wall porosity and with the injection flow rate. Visualization studies further show that the flow from porous walls made from shaving-type material (sintered stainless-steel) exhibits strong recirculation zones that are conspicuously absent in walls made from nodular or spherical material (sintered bronze). Detailed flow visualization observations and hot-film measurements are reported from tests of injection-flow and a coupled cross-flow from different porous wall materials. Based on the experimental data, discussion is provided on the choice of suitable material for SRM model testing while addressing the consequences and shortcomings from such a test.

  18. Injection of Contaminants into a Simulated Water Distribution System Equipped with Continuous Multi-Parameter Water Monitors

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA’s Technology Testing and Evaluation Program has been charged by EPA to evaluate the performance of commercially available water security-related technologies. Multi-parameter water monitors for distributions systems have been evaluated as such a water security techn...

  19. Non invasive monitoring of water flow in the vadose zone: the issue of mass balance in controlled tracer injection experiments.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassiani, G.; Deiana, R.; Kemna, A.

    2006-12-01

    The non invasive characterization of the subsurface, with the goal of obtaining data for the calibration of flow and transport hydrologic models, has become very popular in recent years. However, the process of converting geophysical data into quantitative estimates of volumetric water content and/or solute concentrations is not straightforward, as it requires knowledge of (1) resolution and penetration characteristics of the geophysical methods (imaging characteristics); (2) suitable constitutive laws for the conversion of geophysical quantities into hydrologic quantities (petrophysics). In addition, the calibration of flow/transport models on the basis of geophysically-derived data requires that the space/time evolution of these data be summarized in terms that can be directly compared with simulation results. In the case of controlled injection experiments having a point source (e.g. a borehole section), an effective tool is the analysis of spatial moments of the injected slug. However, important issues are still unresolved, particularly with regard to the identifiability of second order spatial moments (spread) and, more disturbing, mass balance. Field experience demonstrates that it is rarely possible to "see" the total injected tracer mass by means of a non invasive method, be it cross-hole ERT or GPR, leading to errors of the order of 50%. The reasons of these limitations lie mostly in the imaging characteristics of the methods. A better understanding of these characteristics can, on the other hand, provide new tools for a more accurate calibration of flow/transport models.

  20. New method for simultaneous determination of Fe(II) and Fe(III) in water using flow injection technique.

    PubMed

    Kozak, J; Gutowski, J; Kozak, M; Wieczorek, M; Kościelniak, P

    2010-05-23

    The method exploits the possibilities of flow injection gradient titration in a system of reversed flow with spectrophotometric detection. In the developed approach a small amount of titrant (EDTA) is injected into a stream of sample containing a mixture of indicators (sulfosalicylic acid and 1,10-phenanthroline). In acid environment sulfosalicylic acid forms a complex with Fe(III), whereas 1,10-phenanthroline forms a complex with Fe(II). Measurements are performed at wavelength lambda=530 nm when radiation is absorbed by both complexes. After injection EDTA replaces sulfosalicylic acid and forms with Fe(III) more stable colourless complex. As a result, a characteristic "cut off" peak is registered with a width corresponding to the Fe(III) concentration and with a height corresponding to the Fe(II) concentration. Calibration was performed by titration of four two-component standard solutions of the Fe(II)/Fe(III) concentrations established in accordance with 2(2) factorial plan. The method was tested with the use of synthetic samples and then it was applied to the analysis of water samples taken from artesian wells. Under optimized experimental conditions Fe(II) and Fe(III) were determined with precision less than 0.8 and 2.5% (RSD) and accuracy less than 3.2 and 5.1% (relative error) within the concentration ranges of 0.1-3.0 and 0.9-3.5 mg L(-1) of both analytes, respectively.

  1. An investigation of ground-water recharge by injection in the Palo Alto Baylands, California : hydraulic and chemical interactions; final report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, S.N.

    1985-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Santa Clara Valley Water District, has completed a study of ground-water recharge by injection in the Palo Alto baylands along San Francisco Bay, California. Selected wells within the Water District 's injection-extraction network were monitored to determine hydraulic and chemical interactions affecting well-field operation. The well field was installed to prevent and eliminate saline contamination in the local shallow aquifer system. The primary focus of this study is on factors that affect injection efficiency, specifically well and aquifer clogging. Mixing and break-through curves for major chemical constituents indicate ion exchange, adsorption, and dissolution reactions. Freshwater breakthrough was detected in water-level data, which reflected fluid-density change as well as head buildup. Dissolution of calcium carbonate caused by dilution of saline ground water probably accounts for an apparent increase in specific capacity possibly related to improved aquifer permeability. Adsorption evidently removed trace elements during passage of injected water through the aquifer. In terms of hydraulic and chemical compatibility, the well field is a viable system for ground-water recharge. Aquifer heterogeneity and operational constraints reduce the efficiency of the system. Efficiency may be maximized by careful attention to extraction distribution and quantity and to injection distribution, quantity, and water quality. (USGS)

  2. Work plan for ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well injection at Grand Junction, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-18

    The purpose of this document is to describe the work that will be performed and the procedures that will be followed during installation of ground water monitor wells and ground water elevation data recorders (data loggers) at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project site. The monitor wells and data loggers will be used to gather required time-dependent data to investigate the interaction between the shallow aquifer and the Colorado River. Data collection objectives (DCO) identify reasons for collecting data. The following are DCOs for the Grand Junction ground water elevation data recorder/monitor well installation project: long-term continuous ground water level data and periodic ground water samples will be collected to better understand the relationship between surface and ground water at the site; water level and water quality data will eventually be used in future ground water modeling to more firmly establish boundary conditions in the vicinity of the Grand Junction processing site; modeling results will be used to demonstrate and document the potential remedial alternative of natural flushing.

  3. Methodology for assessing quantities of water and proppant injection, and water production associated with development of continuous petroleum accumulations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haines, Seth S.

    2015-07-13

    The quantities of water and hydraulic fracturing proppant required for producing petroleum (oil, gas, and natural gas liquids) from continuous accumulations, and the quantities of water extracted during petroleum production, can be quantitatively assessed using a probabilistic approach. The water and proppant assessment methodology builds on the U.S. Geological Survey methodology for quantitative assessment of undiscovered technically recoverable petroleum resources in continuous accumulations. The U.S. Geological Survey assessment methodology for continuous petroleum accumulations includes fundamental concepts such as geologically defined assessment units, and probabilistic input values including well-drainage area, sweet- and non-sweet-spot areas, and success ratio within the untested area of each assessment unit. In addition to petroleum-related information, required inputs for the water and proppant assessment methodology include probabilistic estimates of per-well water usage for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic-fracture stimulation; the ratio of proppant to water for hydraulic fracturing; the percentage of hydraulic fracturing water that returns to the surface as flowback; and the ratio of produced water to petroleum over the productive life of each well. Water and proppant assessments combine information from recent or current petroleum assessments with water- and proppant-related input values for the assessment unit being studied, using Monte Carlo simulation, to yield probabilistic estimates of the volume of water for drilling, cementing, and hydraulic fracture stimulation; the quantity of proppant for hydraulic fracture stimulation; and the volumes of water produced as flowback shortly after well completion, and produced over the life of the well.

  4. Tomographic Imaging of Water Injection and Withdrawal in PEMFC Gas Diffusion Layers

    SciTech Connect

    McGill U; Gostick, J. T.; Gunterman, H. P.; Weber, A. Z.; Newman, J. S.; Kienitz, B. L.; MacDowell, A. A.

    2010-06-25

    X-ray computed tomography was used to visualize the water configurations inside gas diffusion layers for various applied capillary pressures, corresponding to both water invasion and withdrawal. A specialized sample holder was developed to allow capillary pressure control on the small-scale samples required. Tests were performed on GDL specimens with and without hydrophobic treatments.

  5. MICROBIAL RESPONSES TO CHEMICAL OXIDATION, SIX-PHASE HEATING, AND STEAM INJECTION TREATMENT IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) is present at high concentrations in ground water at many sites where gasoline has been spilled from underground storage tanks. In addition, TBA (tertiary butyl alcohol) is also present at high concentrations in many of the same ground waters. ...

  6. Injection-seeded alexandrite ring laser: performance and application in a water-vapor differential absorption lidar.

    PubMed

    Wulfmeyer, V; Bösenberg, J; Lehmann, S; Senff, C; Schmitz, S

    1995-03-15

    A new laser system for use of differential absorption lidar (DIAL) in measurements of tropospheric water vapor and temperature is introduced. This system operates in the 720-780-nm region and is configured as an alexandrite ring laser injection seeded by a cw Ti:sapphire ring laser. This combination provides for the necessary narrow-bandwidth, high-frequency stability and excellent spectral purity. A bandwidth of <5.0 x 10(-3) cm(-1), a frequency stability of 2.1 x 10(-3) cm(-1) rms, and a spectral purity of 99.995% at 726 nm have been achieved during extended periods of operation. A comparison of a DIAL water-vapor measurement with a radiosonde in the boundary layer between 500 and 2000 m was performed. The maximum deviation between the humidity profiles is 15%, the standard deviation 1.6%, and the difference between the mean values 1%.

  7. Determination of thiram in natural waters using flow-injection with cerium(IV)-quinine chemiluminescence system.

    PubMed

    Waseem, Amir; Yaqoob, Mohammad; Nabi, Abdul

    2010-01-01

    A simple and rapid flow-injection chemiluminescence method has been developed for the determination of dithiocarbamate fungicide thiram based on the chemiluminescence reaction of thiram with ceric sulfate and quinine in aqueous sulfuric acid. The present method allowed the determination of thiram in the concentration range of 7.5-2500 ng/mL and the detection limit (signal-to-noise ratio = 3) was 7.5 ng/mL with sample throughput of 120/h. The relative standard deviation was 2.5% for 10 replicate analyses of 500 ng/mL thiram. The effects of foreign species including various anions and cations present in water at environmentally relevant concentrations and some pesticides were also investigated. The proposed method was applied to determine thiram in spiked natural waters using octadecyl bonded phase silica (C(18)) cartridges for solid-phase extraction. The recoveries were in the range 99 +/- 1 to 104 +/- 1%.

  8. Design and development of an automated flow injection instrument for the determination of arsenic species in natural waters

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, Grady; Fan, Tina K.; Kantor, Melanie; Clark, Keith; Cardenas, Steven; Guillaume, Darrell W.; Khachikian, Crist S.

    2009-01-01

    The design and development of an automated flow injection instrument for the determination of arsenite [As(III)] and arsenate [As(V)] in natural waters is described. The instrument incorporates solenoid activated self-priming micropumps and electronic switching valves for controlling the fluidics of the system and a miniature charge-coupled device spectrometer operating in a graphical programming environment. The limits of detection were found to be 0.79 and 0.98 μM for As(III) and As(V), respectively, with linear range of 1–50 μM. Spiked ultrapure water samples were analyzed and recoveries were found to be 97%–101% for As(III) and 95%–99% for As(V), respectively. Future directions in terms of automation, optimization, and field deployment are discussed. PMID:19895074

  9. Measuring the concentrations of drinking water disinfection by-products using capillary membrane sampling-flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Geme, Gija; Brown, Michael A; Simone, Paul; Emmert, Gary L

    2005-10-01

    A capillary membrane sampling-flow injection analysis method is presented for selectively measuring the concentrations of total trihalomethanes (THMs) and total haloacetic acids (HAAs) in drinking water. The method is based on the reaction between nicotinamide and THM or HAA species to yield a fluorescent product. Two configurations are presented, one selective for total THMs and another selective for total HAAs. The construction of a capillary membrane sampler is described, and the results of method detection limit, accuracy and precision studies are reported for each method. Interference, selectivity and linearity studies are reported as well as the effect of temperature and ionic strength changes. Drinking water samples were analyzed by each proposed method and the results were compared to USEPA methods 502.2 and 552.3.

  10. Observations of Lower Stratospheric Water Vapor Injected by Overshooting Convection During SEAC4RS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, R. L.; Ray, E. A.; Schwartz, M. J.; Read, W. G.; Troy, R. F.; Christensen, L. E.; Chin, K. B.; Stachnik, R. A.; Rosenlof, K. H.; Bedka, K. M.; Bui, T. V.

    2015-12-01

    Several NASA ER-2 aircraft flights during the 2013 NASA Studies of Emissions and Atmospheric Composition, Clouds and Climate Coupling by Regional Surveys (SEAC4RS) field mission sampled the UTLS region heavily influenced by the North American Monsoon (NAM). Enhanced water vapor was measured in the lower stratosphere between 160 hPa and 80 hPa over the continental United States. Here we present in-situ water vapor measurements from the improved JPL Laser Hygrometer (JLH Mark2) to characterize the NAM water vapor field during August and September 2013. Overshooting cloud tops are identified from a SEAC4RS overshooting top (OT) detection product that is based on infrared satellite imagery. Back-trajectory analysis ties enhanced water to overshooting cloud tops 1 to 7 days prior to the intercept by the aircraft. Regional context is provided by water observations from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS).

  11. Organic secondary ion mass spectrometry: signal enhancement by water vapor injection.

    PubMed

    Mouhib, Taoufiq; Delcorte, Arnaud; Poleunis, Claude; Bertrand, Patrick

    2010-12-01

    The enhancement of the static secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) signals resulting from the injection, closely to the sample surface, of H(2)O vapor at relatively high-pressure, was investigated for a set of organic materials. While the ion signals are generally improved with increasing H(2)O pressure upon 12 keV Ga(+) bombardment, a specific enhancement of the protonated ion intensity is clearly demonstrated in each case. For instance, the presence of H(2)O vapor induces an enhancement by one order of magnitude of the [M + H](+) static SIMS intensity for the antioxidant Irgafos 168 and a ∼1.5-fold increase for polymers such as poly(vinyl pyrrolidone).

  12. Observations of the Effect of Non-steady State Injections of Oxygen Into Anoxic Waters of the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scranton, M. I.; Li, X.; Lopez-Gasca, M.; Podlaska, A.; Astor, Y.; Fanning, K.; Lorenzoni, L.; Taylor, G. T.

    2008-12-01

    Traditionally, the Cariaco Basin has been considered to be a classic example of an anoxic basin where transport of organic rich material from the surface layers to depth, restricted vertical mixing, and anaerobic diagenesis dominate. Many studies explicitly or implicitly assume that distributions of chemical species and microbial activity change relatively gradually and that sediment properties solely reflect processes in the overlying water. However the CARIACO time series has repeatedly obtained evidence that intruding oxygenated water must be extremely important in controlling both water chemistry and microbial activity. In May 2008 repeated cruises took place over a period of weeks which clearly demonstrated that relatively large volumes of oxygenated water had recently intruded to depths of at least 300 m over a period of days to weeks. We saw clear evidence of deep oxygen maxima, minima in methane and sulfide concentrations below the oxygen/sulfide interface and apparent perturbations in other measured parameters including nutrients, sulfur species and microbial activity. Data suggest, among other things, that microbial activity lags production of sulfur intermediates like elemental sulfur, implying that chemoautotrophic bacteria in the system may use elemental S. We will present data on changes in hydrography, nutrient distributions, microbial rates and other variables resulting from the intrusions and which allow us to estimate the zone of influence of this intrusion. Ultimately, properties (such as N and S chemistry) of sediments in such systems could be affected by changes in chemistry of the system caused by lateral injections of oxidants and other material from outside the basin.

  13. Effect of nitrate injection on the bacterial community in a water-oil tank system analyzed by PCR-DGGE.

    PubMed

    Jurelevicius, Diogo; von der Weid, Irene; Korenblum, Elisa; Valoni, Erika; Penna, Mônica; Seldin, Lucy

    2008-04-01

    Sulfide production by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) is a major concern for the petroleum industry since it is toxic and corrosive, and causes plugging due to the formation of insoluble iron sulfides (reservoir souring). In this study, PCR followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) using two sets of primers based on the 16S rRNA gene and on the aps gene (adenosine-5-phosphosulfate reductase) was used to track changes in the total bacterial and SRB communities, respectively, present in the water-oil tank system on an offshore platform in Brazil in which nitrate treatment was applied for 2 months (15 nitrate injections). PCR-DGGE analysis of the total bacterial community showed the existence of a dominant population in the water-oil tank, and that the appearance and/or the increase of intensity of some bands in the gels were not permanently affected by the introduction of nitrate. On the other hand, the SRB community was stimulated following nitrate treatment. Moreover, sulfide production did not exceed the permissible exposure limit in the water-oil separation tank studied treated with nitrate. Therefore, controlling sulfide production by treating the produced water tank with nitrate could reduce the quantity of chemical biocides required to control microbial activities. PMID:18180965

  14. Proton-Induced Trap States, Injection and Recombination Dynamics in Water-Splitting Dye-Sensitized Photoelectrochemical Cells.

    PubMed

    McCool, Nicholas S; Swierk, John R; Nemes, Coleen T; Saunders, Timothy P; Schmuttenmaer, Charles A; Mallouk, Thomas E

    2016-07-01

    Water-splitting dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells (WS-DSPECs) utilize a sensitized metal oxide and a water oxidation catalyst in order to generate hydrogen and oxygen from water. Although the Faradaic efficiency of water splitting is close to unity, the recombination of photogenerated electrons with oxidized dye molecules causes the quantum efficiency of these devices to be low. It is therefore important to understand recombination mechanisms in order to develop strategies to minimize them. In this paper, we discuss the role of proton intercalation in the formation of recombination centers. Proton intercalation forms nonmobile surface trap states that persist on time scales that are orders of magnitude longer than the electron lifetime in TiO2. As a result of electron trapping, recombination with surface-bound oxidized dye molecules occurs. We report a method for effectively removing the surface trap states by mildly heating the electrodes under vacuum, which appears to primarily improve the injection kinetics without affecting bulk trapping dynamics, further stressing the importance of proton control in WS-DSPECs. PMID:27295276

  15. Flow injection analysis with electrochemical detection for rapid identification of platinum-based cytostatics and platinum chlorides in water.

    PubMed

    Kominkova, Marketa; Heger, Zbynek; Zitka, Ondrej; Kynicky, Jindrich; Pohanka, Miroslav; Beklova, Miroslava; Adam, Vojtech; Kizek, Rene

    2014-02-04

    Platinum-based cytostatics, such as cisplatin, carboplatin or oxaliplatin are widely used agents in the treatment of various types of tumors. Large amounts of these drugs are excreted through the urine of patients into wastewaters in unmetabolised forms. This phenomenon leads to increased amounts of platinum ions in the water environment. The impacts of these pollutants on the water ecosystem are not sufficiently investigated as well as their content in water sources. In order to facilitate the detection of various types of platinum, we have developed a new, rapid, screening flow injection analysis method with electrochemical detection (FIA-ED). Our method, based on monitoring of the changes in electrochemical behavior of analytes, maintained by various pH buffers (Britton-Robinson and phosphate buffer) and potential changes (1,000, 1,100 and 1,200 mV) offers rapid and cheap selective determination of platinum-based cytostatics and platinum chlorides, which can also be present as contaminants in water environments.

  16. Proton-Induced Trap States, Injection and Recombination Dynamics in Water-Splitting Dye-Sensitized Photoelectrochemical Cells.

    PubMed

    McCool, Nicholas S; Swierk, John R; Nemes, Coleen T; Saunders, Timothy P; Schmuttenmaer, Charles A; Mallouk, Thomas E

    2016-07-01

    Water-splitting dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells (WS-DSPECs) utilize a sensitized metal oxide and a water oxidation catalyst in order to generate hydrogen and oxygen from water. Although the Faradaic efficiency of water splitting is close to unity, the recombination of photogenerated electrons with oxidized dye molecules causes the quantum efficiency of these devices to be low. It is therefore important to understand recombination mechanisms in order to develop strategies to minimize them. In this paper, we discuss the role of proton intercalation in the formation of recombination centers. Proton intercalation forms nonmobile surface trap states that persist on time scales that are orders of magnitude longer than the electron lifetime in TiO2. As a result of electron trapping, recombination with surface-bound oxidized dye molecules occurs. We report a method for effectively removing the surface trap states by mildly heating the electrodes under vacuum, which appears to primarily improve the injection kinetics without affecting bulk trapping dynamics, further stressing the importance of proton control in WS-DSPECs.

  17. Suppression of formation of dioxins in combustion gas of municipal waste incinerators by spray water injection.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Eiji; Shigechi, Toru; Takemasa, Takehiro; Momoki, Satoru; Arizono, Koji

    2007-01-01

    Dioxins in the combustion gas of municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) are resynthesized when the combustion gas passes from the outlet exaust gas boiler to the outlet gas duct. The objective of the study was to estimate if the suppression of the formation of dioxins depends on the inlet gas temperature and diameter and/or temperature of droplet spray water using an actual incinerator operation data. The dioxin formation and/or the quenching temperature is revealed using the Altwicker theory equation with the information of inlet gas temperature and droplet spray water. The evaporation rate of a spray water droplet also can be estimated using the Mizutani theory. The highest dioxin formation was found at 350 degrees C; thereafter, it decreased quickly. When an area of 500 microm for droplet-formed dioxins is defined as 100%, the values of formed dioxins for 400, 300, 200 and 100 microm droplet areas are estimated as 71, 41, 25 and 18%, respectively. It is revealed that the smaller size of droplet spray water and lower inlet gas temperature enable the decrease in dioxin formation. The decreased dioxin formation and/or the lower quenching temperature is revealed using the Altwicker theory equation with the information of inlet gas temperature and droplet spray water size.

  18. Improving oxygen conditions in the deeper parts of bornholm sea by pumped injection of winter water.

    PubMed

    Stigebrandt, Anders; Kalén, Ola

    2013-09-01

    Vertical diffusivity and oxygen consumption in the basin water, the water below the sill level at about 59 m depth, have been estimated by applying budget methods to monitoring data from hydrographical stations BY4 and BY5 for periods without water renewal. From the vertical diffusivity, the mean rate of work against the buoyancy forces below 65 m depth is estimated to about 0.10 mW m(-2). This is slightly higher than published values for East Gotland Sea. The horizontally averaged vertical diffusivity κ can be approximated by the expression κ = a 0 N (-1) where N is the buoyancy frequency and a 0 ≈ 1.25 × 10(-7) m(2) s(-2), which is similar to values for a 0 used for depths below the halocline in Baltic proper circulation models for long-term simulations. The contemporary mean rate of oxygen consumption in the basin water is about 75 g O2 m(-2) year(-1), which corresponds to an oxidation of 28 g C m(-2) year(-1). The oxygen consumption in the Bornholm Basin doubled from the 1970s to the 2000s, which qualitatively explains the observed increasing frequency and vertical extent of anoxia and hypoxia in the basin water in records from the end of the 1950s to present time. A horizontally averaged vertical advection-diffusion model of the basin water is used to calculate the effects on stratification and oxygen concentration by a forced pump-driven vertical convection. It is shown that the residence time of the basin water may be reduced by pumping down and mixing the so-called winter water into the deepwater. With the present rate of oxygen consumption, a pumped flux of about 25 km(3) year(-1) would be sufficient to keep the oxygen concentration in the deepwater above 2 mL O2 L(-1). PMID:23161366

  19. Effects of intracutaneous injections of sterile water in patients with acute low back pain: a randomized, controlled, clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Cui, J Z; Geng, Z S; Zhang, Y H; Feng, J Y; Zhu, P; Zhang, X B

    2016-03-01

    Intracutaneous sterile water injection (ISWI) is used for relief of low back pain during labor, acute attacks of urolithiasis, chronic neck and shoulder pain following whiplash injuries, and chronic myofascial pain syndrome. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of ISWI for relief of acute low back pain (aLBP). A total of 68 patients (41 females and 27 males) between 18 and 55 years old experiencing aLBP with moderate to severe pain (scores ≥5 on an 11-point visual analogue scale [VAS]) were recruited and randomly assigned to receive either ISWIs (n=34) or intracutaneous isotonic saline injections (placebo treatment; n=34). The primary outcome was improvement in pain intensity using the VAS at 10, 45, and 90 min and 1 day after treatment. The secondary outcome was functional improvement, which was assessed using the Patient-Specific Functional Scale (PSFS) 1 day after treatment. The mean VAS score was significantly lower in the ISWI group than in the control group at 10, 45, and 90 min, and 1 day after injection (P<0.05, t-test). The mean increment in PSFS score of the ISWI group was 2.9±2.2 1 day after treatment, while that in the control group was 0.9±2.2. Our study showed that ISWI was effective for relieving pain and improving function in aLBP patients at short-term follow-up. ISWI might be an alternative treatment for aLBP patients, especially in areas where medications are not available, as well as in specific patients (e.g., those who are pregnant or have asthma), who are unable to receive medications or other forms of analgesia because of side effects. PMID:26840703

  20. Effects of intracutaneous injections of sterile water in patients with acute low back pain: a randomized, controlled, clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Cui, J.Z.; Geng, Z.S.; Zhang, Y.H.; Feng, J.Y.; Zhu, P.; Zhang, X.B.

    2016-01-01

    Intracutaneous sterile water injection (ISWI) is used for relief of low back pain during labor, acute attacks of urolithiasis, chronic neck and shoulder pain following whiplash injuries, and chronic myofascial pain syndrome. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial to evaluate the effect of ISWI for relief of acute low back pain (aLBP). A total of 68 patients (41 females and 27 males) between 18 and 55 years old experiencing aLBP with moderate to severe pain (scores ≥5 on an 11-point visual analogue scale [VAS]) were recruited and randomly assigned to receive either ISWIs (n=34) or intracutaneous isotonic saline injections (placebo treatment; n=34). The primary outcome was improvement in pain intensity using the VAS at 10, 45, and 90 min and 1 day after treatment. The secondary outcome was functional improvement, which was assessed using the Patient-Specific Functional Scale (PSFS) 1 day after treatment. The mean VAS score was significantly lower in the ISWI group than in the control group at 10, 45, and 90 min, and 1 day after injection (P<0.05, t-test). The mean increment in PSFS score of the ISWI group was 2.9±2.2 1 day after treatment, while that in the control group was 0.9±2.2. Our study showed that ISWI was effective for relieving pain and improving function in aLBP patients at short-term follow-up. ISWI might be an alternative treatment for aLBP patients, especially in areas where medications are not available, as well as in specific patients (e.g., those who are pregnant or have asthma), who are unable to receive medications or other forms of analgesia because of side effects. PMID:26840703

  1. Enhancement of Biogenic Coalbed Methane Production and Back Injection of Coalbed Methane Co-Produced Water

    SciTech Connect

    Song Jin

    2007-05-31

    Biogenic methane is a common constituent in deep subsurface environments such as coalbeds and oil shale beds. Coalbed methane (CBM) makes significant contributions to world natural gas industry and CBM production continues to increase. With increasing CBM production, the production of CBM co-produced water increases, which is an environmental concern. This study investigated the feasibility in re-using CBM co-produced water and other high sodic/saline water to enhance biogenic methane production from coal and other unconventional sources, such as oil shale. Microcosms were established with the selected carbon sources which included coal, oil shale, lignite, peat, and diesel-contaminated soil. Each microcosm contained either CBM coproduced water or groundwater with various enhancement and inhibitor combinations. Results indicated that the addition of nutrients and nutrients with additional carbon can enhance biogenic methane production from coal and oil shale. Methane production from oil shale was much greater than that from coal, which is possibly due to the greater amount of available Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) from oil shale. Inconclusive results were observed from the other sources since the incubation period was too low. WRI is continuing studies with biogenic methane production from oil shale.

  2. Hot Microbubble Injection in Thin Liquid Film Layers for Ammonia-Water Separation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desai, Pratik; Zimmerman, William

    2015-11-01

    140 MT of NH3 produced p.a. barely keeps up with the global usage of this ubiquitously used commodity. NH3 manufacture & later remediation from landfill leachate to lower eco-toxicity makes further demands on the energy utilised for this ``NH3 cycle.'' Moreover, current methods for lowering eco-toxicity destroy NH3 rather than recovering it. Air stripping is a widely employed low energy industrial process used for NH3 recovery but has a long processing time- ≅24h for 60% efficiency & 100h for 95% efficiency. The solution presented herein is based on hot microbubble injection in thin liquid film layers designed to separate NH3 from NH3-H2O solutions. The transport phenomena exhibited by the microbubbles helps them separate volatile liquids effectively with negligible sensible heat transfer. This process is nearly isothermal simply because evaporation by microbubbles is controlled by internal mixing, which is fast relative to sensible heat transfer, when limited to short contact times in thin films. A 1000-3000-fold increase in mass transfer, over conventional stripping, and a 100% separation efficiency achieved in a processing time of 30 minutes is observed, potentially, if persisting with industrial scale up, resulting in a 200-fold reduction in processing time. The authors would like to acknowledge contributions from Michael Turley MEng - University of Sheffield and Richard Robinson from Viridor for their help and support as well as EPSRC Grant Number EP/K001329/1 - ``4CU''.

  3. Subcutaneous injection of water-soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes in tumor-bearing mice boosts the host immune activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Jie; Yang, Man; Jia, Fumin; Kong, Hua; Zhang, Weiqi; Wang, Chaoying; Xing, Jianmin; Xie, Sishen; Xu, Haiyan

    2010-04-01

    The immunological responses induced by oxidized water-soluble multi-walled carbon nanotubes on a hepatocarcinoma tumor-bearing mice model via a local administration of subcutaneous injection were investigated. Experimental results show that the subcutaneously injected carbon nanotubes induced significant activation of the complement system, promoted inflammatory cytokines' production and stimulated macrophages' phagocytosis and activation. All of these responses increased the general activity of the host immune system and inhibited the progression of tumor growth.

  4. Characterization of Solids Collected from H-Area Injection Wells and Injection Tank Chemistry from both F- and H-Area Water Treatment Units (WTUs)

    SciTech Connect

    Serkiz, S.M.

    1999-04-15

    This study suggests that a strong poitential exists for both chemical and biological fouling of the injection wells at the F- and H Area remediation systems. To further the potential, an evaluation of WTU process chemistry, characterization of the natural groundwater geochemistry, and analysis of microbiological activity should be performed. This report summarizes the results.

  5. Fluorimetric determination of aluminium in water by sequential injection through column extraction.

    PubMed

    Brach-Papa, C; Coulomb, B; Branger, C; Margaillan, A; Théraulaz, F; Van Loot, P; Boudenne, J L

    2004-03-01

    A fluorimetric procedure for the determination of aluminium with matrix removal in drinking water is proposed. The system is based both on the solid phase extraction of aluminium on a new chelating resin (XAD-4 modified by grafting salicylic acid) and the fluorimetric detection of a complex formed between 8-hydroxyquinoline-5-sulfonic acid (HQS) and Al(III), after elution of the resin by hydrochloric acid. The sorption and elution of aluminium were studied in both competitive and noncompetitive conditions, varying pH, flow-rates, volume and concentration of reagents, as well as time contact. The optimised procedure allows determination of Al3+ at the sub-ppb level (LOD: 0.2 microg L(-1) for 1 ml of sample) within a working range of 0.2-500 microg L(-1). The analytical procedure was successfully employed for the determination of aluminium in drinking water during and after flocculation/coagulation treatment processes.

  6. Iron speciation in natural waters by sequential injection analysis with a hexadentate 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone chelator as chromogenic agent.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Joana L A; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Nunes, Ana; Rangel, Maria; Rangel, António O S S

    2016-02-01

    A sequential injection method for iron speciation in various types of natural waters was developed using a synthesised hexadentate 3-hydroxy-4-pyridinone chelator (CP256). The denticity of the ligand that allow formation of the corresponding iron(III) complex in a 1:1 stoichiometry proved to be highly advantageous, in comparison with parent bidentate, hydroxy-4-piridinone chelators, with a two fold increase of reaction sensitivity and over 65% decrease of the LOD. A solid phase extraction approach was employed to attain matrix elimination, facilitating iron(III) determination and application to high salinity waters. The combination with the total iron determination obtained by the direct reaction of the ligand resulted in iron speciation. Two detection spectrophotometric cells were tested, a conventional flow cell (CFC) and a liquid waveguide capillary cell (LWCC). The dynamic concentration ranges were 0.1-2 mg/L with the CFC detection and 0.005-0.1 mg/L with the LWCC, with limit of detection of 30 µg/L and 6 µg/L, respectively. The developed method was successfully applied to a variety of natural waters.

  7. Bulk organic matter and nitrogen removal from reclaimed water during groundwater recharge by enhanced direct injection well.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Zhao; Meng, Zhang; Xuzhou, Cheng

    2009-01-01

    Water shortages lead to increasing attention to artificial groundwater recharge by reclaimed water. A new kind of approach, enhanced direct injection-well recharge (EnDir) consisting of short- and long-term soil treatment, is considered to be suitable for large cities in China. In this paper, EnDir was simulated by soil columns in the laboratory with the secondary effluent as raw water that was ozonated before EnDir. Laboratory-scale experiments demonstrate that the short-term part of EnDir can remove 47 to 60% dissolved organic carbon (DOC), convert 5 mg/L of ammonia-nitrogen to equivalent nitrate-nitrogen, and offer preferred removal of non-UV-absorbing organics. Soluble microbial byproducts and fulvic-acid-like materials can be ozonated and then partially biodegraded. The residuals of organic matter as a refractory fraction are biodegraded continuously during the long-term part. The DOC value of 1.8 to 2.5 mg/L can be reached, and 40% of organic matter with molecular weight less than 500 Da can be removed after full-term EnDir. PMID:19280901

  8. Feasibility of water injection into the turbine coolant to permit gas turbine contingency power for helicopter application

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanfossen, G. J.

    1983-01-01

    A system which would allow a substantially increased output from a turboshaft engine for brief periods in emergency situations with little or no loss of turbine stress rupture life is proposed and studied analytically. The increased engine output is obtained by overtemperaturing the turbine; however, the temperature of the compressor bleed air used for hot section cooling is lowered by injecting and evaporating water. This decrease in cooling air temperature can offset the effect of increased gas temperature and increased shaft speed and thus keep turbine blade stress rupture life constant. The analysis utilized the NASA-Navy-Engine-Program or NNEP computer code to model the turboshaft engine in both design and off-design modes. This report is concerned with the effect of the proposed method of power augmentation on the engine cycle and turbine components. A simple cycle turboshaft engine with a 16:1 pressure ratio and a 1533 K (2760 R) turbine inlet temperature operating at sea level static conditions was studied to determine the possible power increase and the effect on turbine stress rupture life that could be expected using the proposed emergency cooling scheme. The analysis showed a 54 percent increse in output power can be achieved with no loss in gas generator turbine stress rupture life. A 231 K (415 F) rise in turbine inlet temperature is required for this level of augmentation. The required water flow rate was found to be .0109 kg water per kg of engine air flow.

  9. Corrosion of low carbon steel by microorganisms from the 'pigging' operation debris in water injection pipelines.

    PubMed

    Cote, Claudia; Rosas, Omar; Sztyler, Magdalena; Doma, Jemimah; Beech, Iwona; Basseguy, Régine

    2014-06-01

    Present in all environments, microorganisms develop biofilms adjacent to the metallic structures creating corrosion conditions which may cause production failures that are of great economic impact to the industry. The most common practice in the oil and gas industry to annihilate these biofilms is the mechanical cleaning known as "pigging". In the present work, microorganisms from the "pigging" operation debris are tested biologically and electrochemically to analyse their effect on the corrosion of carbon steel. Results in the presence of bacteria display the formation of black corrosion products allegedly FeS and a sudden increase (more than 400mV) of the corrosion potential of electrode immersed in artificial seawater or in field water (produced water mixed with aquifer seawater). Impedance tests provided information about the mechanisms of the interface carbon steel/bacteria depending on the medium used: mass transfer limitation in artificial seawater was observed whereas that in field water was only charge transfer phenomenon. Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (DGGE) results proved that bacterial diversity decreased when cultivating the debris in the media used and suggested that the bacteria involved in the whole set of results are mainly sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) and some other bacteria that make part of the taxonomic order Clostridiales.

  10. Gas chromatographic determination of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes using flame ionization detector in water samples with direct aqueous injection up to 250 microl.

    PubMed

    Kubinec, R; Adamuscin, J; Jurdáková, H; Foltin, M; Ostrovský, I; Kraus, A; Soják, L

    2005-08-19

    A simple method of solventless extraction of volatile organic compounds (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes) from aqueous samples was developed. This method allows direct injection of large volume of water sample into a gas chromatograph using the sorption capacity of the sorbent Chromosorb P NAW applied directly in the injection port of gas chromatograph. The system prevent water penetration into a column, keep it adsorbed on its surface until the analytes are stripped into a column, and the residual water is purging using split flow. The limit of detection ranging from 0.6 for benzene to 1.1 microg l(-1) for o-xylene and limit of quantification ranging 2.0-3.6 microg l(-1) are lower that those reached by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and direct aqueous injection before.

