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Sample records for coal gasification process

  1. Coal gasification cogeneration process

    SciTech Connect

    Marten, J.H.

    1990-10-16

    This patent describes a process for the coproduction of a combustible first gas stream usable as an energy source, a sulfur-dioxide-containing second gas stream usable as a source for oxidant in the gasification of coal and a sulfur-dioxide-containing third gas stream usable as a feedstock for the production of sulfuric acid. It comprises: reacting coal in a coal gasification zone in the presence of an oxidant under partial coal-gasifying conditions to produce carbonaceous char and a crude gas stream; separating sulfur-containing compounds from the crude gas stream in a sulfur recovery zone to produce a combustible first gas stream and elemental sulfur; reacting the carbonaceous char and gypsum in a reaction zone in proportions such that the non-gypsum portion of the carbonaceous char and gypsum mixture contains sufficient reducing potential to reduce sulfur in the gypsum to gaseous compounds of sulfur in a +4 or lower oxidation state under reducing conditions to produce first a sulfur-dioxide-containing second gas stream which contains weaker SO{sub 2} produced in an early stage of the reaction zone and removed from the reaction zone, and then a sulfur-dioxide-containing third gas stream which contains concentrated SO{sub 2} recovered from a later stage of the reaction zone.

  2. The shell coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Koenders, L.O.M.; Zuideveld, P.O.

    1995-12-01

    Future Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) power plants will have superior environmental performance and efficiency. The Shell Coal Gasification Process (SCGP) is a clean coal technology, which can convert a wide range of coals into clean syngas for high efficiency electricity generation in an ICGCC plant. SCGP flexibility has been demonstrated for high-rank bituminous coals to low rank lignites and petroleum coke, and the process is well suited for combined cycle power generation, resulting in efficiencies of 42 to 46% (LHV), depending on choice of coal and gas turbine efficiency. In the Netherlands, a 250 MWe coal gasification combined cycle plant based on Shell technology has been built by Demkolec, a development partnership of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board (N.V. Sep). The construction of the unit was completed end 1993 and is now followed by start-up and a 3 year demonstration period, after that the plant will be part of the Dutch electricity generating system.

  3. Mathematical Modelling of Coal Gasification Processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sundararajan, T.; Raghavan, V.; Ajilkumar, A.; Vijay Kumar, K.

    2017-07-01

    Coal is by far the most commonly employed fuel for electrical power generation around the world. While combustion could be the route for coal utilization for high grade coals, gasification becomes the preferred process for low grade coals having higher composition of volatiles or ash. Indian coals suffer from high ash content-nearly 50% by weight in some cases. Instead of transporting such high ash coals, it is more energy efficient to gasify the coal and transport the product syngas. Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plants and Underground Gasification of coal have become attractive technologies for the best utilization of high ash coals. Gasification could be achieved in fixed beds, fluidized beds and entrained beds; faster rates of gasification are possible in fluidized beds and entrained flow systems, because of the small particle sizes and higher gas velocities. The media employed for gasification could involve air/oxygen and steam. Use of oxygen will yield relatively higher calorific value syngas because of the absence of nitrogen. Sequestration of the carbon dioxide after the combustion of the syngas is also easier, if oxygen is used for gasification. Addition of steam can increase hydrogen yield in the syngas and thereby increase the calorific value also. Gasification in the presence of suitable catalysts can increase the composition of methane in the product gas. Several competing heterogenous and homogenous reactions occur during coal major heterogenous reaction pathways, while interactions between carbon monoxide, oxygen, hydrogen, water vapour, methane and carbon dioxide result in several simultaneous gas-phase (homogenous) reactions. The overall product composition of the coal gasification process depends on the input reactant composition, particle size and type of gasifier, and pressure and temperature of the gasifier. The use of catalysts can also selectively change the product composition. At IIT Madras, over the last one decade, both

  4. Assessment of advanced coal gasification processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-01-01

    A technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes is presented: high throughput gasification (HTG) process; single stage high mass flux (HMF) processes; (CS/R) hydrogasification process; and the catalytic coal gasification (CCG) process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce synthetic natural gas from a bituminous coal. Key similarities, differences, strengths, weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The HTG and the HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging, and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R hydrogasifier is also SRT, but is nonslagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  5. Thermodynamic analysis of coal gasification processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. P.; Weil, S. A.; Babu, S. P.

    1980-09-01

    Thermodynamic analysis for evaluating and improving coal gasification process efficiency requires estimation of enthalpy, entropy, and availability transformations in various process steps. A compilation of procedures and data relevant to coal gasification processes is presented for calculating the above thermodynamic properties. Enthalpy and availability transformations are estimated for significant process steps in the HYGAS process for producing substitute natural gas from coal. The thermal efficiencies based on the first law of thermodynamics are compared with the availability efficiencies based on the second law. Work intensive process steps, such as gas compression and separation, are shown to have extremely low thermal efficiencies and fairly high availability efficiencies. Heat intensive process steps, such as steam generation, have high thermal efficiencies but generally poor availability efficiencies.

  6. Assessment of Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, John; Ferrall, Joseph; Charng, Thomas; Houseman, John

    1981-01-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process; Bell Single-Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process; Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process; Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier. The report makes the following assessments: 1) while each process has significant potential as coal gasifiers, the CS/R and Exxon processes are better suited for SNG production; 2) the Exxon process is the closest to a commercial level for near-term SNG production; and 3) the SRT processes require significant development including scale-up and turndown demonstration, char processing and/or utilization demonstration, and reactor control and safety features development.

  7. Assessment of Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCarthy, John; Ferrall, Joseph; Charng, Thomas; Houseman, John

    1981-01-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process; Bell Single-Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process; Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process; Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic, fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier. The report makes the following assessments: 1) while each process has significant potential as coal gasifiers, the CS/R and Exxon processes are better suited for SNG production; 2) the Exxon process is the closest to a commercial level for near-term SNG production; and 3) the SRT processes require significant development including scale-up and turndown demonstration, char processing and/or utilization demonstration, and reactor control and safety features development.

  8. Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, M.W.

    1987-03-23

    The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water- splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

  9. Method for increasing steam decomposition in a coal gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Wilson, Marvin W.

    1988-01-01

    The gasification of coal in the presence of steam and oxygen is significantly enhanced by introducing a thermochemical water-splitting agent such as sulfuric acid, into the gasifier for decomposing the steam to provide additional oxygen and hydrogen usable in the gasification process for the combustion of the coal and enrichment of the gaseous gasification products. The addition of the water-splitting agent into the gasifier also allows for the operation of the reactor at a lower temperature.

  10. Fluidized bed catalytic coal gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Euker, Jr., Charles A.; Wesselhoft, Robert D.; Dunkleman, John J.; Aquino, Dolores C.; Gouker, Toby R.

    1984-01-01

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents (16) are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 volume percent and 21 volume percent oxygen at a temperature between 50.degree. C. and 250.degree. C. in an oxidation zone (24) and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone (44) at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

  11. Considerations on coal gasification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franzen, J. E.

    1978-01-01

    Commercial processes for the gasification of coal with oxygen are discussed. The Koppers-Totzek process for the gasification of coal dust entrained in a stream of gasifying agents is described in particular detail. The outlook for future applications of coal gasification is presented.

  12. Process for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Sadowski, Richard S.

    1992-01-01

    The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  13. Coal gasification power plant and process

    DOEpatents

    Woodmansee, Donald E.

    1979-01-01

    In an integrated coal gasification power plant, a humidifier is provided for transferring as vapor, from the aqueous blowdown liquid into relatively dry air, both (I) at least a portion of the water contained in the aqueous liquid and (II) at least a portion of the volatile hydrocarbons therein. The resulting humidified air is advantageously employed as at least a portion of the hot air and water vapor included in the blast gas supplied via a boost compressor to the gasifier.

  14. Integrated coal cleaning, liquefaction, and gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Chervenak, Michael C.

    1980-01-01

    Coal is finely ground and cleaned so as to preferentially remove denser ash-containing particles along with some coal. The resulting cleaned coal portion having reduced ash content is then fed to a coal hydrogenation system for the production of desirable hydrocarbon gases and liquid products. The remaining ash-enriched coal portion is gasified to produce a synthesis gas, the ash is removed from the gasifier usually as slag, and the synthesis gas is shift converted with steam and purified to produce the high purity hydrogen needed in the coal hydrogenation system. This overall process increases the utilization of as-mined coal, reduces the problems associated with ash in the liquefaction-hydrogenation system, and permits a desirable simplification of a liquids-solids separation step otherwise required in the coal hydrogenation system.

  15. Cyclic flow underground coal gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Bissett, Larry A.

    1978-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method of in situ coal gasification for providing the product gas with an enriched concentration of carbon monoxide. The method is practiced by establishing a pair of combustion zones in spaced-apart boreholes within a subterranean coal bed and then cyclically terminating the combustion in the first of the two zones to establish a forward burn in the coal bed so that while an exothermic reaction is occurring in the second combustion zone to provide CO.sub.2 -laden product gas, an endothermic CO-forming reaction is occurring in the first combustion zone between the CO.sub.2 -laden gas percolating thereinto and the hot carbon in the wall defining the first combustion zone to increase the concentration of CO in the product gas. When the endothermic reaction slows to a selected activity the roles of the combustion zones are reversed by re-establishing an exothermic combustion reaction in the first zone and terminating the combustion in the second zone.

  16. Ammonia production from coal by utilization of Texaco coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, J.R.; McClanhan, T.S.; Weatherington, R.W.

    1983-12-01

    Operating data will be presented for the coal gasification and gas purification unit which has been retrofitted to the front end of an existing ammonia plant. The plant uses 200 tons per day of coal and produces 135 tons per day of ammonia. The plant uses the Texaco coal gasification process, Haldor-Topsoe catalyst systems, Selexol acid gas removal process, and the Holmes-Stretford sulfur recovery process.

  17. Coal-gasification-process concepts. [Dependence on gasifier pressure

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.L.; Tarman, P.B.

    1982-01-01

    First Generation coal gasification continues to grow with the expansion of Lurgi process to make gasoline in South Africa and SNG in the United States. This moving-bed gasifier is no doubt the leading commercial application of coal gasification. This can probably be attributed to its operation at the elevated pressure that simultaneously increases coal throughput and broadens the utility of the raw Syngas product by lowering its coal. Other Second Generation processes also strive to achieve high pressure operation: Ruhrgas 100 to improve moving-bed gasification at 100 bars; Texaco, Shell, Koppers, and Saarberg-Otto to improve entrained-bed gasification at 20 to 40 bars; and U-GAS and Westinghouse and the pressurized Winkler to improve fluidized-bed operation at 10 to 40 bars. Operation at 20 to 40 bars greatly improves gasifier productivity and significantly broadens the use of the raw Syngas produced by all types of gasifiers. Future commercial trends will include the entrained- and fluidized-bed concepts at 20 to 40 bars while even higher operating pressures will be used for the Lurgi moving-bed concept.

  18. Assessment of advanced coal-gasification processes. [AVCO high throughput gasification in process; Bell High Mass Flux process; CS-R process; and Exxon Gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, J.; Ferrall, J.; Charng, T.; Houseman, J.

    1981-06-01

    This report represents a technical assessment of the following advanced coal gasification processes: AVCO High Throughput Gasification (HTG) Process, Bell Single - Stage High Mass Flux (HMF) Process, Cities Service/Rockwell (CS/R) Hydrogasification Process, and the Exxon Catalytic Coal Gasification (CCG) Process. Each process is evaluated for its potential to produce SNG from a bituminous coal. In addition to identifying the new technology these processes represent, key similarities/differences, strengths/weaknesses, and potential improvements to each process are identified. The AVCO HTG and the Bell HMF gasifiers share similarities with respect to: short residence time (SRT), high throughput rate, slagging and syngas as the initial raw product gas. The CS/R Hydrogasifier is also SRT but is non-slagging and produces a raw gas high in methane content. The Exxon CCG gasifier is a long residence time, catalytic fluidbed reactor producing all of the raw product methane in the gasifier.

  19. Integrated coal gasification combined cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, P. C.; Wijffels, J.-B.; Zuideveld, P. L.