  11. Effect of primary-zone water injection on pollutants from a combustor burning liquid ASTM A-1 and vaporized propane fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingebo, R. D.; Norgren, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    A combustor segment 0.457 meter (18 in.) long with a maximum cross section of 0.153 by 0.305 meter (6 by 12 in.) was operated at inlet-air temperatures of 590 and 700 K, inlet-air pressures of 4 and 10 atmospheres, and fuel-air ratios of 0.014 and 0.018 to determine the effect of primary-zone water injection on pollutants from burning either propane or ASTM A-1 fuel. At a simulated takeoff condition of 10 atmospheres and 700 K, multiple-orifice nozzles used to inject water at 1 percent of the airflow rate reduced nitrogen oxides 75 percent with propane and 65 percent with ASTM A-1 fuel. Although carbon monoxide and unburned hydrocarbons increased with water injection, they remained relatively low; and smoke numbers were well below the visibility limit.

  12. Experimental evaluation of in situ CO2-water-rock reactions during CO2 injection in basaltic rocks: Implications for geological CO2 sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matter, Juerg M.; Takahashi, Taro; Goldberg, David

    2007-02-01

    Deep aquifers are potential long-term storage sites for anthropogenic CO2 emissions. The retention time and environmental safety of the injected CO2 depend on geologic and physical factors and on the chemical reactions between the CO2, the aquifer water, and the host rocks. The pH buffer capacity of the aquifer water and the acid neutralization potential of the host rocks are important factors for the permanent stabilization of the injected CO2. Mafic rocks, such as basalt, which primarily consists of Ca, Mg silicate minerals, have a high acid neutralization capacity by providing alkaline earth elements that form stable carbonate minerals. The carbonate minerals formed thus sequester CO2 in a chemically stable and environmentally benign form. In this study, we present results from a small-scale CO2 injection test in mafic and metasedimentary rocks. The injection test was conducted using a single-well push-pull test strategy. CO2 saturated water (pH = 3.5) was injected into a hydraulically isolated and permeable aquifer interval to study the acid neutralization capacity of Ca, Mg silicate rocks and to estimate in situ cation release rates. Release rates for Ca, Mg, and Na were calculated by use of solute compositions of water samples retrieved after the CO2 injection, the incubation time of the injected solution within the aquifer, and geometric estimates of the reactive surface area of the host rocks. Our results confirm rapid acid neutralization rates and water-rock reactions sufficient for safe and permanent storage of CO2. Carbonic acid was neutralized within hours of injection into a permeable mafic aquifer by two processes: mixing between the injected solution and the aquifer water, and water-rock reactions. Calculated cation release rates decrease with increasing pH that is confirmed by laboratory-based experiments. Large differences between release rates obtained from the field and laboratory experiments may be mainly due to uncertainties in the estimation

  13. Preserving drinking water quality in geotechnical operations: predicting the feedback between fluid injection, fluid flow, and contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schilling, Frank R.

    2014-05-01

    Not only in densely populated areas the preservation of drinking water quality is of vital interest. On the other side, our modern economies request for a sustained energy supply and a secure storage of waste materials. As energy sources with a high security of supply, oil, natural gas, and geothermal energy cover ca. 60% of Europe's energy demand; together with coal more than 75% (IEA 2011). Besides geothermal energy, all of the resources have a high greenhouse gas footprint. All these production activities are related to fluid injection and/or fluid production. The same holds true for gas storage operations in porous reservoirs, to store natural gases, oil, or greenhouse gases. Different concerns are discussed in the public and geoscientific community to influence the drinking water quality: - wastewater discharges from field exploration, drilling, production, well treatment and completion - wastewater sequestration - gas storage - tight gas and tight oil production (including hydraulic fracturing) - Shale gas production (including hydraulic fracturing) - mine drainage This overview contribution focusses on strategies to systematically reduce the risk of water pollution in geotechnical operations of deep reservoirs. The principals will be exemplarily revealed for different geotechnical operations. - How to control hydraulic fracturing operations to reduce the risk of enhanced seismic activity and avoiding the connection of originally separated aquifers. The presented approach to quantitatively predict the impact of stimulation activities is based on petrophysical models taking the feedback of geomechanical processes and fluid flow in porous media, fissures and faults into account. The specific flow patterns in various rock types lead to distinguished differences in operational risk. - How can a proper planning of geotechnical operations reduce the involved risks. A systematic risk reduction strategy will be discussed. On selected samples the role of exploration

  14. Contribution of thermoelectric and electrochemical effects to spontaneous potential signals induced by water injection into hydrocarbon reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulamali, M. Y.; Saunders, J. H.; Jackson, M.; Pain, C. C.

    2009-12-01

    Recent work has demonstrated that downhole measurements of streaming potential, using electrodes mounted on the outside of insulated casing, may be used to inform production strategies in oil and gas reservoirs. However, spontaneous potentials due to thermoelectric and/or electrochemical effects may also be present during production and may contribute to the signal measured at the production well. We present a workflow to numerically model spontaneous potentials in the subsurface and ascertain their magnitude in oil reservoirs during production. Our results suggest that the injection of seawater, which typically has a different temperature and salinity to the formation brine, leads to the generation of both thermoelectric and electrochemical potential signals which may be measured at the production well. We observe a peak in the thermoelectric potential before and after the temperature front, with a change in sign occurring close to the midpoint of the front, and the signal decaying with distance from the front. The electrochemical potential has a similar profile, with a change in sign occurring close to the location of the salinity front. In both cases, the absolute magnitude of the signal is related to the overall temperature and/or salinity contrast between the injected fluids and the formation brine, and the magnitude of the thermoelectric or electrochemical coupling coefficient. The lag in the temperature front relative to the saturation front leads to a negligible thermoelectric potential signal at the production well until long after water breakthrough occurs. In contrast, the electrochemical potential contributes significantly to the spontaneous potential measured at the production well before the waterfront arrives, as the salinity front and the saturation front coincide. However, the dependency of the thermoelectric and electrochemical coupling coefficients upon temperature and/or salinity is still uncertain, especially at partial water saturation. We

  15. Apparatus and method for preparing oxygen-15 labeled water H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] in an injectable form for use in positron emission tomography

    DOEpatents

    Ferrieri, Richard A.; Schlyer, David J.; Alexoff, David

    1996-01-09

    A handling and processing apparatus for preparing Oxygen-15 labeled water (H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O]) in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography from preferably H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] produced by irradiating a flowing gas target of nitrogen and hydrogen. The apparatus includes a collector for receiving and directing a gas containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] gas and impurities, mainly ammonia (NH.sub.3) gas into sterile water to trap the H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] and form ammonium (NH.sub.4.sup.+) in the sterile water. A device for displacing the sterile water containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] and NH.sub.4.sup.+ through a cation resin removes NH.sub.4.sup.+ from the sterile water. A device for combining the sterile water containing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] with a saline solution produces an injectable solution. Preferably, the apparatus includes a device for delivering the solution to a syringe for injection into a patient. Also, disclosed is a method for preparing H.sub.2 [.sup.15 O] in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography in which the method neither requires isotopic exchange reaction nor application of high temperature.

  16. Apparatus and method for preparing oxygen-15 labeled water H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] in an injectable form for use in positron emission tomography

    DOEpatents

    Ferrieri, R.A.; Schlyer, D.J.; Alexoff, D.

    1996-01-09

    A handling and processing apparatus is revealed for preparing Oxygen-15 labeled water (H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O]) in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography from preferably H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] produced by irradiating a flowing gas target of nitrogen and hydrogen. The apparatus includes a collector for receiving and directing a gas containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] gas and impurities, mainly ammonia (NH{sub 3}) gas into sterile water to trap the H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] and form ammonium (NH{sub 4}{sup +}) in the sterile water. A device for displacing the sterile water containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] and NH{sub 4}{sup +} through a cation resin removes NH{sub 4}{sup +} from the sterile water. A device for combining the sterile water containing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] with a saline solution produces an injectable solution. Preferably, the apparatus includes a device for delivering the solution to a syringe for injection into a patient. Also, disclosed is a method for preparing H{sub 2}[{sup 15}O] in injectable form for use in Positron Emission Tomography in which the method neither requires isotopic exchange reaction nor application of high temperature. 7 figs.

  17. Injection of treated wastewater for ground-water recharge in the Palo Alto Baylands, California, hydraulic and chemical interactions; preliminary report

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamlin, S.N.

    1983-01-01

    An injection-extraction well network in the Palo Alto Baylands along the San Francisco Bay, California, was designed to flush the shallow aquifer system of saline water and prevent further inland saline contamination. Clogging processes and solution migration in the vicinity of one injection well were studied. Cyclic evaporative concentration of bay water and infiltration have generated a concentrated ground-water brine. Montmorillonite and illite are the primary clay minerals present in the shallow aquifer system. X-ray diffraction analysis of these clays showed a marked increase in the d-spacing of the crystal lattice when native hypersaline pure water was replaced by injection water. Chloride:magnesium and chloride:potassium ratios in the aquifer system changed during injection, most likely due to ionic exchange reaction. Similar variations in chloride:boron, chloride:iron, and chloride:manganese ratios probably resulted from reduction-oxidation reactions. Ground-water quality appears to have been chiefly affected by the processes of dilution and dispersion. Extraction pump test data yielded a transmissivity value of 960 feet squared per day and a storage coefficient of 0.0005. Vertical permeability of the upper confining layer is 0.08 feet per day. (USGS)

  18. A model of reaction field in gas-injected arc-in-water method to synthesize single-walled carbon nanohorns: Influence of water temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poonjarernsilp, Chantamanee; Sano, Noriaki; Tamon, Hajime; Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai

    2009-11-01

    The method to synthesize single-walled carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs) using gas-injected arc in water (GI-AIW) has been experimentally studied. GI-AIW is known as one of the cost-effective methods to obtain SWCNHs. It was revealed that the yield of SWCNHs significantly decreases with the increase in water temperature although the purity of SWCNHs is not dependent on the temperature change. Then the model of relevant reactions in the GI-AIW system was proposed by accounting the emission of carbon vapor, formation of SWCNHs, and diffusion of water vapor in three zones inside the cathode hole (arc plasma zone, quenching zone, and downstream zone). The side reaction between H2O and C produces H2 gas and consumes a certain amount of carbon vapor, resulting in the hindered SWCNH formation. Moreover the observation of the optical spectra emitting from the arc plasma zone strongly supported that the H2 generating reaction does not occur at arc plasma zone since N2 flow can purge H2O out. The model proposed in this study can precisely explain the correlation between H2 gas production and water temperature.

  19. A multisyringe sequential injection method for monitoring water in the energy cogeneration system of a municipal waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    de Mirabó, F M Bauzá; Forteza, R; Cerdà, V

    2009-09-15

    Leading-edge urban solid waste ashing plants use burning heat energy to obtain electrical power. Water fed to their boilers for conversion into steam should be highly pure in order to minimize corrosion, scaling and similar phenomena, which can lead to malfunctioning and a reduced useful life but can be avoided by proper management and control of the water supply. In this work, we developed a multiparameter monitor based on multisyringe sequential injection for the sequential determination of up to eight important parameters, namely: pH, specific and acid conductivity, hydrazine, ammonium, phosphate, silicate and total iron. Acid conductivity was determined by passing the sample through a cation-exchange resin in order to retain ammonium ion and release protons. This parameter was deemed the most accurate indicator of dissolved solids in boiler water. Chemical parameters were determined spectrophotometrically: hydrazine by reaction with p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde, ammonium by the modified Berthelot reaction, iron with o-phenanthroline, and phosphate and silica by formation of a molybdoheteropoly blue dye in the presence of ascorbic acid as reductant. Use of the optimum chemical and physical operating conditions provided 3s(blank) detection limits of 0.01 mg l(-1) N(2)H(4), 0.13 mg l(-1) NH(4)(+), 0.04 mg l(-1) Fe, 0.03 mg l(-1) SiO2 and 0.05 mg l(-1) PO(4)(3-), and relative standard deviations not greater than 2.5%. The methods integrated in the proposed monitor were successfully applied to real samples from the water-steam cycle at the Son Reus ashing plant in Palma de Mallorca (Spain). PMID:19615501

  20. A multisyringe sequential injection method for monitoring water in the energy cogeneration system of a municipal waste incinerator.

    PubMed

    de Mirabó, F M Bauzá; Forteza, R; Cerdà, V

    2009-09-15

    Leading-edge urban solid waste ashing plants use burning heat energy to obtain electrical power. Water fed to their boilers for conversion into steam should be highly pure in order to minimize corrosion, scaling and similar phenomena, which can lead to malfunctioning and a reduced useful life but can be avoided by proper management and control of the water supply. In this work, we developed a multiparameter monitor based on multisyringe sequential injection for the sequential determination of up to eight important parameters, namely: pH, specific and acid conductivity, hydrazine, ammonium, phosphate, silicate and total iron. Acid conductivity was determined by passing the sample through a cation-exchange resin in order to retain ammonium ion and release protons. This parameter was deemed the most accurate indicator of dissolved solids in boiler water. Chemical parameters were determined spectrophotometrically: hydrazine by reaction with p-dimethylaminobenzaldehyde, ammonium by the modified Berthelot reaction, iron with o-phenanthroline, and phosphate and silica by formation of a molybdoheteropoly blue dye in the presence of ascorbic acid as reductant. Use of the optimum chemical and physical operating conditions provided 3s(blank) detection limits of 0.01 mg l(-1) N(2)H(4), 0.13 mg l(-1) NH(4)(+), 0.04 mg l(-1) Fe, 0.03 mg l(-1) SiO2 and 0.05 mg l(-1) PO(4)(3-), and relative standard deviations not greater than 2.5%. The methods integrated in the proposed monitor were successfully applied to real samples from the water-steam cycle at the Son Reus ashing plant in Palma de Mallorca (Spain).

  1. Water-soluble progesterone analogues are effective, injectable treatments in animal models of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Guthrie, David B; Stein, Donald G; Liotta, Dennis C; Lockwood, Mark A; Sayeed, Iqbal; Atif, Fahim; Arrendale, Richard F; Reddy, G Prabhakar; Evers, Taylor J; Marengo, Jose R; Howard, Randy B; Culver, Deborah G; Natchus, Michael G

    2012-05-10

    After more than 30 years of research and 30 failed clinical trials with as many different treatments, progesterone is the first agent to demonstrate robust clinical efficacy as a treatment for traumatic brain injuries. It is currently being investigated in two, independent phase III clinical trials in hospital settings; however, it presents a formidable solubility challenge that has so far prevented the identification of a formulation that would be suitable for emergency field response use or battlefield situations. Accordingly, we have designed and tested a novel series of water-soluble analogues that address this critical need. We report here the synthesis of C-20 oxime conjugates of progesterone as therapeutic agents for traumatic brain injuries with comparable efficacy in animal models of traumatic brain injury and improved solubility and pharmacokinetic profiles. Pharmacodynamic analysis reveals that a nonprogesterone steroidal analogue may be primarily responsible for the observed activity. PMID:24900479

  2. Novel flow injection analysis methods for the determination of total iron in blood serum and water.

    PubMed

    Elsuccary, S A A; Salem, Alaa A

    2015-01-01

    This work describes rapid, sensitive and highly precise methods for the determination of total iron in blood serum and water samples, using batch, nFIA and rFIA techniques. The proposed methods are based on the selective oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) by iron(III). The absorbance of the resultant green solution of radical cation (ABTS(·+)) was monitored spectrophotometrically at λ max=415 nm. The reaction is stoichiometric with a ratio of 1:1 (Fe(III):ABTS) as determined by Job's and molar ratio methods. The proposed methods allow for the determination of Fe(III) in the ranges 0-4.5 mg L(-1) (LOD 25.5 µg L(-1), %RSD 0.97%, n=7); 0 to 4.5 mg L(-1) (LOD 370 µg L(-1), %RSD 1.28%, n=7) and 0 to 2.7 mg L(-1) (81.6 µg L(-1), %RSD 0.76%, n=6) for batch, nFIA and rFIA techniques, respectively. The proposed methods show high selectivity to Fe(III), as indicated by the high tolerance limits for common interfering ions. The nFIA method was applied in total iron assay in camel blood serum, whereas batch and rFIA methods were successful in the determination of total iron in municipal pipeline water and spiked groundwater. Statistical analysis indicated insignificant differences in accuracy and precision between the results obtained by the developed methods and ICP-AES or phenanthroline methods. PMID:25281080

  3. Novel flow injection analysis methods for the determination of total iron in blood serum and water.

    PubMed

    Elsuccary, S A A; Salem, Alaa A

    2015-01-01

    This work describes rapid, sensitive and highly precise methods for the determination of total iron in blood serum and water samples, using batch, nFIA and rFIA techniques. The proposed methods are based on the selective oxidation of 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) by iron(III). The absorbance of the resultant green solution of radical cation (ABTS(·+)) was monitored spectrophotometrically at λ max=415 nm. The reaction is stoichiometric with a ratio of 1:1 (Fe(III):ABTS) as determined by Job's and molar ratio methods. The proposed methods allow for the determination of Fe(III) in the ranges 0-4.5 mg L(-1) (LOD 25.5 µg L(-1), %RSD 0.97%, n=7); 0 to 4.5 mg L(-1) (LOD 370 µg L(-1), %RSD 1.28%, n=7) and 0 to 2.7 mg L(-1) (81.6 µg L(-1), %RSD 0.76%, n=6) for batch, nFIA and rFIA techniques, respectively. The proposed methods show high selectivity to Fe(III), as indicated by the high tolerance limits for common interfering ions. The nFIA method was applied in total iron assay in camel blood serum, whereas batch and rFIA methods were successful in the determination of total iron in municipal pipeline water and spiked groundwater. Statistical analysis indicated insignificant differences in accuracy and precision between the results obtained by the developed methods and ICP-AES or phenanthroline methods.

  4. Performance comparison of several response surface surrogate models and ensemble methods for water injection optimization under uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babaei, Masoud; Pan, Indranil

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we defined a relatively complex reservoir engineering optimization problem of maximizing the net present value of the hydrocarbon production in a water flooding process by controlling the water injection rates in multiple control periods. We assessed the performance of a number of response surface surrogate models and their ensembles which are combined by Dempster-Shafer theory and Weighted Averaged Surrogates as found in contemporary literature works. Most of these ensemble methods are based on the philosophy that multiple weak learners can be leveraged to obtain one strong learner which is better than the individual weak ones. Even though these techniques have been shown to work well for test bench functions, we found them not offering a considerable improvement compared to an individually used cubic radial basis function surrogate model. Our simulations on two and three dimensional cases, with varying number of optimization variables suggest that cubic radial basis functions-based surrogate model is reliable, outperforms Kriging surrogates and multivariate adaptive regression splines, and if it does not outperform, it is rarely outperformed by the ensemble surrogate models.

  5. Application of Prussian Blue electrodes for amperometric detection of free chlorine in water samples using Flow Injection Analysis.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Pedro; Martín, Miriam; González-Mora, José Luis; González-Elipe, Agustín R

    2016-01-01

    The performance for free chlorine detection of surfactant-modified Prussian Blue screen printed carbon electrodes (SPCEs/PB-BZT) have been assessed by cyclic voltammetry and constant potential amperometry. The characterization of SPCEs/PB-BZT by X-ray photoemission, Raman and infrared spectroscopies confirmed the correct electrodeposition of the surfactant-modified PB film. These electrodes were incorporated in a Flow Injection device and the optimal working conditions determined as a function of experimental variables such as detection potential, electrolyte concentration or flow-rate. The sensor presented a linear response in the range 0-3 ppm free chlorine, with a sensitivity of 16.2 μA ppm(-1) cm(-2). The limit of detection (LOD) (S/N=3.3) and the limit of quantification (S/N=10) amounted to 8.25 and 24.6 ppb, respectively, adequate for controlling tap and drinking waters. To demonstrate the feasibility of using this free chlorine sensor for real applications possible interferences such as nitrate, nitrite and sulfate ions were successfully tested and discarded. Real free chlorine analysis was carried out in spiked tap water samples and commercial bleaches.

  6. Miniature flow injection analyser for laboratory, shipboard and in situ monitoring of nitrate in estuarine and coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Gardolinski, Paulo C F C; David, Anthony R J; Worsfold, Paul J

    2002-12-01

    A miniature, submersible flow injection analyser, with solid-state spectrophotometric detection, for the in situ determination of nitrate is described. It utilises the standard laboratory chemistry of cadmium reduction followed by diazotisation. The detection limit was 2.8 mug l(-1) N and the linear range could be varied from 2.8 to 100 mug l(-1) N up to 100-2000 mug l(-1) N to suit local environmental conditions. The versatility of the instrument is demonstrated by results from laboratory, shipboard (North Sea IMPACT Cruise) and in situ (Tamar Estuary, UK) deployments. They show the excellent temporal and spatial resolution that can be achieved for studying dynamic processes in estuarine and coastal waters. The results acquired during the IMPACT Cruise map the transport of nitrate from the Humber Estuary into the North Sea and show that nitrate uptake was more pronounced in areas of shallow and clear waters (Dogger Bank) than in the coastal mixing zone with higher suspended solids. A key feature of the analyser is its portability and ease of deployment due to the small size and weight and low buoyancy. Accuracy was assessed by participation in an international intercomparison exercise and the results were within the assigned tolerance interval of the consensus mean (Z<2). PMID:18968836

  7. Simultaneous determination of fluoroquinolones in environmental water by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with direct injection: A green approach.

    PubMed

    Denadai, Marina; Cass, Quezia Bezerra

    2015-10-30

    This work describes an on-line multi-residue method for simultaneous quantification of ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, gemifloxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin and ofloxacin in superficial and wastewater samples. For that, an octyl restricted-access media bovine serum albumin column (RAM-BSA C8) was used for sample clean-up, enrichment and analysis with quantitation carried out by tandem mass spectrometry. For water samples volumes of only 500μL the method provided good selectivity, extraction efficiency, accuracy, and precision with quantification limits in the order of 20-150ngL(-1). Out of the six fluoroquinolones only ciprofloxacin (195ngL(-1)) and norfloxacin (270ngL(-1)) were quantified in an influent sample of the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) of São Carlos (SP, Brazil). None were found in the superficial water samples analyzed. The capability of injecting native sample in an automated mode provides high productivity and represents a greener approach in environmental sample analysis.

  8. Development and Validation of a Fast Procedure to Analyze Amoxicillin in River Waters by Direct-Injection LC-MS/MS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homem, Vera; Alves, Arminda; Santos, Lu´cia

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory application with a strong component in analytical chemistry was designed for undergraduate students, in order to introduce a current problem in the environmental science field, the water contamination by antibiotics. Therefore, a simple and rapid method based on direct injection and high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass…

  9. 40 CFR 60.4340 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection? 60.4340 Section 60.4340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of...

  10. 40 CFR 60.4340 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false How do I demonstrate continuous compliance for NOX if I do not use water or steam injection? 60.4340 Section 60.4340 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES Standards of...

  11. Pegfilgrastim Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... a pre-filled automatic injection device (On-body Injector) to inject subcutaneously (under the skin). If you ... a pre-filled automatic injection device (On-body Injector), the device will usually be applied to your ...

  12. Cabazitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used along with prednisone to treat prostate cancer (cancer of a male reproductive organ) that has ... cabazitaxel injection is usually used in men with prostate cancer. If used by pregnant women, cabazitaxel injection can ...

  13. Morphine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Morphine injection is used to relieve moderate to severe pain. Morphine is in a class of medications called opiate ( ... Morphine injection comes as a solution (liquid) to inject intramuscularly (into a muscle) or intravenously (into a ...

  14. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Romidepsin injection is used to treat cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL; a group of cancers of the ... other medication given by mouth or by injection. Romidepsin injection is in a class of medications called ...

  15. Analysis of cracked core spray injection line piping from the Quad Cities Units 1 and 2 boiling water reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Diercks, D.R.

    1983-12-01

    Elbow assemblies and adjacent piping from the loops A and B core spray injection lines of Quad Cities Units 1 and 2 Boiling Water Reactors have been examined in order to determine the nature and causes of coolant leakages and flaw indications detected during hydrostatic tests and subsequent ultrasonic inspections. The elbow assemblies were found to contain multiple intergranular cracks in the weld heat-affected zones. The cracking was predominantly axial in orientation in the forged elbow and wedge components, whereas mixed axial and circumferential cracking was seen in the wrought piping pieces. In at least two instances, axial cracks completely penetrated the circumferential weld joining adjacent components. Based upon the observations made in the present study, the failures were attributed to intergranular stress corrosion cracking caused by the weld-induced sensitized microstructure and residual stresses present; dissolved oxygen in the reactor coolant apparently served as the corrosive species. The predominantly axial orientation of the cracks present in the forged components is believed to be related to the banded microstructure present in these components. The metallographic studies reported are supplemented by x-radiography, chemical analysis and mechanical test results, determinations of the degree of sensitization present, and measurements of weld metal delta ferrite content.

  16. Flow injection spectrophotometric method for chloride determination in natural waters using Hg(SCN)(2) immobilized in epoxy resin.

    PubMed

    Silva, Claudineia R; Vieira, Heberth J; Canaes, Larissa S; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2005-02-28

    A flow injection (FI) spectrophotometric method was proposed for the determination of chloride ion in natural waters. The determination of chloride was carried out by reaction with Hg(SCN)(2) immobilized in an epoxy resin bead in a solid-phase reactor (SPR) and the thiocyanate ions released were determined spectrophotometrically at 480nm after complexing reaction with Fe(III). The analytical curve for chloride was linear in the concentration range from 5.6 x 10(-5) to 2.2 x 10(-4)moll(-1) with a detection limit of 1.4 x 10(-5)moll(-1). The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) was 2.2% for a solution containing 2.2 x 10(-4)moll(-1) (n = 10). The simple manifold allows a routine analytical frequency of 100 determinations per hour. The main advantage of the developed method is the 400% reduction of the Hg waste solution generated when compared to conventional methods for chloride determination based on the same spectrophotometric reaction. PMID:18969896

  17. BiVO4 photoanodes for water splitting with high injection efficiency, deposited by reactive magnetron co-sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, Haibo; Freudenberg, Norman; Nie, Man; van de Krol, Roel; Ellmer, Klaus

    2016-04-01

    Photoactive bismuth vanadate (BiVO4) thin films were deposited by reactive co-magnetron sputtering from metallic Bi and V targets. The effects of the V-to-Bi ratio, molybdenum doping and post-annealing on the crystallographic and photoelectrochemical (PEC) properties of the BiVO4 films were investigated. Phase-pure monoclinic BiVO4 films, which are more photoactive than the tetragonal BiVO4 phase, were obtained under slightly vanadium-rich conditions. After annealing of the Mo-doped BiVO4 films, the photocurrent increased 2.6 times compared to undoped films. After optimization of the BiVO4 film thickness, the photocurrent densities (without a catalyst or a blocking layer or a hole scavenger) exceeded 1.2 mA/cm2 at a potential of 1.23 VRHE under solar AM1.5 irradiation. The surprisingly high injection efficiency of holes into the electrolyte is attributed to the highly porous film morphology. This co-magnetron sputtering preparation route for photoactive BiVO4 films opens new possibilities for the fabrication of large-scale devices for water splitting.

  18. Efficacy of postoperative bladder irrigation with water for injection in reducing recurrence rates of non muscle invasive bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Grivas, Nikolaos; Hastazeris, Konstantinos; Kafarakis, Vasileios; Tsimaris, Ioannis; Aspiotis, Spiridon; Stratis, Antonios; Stavropoulos, Nikolaos Efthimios

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the results of bladder irrigation with Water for Injection (WFI) after transurethral resection of bladder tumours for comparison with those for adjuvant use of BCG. A total of 239 patients (158 with single tumours, group A, and 81 with multiple tumours, group B) received continuous intravesical postoperative irrigation with WFI. Some 128 patients received intravesical irrigation with WFI, followed by weekly instillations of BCG (group C). Recurrence-free rate (RFR) and recurrence-free intervals (RFI) were recorded. RFR for those patients who received only intravesical irrigation with WFI (groups A and B) was 75.8%, 66.2% and 63.2% at the 1st, 2nd and 3rd year of follow up, respectively. Corresponding rates for group C were 61.7%, 55.4% and 49%. Median RFI in group B were 18, 11, 15, 15 and 12 months for Ta, T1, grade 1, grade 2 and grade 3 tumours, respectively. In group C corresponding intervals were 20, 33, 8, 20 and 42 months. BCG improved RFR only in T1 (p=0.014) and grade 3 tumours (p=0.007). In conclusion, postoperative bladder irrigation with WFI could increase RFR during the first and second year of follow up. PMID:24716967

  19. Flow injection spectrophotometric method for chloride determination in natural waters using Hg(SCN)(2) immobilized in epoxy resin.

    PubMed

    Silva, Claudineia R; Vieira, Heberth J; Canaes, Larissa S; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Fatibello-Filho, Orlando

    2005-02-28

    A flow injection (FI) spectrophotometric method was proposed for the determination of chloride ion in natural waters. The determination of chloride was carried out by reaction with Hg(SCN)(2) immobilized in an epoxy resin bead in a solid-phase reactor (SPR) and the thiocyanate ions released were determined spectrophotometrically at 480nm after complexing reaction with Fe(III). The analytical curve for chloride was linear in the concentration range from 5.6 x 10(-5) to 2.2 x 10(-4)moll(-1) with a detection limit of 1.4 x 10(-5)moll(-1). The relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) was 2.2% for a solution containing 2.2 x 10(-4)moll(-1) (n = 10). The simple manifold allows a routine analytical frequency of 100 determinations per hour. The main advantage of the developed method is the 400% reduction of the Hg waste solution generated when compared to conventional methods for chloride determination based on the same spectrophotometric reaction.

  20. Theoretical analysis of injecting the compressed air through a defensive well into aquifer aimed to separate between polluted and fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boger, M.; Ravina, I.

    2012-12-01

    Injecting a compressed air, through a well, located between the sea or a polluted lake and fresh ground water, creates a "hydraulic barrier" that prevents their mixing. Steady influx of air to a saturated soil produces a pressure gradient from the well and replacement of water by air, hence the interface between air and water increases. After the compression process is stopped, the soil pores are filled with air, so that saturated soil becomes unsaturated with a decreased conductivity. Creating such a barrier, first by the air pressure and second by blocking of the pores, is welcomed at the interface sea-fresh water area, for example. It prevents the loss of fresh water to the sea and it decreases sea water movement into the aquifer. Another positive effect of the air injection is the air flow through unsaturated zone, above the ground water, that decreases polluted water down-seepage from the surface thus defending the fresh ground water against pollution. The regular water well or special drilled one will be used as defensive well. The radius of defensive well can be smaller than the one of the water well. The explanation of the defensive well exploitation in the field for one and multi layer aquifers is presented. Analytical evaluations of the pressure loss and shape of the air-water interfaces in saturated soil are presented for: (a) steady air flow for a one layer aquifer and for a three layer one (leaky aquifer case), (b) transient air flow for a one layer aquifer. It is shown that the shape of air-water interfaces is generally an inverted cone, where the decrease of air pressure in the aquifer with the distance from the well is approximately logarithmic. The necessary pressure to create the effective air flow in the aquifer is only about tens percent higher than static water pressure in the well.

  1. Exploiting the bead injection concept for sequential determination of copper and mercury ions in river-water samples.

    PubMed

    Vidotti, Eliane C; Almeida, Vitor C; Oliveira, Cláudio C

    2004-11-15

    A procedure involving bead-injection concept and sequential determination of copper and mercury ions in river-water samples is proposed. The method is based on the solid-phase extraction of both metal ions on the same beads surface (Chelex 100 resin) and in their subsequent reaction with the colorimetric reagents (APDC and Dithizone for copper and mercury ions, respectively). For this task, a resin mini-column is established in the optical path by the selection, introduction and trapping of a defined volume of the Chelex-100 resin beads suspension in the flow system. The passage of the sample solution through the resin mini-column promotes the sorption of Cu(II) ions and, making the APDC colorimetric reagent flows through the beads, the formation of the coloured complex on the solid phase surface occurs. The absorbance of the formed APDC-Cu complex is then monitored at 436nm and the spent beads are discarded. Packing another resin mini-column in the flow cell and repeating the concentration step it is possible to carried out the mercury determination by using Dithizone as reagent. The absorbance of the Dithizone-Hg complex is monitored at 500nm. After each measurement, the spent beads are wasted and a new portion of fresh one is trapped in the system, letting it ready for the next measurement. The bead injection system is versatile and can be used to concentrate different sample volumes, which permits the determination of a wide range of copper and mercury ions concentrations. When the sample-selected volumes are 100 and 1000mul the analytical ranges were 5.0 up to 500.0mugl(-1) and 2.5 up to 30.0mugl(-1) for Cu(II) and Hg(II) ions, respectively. Under these conditions, the detection limit was estimated as 0.63 and 0.25mugl(-1) for copper and mercury ions determination. The system consumes 2mg of Chelex 100 resin beads, 0.20mg of APDC or 1.25mg of Dithizone per determination and the traditional organic solvent extraction methodology, normally used in connection

  2. Analysis of Ground-Water Flow in the Madison Aquifer using Fluorescent Dyes Injected in Spring Creek and Rapid Creek near Rapid City, South Dakota, 2003-04

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Putnam, Larry D.; Long, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    The Madison aquifer, which contains fractures and solution openings in the Madison Limestone, is used extensively for water supplies for the city of Rapid City and other suburban communities in the Rapid City, S. Dak., area. The 48 square-mile study area includes the west-central and southwest parts of Rapid City and the outcrops of the Madison Limestone extending from south of Spring Creek to north of Rapid Creek. Recharge to the Madison Limestone occurs when streams lose flow as they cross the outcrop. The maximum net loss rate for Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones are 21 and 10 cubic feet per second (ft3/s), respectively. During 2003 and 2004, fluorescent dyes were injected in the Spring and Rapid Creek loss zones to estimate approximate locations of preferential flow paths in the Madison aquifer and to measure the response and transit times at wells and springs. Four injections of about 2 kilograms of fluorescein dye were made in the Spring Creek loss zone during 2003 (sites S1, S2, and S3) and 2004 (site S4). Injection at site S1 was made in streamflow just upstream from the loss zone over a 12-hour period when streamflow was about equal to the maximum loss rate. Injections at sites S2, S3, and S4 were made in specific swallow holes located in the Spring Creek loss zone. Injection at site R1 in 2004 of 3.5 kilograms of Rhodamine WT dye was made in streamflow just upstream from the Rapid Creek loss zone over about a 28-hour period. Selected combinations of 27 wells, 6 springs, and 3 stream sites were monitored with discrete samples following the injections. For injections at sites S1-S3, when Spring Creek streamflow was greater than or equal to 20 ft3/s, fluorescein was detected in samples from five wells that were located as much as about 2 miles from the loss zone. Time to first arrival (injection at site S1) ranged from less than 1 to less than 10 days. The maximum fluorescein concentration (injection at site S1) of 120 micrograms per liter (ug/L) at well CO

  3. External and Intraparticle Diffusion of Coumarin 102 with Surfactant in the ODS-silica Gel/water System by Single Microparticle Injection and Confocal Fluorescence Microspectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Kiyoharu; Matsuta, Emi

    2015-01-01

    The release mechanism of coumarin 102 from a single ODS-silica gel microparticle into the water phase in the presence of Triton X-100 was investigated by confocal fluorescence microspectroscopy combined with the single microparticle injection technique. The release rate significantly depended on the Triton X-100 concentration in the water phase and was not limited by diffusion in the pores of the microparticle. The release rate constant was inversely proportional to the microparticle radius squared, indicating that the rate-determining step is the external diffusion between the microparticle and the water phase.

  4. Application of Tracer-Injection Techniques to Demonstrate Surface-Water and Ground-Water Interactions Between an Alpine Stream and the North Star Mine, Upper Animas River Watershed, Southwestern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Winfield G.; Moore, Bryan

    2003-01-01

    Tracer-injection studies were done in Belcher Gulch in the upper Animas River watershed, southwestern Colorado, to determine whether the alpine stream infiltrates into underground mine workings of the North Star Mine and other nearby mines in the area. The tracer-injection studies were designed to determine if and where along Belcher Gulch the stream infiltrates into the mine. Four separate tracer-injec-tion tests were done using lithium bromide (LiBr), optical brightener dye, and sodium chloride (NaCl) as tracer solu-tions. Two of the tracers (LiBr and dye) were injected con-tinuously for 24 hours, one of the NaCl tracers was injected continuously for 12 hours, and one of the NaCl tracers was injected over a period of 1 hour. Concentration increases of tracer constituents were detected in water discharging from the North Star Mine, substantiating a surface-water and ground-water connection between Belcher Gulch and the North Star Mine. Different timing and magnitude of tracer breakthroughs indicated multiple flow paths with different residence times from the stream to the mine. The Pittsburgh and Sultan Mines were thought to physically connect to the North Star Mine, but tracer breakthroughs were inconclusive in water from these mines. From the tracer-injection tests and synoptic measure-ments of streamflow discharge, a conceptual model was devel-oped for surface-water and ground-water interactions between Belcher Gulch and the North Star Mine. This information, combined with previous surface geophysical surveys indicat-ing the presence of subsurface voids, may assist with decision-making process for preventing infiltration and for the remedia-tion of mine drainage from these mines.

  5. The effect of long-term nitrate treatment on SRB activity, corrosion rate and bacterial community composition in offshore water injection systems.