    Features of the integrated coal gasification combined cycle power plants are described against the backdrop of the development and first commercial application of the shell coal gasification process. Focus is on the efficiency and excellent environmental performance of the integrated coal gasification combined power plants. Current IGCC projects are given together with an outline of some of the options for integrating coal gasification with combined cycles and also other applications of synthesis gas.

  20. Calderon coal gasification Process Development Unit design and test program

    SciTech Connect

    Calderon, A.; Madison, E.; Probert, P.

    1992-11-01

    The Process Development Unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to demonstrate the novel Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup process. in the process, run-of-mine high sulfur coal is first pyrolyzed to recover a rich gas (medium Btu gas), after which the resulting char is subjected to airblown gasification to yield a lean gas (low Btu gas). The process incorporates a proprietary integrated system for the conversion of coal to gases and for the hot cleanup of the gases which removes both particulate and sulfur components of the gaseous products. The yields are: a syngas (CO and H{sub 2} mix) suitable for further conversion to liquid fuel (e.g. methanol/gasoline), and a lean gas suitable to fuel the combustion turbine of a combined cycle power generation plant with very low levels of NO{sub x} (15 ppmv). The fused slag (from the gasified char ash content) and the sulfur recovered during the hot gas cleanup will be sold as by-products. The small quantity of spent sorbent generated will be combined with the coal feed as a fluxing agent for the slag. The small quantity of wastewater from slag drainings and steam generation blowdown will be mixed with the coal feed for disposal. The Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup, which is a completely closed system, operates at a pressure suitable for combined cycle power generation.

  1. Calderon coal gasification Process Development Unit design and test program

    SciTech Connect

    Calderon, A.; Madison, E.; Probert, P.

    1992-01-01

    The Process Development Unit (PDU) was designed and constructed to demonstrate the novel Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup process. in the process, run-of-mine high sulfur coal is first pyrolyzed to recover a rich gas (medium Btu gas), after which the resulting char is subjected to airblown gasification to yield a lean gas (low Btu gas). The process incorporates a proprietary integrated system for the conversion of coal to gases and for the hot cleanup of the gases which removes both particulate and sulfur components of the gaseous products. The yields are: a syngas (CO and H[sub 2] mix) suitable for further conversion to liquid fuel (e.g. methanol/gasoline), and a lean gas suitable to fuel the combustion turbine of a combined cycle power generation plant with very low levels of NO[sub x] (15 ppmv). The fused slag (from the gasified char ash content) and the sulfur recovered during the hot gas cleanup will be sold as by-products. The small quantity of spent sorbent generated will be combined with the coal feed as a fluxing agent for the slag. The small quantity of wastewater from slag drainings and steam generation blowdown will be mixed with the coal feed for disposal. The Calderon gasification/hot gas cleanup, which is a completely closed system, operates at a pressure suitable for combined cycle power generation.

  2. Heat exchanger for coal gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Blasiole, George A.

    1984-06-19

    This invention provides a heat exchanger, particularly useful for systems requiring cooling of hot particulate solids, such as the separated fines from the product gas of a carbonaceous material gasification system. The invention allows effective cooling of a hot particulate in a particle stream (made up of hot particulate and a gas), using gravity as the motive source of the hot particulate. In a preferred form, the invention substitutes a tube structure for the single wall tube of a heat exchanger. The tube structure comprises a tube with a core disposed within, forming a cavity between the tube and the core, and vanes in the cavity which form a flow path through which the hot particulate falls. The outside of the tube is in contact with the cooling fluid of the heat exchanger.

  3. Separation of products from mild coal gasification processes

    SciTech Connect

    Wallman, P.H.

    1991-09-11

    The primary mild coal gasification product mixture containing noncondensible gas, high-boiling hydrocarbon vapors and entrained fines is difficult to process into the desired pure products: gas, liquids, and dry solids. This challenge for mild coal gasification process development has been studied by surveying the technical literature for suitable separations processes and for similar issues in related processes. The choice for a first-stage solids separation step is standard cyclones, arranged in parallel trains for large-volume applications in order to take advantage of the higher separation efficiency of smaller cyclones. However, mild gasification pilot-plant data show entrainment of ultrafine particles for which standard cyclones have poor separation efficiency. A hot secondary solids separation step is needed for the ultrafine entrainment in order to protect the liquid product from excessive amounts of contaminating solids. The secondary solids separation step is similar to many high-temperature flue-gas applications with an important complicating condition: Mild gasifier vapors form coke on surfaces in contact with the vapors. Plugging of the filter medium by coke deposition is concluded to be the main product separation problem for mild gasification. Three approaches to solution of this problem are discussed in the order of preference: (1) a barrier filter medium made of a perforated foil that is easy to regenerate, (2) a high-efficiency cyclone coupled with recycle of a solids-containing tar fraction for coking/cracking in the gasifier, and (3) a granular moving bed filter with regeneration of the bed material. The condensation of oil vapors diluted by noncondensible gas is analyzed thermodynamically, and the conclusion is that existing commercial oil fractionator designs are adequate as long as the vapor stream does not contain excessive amounts of solids. 34 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Coal gasification process wastewater reusability: separation of organics by membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharyya, D.; Kermode, R.I.; Dickinson, R.L.

    1983-02-01

    The developing coal-gasification technologies generate gaseous process streams laden with water-soluble species such as H/sub 2/S, NH/sub 3/, HCN, phenols, cresols etc. The primary raw gas clean-up (gas quenching) results in large volumes of highly contaminated wastewaters. The development of a membrane separation process for the removal of selected organics, salts, and scale-forming compounds from stripped coal-conversion process wastewaters, will minimise surface-water pollution and decrease water consumption by permeate recycling. The recent industrial development of non-cellulosic thin-film composite membranes has provided membranes with high salt and low molecular weight organic separation characteristics and insignificant compaction problems. The low pressure membranes (used for brackish water) have definite advantages in terms of energy saving and lower capital cost. The composite membranes perform better than cellulose-acetate membranes. 24 references.

  5. Advanced hot gas cleaning system for coal gasification processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newby, R. A.; Bannister, R. L.

    1994-04-01

    The United States electric industry is entering a period where growth and the aging of existing plants will mandate a decision on whether to repower, add capacity, or do both. The power generation cycle of choice, today, is the combined cycle that utilizes the Brayton and Rankine cycles. The combustion turbine in a combined cycle can be used in a repowering mode or in a greenfield plant installation. Today's fuel of choice for new combined cycle power generation is natural gas. However, due to a 300-year supply of coal within the United States, the fuel of the future will include coal. Westinghouse has supported the development of coal-fueled gas turbine technology over the past thirty years. Working with the U.S. Department of Energy and other organizations, Westinghouse is actively pursuing the development and commercialization of several coal-fueled processes. To protect the combustion turbine and environment from emissions generated during coal conversion (gasification/combustion) a gas cleanup system must be used. This paper reports on the status of fuel gas cleaning technology and describes the Westinghouse approach to developing an advanced hot gas cleaning system that contains component systems that remove particulate, sulfur, and alkali vapors. The basic process uses ceramic barrier filters for multiple cleaning functions.

  6. Geochemical Proxies for Enhanced Process Control of Underground Coal Gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronimus, A.; Koenen, M.; David, P.; Veld, H.; van Dijk, A.; van Bergen, F.

    2009-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) represents a strategy targeting at syngas production for fuel or power generation from in-situ coal seams. It is a promising technique for exploiting coal deposits as an energy source at locations not allowing conventional mining under economic conditions. Although the underlying concept has already been suggested in 1868 and has been later on implemented in a number of field trials and even at a commercial scale, UCG is still facing technological barriers, impeding its widespread application. Field UCG operations rely on injection wells enabling the ignition of the target seam and the supply with oxidants (air, O2) inducing combustion (oxidative conditions). The combustion process delivers the enthalpy required for endothermic hydrogen production under reduction prone conditions in some distance to the injection point. The produced hydrogen - usually accompanied by organic and inorganic carbon species, e.g. CH4, CO, and CO2 - can then be retrieved through a production well. In contrast to gasification of mined coal in furnaces, it is difficult to measure the combustion temperature directly during UCG operations. It is already known that geochemical parameters such as the relative production gas composition as well as its stable isotope signature are related to the combustion temperature and, consequently, can be used as temperature proxies. However, so far the general applicability of such relations has not been proven. In order to get corresponding insights with respect to coals of significantly different rank and origin, four powdered coal samples covering maturities ranging from Ro= 0.43% (lignite) to Ro= 3.39% (anthracite) have been gasified in laboratory experiments. The combustion temperature has been varied between 350 and 900 ˚ C, respectively. During gasification, the generated gas has been captured in a cryo-trap, dried and the carbon containing gas components have been catalytically oxidized to CO2. Thereafter, the

  7. Thermodynamic analysis of the process of formation of sulfur compounds in oxygen gasification of coal

    SciTech Connect

    G.Ya. Gerasimov; T.M. Bogacheva

    2001-05-15

    A thermodynamic approach to the description of the behavior of the system fuel-oxidizer in oxygen gasification of coal is used to reveal the main mechanisms of the process of capture of sulfur by the mineral part of the coal and to determine the fundamental possibility of the process for coals from different coal fields.

  8. Costs and technical characteristics of environmental control processes for low-Btu coal gasification plants

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.P.N.; Salmon, R.; Fisher, J.F.; Peterson, G.R.

    1980-06-01

    Technical characteristics and costs of 25 individual environmental control processes that can be used for treating low-Btu coal gas are given. These processes are chosen from a much larger array of potential environmental control processes because of their likely applicability to low-Btu coal gasification operations and because of the limited scope of this study. The selected processes cover gas treating, by-product recovery, wastewater treating, and particulate recovery operations that are expected to be encountered in coal gasification operations. Although the existence of the Resource Conservtion and Recovery Act of 1976 is recognized, no treatment schemes for solid wastes are evaluated because of the paucity of information in this area. The potential costs of emission controls (by using eight integrated combinations of these 25 environmental control processes) in conceptual low-Btu coal gasification plants are given in an adjunct report titled Evaluation of Eight Environmental Control Systems for Low-Btu Coal Gasification Plants, ORNL-5481.

  9. Solar coal gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gregg, D. W.; Aiman, W. R.; Otsuki, H. H.; Thorsness, C. B.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation of the technical and economic feasibility of solar coal gasification has been performed. The analysis indicates that the medium-Btu product gas from a solar coal-gasification plant would not only be less expensive than that from a Lurgi coal-gasification plant but also would need considerably less coal to produce the same amount of gas. A number of possible designs for solar coal-gasification reactors are presented. These designs allow solar energy to be chemically stored while at the same time coal is converted to a clean-burning medium-Btu gas.

  10. Process for control of pollutants generated during coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Frumerman, Robert; Hooper, Harold M.

    1979-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an improvement in the coal gasification process that effectively eliminates substantially all of the environmental pollutants contained in the producer gas. The raw producer gas is passed through a two-stage water scrubbing arrangement with the tars being condensed essentially water-free in the first stage and lower boiling condensables, including pollutant laden water, being removed in the second stage. The pollutant-laden water is introduced into an evaporator in which about 95 percent of the water is vaporized and introduced as steam into the gas producer. The condensed tars are combusted and the resulting products of combustion are admixed with the pollutant-containing water residue from the evaporator and introduced into the gas producer.

  11. Computational Studies for Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, Dipankar

    2017-07-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a well proven technology in order to access the coal lying either too deep underground, or is otherwise too costly to be extracted using the conventional mining methods. UCG product gas is commonly used as a chemical feedstock or as fuel for power generation. During the UCG process, a cavity is formed in the coal seam during its conversion to gaseous products. The cavity grows in a three-dimensional fashion as the gasification proceeds. The UCG process is indeed a result of several complex interactions of various geo-thermo-mechanical processes such as the fluid flow, heat and mass transfer, chemical reactions, water influx, thermo-mechanical failure, and other geological aspects. The rate of the growth of this cavity and its shape will have a significant impact on the gas flow patterns, chemical kinetics, temperature distributions, and finally the quality of the product gas. It has been observed that there is insufficient information available in the literature to provide clear insight into these issues. It leaves us with a great opportunity to investigate and explore the UCG process, both from the experimental as well as theoretical perspectives. In the development and exploration of new research, experiment is undoubtedly very important. However, due to the excessive cost involvement with experimentation it is not always recommended for the complicated process like UCG. Recently, with the advent of the high performance computational facilities it is quite possible to make alternative experimentation numerically of many physically involved problems using certain computational tools like CFD (computational fluid dynamics). In order to gain a comprehensive understanding of the underlying physical phenomena, modeling strategies have frequently been utilized for the UCG process. Keeping in view the above, the various modeling strategies commonly deployed for carrying out mathematical modeling of UCG process are described here in

  12. Instrumentation for optimizing an underground coal-gasification process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabaugh, W.; Zielinski, R. E.