    PubMed

    Bødtker, Gunhild; Thorstenson, Tore; Lillebø, Bente-Lise P; Thorbjørnsen, Bente E; Ulvøen, Rikke Helen; Sunde, Egil; Torsvik, Terje

    2008-12-01

    Biogenic production of hydrogen sulphide (H(2)S) is a problem for the oil industry as it leads to corrosion and reservoir souring. Continuous injection of a low nitrate concentration (0.25-0.33 mM) replaced glutaraldehyde as corrosion and souring control at the Veslefrikk and Gullfaks oil field (North Sea) in 1999. The response to nitrate treatment was a rapid reduction in number and activity of sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) in the water injection system biofilm at both fields. The present long-term study shows that SRB activity has remained low at < or =0.3 and < or =0.9 microg H(2)S/cm(2)/day at Veslefrikk and Gullfaks respectively, during the 7-8 years with continuous nitrate injection. At Veslefrikk, 16S rRNA gene based community analysis by PCR-DGGE showed that bacteria affiliated to nitrate-reducing sulphide-oxidizing Sulfurimonas (NR-SOB) formed major populations at the injection well head throughout the treatment period. Downstream of deaerator the presence of Sulfurimonas like bacteria was less pronounced, and were no longer observed 40 months into the treatment period. The biofilm community during nitrate treatment was highly diverse and relative stable for long periods of time. At the Gullfaks field, a reduction in corrosion of up to 40% was observed after switch to nitrate treatment. The present study show that nitrate injection may provide a stable long-term inhibition of SRB in sea water injection systems, and that corrosion may be significantly reduced when compared to traditional biocide treatment. PMID:18752014

  6. Apparent Km of mitochondria for oxygen computed from Vmax measured in permeabilized muscle fibers is lower in water enriched in oxygen by electrolysis than injection

    PubMed Central

    Zoll, Joffrey; Bouitbir, Jamal; Sirvent, Pascal; Klein, Alexis; Charton, Antoine; Jimenez, Liliana; Péronnet, François R; Geny, Bernard; Richard, Ruddy

    2015-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that oxygen (O2) diffusion could be favored in water enriched in O2 by a new electrolytic process because of O2 trapping in water superstructures (clathrates), which could reduce the local pressure/content relationships for O2 and facilitate O2 diffusion along PO2 gradients. Materials and methods Mitochondrial respiration was compared in situ in saponin-skinned fibers isolated from the soleus muscles of Wistar rats, in solution enriched in O2 by injection or the electrolytic process 1) at an O2 concentration decreasing from 240 µmol/L to 10 µmol/L (132 mmHg to 5 mmHg), with glutamate–malate or N, N, N′, N′-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (TMPD)–ascorbate (with antimycin A) as substrates; and 2) at increasing adenosine diphosphate (ADP) concentration with glutamate–malate as substrate. Results As expected, maximal respiration decreased with O2 concentration and, when compared to glutamate–malate, the apparent Km O2 of mitochondria for O2 was significantly lower with TMPD–ascorbate with both waters. However, when compared to the water enriched in O2 by injection, the Km O2 was significantly lower with both electron donors in water enriched in O2 by electrolysis. This was not associated with any increase in the sensitivity of mitochondria to ADP; no significant difference was observed for the Km ADP between the two waters. Conclusion In this experiment, a higher affinity of the mitochondria for O2 was observed in water enriched in O2 by electrolysis than by injection. This observation is consistent with the hypothesis that O2 diffusion can be facilitated in water enriched in O2 by the electrolytic process. PMID:26203225

  7. Geomechanical simulation of the stress tensor rotation caused by injection of cold water in a deep geothermal reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanne, Pierre; Rutqvist, Jonny; Dobson, Patrick F.; Garcia, Julio; Walters, Mark; Hartline, Craig; Borgia, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    We present a three-dimensional thermohydromechanical numerical study of the evolution and distribution of the stress tensor within the northwest part of The Geysers geothermal reservoir (in California), including a detailed study of the region around one injection well from 2003 to 2012. Initially, after imposing a normal faulting stress regime, we calculated local changes in the stress regime around injection wells. Our results were compared with previously published studies in which the stress state was inferred from inverting the focal plane mechanism of seismic events. Our main finding is that changes in stress tensor orientation are caused by injection-induced progressive cooling of the reservoir, as well as by the seasonal variations in injection rate. Because of the gravity flow and cooling around a liquid zone formed by the injection, the vertical stress reduction is larger and propagates far below the injection well. At the same time, the horizontal stress increases, mostly because of stress redistribution below and above the cooling area. These two phenomena cause the rotation of the stress tensor and the appearance of a strike-slip regime above, inside, and below the cooling area. The cooling and the associated rotation of the stress regime can play a significant role in the observed long-term deepening of the microseismicity below active injection wells.

  8. Simultaneous Determination of 13 Priority Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Tehran’s Tap Water and Water for Injection Samples Using Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Micro Extraction Method and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Ramezan; Kobarfard, Farzad; Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Eslamizad, Samira; Bayate, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are classified as persistent and carcinogenic organic pollutants. PAHs contamination has been reported in water. Many of relevant regulatory bodies such as EU and EPA have regulated the limit levels for PAHs in drinking water. In this study, 13 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in tap water samples of Tehran and water for injection. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for the extraction and determination of PAHs in the samples. Under the optimized conditions, the range of extraction recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) of PAHs in water using internal standard (anthracene-d10) were in the range of 71-90% and 4-16%, respectively. Limit of detection for different PAHs were between 0.03 and 0.1 ngmL-1. The concentration of PAHs in all tap water as well as water for injection samples were lower than the limit of quantification of PAHs. This is the first study addressing the occurrence of PAHs in water for injection samples in Iran using dispersive liquid-liquid micro extraction procedure combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PMID:27642318

  9. Simultaneous Determination of 13 Priority Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Tehran's Tap Water and Water for Injection Samples Using Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Micro Extraction Method and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Ramezan; Kobarfard, Farzad; Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Eslamizad, Samira; Bayate, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are classified as persistent and carcinogenic organic pollutants. PAHs contamination has been reported in water. Many of relevant regulatory bodies such as EU and EPA have regulated the limit levels for PAHs in drinking water. In this study, 13 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in tap water samples of Tehran and water for injection. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for the extraction and determination of PAHs in the samples. Under the optimized conditions, the range of extraction recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) of PAHs in water using internal standard (anthracene-d10) were in the range of 71-90% and 4-16%, respectively. Limit of detection for different PAHs were between 0.03 and 0.1 ngmL(-1). The concentration of PAHs in all tap water as well as water for injection samples were lower than the limit of quantification of PAHs. This is the first study addressing the occurrence of PAHs in water for injection samples in Iran using dispersive liquid-liquid micro extraction procedure combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  10. Simultaneous Determination of 13 Priority Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Tehran’s Tap Water and Water for Injection Samples Using Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Micro Extraction Method and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Ramezan; Kobarfard, Farzad; Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Eslamizad, Samira; Bayate, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are classified as persistent and carcinogenic organic pollutants. PAHs contamination has been reported in water. Many of relevant regulatory bodies such as EU and EPA have regulated the limit levels for PAHs in drinking water. In this study, 13 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in tap water samples of Tehran and water for injection. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for the extraction and determination of PAHs in the samples. Under the optimized conditions, the range of extraction recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) of PAHs in water using internal standard (anthracene-d10) were in the range of 71-90% and 4-16%, respectively. Limit of detection for different PAHs were between 0.03 and 0.1 ngmL-1. The concentration of PAHs in all tap water as well as water for injection samples were lower than the limit of quantification of PAHs. This is the first study addressing the occurrence of PAHs in water for injection samples in Iran using dispersive liquid-liquid micro extraction procedure combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

  11. Simultaneous Determination of 13 Priority Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Tehran's Tap Water and Water for Injection Samples Using Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Micro Extraction Method and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Ramezan; Kobarfard, Farzad; Yazdanpanah, Hassan; Eslamizad, Samira; Bayate, Mitra

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are classified as persistent and carcinogenic organic pollutants. PAHs contamination has been reported in water. Many of relevant regulatory bodies such as EU and EPA have regulated the limit levels for PAHs in drinking water. In this study, 13 priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were determined in tap water samples of Tehran and water for injection. Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction procedure combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used for the extraction and determination of PAHs in the samples. Under the optimized conditions, the range of extraction recoveries and relative standard deviations (RSDs) of PAHs in water using internal standard (anthracene-d10) were in the range of 71-90% and 4-16%, respectively. Limit of detection for different PAHs were between 0.03 and 0.1 ngmL(-1). The concentration of PAHs in all tap water as well as water for injection samples were lower than the limit of quantification of PAHs. This is the first study addressing the occurrence of PAHs in water for injection samples in Iran using dispersive liquid-liquid micro extraction procedure combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PMID:27642318

  12. Multidimensional Mixing Behavior of Steam-Water Flow in a Downcomer Annulus During LBLOCA Reflood Phase with a Direct Vessel Injection Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Tae-Soon; Yun, Byong-Jo; Euh, Dong-Jin; Chu, In-Cheol; Song, Chul-Hwa

    2003-07-15

    Multidimensional thermal-hydraulic behavior in the downcomer annulus of a pressurized water reactor (PWR) vessel with a direct vessel injection mode is presented based on the experimental observation in the MIDAS (multidimensional investigation in downcomer annulus simulation) steam-water test facility. From the steady-state test results to simulate the late reflood phase of a large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA), isothermal lines show the multidimensional phenomena of a phasic interaction between steam and water in the downcomer annulus very well. MIDAS is a steam-water separate effect test facility, which is 1/4.93 linearly scaled down to a 1400-MW(electric) PWR type of a nuclear reactor, focused on understanding multidimensional thermal-hydraulic phenomena in a downcomer annulus with various types of safety injection during the refill or reflood phase of an LBLOCA. The initial and the boundary conditions are scaled from the pretest analysis based on the preliminary calculation using the TRAC code. The superheated steam with a superheating degree of 80 K at a given downcomer pressure of 180 kPa is injected equally through three intact cold legs into the downcomer.

  13. Multi-dimensional Mixing Behavior of Steam-Water Flow in a Downcomer Annulus during LBLOCA Reflood Phase with a DVI Injection Mode

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, T.S.; Yun, B.J.; Euh, D.J.; Chu, I.C.; Song, C.H.

    2002-07-01

    Multi-dimensional thermal-hydraulic behavior in the downcomer annulus of a pressurized water reactor vessel with a Direct Vessel Injection (DVI) mode is presented based on the experimental observation in the MIDAS (Multi-dimensional Investigation in Downcomer Annulus Simulation) steam-water test facility. From the steady-state test results to simulate the late reflood phase of a Large Break Loss-of-Coolant Accidents(LBLOCA), isothermal lines show the multidimensional phenomena of a phasic interaction between steam and water in the downcomer annulus very well. MIDAS is a steam-water separate effect test facility, which is 1/4.93 linearly scaled-down of 1400 MWe PWR type of a nuclear reactor, focused on understanding multi-dimensional thermalhydraulic phenomena in downcomer annulus with various types of safety injection during the refill or reflood phase of a LBLOCA. The initial and the boundary conditions are scaled from the pre-test analysis based on the preliminary calculation using the TRAC code. The superheated steam with a superheating degree of 80 K at a given downcomer pressure of 180 kPa is injected equally through three intact cold legs into the downcomer. (authors)

  14. Supplementation of Bifidobacterium longum to a high-fat, low-calcium diet lowers cytolytic activity of fecal water in rats injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride.

    PubMed

    Oda, T; Seto, Y; Hashiba, H

    1998-02-01

    The effects of supplementing Bifidobacterium longum SBT 2928 and Lactobacillus acidophilus SBT 2062 to a high-fat, low-calcium diet on bile acid concentration, fatty acid concentration, cytolytic activity and intestinal alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of fecal water in rats injected with and without 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (DMH) were examined. Male Wistar rats at 8 weeks of age were fed a diet containing 18% coconut oil, 2% corn oil and 0.1% calcium for 15 d. Lyophilized cultures were supplemented to test diets at a concentration of 1%. The feeding of a high-fat, low-calcium diet elevated the bile acid concentration, cytolytic activity and ALP activity of fecal water as compared to the AIN-76A diet, whereas the fatty acid concentration was not changed. None of the cultures had any effect on these parameters. Furthermore, 8 week-old rats were given a single subcutaneous injection of DMH at 40 mg/kg body weight, and fed the same diets for 15 d. The DMH injection had no effect on the bile acid concentration but increased the fatty acid concentration and cytolytic activity of fecal water. In contrast, ALP activity was lower in the DMH-treated rats than in the non-treated rats. The ingestion of B. longum lowered cytolytic activity but had no effect on the bile acids, fatty acids and ALP activity of fecal water. L. acidophilus had no effect on these parameters. PMID:9591245

  15. Optimizations of packed sorbent and inlet temperature for large volume-direct aqueous injection-gas chromatography to determine high boiling volatile organic compounds in water.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bofan; Song, Yonghui; Han, Lu; Yu, Huibin; Liu, Yang; Liu, Hongliang

    2014-08-22

    For the expanded application area, fast trace analysis of certain high boiling point (i.e., 150-250 °C) volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) in water, a large volume-direct aqueous injection-gas chromatography (LV-DAI-GC) method was optimized for the following parameters: packed sorbent for sample on-line pretreatment, inlet temperature and detectors configuration. Using the composite packed sorbent self-prepared with lithium chloride and a type of diatomite, the method enabled safe injection of an approximately 50-100 μL sample at an inlet temperature of 150 °C in the splitless mode and separated HVOCs from water matrix in 2 min. Coupled with a flame ionization detector (FID), an electron capture detector (ECD) and a flame photometric detector (FPD), the method could simultaneously quantify 27 HVOCs that belong to seven subclasses (i.e., halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons, chlorobenzenes, nitrobenzenes, anilines, phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organic sulfides) in 26 min. Injecting a 50 μL sample without any enrichment step, such as cryotrap focusing, the limits of quantification (LOQs) for the 27 HVOCs was 0.01-3 μg/L. Replicate analyses of the 27 HVOCs spiked source and river water samples exhibited good precision (relative standard deviations ≤ 11.3%) and accuracy (relative errors ≤ 17.6%). The optimized LV-DAI-GC was robust and applicable for fast determination and automated continuous monitoring of HVOCs in surface water.

  16. Optimizations of packed sorbent and inlet temperature for large volume-direct aqueous injection-gas chromatography to determine high boiling volatile organic compounds in water.

    PubMed

    Yu, Bofan; Song, Yonghui; Han, Lu; Yu, Huibin; Liu, Yang; Liu, Hongliang

    2014-08-22

    For the expanded application area, fast trace analysis of certain high boiling point (i.e., 150-250 °C) volatile organic compounds (HVOCs) in water, a large volume-direct aqueous injection-gas chromatography (LV-DAI-GC) method was optimized for the following parameters: packed sorbent for sample on-line pretreatment, inlet temperature and detectors configuration. Using the composite packed sorbent self-prepared with lithium chloride and a type of diatomite, the method enabled safe injection of an approximately 50-100 μL sample at an inlet temperature of 150 °C in the splitless mode and separated HVOCs from water matrix in 2 min. Coupled with a flame ionization detector (FID), an electron capture detector (ECD) and a flame photometric detector (FPD), the method could simultaneously quantify 27 HVOCs that belong to seven subclasses (i.e., halogenated aliphatic hydrocarbons, chlorobenzenes, nitrobenzenes, anilines, phenols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and organic sulfides) in 26 min. Injecting a 50 μL sample without any enrichment step, such as cryotrap focusing, the limits of quantification (LOQs) for the 27 HVOCs was 0.01-3 μg/L. Replicate analyses of the 27 HVOCs spiked source and river water samples exhibited good precision (relative standard deviations ≤ 11.3%) and accuracy (relative errors ≤ 17.6%). The optimized LV-DAI-GC was robust and applicable for fast determination and automated continuous monitoring of HVOCs in surface water. PMID:24997514

  17. [Determination of trace and ultra-trace level bromate in water by large volume sample injection with enrichment column for on-line preconcentration coupled with ion chromatography].

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; He, Qingqing; Yang, Lili; Hu, Enyu; Wang, Meifei

    2015-10-01

    A method for the determination of trace and ultra-trace level bromate in water by ion chromatography with large volume sample injection for on-line preconcentration was established. A high capacity Dionex IonPac AG23 guard column was simply used as the enrichment column instead of the loop for the preconcentration of bromate. High purity KOH solution used as eluent for gradient elution was on-line produced by an eluent generator automatically. The results showed that a good linear relationship of bromate was exhibited in the range of 0.05-51.2 μg/L (r ≥ 0.999 5), and the method detection limit was 0.01 μg/L. Compared with conventional sample injection, the injection volume was up to 5 mL, and the enrichment factor of this method was about 240 times. This method was successfully applied for several real samples of pure water which were purchased in the supermarket, and the recoveries of bromate were between 90%-100% with the RSDs (n = 6) of 2.1%-6.4% at two spiked levels. This method without pretreatment is simple, and of high accuracy and precision. The preconcentration can be achieved by large volume sample injection. It is suitable for the analysis of trace and ultra-trace level bromate.

  18. Evaluation of the Feasibility of Freshwater Injection Wells in Mitigating Ground-Water Quality Degradation at Selected Well Fields in Duval County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sepulveda, Nicasio; Spechler, Rick M.

    2004-01-01

    The Fernandina permeable zone contains brackish water in parts of Duval County, Florida. Upward flow from the Fernandina permeable zone to the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer increases chloride concentrations in ground water in parts of Duval County. Numerical models of the ground-water flow system in parts of Duval, St. Johns, and Clay Counties, Florida, were used to (1) estimate the vertical flows between the low-quality water of the Fernandina permeable zone and the high-quality water of the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer in the vicinity of Deerwood 3 and Brierwood well fields, based on 2000 ground-water withdrawal rates; (2) determine how such vertical flows change as several scenarios of injection, withdrawal, and intervening rest periods are simulated in the two well fields; and (3) evaluate the effects of changes in less certain hydraulic parameters on the vertical flows between the Fernandina permeable zone and the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer. The ground-water flow system was simulated with a four-layer model using MODFLOW-2000, which was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey. The first layer consists of specified-head cells simulating the surficial aquifer system with prescribed water levels. The second layer simulates the Upper Floridan aquifer. The third and fourth layers simulate the upper zone of the Lower Floridan aquifer and the Fernandina permeable zone, respectively. Average flow conditions in 2000 were approximated with a steady-state simulation. The changes in upward flow from the Fernandina permeable zone due to periods of injections and withdrawals were analyzed with transient simulations. The grid used for the ground-water flow model was uniform and composed of square 250-foot cells, with 400 columns and 400 rows. The active model area encompasses about 360 square miles in parts of Duval, St. Johns, and Clay Counties, Florida. Ground-water flow simulation was limited vertically to the bottom of the Fernandina

  19. Effects of Saline-Wastewater Injection on Water Quality in the Altamont-Bluebell Oil and Gas Field, Duchesne County, Utah, 1990-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steiger, Judy I.

    2007-01-01

    The Altamont-Bluebell oil and gas field in the Uinta Basin in northeastern Utah has been an important oil and natural gas production area since the 1950s. Saline water is produced along with oil during the oil-well drilling and pumping process. The saline wastewater is disposed of by injection into wells completed in the Duchesne River Formation, Uinta Formation, and other underlying formations. There are concerns that the injected saline wastewater could migrate into the upper part of the Duchesne River and Uinta Formations and surficial deposits that are used for drinking-water supply and degrade the quality of the drinking water. The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Utah Department of Natural Resources, Division of Oil, Gas, and Mining, began a program in 1990 to monitor water quality in five wells in the Altamont-Bluebell oil and gas field. By 1996, water-quality samples had been collected from 20 wells. Ten of the 20 wells were sampled yearly during 1996-2005 and analyzed for bromide, chloride, and stable isotopes. Comparison of major chemical constituents, bromide-to-chloride ratios, trend analysis, and isotope ratios were used to assess if saline wastewater is migrating into parts of the formation that are developed for drinking-water supplies. Results of four different analyses all indicate that saline wastewater injected into the lower part of the Duchesne River and Uinta Formations and underlying formations is not migrating upward into the upper parts of the formations that are used for drinking-water supplies.

  20. Near-Infrared Spectroscopy as an Analytical Process Technology for the On-Line Quantification of Water Precipitation Processes during Danhong Injection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuesong; Wu, Chunyan; Geng, Shu; Jin, Ye; Luan, Lianjun; Chen, Yong; Wu, Yongjiang

    2015-01-01

    This paper used near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy for the on-line quantitative monitoring of water precipitation during Danhong injection. For these NIR measurements, two fiber optic probes designed to transmit NIR radiation through a 2 mm flow cell were used to collect spectra in real-time. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) was developed as the preferred chemometrics quantitative analysis of the critical intermediate qualities: the danshensu (DSS, (R)-3, 4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid), protocatechuic aldehyde (PA), rosmarinic acid (RA), and salvianolic acid B (SAB) concentrations. Optimized PLSR models were successfully built and used for on-line detecting of the concentrations of DSS, PA, RA, and SAB of water precipitation during Danhong injection. Besides, the information of DSS, PA, RA, and SAB concentrations would be instantly fed back to site technical personnel for control and adjustment timely. The verification experiments determined that the predicted values agreed with the actual homologic value. PMID:26839549

  1. Comparison of MELCOR modeling techniques and effects of vessel water injection on a low-pressure, short-term, station blackout at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station

    SciTech Connect

    Carbajo, J.J.

    1995-06-01

    A fully qualified, best-estimate MELCOR deck has been prepared for the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station and has been run using MELCOR 1.8.3 (1.8 PN) for a low-pressure, short-term, station blackout severe accident. The same severe accident sequence has been run with the same MELCOR version for the same plant using the deck prepared during the NUREG-1150 study. A third run was also completed with the best-estimate deck but without the Lower Plenum Debris Bed (BH) Package to model the lower plenum. The results from the three runs have been compared, and substantial differences have been found. The timing of important events is shorter, and the calculated source terms are in most cases larger for the NUREG-1150 deck results. However, some of the source terms calculated by the NUREG-1150 deck are not conservative when compared to the best-estimate deck results. These results identified some deficiencies in the NUREG-1150 model of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station. Injection recovery sequences have also been simulated by injecting water into the vessel after core relocation started. This marks the first use of the new BH Package of MELCOR to investigate the effects of water addition to a lower plenum debris bed. The calculated results indicate that vessel failure can be prevented by injecting water at a sufficiently early stage. No pressure spikes in the vessel were predicted during the water injection. The MELCOR code has proven to be a useful tool for severe accident management strategies.

  2. Evaluation of C-14 as a natural tracer for injected fluids at theAidlin sector of The Geysers geothermal system through modeling ofmineral-water-gas Reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Dobson, Patrick; Sonnenthal, Eric; Lewicki, Jennifer; Kennedy, Mack

    2006-06-01

    A reactive-transport model for 14C was developed to test its applicability to the Aidlin geothermal system. Using TOUGHREACT, we developed a 1-D grid to evaluate the effects of water injection and subsequent water-rock-gas interaction on the compositions of the produced fluids. A dual-permeability model of the fracture-matrix system was used to describe reaction-transport processes in which the permeability of the fractures is many orders of magnitude higher than that of the rock matrix. The geochemical system included the principal minerals (K-feldspar, plagioclase, calcite, silica polymorphs) of the metagraywackes that comprise the geothermal reservoir rocks. Initial simulation results predict that the gas-phase CO2 in the reservoir will become more enriched in 14C as air-equilibrated injectate water (with a modern carbon signature) is incorporated into the system, and that these changes will precede accompanying decreases in reservoir temperature. The effects of injection on 14C in the rock matrix will be lessened somewhat because of the dissolution of matrix calcite with ''dead'' carbon.

  3. Dynamics of Electron Injection in SnO2/TiO2 Core/Shell Electrodes for Water-Splitting Dye-Sensitized Photoelectrochemical Cells.

    PubMed

    McCool, Nicholas S; Swierk, John R; Nemes, Coleen T; Schmuttenmaer, Charles A; Mallouk, Thomas E

    2016-08-01

    Water-splitting dye-sensitized photoelectrochemical cells (WS-DSPECs) rely on photoinduced charge separation at a dye/semiconductor interface to supply electrons and holes for water splitting. To improve the efficiency of charge separation and reduce charge recombination in these devices, it is possible to use core/shell structures in which photoinduced electron transfer occurs stepwise through a series of progressively more positive acceptor states. Here, we use steady-state emission studies and time-resolved terahertz spectroscopy to follow the dynamics of electron injection from a photoexcited ruthenium polypyridyl dye as a function of the TiO2 shell thickness on SnO2 nanoparticles. Electron injection proceeds directly into the SnO2 core when the thickness of the TiO2 shell is less than 5 Å. For thicker shells, electrons are injected into the TiO2 shell and trapped, and are then released into the SnO2 core on a time scale of hundreds of picoseconds. As the TiO2 shell increases in thickness, the probability of electron trapping in nonmobile states within the shell increases. Conduction band electrons in the TiO2 shell and the SnO2 core can be differentiated on the basis of their mobility. These observations help explain the observation of an optimum shell thickness for core/shell water-splitting electrodes.

  4. Dual cloud point extraction coupled with hydrodynamic-electrokinetic two-step injection followed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography for simultaneous determination of trace phenolic estrogens in water samples.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yingying; Li, Jinhua; Liu, Junshen; Lu, Wenhui; Ma, Jiping; Chen, Lingxin

    2013-07-01

    A dual cloud point extraction (dCPE) off-line enrichment procedure coupled with a hydrodynamic-electrokinetic two-step injection online enrichment technique was successfully developed for simultaneous preconcentration of trace phenolic estrogens (hexestrol, dienestrol, and diethylstilbestrol) in water samples followed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) analysis. Several parameters affecting the extraction and online injection conditions were optimized. Under optimal dCPE-two-step injection-MEKC conditions, detection limits of 7.9-8.9 ng/mL and good linearity in the range from 0.05 to 5 μg/mL with correlation coefficients R(2) ≥ 0.9990 were achieved. Satisfactory recoveries ranging from 83 to 108% were obtained with lake and tap water spiked at 0.1 and 0.5 μg/mL, respectively, with relative standard deviations (n = 6) of 1.3-3.1%. This method was demonstrated to be convenient, rapid, cost-effective, and environmentally benign, and could be used as an alternative to existing methods for analyzing trace residues of phenolic estrogens in water samples.

  5. Dual cloud point extraction coupled with hydrodynamic-electrokinetic two-step injection followed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography for simultaneous determination of trace phenolic estrogens in water samples.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yingying; Li, Jinhua; Liu, Junshen; Lu, Wenhui; Ma, Jiping; Chen, Lingxin

    2013-07-01

    A dual cloud point extraction (dCPE) off-line enrichment procedure coupled with a hydrodynamic-electrokinetic two-step injection online enrichment technique was successfully developed for simultaneous preconcentration of trace phenolic estrogens (hexestrol, dienestrol, and diethylstilbestrol) in water samples followed by micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) analysis. Several parameters affecting the extraction and online injection conditions were optimized. Under optimal dCPE-two-step injection-MEKC conditions, detection limits of 7.9-8.9 ng/mL and good linearity in the range from 0.05 to 5 μg/mL with correlation coefficients R(2) ≥ 0.9990 were achieved. Satisfactory recoveries ranging from 83 to 108% were obtained with lake and tap water spiked at 0.1 and 0.5 μg/mL, respectively, with relative standard deviations (n = 6) of 1.3-3.1%. This method was demonstrated to be convenient, rapid, cost-effective, and environmentally benign, and could be used as an alternative to existing methods for analyzing trace residues of phenolic estrogens in water samples. PMID:23657452

  6. Adalimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... not improved when treated with other medications, ulcerative colitis (a condition which causes swelling and sores in ... adalimumab injection to treat Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis, your doctor may tell you to inject the ...

  7. Denosumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Denosumab injection (Prolia) is also used to treat bone loss in men with prostate cancer and in women with breast cancer who are receiving certain treatments that increase their risk for fractures. Denosumab injection ( ...

  8. Diphenhydramine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the nervous system that causes difficulties with movement, muscle control, and balance). Diphenhydramine injection should not be ... solution (liquid) to be injected intramuscularly (into a muscle) or intravenously (into a vein). Your dosing schedule ...

  9. Leucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... red blood cells) caused by low levels of folic acid in the body. Leucovorin injection is also used ... injection is in a class of medications called folic acid analogs. It treats people who are receiving methotrexate ...

  10. Glatiramer Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which ... to inject glatiramer, inject it around the same time every day. Follow the directions on your prescription ...

  11. Naltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Naltrexone injection is used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped drinking large ... injection is also used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped abusing opiate ...

  12. Estrogen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot flashes; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) ... If you are using estrogen injection to treat hot flushes, your symptoms should improve within 1 to ...

  13. Cefazolin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Cefazolin injection is also sometimes used for certain penicillin allergic patients who have a heart condition and ... injection is also sometimes used to treat certain penicillin allergic women who are in labor in order ...

  14. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... cancer, and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  15. Aripiprazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... aripiprazole injection and aripiprazole extended-release injection developed gambling problems or other intense urges or behaviors that ... even if you do not realize that your gambling or any other intense urges or unusual behaviors ...

  16. Testosterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Testopel) are also used to stimulate puberty in males with delayed puberty. Testosterone enanthate (Delatestryl) injection may ... to the growth, development, and functioning of the male sexual organs and typical male characteristics. Testosterone injection ...

  17. Degarelix Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Degarelix injection is used to treat advanced prostate cancer (cancer that begins in the prostate [a male reproductive gland]). Degarelix injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) ...

  18. Naloxone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection device.The automatic injection device has an electronic voice system that provides step by step directions ... of opiate withdrawal such as body aches, diarrhea, fast heart beat, fever, runny nose, sneezing, sweating, yawning, ...

  19. Cefoxitin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work ...

  20. Doripenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tract, kidney, and abdomen that are caused by bacteria. Doripenem injection is not approved by the Food ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work ...

  1. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work ...

  2. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous injection is also used to treat endometriosis (a condition in which the type of tissue ... parts of the body in women who have endometriosis. Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of ...

  3. Levoleucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of ... people who have accidentally received an overdose of methotrexate or similar medications. Levoleucovorin injection is in a ...

  4. Vancomycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Vancomycin injection is used alone or in combination with other medications to treat certain serious infections such ... infections of the lungs, skin, blood, and bones. Vancomycin injection is in a class of medications called ...

  5. Stress field respond to massive injection of cold water into a geothermal reservoir study by geomechanical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeanne, P.; Rutqvist, J.

    2015-12-01

    In this paper, we study the evolution and distribution of the stress tensor within the northwest part of The Geysers geothermal field during 9 years of injection (from 2003 to 2012). Based on a refined 3D structural model, developed by Calpine Corporation, where the horizon surfaces are mapped, we use the GMS™ GUI to construct a realistic three-dimensional geologic model of the Northwest Geysers geothermal field. This model includes a low permeability graywacke layer that forms the caprock for the reservoir, an isothermal steam zone (the Normal Temperature Reservoir) within metagraywacke, a hornfels zone (the High Temperature Reservoir), and a felsite layer that is assumed to extend downward to the magmatic heat source. This model is mapped into a rectangular grid for use with the TOUGH-FLAC numerical simulator. Then, we reproduce the injection history of seven active wells between 2003 and 2012. Finally, our results are compared with previous works where the stress tensor was studied from the inversion of focal plane mechanism in the same area and during the same period. As in these publications we find that: (1) changes in the orientation of principal horizontal stress are very small after one decade of injection, and (2) at injection depth significant rotations of the initially vertically oriented maximum compressive principal stress occur in response to changes in the fluid injection rates. As observed in the field, we found that σ1 tilted towards the σ2 direction by approximately 15° when injection rates were at their peak level. Such a rotation consequently results in a local change in the state stress from a normal stress regime (Sv > SHmax> > Shmin) to a strike slip regime (SHmax> Sv > > Shmin) above and below the injection zone. Our results show that thermal processes are the principal cause for the stress tensor rotation.

  6. Class V injection wells: current inventory; effects on ground water; technical recommendations. Executive summary of the report to Congress. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    The report to Congress summarizes the results of State surveys concerning Class V injection wells as defined by the 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. The report (1) identifies the categories and corresponding inventories of Class V wells in the United States and its Territories and Possessions, (2) describes primary contamination problems associated with different categories of these wells, and (3) summarizes recommendations for minimum design, construction, installation, and siting requirements that could be applied to protect underground sources of drinking water.

  7. Experimental investigation of water injection in subsonic diffuser of a conical inlet operation at free-stream Mach number of 2.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beke, Andrew

    1957-01-01

    A spike-type nose inlet with sharp-lip cowl was investigated at a free-stream Mach number of 2.5 with water injection in its 16-inch diameter, 11-foot-long subsonic diffuser section. Inlet total temperature of exit with liquid-air ratios of about 0.04 with no apparent change in the critical pressure recovery. The observed temperature drops were less than the theoretically predicted values, and the amount of water evaporated was 35 to 50 percent less than that theoretically possible.

  8. Reanalysis Study of the North American Monsoon and its Effect on Convective Injection of Water Vapor from the Troposphere to the Stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clapp, C.; Leroy, S. S.; Anderson, J. G.

    2014-12-01

    The presence of elevated stratospheric water vapor concentrations poses significant consequences for stratospheric ozone. With high concentrations of water vapor at low temperatures, inorganic chlorine can enter a heterogeneous chemical regime in which it becomes processed into the chlorine radical. The chlorine radical drives the catalytic destruction of ozone in the stratosphere. Historically the intersection of low temperatures and high water vapor concentrations has been isolated to the polar vortexes. However, convection over the mid-latitude United States has been observed in isotopic data to inject water vapor from the troposphere into the stratosphere (Hanisco et al. 2007). The consequent elevated levels of stratospheric water vapor may lead to catalytic destruction of stratospheric ozone in the mid-latitudes thereupon resulting in increased UV exposure at the Earth's surface and increased risk to public health (Anderson et al. 2012). It is therefore critical to identify the climatology of the stratosphere that may exacerbate or mitigate the elevated water vapor conditions. Specifically we investigate the North American monsoon and its effect on perpetuating conditions of high water vapor concentrations. An analysis of relative vorticity from the ERA-interim and MERRA reanalyses over the United States from 2000 to 2013 reveal the consistent formation of the monsoon during the months of July and August and frequently June. An examination of circulation during the same time period allows us to estimate the monsoon's stability. Furthermore, using potential vorticity as a tracer we see further evidence of the monsoon's effect on keeping moist air masses over the United States. Finally, the analyzed dynamics of the North American Monsoon may explain the fact that NEXRAD observations of convective injection of water occur most strongly in the Spring months while the EOS MLS instrument detects the majority of high water vapor observations during the Summer months.

  9. Application of pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection-tandem mass spectrometry in the determination of perchlorate in water and soil samples.

    PubMed

    Aranda-Rodriguez, Rocio; Jin, Zhiyun; Zhu, Jiping; Feng, Yong-Lai

    2012-01-01

    A new method for the determination of perchlorate in water and soil samples using on-line enrichment in a capillary zone electrophoresis-mass spectrometry is presented. The target analytes in the sample solutions were introduced into the capillary column by pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection (PAEKI) with the simultaneous application of -18 kV and +50 mbar external pressure to the sample vial at the capillary inlet for 4 min. The injected sample zone was flushed out with a running buffer and analyzed by a tandem mass spectrometer in a negative selected reaction monitoring mode. The influence of the matrix in both water and soil samples was eliminated by a clean-up step by passing the sample through Ba/Ag/H cartridges. The method showed good linearity in the dynamic range of 20 to 1000 ng/L, and achieved a detection limit of 18.7 ng/L for water samples and 3.3 ng/g for soil samples, respectively. The recovery of perchlorate in spiked samples, at three different levels, ranged over 79-127%. The method reproducibility was found to be 11% RSD for water samples and 7% RSD for soil samples. Perchlorate was found in 25 out of 28 water samples analyzed, with the levels ranging from 19.8 to 192 ng/L, and was not detected in the 10 soil samples analyzed.

  10. Review and problem definition of water/rock reactions associated with injection of spent geothermal fluids from a geothermal plant into aquifers

    SciTech Connect

    Elders, W.A.

    1986-07-01

    Among the technical problems faced by the burgeoning geothermal industry is the disposal of spent fluids from power plants. Except in unusual circumstances the normal practice, especially in the USA, is to pump these spent fluids into injection wells to prevent contamination of surface waters, and possibly in some cases, to reduce pressure drawdown in the producing aquifers. This report is a survey of experience in geothermal injection, emphasizing geochemical problems, and a discussion of approaches to their possible mitigation. The extraction of enthalpy from geothermal fluid in power plants may cause solutions to be strongly supersaturated in various dissolved components such as silica, carbonates, sulfates, and sulfides. Injection of such supersaturated solutions into disposal wells has the potential to cause scaling in the well bores and plugging of the aquifers, leading to loss of injectivity. Various aspects of the geochemistry of geothermal brines and their potential for mineral formation are discussed, drawing upon a literature survey. Experience of brine treatment and handling, and the economics of mineral extraction are also addressed in this report. Finally suggestions are made on future needs for possible experimental, field and theoretical studies to avoid or control mineral scaling.