    1982-06-01

    While the United States has a coal resource base of 6.4 trillion tons, only seven percent is presently recoverable by mining. The process of in-situ gasification can recover another twenty-eight percent of the vast resource, however, viable technology must be developed for effective in-situ recovery. The key to this technology is system that can optimize and control the process in real-time. An instrumentation system is described that optimizes the composition of the injection gas, controls the in-situ process and conditions the product gas for maximum utilization. The key elements of this system are Monsanto PRISM Systems, a real-time analytical system, and a real-time data acquisition and control system. This system provides from complete automation of the process but can easily be overridden by manual control. The use of this cost effective system can provide process optimization and is an effective element in developing a viable in-situ technology.

  13. Efficient volatile metal removal from low rank coal in gasification, combustion, and processing systems and methods

    DOEpatents

    Bland, Alan E.; Sellakumar, Kumar Muthusami; Newcomer, Jesse D.

    2017-03-21

    Efficient coal pre-processing systems (69) integrated with gasification, oxy-combustion, and power plant systems include a drying chamber (28), a volatile metal removal chamber (30), recirculated gases, including recycled carbon dioxide (21), nitrogen (6), and gaseous exhaust (60) for increasing the efficiencies and lowering emissions in various coal processing systems.

  14. Fundamental research on novel process alternatives for coal gasification: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, A H; Knight, R A; Anderson, G L; Feldkirchner, H L; Babu, S P

    1986-10-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology has conducted a fundamental research program to determine the technical feasibility of and to prepare preliminary process evaluations for two new approaches to coal gasification. These two concepts were assessed under two major project tasks: Task 1. CO/sub 2/-Coal Gasification Process Concept; Task 2. Internal Recirculation Catalysts Coal Gasification Process Concept. The first process concept involves CO/sub 2/-O/sub 2/ gasification of coal followed by CO/sub 2/ removal from the hot product gas by a solid MgO-containing sorbent. The sorbent is regenerated by either a thermal- or a pressure-swing step and the CO/sub 2/ released is recycled back to the gasifier. The product is a medium-Btu gas. The second process concept involves the use of novel ''semivolatile'' materials as internal recirculating catalysts for coal gasification. These materials remain in the gasifier because their vapor pressure-temperature behavior is such that they will be in the vapor state at the hotter, char exit part of the reactor and will condense in the colder, coal-inlet part of the reactor. 21 refs., 43 figs., 43 tabs.

  15. Carbon formation and metal dusting in advanced coal gasification processes

    SciTech Connect

    DeVan, J.H.; Tortorelli, P.F.; Judkins, R.R.; Wright, I.G.

    1997-02-01

    The product gases generated by coal gasification systems contain high concentrations of CO and, characteristically, have relatively high carbon activities. Accordingly, carbon deposition and metal dusting can potentially degrade the operation of such gasifier systems. Therefore, the product gas compositions of eight representative gasifier systems were examined with respect to the carbon activity of the gases at temperatures ranging from 480 to 1,090 C. Phase stability calculations indicated that Fe{sub 3}C is stable only under very limited thermodynamic conditions and with certain kinetic assumptions and that FeO and Fe{sub 0.877}S tend to form instead of the carbide. As formation of Fe{sub 3}C is a necessary step in the metal dusting of steels, there are numerous gasifier environments where this type of carbon-related degradation will not occur, particularly under conditions associated with higher oxygen and sulfur activities. These calculations also indicated that the removal of H{sub 2}S by a hot-gas cleanup system may have less effect on the formation of Fe{sub 3}C in air-blown gasifier environments, where the iron oxide phase can exist and is unaffected by the removal of sulfur, than in oxygen-blown systems, where iron sulfide provides the only potential barrier to Fe{sub 3}C formation. Use of carbon- and/or low-alloy steels dictates that the process gas composition be such that Fe{sub 3}C cannot form if the potential for metal dusting is to be eliminated. Alternatively, process modifications could include the reintroduction of hydrogen sulfide, cooling the gas to perhaps as low as 400 C and/or steam injection. If higher-alloy steels are used, a hydrogen sulfide-free gas may be processed without concern about carbon deposition and metal dusting.

  16. Recent developments in coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Schad, M.K.; Hafke, C.F.

    1983-05-01

    This paper reports on how Lurgi, as one of the major engineering companies with extensive experience in coal gasification, has expanded the application of the fixed-bed gasifier. Improvements have been made to the type and size of coal which can be gasified and the quality of gas produced. Lurgi's development efforts are continuous, and are directed not only to search for new process methods but also to reduce the investment, operating and maintenance costs. It is manifested in the achievement of higher specific gasification rates and the layer size of the gasifiers, both of which reduce the complexity of a gasification plant and improve its supervision and controllability.

  17. The Texaco coal gasification process for manufacture of medium BTU gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlinger, W. G.

    1978-01-01

    The development of the Texaco coal gasification process is discussed with particular emphasis on its close relationship to the fully commercialized Texaco synthesis gas generation process for residual oil gasification. The end uses of the product gas are covered, with special attention to electric power generation via combined cycle technology. Control of SO2, NOx, and particulate emissions in the power generating mode is also covered. The application of this technology in a proposed Texaco-Southern California Edison demonstration project is mentioned. Investment information released for a 1000-megawatt advanced combined cycle gasification facility, is also reviewed.

  18. Coal gasification via the Lurgi process: Topical report: Volume 2, Production of IFG (industrial fuel gas)

    SciTech Connect

    Zahnstecher, L.W.

    1984-12-01

    A Lurgi baseline study was requested by the DOE/GRI Operating Committee of the Joint Coal Gasification Program for the purpose of updating the economics of earlier Lurgi coal gasification plant studies for the production of industrial fuel gas (IFG) based on commercially advanced technologies. The current study incorporates the recent experience with large size Lurgi plants in an effort to improve capital and operating costs of earlier plant designs. The present coal gasification study is based upon a plant producing 73.3 billion Btu (HHV) per day of IFG using the Lurgi dry bottom coal gasification technology. A Western subbituminous coal was designated as the plant feed, obtained from the Rosebud seam at Colstrip, Montana. This study presents the detailed description of an integrated facility which utilizes coal, air, and water to produce 73.3 billion Btu (HHV) per day of industrial fuel gas. The plant consists of coal handling and preparation, seven Lurgi dry bottom gasifiers, acid gas removal, sulfur recovery, phenol and ammonia recovery, as well as necessary support facilities. The plant is a grass roots facility located in the area of Minneapolis, Minnesota. The Lurgi Corporation assisted in this study, under subcontract to Foster Wheeler, by supplying the heat and material balances, flow sheets, utilities, catalysts and chemical requirements, and cost data for Lurgi designed process sections. Details of material supplied by Lurgi Corporation are presented in Appendix A. 39 refs., 33 figs., 50 tabs.

  19. Coal gasification and occupational health.

    PubMed

    Young, R J; McKay, W J; Evans, J M

    1978-12-01

    Identification and prevention of health effects due to occupational exposures in coal gasification processes requires a basic knowledge of the technological process by which gasification proceeds. This paper presents an overview of the technology and a rational approach to health hazard identification based upon the concept of the unit operation specific micro environment. A final section is devoted to summarizing current research efforts being carried out under the aegis of the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health.

  20. Hybrid coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, K.

    2007-01-15

    Retrofitting gas, oil and coal-fired boilers can reduce operating costs and meet EPA's Clean Air Interstate Rules (CAIR) when firing most Eastern and Midwest bituminous coals. The trademarked Clean Combustion System (CCS) concept, conceived at Rockwell International, evolved from a confluence of advanced combustion modelling know-how, experience in coal gasification and wet-bottom boiler operation and design. The CCS is a high temperature air-feed entrained flow gasifier that replaces a boiler's existing burners. It fires pulverized coal with some limestone added to provide calcium to capture sulfur and provide a clean hot fuel-rich gas to the boiler furnace. Subsequent over-fire air (OFA) staging completes the combustion. A 'sulfur bearing glass' waste product results from the coal ash and the calcium sulfide. The CCS process prevents formation of NOx from fuel-bound nitrogen. The initial commercialisation of CCS is the update and retrofit an industrial stoker design boiler. Steps for the retrofit are described in the article. 2 figs., 1 photo.

  1. Coal gasification pilot plant support studies. Subtask 1-3. Application of availability analysis in assessing the efficiency of coal gasification processes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    The methodology for availability analysis to assess thermodynamic efficiency in coal gasification processes has been established. The methodology includes the following: procedures for estimating chemical, thermal, and mechanical contributions to enthalpy, entropy, and availability transformations in various steps of coal gasification processes; and definition of parameters for a quantitative assessment of process thermodynamic efficiency. The methodology of availability analysis, including the procedures and definitions (mentioned above), has been used to develop computer programs for assessing the thermodynamic efficiency of coal gasification processes. These programs are written in FORTRAN IV for use in the IGT computer facilities. The data input to these programs include the temperatures, pressures, and flow rates of chemical species entering and leaving the processes or process steps being analyzed. The thermodynamic analyses provided by the computer programs include: verification of material and heat balances; and computation of availability balances and process thermodynamic efficiency parameters. Availability analyses have been conducted for the major process steps in proposed designs of HYGAS and Lurgi processes for producing SNG from Eastern coals. For each design, process steps with potential for improved thermodynamic efficiencies have been identified, and recommendations were made for improving process efficiencies. The proposed HYGAS and Lurgi designs were compared, and differing design features were contrasted and analyzed.

  2. Exergetic analysis of complex multimaterial processes using nuclear coal gasification as an example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pruschek, R.; Boese, F. K.

    1981-10-01

    A comprehensive exergetic analysis is presented for several variants of nuclear coal gasification. The analysis is based on the availability and costs of energy carrier coals and on the rising costs of energy production. In particular, the exergy of chemically reacting materials as well as of mixtures is calculated, and evaluation quotients are computed. Nuclear coal gasification for several gasification possibilities using ligneous and bituminous coals is also examined.

  3. Improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    McKee, D.W.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.

    1984-05-25

    This invention relates to improved catalysts for carbon and coal gasification and improved processes for catalytic coal gasification for the production of methane. The catalyst is composed of at least two alkali metal salts and a particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used. 10 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Coal gasification via the Lurgi process: Topical report: Volume 1, Production of SNG (substitute material gas)

    SciTech Connect

    Zahnstecher, L.W.

    1984-09-01

    A Lurgi baseline study was requested by the DOE/GRI Operating Committee of the Joint Coal Gasification Program for the purpose of updating the economics of earlier Lurgi coal gasification plant studies for the production of substitute natural gas (SNG) based on commercially advanced technologies. The current study incorporates the recent experience with large size Lurgi plants in an effort to improve capital and operating costs of earlier plant designs. The present coal gasification study is based on a mine mouth plant producing 250 billion Btu (HHV) per day of SNG using the Lurgi dry bottom coal gasification technology. A Western subbituminous coal was designated as the plant food, obtained from the Rosebud seam at Colstrip, Montana. This study presents the detailed description of an integrated facility which utilizes coal, air, and water to produce 250 billion Btu (HHV) per day of SNG. The plant consists of coal handling and preparation, twenty-six Lurgi dry bottom gasifiers, shift conversion, acid gas removal, methanation, compression and drying of product gas, sulfur recovery, phenol and ammonia recovery, as well as necessary support facilities. The plant is a grass roots, mine mouth facility located in a Western location similar to the town of Colstrip in Rosebud County, Montana. The Lurgi Corporation assisted in this study, under subcontract to Foster Wheeler, by supplying the heat and material balances, flow sheets, utilities, catalysts and chemical requirements, and cost data for Lurgi designed process sections. Details of material supplied by Lurgi Corporation are presented in Appendix A. 52 refs., 36 figs., 64 tabs.

  5. Coal gasification vessel

    DOEpatents

    Loo, Billy W.

    1982-01-01

    A vessel system (10) comprises an outer shell (14) of carbon fibers held in a binder, a coolant circulation mechanism (16) and control mechanism (42) and an inner shell (46) comprised of a refractory material and is of light weight and capable of withstanding the extreme temperature and pressure environment of, for example, a coal gasification process. The control mechanism (42) can be computer controlled and can be used to monitor and modulate the coolant which is provided through the circulation mechanism (16) for cooling and protecting the carbon fiber and outer shell (14). The control mechanism (42) is also used to locate any isolated hot spots which may occur through the local disintegration of the inner refractory shell (46).

  6. Mild coal gasification: Product separation

    SciTech Connect

    Wallman, P.H.; Singleton, M.F.

    1992-08-04

    Our general objective is to further the development of efficient continuous mild coal gasification processes. The research this year has been focused on product separation problems and particularly the problem of separating entrained ultra-fine particles from the chemically reactive environment of the product gas stream. Specifically, the objective of the present work has been to study candidate barrier filters for application to mild coal gasification processes. Our approach has been to select the most promising existing designs, to develop a design of our own and to test the designs in our bench-scale gasification apparatus. As a first step towards selection of the most promising barrier filter we have determined coking rates on several candidate filter media.

  7. Apparatus for solar coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, D.W.

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials is described. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats onto a tower-mounted secondary mirror which redirects the focused solar radiation down through a window onto the surface of a vertically-moving bed of coal, or a fluidized bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called synthesis gas, which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam at the rear surface of the secondary mirror.

  8. Plasma gasification of coal in different oxidants

    SciTech Connect

    Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B.

    2008-12-15

    Oxidant selection is the highest priority for advanced coal gasification-process development. This paper presents comparative analysis of the Powder River Basin bituminous-coal gasification processes for entrained-flow plasma gasifier. Several oxidants, which might be employed for perspective commercial applications, have been chosen, including air, steam/carbon-dioxide blend, carbon dioxide, steam, steam/air, steam/oxygen, and oxygen. Synthesis gas composition, carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and power efficiency for these processes were determined. The influence of the selected oxidant composition on the gasification-process main characteristics have been investigated.

  9. Underground gasification of coal

    DOEpatents

    Pasini, III, Joseph; Overbey, Jr., William K.; Komar, Charles A.

    1976-01-20

    There is disclosed a method for the gasification of coal in situ which comprises drilling at least one well or borehole from the earth's surface so that the well or borehole enters the coalbed or seam horizontally and intersects the coalbed in a direction normal to its major natural fracture system, initiating burning of the coal with the introduction of a combustion-supporting gas such as air to convert the coal in situ to a heating gas of relatively high calorific value and recovering the gas. In a further embodiment the recovered gas may be used to drive one or more generators for the production of electricity.

  10. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS Process)

    SciTech Connect

    Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.

    1994-10-01

    The overall goal of the project is to develop an advanced, clean coal biogasification (MicGAS) Process. The objectives of the research during FY 1993--94 were to: (1) enhance kinetics of methane production (biogasification, biomethanation) from Texas lignite (TxL) by the Mic-1 consortium isolated and developed at ARCTECH, (2) increase coal solids loading, (3) optimize medium composition, and (4) reduce retention time. A closer analysis of the results described here indicate that biomethanation of TxL at >5% solids loading is feasible through appropriate development of nutrient medium and further adaptation of the microorganisms involved in this process. Further understanding of the inhibitory factors and some biochemical manipulations to overcome those inhibitions will hasten the process considerably. Results are discussed on the following: products of biomethanation and enhance of methane production including: bacterial adaptation; effect of nutrient amendment substitutes; effects of solids loading; effect of initial pH of the culture medium; effect of hydrogen donors and carbon balance.

  11. Synthesis gas production with an adjustable H{sub 2}/CO ratio through the coal gasification process: effects of coal ranks and methane addition

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Cao; Zhengyang Gao; Jing Jin; Hongchang Zhou; Marten Cohron; Houying Zhao; Hongying Liu; Weiping Pan

    2008-05-15

    Direct production of synthesis gas using coal as a cheap feedstock is attractive but challenging due to its low H{sub 2}/CO ratio of generated synthesis gas. Three typical U.S. coals of different ranks were tested in a 2.5 in. coal gasifier to investigate their gasification reactivity and adjustability on H{sub 2}/CO ratio of generated synthesis gas with or without the addition of methane. Tests indicated that lower-rank coals (lignite and sub-bituminous) have higher gasification reactivity than bituminous coals. The coal gasification reactivity is correlated to its synthesis-gas yield and the total percentage of H{sub 2} and CO in the synthesis gas, but not to the H{sub 2}/CO ratio. The H{sub 2}/CO ratio of coal gasification was found to be correlated to the rank of coals, especially the H/C ratio of coals. Methane addition into the dense phase of the pyrolysis and gasification zone of the cogasification reactor could make the best use of methane in adjusting the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of the generated synthesis gas. The maximum methane conversion efficiency, which was likely correlated to its gasification reactivity, could be achieved by 70% on average for all tested coals. The actual catalytic effect of generated coal chars on methane conversion seemed coal-dependent. The coal-gasification process benefits from methane addition and subsequent conversion on the adjustment of the H{sub 2}/CO ratio of synthesis gas. The methane conversion process benefits from the use of coal chars due to their catalytic effects. This implies that there were likely synergistic effects on both. 25 refs., 3 figs., 3

  12. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit. Phase 1. Volume 2. Commercial plant study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kohl, Arthur L.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a test program conducted on the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process, which included the design, construction, and operation of a Process Development Unit (PDU). This process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air in a turbulent pool of molten sodium carbonate. Sulfur and ash are retained in the melt, and a small stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of the salt. The process can handle a wide variety of feed materials, including highly caking coals, and produces a gas relatively free from tars and other impurities. The gasification step is carried out at approximately 1800/sup 0/F. The PDU was designed to process 1 ton per hour of coal at pressures up to 20 atm. It is a completely integrated facility including systems for feeding solids to the gasifier, regenerating sodium carbonate for reuse, and removing sulfur and ash in forms suitable for disposal. Five extended test runs were made. The observed product gas composition was quite close to that predicted on the basis of earlier small-scale tests and thermodynamic considerations. All plant systems were operated in an integrated manner. Test data and discussions regarding plant equipment and process performance are presented. The program also included a commercial plant study which showed the process to be attractive for use in a combined cycle, electric power plant. The report is presented in two volumes, Volume 1, PDU Operations, and Volume 2, Commercial Plant Study.

  13. PNNL Coal Gasification Research

    SciTech Connect

    Reid, Douglas J.; Cabe, James E.; Bearden, Mark D.

    2010-07-28

    This report explains the goals of PNNL in relation to coal gasification research. The long-term intent of this effort is to produce a syngas product for use by internal Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) researchers in materials, catalysts, and instrumentation development. Future work on the project will focus on improving the reliability and performance of the gasifier, with a goal of continuous operation for 4 hours using coal feedstock. In addition, system modifications to increase operational flexibility and reliability or accommodate other fuel sources that can be used for syngas production could be useful.

  14. Bi-flow rotary kiln coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Garside, P.G.

    1983-02-22

    A process is disclosed for gasifying solid coal particles in a rotary kiln that produces simultaneously and continuously two distinctly different fuel gas streams from the opposite ends of a single kiln. A relatively low temperature gas is discharged from the solids inlet end of the kiln, which contains substantially all tars produced by the process. A second of the gas streams is discharged from the solids discharge end of the kiln at approximately 1,900* F. And substantially tar-free. Heat is recovered from this tar-free gas after only a simple cleaning of particulate matter, as may be provided by a cyclone separator. The discharge of gas out the solids inlet end of the kiln and the gas discharged out the solids discharge end of the kiln, is adjustably proportioned relative to each other so that at least some high temperature tar-free gas will mix inside the kiln with the lower temperature tar-containing gas, in an amount sufficient to keep such mixed gases at a temperature high enough to avoid the tars condensing on equipment surfaces. Several process parameters are disclosed for adjusting the proportion of the gas flows out each end of the kiln to maintain the aforesaid condition of both gas streams.

  15. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS) process

    SciTech Connect

    Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.; Barik, S.

    1992-11-01

    Biomethanation of coal is a phenomenon carried out in concert by a mixed population (consortium) of at least three different groups of anaerobic bacteria and can be considered analogous to that of anaerobic digestion of municipal waste. The exception, however, is that unlike municipal waste; coal is a much complex and difficult substrate to degrade. This project was focused on studying the types of microorganisms involved in coal degradation, rates of methane production, developing a cost-effective synthetic culture medium for these microbial consortia and determining the rate of methane production in bench scale bioreactors.

  16. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS) process

    SciTech Connect

    Walia, D.S.; Srivastava, K.C.; Barik, S.

    1992-01-01

    Biomethanation of coal is a phenomenon carried out in concert by a mixed population (consortium) of at least three different groups of anaerobic bacteria and can be considered analogous to that of anaerobic digestion of municipal waste. The exception, however, is that unlike municipal waste; coal is a much complex and difficult substrate to degrade. This project was focused on studying the types of microorganisms involved in coal degradation, rates of methane production, developing a cost-effective synthetic culture medium for these microbial consortia and determining the rate of methane production in bench scale bioreactors.

  17. Investigation of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Matveev, I.B.; Messerle, V.E.; Ustimenko, A.B.

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents thermodynamic and kinetic modeling of plasma-aided bituminous coal gasification. Distributions of concentrations, temperatures, and velocities of the gasification products along the gasifier are calculated. Carbon gasification degree, specific power consumptions, and heat engineering characteristics of synthesis gas at the outlet of the gasifier are determined at plasma air/steam and oxygen/steam gasification of Powder River Basin bituminous coal. Numerical simulation showed that the plasma oxygen/steam gasification of coal is a more preferable process in comparison with the plasma air/steam coal gasification. On the numerical experiments, a plasma vortex fuel reformer is designed.

  18. Conceptual designs and assessments of a coal gasification demonstration plant. Volume III. Texaco process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    This volume contains detailed information on the conceptual design and assessment of the facility required to process approximately 20,000 tons per day of coal to produce medium Btu gas using the Texaco gasification process. The report includes process descriptions, flow diagrams and equipment lists for the various subsystems associated with the gasifiers along with descriptions of the overall facility. The facility is analyzed from both an economic and environmental standpoint. Problems of construction are addressed together with an overall design and construction schedule for the total facility. Resource requirements are summarized along with suggested development areas, both process and environmental.

  19. Conceptual designs and assessments of a coal gasification demonstration plant. Volume II. Koppers-Totzek process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    This volume of the report contains detailed information on the conceptual design and assessment of the facility required to process approximately 20,000 tons per day of coal to produce medium Btu gas using the Koppers-Totzek gasification process. The report includes process descriptions, flow diagrams and equipment lists for the various subsystems associated with the gasifiers along with descriptions of the overall facility. The facility is analyzed from both an economic and environmental standpoint. Problems of construction are addressed together with an overall design and construction schedule for the total facility. Resource requirements are summarized along with suggested development areas, both process and environmental.

  20. Conceptual designs and assessments of a coal gasification demonstration plant. Volume IV. Babcock and Wilcox process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    This volume of the report contains detailed information on the conceptual design and assessment of the facility required to process approximately 20,000 tons per day of coal to produce medium Btu gas using the Babcock and Wilcox gasification process. The report includes process descriptions, flow diagrams and equipment lists for the various subsystems associated with the gasifiers along with descriptions of the overall facility. The facility is analyzed from both an economic and environmental standpoint. Problems of construction are addressed together with an overall design and construction schedule for the total facility. Resource requirements are summarized along with suggested development areas, both process and environmental.

  1. Coal Gasification Processes for Retrofitting Military Central Heating Plants: Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-01

    saturation temp. TE-185 T/C (Type K) Coal bin temperature FE-190 Dieterich-Standard Annubar air flow into gasifier DPT-190 Validyne P 132 Delta P across... annubar FE-191 Dieterich-Standard Annubar Producer gas flow DPTI91 Validyne P 132 Delta P across annubar FE-192 Hersey Water flow into jacket DPT-194

  2. Instrumentation and process control development for in situ coal gasification. Quarterly report, December 1979-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, R.E.