  11. Geochemical effects of CO2 injection on produced water chemistry at an enhanced oil recovery site in the Permian Basin of northwest Texas, USA: Preliminary geochemical and Li isotope results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfister, S.; Gardiner, J.; Phan, T. T.; Macpherson, G. L.; Diehl, J. R.; Lopano, C. L.; Stewart, B. W.; Capo, R. C.

    2014-12-01

    Injection of supercritical CO2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) presents an opportunity to evaluate the effects of CO2 on reservoir properties and formation waters during geologic carbon sequestration. Produced water from oil wells tapping a carbonate-hosted reservoir at an active EOR site in the Permian Basin of Texas both before and after injection were sampled to evaluate geochemical and isotopic changes associated with water-rock-CO2 interaction. Produced waters from the carbonate reservoir rock are Na-Cl brines with TDS levels of 16.5-34 g/L and detectable H2S. These brines are potentially diluted with shallow groundwater from earlier EOR water flooding. Initial lithium isotope data (δ7Li) from pre-injection produced water in the EOR field fall within the range of Gulf of Mexico Coastal sedimentary basin and Appalachian basin values (Macpherson et al., 2014, Geofluids, doi: 10.1111/gfl.12084). Pre-injection produced water 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.70788-0.70795) are consistent with mid-late Permian seawater/carbonate. CO2 injection took place in October 2013, and four of the wells sampled in May 2014 showed CO2 breakthrough. Preliminary comparison of pre- and post-injection produced waters indicates no significant changes in the major inorganic constituents following breakthrough, other than a possible drop in K concentration. Trace element and isotope data from pre- and post-breakthrough wells are currently being evaluated and will be presented.

  12. Fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery as a potential problem for the WIPP: Proceedings of a June 1995 workshop and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Silva, M.K.

    1996-08-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), designed and constructed for the permanent disposal of transuranic (TRU) defense waste. The repository is sited in the New Mexico portion of the Delaware Basin, at a depth of 655 meters, in the salt beds of the Salado Formation. The WIPP is surrounded by reserves and production of potash, crude oil and natural gas. In selecting a repository site, concerns about extensive oil field development eliminated the Mescalero Plains site in Chaves County and concerns about future waterflooding in nearby oil fields helped eliminate the Alternate II site in Lea County. Ultimately, the Los Medanos site in Eddy County was selected, relying in part on the conclusion that there were no oil reserves at the site. For oil field operations, the problem of water migrating from the injection zone, through other formations such as the Salado, and onto adjacent property has long been recognized. In 1980, the DOE intended to prohibit secondary recovery by waterflooding in one mile buffer surrounding the WIPP Site. However, the DOE relinquished the right to restrict waterflooding based on a natural resources report which maintained that there was a minimal amount of crude oil likely to exist at the WIPP site, hence waterflooding adjacent to the WIPP would be unlikely. This document presents the workshop presentations and analyses for the fluid injection for salt water disposal and enhanced oil recovery utilizing fluid injection and their potential effects on the WIPP facility.

  13. Investigation of parameter estimation and impact of injection rate on relative permeability measurements for supercritical CO2 and water by unsteady-state method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiratsuka, Y.; Yamamoto, H.

    2014-12-01

    CCS (Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage) is a promising option for mitigating climate changes. To predict the behavior of injected CO2 in a deep reservoir, relative permeability of supercritical CO2 and water of the reservoir rock is one of the most fundamental and influential properties. For determining the relative permeability, we employed the unsteady state method, in which the relative permeability is determined based on history matching of transient monitoring data with a multi-phase flow model. The unsteady-state method is relatively simple and short, but obviously its accuracy strongly depends on the flow model assumed in the history matching. In this study, we conducted relative permeability measurements of supercritical CO2-water system for Berea sandstone with the unsteady-state method under a reservoir condition at a 1km depth (P= 9.5MPa, T = 44˚C). Automatic history matching was performed with an inversion simulator iTOUGH2/ECO2N for multi-phase flow system of supercritical CO2, NaCl, and water. A sensitivity analysis of relative permeability parameters for CO2 and water was carried out to better understand the uniqueness and the uncertainty of the optimum solution estimated by the history matching. Among the parameters of the Corey-type curve employed in this study, while the end-point permeability could be optimized in a limited range, the other parameters were correlated and their combinations were not unique. However it was found that any combination of these parameters results in nearly identical shapes of the curve in the range of CO2 saturation in this study (0 to 60%). The optimally estimated curve from the unsteady-method was well comparable with those from the steady-state method acquired in the previous studies. Our experiment also focuses on the impact of injection rate on the estimates of relative permeability, as it is known that the injection rate could have a significant effect on fluid distribution such as viscous fingering with

  14. MICROBIAL RESPONSES TO IN SITU CHEMICAL OXIDATION, SIX-PHASE HEATING, AND STEAM INJECTION REMEDIATION TECHNOLOGIES IN GROUND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The evaluation of microbial responses to three in situ source removal remedial technologies including permanganate-based in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), six-phase heating (SPH), and steam injection (SI) was performed at Cape Canaveral Air Station in Florida. The investigatio...

  15. Preliminary Reactive Geochemical Transport Modeling Study on Changes in Water Chemistry Induced by CO2 Injection at Frio Pilot Test Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, T.; Kharaka, Y.; Benson, S.

    2006-12-01

    A total of 1600 tons of CO2 were injected into the Frio ~{!0~}C~{!1~} sandstone layer at a depth of 1500 m over a period of 10 days. The pilot, located near Dayton, Texas, employed one injection well and one observation well, separated laterally by about 30 m. Each well was perforated over 6 m in the upper portion of the 23-m thick sandstone. Fluid samples were taken from both wells before, during, and after the injection. Following CO2 breakthrough, observations indicate drops in pH (6.5 to 5.7), pronounced increases in concentrations of HCO3- (100 to 3000 mg/L), in Fe (30 to 1100), and dissolved organic carbon. Numerical modeling was used in this study to understand changes of aqueous HCO3- and Fe caused by CO2 injection. The general multiphase reactive geochemical transport simulator TOUGHREACT was used, which includes new fluid property module ECO2N with an accurate description of the thermophysical properties of mixtures of water, brine, and CO2 at conditions of interest for CO2 storage. A calibrated 1-D radial well flow model was employed for the present reactive geochemical transport simulations. Mineral composition used was taken from literatures relevant to Frio sandstone. Increases in HCO3- concentration were well reproduced by an initial simulation. Several scenarios were used to capture increases in Fe concentration including (1) dissolution of carbonate minerals, (2) dissolution of iron oxyhydroxides, (3) de-sorption of previously coated Fe. Future modeling, laboratory and field investigations are proposed to better understand the CO2-brine-mineral interactions at the Frio site. Results from this study could have broad implication for subsurface storage of CO2 and potential water quality impacts.

  16. Characterization and Alteration of Wettability States of Alaskan Reserviors to Improve Oil Recovery Efficiency (including the within-scope expansion based on Cyclic Water Injection - a pulsed waterflood for Enhanced Oil Recovery)

    SciTech Connect

    Abhijit Dandekar; Shirish Patil; Santanu Khataniar

    2008-12-31

    Numerous early reports on experimental works relating to the role of wettability in various aspects of oil recovery have been published. Early examples of laboratory waterfloods show oil recovery increasing with increasing water-wetness. This result is consistent with the intuitive notion that strong wetting preference of the rock for water and associated strong capillary-imbibition forces gives the most efficient oil displacement. This report examines the effect of wettability on waterflooding and gasflooding processes respectively. Waterflood oil recoveries were examined for the dual cases of uniform and non-uniform wetting conditions. Based on the results of the literature review on effect of wettability and oil recovery, coreflooding experiments were designed to examine the effect of changing water chemistry (salinity) on residual oil saturation. Numerous corefloods were conducted on reservoir rock material from representative formations on the Alaska North Slope (ANS). The corefloods consisted of injecting water (reservoir water and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water) of different salinities in secondary as well as tertiary mode. Additionally, complete reservoir condition corefloods were also conducted using live oil. In all the tests, wettability indices, residual oil saturation, and oil recovery were measured. All results consistently lead to one conclusion; that is, a decrease in injection water salinity causes a reduction in residual oil saturation and a slight increase in water-wetness, both of which are comparable with literature observations. These observations have an intuitive appeal in that water easily imbibes into the core and displaces oil. Therefore, low-salinity waterfloods have the potential for improved oil recovery in the secondary recovery process, and ultra low-salinity ANS lake water is an attractive source of injection water or a source for diluting the high-salinity reservoir water. As part of the within-scope expansion of this project

  17. Pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection for on-line enrichment in capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry: a sensitive method for measurement of ten haloacetic acids in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huijuan; Zhu, Jiping; Aranda-Rodriguez, Rocio; Feng, Yong-Lai

    2011-11-01

    Haloacetic acids (HAAs) are by-products of the chlorination of drinking water containing natural organic matter and bromide. A simple and sensitive method has been developed for determination of ten HAAs in drinking water. The pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection (PAEKI), an on-line enrichment technique, was employed to introduce the sample into a capillary electrophoresis (CE)-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry system (ESI-MS/MS). HAAs were monitored in selected reaction monitoring mode. With 3 min of PAEKI time, the ten major HAAs (HAA10) in drinking water were enriched up to 20,000-fold into the capillary without compromising resolution. A simple solid phase clean-up method has been developed to eliminate the influence of ionic matrices from drinking water on PAEKI. Under conditions optimized for mass spectrometry, PAEKI and capillary electrophoresis, detection limits defined as three times ratio of signal to noise have been achieved in a range of 0.013-0.12 μg L(-1) for ten HAAs in water sample. The overall recoveries for all ten HAAs in drinking water samples were between 76 and 125%. Six HAAs including monochloro- (MCAA), dichloro- (DCAA), trichloro- (TCAA), monobromo- (MBAA), bromochloro- (BCAA), and bromodichloroacetic acids (BDCAA) were found in tap water samples collected.

  18. Vertical-deformation, water-level, microgravity, geodetic, water-chemistry, and flow-rate data collected during injection, storage, and recovery tests at Lancaster, Antelope Valley, California, September 1995 through September 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Metzger, Loren F.; Ikehara, Marti E.; Howle, James F.

    2001-01-01

    A series of freshwater injection, storage, and recovery tests were conducted from September 1995 through September 1998 to evaluate the feasibility of artificially recharging ground water in the Lancaster area of the Antelope Valley, California. The tests used two production wells at a well field located in the southern part of the city of Lancaster. Monitoring networks were established at or in the vicinity of the test site to measure vertical deformation of the aquifer system, water-level fluctuations, land-surface deformation, water chemistry, and injection well flow rates during water injection and recovery. Data presented in this report were collected from a dual extensometer; 10 piezometers; 1 barometer; 27 active or abandoned production wells; 31 gravity stations; 124 bench marks; 1 permanent and 1 temporary continuous Global Positioning System (GPS) station; 3 tiltmeters; and 2 electromagnetic flowmeters from September 1995 through September 1998. This report discusses the location and design of the monitoring networks and the methods used to collect and process the data, and presents the data in tables and graphs.

  19. Simplified Two-Time Step Method for Calculating Combustion and Emission Rates of Jet-A and Methane Fuel With and Without Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Melissa; Marek, C. John

    2005-01-01

    A simplified kinetic scheme for Jet-A, and methane fuels with water injection was developed to be used in numerical combustion codes, such as the National Combustor Code (NCC) or even simple FORTRAN codes. The two time step method is either an initial time averaged value (step one) or an instantaneous value (step two). The switch is based on the water concentration in moles/cc of 1x10(exp -20). The results presented here results in a correlation that gives the chemical kinetic time as two separate functions. This two time step method is used as opposed to a one step time averaged method previously developed to determine the chemical kinetic time with increased accuracy. The first time averaged step is used at the initial times for smaller water concentrations. This gives the average chemical kinetic time as a function of initial overall fuel air ratio, initial water to fuel mass ratio, temperature, and pressure. The second instantaneous step, to be used with higher water concentrations, gives the chemical kinetic time as a function of instantaneous fuel and water mole concentration, pressure and temperature (T4). The simple correlations would then be compared to the turbulent mixing times to determine the limiting rates of the reaction. The NASA Glenn GLSENS kinetics code calculates the reaction rates and rate constants for each species in a kinetic scheme for finite kinetic rates. These reaction rates are used to calculate the necessary chemical kinetic times. Chemical kinetic time equations for fuel, carbon monoxide and NOx are obtained for Jet-A fuel and methane with and without water injection to water mass loadings of 2/1 water to fuel. A similar correlation was also developed using data from NASA's Chemical Equilibrium Applications (CEA) code to determine the equilibrium concentrations of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide as functions of overall equivalence ratio, water to fuel mass ratio, pressure and temperature (T3). The temperature of the gas entering

  20. A Multitracer Approach to Detecting Wastewater Plumes from Municipal Injection Wells in Nearshore Marine Waters at Kihei and Lahaina, Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunt, Charles D.; Rosa, Sarah N.

    2009-01-01

    Municipal wastewater plumes discharging from aquifer to ocean were detected by nearshore wading surveys at Kihei and Lahaina, on the island of Maui in Hawaii. Developed in cooperation with the Hawaii State Department of Health, the survey methodology included instrument trolling to detect submarine groundwater discharge, followed by analysis of water and macroalgae for a suite of chemical and isotopic constituents that constitute a 'multitracer' approach. Surveys were conducted May 6-28, 2008, during fair-weather conditions and included: (1) wading and kayak trolling with a multiparameter water-quality sonde, (2) marine water-column sampling, and (3) collection of benthic algae samples. Instrument trolling helped guide the water sampling strategy by providing dense, continuous transects of water properties on which groundwater discharge zones could be identified. Water and algae samples for costly chemical and isotopic laboratory analyses were last to be collected but were highly diagnostic of wastewater presence and nutrient origin because of low detection levels and confirmation across multiple tracers. Laboratory results confirmed the presence of wastewater constituents in marine water-column samples at both locales and showed evidence of modifying processes such as denitrification and mixing of effluent with surrounding groundwater and seawater. Carbamazepine was the most diagnostic pharmaceutical, detected in several marine water-column samples and effluent at both Kihei and Lahaina. Heavy nitrogen-isotope compositions in water and algae were highly diagnostic of effluent, particularly where enriched to even heavier values than effluent source compositions by denitrification. Algae provided an added advantage of time-integrating their nitrogen source during growth. The measured Kihei plume coincided almost exactly with prior model predictions, but the Lahaina plume was detected well south of the expected direct path from injection wells to shore and may be

  1. New Reduced Two-Time Step Method for Calculating Combustion and Emission Rates of Jet-A and Methane Fuel With and Without Water Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molnar, Melissa; Marek, C. John

    2004-01-01

    A simplified kinetic scheme for Jet-A, and methane fuels with water injection was developed to be used in numerical combustion codes, such as the National Combustor Code (NCC) or even simple FORTRAN codes that are being developed at Glenn. The two time step method is either an initial time averaged value (step one) or an instantaneous value (step two). The switch is based on the water concentration in moles/cc of 1x10(exp -20). The results presented here results in a correlation that gives the chemical kinetic time as two separate functions. This two step method is used as opposed to a one step time averaged method previously developed to determine the chemical kinetic time with increased accuracy. The first time averaged step is used at the initial times for smaller water concentrations. This gives the average chemical kinetic time as a function of initial overall fuel air ratio, initial water to fuel mass ratio, temperature, and pressure. The second instantaneous step, to be used with higher water concentrations, gives the chemical kinetic time as a function of instantaneous fuel and water mole concentration, pressure and temperature (T4). The simple correlations would then be compared to the turbulent mixing times to determine the limiting properties of the reaction. The NASA Glenn GLSENS kinetics code calculates the reaction rates and rate constants for each species in a kinetic scheme for finite kinetic rates. These reaction rates were then used to calculate the necessary chemical kinetic times. Chemical kinetic time equations for fuel, carbon monoxide and NOx were obtained for Jet-A fuel and methane with and without water injection to water mass loadings of 2/1 water to fuel. A similar correlation was also developed using data from NASA's Chemical Equilibrium Applications (CEA) code to determine the equilibrium concentrations of carbon monoxide and nitrogen oxide as functions of overall equivalence ratio, water to fuel mass ratio, pressure and temperature (T3

  2. Rapid screening of haloacetamides in water using salt-assisted liquid-liquid extraction coupled injection-port silylation gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tzu-Ling; Tzing, Shin-Hwa; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2015-11-27

    The rapid screening of trace amounts of the nitrogenous disinfection by-products, haloacetamides (HAcAms), in drinking and swimming pool water was performed by a simple and reliable procedure based on salt-assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) combined with injection-port silylation gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (IPS-GC-MS) method. The optimal SALLE conditions involved the injection of 4-mL of ethyl acetate into a 10-mL water sample (pH 7) containing 3-g of sodium sulfate. After vortex extraction for 1min and centrifugation, 10μL of the extract (mixed with 1μL of MTBSTFA) was directly determined by IPS-GC-MS. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) were determined to be 0.03-0.3μg/L. Precision, as indicated by relative standard deviations (RSDs), was less than 10% for both intra- and inter-day analysis. Accuracy, expressed as the mean extraction recovery, was between 76% and 94%. The SALLE plus IPS-GC-MS was successfully applied to quantitatively determine HAcAms from drinking and swimming pool water samples, and the total concentrations of the compounds ranged from 0.43 to 4.03μg/L. PMID:26518495

  3. Direct aqueous injection LC-ESI/MS/MS analysis of water for 11 chloro- and thiomethyltriazines and metolachlor and its ethanesulfonic and oxanilic acid degradates.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sung-Ben; Mayer, Thomas J; Yokley, Robert A

    2008-04-23

    A multianalyte method is reported for the determination of atrazine, simazine, propazine, and their respective dealkylated chlorotriazine metabolites; ametryn and prometryn and their respective dealkylated thiomethyltriazine metabolites; and S-metolachlor and its ethanesulfonic and oxanilic acid degradates in deionized, ground, surface, and finished drinking water. Water samples are analyzed using direct aqueous injection (DAI) liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization/mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-ESI/MS/MS). No preanalysis sample manipulation is required other than transfer of a small portion of sample to an injection vial. The lower limit of the method validation is 0.050 microg/L (ppb) for all analytes except 2,4-diamino-6-chloro- s-triazine (didealkylatrazine, DDA, or G-28273). For this compound the LLMV is 0.50 microg/L (ppb). The overall mean procedural recoveries (and percent relative standard deviations) for all water types for all analytes ranged from 95 to 101% (4.5-11%). The method validation was conducted under U.S. EPA FIFRA Good Laboratory Practice Guidelines 40 CFR 160.

  4. Application of flow injection analysis--photo-induced fluorescence (FIA-PIF) for the determination of α-cypermethrin pesticide residues in natural waters.

    PubMed

    Mbaye, M; Gaye Seye, M D; Aaron, J J; Coly, A; Tine, A

    2011-04-01

    Flow injection analysis combined with photo-induced fluorescence (FIA-PIF) has been applied for the determination of α-cypermethrin pesticide residues in Senegalese natural waters, using organic solutions and cyclodextrin (β-cyclodextrin and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin) aqueous media. The α-cypermethrin insecticide has a very weak natural fluorescence, but it is converted into strongly fluorescent photoproduct(s) by UV irradiation. Cyclodextrins were found to enhance the PIF signal. FIA parameters, including mobile phase flow rate, injected volume, and reactor length, were optimized. Analytical performances of the FIA-PIF method for the determination of α-cypermethrin were satisfactory, with concentration linear dynamic ranges over one to two orders of magnitude and with rather low limits of detection and limits of quantification, in the ng mL(-1) range, and relative standard deviations comprised between 1.2% and 3.8%. Application of FIA-PIF for the analysis of fortified natural water samples collected from Senegal yielded good recovery values (84-112%). Because of its high sampling rate, the FIA-PIF method constitutes a rapid analytical tool, useful for quantification of α-cypermethrin residues in natural waters.

  5. Rapid screening of haloacetamides in water using salt-assisted liquid-liquid extraction coupled injection-port silylation gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tzu-Ling; Tzing, Shin-Hwa; Ding, Wang-Hsien

    2015-11-27

    The rapid screening of trace amounts of the nitrogenous disinfection by-products, haloacetamides (HAcAms), in drinking and swimming pool water was performed by a simple and reliable procedure based on salt-assisted liquid-liquid extraction (SALLE) combined with injection-port silylation gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (IPS-GC-MS) method. The optimal SALLE conditions involved the injection of 4-mL of ethyl acetate into a 10-mL water sample (pH 7) containing 3-g of sodium sulfate. After vortex extraction for 1min and centrifugation, 10μL of the extract (mixed with 1μL of MTBSTFA) was directly determined by IPS-GC-MS. The limits of quantitation (LOQs) were determined to be 0.03-0.3μg/L. Precision, as indicated by relative standard deviations (RSDs), was less than 10% for both intra- and inter-day analysis. Accuracy, expressed as the mean extraction recovery, was between 76% and 94%. The SALLE plus IPS-GC-MS was successfully applied to quantitatively determine HAcAms from drinking and swimming pool water samples, and the total concentrations of the compounds ranged from 0.43 to 4.03μg/L.

  6. Ultratraces analysis of organochlorine pesticides in drinking water by solid phase extraction coupled with large volume injection/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Brondi, Silvia H G; Spoljaric, Fernanda C; Lanças, Fernando M

    2005-11-01

    This study describes an SPE coupled with large volume injection (LVI) analytical method for the analysis of organochlorine pesticides, BHC (alpha, beta, delta), aldrin, endosulfan (alpha, beta), endrin, dieldrin, and DDT, from aqueous samples. Determination was carried out by GC with MS. The LODs of organochlorine pesticides were determined at 10 ng/L concentration levels, and the results show that SPE-LVI-GC/MS has the potential to accurately determine organochlorine pesticides in water, as it avoids analyte classes in the various steps of a typical extraction procedure.

  7. Triptorelin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... response to triptorelin injection. Your blood sugar and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) should be checked regularly.Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about triptorelin injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and ...

  8. Leuprolide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... response to leuprolide injection. Your blood sugar and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) should be checked regularly.Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about leuprolide injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and ...

  9. Aquifer Biogeochemistry and N Flux to Coastal Waters from Injected Wastewater Effluent in Kā´anapali, Maui, Hawaíi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fackrell, J.; Glenn, C. R.; Popp, B. N.; Whittier, R. B.; Dulaiova, H.

    2015-12-01

    We utilized N and C species concentration data along with δ15N values of dissolved NO3- and δ13C values of dissolved inorganic C to evaluate the stoichiometry of biogeochemical reactions occurring within a subsurface plume originating from underground wastewater effluent injection at Lahaina Wastewater Reclamation Facility (LWRF) and discharging at several nearby submarine springs. Additionally, we compared LWRF time series data, injection rates, and treatment history with submarine spring time series data to assess correlation between input and output variables. We found that heterotrophic denitrification is the primary mechanism of N attenuation within the effluent plume and that chlorination of injected effluent for disinfection purposes may suppress microbial activity responsible for this N attenuation, resulting in increased N loading to the coastal ocean. The replacement of chlorination with UV disinfection may restore the biogeochemical reactions responsible for the N loss in the aquifer and return of N-attenuating conditions in the effluent plume, reducing N flux to coastal waters.

  10. [Regulation of geochemical activity of microorganisms in a petroleum reservoir by injection of H2O2 or water-air mixture].

    PubMed

    Nazina, T N; Pavlova, N K; Ni, F; Shestakova, N M; Ivoĭlov, V S; Feng, Q; Dongyun, Z; Prusakova, T S; Beliaev, S S; Ivanov, M V

    2008-01-01

    In the course of pilot trials of biotechnologies for the enhancement of oil recovery in the Gangxi bed of the Dagang oil field (China), microbiological processes were investigated. The biotechnologies were based on injection into the petroleum reservoir of different oxygen sources (H2O2 solution or a water-air mixture) with nitrogen and phosphorus salts. The injection of water-air mixture with nitrogen and phosphorus salts resulted in an increase in the number of aerobic and anaerobic organotrophic bacteria, rates of sulfate reduction and methanogenesis in formation water and also the content of CO2 (from 4.8-12 to 15-23.2%) and methane (from 86-88 to 91.8%) in the gas. The preferential consumption of isotopically light bicarbonate by methanogens resulted in a higher content of the light 12C in methane; the delta13C/CH4 value changed from -45.1...-48.3 to -50.7...-59.3 per thousand). At the same time, mineral carbonates of the formation water became isotopically heavier; the delta13C/Sigmacarbonates value increased from 3.4...4.0 to 5.4...9.6 per thousand. Growth of hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria was accompanied by production of biosurfactants and decreased interfacial tension of formation water. Injection of H2O2 solution resulted in the activation of aerobic processes and in suppression of both sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. Methane content in the gas decreased from 86-88 to 75.4-79.8%, probably due to its consumption by methanotrophs. Due to consumption of isotopically light methane, the residual methane carbon became heavier, with the delta13C/CH4 values from -39.0 to -44.3 per thousand. At the same time, mineral carbonates of the formation water became isotopically considerably lighter; the delta13C/Sigmacarbonates value decreased from 5.4... 9.6 to -1.4...2.7 per thousand). The additional amount of oil recovered during the trial of both variants of biotechnological treatment was 3819 t.

  11. Musculoskeletal Injection

    PubMed Central

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Ficalora, Robert D.; Mason, Thomas G.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Patients commonly present to primary care physicians with musculoskeletal symptoms. Clinicians certified in internal medicine must be knowledgeable about the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal diseases, yet they often receive inadequate postgraduate training on this topic. The musculoskeletal problems most frequently encountered in our busy injection practice involve, in decreasing order, the knees, trochanteric bursae, and glenohumeral joints. This article reviews the clinical presentations of these problems. It also discusses musculoskeletal injections for these problems in terms of medications, indications, injection technique, and supporting evidence from the literature. Experience with joint injection and the pharmacological principles described in this article should allow primary care physicians to become comfortable and proficient with musculoskeletal injections. PMID:19720781

  12. Direct injection, simple and robust analysis of trace-level bromate and bromide in drinking water by IC with suppressed conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Lawal, Wasiu; Gandhi, Jay; Zhang, Chunlong Carl

    2010-08-01

    Bromide is ubiquitously found in drinking water. It is introduced into source water primarily by contact with bromide-containing soils or seawater having high bromide content. Bromide is converted into carcinogenic bromate during ozonation processes employed in some drinking water and wastewater treatment plants. Therefore, monitoring of bromate in drinking water and its precursor bromide in source water is required. The purpose of this study was to survey bromide and bromate concentrations in randomly selected bottle waters of various brands and several tap water samples in the coastal Houston area using a direct-injection ion chromatography (IC) and a suppressed conductivity system. The method employs a simple isocratic IC with loop injection with calculated detection limit of 0.009 microg/L for bromate and 0.028 microg/L for bromide (250-microL sample volume). Allowing the detection of both species at the microg/L level in drinking water, this method does not require specialized instrumentation such as two-dimensional IC, expensive sample preparation, or post-column reactions. The results show that, whereas bromate remains undetected in all five tap water samples, there are significant high concentrations of bromide in the coastal Houston area (294.79 +/- 56.97 microg/L). Its link to potential seawater intrusion need to be further investigated. For bottle water samples randomly collected, 18.2% (2 out of 11) showed detectable amount of both bromide and bromate. The detection of bromate coincides with those bottle water samples that underwent ozonation treatment. Further sample campaign with exclusively ozonated bottle water samples (n = 19) showed 100% detection rate for both bromide and bromate. The 99% confidence intervals were 14.45-37.97 microg/L and 0.32-2.58 microg/L for bromide and bromate, respectively. The highest level of bromate among all ozonated bottle water samples was 7.57 microg/L, a concentration close to the U.S. EPA prescribed limit for

  13. Rain underscores need for injection

    SciTech Connect

    Stelling, K.F.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1987, steam production totals at The Geysers Geothermal field have fallen and water injection totals have remained quite stable, except for the unusually dry winter months of 1994 when injection fell by a record amount. The heavy rainfall in the first half of 1995 altered the long-term production and injection patterns and underscored the need to increase injection in the field. From January to June 1995, steam production at The Geysers was reduced by 37 percent form the amount produced during the same period in 1994--because the rain increased availability of hydroelectric power. At the same time, water injection in the field rose by 25 percent because more rainwater was available for injection. Consequently, both reservoir pressure and available steam reserves grew, and most power plants that returned on line in the second half of the year produced more megawatts with less steam. This confirmed findings form several injection studies at The Geyser`s.

  14. A portable battery-powered flow injection monitor for the in situ analysis of nitrate in natural waters

    PubMed Central

    Blundell, N. J.; Hopkins, A.; Worsfold, P. J.; Casey, H.

    1993-01-01

    The design and performance of a portable, automated flow injection (FI)-based photometric monitor are described. The system is controlled by an in-house microcomputer system that enables the monitor (including a solid state detector) to operate from a 12 V battery supply. The monitor uses the cadmium reduction/diazotization method to analyse for nitrate with a linear range of 0 to 12 mg l-1 and a limit of detection of 0.05 mg l-1 (NO3-N). The hardware and software design, monitor performance and results obtained during unattended operation are presented. PMID:18924971

  15. Determination of human-use pharmaceuticals in filtered water by direct aqueous injection: high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Furlong, Edward T.; Noriega, Mary C.; Kanagy, Christopher J.; Kanagy, Leslie K.; Coffey, Laura J.; Burkhardt, Mark R.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes a method for the determination of 110 human-use pharmaceuticals using a 100-microliter aliquot of a filtered water sample directly injected into a high-performance liquid chromatograph coupled to a triple-quadrupole tandem mass spectrometer using an electrospray ionization source operated in the positive ion mode. The pharmaceuticals were separated by using a reversed-phase gradient of formic acid/ammonium formate-modified water and methanol. Multiple reaction monitoring of two fragmentations of the protonated molecular ion of each pharmaceutical to two unique product ions was used to identify each pharmaceutical qualitatively. The primary multiple reaction monitoring precursor-product ion transition was quantified for each pharmaceutical relative to the primary multiple reaction monitoring precursor-product transition of one of 19 isotope-dilution standard pharmaceuticals or the pesticide atrazine, using an exact stable isotope analogue where possible. Each isotope-dilution standard was selected, when possible, for its chemical similarity to the unlabeled pharmaceutical of interest, and added to the sample after filtration but prior to analysis. Method performance for each pharmaceutical was determined for reagent water, groundwater, treated drinking water, surface water, treated wastewater effluent, and wastewater influent sample matrixes that this method will likely be applied to. Each matrix was evaluated in order of increasing complexity to demonstrate (1) the sensitivity of the method in different water matrixes and (2) the effect of sample matrix, particularly matrix enhancement or suppression of the precursor ion signal, on the quantitative determination of pharmaceutical concentrations. Recovery of water samples spiked (fortified) with the suite of pharmaceuticals determined by this method typically was greater than 90 percent in reagent water, groundwater, drinking water, and surface water. Correction for ambient environmental

  16. Understanding mechanisms of pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection: application to analysis of bromate, arsenic and selenium species in drinking water by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huijuan; Gavina, Jennilee; Feng, Yong-Lai

    2011-05-20

    The mechanism underlying the enrichment power by pressure-assisted electrokinetic injection (PAEKI) in capillary electrophoresis (CE) was investigated for on-line pre-concentration of arsenic [As(III) and As(V)], selenium [Se(IV) and Se(VI)] and bromate (BrO(3)(-)). Analyte diffusion behaviour from PAEKI sample plugs were evaluated by monitoring peak broadening as a function of stagnant time and position in the capillary. During PAEKI, anionic analytes accumulate at the sample-separation buffer boundary. We proposed that a counter-ion layer formed in PAEKI, where a cation layer was formed at the separation buffer side of boundary. The cation layer served as a soft boundary which impeded zone broadening via electrostatic attraction between layers. This effect likely played an important role in maintaining focused analyte bands by suppressing diffusion. Comparison of analyte behaviour in PAEKI injected sample plugs to behaviour in hydrodynamically injected ones proved the existence of a counter-ion layer. The dependence of analyte diffusion in PAEKI plugs on electrochemical properties (viscosity, conductivity, electrophoretic mobility) further supported the hypothesis. Additionally, it was noted that analytes with low electrophoretic mobility were more efficiently pre-concentrated by PAEKI and were less subject to forces of dispersion than analytes with greater electrophoretic mobility. PAEKI-CE coupled to electrospray tandem mass spectroscopy (ESI-MS/MS) was then optimized and validated for detection of arsenic, selenium and bromate in water samples. On-line enrichment of the target analytes was achieved with 1-3 ng mL(-1) detection limits, which was below the maximum contaminant levels in drinking water for all five anions studied. Noteworthy, the potential of the method for unbiased detection of molecular species in untreated water was demonstrated. No contamination was detected in the water samples tested; however, recovery was 90-118% for spiked samples. The

  17. Effect of Water-Alcohol Injection and Maximum Economy Spark Advance on Knock-Limited Performance and Fuel Economy of a Large Air-Cooled Cylinder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinicke, Orville H.; Vandeman, Jack E.

    1945-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effect of a coolant solution of 25 percent ethyl alcohol, 25 percent methyl alcohol, and 50 percent water by volume and maximum-economy spark advance on knock-limited performance and fuel economy of a large air-cooled cylinder. The knock-limited performance of the cylinder at engine speeds of 2100 and 2500 rpm was determined for coolant-fuel ratios of 0.0, 0.2, and 0.4. The effect of water-alcohol injection on fuel economy was determined in constant charge-air flow tests. The tests were conducted at a spark advance of 20 deg B.T.C. and maximum-economy spark advance.

  18. [Induction of posterior detachment of the vitreous body by intraoperative vitreo-syneresis with injection of water-soluble polymers (an experimental-morphological study)].

    PubMed

    Skvorchenko, D O; Khoroshilova-Maslova, I P; Andreeva, L D; Sharafetdinov, I Kh; Shtil'man, M I; Maklakova, I A; Uzunian, D G

    2001-01-01

    The capacity of water-soluble polymers (polyethylenimine, polyvinylpyrrolidone with copolymers) to induce posterior detachment of the vitreous by its rapid condensation (vitreosynerysis) was studied in experiments on 14 rabbits. Histological studies showed that water-soluble polymers specifically react forming complexes with components of the vitreous. The vitreous shrinks under the effect of polyelectrolytes (vitreosynerysis), which leads to its posterior detachment 1.5 h after injection of the polymer into the vitreous cavity: complete detachment was attained in 2 animals and partial in 8. The degree of vitreosynerysis depends on the complex-forming activity of polyelectrolytes towards the vitreous components. Polymers used in our study exerted no toxic or traction effects on the adjacent structures of the eye.

  19. Visual evoked response changes following intrathecal injection of water-soluble contrast media: a possible method of assessing neurotoxicity and a comparison of metrizamide and iopamidol.

    PubMed

    Broadbridge, A T; Bayliss, S G; Firth, R; Farrell, G

    1984-09-01

    An investigation was carried out to ascertain if there was a change in visual evoked responses following the intrathecal injection of water-soluble contrast media for myeloradiculography and if this change provided an indication of neurotoxicity as assessed by the onset of headache during a period of 20 h following the radiological examination. The patients were unselected and examined, when facilities for measuring the visual evoked response were available, immediately before and at 1 and 20 h after the examination. Control readings were carried out before, 1 h and 20 h after lumbar puncture in patients who did not have an injection of contrast medium. The first 25 patients in the series received metrizamide; when iopamidol became available a change to the newer medium was made and iopamidol was used on all subsequent patients. All the injections were carried out by the same radiologist and the patients were kept in hospital overnight and interviewed the next morning, avoiding a specific reference to headache unless the patient denied all symptoms. It was found that the latency of the visual evoked response was affected in some cases by the presence of contrast medium in the cerebrospinal fluid and that there was a correlation between the severity of headaches and the delay in the visual evoked response at the 20 h post-myelogram measurement, but not at 1 h after the examination. It would appear, therefore, that the visual evoked response measurement is a valid method of assessing, in the short term, the neurotoxicity of intrathecal water-soluble contrast media and that, on this evidence, iopamidol is less neurotoxic than metrizamide. We are not aware of any long-term complications resulting from the use of either contrast medium.

  20. Injection of CO2-saturated water through a siliceous sandstone plug from the Hontomin test site (Spain): experiment and modeling.

    PubMed

    Canal, J; Delgado, J; Falcón, I; Yang, Q; Juncosa, R; Barrientos, V

    2013-01-01

    Massive chemical reactions are not expected when injecting CO(2) in siliceous sandstone reservoirs, but their performance can be challenged by small-scale reactions and other processes affecting their transport properties. We have conducted a core flooding test with a quartzarenite plug of Lower Cretaceous age representative of the secondary reservoir of the Hontomín test site. The sample, confined at high pressure, was successively injected with DIW and CO(2)-saturated DIW for 49 days while monitoring geophysical, chemical, and hydrodynamic parameters. The plug experienced little change, without evidence of secondary carbonation. However, permeability increased by a factor of 4 (0.022-0.085 mD), and the V(P)/V(S) ratio, whose change is related with microcracking, rose from ~1.68 to ~1.8. Porosity also increased (7.33-8.1%) from the beginning to the end of the experiment. Fluid/rock reactions were modeled with PHREEQC-2, and they are dominated by the dissolution of Mg-calcite. Mass balances show that ~4% of the initial carbonate was consumed. The results suggest that mineral dissolution and microcracking may have acted in a synergistic way at the beginning of the acidic flooding. However, dissolution processes concentrated in pore throats can better explain the permeability enhancement observed over longer periods of time.