    1980-06-01

    The analysis of data for the Hanna IV and Hoe Creek in situ coal gasification tests raised questions concerning the fundamental controlling mechanisms of the process. The two main areas of concern are: (1) the air flow patterns; and (2) the initial cavity growth. Sandia National Laboratories is addressing these concerns by developing models of these processes. Results to date are in qualitative agreement with known phenomena. There have also been developments in data handling capability. These include improved data presentation ability and development of routine storage, access and back up methods.

  3. Applied research and evaluation of process concepts for liquefaction and gasification of western coals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, W. H.

    1980-09-01

    Fourteen sections, including five subsections, of the final report covering work done between June 1, 1975 to July 31, 1980 on research programs in coal gasification and liquefaction have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  4. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit. Phase 1. Volume 1. PDU operations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kohl, A.L.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a test program conducted on the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process, which included the design, construction, and operation of a Process Development Unit. In this process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air in a turbulent pool of molten sodium carbonate. Sulfur and ash are retained in the melt, and a small stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of sodium carbonate, removal of sulfur, and disposal of the ash. The process can handle a wide variety of feed materials, including highly caking coals, and produces a gas relatively free from tars and other impurities. The gasification step is carried out at approximately 1800/sup 0/F. The PDU was designed to process 1 ton per hour of coal at pressures up to 20 atm. It is a completely integrated facility including systems for feeding solids to the gasifier, regenerating sodium carbonate for reuse, and removing sulfur and ash in forms suitable for disposal. Five extended test runs were made. The observed product gas composition was quite close to that predicted on the basis of earlier small-scale tests and thermodynamic considerations. All plant systems were operated in an integrated manner during one of the runs. The principal problem encountered during the five test runs was maintaining a continuous flow of melt from the gasifier to the quench tank. Test data and discussions regarding plant equipment and process performance are presented. The program also included a commercial plant study which showed the process to be attractive for use in a combined-cycle, electric power plant. The report is presented in two volumes, Volume 1, PDU Operations, and Volume 2, Commercial Plant Study.

  5. Toxicologic studies of emissions from coal gasification process. I. Subchronic feeding studies.

    PubMed

    Kostial, K; Kello, D; Blanusa, M; Maljković, T; Rabar, I; Bunarević, A; Stara, J F

    1980-09-01

    The increasing use of new sources of energy may result in additional contamination of the human environment with inorganic and organic pollutants which are not yet adequately investigated with regard to their potential impact on human health. However, some evidence exists that several trace inorganic and organic contaminants found in coal processing residues may constitute potential health problems. Therefore, the comparative biological hazards of solid wastes and effluents from a Lurgi coal gasification plant were initially evaluated using acute and chronic feeding experiments in male and female rats. In the subchronic experiment, six-week old animals were fed diets wih various levels of ash (slag) additive (0.5%, 1%, and 5%) for period of 16 weeks. Following exposure, blood samples were taken and 22-hour urine samples were collected. Livers and kidneys, and testicles in males, were taken for trace element analysis or histologic examination. The urinary values, erythrocyte and leucocyte count, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, and concentration of trace elements in exposed animals were determined. The addition of ash (slag) to the diet in concentrations much higher than expected in conditions of environmental contamination had no measurable health effects. Although these initial results obtained in relatively short-term experiments cannot be directly extrapolated to human health effects, particularly not for carcinogenic assessment, there is an indication that exposure to solid wastes from the coal gasification plant may not be toxic.

  6. Underground Coal Gasification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Thorsness, C. B.; Britten, J. A.

    1994-12-01

    CAVSIM is a three-dimensional, axisymmetric model for resource recovery and cavity growth during underground coal gasification (UCG). CAVSIM is capable of following the evolution of the cavity from near startup to exhaustion, and couples explicitly wall and roof surface growth to material and energy balances in the underlying rubble zones. Growth mechanisms are allowed to change smoothly as the system evolves from a small, relatively empty cavity low in the coal seam to a large, almost completely rubble-filled cavity extending high into the overburden rock. The model is applicable to nonswelling coals of arbitrary seam thickness and can handle a variety of gas injection flow schedules or compositions. Water influx from the coal aquifer is calculated by a gravity drainage-permeation submodel which is integrated into the general solution. The cavity is considered to consist of up to three distinct rubble zones and a void space at the top. Resistance to gas flow injected from a stationary source at the cavity floor is assumed to be concentrated in the ash pile, which builds up around the source, and also the overburden rubble which accumulates on top of this ash once overburden rock is exposed at the cavity top. Char rubble zones at the cavity side and edges are assumed to be highly permeable. Flow of injected gas through the ash to char rubble piles and the void space is coupled by material and energy balances to cavity growth at the rubble/coal, void/coal and void/rock interfaces. One preprocessor and two postprocessor programs are included - SPALL calculates one-dimensional mean spalling rates of coal or rock surfaces exposed to high temperatures and generates CAVSIM input: TAB reads CAVSIM binary output files and generates ASCII tables of selected data for display; and PLOT produces dot matrix printer or HP printer plots from TAB output.

  7. Process description of the WyCoalGas gasification project. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Skinner, F.D.; Meserole, N.P.

    1986-01-01

    The WyCoalGas project involved the design, construction, and operation of a surface mine and coal-gasification plant (based on the use of Lurgi and Texaco gasification) to produce 300 million scfd of substitute natural gas from Wyoming subbituminous coal. The original plant design was later reduced to half this size, with some plant systems having the full-scale capacity due to sparing. The project was eventually terminated. However, much of the design and permitting work had been done, and these results, although incomplete, were published. The document gives the available information and data on the WyCoalGas plant with emphasis on environmental and health aspects. The presentation, which is the third in a series of documents, is arranged for ease of comparison of the plant configurations of and EHandS data from other coal-gasification plants included in the study.

  8. Brazing as a Means of Sealing Ceramic Membranes for Use in Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Hardy, John S.; Rice, Joseph P.; Kim, Jin Yong

    2006-01-31

    Coal is a potentially a very inexpensive source of clean hydrogen fuel for use in fuel cells, turbines, and various process applications. To realize its potential however, efficient, low-cost gas separation systems are needed to provide high purity oxygen to enhance the coal gasification reaction and to extract hydrogen from the resulting gas product stream. Several types of inorganic membranes are being developed for hydrogen or oxygen separation, including porous alumina, transition metal oxide perovskites, and zirconia. One of the key challenges in developing solid-state membrane based gas separation systems is in hermetically joining the membrane to the metallic body of the separation device. In an effort to begin addressing this issue, a new brazing concept has been developed, referred to as reactive air brazing. This paper discusses the details of this joining technique and illustrates its use in bonding a wide variety of materials, including alumina, lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite, and yttria stabilized zirconia.

  9. Brazing as a Means of Sealing Ceramic Membranes for use in Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Hardy, John S.; Rice, Joseph P.; Kim, Jin Yong Y.

    2006-01-02

    Coal is potentially a very inexpensive source of clean hydrogen fuel for use in fuel cells, turbines, and various process applications. To realize its potential however, efficient, low-cost gas separation systems are needed to provide high purity oxygen to enhance the coal gasification reaction and to extract hydrogen from the resulting gas product stream. Several types of inorganic membranes are being developed for hydrogen or oxygen separation, including porous alumina, transition metal oxide perovskites, and zirconia. One of the key challenges in developing solid-state membrane based gas separation systems is in hermetically joining the membrane to the metallic body of the separation device. In an effort to begin addressing this issue, a new brazing concept has been developed, referred to as reactive air brazing. This paper discusses the details of this joining technique and illustrates its use in bonding a wide variety of materials, including alumina, lanthanum strontium cobalt ferrite, and yttria stabilized zirconia.

  10. State of the art of biological processes for coal gasification wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Liu, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of coal gasification wastewater (CGW) poses a serious challenge on the sustainable development of the global coal industry. The CGW contains a broad spectrum of high-strength recalcitrant substances, including phenolic, monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, heterocyclic nitrogenous compounds and long chain aliphatic hydrocarbon. So far, biological treatment of CGW has been considered as an environment-friendly and cost-effective method compared to physiochemical approaches. Thus, this reviews aims to provide a comprehensive picture of state of the art of biological processes for treating CGW wastewater, while the possible biodegradation mechanisms of toxic and refractory organic substances were also elaborated together with microbial community involved. Discussion was further extended to advanced bioprocesses to tackle high-concentration ammonia and possible options towards in-plant zero liquid discharge.

  11. Isolation of a highly mutagenic aminophenanthrene from a coal gasification process tar.

    PubMed

    Haugen, D A; Stamoudis, V C; Peak, M J; Boparai, A S

    1986-02-01

    A major portion of the mutagenic activity associated with products and by-products of coal conversion can be ascribed to nitrogen-containing bases. We improved the extraction efficiencies for three- to five-ring aromatic bases by extracting them with a mixture of methanol and aqueous HCl, rather than with aqueous HCl alone. A complex mutagenic basic fraction of a coal gasification process tar was successively fractionated using cation exchange and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The fractions were assayed for mutagenic activity and were chemically analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Aminophenanthrenes were identified as major contributors to the mutagenicity of the basic fraction. Aminonaphthalenes, aminobiphenyls, and their alkyl homologs were also present but were not detected as principal mutagens.

  12. Toxicity studies of underground coal gasification and tarsands processes. Progress report, February 1, 1982-January 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    Process waters were obtained from trial coal gasification experiments at Hanna, Wyoming and Vernal, Utah. Samples were assayed for toxicity using the Ames test and the Paramecium bioassay. Results indicate that both the Paramecium and Ames bioassays show sporadic genotoxic response to the process waters. (DMC)

  13. WABASH RIVER COAL GASIFICATION REPOWERING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-09-01

    The close of 1999 marked the completion of the Demonstration Period of the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project. This Final Report summarizes the engineering and construction phases and details the learning experiences from the first four years of commercial operation that made up the Demonstration Period under Department of Energy (DOE) Cooperative Agreement DE-FC21-92MC29310. This 262 MWe project is a joint venture of Global Energy Inc. (Global acquired Destec Energy's gasification assets from Dynegy in 1999) and PSI Energy, a part of Cinergy Corp. The Joint Venture was formed to participate in the Department of Energy's Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program and to demonstrate coal gasification repowering of an existing generating unit impacted by the Clean Air Act Amendments. The participants jointly developed, separately designed, constructed, own, and are now operating an integrated coal gasification combined-cycle power plant, using Global Energy's E-Gas{trademark} technology (E-Gas{trademark} is the name given to the former Destec technology developed by Dow, Destec, and Dynegy). The E-Gas{trademark} process is integrated with a new General Electric 7FA combustion turbine generator and a heat recovery steam generator in the repowering of a 1950's-vintage Westinghouse steam turbine generator using some pre-existing coal handling facilities, interconnections, and other auxiliaries. The gasification facility utilizes local high sulfur coals (up to 5.9% sulfur) and produces synthetic gas (syngas), sulfur and slag by-products. The Project has the distinction of being the largest single train coal gasification combined-cycle plant in the Western Hemisphere and is the cleanest coal-fired plant of any type in the world. The Project was the first of the CCT integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) projects to achieve commercial operation.

  14. Apparatus for solar coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, D.W.

    1980-08-04

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials is described. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats through a window onto the surface of a moving bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called synthesis gas, which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam in one embodiment at the rear surface of a secondary mirror used to redirect the focused sunlight. Another novel feature of the invention is the location and arrangement of the array of mirrors on an inclined surface (e.g., a hillside) to provide for direct optical communication of said mirrors and the carbonaceous feed without a secondary redirecting mirror.

  15. Fluidized-bed catalytic coal-gasification process. [US patent; pretreatment to minimize agglomeration

    DOEpatents

    Euker, C.A. Jr.; Wesselhoft, R.D.; Dunkleman, J.J.; Aquino, D.C.; Gouker, T.R.

    1981-09-14

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids impregnated with gasification catalyst constituents are oxidized by contact with a gas containing between 2 vol % and 21 vol % oxygen at a temperature between 50 and 250/sup 0/C in an oxidation zone and the resultant oxidized, catalyst impregnated solids are then gasified in a fluidized bed gasification zone at an elevated pressure. The oxidation of the catalyst impregnated solids under these conditions insures that the bed density in the fluidized bed gasification zone will be relatively high even though the solids are gasified at elevated pressure and temperature.