  1. Ground-water quality at the site of a proposed deep-well injection system for treated wastewater, West Palm Beach, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pitt, William A.; Meyer, Frederick W.

    1976-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected scientific and technical information before, during, and after construction of a deep test well at the location of a future regional waste-water treatment plant to be built for the city of West Palm Beach, Florida. Data from the test well will be used by the city in the design of a proposed deep-well injection system for disposal of effluent from the treatment plant. Shallow wells in the vicinity of the drilling site were inventoried and sampled to provide a data base for detecting changes in ground water quality during construction and later operation of the deep wells. In addition, 16 small-diameter monitor wells, ranging in depth from 10 to 162 feet, were drilled at the test site. During the drilling of the deep test well, water samples were collected weekly from the 16 monitor wells for determination of chloride content and specific conductance. Evidence of small spills of salt water were found in monitor wells ranging in depth from 10 to 40 feet. Efforts to remove the salt water from the shallow unconfined aquifer by pumping were undertaken by the drilling contractor at the request of the city of West Palm Beach. The affected area is small and there has been a reduction of chloride concentration.

  2. Iodine speciation in coastal and inland bathing waters and seaweeds extracts using a sequential injection standard addition flow-batch method.

    PubMed

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Bordalo, Adriano A; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-02-01

    The present work describes the development of a sequential injection standard addition method for iodine speciation in bathing waters and seaweeds extracts without prior sample treatment. Iodine speciation was obtained by assessing the iodide and iodate content, the two inorganic forms of iodine in waters. For the determination of iodide, an iodide ion selective electrode (ISE) was used. The indirect determination of iodate was based on the spectrophotometric determination of nitrite (Griess reaction). For the iodate measurement, a mixing chamber was employed (flow batch approach) to explore the inherent efficient mixing, essential for the indirect determination of iodate. The application of the standard addition method enabled detection limits of 0.14 µM for iodide and 0.02 µM for iodate, together with the direct introduction of the target water samples, coastal and inland bathing waters. The results obtained were in agreement with those obtained by ICP-MS and a colorimetric reference procedure. Recovery tests also confirmed the accuracy of the developed method which was effectively applied to bathing waters and seaweed extracts.

  3. Analysis of iodinated haloacetic acids in drinking water by reversed-phase liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry with large volume direct aqueous injection.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongtao; Whitaker, Joshua S; McCarty, Christina L

    2012-07-01

    A large volume direct aqueous injection method was developed for the analysis of iodinated haloacetic acids in drinking water by using reversed-phase liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization/tandem mass spectrometry in the negative ion mode. Both the external and internal standard calibration methods were studied for the analysis of monoiodoacetic acid, chloroiodoacetic acid, bromoiodoacetic acid, and diiodoacetic acid in drinking water. The use of a divert valve technique for the mobile phase solvent delay, along with isotopically labeled analogs used as internal standards, effectively reduced and compensated for the ionization suppression typically caused by coexisting common inorganic anions. Under the optimized method conditions, the mean absolute and relative recoveries resulting from the replicate fortified deionized water and chlorinated drinking water analyses were 83-107% with a relative standard deviation of 0.7-11.7% and 84-111% with a relative standard deviation of 0.8-12.1%, respectively. The method detection limits resulting from the external and internal standard calibrations, based on seven fortified deionized water replicates, were 0.7-2.3 ng/L and 0.5-1.9 ng/L, respectively.

  4. Determination of thiram and aminocarb pesticides in natural water samples using flow injection with tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II)-diperiodatoargentate(III) chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Asghar, Mohammad; Yaqoob, Mohammad; Haque, Naheed; Nabi, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    A simple and sensitive flow-injection (FI) method is reported for the determination of thiram and aminocarb pesticides in natural water samples based on the strong enhancing effects of these pesticides on the tris(2,2'-bipyridyl)ruthenium(II)-diperiodatoargentate(III) (Ru(bipy)3(2+)-DPA) chemiluminescence (CL) system. Under the optimum experimental conditions, the CL intensity was linear over the range of 1.0 - 1000 and 1.0 - 10000 ng mL(-1) (R(2) = 0.9998 (n = 7) and 0.9994 (n = 11)) for thiram and aminocarb, respectively, with relative standard deviations (RSDs; n = 3) in the range 1.0 - 2.6%. The limits of detection (S/N = 3) were 0.1 ng mL(-1) for both pesticides with injection throughputs of 150 h(-1). The key chemical and physical variables (reagent concentrations, flow rates, sample volume, PMT voltage) were optimized and potential interferences investigated. The method was successfully applied to natural water samples and the results obtained were not significantly different (95% confidence interval) from results obtained by the previously reported FI-CL and HPLC methods. Thiram could be determined in the presence of aminocarb using Triton X-100. The possible CL reaction mechanism is also discussed briefly.

  5. Sequential injection chromatography with post-column reaction/derivatization for the determination of transition metal cations in natural water samples.

    PubMed

    Horstkotte, Burkhard; Jarošová, Patrícia; Chocholouš, Petr; Sklenářová, Hana; Solich, Petr

    2015-05-01

    In this work, the applicability of Sequential Injection Chromatography for the determination of transition metals in water is evaluated for the separation of copper(II), zinc(II), and iron(II) cations. Separations were performed using a Dionex IonPAC™ guard column (50mm×2mm i.d., 9 µm). Mobile phase composition and post-column reaction were optimized by modified SIMPLEX method with subsequent study of the concentration of each component. The mobile phase consisted of 2,6-pyridinedicarboxylic acid as analyte-selective compound, sodium sulfate, and formic acid/sodium formate buffer. Post-column addition of 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol was carried out for spectrophotometric detection of the analytes׳ complexes at 530nm. Approaches to achieve higher robustness, baseline stability, and detection sensitivity by on-column stacking of the analytes and initial gradient implementation as well as air-cushion pressure damping for post-column reagent addition were studied. The method allowed the rapid separation of copper(II), zinc(II), and iron(II) within 6.5min including pump refilling and aspiration of sample and 1mmol HNO3 for analyte stacking on the separation column. High sensitivity was achieved applying an injection volume of up to 90µL. A signal repeatability of<2% RSD of peak height was found. Analyte recovery evaluated by spiking of different natural water samples was well suited for routine analysis with sub-micromolar limits of detection.

  6. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of neonicotinoid pesticides and 6-chloronicotinic acid in environmental water with direct aqueous injection.

    PubMed

    Hao, Chunyan; Noestheden, Matthew R; Zhao, Xiaoming; Morse, David

    2016-06-21

    An efficient, high throughput and cost-effective direct aqueous injection approach for the analysis of neonicotinoid pesticides and a common metabolite in environmental water has been described here. The method determines eight neonicotinoid pesticides (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, flonicamid, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam) and 6-chloronicotinic acid (a common metabolite of the first generation neonicotinoids, acetamiprid, imidacloprid, nitenpyram and thiacloprid) without any sample enrichment/cleanup steps. The method detection limits are 2-8 ng/L for the neonicotinoids and 93 ng/L for 6-chloronicotinic acid. The performance of the QTRAP(®)5500 mass spectrometer was compared against a 4000QTRAP(®), and a QTRAP(®)6500, to provide insights for future method transfer among different generations of instrumentations. Critical mass spectrometric parameters such as collision energy were quite consistent among the three instruments evaluated. However, increased chemical background levels for some target compounds on the more sensitive instruments were observed. The application of differential ion mobility spectrometry combined with tandem mass spectrometry was demonstrated to have great potential in reducing chemical background and/or isobaric interferences inherited in sample matrices. This ISO 17025 accredited method was employed to quantitate neonicotinoids in Ontario stream water samples. Good correlation for analytical results of this direct aqueous injection approach and a previously published solid phase extraction approach warrant high confidence in data quality. PMID:27188316

  7. The determination of acrylamide in environmental and drinking waters by large-volume injection - hydrophilic-interaction liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Backe, Will J; Yingling, Virginia; Johnson, Todd

    2014-03-21

    A simple and sensitive analytical method was developed to quantify levels of acrylamide in environmental and drinking waters. The analytical method consisted of solvent exchanging acrylamide from 2mL of water into 2mL of dichloromethane using acetonitrile as an intermediate. The sample was then directly analyzed by large-volume (750μL) injection - hydrophilic-interaction liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The method detection limit and reporting level were 2.4ng/L and 17ng/L of acrylamide, respectively. The recovery of acrylamide during solvent exchange was 95±2.8% and the matrix effects were 12±2.2% in river water. The use of atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization reduced matrix effects; however, it also reduced method sensitivity by a factor of 2.2 compared to electrospray ionization. Matrix effects were compensated for by the use of an isotopically-labeled internal standard and the method accuracy was 89±3.0% at 25ng/L of acrylamide and 102±2.6% at 250ng/L of acrylamide. The precision of the method was less than 6% relative standard deviation at both 25ng/L and 250ng/L of acrylamide. Samples from a sand-and-gravel mine and a drinking-water treatment plant were acquired to demonstrate the method. The concentrations of acrylamide at the sand-and-gravel mine were up to 280ng/L. In the drinking-water treatment plant, the concentration of acrylamide was approximately double in the finished drinking water when compared to other stages in the drinking-water treatment process. Disinfection or fluoridation may result in higher concentrations of acrylamide in finished drinking water; however, further research in this area is necessary. PMID:24582391

  8. The determination of acrylamide in environmental and drinking waters by large-volume injection - hydrophilic-interaction liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Backe, Will J; Yingling, Virginia; Johnson, Todd

    2014-03-21

    A simple and sensitive analytical method was developed to quantify levels of acrylamide in environmental and drinking waters. The analytical method consisted of solvent exchanging acrylamide from 2mL of water into 2mL of dichloromethane using acetonitrile as an intermediate. The sample was then directly analyzed by large-volume (750μL) injection - hydrophilic-interaction liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry. The method detection limit and reporting level were 2.4ng/L and 17ng/L of acrylamide, respectively. The recovery of acrylamide during solvent exchange was 95±2.8% and the matrix effects were 12±2.2% in river water. The use of atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization reduced matrix effects; however, it also reduced method sensitivity by a factor of 2.2 compared to electrospray ionization. Matrix effects were compensated for by the use of an isotopically-labeled internal standard and the method accuracy was 89±3.0% at 25ng/L of acrylamide and 102±2.6% at 250ng/L of acrylamide. The precision of the method was less than 6% relative standard deviation at both 25ng/L and 250ng/L of acrylamide. Samples from a sand-and-gravel mine and a drinking-water treatment plant were acquired to demonstrate the method. The concentrations of acrylamide at the sand-and-gravel mine were up to 280ng/L. In the drinking-water treatment plant, the concentration of acrylamide was approximately double in the finished drinking water when compared to other stages in the drinking-water treatment process. Disinfection or fluoridation may result in higher concentrations of acrylamide in finished drinking water; however, further research in this area is necessary.

  9. Safe havens and rough waters: Networks, place, and the navigation of risk among injection drug-using Malaysian fishermen

    PubMed Central

    West, Brooke S.; Choo, Martin; El-Bassel, Nabila; Gilbert, Louisa; Wu, Elwin; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba

    2014-01-01

    Background HIV prevalence among Malaysian fishermen is ten times that of the general population. Fishing boats are a key place where drug use occurs, but we know little about how these environments shape HIV risk behaviour. Utilizing Rhodes’ ‘risk environment’ framework, we assessed drug use contexts and how characteristics of place associated with fishing and fishermen’s social networks served as key axes along which drug use and HIV risk behaviour occurred. Methods Data were collected during 2009–2011 in Kuantan, a fishing port on the eastern coast of Malaysia, and include 28 in-depth interviews and 398 surveys collected using RDS. Logistic regression was used to determine the effect of occupational, network and risk environment characteristics on unsafe injection behaviour and access to clean needles/syringes; qualitative data were coded and analyzed thematically. Results Drug injecting was common and occurred on boats, often with other crewmembers. Captains and crewmembers were aware of drug use. Unsafe injection practices were significantly associated with having a larger proportion of drug injectors in network (OR = 3.510, 95% CI = 1.053–11.700) and having a captain provide drugs for work (OR = 2.777, 95% CI = 1.018–7.576). Size of fishermen network (OR = 0.987, 95% CI = 0.977–0.996), crewmembers’ knowledge of drug use (OR = 7.234, 95% CI = 1.430–36.604), and having a captain provide drugs for work (OR = 0.134, 95% CI = 0.025–0.720) predicted access to clean needles/syringes. Qualitative analyses revealed that occupational culture and social relationships on boats drove drug use and HIV risk. Conclusions While marginalized in broader society, the acceptance of drug use within the fishing community created occupational networks of risk. Fishing boats were spaces of both risk and safety; where drug users participated in the formal economy, but also where HIV risk behaviour occurred. Understanding the interplay between social networks and

  10. Mipomersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the refrigerator at least 30 minutes before you plan to inject it to allow the medication to ... supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. Be sure to mention the medications ...

  11. Ibritumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies with radioisotopes. It works by attaching to cancer ... you receive ibritumomab injection, your body may develop antibodies (substances in the blood that help the immune ...

  12. Romiplostim Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... including other medications or surgery to remove the spleen. Romiplostim injection should not be used to treat ... tell your doctor if you have had your spleen removed.tell your doctor if you are pregnant, ...

  13. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... and swelling and scales on the skin). ulcerative colitis (a condition which causes swelling and sores in ... you are using golimumab injection to treat ulcerative colitis (a condition which causes swelling and sores in ...

  14. Colistimethate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as colistimethate injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking or using antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk ...

  15. Doxycycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as doxycycline injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking or using antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk ...

  16. Tigecycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... in a person who was not in the hospital), skin infections, and infections of the abdomen (area between the ... that developed in people who were in a hospital or foot infections in people who have diabetes. Tigecycline injection is ...

  17. Thiotepa Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... reproductive organs where eggs are formed), breast, and bladder cancer. It is also used to treat malignant effusions ( ... how you respond to thiotepa.When used for bladder cancer, thiotepa is infused (injected slowly) into your bladder ...

  18. Ferumoxytol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells due to too little iron) in adults with chronic kidney disease (damage to the kidneys which may worsen over ...

  19. Daclizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which ... injections. Before you use daclizumab yourself the first time, read the written instructions that come with it. ...

  20. Olanzapine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Olanzapine extended-release injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... treat episodes of agitation in people who have schizophrenia or in people who have bipolar I disorder ( ...

  1. Risperidone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... release (long-acting) injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... do not already have diabetes. If you have schizophrenia, you are more likely to develop diabetes than ...

  2. Acetaminophen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is also used in combination with opioid (narcotic) medications to relieve moderate to severe pain. Acetaminophen is in a class of medications called analgesics (pain relievers) and antipyretics (fever reducers). It works by changing ...

  3. Panitumumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a solution (liquid) to be given by infusion (injected into a vein). It is usually given ... doctor or nurse in a doctor's office or infusion center. Panitumumab is usually given once every 2 ...

  4. Dolasetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Dolasetron injection is used to prevent and treat nausea and vomiting that may occur after surgery. Dolasetron ... should not be used to prevent or treat nausea and vomiting in people receiving cancer chemotherapy medications. ...

  5. Teduglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome in people who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in ... analogs. It works by improving the absorption of fluids and nutrients in the intestines.

  6. Ampicillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to ampicillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin (Ancef, ...

  7. Nafcillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to nafcillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin, cefdinir, ...

  8. Oxacillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to oxacillin; penicillins; cephalosporin antibiotics such as cefaclor, cefadroxil, cefazolin, cefdinir, ...

  9. Lacosamide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... drowsiness uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body problems with coordination, balance, or walking weakness itching redness, irritation, pain, or discomfort at the injection spot Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of ...

  10. Epinephrine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... emergency medical treatment to treat life-threatening allergic reactions caused by insect bites or stings, foods, medications, ... at the first sign of a serious allergic reaction.Use epinephrine injection exactly as directed; do not ...

  11. Vedolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for several hours afterward. A doctor or ... of the following symptoms during or after your infusion: rash; itching; swelling of the face, eyes, mouth, ...

  12. Mitoxantrone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications to relieve pain in people with advanced prostate cancer who did not respond to other medications. Mitoxantrone ... doses). When mitoxantrone injection is used to treat prostate cancer, it is usually given once every 21 days. ...

  13. Bendamustine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... leukemia (CLL; a type of cancer of the white blood cells). Bendamustine injection is also used to treat a ... NHL: cancer that begins in a type of white blood cell that normally fights infection) that is slow spreading, ...

  14. Moxifloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as pneumonia; ; and , skin, and abdominal (stomach ... antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing the bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as moxifloxacin injection ...

  15. Ceftazidime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftazidime injection will not work ...

  16. Gentamicin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as gentamicin injection will not work ...

  17. Meropenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin and abdominal (stomach area) infections caused by bacteria and meningitis (infection of the membranes that surround ... of medications called antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infection.Antibiotics such as meropenem injection ...

  18. Tobramycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as tobramycin injection will not work ...

  19. Ceftaroline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections and pneumonia (lung infection) caused by certain bacteria. Ceftaroline is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftaroline injection will not work ...

  20. Telavancin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious skin infections caused by certain types of bacteria. Telavancin injection is in a class of medications ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or ...

  1. Daptomycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood infections or serious skin infections caused by bacteria. Daptomycin injection is in a class of medications called cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria. Antibiotics will not work for treating colds, flu, ...

  2. Aztreonam Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat certain infections that are caused by bacteria, including respiratory tract (including pneumonia and bronchitis), urinary ... abdominal (stomach area) infections, that are caused by bacteria. Aztreonam injection also may be used before, during, ...

  3. Cefepime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia, and skin, urinary tract, and kidney ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work ...

  4. Amikacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as amikacin injection will not work ...

  5. Ertapenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... abdominal (stomach area) infections, that are caused by bacteria. It is also used for the prevention of ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ertapenem injection will not work ...

  6. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ciprofloxacin injection is also sometimes used to treat cat scratch disease (an infection that may develop after a person is bitten or scratched by a cat), Legionnaires' disease (type of lung infection), and infections of the ...

  7. Ganciclovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ganciclovir injection is used to treat cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis (eye infection that can cause blindness) in people whose immune system is not working normally, including those people who have ...

  8. Levofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections. Levofloxacin injection is also used to prevent anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on ... in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air and treat and prevent ...

  9. Ibandronate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ibandronate is in a class of medications called bisphosphonates. It works by preventing bone breakdown and increasing ... while receiving this medication.Being treated with a bisphosphonate medication such as ibandronate injection for osteoporosis may ...

  10. Fondaparinux Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the leg), which can lead to pulmonary embolism (PE; a blood clot in the lung), in people ... with warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven) to treat DVT or PE. Fondaparinux injection is in a class of medications ...

  11. Pertuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... docetaxel (Taxotere) to treat a certain type of breast cancer that has spread to other parts of the body. Pertuzumab injection is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies. It works by stopping the growth of cancer ...

  12. Octreotide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to decrease the amount of growth hormone (a natural substance) produced by people with acromegaly (condition in which the body produces too much growth hormone, causing enlargement of the hands, feet, and facial ...

  13. Haloperidol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... release injection are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual thinking, loss of ... medications); medications for anxiety, depression, irritable bowel disease, mental illness, motion sickness, Parkinson's disease, seizures, ulcers, or urinary ...

  14. Sumatriptan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... accompanied by nausea and sensitivity to sound and light). Sumatriptan injection is also used to treat the ... children. Store it at room temperature, away from light, excess heat, and moisture (not in the bathroom). ...

  15. Topotecan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... organs where eggs are formed) and small cell lung cancer (a type of cancer that begins in the ... topotecan injection is used to treat ovarian or lung cancer, it is usually given once a day for ...

  16. Pembrolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat a certain type of non-small-cell lung cancer that has spread to nearby tissues or to ... successfully with other medications for non-small-cell lung cancer. Pembrolizumab injection is in a class of medications ...

  17. Oritavancin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... for at least 5 days after receiving oritavancin injection.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  18. Cefuroxime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) infections; meningitis (infection of the membranes that surround the brain ... hearing loss, if you are being treated for meningitis Cefuroxime injection may cause other side effects. Call ...

  19. Alirocumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... further decrease the amount of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol ('bad cholesterol') in the blood. Alirocumab injection is ... antibodies. It works by blocking the production of LDL cholesterol in the body to decrease the amount of ...

  20. Secukinumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to see if you need to receive any vaccinations. It is important to have all vaccines appropriate ... treatment with secukinumab injection. Do not have any vaccinations during your treatment without talking to your doctor. ...

  1. Mouse bladder wall injection.

    PubMed

    Fu, Chi-Ling; Apelo, Charity A; Torres, Baldemar; Thai, Kim H; Hsieh, Michael H

    2011-07-12

    Mouse bladder wall injection is a useful technique to orthotopically study bladder phenomena, including stem cell, smooth muscle, and cancer biology. Before starting injections, the surgical area must be cleaned with soap and water and antiseptic solution. Surgical equipment must be sterilized before use and between each animal. Each mouse is placed under inhaled isoflurane anesthesia (2-5% for induction, 1-3% for maintenance) and its bladder exposed by making a midline abdominal incision with scissors. If the bladder is full, it is partially decompressed by gentle squeezing between two fingers. The cell suspension of interest is intramurally injected into the wall of the bladder dome using a 29 or 30 gauge needle and 1 cc or smaller syringe. The wound is then closed using wound clips and the mouse allowed to recover on a warming pad. Bladder wall injection is a delicate microsurgical technique that can be mastered with practice.

  2. 40 CFR 60.4335 - How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Standards of Performance for Stationary Combustion Turbines Monitoring § 60.4335 How do I demonstrate... monitor and record the fuel consumption and the ratio of water or steam to fuel being fired in the...

  3. A submersible battery-powered flow injection (FI) sensor for the determination of nitrate in estuarine and coastal waters.

    PubMed

    David, A R; McCormack, T; Worsfold, P J

    1999-01-01

    The design, construction and performance of a remotely deployed submersible flow injection-based nutrient (total oxidized nitrogen) sensor are described. The sensor featured a custom-built microcomputer and a solid-state, flow-through spectrophotometric detector, and the derivatization chemistry was based on in-line copper-cadmium reduction of nitrate to nitrite, and diazotization with N1NED and sulphanilamide. The limit of detection was 0.0014 mg l(-1) NO3-N and the linear range was 0.0014- 0.77 mg l(-1) with a 260 microl sample volume and a 20 mm path length flow cell. Results from submersed deployments in the Tamar estuary and North Sea are also reported.

  4. A submersible battery-powered flow injection (FI) sensor for the determination of nitrate in estuarine and coastal waters

    PubMed Central

    David, Anthony R. J.; McCormack, Trevor; Worsfold, Paul J.

    1999-01-01

    The design, construction and performance of a remotely deployed submersible flow injection-based nutrient (total oxidized nitrogen) sensor are described. The sensor featured a custom-built microcomputer and a solid-state, flow-through spectrophotometric detector, and the derivatization chemistry was based on in-line coppercadmium reduction of nitrate to nitrite, and diazotization with N1NED and sulphanilamide. The limit of detection was 0.0014 mg l-1 NO3-N and the linear range was 0.0014- 0.77 mg l-1 with a 260 μl sample volume and a 20 mm path length flow cell. Results from submersed deployments in the Tamar estuary and North Sea are also reported. PMID:18924837

  5. A submersible battery-powered flow injection (FI) sensor for the determination of nitrate in estuarine and coastal waters.

    PubMed

    David, A R; McCormack, T; Worsfold, P J

    1999-01-01

    The design, construction and performance of a remotely deployed submersible flow injection-based nutrient (total oxidized nitrogen) sensor are described. The sensor featured a custom-built microcomputer and a solid-state, flow-through spectrophotometric detector, and the derivatization chemistry was based on in-line copper-cadmium reduction of nitrate to nitrite, and diazotization with N1NED and sulphanilamide. The limit of detection was 0.0014 mg l(-1) NO3-N and the linear range was 0.0014- 0.77 mg l(-1) with a 260 microl sample volume and a 20 mm path length flow cell. Results from submersed deployments in the Tamar estuary and North Sea are also reported. PMID:18924837

  6. Enhancing the use of coals by gas reburning-sorbent injection: Volume 4 -- Gas reburning-sorbent injection at Lakeside Unit 7, City Water, Light and Power, Springfield, Illinois. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    A demonstration of Gas Reburning-Sorbent Injection (GR-SI) has been completed at a cyclone-fired utility boiler. The Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has designed, retrofitted and tested a GR-SI system at City Water Light and Power`s 33 MWe Lakeside Station Unit 7. The program goals of 60% NO{sub x} emissions reduction and 50% SO{sub 2} emissions reduction were exceeded over the long-term testing period; the NO{sub x} reduction averaged 63% and the SO{sub 2} reduction averaged 58%. These were achieved with an average gas heat input of 22% and a calcium (sorbent) to sulfur (coal) molar ratio of 1.8. GR-SI resulted in a reduction in thermal efficiency of approximately 1% at full load due to firing natural gas which forms more moisture in flue gas than coal and also results in a slight increase in air heater exit gas temperature. Minor impacts on other areas of unit performance were measured and are detailed in this report. The project at Lakeside was carried out in three phases, in which EER designed the GR-SI system (Phase 1), completed construction and start-up activities (Phase 2), and evaluated its performance with both short parametric tests and a long-term demonstration (Phase 3). This report contains design and technical performance data; the economics data for all sites are presented in Volume 5.

  7. Fundamental insights on impact of non-condensible gas evolution from coating pyrolysis and intentional injection on molten-aluminum water explosion onset during direct-chill casting

    SciTech Connect

    Taleyarkhan, R.P.; Kim, S.H.; Gulec, K.

    1998-05-01

    Explosive interactions between molten aluminum and water are being studied with a focus on fundamentals to determine what causes robust-enough triggers for explosion onset, to determine the extent of protection provided from various coatings and to develop a fundamentally-based simple, cost-effective novel methodology for prevention. The workscope includes experimentation and mathematical modeling of the interactions between molten metals and water at various different coated and uncoated surfaces. Phenomenological issues related to surface wettability, gas generation from coatings, charring of coatings, inertial constraint, melt temperature, water temperature, external shocks are being investigated systematically to gage their relative impact on the triggerability of surface-assisted steam explosions. The steam explosion triggering studies (SETS) facility was designed and constructed as a rapid-turnaround, cost-effective, and safe means to address these phenomenological issues. Data from SETS tests have indicated that, non-condensible gas (NCG) generation during paint pyrolysis plays a predominant role in explosion prevention. This paper describes results of studies on impact of deliberate NCG injection on explosion prevention, via molten melt drops free-falling into water, as well as from tests using the SETS facility for studying entrapment induced explosive boiling. SETS is also being used to obtain information on time-varying and integral amounts of NCGs generated from various paints. Relevant data are presented. Results of investigations, taken together provide compelling evidence on the positive role NCGs play on explosion prevention.

  8. Direct aqueous injection liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis of water for atrazine, simazine, and their chlorotriazine metabolites.

    PubMed

    Huang, Sung-Ben; Mayer, Thomas J; Yokley, Robert A; Perez, Rolando

    2006-02-01

    A method is reported for the determination of atrazine, simazine, and their respective dealkylated chlorotriazine metabolites in ground, surface, and finished drinking water. Water samples are diluted 1:4 in an injection vial prior to analysis using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC/ESI-MS/MS). The lower limit of method validation is 0.10 microg/L (ppb) for 2-chloro-4-(ethylamino)-6-isopropylamino)-s-triazine (atrazine, G-30027), 2-chloro-4, 6-(diethylamino)-s-triazine (simazine, G-27692), 2-amino-4-chloro-6-(isopropylamino)-s-triazine (deethylatrazine, DEA, or G-30033), 2-amino-4-chloro-6-(ethylamino)-s-triazine (deisopropylatrazine, DIA, or G-28279), and 2,4-diamino-6-chloro-s-triazine (didealkylatrazine, DDA, or G-28273). The overall mean procedural recoveries (and % relative standard deviations) for atrazine, simazine, DEA, DIA, and DDA are 98 (4.4), 102 (3.6), 99 (4.8), 103 (4.0), and 109% (4.8%), respectively, in finished drinking water; 108 (2.7), 104 (5.4), 113 (4.5), 111 (5.2), and 105% (5.3%), respectively, in groundwater; and 96 (6.9), 103 (4.2), 102 (4.4), 102 (5.2), and 102% (8.2%), respectively, in surface water. The method validation was conducted under U.S. EPA FIFRA Good Laboratory Practice Guidelines 40 CFR 160.

  9. Performance of J33-A-27 Turbojet-Engine Compressor. III; Over-All Performance Characteristics of Modified Compressor with Water Injection at Design Equivalent Speed of 11,800 RPM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withee, Joseph R., Jr.; Beede, William L.; Ginsburg, Ambrose

    1950-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to determine the effects of water injection on the over-all performance of a modified J33-A-27 turbojet-engine compressor at the design equivalent speed of 11,800 rpm. The water-air ratio by weight was 0.05. With water injection the peak pressure ratio increased 9.0 per- cent, the maximum efficiency decreased 15 percent (actual numerical difference 0.12), and. the maximum total weight flow increased 9.3 percent.

  10. Experimental evidence of nitrogen control on pCO(2) in phosphorus-enriched humic and clear coastal lagoon waters.

    PubMed

    Peixoto, Roberta B; Marotta, Humberto; Enrich-Prast, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Natural and human-induced controls on carbon dioxide (CO(2)) in tropical waters may be very dynamic (over time and among or within ecosystems) considering the potential role of warmer temperatures intensifying metabolic responses and playing a direct role on the balance between photosynthesis and respiration. The high magnitude of biological processes at low latitudes following eutrophication by nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) inputs into coastal lagoons waters may be a relevant component of the carbon cycle, showing controls on partial pressure of CO(2) (pCO(2)) that are still poorly understood. Here we assessed the strength of N control on pCO(2) in P-enriched humic and clear coastal lagoons waters, using four experimental treatments in microcosms: control (no additional nutrients) and three levels of N additions coupled to P enrichments. In humic coastal lagoons waters, a persistent CO(2) supersaturation was reported in controls and all nutrient-enriched treatments, ranging from 24- to 4-fold the atmospheric equilibrium value. However, both humic and clear coastal lagoons waters only showed significant decreases in pCO(2) in relation to the controlled microcosms in the two treatments with higher N addition levels. Additionally, clear coastal lagoons water microcosms showed a shift from CO(2) sources to CO(2) sinks, in relation to the atmosphere. Only in the two more N-enriched treatments did pCO(2) substantially decrease, from 650 µatm in controls and less N-enriched treatments to 10 µatm in more N-enriched microcosms. Humic substrates and N inputs can modulate pCO(2) even in P-enriched coastal lagoons waters, thereby being important drivers on CO(2) outgassing from inland waters.

  11. Experimental evidence of nitrogen control on pCO2 in phosphorus-enriched humic and clear coastal lagoon waters

    PubMed Central

    Peixoto, Roberta B.; Marotta, Humberto; Enrich-Prast, Alex

    2013-01-01

    Natural and human-induced controls on carbon dioxide (CO2) in tropical waters may be very dynamic (over time and among or within ecosystems) considering the potential role of warmer temperatures intensifying metabolic responses and playing a direct role on the balance between photosynthesis and respiration. The high magnitude of biological processes at low latitudes following eutrophication by nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) inputs into coastal lagoons waters may be a relevant component of the carbon cycle, showing controls on partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) that are still poorly understood. Here we assessed the strength of N control on pCO2 in P-enriched humic and clear coastal lagoons waters, using four experimental treatments in microcosms: control (no additional nutrients) and three levels of N additions coupled to P enrichments. In humic coastal lagoons waters, a persistent CO2 supersaturation was reported in controls and all nutrient-enriched treatments, ranging from 24- to 4-fold the atmospheric equilibrium value. However, both humic and clear coastal lagoons waters only showed significant decreases in pCO2 in relation to the controlled microcosms in the two treatments with higher N addition levels. Additionally, clear coastal lagoons water microcosms showed a shift from CO2 sources to CO2 sinks, in relation to the atmosphere. Only in the two more N-enriched treatments did pCO2 substantially decrease, from 650 µatm in controls and less N-enriched treatments to 10 µatm in more N-enriched microcosms. Humic substrates and N inputs can modulate pCO2 even in P-enriched coastal lagoons waters, thereby being important drivers on CO2 outgassing from inland waters. PMID:23390422

  12. Water-quality monitoring and studies of the formation and fate of trihalomethanes during the third injection, storage and recovery test at Lancaster, Antelope Valley, California, March 1998 through April 1999

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fram, Miranda S.; Berghouse, Joshua K.; Bergamaschi, Brian A.; Fujii, Roger; Goodwin, Kelly D.; Clark, Jordan F.

    2002-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works and the Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency, conducted three cycles of injection, storage, and recovery tests to evaluate the feasibility of artificially recharging ground water in the Lancaster area of Antelope Valley, California. During the third cycle (March 1998 through April 1999), the tests included investigations of the formation and fate of trihalomethanes in the aquifer. Trihalomethanes are disinfection by-products formed by reaction between natural dissolved organic carbon that is present in water and chlorine that is added during the drinking-water-treatment process. This report includes a discussion of the design of the investigation; descriptions of the sampling, analytical, and experimental methods used in the investigation; and a presentation of the data collected. During the third cycle, 60 million gallons of chlorinated water was injected into the aquifer through well 7N/12W-27P2 in the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works well field in Lancaster between April 15 and June 16, 1998. One hundred fifty million gallons of water was extracted from the same well between June 30, 1998, and April 29, 1999. Water-quality samples were collected during the entire cycle from the well and from a nearby set of nested piezometers, and were analyzed for residual chlorine, dissolved organic carbon, trihalomethane, major anion, and dissolved solid concentrations; ultraviolet absorbance spectra; and a number of field water-quality parameters. A statistical analysis was done to evaluate the analytical precision of the residual chlorine, dissolved organic carbon, trihalomethane, and ultraviolet absorbance measurements on these samples. The formation of trihalomethanes in the injection water was examined in laboratory experiments: Trihalomethane concentrations in samples of injection water were monitored during a storage period, and trihalomethane formation

  13. Spatial and temporal evolution of a microseismic swarm induced by water injection in the Arkema-Vauvert salt field (southern France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godano, Maxime; Bardainne, Thomas; Regnier, Marc; Deschamps, Anne; Valette, Marc

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates a microseismic swarm induced by injection operations in the Arkema-Vauvert salt field. The seismic activity in this field is monitored only by two permanent 3-component stations deployed in two wells. This study focuses on a period of 21 months (2004 January-2005 September) during which 1214 seismic events are located. The seismic activity is divided into three periods correlating with the water injection operations, highlighting a migration of the seismicity toward a thrust fault connecting the injection well and the production well. A waveform analysis reveals S-wave anisotropy, and focal mechanisms are computed using P, Sv and Sh amplitudes manually measured on anisotropy-corrected seismograms. First, synthetic resolution tests assess the reliability of the focal mechanisms determination from the two 3-component stations deployed in the field. Synthetic data are generated for 1056 earthquakes with various focal mechanisms and are perturbed with noise. The results indicate that the type of focal mechanism is correctly retrieved for 74 per cent of the synthetic earthquakes, but the uncertainties of the strike and rake are significant (from 15 to 45?). Next, the focal mechanisms are computed for 532 real earthquakes. The solutions primarily correspond to a dip-slip/thrust fault type with subvertical NE-SW and subhorizontal N-S to NW-SE nodal planes. Correlations between the focal mechanisms and the spatio-temporal distribution of the seismic activity are noteworthy. The study shows it is possible to reliably retrieve double-couple focal mechanisms for some faulting geometries with two 3-component seismological stations. However, the reliability of the focal mechanism retrieval depends on the station configuration. Therefore, the addition of further stations would improve the results.

  14. Novel cation selective exhaustive injection-sweeping procedure for 5-nitroimidazole determination in waters by micellar electrokinetic chromatography using dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Mesa, Maykel; Airado-Rodríguez, Diego; Cruces-Blanco, Carmen; García-Campaña, Ana M

    2014-05-01

    A novel method consisting of cation-selective exhaustive injection and sweeping (CSEI-sweeping) as on-line preconcentration followed by a micellar electrokinetic chromatography (MEKC) separation has been developed for the determination of 5-nitroimidazoles (5-NDZ) in environmental waters. Moreover, dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) has been proposed for first time as sample treatment technique prior to CSEI-sweeping-MEKC. DLLME was applied to 5mL of sample. Dibromomethane (1156μL) and 2-butanol (1363μL) were employed as extractant and dispersive solvents, respectively. Salting-out effect was achieved by the addition of 16% (w/v) NaCl to the samples. After DLLME and organic solvent evaporation, the residue was redissolved in a low conductivity solvent (5mM phosphoric acid with 5% of methanol) and electrokinetically injected at 9.8kV for 632s in a bare fused-silica capillary (57.2cm, 50μm I.D.). Prior to the injection, the capillary was rinsed with 50mM phosphate buffer pH 2.5, followed by a plug of a higher conductivity buffer (100mM phosphate pH 2.5, 50mbar, 264s) and a plug of water (50mbar, 2s). Separation was carried out applying -30kV at 20°C in 44mM phosphate buffer pH 2.5, containing 8% tetrahydrofuran and 123mM sodium dodecyl sulfate. Analytical signals were monitored at 276nm. Validation was performed in river and well waters, obtaining satisfactory results in terms of linearity, precision (% RSD generally lower than 10%) and trueness (recoveries higher than 70% in almost all cases). LODs ranged from 0.61 to 2.44ng/mL. The combination of this microextraction technique with the proposed capillary electrophoresis methodology supposes a simple, sensitive and cheap alternative for 5-NDZ analyses, in accordance with the aims of green chemistry.

  15. 40 CFR 60.4335 - How do I demonstrate compliance for NOX if I use water or steam injection?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) STANDARDS OF PERFORMANCE FOR NEW STATIONARY SOURCES... monitor and record the fuel consumption and the ratio of water or steam to fuel being fired in the turbine... continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) consisting of a NOX monitor and a diluent gas (oxygen (O2)...

  16. Flow injection analysis combined with a hydrothermal flow reactor: application to kinetic determination of trace amounts of iridium using a water-soluble porphyrin.

    PubMed

    Kawamura, Kunio; Ikoma, Keisuke; Igarashi, Shukuro; Hisamoto, Hideaki; Yao, Toshio

    2011-06-15

    A new type of flow injection analysis (FIA) system combined with an extremely high temperature reactor, namely hydrothermal flow injection analysis (HT-FIA), has been successfully constructed for the first time. Fundamental characteristics of HT-FIA system, such as limit temperature, pressure, and flow rate, were examined as an analytical tool. To demonstrate the potential of HT-FIA, the catalytic activity of Ir(IV) for the degradation of a water-soluble porphyrin, 5,10,15,20-tetraphenyl-21H,23H-porphinetetrasulfonic acid (TPPS), was applied for the determination of trace amounts of Ir(IV). Although the indicator reaction is very slow at room temperature, HT-FIA system enables to accelerate the reaction. A linear calibration curve was acquired at 10(-8)M level of Ir(IV) and the interferences of platinum group metal ions were examined. The detection limit of Ir(IV) was 5.8 × 10(-9)M and a fairly high-throughput analysis, of which more than 30 samples can be analyzed within 80 min, was achieved.

  17. Polymer-supported ionic liquid solid phase extraction for trace inorganic and organic mercury determination in water samples by flow injection-cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Leticia B; Olsina, Roberto A; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G

    2013-11-15

    A simple and green technique named polymer-supported ionic liquid solid phase extraction (PSIL-SPE) was developed for mercury (Hg) species determination. Inorganic Hg (InHg) species was complexed with chloride ions followed by its introduction into a flow injection on-line system to quantitatively retain the anionic chlorocomplex (HgCl4(2-)) in a column packed with CYPHOS(®) IL 101-impregnated resin. The trapped InHg was then reduced with stannous chloride (SnCl2) and eluted with the same flow of reducing agent followed by cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS) detection. Organic mercury species (OrgHg) did not interact with the impregnated resin and were not retained into the column. Total concentration of OrgHg was evaluated by difference between total Hg and InHg concentration. A 95% extraction efficiency was achieved for InHg when the procedure was developed under optimal experimental conditions. The limit of detection obtained for preconcentration of 40 mL of sample was 2.4 ng L(-1) InHg. The relative standard deviation (RSD) was 2.7% (at 1 µg L(-1) InHg and n=10) calculated from the peak height of absorbance signals (Gaussian-shape and reproducible peaks). This work reports the first polymer-supported IL solid phase extraction approach implemented in a flow injection on-line system for determination of Hg species in mineral, tap and river water samples.

  18. Membrane assisted solvent extraction coupled to large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for trace analysis of synthetic musks in environmental water samples.

    PubMed

    Posada-Ureta, O; Olivares, M; Navarro, P; Vallejo, A; Zuloaga, O; Etxebarria, N

    2012-03-01

    This work describes the optimisation, validation and application of membrane assisted solvent extraction (MASE) together with a large volume injection (LVI) in a programmable temperature vaporisation (PTV) injector coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) for the quantification of ten synthetic musk fragrances (musks) in surface and wastewater samples. Regarding the MASE, musks were extracted from 150 mL of aqueous samples to 200 μL of n-hexane hold in home-made low density polyethylene (LDPE) bags. The extraction took 240 min and the performance of the method made possible the direct analysis of the extracts by LVI-PTV-GC-MS without needing any further treatment and avoiding losses of analytes. During the optimisation of LVI-PTV set-up, the response surfaces of every analyte signal against the cryo-focussing temperature, injection speed and vent time were built. Finally, the figures of merit of the whole procedure allowed the analysis of most of the musks owing to the low method detection limits (between 4 and 25 ng L⁻¹) and good precisions (<20%). In fact, this method was successfully applied to the analysis of musks in surface and wastewater samples. Galaxolide and tonalide are the main two synthetic musks observed in most of the analysed environmental water samples.

  19. CuO nanosheets-enhanced flow-injection chemiluminescence system for determination of vancomycin in water, pharmaceutical and human serum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khataee, A. R.; Hasanzadeh, A.; Iranifam, M.; Fathinia, M.; Hanifehpour, Y.; Joo, S. W.

    2014-03-01

    A novel, rapid and sensitive CuO nanosheets (NSs) amplified flow-injection chemiluminescence (CL) system, luminol-H2O2-CuO nanosheets, was developed for determination of the vancomycin hydrochloride for the first time. It was found that vancomycin could efficiently inhibit the CL intensity of luminol-H2O2-CuO nanosheets system in alkaline medium. Under the optimum conditions, the inhibited CL intensity was linearly proportional to the concentration of vancomycin over the ranges of 0.5-18.0 and 18.0-40.0 mg L-1, with a detection limit (3σ) of 0.1 mg L-1. The precision was calculated by analyzing samples containing 5.0 mg L-1 vancomycin (n = 11) and the relative standard deviation (RSD) was 2.8%. Also, a high injection throughput of 120 sample h-1 was obtained. The CuO nanosheets were synthesized by a sonochemical method. Also, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were employed to characterize the CuO nanosheets. The method was successfully employed to determine vancomycin hydrochloride in environmental water samples, pharmaceutical formulation and spiked human serum.

  20. Atomization, drop size, and penetration for cross-stream water injection at high-altitude reentry conditions with application to the RAM C-1 and C-3 flights

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gooderum, P. B.; Bushnell, D. M.

    1972-01-01

    Atomization, drop size, and penetration data are presented for cross stream water injection at conditions simulating high altitude reentry (low Weber number, high static temperature, high Knudsen number, and low static pressure). These results are applied to the RAM C-1 and C-3 flights. Two primary breakup modes are considered, vapor pressure or flashing and aerodynamic atomization. Results are given for breakup boundaries and mean drop size for each of these atomization mechanisms. Both standard and flight orifice geometries are investigated. The data were obtained in both a static environment and in conventional aerodynamic facilities at Mach numbers of 4.5 and 8. The high temperature aspects of reentry were simulated in a Mach 5.5 cyanogen-oxygen tunnel with total temperature of 4500 K.

  1. Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery: Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. [Quarterly report], January--March 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Baroni, M.R.

    1994-04-30

    The objectives of this project are to continue reservoir characterization of the Cypress Sandstone; to identify and map facies-defined waterflood units (FDWS); and to design and implement water-alternating-gas (WAG) oil recovery utilizing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The producibility problems are permeability variation and poor sweep efficiency. Phase 1 of the project focuses on the development of computer-generated geological and reservoir simulation models that will be used to select sites for the demonstration and implementation of CO{sub 2} displacement programs in Phase 2. Included in Phase 1 is the site selection and drilling of an infill well, coring of the Cypress internal and injectivity testing to gather information used to update the reservoir simulation model. Phase 2 involves field implementation of WAG. Technology Transfer includes outreach activity such as seminars, workshops, and field trips. Accomplishments for the past quarter are described.

  2. On-line solid-phase extraction and multisyringe flow injection analysis of Al(III) and Fe(III) in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Vanloot, Pierre; Branger, Catherine; Margaillan, André; Brach-Papa, Christophe; Boudenne, Jean-Luc; Coulomb, Bruno

    2007-11-01

    A new analytical method was developed for on-line monitoring of residual coagulants (aluminium and iron salts) in potable water. The determination was based on a sequential procedure coupling an extraction/enrichment step of the analytes onto a modified resin and a spectrophotometric measurement of a surfactant-sensitized binary complex formed between eluted analytes and Chrome Azurol S. The optimization of the solid phase extraction was performed using factorial design and a Doehlert matrix considering six variables: sample percolation rate, sample metal concentration, flow-through sample volume (all three directly linked to the extraction step), elution flow rate, concentration and volume of eluent (all three directly linked to the elution step). A specific reagent was elaborated for sensitive and specific spectrophotometric determination of Al(III) and Fe(III), by optimizing surfactant and ligand concentrations and buffer composition. The whole procedure was automated by a multisyringe flow injection analysis (MSFIA) system. Detection limits of 4.9 and 5.6 microg L(-1) were obtained for Al(III) and Fe(III) determination , respectively, and the linear calibration graph up to 300 microg L(-1) (both for Al(III) and Fe(III)) was well adapted to the monitoring of drinking water quality. The system was successfully applied to the on-site determination of Al(III) and Fe(III) at the outlet of two water treatment units during two periods of the year (winter and summer conditions).

  3. Trace analysis of pesticides in paddy field water by direct injection using liquid chromatography-quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Pareja, Lucía; Martínez-Bueno, M J; Cesio, Verónica; Heinzen, Horacio; Fernández-Alba, A R

    2011-07-29

    A multiresidue method was developed for the quantification and confirmation of 70 pesticides in paddy field water. After its filtration, water was injected directly in a liquid chromatograph coupled to a hybrid triple quadrupole-linear ion trap-mass spectrometer (QqLIT). The list of target analytes included organophosphates, phenylureas, sulfonylureas, carbamates, conazoles, imidazolinones and others compounds widely used in different countries where rice is cropped. Detection and quantification limits achieved were in the range from 0.4 to 80 ng L(-1) and from 2 to 150 ng L(-1), respectively. Correlation coefficients for the calibration curves in the range 0.1-50 μg L(-1) were higher than 0.99 except for diazinon (0.1-25 μg L(-1)). Only 9 pesticides presented more than 20% of signal suppression/enhancement, no matrix effect was observed in the studied conditions for the rest of the target pesticides. The method developed was used to investigate the occurrence of pesticides in 59 water samples collected in paddy fields located in Spain and Uruguay. The study shows the presence of bensulfuron methyl, tricyclazole, carbendazim, imidacloprid, tebuconazole and quinclorac in a concentration range from 0.08 to 7.20 μg L(-1).

  4. Dioctyl sulfosuccinate analysis in near-shore Gulf of Mexico water by direct-injection liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Johnson; Schroeder, David L; Zintek, Lawrence B; Schupp, Caitlin R; Kosempa, Michael G; Zachary, Adam M; Schupp, George C; Wesolowski, Dennis J

    2012-03-30

    Dioctyl sulfosuccinate (DOSS) was a major component of the dispersants most used in the 2010 Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill incident response. This analytical method quantifies salt water DOSS concentrations to a reporting limit of 20 μg/L, which was below the United States Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) 40 μg/L DOSS Aquatic Life Benchmark. DOSS in Gulf of Mexico water samples were analyzed by direct-injection reversed-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sample preparation with 50% acetonitrile (ACN) enabled quantitative transfer of DOSS and increased DOSS response 20-fold by reducing aggregation. This increased sensitivity enabled the detection of a confirmatory transition over the calibration range of 10-200 μg/L. U.S. EPA Region 5 and Region 6 laboratories analyzed hundreds of near-shore surface Gulf of Mexico water samples, none contained more than the 20 ppb reporting limit. The matrix spike DOSS/deuterated surrogate (DOSS-D34) correlation of determination varied with mobile phase modifier (ammonium formate R(2)=0.95 and formic acid R(2)=0.27). Using ammonium formate, DOSS-D34 accurately measured DOSS matrix effect. The near-shore sodium concentrations varied more than 10,000-fold, but were not strongly correlated with DOSS recovery. DOSS detection by LC-MS/MS enabled rapid analysis which was valuable in guiding incident response. PMID:22365569

  5. Suspect screening and target quantification of multi-class pharmaceuticals in surface water based on large-volume injection liquid chromatography and time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Vergeynst, Leendert; Van Langenhove, Herman; Joos, Pieter; Demeestere, Kristof

    2014-04-01

    The ever-growing number of emerging micropollutants such as pharmaceuticals requests rapid and sensitive full-spectrum analytical techniques. Time-of-flight high-resolution mass spectrometry (TOF-HRMS) is a promising alternative for the state-of-the-art tandem mass spectrometry instruments because of its ability to simultaneously screen for a virtually unlimited number of suspect analytes and to perform target quantification. The challenge for such suspect screening is to develop a strategy, which minimizes the false-negative rate without restraining numerous false-positives. At the same time, omitting laborious sample enrichment through large-volume injection ultra-performance liquid chromatography (LVI-UPLC) avoids selective preconcentration. A suspect screening strategy was developed using LVI-UPLC-TOF-MS aiming the detection of 69 multi-class pharmaceuticals in surface water without the a priori availability of analytical standards. As a novel approach, the screening takes into account the signal-intensity-dependent accurate mass error of TOF-MS, hereby restraining 95 % of the measured suspect pharmaceuticals present in surface water. Application on five Belgian river water samples showed the potential of the suspect screening approach, as exemplified by a false-positive rate not higher than 15 % and given that 30 out of 37 restrained suspect compounds were confirmed by the retention time of analytical standards. Subsequently, this paper discusses the validation and applicability of the LVI-UPLC full-spectrum HRMS method for target quantification of the 69 pharmaceuticals in surface water. Analysis of five Belgian river water samples revealed the occurrence of 17 pharmaceuticals in a concentration range of 17 ng L(-1) up to 3.1 μg L(-1). PMID:24633561

  6. Direct large volume injection ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry determination of artificial sweeteners sucralose and acesulfame in well water.

    PubMed

    Wu, Minghuo; Qian, Yichao; Boyd, Jessica M; Hrudey, Steve E; Le, X Chris; Li, Xing-Fang

    2014-09-12

    Acesulfame (ACE) and sucralose (SUC) have become recognized as ideal domestic wastewater contamination indicators. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) analysis is commonly used; however, the sensitivity of SUC is more than two orders of magnitude lower than that of ACE, limiting the routine monitoring of SUC. To address this issue, we examined the ESI behavior of both ACE and SUC under various conditions. ACE is ionic in aqueous solution and efficiently produces simple [M-H](-) ions, but SUC produces multiple adduct ions, limiting its sensitivity. The formic acid (FA) adducts of SUC [M+HCOO](-) are sensitively and reproducibly generated under the LC-MS conditions. When [M+HCOO](-) is used as the precursor ion for SUC detection, the sensitivity increases approximately 20-fold compared to when [M-H](-) is the precursor ion. To further improve the limit of detection (LOD), we integrated the large volume injection approach (500μL injection) with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), which reduced the method detection limit (MDL) to 0.2ng/L for ACE and 5ng/L for SUC. To demonstrate the applicability of this method, we analyzed 100 well water samples collected in Alberta. ACE was detected in 24 wells at concentrations of 1-1534ng/L and SUC in 8 wells at concentrations of 65-541ng/L. These results suggest that wastewater is the most likely source of ACE and SUC impacts in these wells, suggesting the need for monitoring the quality of domestic well water. PMID:25085815

  7. Characterization of Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care products in hospital effluent and waste water influent/effluent by direct-injection LC-MS-MS.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Tiago S; Murphy, Mark; Mendola, Nicholas; Wong, Virginia; Carlson, Doreen; Waring, Linda

    2015-06-15

    Two USEPA Regional Laboratories developed direct-injection LC/MS/MS methods to measure Pharmaceuticals and Personal Care Products (PPCPs) in water matrices. Combined, the laboratories were prepared to analyze 185 PPCPs (with 74 overlapping) belonging to more than 20 therapeutical categories with reporting limits at low part-per-trillion. In partnership with Suffolk County in NY, the laboratories conducted PPCP analysis on 72 samples belonging to 4 Water Systems (WS). Samples were collected at different stages of the WS (hospital effluents, WWTP influents/effluents) to assess PPCP relevance in hospital discharges, impact on WWTP performance and potential ecological risk posed by analytes not eliminated during treatment. Major findings include: a) acceptable accuracy between the two laboratories for most overlapping PPCPs with better agreement for higher concentrations; b) the measurement of PPCPs throughout all investigated WS with total PPCP concentrations ranging between 324 and 965 μg L(-1) for hospital effluent, 259 and 573 μg L(-1) for WWTP influent and 19 and 118 μg L(-1) for WWTP effluent; c) the variable contribution of hospital effluents to the PPCP loads into the WWTP influents (contribution ranging between 1% (WS-2) and 59% (WS-3); d) the PPCP load reduction after treatment for all WS reaching more than 95% for WS using activated sludge processes (WS-2 and WS-4), with inflow above 6500 m(3) d(-1), and having a lower percentage of hospital effluent in the WWTP influent; e) the relevance of four therapeutical categories for the PPCP load in WWTP effluents (analgesics, antidiabetics, antiepileptics and psychoanaleptics); and f) the risk quotients calculated using screening-level Predicted Non Effect Concentration indicate that WWTP effluents contain 33 PPCPs with potential medium to high ecological risk. To our knowledge no other monitoring investigation published in the scientific literature uses direct-injection methods to cover as many PPCPs and

  8. Experimental study on rock-water interaction due to CO2 injection under in-situ P-T condition of the Altmark gas reservoir, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huq, F.; Blum, P.; Nowak, M.; Haderlein, S.; Grathwohl, P.

    2012-04-01

    CO2 sequestration in depleted gas reservoir is an economically feasible option to mitigate global warming. The Altmark gas reservoir, located in the western part of the northeast German basin, was selected for enhanced gas recovery (EGR) by injecting CO2. Under reservoir conditions (50 bars and 125°C), the injected CO2 has very high solubility leading to subsequent dissolution and precipitation of minerals of the surrounding rock matrix. Therefore, the main objective of the current study is to investigate the geochemical changes in fluid composition due to dissolution of minerals under controlled laboratory conditions. Dry sandstone sample from the Altmark reservoir was mounted in an autoclave system and flushed by a pre-equilibrated mixture of water saturated with CO2 at a constant flow rate at 50 bars and 125°C. The experiment was conducted for 100 hours during which fluid samples were collected at regular intervals and analyzed by Ion Chromatography (IC) and Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). pH was also measured in partially de-gassed samples. Fluid analysis showed an increased concentration of Ca and SO4 at the beginning of the reaction time indicating the early dissolution of anhydrite. However, the Ca/SO4 molar ratio (>1) proved the dissolution of both calcite and anhydrite. The source of Na and K could be the dissolution of feldspars (albite and K-feldspar). Low concentrations of these two elements reflect the lower solubility and slow dissolution kinetics of feldspar minerals. Moreover, trace amounts of Mn, Mg, Zn, Cu and Fe might be derived from the dissolution of trace minerals in the sandstone. Besides, thermodynamic calculations of mineral saturation indices enabled an evaluation of the CO2-water-rock interactions and highlighted the dissolution of the Ca-bearing minerals in the studied solution.

  9. Hydromorphone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the body, vomiting, diarrhea, or failure to gain weight.tell your doctor if you are breast-feeding.if you ... Hydromorphone injection may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these ... vomiting constipation dry mouth lightheadedness dizziness drowsiness ...

  10. Eculizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... which too many red blood cells are broken down in the body, so there are not enough healthy cells to bring oxygen to all parts of the body). Eculizumab injection is also used to treat atypical hemolytic uremic syndrome (aHUS; an inherited condition in which small blood ...

  11. Fluconazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat fungal infections, including yeast infections of the mouth, throat, esophagus (tube leading from the mouth to the stomach), abdomen (area between the chest and waist), lungs, blood, and ... to prevent yeast infections in patients who are likely to become infected ...

  12. Tositumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... has not improved or that had improved after treatment with other medications, but later returned. Tositumomab injection is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies with radioisotopes. It works by attaching to cancer cells and releasing radiation to damage the cancer ...

  13. Lanreotide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Lanreotide injection is used to treat people with acromegaly (condition in which the body produces too much growth hormone, causing enlargement of the hands, feet, and facial features; joint pain; and other symptoms) who have not successfully, or cannot be treated ...

  14. Eribulin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests to check your body's response to eribulin injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  15. Pegaptanib Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 7 days after you receive each pegaptanib injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  16. Determination of specific yield and water-table changes using temporal microgravity surveys collected during the second injection, storage, and recovery test at Lancaster, Antelope Valley, California, November 1996 through April 1997

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howle, James F.; Phillips, Steven P.; Denlinger, Roger P.; Metzger, Loren F.

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of artificially recharging the ground-water system in the Lancaster area of the Antelope Valley, California, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Los Angeles County Department of Public Works and the Antelope Valley-East Kern Water Agency, conducted a series of injection, storage, and recovery tests between September 1995 and September 1998. A key component of this study was to measure the response of the water table to injection, which was difficult because the water table averaged 300 feet below land surface. Rather than install many expensive piezometers, microgravity surveys were conducted to determine specific yield and to measure the development of a ground-water mound during the injection of about 1,050 acre-feet of fresh water into an alluvial-aquifer system. The surveys were done prior to, during, and near the end of a 5-month injection period (November 12, 1996, to April 17, 1997). Results of the surveys indicate increases in gravity of as much as 66 microgals between a bedrock reference station and 20 gravity stations within a 1-square-mile area surrounding the injection site. The changes were assumed to have been caused by changes in the ground-water elevation. Gravity and ground-water levels were measured simultaneously at an existing well (7N/12W-34B1). The coupled measurements were used to calculate a specific yield of 0.13 for the alluvial aquifer near the well. To determine the gravitational effect of the injection mound on the gravity measurements made near well 7N/12W-34B1, a two-dimensional gravity model was used. Results of the model simulation show that the effect on gravity associated with the mass of the injection mound was minor and thus had a negligible effect on the calculation of specific yield. The specific yield of 0.13, therefore, was used to infer water-level changes at other gravity stations within the study area. The gravity-derived water-level changes were compared with simulated water

  17. Highly sensitive determination method for total carbonate in water samples by flow injection analysis coupled with gas-diffusion separation.

    PubMed

    Oshima, M; Wei, Y; Yamamoto, M; Tanaka, H; Takayanagi, T; Motomizu, S

    2001-11-01

    A spectrophotometric method for the determination of total carbonate in water samples was developed. The method is based on the color change of an acid-base indicator in relation to the concentration of permeable gas substances through a membrane. By using a new portable FIA system equipped with a gas-diffusion unit, a highly sensitive and on-site determination of total carbonate in aqueous solutions was investigated. A new color-change system with 4-(2',4'-dinitrophenylazo)-1-naphthol-5-sulfonic acid (DNN5S) was developed. Absorbance changes of the reagent solution were measured at 450 nm with a light-emitting diode (LED) as a light source. A new type of gas-diffusion unit was used, and was constructed with double tubing: the inner tubing was a micro porous PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene) tubing (1.0 mm inner diameter and 1.8 mm outer diameter, pore size 2 microns, porosity 50%); the outer tubing was made of glass with 2.0 mm inner diameter. The optimized system conditions were as follows: the sample size was 200 microliters, the temperature of the air bath for the gas-diffusion unit was 25 degrees C, and the length of the gas-diffusion unit was 15 cm; each flow rate was 0.3 ml min-1. For measuring carbonate at low concentrations, a method for preparing water with less carbonate was proposed: the carbonate content of the water was decreased down to 5 x 10(-7) M. The calibration graph was rectilinear from 1 x 10(-6) M to 10(-3) M, and the detection limit (corresponding to a signal-to-noise ratio of 3) was 1 x 10(-6) M of carbonate. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of ten measurements of 2.3 x 10(-5) M Na2CO3 solution was 1.9%. The total carbonate in various kinds of water (such as river, sea, rain, distilled and ultra purified) was determined.

  18. Screening of cadmium and lead in potentially contaminated waters using a spectrophotometric sequential injection lab-on-valve methodology.

    PubMed

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-10-01

    The present work describes the development of a µSI-LOV method for the simultaneous screening of cadmium and lead in potentially contaminated water samples. To attain the biparametric determination, dithizone was chosen as the spectrophotometric reagent as it forms a colored complex with both metal ions, at different pH conditions. The cadmium determination was attained in strong alkaline conditions (pH≈12); the lead determination was calculated by the difference with the determination of both metals in mild alkaline conditions (pH≈8). The colored complex was measured at 550 nm and the method presented a LOD of 34 μg L(-1) for cadmium and 56 μg L(-1) for lead, with a sample consumption of 20 µL per assay and a determination rate of 55 h(-1). The results obtained were in agreement with those obtained by FAAS. The developed method was efficiently applied to the screening of cadmium and lead in marine port waters. PMID:26078171

  19. Determination of trace levels of haloacetic acids and perchlorate in drinking water by ion chromatography with direct injection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongjian; Mou, Shifen

    2003-05-16

    Disinfection by products of haloacetic acids and perchlorate pose significant health risks, even at low microg/l levels in drinking water. A new method for the simultaneous determination of nine haloacetic acids (HAAs) and perchlorate as well as some common anions in one run with ion chromatography was developed. The HAAs tested included mono-, di-, trichloroacetic acids, mono, di-, tribromoacetic acids, bromochloroacetic acid, dibromochloroacetic acid, and bromodichloroacetic acid. Two high-capacity anion-exchange columns, a carbonate-selective column and a hydroxide-selective hydrophilic one, were used for the investigation. With the carbonate-selective column, the nine HAAs as well as fluoride, chloride, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate and sulfate could be well separated and determined in one run. With the very hydrophilic column and a gradient elution of sodium hydroxide, methanol and deionized water, the nine HAAs, fluoride, chloride, nitrite, nitrate as well as perchlorate could be simultaneously determined in one run within 34 min. The detection limits for HAAs were between 1.11 and 9.32 microg/l. For perchlorate, it was 0.60 microg/l.

  20. Characterizing flow behavior for gas injection: Relative permeability of CO2-brine and N2-water in heterogeneous rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, C. A.; Krevor, S.

    2015-12-01

    We provide a comprehensive experimental study of steady state, drainage relative permeability curves with CO2-brine and N2-deionized water, on a single Bentheimer sandstone core with a simple two-layer heterogeneity. We demonstrate that, if measured in the viscous limit, relative permeability is invariant with changing reservoir conditions, and is consistent with the continuum-scale multiphase flow theory for water wet systems. Furthermore, we show that under capillary limited conditions, the CO2-brine system is very sensitive to heterogeneity in capillary pressure, and by performing core floods under capillary limited conditions, we produce effective relative permeability curves that are flow rate and fluid parameter dependent. We suggest that the major uncertainty in past observations of CO2-brine relative permeability curves is due to the interaction of CO2 flow with pore space heterogeneity under capillary limited conditions and is not due to the effects of changing reservoir conditions. We show that the appropriate conditions for measuring intrinsic or effective relative permeability curves can be selected simply by scaling the driving force for flow by a quantification of capillary heterogeneity. Measuring one or two effective curves on a core with capillary heterogeneity that is representative of the reservoir will be sufficient for reservoir simulation.

  1. Screening of cadmium and lead in potentially contaminated waters using a spectrophotometric sequential injection lab-on-valve methodology.

    PubMed

    Santos, Inês C; Mesquita, Raquel B R; Rangel, António O S S

    2015-10-01

    The present work describes the development of a µSI-LOV method for the simultaneous screening of cadmium and lead in potentially contaminated water samples. To attain the biparametric determination, dithizone was chosen as the spectrophotometric reagent as it forms a colored complex with both metal ions, at different pH conditions. The cadmium determination was attained in strong alkaline conditions (pH≈12); the lead determination was calculated by the difference with the determination of both metals in mild alkaline conditions (pH≈8). The colored complex was measured at 550 nm and the method presented a LOD of 34 μg L(-1) for cadmium and 56 μg L(-1) for lead, with a sample consumption of 20 µL per assay and a determination rate of 55 h(-1). The results obtained were in agreement with those obtained by FAAS. The developed method was efficiently applied to the screening of cadmium and lead in marine port waters.

  2. Determination of pesticides and pesticide degradates in filtered water by direct aqueous-injection liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sandstrom, Mark W.; Kanagy, Leslie K.; Anderson, Cyrissa A.; Kanagy, Christopher J.

    2016-01-11

    Mean recoveries of most analytes (223 of 229) were within data-quality objectives of 100±30 percent at spike concentrations above method detection levels (MDLs) in all four matrices. The calculated MDLs ranged from 1 to 103 nanograms per liter (ng/L) for 182 analytes analyzed in the ESI positive mode, and from 2 to 106 ng/L for 42 analytes analyzed in the ESI negative mode. Five analytes had MDLs between 100 and 250 ng/L. The stability studies in reagent water demonstrated that the largest number of the pesticide compounds (227 of 229) were stable after 14 days of storage at 4 degrees Celsius, so these were selected as the practical holding time and storage temperature for routine sample processing. The use of antimicrobial reagent citric acid to adjust the sample pH to about 4 also resulted in lower recoveries of some analytes, so it should not be used as a routine sample preservative.

  3. Determination of pesticides and pesticide degradates in filtered water by direct aqueous-injection liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sandstrom, Mark W.; Kanagy, Leslie K.; Anderson, Cyrissa A.; Kanagy, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    Mean recoveries of most analytes (223 of 229) were within data-quality objectives of 100±30 percent at spike concentrations above method detection levels (MDLs) in all four matrices. The calculated MDLs ranged from 1 to 103 nanograms per liter (ng/L) for 182 analytes analyzed in the ESI positive mode, and from 2 to 106 ng/L for 42 analytes analyzed in the ESI negative mode. Five analytes had MDLs between 100 and 250 ng/L. The stability studies in reagent water demonstrated that the largest number of the pesticide compounds (227 of 229) were stable after 14 days of storage at 4 degrees Celsius, so these were selected as the practical holding time and storage temperature for routine sample processing. The use of antimicrobial reagent citric acid to adjust the sample pH to about 4 also resulted in lower recoveries of some analytes, so it should not be used as a routine sample preservative.

  4. Flow-injection chemiluminescence determination of cloxacillin in water samples and pharmaceutical preparation by using CuO nanosheets-enhanced luminol-hydrogen peroxide system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khataee, Alireza; Iranifam, Mortaza; Fathinia, Mehrangiz; Nikravesh, Mina

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a rapid and sensitive flow-injection chemiluminescence (flow-CL) system was developed for the determination of cloxacillin sodium in environmental water samples and pharmaceutical preparations. The method was based on the enhancement effect of cloxacillin sodium on the CL reaction of luminal-H2O2-CuO nanosheets (NSs) in alkaline medium. The CuO nanosheets were synthesized using a green sonochemical method. The physical properties of the synthesized CuO nanosheets were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses. The influences of various experimental factors such as H2O2, NaOH, luminol and CuO nanosheets concentrations were investigated. Under the optimum conditions, the enhanced CL intensity was linearly related to the concentration of cloxacillin sodium in the range of the 0.05-30.00 mg L-1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.995. The corresponding detection limit (3σ) was calculated to be 0.026 mg L-1. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of the developed method was 2.21% with 11 repeated measurements of 4.00 mg L-1 cloxacillin sodium. Also, a total analysis time per sample was 30 s which confirmed the rapidity of the proposed method. The analytical applicability of the proposed CL system was assessed by determining cloxacillin sodium in spiked environmental water samples and pharmaceutical preparation. Furthermore, the possible mechanism of CL reaction was discussed.

  5. Preservation and analytical procedures for the analysis of chloro-s-triazines and their chlorodegradate products in drinking waters using direct injection liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Smith, Glynda A; Pepich, Barry V; Munch, David J

    2008-08-22

    A direct injection, liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method has been developed for the analysis of the chloro-s-triazine herbicides and their degradates in finished drinking water. The target compounds in the method were selected based on their inclusion in a common mechanism group (CMG) because of their ability to induce a similar toxic effect through a common mechanism of toxicity. The target list includes the chloro-s-triazines (atrazine, simazine, cyanazine, and propazine) and their dealkylated degradates (desethylatrazine, desisopropylatrazine, and diaminochlorotriazine). Potential matrix effects are minimized by the use of individual isotopically enriched internal standards. Analyte stability in finished chlorinated drinking water samples is ensured through careful selection of proper dechlorinating and antimicrobial reagents and through buffering sample pH. In the absence of proper dechlorination, the target analytes were found to degrade over a short period of time, even under refrigerated storage conditions. The final method has adequate sensitivity to accurately detect all target analytes at or below 0.1 microg/L and displays sufficient precision and robustness to warrant publication as EPA Method 536.

  6. Water-based slow injection ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction for the determination of deoxynivalenol and de-epoxy-deoxynivalenol in maize and pork samples.

    PubMed

    Li, Songqing; Li, Yanshen; Wang, Ying; Zhou, Wenfeng; Gao, Haixiang; Zhang, Suxia

    2013-05-01

    A novel water-based slow injection ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction (SI-USAEME) method followed by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis was developed for the rapid pretreatment and determination of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its metabolite, de-epoxy-deoxynivalenol (DOM-1), in maize and pork samples. After optimization, the method recoveries for DON and DOM-1 ranged from 73 to 85 % with intraday and interday variations less than 9.4 and 9.2 %, respectively. The limits of detection for DON were 4.2 μg kg(-1) in maize and 6.2 and 5.9 μg kg(-1) for DON and DOM-1, respectively, in pork. In addition, an immunoaffinity column (IAC) was prepared. A study comparing the IAC cleanup method, the solid-phase extraction (SPE) cleanup method, and the proposed SI-USAEME method was presented. The water-based SI-USAEME method could become a simple, low-cost alternative to the conventional IAC and SPE method. The method was successfully applied to the analysis of commercial maize and pork products.

  7. A novel capillary electrophoresis method with pressure assisted field amplified sample injection in determination of thiol collectors in flotation process waters.

    PubMed

    Sihvonen, T; Aaltonen, A; Leppinen, J; Hiltunen, S; Sirén, H

    2014-01-17

    A new capillary electrophoresis method was developed for the quantification of diisobutyldithiophosphate (DTP), diisobutyldithiophosphinate (DTPI) and ethyl and isobutyl xanthates (EX, IBX) all of which are used as thiol collectors in froth flotation. This method uses pressure assisted field amplified sample injection (PA-FASI) to concentrate the analytes at the capillary inlet. The background electrolyte in electrophoretic separation was 60millimolar (mM) from 3-(cyclohexylamino)propane-1-sulfonic acid (CAPS) in 40mM NaOH solution. The similar CAPS electrolyte solution has earlier been used for screening for diuretics that contained sulphonamide and/or carboxylic groups. In this study, the functional groups are xanthate, phosphate and phosphinate. The method was developed using actual flotation process waters. The results showed that the water delivered from the plant did not contain significant amount of collectors; therefore, method development was accomplished by spiking analytes in these waters. Separation of analytes was achieved in 15min. The range of quantification was 0.27-66.6mg/L (R(2) 0.9991-0.9999) for all analytes other than ethyl xanthate, for which the range was 0.09-66.6mg/L (R(2) 0.9999). LOD (S/N=3) and LOQ (S/N=10) values for DTP, DTPI, IBX and EX were 0.05, 0.07, 0.06 and 0.01mg/L and 0.16, 0.25, 0.21 and 0.04mg/L, respectively. No interference from the matrices was observed, when the method was tested at a gold concentrator plant.

  8. 21 CFR 522.2424 - Sodium thiamylal for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... § 522.2424 Sodium thiamylal for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug is a sterile dry powder. It is reconstituted aseptically with sterile distilled water, water for injection, or sodium chloride injection, to a... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium thiamylal for injection. 522.2424...

  9. 21 CFR 522.2424 - Sodium thiamylal for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... § 522.2424 Sodium thiamylal for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug is a sterile dry powder. It is reconstituted aseptically with sterile distilled water, water for injection, or sodium chloride injection, to a... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium thiamylal for injection. 522.2424...

  10. Injectivity Testing for Vapour Dominated Feed Zones

    SciTech Connect

    Clotworthy, A.W.; Hingoyon, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    Wells with vapor dominated feed zones yield abnormal pressure data. This is caused by the condensation of vapor during water injection. A revised injectivity test procedure currently applied by PNOC at the Leyte Geothermal Power Project has improved the injectivity test results.