  16. Proceedings of the fifth advanced coal gasification symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Flowers, A.; Alpert, S.; Beck, B.; Chen, C.; Dalrymple, D.; Gummel, P.; Henley, J.; Hileman, E.; Holmgren, J.; Lau, F.

    1987-01-01

    The Fifth Advanced Coal Gasification Symposium, held in Taiyuan, Shanxi, China in September 1987, was sponsored by the Shanxi Provincial Government, Shanxi Science and Technology Association, Shanxi Energy Research Association, and the Taiyuan Coal Gasification Corporation. Opening and closing speeches, summaries of the technical sessions, and lists of delegates are included. Thirteen papers presented by the international delegation of specialists discuss current coal gasification processes and research and development activities. Papers have been indexed separately.

  17. An overview of world history of underground coal gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovšek, Damjan; Nadvežnik, Jakob; Medved, Milan

    2017-07-01

    We will give an overview of the activities in the field of underground coal gasification in the world through history. Also we will have a detailed presentation of the most successful and the most recent research and development projects. The currency and scope of the study of coal gasification processes are linked through recent history to the price of crude oil. We will show how by changing oil prices always changes the interest for investment in research in the field of coal gasification. Most coal-producing countries have developed comprehensive programs that include a variety of studies of suitable coal fields, to assess the feasibility and design pilot and commercial projects of underground coal gasification. The latest technologies of drilling in oil and gas industry now enable easier, simpler and more economically viable process underground coal gasification. The trend of increasing research in this area will continue forward until the implementation of commercial projects.

  18. Beluga Coal Gasification - ISER

    SciTech Connect

    Steve Colt

    2008-12-31

    ISER was requested to conduct an economic analysis of a possible 'Cook Inlet Syngas Pipeline'. The economic analysis was incorporated as section 7.4 of the larger report titled: 'Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study, DOE/NETL-2006/1248, Phase 2 Final Report, October 2006, for Subtask 41817.333.01.01'. The pipeline would carry CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}-H{sub 2} from a synthetic gas plant on the western side of Cook Inlet to Agrium's facility. The economic analysis determined that the net present value of the total capital and operating lifecycle costs for the pipeline ranges from $318 to $588 million. The greatest contributor to this spread is the cost of electricity, which ranges from $0.05 to $0.10/kWh in this analysis. The financial analysis shows that the delivery cost of gas may range from $0.33 to $0.55/Mcf in the first year depending primarily on the price for electricity.

  19. Solar coal gasification - Plant design and economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiman, W. R.; Thorsness, C. B.; Gregg, D. W.

    A plant design and economic analysis is presented for solar coal gasification (SCG). Coal pyrolysis and char gasification to form the gasified product are reviewed, noting that the endothermic gasification reactions occur only at temperatures exceeding 1000 K, an energy input of 101-136 kJ/mol of char reformed. Use of solar heat offers the possibility of replacing fuels needed to perform the gasification and the oxygen necessary in order to produce a nitrogen-free product. Reactions, energetics, and byproducts from the gasification of subbituminous coal are modeled for a process analysis code used for the SCG plant. Gas generation is designed to occur in a unit exposed to the solar flux focus from a heliostat field. The SCG gas would have an H2 content of 88%, compared to the 55% offered by the Lurgi process. Initial capital costs for the SCG plant are projected to be 4 times those with the Lurgi process, with equality being achieved when coal costs $4/gJ.

  20. Coal gasification: New challenge for the Beaumont rotary feeder

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stelian, J.

    1977-01-01

    The use of rotary feeders in the coal gasification process is described with emphasis on the efficient conversion of coal to clean gaseous fuels. Commercial applications of the rotary feeder system are summarized.

  1. Continuous Removal of Coal-Gasification Residue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, Earl R., Jr.; Suitor, J.; Dubis, D.

    1986-01-01

    Continuous-flow hopper processes solid residue from coal gasification, converting it from ashes, cinders, and clinkers to particles size of sand granules. Unit does not require repeated depressurization of lockhopper to admit and release materials. Therefore consumes less energy. Because unit has no airlock valves opened and closed repeatedly on hot, abrasive particles, subjected to lesser wear. Coal-gasification residue flows slowly through pressure-letdown device. Material enters and leaves continuously. Cleanout door on each pressure-letdown chamber allows access for maintenance and emergencies.

  2. Phase-equilibria for design of coal-gasification processes: dew points of hot gases containing condensible tars. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Prausnitz, J.M.

    1980-05-01

    This research is concerned with the fundamental physical chemistry and thermodynamics of condensation of tars (dew points) from the vapor phase at advanced temperatures and pressures. Fundamental quantitative understanding of dew points is important for rational design of heat exchangers to recover sensible heat from hot, tar-containing gases that are produced in coal gasification. This report includes essentially six contributions toward establishing the desired understanding: (1) Characterization of Coal Tars for Dew-Point Calculations; (2) Fugacity Coefficients for Dew-Point Calculations in Coal-Gasification Process Design; (3) Vapor Pressures of High-Molecular-Weight Hydrocarbons; (4) Estimation of Vapor Pressures of High-Boiling Fractions in Liquefied Fossil Fuels Containing Heteroatoms Nitrogen or Sulfur; and (5) Vapor Pressures of Heavy Liquid Hydrocarbons by a Group-Contribution Method.

  3. Engineering support services for the DOE/GRI coal-gasification research program. Technical and economic assessment of the Westinghouse fluidized-bed coal gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Bostwick, L.E.; Hubbard, D.A.; Laramore, R.W.; Ethridge, T.R.

    1981-04-01

    Kellogg was requested by DOE/GRI to perform a technical and economic assessment of the Westinghouse fluidized bed coal gasification process as applied to production of SNG equivalent to 250 billion BTU/day from Pittsburgh No. 8 coal. Based on operating experiences in the PDU, where most of the key variables have been demonstrated during 5+ years of testing, Westinghouse provided process data for the gasifier area. Kellogg selected the overall processing sequence and established design bases for the balance of the plant. This work was subsequent to a previous (1979) screening evaluation of Westinghouse by Kellogg: comparison of the two designs reveals the following: The 1980 gasifier design basis, while more detailed, is almost identical to that of 1979. The gas treatment and sulfur recovery schemes were significantly changed: Combined shift/methanation was substituted for stand-alone reaction units; independent Selexol units for removal of H/sub 2/S and CO/sub 2/ replaced a non-selective Benfield unit; and a Claus-SCOT combination replaced Stretford units and significantly improved the flue gas desulfurization. Key results of the current efforts are compared with those of the screening evaluation. The reductions in efficiencies in the new calculations are attributed to a more realistic evaluation of plant energy requirements and to lack of optimization of individual plant section designs. The economic data indicate that a noteworthy reduction in gas cost was accomplished by a reduction in the capital cost of the plant, such that Kellogg concludes, as previously for the screening evaluation, that the Westinghouse process appears to be superior to existing processes (i.e., Lurgi) and at least competitive with other processes evaluated under the DOE/GRI joint program.

  4. Program for large-scale underground-coal-gasification tests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammesfahr, F. W.; Winter, P. L.

    1982-11-01

    The continuing development of underground coal gasification technology requires extended multi-module field programs in which the output gas is linked to surface usage. An effort was to appraise whether existing surface facilities in the utility, petroleum refinery, or natural gas industries could be used to reduce the cost of such an extended multi-module test and whether regional demand in areas having underground coal gasification coal resources could support the manufacture of transportation fuels from underground coal gasification gases. To limit the effort to a reasonable level but yet to permit a fair test of the concept, effort was focused on five states, Illinois, New Mexico, Texas, Washington, and Wyoming, which have good underground coal gasification reserves. Studies of plant distribution located 25 potential sites within 3 miles of the underground coal gasification amenable reserves in the five states. Distribution was 44% to utilities, 44% to refineries, and 12% to gas processing facilities.

  5. Chemical process modelling of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) and evaluation of produced gas quality for end use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korre, Anna; Andrianopoulos, Nondas; Durucan, Sevket

    2015-04-01

    Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is an unconventional method for recovering energy from coal resources through in-situ thermo-chemical conversion to gas. In the core of the UCG lays the coal gasification process which involves the engineered injection of a blend of gasification agents into the coal resource and propagating its gasification. Athough UCG technology has been known for some time and considered a promising method for unconventional fossil fuel resources exploitation, there are limited modelling studies which achieve the necessary accuracy and realistic simulation of the processes involved. This paper uses the existing knowledge for surface gasifiers and investigates process designs which could be adapted to model UCG. Steady state simulations of syngas production were developed using the Advanced System for Process ENgineering (Aspen) Plus software. The Gibbs free energy minimisation method was used to simulate the different chemical reactor blocks which were combined using a FORTRAN code written. This approach facilitated the realistic simulation of the gasification process. A number of model configurations were developed to simulate different subsurface gasifier layouts considered for the exploitation of underground coal seams. The two gasifier layouts considered here are the linked vertical boreholes and the controlled retractable injection point (CRIP) methods. Different stages of the UCG process (i.e. initialisation, intermediate, end-phase) as well as the temperature level of the syngas collection point in each layout were found to be the two most decisive and distinctive parameters during the design of the optimal model configuration for each layout. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to investigate the significance of the operational parameters and the performance indicators used to evaluate the results. The operational parameters considered were the type of reagents injected (i.e. O2, N2, CO2, H2O), the ratio between the injected reagents

  6. Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu-qin; Liu, Jun-hua; Yu, Li

    2002-04-01

    Environmental benefits of underground coal gasification are evaluated. The results showed that through underground coal gasification, gangue discharge is eliminated, sulfur emission is reduced, and the amount of ash, mercury, and tar discharge are decreased. Moreover, effect of underground gasification on underground water is analyzed and CO2 disposal method is put forward.

  7. Apparatus and method for solar coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, David W.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus for using focused solar radiation to gasify coal and other carbonaceous materials. Incident solar radiation is focused from an array of heliostats onto a tower-mounted secondary mirror which redirects the focused solar radiation down through a window onto the surface of a vertically-moving bed of coal, or a fluidized bed of coal, contained within a gasification reactor. The reactor is designed to minimize contact between the window and solids in the reactor. Steam introduced into the gasification reactor reacts with the heated coal to produce gas consisting mainly of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, commonly called "synthesis gas", which can be converted to methane, methanol, gasoline, and other useful products. One of the novel features of the invention is the generation of process steam at the rear surface of the secondary mirror.

  8. Coal gasification for power generation. 2nd ed.

    SciTech Connect

    2006-10-15

    The report gives an overview of the opportunities for coal gasification in the power generation industry. It provides a concise look at the challenges faced by coal-fired generation, the ability of coal gasification to address these challenges, and the current state of IGCC power generation. Topics covered in the report include: An overview of coal generation including its history, the current market environment, and the status of coal gasification; A description of gasification technology including processes and systems; An analysis of the key business factors that are driving increased interest in coal gasification; An analysis of the barriers that are hindering the implementation of coal gasification projects; A discussion of Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) technology; An evaluation of IGCC versus other generation technologies; A discussion of IGCC project development options; A discussion of the key government initiatives supporting IGCC development; Profiles of the key gasification technology companies participating in the IGCC market; and A description of existing and planned coal IGCC projects.

  9. Coal gasification using solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, V. K.; Breault, R. W.; Lakshmanan, S.

    1983-01-01

    An economic evaluation of conventional and solar thermal coal gasification processes is presented, together with laboratory bench scale tests of a solar carbonization unit. The solar design consists of a heliostat field, a central tower receiver, a gasifier, and a recirculation loop. The synthetic gas is produced in the gasifier, with part of the gas upgraded to CH4 and another redirected through the receiver with steam to form CO and H2. Carbonaceous fuels are burned whenever sunlight is not available. Comparisons are made for costs of Lurgi, Bi-gas, Hygas, CO2 Acceptor, and Peat Gas processes and hybrid units for each. Solar thermal systems are projected to become economical with 350 MWt output and production of 1,420,000 cu m of gas per day. The laboratory bench scale unit was tested with Montana rosebud coal to derive a heat balance assessment and analyse the product gas. Successful heat transfer through a carrier gas was demonstrated, with most of the energy being stored in the product gas.

  10. Coal to electricity - Integrated gasification combined cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corman, J. C.

    1982-04-01

    An advanced energy conversion system - the integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) - has been identified as an efficient and economical means of converting coal to electricity for utility application. Several demonstration projects on a near-commercial scale are approaching the construction stage. A coal conversion facility has been constructed to simulate the operational features of an IGCC. This process evaluation facility (PEF-scale) performs a dual function: (1) acquiring and processing data on the performance of the individual components - coal gasifier, gas clean up, and turbine simulator - that comprise the IGCC concept and (2) simulating the total system in an operational control mode that permits evaluation of system response to imposed load variations characteristic of utility operation. The results to date indicate that an efficient, economical IGCC can be designed so that the gasification/gas clean up plant and the power generation system operate compatibly to meet utility requirements in an environmentally acceptable manner.

  11. Process modelling and simulation of underground coal gasification: A Review of work done at IIT Bombay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Surabhi; Mahajani, Sanjay M.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the summary of the work performed over the last decade, at IIT Bombay by the UCG group. The overall objective is to determine the feasibility of a given coal for underground coal gasification and then determine the capacity of a single pair of well through modelling and simulation. It would help one to design a UCG facility for the desired rate of gas production. The simulator developed in this study seeks inputs on four important aspects: Kinetics of all the reactions under the conditions of interest, heat and mass transfer limitations, if any, the flow patterns inside the cavity and lastly the thermo-mechanical failure of the coal. Each of them requires detailed studies in laboratory. Indian Lignite from one of the reserves was chosen as a case study.

  12. Two stage coal gasification plant

    SciTech Connect

    Shoebotham, N.M.

    1984-06-26

    This invention relates to a two stage coal gasification plant which comprises a gasifier 1 and a predistillation retort 2. The gasifier has a plurality of gas extraction outlets 4 located in the periphery thereof which feed into a manifold 5 from where a percentage of the gas from the gasifier is extracted. Gas from the predistillation retort is extracted through an outlet near the top of the retort. An agitator 8 is provided for agitation of the coal in the agglomeration zone. The agitator is preferably automatically controlled by means of a temperature sensing device 10 located on an arm thereof.

  13. Environmental effects of in situ coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Humenick, M.J.; Edgar, T.F.; Charbeneau, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    An assessment of avialable engineering, geological and operating data on underground coal gasification indicates that this process can cause significant air and water pollution and land subsidence. Of the possible impacts, groundwater pollution is the most serious. Modeling studies and large-scale field tests are needed to determine the long-term fate of pollutants and the degree of restoration required before UCG can become a commercial process.

  14. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, July-September 1979

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-01

    The status of 18 coal gasification pilot plants or supporting projects supported by US DOE is reviewed under the following headings: company involved, location, contract number, funding, gasification process, history, process description, flowsheet and progress in the July-September 1979 quarter. (LTN)

  15. ENCOAL mild coal gasification project. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    This document is the combination of the fourth quarter report (July--September 1993) and the 1993 annual report for the ENCOAL project. The following pages include the background and process description for the project, brief summaries of the accomplishments for the first three quarters, and a detailed fourth quarter report. Its purpose is to convey the accomplishments and current progress of the project. ENCOAL Corporation, has completed the construction of a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by SMC and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). ENCOAL submitted an application to the US Department of Energy (DOE) in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the Clean Coal Technology Program. The project was selected by DOE in December, 1989 and the Cooperative Agreement approved in September, 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL mild coal gasification facility was completed in June of 1992, and the project is currently in the operations phase. Some plant modifications have been required and are discussed in this report.

  16. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel heterogeneous Fenton oxidation process.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Haifeng; Han, Hongjun; Ma, Wencheng; Hou, Baolin; Jia, Shengyong; Zhao, Qian

    2015-07-01

    Sewage sludge from a biological wastewater treatment plant was converted into sewage sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) with ZnCl2 as activation agent, which was used as a support for ferric oxides to form a catalyst (FeOx/SBAC) by a simple impregnation method. The new material was then used to improve the performance of Fenton oxidation of real biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated that the prepared FeOx/SBAC significantly enhanced the pollutant removal performance in the Fenton process, so that the treated wastewater was more biodegradable and less toxic. The best performance was obtained over a wide pH range from 2 to 7, temperature 30°C, 15 mg/L of H2O2 and 1g/L of catalyst, and the treated effluent concentrations of COD, total phenols, BOD5 and TOC all met the discharge limits in China. Meanwhile, on the basis of significant inhibition by a radical scavenger in the heterogeneous Fenton process as well as the evolution of FT-IR spectra of pollutant-saturated FeOx/BAC with and without H2O2, it was deduced that the catalytic activity was responsible for generating hydroxyl radicals, and a possible reaction pathway and interface mechanism were proposed. Moreover, FeOx/SBAC showed superior stability over five successive oxidation runs. Thus, heterogeneous Fenton oxidation of biologically pretreated CGW by FeOx/SBAC, with the advantages of being economical, efficient and sustainable, holds promise for engineering application. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. New results gained with the GSP process for the gasification of pulverized coal, description of the feeding system and solution of environmental problems

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, F.; Brandt, H.; Kretschmer, H.; Richter, H.; Schingnitz, M.

    1988-01-01

    Both economic analyses and analyses concerning the solution of problems of environmental protection have shown that gasification of coal and the conversion of the produced gas into electrical energy, SNG or syntheses gas is getting more and more attractive. Since 1983 a gasification complex working according to the GSP process has been in operation at Gaskombinat Schwarze Pumpe in the GDR. It produces more than 50 000 m/sup 3/ raw gas per hour from these coals. The present paper describes technical and technological solutions, practical results and experience gained during operation as a precondition for the construction of large-scale gas works with an annual output of two to four billions m/sup 3/ raw gas. When discussing these problems it is demonstrated that the environmental compatibility of this coal gasification process meets the highest requirements even if coal that is rich in ash and sulphur and contains salt is used.

  18. Investigating the Integration of a Solid Oxide Fuel Cell and a Gas Turbine System with Coal Gasification Technologies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-01

    conceptually integrate the hybrid power system with existing and imminent coal gasification technologies. The gasification technologies include the Kellogg...Brown Root (KBR) Transport Reactor and entrained coal gasification . Parametric studies will be performed wherein pertinent fuel cell stack process...dependent variables of interest. Coal gasification data and a proven SOFC model will be used to test the theoretical integration. Feasibility and

  19. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Yaw D. Yeboah; Dr. Yong Xu; Dr. Atul Sheth; Dr. Pradeep Agrawal

    2001-12-01

    The Gas Research Institute (GRI) estimates that by the year 2010, 40% or more of U.S. gas supply will be provided by supplements including substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. These supplements must be cost competitive with other energy sources. The first generation technologies for coal gasification e.g. the Lurgi Pressure Gasification Process and the relatively newer technologies e.g. the KBW (Westinghouse) Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, U-Gas Ash Agglomerating Fluidized-Bed, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi Slagging Gasifier, Texaco Moving-Bed Gasifier, and Dow and Shell Gasification Processes, have several disadvantages. These disadvantages include high severities of gasification conditions, low methane production, high oxygen consumption, inability to handle caking coals, and unattractive economics. Another problem encountered in catalytic coal gasification is deactivation of hydroxide forms of alkali and alkaline earth metal catalysts by oxides of carbon (CO{sub x}). To seek solutions to these problems, a team consisting of Clark Atlanta University (CAU, a Historically Black College and University, HBCU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and Georgia Institute of Technology (Georgia Tech) proposed to identify suitable low melting eutectic salt mixtures for improved coal gasification. The research objectives of this project were to: Identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; Assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; Evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; Determine catalyst dispersion at high carbon conversion levels; Evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; Evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and Conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process.

  20. Coal conversion processes and analysis methodologies for synthetic fuels production. [technology assessment and economic analysis of reactor design for coal gasification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Information to identify viable coal gasification and utilization technologies is presented. Analysis capabilities required to support design and implementation of coal based synthetic fuels complexes are identified. The potential market in the Southeast United States for coal based synthetic fuels is investigated. A requirements analysis to identify the types of modeling and analysis capabilities required to conduct and monitor coal gasification project designs is discussed. Models and methodologies to satisfy these requirements are identified and evaluated, and recommendations are developed. Requirements for development of technology and data needed to improve gasification feasibility and economies are examined.

  1. Fluidized bed injection assembly for coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Cherish, Peter; Salvador, Louis A.

    1981-01-01

    A coaxial feed system for fluidized bed coal gasification processes including an inner tube for injecting particulate combustibles into a transport gas, an inner annulus about the inner tube for injecting an oxidizing gas, and an outer annulus about the inner annulus for transporting a fluidizing and cooling gas. The combustibles and oxidizing gas are discharged vertically upward directly into the combustion jet, and the fluidizing and cooling gas is discharged in a downward radial direction into the bed below the combustion jet.

  2. Control technology assessment for coal gasification and liquefaction processes, BI GAS Pilot Plant, Homer City, Pennsylvania, 1979. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    A control technology survey was conducted at the BI GAS pilot facility (SIC-1211) in Homer City, Pennsylvania on August 16 and 17, 1979. The BI GAS coal gasification process was an important emerging technological development in the gasification of coal to a high heat fuel. Potential hazards included noise, fire, coal dust, carbon-dioxide (124389), carbon-monoxide (630080) (CO), methane (74828), char, hydrogen (1333740), hydrogen-sulfide (7783064), naphthalene (91203), trace metals, phenols, nickel-carbonyl (13463393), and mercaptans. The safety policy at the facility stressed minimal activity in the gasifier structure and was effective in reducing exposures to process contaminants from leaks. Other control measures included CO monitors with alarms, self contained breathing apparatus for emergency use, a 5 minute escape airpack respirator, and use of the buddy system. Employees received a safety policies and procedures manual. Safety training sessions and monthly meetings were held. Fire prevention, accident prevention, chemical handling, emergency procedures, and first aid procedures were emphasized. Annual physical examinations were given. The authors conclude that the major weakness of the medical program is the absence of a preemployment physical. Periodic skin examinations are recommended to reduce skin irritations and possible exposures to polynuclear aromatics.

  3. Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operaated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, G.; Gerdes, K.; Song, X.; Chen, Y.; Shutthanandan, V.; Englehard, M.; Zhu, Z.; Thevuthasan, S.; Gemmen, R.

    2012-01-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are being developed for integrated gasification power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but test data from direct coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This effort evaluates the significance of performance losses associated with exposure to direct coal syngas. Specimen are operated in a unique mobile test skid that is deployed to the research gasifier at NCCC in Wilsonville, AL. The test skid interfaces with a gasifier slipstream to deliver hot syngas to a parallel array of twelve SOFCs. During the 500 h test period, all twelve cells are monitored for performance at four current densities. Degradation is attributed to syngas exposure and trace material attack on the anode structure that is accelerated at increasing current densities. Cells that are operated at 0 and 125 mA cm{sup 2} degrade at 9.1 and 10.7% per 1000 h, respectively, while cells operated at 250 and 375 mA cm{sup 2} degrade at 18.9 and 16.2% per 1000 h, respectively. Spectroscopic analysis of the anodes showed carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus deposits; no secondary Ni-metal phases were found.

  4. Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackett, Gregory A.; Gerdes, Kirk; Song, Xueyan; Chen, Yun; Shutthanandan, Vaithiyalingam; Engelhard, Mark; Zhu, Zihua; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Gemmen, Randall

    2012-09-01

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are being developed for integrated gasification power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50+% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but test data from direct coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This effort evaluates the significance of performance losses associated with exposure to direct coal syngas. Specimen are operated in a unique mobile test skid that is deployed to the research gasifier at NCCC in Wilsonville, AL. The test skid interfaces with a gasifier slipstream to deliver hot syngas to a parallel array of twelve SOFCs. During the 500 h test period, all twelve cells are monitored for performance at four current densities. Degradation is attributed to syngas exposure and trace material attack on the anode structure that is accelerated at increasing current densities. Cells that are operated at 0 and 125 mA cm-2 degrade at 9.1 and 10.7% per 1000 h, respectively, while cells operated at 250 and 375 mA cm-2 degrade at 18.9 and 16.2% per 1000 h, respectively. Spectroscopic analysis of the anodes showed carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus deposits; no secondary Ni-metal phases were found.