  11. Injectable contraception.

    PubMed

    Kaunitz, A M

    1989-06-01

    The most effective, convenient, reversible method of birth control is considered to be long-acting progestogen injections. Used by over 90 countries, Depot medroxy-progesterone acetate (DMPA, Depo-Provera, Upjohn) has yet to be approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. The reluctance of the FDA to approve DMPA and much of the controversy surrounding this method revolve around the results of testing done on animals who were given large doses of the progestogen over a long period of time and developed tumors. However, the large body of research and records on this method that have been compiled over the past 30 years is positive. The injectable method works like oral contraceptives, inhibiting ovulation. Changes in menstruation have been the chief complaint of women who use this method; however, the duration and frequency of spotting and bleeding diminish over time. Other side effects of DMPA and Norethindrone enanthate (NET EN, Noristerat, Schering) are discussed. Also discussed is the history of development and testing for the 2 methods and subdermal implants, specifically Norplant.

  12. The biofilm property and its correlationship with high-molecular-weight polyacrylamide degradation in a water injection pipeline of Daqing oilfield.

    PubMed

    Li, Cai-Yun; Zhang, Dong; Li, Xiao-Xiao; Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Liu, Jin-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2016-03-01

    Biofilms increase dragging force for liquid transportation, cause power consumption, and result in equipment corrosion in polymer-flooding oilfields. To reveal the responsible microorganisms for biofilm formation and stability of high-molecular-weight polyacrylamide (PAM), a biofilm, developed on the sieve of a piston plunger pump in a water transport and injection pipeline with partial hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) in Daqing Oilfield, was collected and analyzed by molecular microbiology, chemical and physical methods. Diverse bacterial groups (11 families) were detected in the biofilm, including Pseudomonadaceae, Rhodocyclaceae, Desulfobulbaceae, Alcaligenaceae, Comamonadaceae, Oxalobacteraceae, Bacteriovoracaceae, Campylobacteraceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Clostridiales Incertae Sedis XIII and Moraxellaceae. Three archaeal orders of methanogens including Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinales and Thermoplasmatales were also detected separately. HPAM was degraded into lower molecular weight polymers and organic fragments with its amide groups hydrolyzed into carboxylic groups by the microorganisms. The microenvironment of the biofilm contained diverse bacterial and archaeal communities, correlating with the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) and HPAM biodegradation. The results are helpful to provide information for biofilm control in oil fields.

  13. Cadmium determination in natural water samples with an automatic multisyringe flow injection system coupled to a flow-through screen printed electrode.

    PubMed

    Henríquez, C; Laglera, L M; Alpizar, M J; Calvo, J; Arduini, F; Cerdà, V

    2012-07-15

    Heavy metals, as cadmium, attract a rising attention in environmental studies due to their increasing release by human activities and acute toxicity. In situ analytical methods are needed to minimize current uncertainties caused by the transport and conservation of samples. Here, we present the completely automatic determination of Cd in natural waters using a newly developed screen printed electrode sensor (SPE), inserted in a homemade purpose-built flow cell coupled to a Multi-Syringe Flow Injection Analysis system (MSFIA). The working electrode of SPEs was constituted by a carbon film modified with Nafion. Cd was plated on an in situ bismuth film and determined using Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry. Different chemical conditions of deposition and stripping were studied. A sample/acetic buffer mixture was found to be a well suited medium to form the Bi film and perform the analysis. Cd was quantified via calibration by on line standard additions. The limit of detection was found to be 0.79μgL(-1), well below the limit stipulated by the European directive (5μgL(-1)). Good sample throughput (14h(-1)) and low consumption of reagent and sample (1.3mL) were also obtained in line with previous works in Cd flow analysis.

  14. An on-line spectrophotometric determination of trace amounts of thiourea in tap water, orange juice, and orange peel samples using multi-channel flow injection analysis.

    PubMed

    Arab Chamjangali, M; Goudarzi, N; Ghochani Moghadam, A; Amin, A H

    2015-01-01

    In this work, a flow injection analysis (FIA) method was introduced for the determination of trace amounts of thiourea in tap water. This method is based upon the inhibition effect of thiourea on the reaction between meta-cresol purple (MCP) and potassium bromate catalyzed by bromide ions in a sulfuric acid medium. In the presence of thiourea, an induction period appears in the reaction system, and as a result, the absorbance of MCP increases at 525 nm in the FIA manifold. The chemical and FIA variables are studied and optimized using the univariate and Simplex optimization methods. Under the optimum conditions, thiourea can be determined in the range of 0.100-13.0 μg mL(-1). The limit of detection (3σ) for thiourea was found to be 0.0310 μg mL(-1). The relative standard deviations (RSDs) for six replicate determinations of 0.500, 5.00, and 12.0 μg mL(-1) of thiourea were 4.0%, 1.8%, and 1.2%, respectively. The proposed method was also applied for the determination of thiourea in orange juice and orange peel samples with recoveries in the range of 98.0-101%. The analytical speed of the method was calculated to be about 120 sample per hour.

  15. Sequential injection kinetic spectrophotometric determination of quaternary mixtures of carbamate pesticides in water and fruit samples using artificial neural networks for multivariate calibration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Ning; Fan, Shihua

    2009-12-01

    A new analytical method was developed for the simultaneous kinetic spectrophotometric determination of a quaternary carbamate pesticide mixture consisting of carbofuran, propoxur, metolcarb and fenobucarb using sequential injection analysis (SIA). The procedure was based upon the different kinetic properties between the analytes reacted with reagent in flow system in the non-stopped-flow mode, in which their hydrolysis products coupled with diazotized p-nitroaniline in an alkaline medium to form the corresponding colored complexes. The absorbance data from SIA peak time profile were recorded at 510 nm and resolved by the use of back-propagation-artificial neural network (BP-ANN) algorithms for multivariate quantitative analysis. The experimental variables and main network parameters were optimized and each of the pesticides could be determined in the concentration range of 0.5-10.0 μg mL -1, at a sampling frequency of 18 h -1. The proposed method was compared to other spectrophotometric methods for simultaneous determination of mixtures of carbamate pesticides, and it was proved to be adequately reliable and was successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of the four pesticide residues in water and fruit samples, obtaining the satisfactory results based on recovery studies (84.7-116.0%).

  16. Ultratrace Determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) by Microsample Injection System Flame Atomic Spectroscopy in Drinking Water and Treated and Untreated Industrial Effluents

    PubMed Central

    Baig, Jameel Ahmed; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Elci, Latif; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Khan, Muhammad Irfan; Naseer, Hafiz Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Simple and robust analytical procedures were developed for hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) and lead (Pb(II)) by dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) using microsample injection system coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (MIS-FAAS). For the current study, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), carbon tetrachloride, and ethanol were used as chelating agent, extraction solvent, and disperser solvent, respectively. The effective variables of developed method have been optimized and studied in detail. The limit of detection of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) were 0.037 and 0.054 µg/L, respectively. The enrichment factors in both cases were 400 with 40 mL of initial volumes. The relative standard deviations (RSDs, n = 6) were <4%. The applicability and the accuracy of DLLME were estimated by the analysis of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) in industrial effluent wastewater by standard addition method (recoveries >96%). The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of Cr(VI) and Pb(II) at ultratrace levels in natural drinking water and industrial effluents wastewater of Denizli. Moreover, the proposed method was compared with the literature reported method. PMID:24163779

  17. Cadmium determination in natural water samples with an automatic multisyringe flow injection system coupled to a flow-through screen printed electrode.

    PubMed

    Henríquez, C; Laglera, L M; Alpizar, M J; Calvo, J; Arduini, F; Cerdà, V

    2012-07-15

    Heavy metals, as cadmium, attract a rising attention in environmental studies due to their increasing release by human activities and acute toxicity. In situ analytical methods are needed to minimize current uncertainties caused by the transport and conservation of samples. Here, we present the completely automatic determination of Cd in natural waters using a newly developed screen printed electrode sensor (SPE), inserted in a homemade purpose-built flow cell coupled to a Multi-Syringe Flow Injection Analysis system (MSFIA). The working electrode of SPEs was constituted by a carbon film modified with Nafion. Cd was plated on an in situ bismuth film and determined using Square Wave Anodic Stripping Voltammetry. Different chemical conditions of deposition and stripping were studied. A sample/acetic buffer mixture was found to be a well suited medium to form the Bi film and perform the analysis. Cd was quantified via calibration by on line standard additions. The limit of detection was found to be 0.79μgL(-1), well below the limit stipulated by the European directive (5μgL(-1)). Good sample throughput (14h(-1)) and low consumption of reagent and sample (1.3mL) were also obtained in line with previous works in Cd flow analysis. PMID:22817941

  18. The biofilm property and its correlationship with high-molecular-weight polyacrylamide degradation in a water injection pipeline of Daqing oilfield.

    PubMed

    Li, Cai-Yun; Zhang, Dong; Li, Xiao-Xiao; Mbadinga, Serge Maurice; Yang, Shi-Zhong; Liu, Jin-Feng; Gu, Ji-Dong; Mu, Bo-Zhong

    2016-03-01

    Biofilms increase dragging force for liquid transportation, cause power consumption, and result in equipment corrosion in polymer-flooding oilfields. To reveal the responsible microorganisms for biofilm formation and stability of high-molecular-weight polyacrylamide (PAM), a biofilm, developed on the sieve of a piston plunger pump in a water transport and injection pipeline with partial hydrolyzed polyacrylamide (HPAM) in Daqing Oilfield, was collected and analyzed by molecular microbiology, chemical and physical methods. Diverse bacterial groups (11 families) were detected in the biofilm, including Pseudomonadaceae, Rhodocyclaceae, Desulfobulbaceae, Alcaligenaceae, Comamonadaceae, Oxalobacteraceae, Bacteriovoracaceae, Campylobacteraceae, Flavobacteriaceae, Clostridiales Incertae Sedis XIII and Moraxellaceae. Three archaeal orders of methanogens including Methanomicrobiales, Methanosarcinales and Thermoplasmatales were also detected separately. HPAM was degraded into lower molecular weight polymers and organic fragments with its amide groups hydrolyzed into carboxylic groups by the microorganisms. The microenvironment of the biofilm contained diverse bacterial and archaeal communities, correlating with the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) and HPAM biodegradation. The results are helpful to provide information for biofilm control in oil fields. PMID:26595898

  19. Arsenic speciation in water and snow samples by adsorption onto PHEMA in a micro-pipette-tip and GFAAS detection applying large-volume injection.

    PubMed

    Döker, Serhat; Uzun, Lokman; Denizli, Adil

    2013-01-15

    A miniaturized solid phase extraction procedure has been developed for ultra-trace determination of inorganic arsenic species. Arsenic(III) as pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate complex was selectively adsorbed on 30 mg poly(hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) micro beads, which is simply packed into a micro-pipette-tip. The adsorbed arsenic was quantitatively eluted by 700 μL 0.25 M NH(3) and determined by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS). Injection of larger volume (i.e., 50 μL v.s. conventional 10-20 μL) eluent into graphite furnace and the use of Mg(NO(3))(2) as chemical modifier have improved atomic absorption signal intensity (sensitivity as characteristic mass of 25 pg) and precision (RSD of 2.6%, c=10 μg L(-1), n=11). Total arsenic amount was determined after reduction of arsenic(V) to arsenic(III) by thiourea-HCl system. As(V) concentration was calculated by the difference between As(III) and total arsenic. The detection limit (3s) of the method was found as 10 ng L(-1) As(III) with an enrichment factor of 86. The relative standard deviation and relative error for six replicate determinations of 0.5 μg L(-1) As(III) were found to be 4.0% and -0.7%, respectively. The method was successfully applied to drinking water, snow and reference water (SEM-2011) samples. When the samples were spiked with 0.5 and 1.0 μg L(-1) As(III) and As(V), the recoveries varied between 96 and 100%.

  20. On-line sequential injection dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction system for flame atomic absorption spectrometric determination of copper and lead in water samples.

    PubMed

    Anthemidis, Aristidis N; Ioannou, Kallirroy-Ioanna G

    2009-06-30

    A simple, sensitive and powerful on-line sequential injection (SI) dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) system was developed as an alternative approach for on-line metal preconcentration and separation, using extraction solvent at microlitre volume. The potentials of this novel schema, coupled to flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), were demonstrated for trace copper and lead determination in water samples. The stream of methanol (disperser solvent) containing 2.0% (v/v) xylene (extraction solvent) and 0.3% (m/v) ammonium diethyldithiophosphate (chelating agent) was merged on-line with the stream of sample (aqueous phase), resulting a cloudy mixture, which was consisted of fine droplets of the extraction solvent dispersed entirely into the aqueous phase. By this continuous process, metal chelating complexes were formed and extracted into the fine droplets of the extraction solvent. The hydrophobic droplets of organic phase were retained into a microcolumn packed with PTFE-turnings. A portion of 300 microL isobutylmethylketone was used for quantitative elution of the analytes, which transported directly to the nebulizer of FAAS. All the critical parameters of the system such as type of extraction solvent, flow-rate of disperser and sample, extraction time as well as the chemical parameters were studied. Under the optimum conditions the enhancement factor for copper and lead was 560 and 265, respectively. For copper, the detection limit and the precision (R.S.D.) were 0.04 microg L(-1) and 2.1% at 2.0 microg L(-1) Cu(II), respectively, while for lead were 0.54 microg L(-1) and 1.9% at 30.0 microg L(-1) Pb(II), respectively. The developed method was evaluated by analyzing certified reference material and applied successfully to the analysis of environmental water samples. PMID:19376348

  1. Flow-injection analysis for the determination of total inorganic carbon and total organic carbon in water using the H2O2-luminol-uranine chemiluminescent reaction.

    PubMed

    Fan, Shun-Li; Qu, Fang; Zhao, Lixia; Lin, Jin-Ming

    2006-12-01

    In the presence of carbonate and uranine, the chemiluminescent intensity from the reaction of luminol with hydrogen peroxide was dramatically enhanced in a basic medium. Based on this fact and coupled with the technique of flow-injection analysis, a highly sensitive method was developed for the determination of carbonate with a wide linear range. The method provided the determination of carbonate with a wide linear range of 1.0 x 10(-10)-5.0 x 10(-6) mol L(-1) and a low detection limit (S/N = 3) of carbonate of 1.2 x 10(-11) mol L(-1). The average relative standard deviation for 1.0 x 10(-9)-9.0 x 10(-7) mol L(-1) of carbonate was 3.7% (n = 11). Combined with the wet oxidation of potassium persulfate, the method was applied to the simultaneous determination of total inorganic carbon (TIC) and total organic carbon (TOC) in water. The linear ranges for TIC and TOC were 1.2 x 10(-6)-6.0 x 10(-2) mg L(-1) and 0.08-30 mg L(-1) carbon, respectively. Recoveries of 97.4-106.4% for TIC and 96.0-98.5% for TOC were obtained by adding 5 or 50 mg L(-1) of carbon to the water samples. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 2.6-4.8% for TIC and 4.6-6.6% for TOC (n = 5). The mechanism of the chemiluminescent reaction was also explored and a reasonable explanation about chemical energy transfer from luminol to uranine was proposed.

  2. Sensitive determination of mercury in tap water by cloud point extraction pre-concentration and flow injection-cold vapor-inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Wuilloud, Jorgelina C. A.; Wuilloud, Rodolfo G.; Silva, María. F.; Olsina, Roberto A.; Martinez, Luis D.

    2002-02-01

    A pre-concentration and determination methodology for mercury at trace levels in water samples was developed. Cloud point extraction was successfully employed for the pre-concentration of mercury prior to inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry coupled to a flow injection with cold vapor generation system. The mercury was extracted as mercury-2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol [Hg(II)-(5-Br-PADAP)] complex, at pH 9.2 mediated by micelles of the non-ionic surfactant polyethyleneglycolmono- p-nonylphenylether (PONPE 5). Cold vapor generation was developed from 100 μl of the extracted surfactant-rich phase by means of a stannous chloride (SnCl 2) solution as reluctant. An exhaustive study of the variables affecting the cloud point extraction with PONPE 5 and cold vapor mercury generation from the surfactant phase was performed. The 50-ml sample solution pre-concentration allowed us to raise an enrichment factor of 200-fold. The lower limit of detection obtained under the optimal conditions was 4 ng l -1. The precision for 10 replicate determinations at the 0.5-μg l -1 Hg level was 3.4% relative standard deviation (R.S.D.), calculated with the peak heights. The calibration graph using the pre-concentration system for mercury was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998 at levels near the detection limits up to at least 50 μg l -1. The method was successfully applied to the determination of mercury in tap water samples.

  3. Analysis of thiabendazole, 4-tert-octylphenol and chlorpyrifos in waste and sewage water by direct injection – micellar liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Romero-Cano, Ricard; Kassuha, Diego; Peris-Vicente, Juan; Roca-Genovés, Pasqual; Carda-Broch, Samuel; Esteve-Romero, Josep

    2015-03-01

    A micellar liquid chromatographic method has been developed for the simultaneous quantification of the pesticides thiabendazole and chlorpyrifos, as well as an alkylphenol, which is included in pesticide formulations, i.e., 4-tert-octylphenol, in water. A sample was filtered and directly injected, avoiding large extraction steps using toxic solvents, thus expediting the experimental procedure. The contaminants were eluted without interferences in <17 min, using a mobile phase of 0.15 M sodium dodecyl sulfate – 6% 1-pentanol buffered at pH 3, running through a C18 column at 1 mL min(-1) under the isocratic mode. This optimal mobile phase was selected using a statistical approach, which considers the retention factor, efficiency and peak shape of the analytes measured in only a few mobile phases. The detection was carried out by measuring absorbance at 220 nm. The method was successfully validated in terms of specificity, calibration range (0.5-10 mg L(-1)), linearity (r(2) > 0.994), limit of detection and quantification (0.2-0.3; and 0.5-0.8 mg L(-1), respectively), intra- and interday accuracy (95.2-102.9%), precision (<8.3%), and ruggedness (<9.3%). The stability in storage conditions (at least 14 days) was studied. The method was safe, inexpensive, produced little pollutant and has a short analysis time, thus it is useful for the routine analysis of samples. Finally, the method was applied to analyse wastewater from the fruit-processing industry, wastewater treatment plants, and in sewage water belonging to the Castelló area (Spain). The results were similar to those obtained by an already reliable method. PMID:25604004

  4. HIBISCUS and SCOUT-AMMA: Water Vapor And Ice Particles In The Tropical Lower Stratosphere Above Overshooting Continental Convective Systems. Part A. Evidence Of Water Injection Above The Tropopause

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaikin, S.; Korshunov, L.; Pommereau, J.; Nielsen, J.; Christensen, T.; Larsen, N.

    2006-12-01

    The possible impact of meso-scale convective systems (MCS) on water vapor in the lower stratosphere has been explored by a series of six backscatter / ozone / H2O soundings in August 2006 from Niamey (13N, 2E) in West Africa using the backscatter instrument of the University of Wyoming, an ECC ozone cell and a FLASH Lyman alpha hygrometer, all flown on the same balloon. All profiles downwind or next to MCS show saturation, sometimes supersaturation (5-6 ppm H2O), and cirrus clouds at the tropopause at 16-16.5 km around 78°C, surmounted by highly variable H2O layers up to 19 km, a broad minimum between of 4.2 ppm 19-21 km and then almost constant mixing ratio (5.5-6 ppm) from 22 to 31 km. The frequent moist layers between the tropopause and 19 km suggest that water could penetrate the stratosphere up to at least 450 K potential temperature levels. The locations of the MCS potentially responsible for water injection upwind are explored from satellite pictures combined with backward trajectories.

  5. Epidural Steroid Injections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Assessment Tools Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysial (Facet) Joint Injections Surgical Options Nonsurgical Treatments Alternative Medicine Epidural Steroid Injections General Information Why Get an Epidural Steroid ...

  6. A comparison of microseismicity induced by gel-proppant-and water-injected hydraulic fractures, Carthage Cotton Valley gas field, East Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Rutledge, J. T.; Phillips, W. S.

    2002-01-01

    In May and July, 1997, a consortia of operators and service companies conducted a series of hydraulic fracture imaging tests in the Carthage Cotton Valley gas field of East Texas (Walker, 1997). Microseismic data were collected and processed for six hydraulic fracture treatments in two wells (3 completion intervals per well) (Mayerhofer et al., 2000). One well was completed with gel-proppant treatments in which a viscous crosslink gel was injected to entrain high concentrations of sand proppant into formation. The second well was completed using treated water and very low proppant concentrations (waterfracs). Waterfracs have been shown to be just as effective as the conventional gel-proppant treatments in Cotton Valley reservoirs, but at greatly reduced cost. Mayerhofer and Meehan (1998) suggest two possible reasons why waterfracs are successful: (1) Induced shear displacement along natural and hydraulic fractures results in self-propping (shear dilation enhanced by fracture branching, proppant and spalled rock fragments), and (2) Fracture extension and cleanup is easier to achieve with low-viscosity fluids. With improved source location precision and focal mechanism determination (fracture plane orientation and sense of slip), we have reexamined the Cotton Valley data, comparing the seismicity induced by water and gel-proppant treatments at common depth intervals. We have improved the location precision and computed focal mechanism of microearthquakes induced during a series of hydraulic fracture completions within the Cotton Valley formation of East Texas. Conventional gel-proppant treatments and treatments using treated water and very low proppant concentrations (waterfracs) were monitored. Waterfracs have been shown to be just as effective as the conventional gel-proppant treatments in Cotton Valley reservoirs, but at greatly reduced cost (Mayerhofer and Meehan, 1998). Comparison of the seismicity induced by the two treatment types show similar distributions of

  7. Cyclic injection, storage, and withdrawal of heated water in a sandstone aquifer at St. Paul, Minnesota--Analysis of thermal data and nonisothermal modeling of short-term test cycles

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Robert T.; Delin, G.N.

    2002-01-01

    In May 1980, the University of Minnesota began a project to evaluate the feasibility of storing heated water (150 degrees Celsius) in the Franconia-Ironton Galesville aquifer (183 to 245 meters below land surface) and later recovering it for space heating. The University's steam-generation facilities supplied high-temperature water for injection. The Aquifer Thermal-Energy Storage system is a doublet-well design in which the injection-withdrawal wells are spaced approximately 250 meters apart. Water was pumped from one of the wells through a heat exchanger, where heat was added or removed. This water was then injected back into the aquifer through the other well. Four short-term test cycles were completed. Each cycle consisted of approximately equal durations of injection and withdrawal ranging from 5.25 to 8.01 days. Equal rates of injection and withdrawal, ranging from 17.4 to 18.6 liters per second, were maintained for each short-term test cycle. Average injection temperatures ranged from 88.5 to 117.9 degrees Celsius. Temperature graphs for selected depths at individual observation wells indicate that the Ironton and Galesville Sandstones received and stored more thermal energy than the upper part of the Franconia Formation. Clogging of the Ironton Sandstone was possibly due to precipitation of calcium carbonate or movement of fine-grain material or both. Vertical-profile plots indicate that the effects of buoyancy flow were small within the aquifer. A three-dimensional, anisotropic, nonisothermal, ground-water-flow, and thermal-energy-transport model was constructed to simulate the four short-term test cycles. The model was used to simulate the entire short-term testing period of approximately 400 days. The only model properties varied during model calibration were longitudinal and transverse thermal dispersivities, which, for final calibration, were simulated as 3.3 and 0.33 meters, respectively. The model was calibrated by comparing model-computed results to

  8. Dynamic Permeability Increase During Flow of CO2 Saturated Water Through a Siliciclastic Caprock: an Experimental and Analytical Approach into the Geochemical Impact of CO2 Injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worden, R. H.; Armitage, P. J.; Faulkner, D. R.

    2011-12-01

    Field trials into CO2 sequestration are currently being undertaken at the In Salah gas field, Algeria. As a part of a wider project, we are experimentally investigating the geochemical and geomechanical effects of CO2 sequestration on the lower caprock. These are poorly sorted siltstones, cemented with quartz, illite, siderite and chlorite. CO2 injection into saline aquifers and depleted petroleum reservoirs alters in situ geochemical conditions. CO2-rich aqueous fluids are acidic and have the potential to geochemically interact with caprocks. These changes will affect caprock properties such as strength and fluid flow properties, which in turn may facilitate CO2 migration and escape from the intended storage structure. Evaluation of these effects on samples of well characterised caprocks will be crucial in helping to evaluate the long term integrity of CO2 storage. We present results from direct experimental and analytical evaluation of dynamic permeability evolution for the flow of CO2 saturated water through a sample of the lower caprock from the In Salah CO2 storage site. Permeability of this sample was approximately 10-20 m2. Permeability was found to increase by approximately 1 order of magnitude over 72 hours of continuous flow. Porosity was also found to increase, whilst surface area, and sample weight decreased. SEM, XRD, and FTIR analyses revealed dissolution of chlorite and siderite to be the cause of the increase in permeability. This change in permeability, and dissolution of minerals, may locally lead to decreased strength of the caprock and decreased sealing capacity. However, local re-precipitation processes may serve to reverse these processes.

  9. Hip joint injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injected so the provider can see where to place the medicine. The steroid medicine is slowly injected into the joint. After the injection, you will remain on the table for another 5 to 10 minutes or so. ...

  10. Modeling injection well performance during deep-well injection of liquid wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saripalli, K. P.; Sharma, M. M.; Bryant, S. L.

    2000-01-01

    Deep-well injection of municipal and industrial wastes, and liquid hazardous wastes is an important waste disposal practice worldwide. Performance of injection wells during the deep-well injection of liquid wastes and waste waters is critically dependent upon the physico-chemical properties of the waste, the operational parameters such as injection rates and pressures, as well as the hydrogeologic and geochemical character of the host formation. Development of theories and models that can predict the injection well performance as a function of these parameters is a vital research need. This paper presents the development and application of a well injectivity decline (WID) simulator, that can be used to model injection well performance during deep-well injection. Injectivity decline due to particulates in the injection fluid is modeled for various types of well completions. Results from the simulator are presented with an emphasis on the resulting well plugging and injectivity decline. The significant role played by injected wastewater quality, host formation properties, injection rate and pressure, well completion type, initial damage to the well/formation and the presence of gravel packs around the wellbore is discussed. The results quantitatively show that under typical injection conditions a high total suspended solids (TSS) concentration in the waste stream, low injection rate, low injection pressures, formation heterogeneity (layering), low porosity and permeability of the formation all contribute to a rapid decline in injection well performance. The simulator provides a tool for predicting well performance during waste injection as a function of the waste, formation and operational characteristics. Such simulations can be valuable during planning and operating injection wells to achieve and sustain satisfactory well performance.

  11. Gas-water-rock interactions in Frio Formation following CO2 injection: Implications for the storage of greenhouse gases in sedimentary basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Cole, D.R.; Hovorka, S.D.; Gunter, W.D.; Knauss, K.G.; Freifeld, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the potential for the geologic storage of CO2 in saline sedimentary aquifers, 1600 t of CO2 were injected at 1500 m depth into a 24-m-thick sandstone section of the Frio Formation, a regional brine and oil reservoir in the U.S. Gulf Coast. Fluid samples obtained from the injection and observation wells before CO2 injection showed a Na-Ca-Cl-type brine with 93,000 mg/L total dissolved solids (TDS) at near saturation with CH4 at reservoir conditions. Following CO2 breakthrough, samples showed sharp drops in pH (6.5-5.7), pronounced increases in alkalinity (100-3000 mg/L as HCO3) and Fe (30-1100 mg/L), and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H2O, dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and CH4. Geochemical modeling indicates that brine pH would have dropped lower but for the buffering by dissolution of carbonate and iron oxyhydroxides. This rapid dissolution of carbonate and other minerals could ultimately create pathways in the rock seals or well cements for CO2 and brine leakage. Dissolution of minerals, especially iron oxyhydroxides, could mobilize toxic trace metals and, where residual oil or suitable organics are present, the injected CO2 could also mobilize toxic organic compounds. Environmental impacts could be major if large brine volumes with mobilized toxic metals and organics migrated into potable groundwater. The ??18O values for brine and CO2 samples indicate that supercritical CO2 comprises ???50% of pore-fluid volume ???6 mo after the end of injection. Postinjection sampling, coupled with geochemical modeling, indicates that the brine gradually will return to its preinjection composition. ?? 2006 Geological Society of America.

  12. Reactive transport modeling to study changes in water chemistry induced by CO2 injection at the Frio-I Brine Pilot

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xu, T.; Kharaka, Y.K.; Doughty, C.; Freifeld, B.M.; Daley, T.M.

    2010-01-01

    To demonstrate the potential for geologic storage of CO2 in saline aquifers, the Frio-I Brine Pilot was conducted, during which 1600 tons of CO2 were injected into a high-permeability sandstone and the resulting subsurface plume of CO2 was monitored using a variety of hydrogeological, geophysical, and geochemical techniques. Fluid samples were obtained before CO2 injection for baseline geochemical characterization, during the CO2 injection to track its breakthrough at a nearby observation well, and after injection to investigate changes in fluid composition and potential leakage into an overlying zone. Following CO2 breakthrough at the observation well, brine samples showed sharp drops in pH, pronounced increases in HCO3- and aqueous Fe, and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H2O and dissolved inorganic carbon. Based on a calibrated 1-D radial flow model, reactive transport modeling was performed for the Frio-I Brine Pilot. A simple kinetic model of Fe release from the solid to aqueous phase was developed, which can reproduce the observed increases in aqueous Fe concentration. Brine samples collected after half a year had lower Fe concentrations due to carbonate precipitation, and this trend can be also captured by our modeling. The paper provides a method for estimating potential mobile Fe inventory, and its bounding concentration in the storage formation from limited observation data. Long-term simulations show that the CO2 plume gradually spreads outward due to capillary forces, and the gas saturation gradually decreases due to its dissolution and precipitation of carbonates. The gas phase is predicted to disappear after 500 years. Elevated aqueous CO2 concentrations remain for a longer time, but eventually decrease due to carbonate precipitation. For the Frio-I Brine Pilot, all injected CO2 could ultimately be sequestered as carbonate minerals. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Reactive transport modeling to study changes in water chemistry induced by CO2 injection at the Frio-I brine pilot

    SciTech Connect

    Kharaka, Y.K; Doughty, C.; Freifeld, B.M.; Daley, T.M.; Xu, T.

    2009-11-01

    To demonstrate the potential for geologic storage of CO{sub 2} in saline aquifers, the Frio-I Brine Pilot was conducted, during which 1600 tons of CO{sub 2} were injected into a high-permeability sandstone and the resulting subsurface plume of CO{sub 2} was monitored using a variety of hydrogeological, geophysical, and geochemical techniques. Fluid samples were obtained before CO{sub 2} injection for baseline geochemical characterization, during the CO{sub 2} injection to track its breakthrough at a nearby observation well, and after injection to investigate changes in fluid composition and potential leakage into an overlying zone. Following CO{sub 2} breakthrough at the observation well, brine samples showed sharp drops in pH, pronounced increases in HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and aqueous Fe, and significant shifts in the isotopic compositions of H{sub 2}O and dissolved inorganic carbon. Based on a calibrated 1-D radial flow model, reactive transport modeling was performed for the Frio-I Brine Pilot. A simple kinetic model of Fe release from the solid to aqueous phase was developed, which can reproduce the observed increases in aqueous Fe concentration. Brine samples collected after half a year had lower Fe concentrations due to carbonate precipitation, and this trend can be also captured by our modeling. The paper provides a method for estimating potential mobile Fe inventory, and its bounding concentration in the storage formation from limited observation data. Long-term simulations show that the CO{sub 2} plume gradually spreads outward due to capillary forces, and the gas saturation gradually decreases due to its dissolution and precipitation of carbonates. The gas phase is predicted to disappear after 500 years. Elevated aqueous CO{sub 2} concentrations remain for a longer time, but eventually decrease due to carbonate precipitation. For the Frio-I Brine Pilot, all injected CO{sub 2} could ultimately be sequestered as carbonate minerals.

  14. Beam Injection into RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Mackay, W. W.; Tsoupas, N.

    1997-05-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. We describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks, the application program to steer the beam and the injection kickers. We report on the commissioning of the injection systems and on measurements of the kickers.

  15. A prototype space flight intravenous injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G. V.

    1985-01-01

    Medical emergencies, especially those resulting from accidents, frequently require the administration of intravenous fluids to replace lost body liquids. The development of a prototype space flight intravenous injection system is presented. The definition of requirements, injectable concentrates development, water polisher, reconstitution hardware development, administration hardware development, and prototype fabrication and testing are discussed.

  16. Maximum magnitude earthquakes induced by fluid injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGarr, A.

    2014-02-01

    Analysis of numerous case histories of earthquake sequences induced by fluid injection at depth reveals that the maximum magnitude appears to be limited according to the total volume of fluid injected. Similarly, the maximum seismic moment seems to have an upper bound proportional to the total volume of injected fluid. Activities involving fluid injection include (1) hydraulic fracturing of shale formations or coal seams to extract gas and oil, (2) disposal of wastewater from these gas and oil activities by injection into deep aquifers, and (3) the development of enhanced geothermal systems by injecting water into hot, low-permeability rock. Of these three operations, wastewater disposal is observed to be associated with the largest earthquakes, with maximum magnitudes sometimes exceeding 5. To estimate the maximum earthquake that could be induced by a given fluid injection project, the rock mass is assumed to be fully saturated, brittle, to respond to injection with a sequence of earthquakes localized to the region weakened by the pore pressure increase of the injection operation and to have a Gutenberg-Richter magnitude distribution with a b value of 1. If these assumptions correctly describe the circumstances of the largest earthquake, then the maximum seismic moment is limited to the volume of injected liquid times the modulus of rigidity. Observations from the available case histories of earthquakes induced by fluid injection are consistent with this bound on seismic moment. In view of the uncertainties in this analysis, however, this should not be regarded as an absolute physical limit.

  17. Effect of water injection and off scheduling of variable inlet guide vanes, gas generator speed and power turbine nozzle angle on the performance of an automotive gas turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warren, E. L.

    1980-01-01

    The Chrysler/ERDA baseline automotive gas turbine engine was used to experimentally determine the power augmentation and emissions reductions achieved by the effect of variable compressor and power engine geometry, water injection downstream of the compressor, and increases in gas generator speed. Results were dependent on the mode of variable geometry utilization. Over 20 percent increase in power was accompanied by over 5 percent reduction in SFC. A fuel economy improvement of at least 6 percent was estimated for a vehicle with a 75 kW (100 hp) engine which could be augmented to 89 kW (120 hp) relative to an 89 Kw (120 hp) unaugmented engine.

  18. Infiltration and Injection Sites and Example Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Rockhold

    2007-04-19

    The objectives of this paper are: (1) design a characterization and monitoring strategy for vadose zone infiltration and aquifer injection sites; and (2) track spatial and temporal evolution of water and reactive chemicals through vadose zone and aquifer.

  19. Determination of polycyclic and nitro musks in environmental water samples by means of microextraction by packed sorbents coupled to large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis.

    PubMed

    Cavalheiro, J; Prieto, A; Monperrus, M; Etxebarria, N; Zuloaga, O

    2013-04-22

    In this work the development and validation of a new procedure for the simultaneous determination of 9 nitro and polycyclic musk compounds: musk ambrette (MA), musk ketone (MK), musk mosken (MM), celestolide (ADBI), phantolide (AHMI), tonalide (AHTN), traseolide (ATII), cashmeran (DPMI) and galaxolide (HHCB) in environmental water samples (estuarine and wastewater) using microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) followed by large volume injection-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-MS) was carried out. Apart from the optimization of the different variables affecting MEPS (i.e., nature of the sorbent, nature of the solvent elution, sample load, and elution/injection volume) extraction recovery was also evaluated, not only for water samples but also for environmental water matrices such as estuarine and waste water. The use of two deuterated analogs ([(2)H3]-AHTN and [(2)H15]-MX) was successfully evaluated in order to correct matrix effect in complex environmental matrices such as influent samples from wastewater treatment plants. Method detection limits (MDLs) ranged from 5 to 25 ng L(-1), 7 to 39 ng L(-1) and 8 to 84 ng L(-1) for influent, effluent and estuarine samples, respectively. Apparent recoveries were higher than 75% for all target compounds in all the matrices studied (estuarine water and wastewater) and the precision of the method, calculated as relative standard deviation (RSD), was below 13.2% at 200 ng L(-1) concentration level and below 14.9% at low level (20 ng L(-1) for all the target analytes, except for AHTN which was set at 40 ng L(-1) and HHCB at 90 ng L(-1), due to the higher MDL values presented by those target compounds). Finally, this MEPS procedure was applied to the determination of the target analytes in water samples, including estuarine and wastewater, from two estuaries, Urdaibai (Spain) and Adour (France) and an established stir-bar sorptive extraction-liquid desorption/large volume injection-gas chromatography

  20. Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... www.girlshealth.gov/ Home Nutrition Nutrition basics Water Water Did you know that water makes up more ... to drink more water Other drinks How much water do you need? top Water is very important, ...

  1. Slit injection device

    DOEpatents

    Alger, Terry W.; Schlitt, Leland G.; Bradley, Laird P.

    1976-06-15

    A laser cavity electron beam injection device provided with a single elongated slit window for passing a suitably shaped electron beam and means for varying the current density of the injected electron beam.

  2. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  3. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  4. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to ...

  5. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  6. Rich catalytic injection

    DOEpatents

    Veninger, Albert

    2008-12-30

    A gas turbine engine includes a compressor, a rich catalytic injector, a combustor, and a turbine. The rich catalytic injector includes a rich catalytic device, a mixing zone, and an injection assembly. The injection assembly provides an interface between the mixing zone and the combustor. The injection assembly can inject diffusion fuel into the combustor, provides flame aerodynamic stabilization in the combustor, and may include an ignition device.

  7. Beam injection into RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Zhang, W.

    1997-07-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. The authors describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks. They report on the commissioning of the injection system, on beam based measurements of the kickers and the application program to steer the beam.

  8. Strategies for safe injections.

    PubMed Central

    Battersby, A.; Feilden, R.; Stoeckel, P.; Da Silva, A.; Nelson, C.; Bass, A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, faced with growing international concern, WHO set out an approach for achieving injection safety that encompassed all elements from patients' expectations and doctors' prescribing habits to waste disposal. This article follows that lead and describes the implications of the approach for two injection technologies: sterilizable and disposable. It argues that focusing on any single technology diverts attention from the more fundamental need for health services to develop their own comprehensive strategies for safe injections. National health authorities will only be able to ensure that injections are administered safely if they take an approach that encompasses the whole system, and choose injection technologies that fit their circumstances. PMID:10680247

  9. Injection of lightning-produced NOx, water vapor, wildfire emissions, and stratospheric air to the UT/LS as observed from DC3 measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntrieser, H.; Lichtenstern, M.; Scheibe, M.; Aufmhoff, H.; Schlager, H.; Pucik, T.; Minikin, A.; Weinzierl, B.; Heimerl, K.; Pollack, I. B.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Honomichl, S.; Ridley, B. A.; Biggerstaff, M. I.; Betten, D. P.; Hair, J. W.; Butler, C. F.; Schwartz, M. J.; Barth, M. C.

    2016-06-01

    During the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry (DC3) experiment in summer 2012, airborne measurements were performed in the anvil inflow/outflow of thunderstorms over the Central U.S. by three research aircraft. A general overview of Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt (DLR)-Falcon in situ measurements (CO, O3, SO2, CH4, NO, NOx, and black carbon) is presented. In addition, a joint flight on 29 May 2012 in a convective line of isolated supercell storms over Oklahoma is described based on Falcon, National Science Foundation/National Center for Atmospheric Research Gulfstream-V (NSF/NCAR-GV), and NASA-DC8 trace species in situ and lidar measurements. During DC3 some of the largest and most destructive wildfires in New Mexico and Colorado state's history were burning, which strongly influenced air quality in the DC3 thunderstorm inflow and outflow region. Lofted biomass burning (BB) plumes were frequently observed in the mid- and upper troposphere (UT) in the vicinity of deep convection. The impact of lightning-produced NOx (LNOx) and BB emissions was analyzed on the basis of mean vertical profiles and tracer-tracer correlations (CO-NOx and O3-NO). On a regular basis DC3 thunderstorms penetrated the tropopause and injected large amounts of LNOx into the lower stratosphere (LS). Inside convection, low O3 air (~80 nmol mol-1) from the lower troposphere was rapidly transported to the UT/LS region. Simultaneously, O3-rich stratospheric air masses (~100-200 nmol mol-1) were present around and below the thunderstorm outflow and enhanced UT-O3 mixing ratios significantly. A 10 year global climatology of H2O data from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder confirmed that the Central U.S. is a preferred region for convective injection into the LS.

  10. Subsurface injection of liquid waste with emphasis on injection practices in Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, John J.; Vecchioli, John

    1986-01-01

    Subsurface injection of liquid waste is used as a disposal method in many parts of the country. It is used particularly when other methods for managing liquid waste are either not possible or too costly. Interest in subsurface injection as a waste-disposal method stems partly from recognition that surface disposal of liquid waste may establish a potential for degrading freshwater resources. Where hydrogeologic conditions are suitable and where surface disposal may cause contamination, subsurface injection is considered an attractive alternative for waste disposal. Decisions to use subsurface injection need to be made with care because, where hydrogeologic conditions are not suitable for injection, the risk to water resources, particularly ground water, could be great. Selection of subsurface injection as a waste-disposal method requires thoughtful deliberation and, in some instances, extensive data collection and analyses. Subsurface injection is a geological method of waste disposal. Therefore, many State and local governmental officials and environmentally concerned citizens who make decisions about waste-disposal alternatives may know little about it. This report serves as an elemental/guide to subsurface injection and presents subsurface injection practices in Florida as an example of how one State is managing injection.

  11. Closure of shallow underground injection wells

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J.A.; Grunewald, B.

    1993-10-01

    Shallow injection wells have long been used for disposing liquid wastes. Some of these wells have received hazardous or radioactive wastes. According to US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations, Class IV wells are those injection wells through which hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above an underground source of drinking water (USDW). These wells must be closed. Generally Class V wells are injection wells through which fluids that do not contain hazardous or radioactive wastes are injected into or above a USDW. Class V wells that are responsible for violations of drinking water regulations or that pose a threat to human health must also be closed. Although EPA regulations require closure of certain types of shallow injection wells, they do not provide specific details on the closure process. This paper describes the regulatory background, DOE requirements, and the steps in a shallow injection well closure process: Identification of wells needing closure; monitoring and disposal of accumulated substances; filling and sealing of wells; and remediation. In addition, the paper describes a major national EPA shallow injection well enforcement initiative, including closure plan guidance for wells used to dispose of wastes from service station operations.

  12. Multiple-orifice liquid injection into hypersonic air streams.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weaver, W. L.

    1972-01-01

    Review of oblique water and fluorocarbon injection test results obtained in experimental studies of the effects of multiple-orifice liquid injection into hypersonic air streams. The results include the finding that maximum lateral penetration from such injections increases linearly with the square root of the jet-to-freestream dynamic-pressure ratio and is proportional to an equivalent orifice diameter.

  13. 21 CFR 522.1468 - Naproxen for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Naproxen for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug is a lyophilized powder which is reconstituted with sterile water for injection to form a 10 percent sterile aqueous solution (100 milligrams per milliliter... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Naproxen for injection. 522.1468 Section...

  14. 21 CFR 522.1468 - Naproxen for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Naproxen for injection. (a) Specifications. The drug is a lyophilized powder which is reconstituted with sterile water for injection to form a 10 percent sterile aqueous solution (100 milligrams per milliliter... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Naproxen for injection. 522.1468 Section...

  15. Selective determination of estrogenic compounds in water by microextraction by packed sorbents and a molecularly imprinted polymer coupled with large volume injection-in-port-derivatization gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Prieto, A; Vallejo, A; Zuloaga, O; Paschke, A; Sellergen, B; Schillinger, E; Schrader, S; Möder, M

    2011-10-01

    A fully automated protocol consisting of microextraction by packed sorbents (MEPS) coupled with large volume injection-in-port-derivatization-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (LVI-derivatization-GC-MS) was developed to determine endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) such as alkylphenols, bisphenol A, and natural and synthetic hormons in river and waste water samples. During method optimization, the extraction parameters as ion strength of the water sample, the MEPS extraction regime, the volume of organic solvent used for the elution/injection step, the type of elution solvents and the selectivity of the sorbents were studied. For optimum in-port-derivatization, 10 μL of the derivatization reagent N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)triufloroacetamide with 1% of trimethylchlorosilane (BSTFA+1% TMCS) was used. 17β-Estradiol-molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) and silica gel (modified with C-18) sorbents were examined for the enrichment of the target analytes from water samples and the obtained results revealed the high selectivity of the MIP material for extraction of substances with estrogen-like structures. Recovery values for most of the analytes ranged from 75 to 109% for the C18 sorbent and from 81 to 103% for the MIP material except for equilin (on C18 with only 57-66% recovery). Precision (n=4) of the entire analysis protocol ranged between 4% and 22% with both sorbents. Limits of detection (LODs) were at the low ngL(-1) level (0.02-87, C18 and 1.3-22, MIP) for the target analytes.

  16. Injection of Lightning-Produced NOx, Water Vapor, Wildfire Emissions, and Stratospheric Air to the UT/LS as Observed from DC3 Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntrieser, H.; Lichtenstern, M.; Scheibe, M.; Aufmhoff, H.; Schlager, H.; Minikin, A.; Weinzierl, B.; Pollack, I. B.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Honomichl, S.; Ridley, B. A.; Hair, J. W.; Schwartz, M. J.; Rappenglück, B.; Pickering, K. E.; Cummings, K.; Biggerstaff, M. I.; Heimerl, K.; Pucik, T.; Fütterer, D.; Ackermann, L.; Betten, D.; Butler, C. F.; Barth, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    In summer 2012 the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Project (DC3) field campaign investigated a number of severe thunderstorms over the Central U.S. and their impact on the upper tropospheric (UT) - lower stratospheric (LS) composition and chemistry. In addition, during DC3 some of the largest and most destructive wildfires in New Mexico and Colorado state history were burning, influencing the air quality in the DC3 thunderstorm inflow and outflow region. Besides three instrumented aircraft platforms measuring a variety of trace species in-situ and remotely (e.g. CO, O3, SO2, NOx, VOC, CN, and black carbon), dense networks of ground-based instruments (e.g. radar and lightning) complemented the airborne measurements. Satellite measurements (e.g. GOES, MODIS, and GOME-2) and model forecasts (e.g. WRF-Chem and FLEXPART) were used to monitor the rapid development of the thunderstorms (which frequently developed huge anvils with overshooting tops) and the spread of smoke plumes in the vicinity of the storms. In-situ probing of fresh and aged (12-24 h) anvil outflows showed injection of lightning-produced NOx and wildfire emissions into the UTLS. Vertical cross sections of lidar and Doppler radar measurements supported these observations and gave detailed information on dynamical processes within and in the vicinity of the storms. Besides very strong updrafts in the storm core, surrounding downdrafts caused a direct in-mixing of O3-rich LS air masses into the boundaries of the anvil outflow. The wrapping of O3-rich LS air masses around and below the anvil outflow was also a prominent feature in several storms. The in-situ probing of the aged anvil outflow showed a pronounced influence on the UT composition and chemistry with average O3 enhancements in the range of 20-50 nmol mol-1 and evidence of new particle formation. A 10-year global climatology of H2O data from Aura-MLS confirms that the Central U.S. is a preferred region for convective injection into the LS.

  17. Injection of Lightning-Produced NOx, Water Vapor, Wildfire Emissions, and Stratospheric Air to the UT/LS as Observed from DC3 Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntrieser, H.; Lichtenstern, M.; Scheibe, M.; Aufmhoff, H.; Schlager, H.; Minikin, A.; Weinzierl, B.; Pollack, I. B.; Peischl, J.; Ryerson, T. B.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Honomichl, S.; Ridley, B. A.; Hair, J. W.; Schwartz, M. J.; Rappenglück, B.; Pickering, K. E.; Cummings, K.; Biggerstaff, M. I.; Heimerl, K.; Pucik, T.; Fütterer, D.; Ackermann, L.; Betten, D.; Butler, C. F.; Barth, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    In summer 2012 the Deep Convective Clouds and Chemistry Project (DC3) field campaign investigated a number of severe thunderstorms over the Central U.S. and their impact on the upper tropospheric (UT) - lower stratospheric (LS) composition and chemistry. In addition, during DC3 some of the largest and most destructive wildfires in New Mexico and Colorado state history were burning, influencing the air quality in the DC3 thunderstorm inflow and outflow region. Besides three instrumented aircraft platforms measuring a variety of trace species in-situ and remotely (e.g. CO, O3, SO2, NOx, VOC, CN, and black carbon), dense networks of ground-based instruments (e.g. radar and lightning) complemented the airborne measurements. Satellite measurements (e.g. GOES, MODIS, and GOME-2) and model forecasts (e.g. WRF-Chem and FLEXPART) were used to monitor the rapid development of the thunderstorms (which frequently developed huge anvils with overshooting tops) and the spread of smoke plumes in the vicinity of the storms. In-situ probing of fresh and aged (12-24 h) anvil outflows showed injection of lightning-produced NOx and wildfire emissions into the UTLS. Vertical cross sections of lidar and Doppler radar measurements supported these observations and gave detailed information on dynamical processes within and in the vicinity of the storms. Besides very strong updrafts in the storm core, surrounding downdrafts caused a direct in-mixing of O3-rich LS air masses into the boundaries of the anvil outflow. The wrapping of O3-rich LS air masses around and below the anvil outflow was also a prominent feature in several storms. The in-situ probing of the aged anvil outflow showed a pronounced influence on the UT composition and chemistry with average O3 enhancements in the range of 20-50 nmol mol-1 and evidence of new particle formation. A 10-year global climatology of H2O data from Aura-MLS confirms that the Central U.S. is a preferred region for convective injection into the LS.

  18. On-line speciation of inorganic and methyl mercury in waters and fish tissues using polyaniline micro-column and flow injection-chemical vapour generation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-CVG-ICPMS).

    PubMed

    Krishna, M V Balarama; Chandrasekaran, K; Karunasagar, D

    2010-04-15

    A simple and efficient method for the determination of ultra-trace amounts of inorganic mercury (iHg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in waters and fish tissues was developed using a micro-column filled with polyaniline (PANI) coupled online to flow injection-chemical vapour generation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-CVG-ICPMS) system. Preliminary studies indicated that inorganic and methyl mercury species could be separated on PANI column in two different speciation approaches. At pH <3, only iHg could be sorbed and almost no adsorption of MeHg was found (speciation procedure 1). If the sample solution pH is approximately 7, both MeHg and iHg species could be sorbed on the PANI column. Subsequently both the Hg species were selectively eluted with 2% HCl and a mixture of 2% HCl and 0.02% thiourea respectively (speciation procedure 2). The adsorption percentage of iHg on the PANI column was unchanged even with acidity of the sample solution increased to 6 mol L(-1). Therefore, an acidic solution (5 mol L(-1) HCl), used for ultra-sound assisted extraction of the mercury species from biological samples, was used directly to separate MeHg from iHg in the fish tissues (tuna fish ERM-CE 463, ERM-CE 464 and IAEA-350) by PANI column using speciation procedure 1. The determined values were in good agreement with certified values. Under optimal conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) were 2.52 pg and 3.24 pg for iHg and MeHg (as Hg) respectively. The developed method was applied successfully to the direct determination of iHg and MeHg in various waters (tap water, lake water, ground water and sea-water) and the recoveries for the spiked samples were in the range of 96-102% for both the Hg species. PMID:20188947

  19. On-line speciation of inorganic and methyl mercury in waters and fish tissues using polyaniline micro-column and flow injection-chemical vapour generation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-CVG-ICPMS).

    PubMed

    Krishna, M V Balarama; Chandrasekaran, K; Karunasagar, D

    2010-04-15

    A simple and efficient method for the determination of ultra-trace amounts of inorganic mercury (iHg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in waters and fish tissues was developed using a micro-column filled with polyaniline (PANI) coupled online to flow injection-chemical vapour generation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-CVG-ICPMS) system. Preliminary studies indicated that inorganic and methyl mercury species could be separated on PANI column in two different speciation approaches. At pH <3, only iHg could be sorbed and almost no adsorption of MeHg was found (speciation procedure 1). If the sample solution pH is approximately 7, both MeHg and iHg species could be sorbed on the PANI column. Subsequently both the Hg species were selectively eluted with 2% HCl and a mixture of 2% HCl and 0.02% thiourea respectively (speciation procedure 2). The adsorption percentage of iHg on the PANI column was unchanged even with acidity of the sample solution increased to 6 mol L(-1). Therefore, an acidic solution (5 mol L(-1) HCl), used for ultra-sound assisted extraction of the mercury species from biological samples, was used directly to separate MeHg from iHg in the fish tissues (tuna fish ERM-CE 463, ERM-CE 464 and IAEA-350) by PANI column using speciation procedure 1. The determined values were in good agreement with certified values. Under optimal conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) were 2.52 pg and 3.24 pg for iHg and MeHg (as Hg) respectively. The developed method was applied successfully to the direct determination of iHg and MeHg in various waters (tap water, lake water, ground water and sea-water) and the recoveries for the spiked samples were in the range of 96-102% for both the Hg species.

  20. Epidural injections for back pain

    MedlinePlus

    ESI; Spinal injection for back pain; Back pain injection; Steroid injection - epidural; Steroid injection - back ... pillow under your stomach. If this position causes pain, you either sit up or lie on your ...

  1. A case study: bulk organic matters and nitrogen removal from reclaimed water by enhanced direct injection-well groundwater recharge system.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Zhao; Xuzhou, Cheng; Meng, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    A new kind of artificial groundwater recharge approach named enhanced direct injection-well recharge (EnDir), consisting of short-term artifical vadose treatment and long-term aquifer treatment, is put forward and demonstrated in Beijing. The results reveal that granular activated carbon (GAC) could remove bulk organic matters with the DOC value decrease from 6.0 mg/L to 4.6 mg/L. The short-term vadose treatment of EnDir exhibited additional organic carbon removal and effective nitrification. DOC and AOX values were reduced to 4.1 mg/L and 56.8 microg/L respectively. Ammonia-N of 3.81 mg/L was converted into equivalent nitrate-N. The long-term aquifer treatment offers favorable denitrification and lower nitrate-N content in the aquifer. The bulk parameters of DOC, SUVA, AOX and ammonia-N detected in the monitoring wells are as the same level as that of local groundwater. Brief financial analysis demonstrated the promising economic aspects of EnDir system in Beijing.

  2. A case study: bulk organic matters and nitrogen removal from reclaimed water by enhanced direct injection-well groundwater recharge system.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Zhao; Xuzhou, Cheng; Meng, Zhang

    2009-01-01

    A new kind of artificial groundwater recharge approach named enhanced direct injection-well recharge (EnDir), consisting of short-term artifical vadose treatment and long-term aquifer treatment, is put forward and demonstrated in Beijing. The results reveal that granular activated carbon (GAC) could remove bulk organic matters with the DOC value decrease from 6.0 mg/L to 4.6 mg/L. The short-term vadose treatment of EnDir exhibited additional organic carbon removal and effective nitrification. DOC and AOX values were reduced to 4.1 mg/L and 56.8 microg/L respectively. Ammonia-N of 3.81 mg/L was converted into equivalent nitrate-N. The long-term aquifer treatment offers favorable denitrification and lower nitrate-N content in the aquifer. The bulk parameters of DOC, SUVA, AOX and ammonia-N detected in the monitoring wells are as the same level as that of local groundwater. Brief financial analysis demonstrated the promising economic aspects of EnDir system in Beijing. PMID:19657170

  3. An unfortunate injection.

    PubMed

    Shah, Bhavik Sandip; Yarbrough, Chase; Price, Amy; Biswas, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Intramuscular injection has been used to administer medications for more than a hundred years. However, despite our profession's long experience with intramuscular administration, preventable complications such as injection nerve palsies are still prevalent in developing countries. Injections account for one-fifth of all traumatic nerve injuries. These injuries largely occur due to indiscriminate use of intramuscular injections for treating common illnesses, frequently by unlicensed or undertrained practitioners administering unnecessary treatment to impoverished patients. The sciatic nerve is the most commonly injured, and frequently the resulting muscle weakness and associated disability are irreversible. This case report includes a video of a patient with foot drop 6 weeks after gluteal intramuscular injection. Such injuries can be prevented by proper awareness and training, the implementation of safer injection techniques, and quality assurance methods. PMID:26931130

  4. Preparing injectable medicines safely.

    PubMed

    Beaney, Alison M; Black, Anne

    Risks to patients are greater when injectable medicines are prepared in clinical areas (wards, theatres, clinics or even patients' homes), rather than provided in ready-to-use form. This article describes the risks involved in preparing injectable medicines in such areas and outlines key principles to ensure they are prepared safely. It also suggests that high-risk injectable medicines be provided in ready-to-use form, either in house, by pharmacy or by pharmaceutical companies. PMID:22359855

  5. Applications of advanced petroleum production technology and water alternating gas injection for enhanced oil recovery - Mattoon Oil Field, Illinois. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Baroni, M.

    1995-09-01

    Phase I results of a C0{sub 2}-assisted oil recovery demonstration project in selected Cypress Sandstone reservoirs at Mattoon Field, Illinois are reported. The design and scope of this project included C0{sub 2} injectvity testing in the Pinnell and Sawyer units, well stimulaton treatments with C0{sub 2} in the Strong unit and infill well drilling, completion and oil production. The field activities were supported by extensive C0{sub 2}-oil-water coreflood experiments, CO{sub 2} oil-phase interaction experiments, and integrated geologic modeling and reservoir simulations. The progress of the project was made public through presentations at an industry meeting and a DOEs contractors` symposium, through quarterly reports and one-to-one consultations with interested operators. Phase II of this project was not implemented. It would have been a water-alternating-gas (WAG) project of longer duration.

  6. Botulinum toxin injection - larynx

    MedlinePlus

    Injection laryngoplasty; Botox-larynx: spasmodic dysphonia-BTX; Essential voice tremor (EVT)-btx; Glottic insufficiency; Percutaneous electromyography-guided botulinum toxin treatment; Percutaneous indirect laryngoscopy- ...

  7. Injection-ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction based on using low-density organic solvent followed by high-performance liquid chromatography for the determination of pyrethroids in water samples.

    PubMed

    Xu, Kailin; Liang, Bing; Li, Yanfang; Cheng, Yuan; Feng, Yuyan

    2013-02-21

    A highly efficient, simple and rapid method, injection-ultrasound-assisted emulsification microextraction based on using low-density organic solvents followed by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection, was developed for the determination of trace level pyrethroids in water samples. Various parameters influencing the extraction efficiency, such as type of extractant, extractant volume, ultrasonic time, centrifugation time and salt addition, were studied and optimized by two methods: the single factor experiment and the Box-Behnken design. Under the optimum conditions, great enrichment factors (678-713) and good recoveries (92.48-97.31%) were obtained for the extraction and analysis of artificial water samples. Linearity of the method for three pyrethroids was in the range of 0.11-218 μg L(-1) for fenpropathrin, and 0.07-136 μg L(-1) for fenvalerate and permethrin, respectively, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.9994 to 0.9999. The limits of detection for the target analytes were 12.13 to 20.16 ng L(-1), and the limits of quantification were 40.43 to 67.19 ng L(-1). The recoveries of the three pyrethroids from actual water samples at three spiked levels were in the range of 83.25 to 103.3% with relative standard deviation RSDs less than 7.40%.

  8. Stir-bar-sorptive extraction and liquid desorption combined with large-volume injection gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for ultra-trace analysis of musk compounds in environmental water matrices.

    PubMed

    Silva, Ana Rita M; Nogueira, J M F

    2010-03-01

    Stir-bar-sorptive extraction with liquid desorption followed by large-volume injection and capillary gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring acquisition mode (SBSE-LD/LVI-GC-MS(SIM)) has been developed to monitor ultra-traces of four musks (celestolide (ADBI), galaxolide (HHCB), tonalide (AHTN) and musk ketone (MK)) in environmental water matrices. Instrumental calibration (LVI-GC-MS(SIM)) and experimental conditions that could affect the SBSE-LD efficiency are discussed. Assays performed on 30-mL water samples spiked at 200 ng L(-1) under optimized experimental conditions yielded recoveries ranging from 83.7 ± 8.1% (MK) to 107.6 ± 10.8% (HHCB). Furthermore, the experimental data were in very good agreement with predicted theoretical equilibria described by octanol-water partition coefficients (K (PDMS/W) ≈ K (O/W)). The methodology also showed excellent linear dynamic ranges for the four musks studied, with correlation coefficients higher than 0.9961, limits of detection and quantification between 12 and 19 ng L(-1) and between 41 and 62 ng L(-1), respectively, and suitable precision (< 20%). Application of this method for analysis of the musks in real water matrices such as tap, river, sea, and urban wastewater samples resulted in convenient selectivity, high sensitivity and accuracy using the standard addition methodology. The proposed method (SBSE-LD/LVI-GC-MS(SIM)) was shown to be feasible and sensitive, with a low-sample volume requirement, for determination of musk compounds in environmental water matrices at the ultra-trace level, overcoming several disadvantages presented by other sample-preparation techniques.

  9. Lack of micronucleus induction activity of ethyl tertiary-butyl ether in the bone marrow of F344 rats by sub-chronic drinking-water treatment, inhalation exposure, or acute intraperitoneal injection.

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Tadashi; Kamigaito, Tomoyuki; Katagiri, Taku; Kondou, Hitomi; Yamazaki, Kazunori; Aiso, Shigetoshi; Nishizawa, Tomoshi; Nagano, Kasuke; Fukushima, Shoji

    2013-01-01

    Ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) is an oxygenated gasoline additive synthesized from ethanol and isobutene that is used to reduce CO2 emissions. To support the Kyoto Protocol, the production of ETBE has undergone a marked increase. Previous reports have indicated that exposure to ETBE or methyl tertiary-butyl ether resulted in liver and kidney tumors in rats and/or mice. These reports raise concern about the effects of human exposure being brought about by the increased use of ETBE. The present study was conducted to evaluate the genotoxicity of ETBE using micronucleus induction of polychromatic erythrocytes in the bone marrow of male and female rats treated with ETBE in the drinking-water at concentrations of 0, 1,600, 4,000 or 10,000 ppm or exposed to ETBE vapor at 0, 500, 1,500 or 5,000 ppm for 13 weeks. There were no significant increases in micronucleus induction in either the drinking water-administered or inhalation-administered groups at any concentration of ETBE; although, in both groups red blood cells and hemoglobin concentration were slightly reduced in the peripheral blood in rats administered the highest concentration of ETBE. In addition, two consecutive daily intraperitoneal injections of ETBE at doses of 0, 250, 500 or 1,000 mg/kg did not increase the frequency of micronucleated bone marrow cells in either sex; all rats receiving intraperitoneal injections of ETBE at a dose of 2,000 mg/kg died after treatment day 1. These data suggest that ETBE is not genotoxic in vivo.

  10. Laboratory studies of injection into horizonal fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, Shaun D.; Pruess, Karsten; van Rappard, Diederik M.

    1996-01-24

    Most geothermal reservoirs are extensively fractured and injected fluids usually enter the reservoir formation at distinct feed points. As the cold water passes through the hot rock, it is heated, and may be recovered at production wells for power production. The influence of fractures is two-fold. Firstly, preferential pathways exist along major faults and the general motion of fluids away from injection wells is controlled by the effective permeability structure. Secondly, since fractures can be spaced several metres or more apart and the flow rates within each fracture can be relatively high, the injected fluid does not necessarily attain thermal equilibrium will all of the host rock at a given distance from the injection well. It is important that sufficient heat transfer between the fluid and rock occurs before the injected fluid is recovered at an injection well in order to prevent thermal breakthrough. In this paper we present preliminary results of an experimental research program examining the effects of injection into fractures. We build upon previous theoretical work by seeking to confirm the results and then discuss the initial results of injection into superheated reservoirs.

  11. Hydrogeology and results of injection tests at waste-injection test sites in Pinellas County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hickey, John J.

    1982-01-01

    Potential benefits or hazards to freshwater resources could result from subsurface injection of treated wastewater. Recognizing this, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with Pinellas County and the city of St. Petersburg, undertook an evaluation of the hydrogeology and injection of wastewater at proposed test sites on the Pinellas peninsula. The injection sites are underlain by sedimentary rocks ranging in age from Cretaceous to Pleistocene. Lower Eocene carbonate rocks were penetrated to a maximum depth of 3,504 feet and were found to have relatively low water yields. The most permeable part of the investigated section was in rocks of middle Eocene age within the Floridan aquifer. At the injection sites, the Floridan aquifer was subdivided into four permeable zones and three semiconfining beds. The test injection zone is within the Avon Park Limestone, the most productive of the identified permeable zones, with a transmissivity of about 1,000,000 feet squared per day. Two semiconfining beds are above the injection zone in the Suwannee Limestone and Ocala Limestone and have vertical hydraulic conductivities estimated to range from about 0.1 to 1 foot per day where these beds do not contain clay. Limited fresh ground-water supplies exist in the Floridan aquifer within the Pinellas peninsula. At all test sites, chloride concentration in the injection zone ranged from 19,000 to 20,000 milligrams per liter. Injection tests ranging in duration from 3 to 91.1 days were run at three different sites. Pressure buildup occurred in permeable zones above and below the injection zone during these tests. Calculated pressure buildup in observation wells close to and at some distance from the test wells was typically less than 1 pound per square inch. Injection and formation water will probably move slowly through the semiconfining bed overlying the injection zone, and long-term injection tests will be needed to determine the effectiveness of these beds to retard flow. The

  12. Chemical Changes in Pore Water Composition due to CO2 Injection Under In-Situ P-T Condition of the Altmark Gas Reservoir, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huq, F.; Nowak, M.; Haderlein, S.; Grathwohl, P.

    2012-12-01

    CO2 storage in depleted gas reservoir combined with enhanced gas recovery may be an economically feasible option to mitigate global warming. The Altmark gas field, located in the western part of the Northeast German Basin, is being considered as a potential candidate for this purpose. Under reservoir conditions (50 bars and 125°C), the CO2 saturated water causes dissolution and subsequent precipitation of minerals of the surrounding rock matrix. Therefore, the main objective of the current study was to investigate the chemical changes in fluid composition due to dissolution/precipitation of minerals under controlled laboratory conditions. A dry sandstone plug from the Altmark reservoir was mounted in a newly designed autoclave system and flushed by a pre-equilibrated mixture of water saturated with CO2 at a constant flow rate of 0.25 cm/h for 12 days at reservoir conditions. Fluid samples were taken at regular intervals for major and trace element analysis and pH was measured simultaneously in the partially de-gassed samples. Fluid analysis showed an increased concentration of Na, K and Cl ions at the beginning indicating early leaching of halite and sylvite which initially inhibited the dissolution of alkali feldspars. Feldspar dissolution occurred later and slower indicated by lower concentrations of Na and K reflecting the lower solubility and slow dissolution kinetics of feldspar. Dissolution of anhydrite was predominantly observed from the increased concentration of Ca and SO4 at earlier time periods. However, the Ca/SO4 molar ratio (>1) indicated the concurrent dissolution of both calcite and anhydrite. The presence of carbonates buffered the pH until day 6. Moreover, the mobilization of Mn, Mg, Ba and Fe might be derived from carbonate impurities. Thermodynamic calculations of mineral saturation indices enabled an evaluation of the CO2-water-rock interactions during the experiment and highlighted the dissolution of the Ca-bearing minerals in the studied

  13. Glenohumeral Joint Injections

    PubMed Central

    Gross, Christopher; Dhawan, Aman; Harwood, Daniel; Gochanour, Eric; Romeo, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    Context: Intra-articular injections into the glenohumeral joint are commonly performed by musculoskeletal providers, including orthopaedic surgeons, family medicine physicians, rheumatologists, and physician assistants. Despite their frequent use, there is little guidance for injectable treatments to the glenohumeral joint for conditions such as osteoarthritis, adhesive capsulitis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Evidence Acquisition: We performed a comprehensive review of the available literature on glenohumeral injections to help clarify the current evidence-based practice and identify deficits in our understanding. We searched MEDLINE (1948 to December 2011 [week 1]) and EMBASE (1980 to 2011 [week 49]) using various permutations of intra-articular injections AND (corticosteroid OR hyaluronic acid) and (adhesive capsulitis OR arthritis). Results: We identified 1 and 7 studies that investigated intra-articular corticosteroid injections for the treatment of osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. Two and 3 studies investigated the use of hyaluronic acid in osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis, respectively. One study compared corticosteroids and hyaluronic acid injections in the treatment of osteoarthritis, and another discussed adhesive capsulitis. Conclusion: Based on existing studies and their level of evidence, there is only expert opinion to guide corticosteroid injection for osteoarthritis as well as hyaluronic acid injection for osteoarthritis and adhesive capsulitis. PMID:24427384

  14. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Duracillin A-S ® ... Pfizerpen A-S® ... injection should not be used to treat gonorrhea (a sexually transmitted disease) or early in the treatment ... serious infections. Penicillin G procaine injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by ...

  15. Gas injected vacuum switch

    DOEpatents

    Hardin, K. Dan

    1977-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a gas injected vacuum switch comprising a housing having an interior chamber, a conduit for evacuating the interior chamber, within the chamber an anode and a cathode spaced from the anode, and a detonator for injecting electrically conductive gas into the chamber between the anode and the cathode to provide a current path therebetween.

  16. [Intra-articular injections].

    PubMed

    Chapelle, Ch

    2015-09-01

    It is not unusual for a specialist or general practitioner to be presented with a pathology which necessitates the use of an intra-articular injection of corticosteroids, hyaluronic acid or a local anaesthetic. It would seem to be interesting to update and to precise the techniques and methods of intraarticular injections which have appeared in recent international publications, when we know that 30 % of the injections given into the knee and so called "dry" are incorrect and, therefore, inefficient. The indication of an articular injection depends, firstly, on the diagnosis which should be done with great care; after which should be an objective analysis complete with secondary effects linked to both the injection and the product used. The conditions of asepsis, the choice of needles and quantities of the injection and even the ways of the injections should be reviewed in detail. The last studies clearly question the secondary effects of the cartilage degradations of the cortisone given as an intra-articular injection and shows its efficiency on the pain and inflammatory phenomonen in osteoarthritis. Studies on hyaluronic acid are often contradictory going from a modest result to an important pain relief but it is necessary to be aware that the objective criteria are difficult to interpret. The use of local anaesthetics in intra-articular is limited by the few indications in view of the major risk of aggravating the pre-existing lesions by the disappearing signs of pain.

  17. Injection rate control cam

    SciTech Connect

    Perr, J.P.; Liang, E.; Yu, R.C.; Ghuman, A.S.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a cam for controlling the injection rate of fuel in a fuel injection system of an engine. The fuel injection system including a cyclically operating unit injector having a body, an injector plunger mounted for reciprocating movement in the injector body between an advanced position and a retracted portion to pump into the engine during each cycle a variable quantity of fuel up to a maximum quantity under rated engine conditions, and a drive train for converting rotational movement of the cam into reciprocating movement of the pumping plunger depending on the profile of the cam. The cam profile comprises at least a plunger retraction segment and a plunger advancement segment for controlling the velocity if injector plunger retraction and advancement, respectively, the plunger advancement segment including a pre-injection subsequent shaped to cause an initial quantity of fuel to be injected into the engine during each cycle at rated engine conditions while the pre-injection subsegment is in contact with the drive train, and an injection subsegment following the pre-injection subsegment.

  18. Health Instruction Packages: Injections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkleman, Ellie; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of four learning modules designed to instruct nursing students in techniques and equipment utilized for intramuscular injections. The first module, "Equipment for Intramuscular Injections" by Ellie Dunkleman, presents guidelines for selecting needles of the proper length and gauge…

  19. Test monitoring of prototype injection well, Waiale, Maui, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soroos, Ronald L.

    1979-01-01

    A high-capacity prototype injection well was tested in the isthmus area of Maui, Hawaii. Pumping tests were made on April 14 and 15, 1978, and 10 injection tests were made between May 12 and June 30, 1978. Selected tests were monitored in order to obtain data which could be used to assess the effects of subsurface disposal on the ground water in the basal aquifer. Pumping and injection rates were measured. Basal-water head responses to pumping and injection were observed at the prototype well and at two observation wells located 435 and 6 ,100 feet from the prototype well. Water-quality samples were collected at the prototype well and the nearest observation well prior to testing. Samples of the injection water, as well as samples from the observation wells, were collected prior to and after the final test. The head data and water-quality data are presented in this report. (USGS)

  20. Results from Geothermal Logging, Air and Core-Water Chemistry Sampling, Air Injection Testing and Tracer Testing in the Northern Ghost Dance Fault, YUCCA Mountain, Nevada, November 1996 to August 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Lecain, G.D.; Anna, L.O.; Fahy, M.F.

    1998-08-01

    Geothermal logging, air and core-water chemistry sampling, air-injection testing, and tracer testing were done in the northern Ghost Dance Fault at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, from November 1996 to August 1998. The study was done by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy. The fault-testing drill room and test boreholes were located in the crystal-poor, middle nonlithophysal zone of the Topopah Spring Tuff, a tuff deposit of Miocene age. The drill room is located off the Yucca Mountain underground Exploratory Studies Facility at about 230 meters below ground surface. Borehole geothermal logging identified a temperature decrease of 0.1 degree Celsius near the Ghost Dance Fault. The temperature decrease could indicate movement of cooler air or water, or both, down the fault, or it may be due to drilling-induced evaporative or adiabatic cooling. In-situ pneumatic pressure monitoring indicated that barometric pressure changes were transmitted from the ground surface to depth through the Ghost Dance Fault. Values of carbon dioxide and delta carbon-13 from gas samples indicated that air from the underground drill room had penetrated the tuff, supporting the concept of a well-developed fracture system. Uncorrected carbon-14-age estimates from gas samples ranged from 2,400 to 4,500 years. Tritium levels in borehole core water indicated that the fault may have been a conduit for the transport of water from the ground surface to depth during the last 100 years.