  5. Development of solar coal gasification technology

    SciTech Connect

    Adinberg, R.; Epstein, M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes an approach to the development and characterization of a solar-assisted coal gasification plant. Two solar receivers for steam coal gasification, both on a sub pilot scale, have been designed and set up at the Weizmann Institute`s solar facilities for tests under the conditions of highly concentrated solar radiation. In spite of the fact that chemical reactors of different types, one-tubular and the second-volumetric, have been installed in each of these receivers, they have in common the integration of a reactor and associated steam generator into one complex solar thermal system. The receiver constructed of a reaction tube coupled with a superheated steam generator provides processing of grained carbonaceous materials at temperature as high as 900--950 C with a sufficiently high rate of the syngas yield. Results from a series of the windowed reactor/receiver tests are also successful, demonstrating the suitability of this reactor for operating in a wide range of conditions required for coal gasification. Being designed in a certain degree of simplicity, that is adequate to the present stage of problem initiation, the receivers employed need to be optimized in order to achieve considerable efficiency of solar thermal power conversion into the energy of product gas. Results show that the temperature of process steam can strongly influence the system performance.

  6. First U. S. coal gasification facility in commercial operation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-11-01

    This paper describes the first commercial scale coal gasification plant in America, located in Mercer County, North Dakota. Seven of the fourteen gasifier vessels have been operating, producing the medium-Btu raw gas steam necessary for further processing into pipeline quality gas. Coal gasification technology is by means of the Lurgi process. The complex, estimated at about $2.1 billion, is diagrammed. Plant input and output is also shown. There are 125 million recoverable tons of lignite with sufficient reserves for expansion as input for gasification. The complex is composed of numerous processing units and a block flow diagram of the complex is given.

  7. Low-Btu coal-gasification-process design report for Combustion Engineering/Gulf States Utilities coal-gasification demonstration plant. [Natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil to natural gas or No. 2 fuel oil or low Btu gas

    SciTech Connect

    Andrus, H E; Rebula, E; Thibeault, P R; Koucky, R W

    1982-06-01

    This report describes a coal gasification demonstration plant that was designed to retrofit an existing steam boiler. The design uses Combustion Engineering's air blown, atmospheric pressure, entrained flow coal gasification process to produce low-Btu gas and steam for Gulf States Utilities Nelson No. 3 boiler which is rated at a nominal 150 MW of electrical power. Following the retrofit, the boiler, originally designed to fire natural gas or No. 2 oil, will be able to achieve full load power output on natural gas, No. 2 oil, or low-Btu gas. The gasifier and the boiler are integrated, in that the steam generated in the gasifier is combined with steam from the boiler to produce full load. The original contract called for a complete process and mechanical design of the gasification plant. However, the contract was curtailed after the process design was completed, but before the mechanical design was started. Based on the well defined process, but limited mechanical design, a preliminary cost estimate for the installation was completed.

  8. Mathematical model of the pyrolysis and gasification of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Kalinenko, R.A.; Levitskii, A.A.; Mirokhin, Yu.A.; Polak, L.S.

    1987-12-01

    A kinetic model of the pyrolysis and gasification of coal at moderate (1100-1300 K) and high (2000-3000 K) temperatures, which includes reactions resulting in the release of volatile substances and their further conversions and takes into account the processes of heat and mass transfer, has been developed. A calculation of the composition of the gasification products of brown coals on the basis of the model has displayed good agreement with experimental data.

  9. The formation mechanism of CO2 and its conversion in the process of coal gasification under arc plasma conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Xiaojun; Zheng, Mingdong; Qiu, Jieshan; Zhao, Zongbin; Ma, Tengcai

    2006-05-01

    The carbon dioxide (CO2) formation mechanism and co-conversion of CO2 with coal was investigated in the process of coal gasification in a steam medium at atmospheric pressure under arc plasma conditions in a tube-type setup. The arc plasma was diagnosed in situ by optical emission spectroscopy and the gas products were analysed by gas chromatography. CO2 yields are correlated with the quantitative emission peak intensity of the active species in plasma when the operating parameter is changed. The results show that the greater the emission peak intensity of the CH radicals, C2 radicals, OH radicals or O atoms, the smaller the CO2 yield is, which means that the CO2 formation process is inhibited by increasing the concentration of the mentioned active species under arc plasma conditions. On the basis of the diagnosis results, co-conversion of CO2 and coal in a steam medium under plasma conditions was carried out in the same setup and the results show that CO2 conversion reaches 88.6% while the concentration of CO + H2 reaches 87.4%; at the same time, coal conversion is in the range 54.7-68.7%, which proves that co-conversion of CO2 and coal in a steam medium under plasma conditions might be a prospective way to utilize CO2 and the production of synthesis gas.

  10. Chronic studies in rats exposed to liquid effluent from coal gasification process.

    PubMed

    Kostial, K; Blanusa, M; Rabar, I; Maljković, T; Kello, D; Landeka, M; Bunarević, A; Stara, J F

    1981-02-01

    The health effects of the E-effluent (water for quenching ash) from a coal gasification plant were assayed in a chronic experiment (16 month exposure) and a three generation reproduction study. Animals exposed to 100% E-effluent had an increased daily intake of various inorganic elements (Fe, Cu, K, I, Se, Cd, Hg, Pb, As, F and Cr). In spite of that, the exposed and control animals had the same mortality rate, haematological findings, urinary protein excretion, trace element concentrations in kidneys, liver and femur, bone composition and morphometry, and histological findings. The pre- and post-natal development and growth was unchanged during three generations. It is concluded that the higher intake of various inorganics caused no change in the parameters measured.

  11. Hydrogen manufacture by Lurgi gasification of Oklahoma coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of using the Lurgi gasification process to produce hydrogen from Oklahoma coal are listed. Special attention was given to the production of heat for the process; heat is generated by burning part of pretreated coal in the steam generator. Overall performance of the Lurgi process is summarized in tabular form.

  12. Hydrogen manufacture by Lurgi gasification of Oklahoma coal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Advantages and disadvantages of using the Lurgi gasification process to produce hydrogen from Oklahoma coal are listed. Special attention was given to the production of heat for the process; heat is generated by burning part of pretreated coal in the steam generator. Overall performance of the Lurgi process is summarized in tabular form.

  13. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit, Phase 2. Quarterly technical progress report No. 1, July-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, M.H.

    1980-10-01

    This represents the first quarterly progress report on Phase 2 of the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process Development Unit (PDU) Program. Phase 1 of this program started in March 1976 and included the design, construction, and initial operation of a PDU to test the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process. On July 24, 1980, Phase 2 of the program was initiated. It covers a 1-year operations program utilizing the existing PDU and is planned to include five runs with a targeted total operating time of 9 weeks. The primary activities during the period covered by this report related to preparations for PDU Run 6, the initial run of the Phase 2 program. These activities included restaffing the PDU operations group, reactivation of the facility, and effecting plant modifications and improvements based on an evaluation of previous operation experience. The Melt Withdrawal System which had proven unreliable during the previous runs, was completely redesigned; thermal and flow analyses were performed; new components procured; and assembly initiated. Run 6 which is scheduled for the next report period, is aimed primarily at verifying the adequacy of the redesigned Melt Withdrawal System.

  14. Nitrogen removal from coal gasification wastewater by activated carbon technologies combined with short-cut nitrogen removal process.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng; Jia, Shengyong; Fang, Fang

    2014-11-01

    A system combining granular activated carbon and powdered activated carbon technologies along with shortcut biological nitrogen removal (GAC-PACT-SBNR) was developed to enhance total nitrogen (TN) removal for anaerobically treated coal gasification wastewater with less need for external carbon resources. The TN removal efficiency in SBNR was significantly improved by introducing the effluent from the GAC process into SBNR during the anoxic stage, with removal percentage increasing from 43.8%-49.6% to 68.8%-75.8%. However, the TN removal rate decreased with the progressive deterioration of GAC adsorption. After adding activated sludge to the GAC compartment, the granular carbon had a longer service-life and the demand for external carbon resources became lower. Eventually, the TN removal rate in SBNR was almost constant at approx. 43.3%, as compared to approx. 20.0% before seeding with sludge. In addition, the production of some alkalinity during the denitrification resulted in a net savings in alkalinity requirements for the nitrification reaction and refractory chemical oxygen demand (COD) degradation by autotrophic bacteria in SBNR under oxic conditions. PACT showed excellent resilience to increasing organic loadings. The microbial community analysis revealed that the PACT had a greater variety of bacterial taxons and the dominant species associated with the three compartments were in good agreement with the removal of typical pollutants. The study demonstrated that pre-adsorption by the GAC-sludge process could be a technically and economically feasible method to enhance TN removal in coal gasification wastewater (CGW).

  15. Performance of solid oxide fuel cells operated with coal syngas provided directly from a gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Hackett, Gregory A.; Gerdes, Kirk R.; Song, Xueyan; Chen, Yun; Shutthanandan, V.; Engelhard, Mark H.; Zhu, Zihua; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Gemmen, Randall

    2012-09-15

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are presently being developed for gasification integrated power plants that generate electricity from coal at 50+% efficiency. The interaction of trace metals in coal syngas with the Ni-based SOFC anodes is being investigated through thermodynamic analyses and in laboratory experiments, but direct test data from coal syngas exposure are sparsely available. This research effort evaluates the significance of SOFC performance losses associated with exposure of a SOFC anode to direct coal syngas. SOFC specimen of industrially relevant composition are operated in a unique mobile test skid that was deployed to the research gasifier at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) in Wilsonville, AL. The mobile test skid interfaces with a gasifier slipstream to deliver hot syngas (up to 300°C) directly to a parallel array of 12 button cell specimen, each of which possesses an active area of approximately 2 cm2. During the 500 hour test period, all twelve cells were monitored for performance at four discrete operating current densities, and all cells maintained contact with a data acquisition system. Of these twelve, nine demonstrated good performance throughout the test, while three of the cells were partially compromised. Degradation associated with the properly functioning cells was attributed to syngas exposure and trace material attack on the anode structure that was accelerated at increasing current densities. Cells that were operated at 0 and 125 mA/cm² degraded at 9.1 and 10.7% per 1000 hours, respectively, while cells operated at 250 and 375 mA/cm² degraded at 18.9 and 16.2% per 1000 hours, respectively. Post-trial spectroscopic analysis of the anodes showed carbon, sulfur, and phosphorus deposits; no secondary Ni-metal phases were found.

  16. CAVSIM. Underground Coal Gasification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Britten, J.A., Thorsness, C.B. )

    1989-03-03

    CAVSIM is a three-dimensional, axisymmetric model for resource recovery and cavity growth during underground coal gasification (UCG). CAVSIM is capable of following the evolution of the cavity from near startup to exhaustion, and couples explicitly wall and roof surface growth to material and energy balances in the underlying rubble zones. Growth mechanisms are allowed to change smoothly as the system evolves from a small, relatively empty cavity low in the coal seam to a large, almost completely rubble-filled cavity extending high into the overburden rock. The model is applicable to nonswelling coals of arbitrary seam thickness and can handle a variety of gas injection flow schedules or compositions. Water influx from the coal aquifer is calculated by a gravity drainage-permeation submodel which is integrated into the general solution. The cavity is considered to consist of up to three distinct rubble zones and a void space at the top. Resistance to gas flow injected from a stationary source at the cavity floor is assumed to be concentrated in the ash pile, which builds up around the source, and also the overburden rubble which accumulates on top of this ash once overburden rock is exposed at the cavity top. Char rubble zones at the cavity side and edges are assumed to be highly permeable. Flow of injected gas through the ash to char rubble piles and the void space is coupled by material and energy balances to cavity growth at the rubble/coal, void/coal and void/rock interfaces. One preprocessor and two postprocessor programs are included - SPALL calculates one-dimensional mean spalling rates of coal or rock surfaces exposed to high temperatures and generates CAVSIM input: TAB reads CAVSIM binary output files and generates ASCII tables of selected data for display; and PLOT produces dot matrix printer or HP printer plots from TAB output.

  17. Coal gasification tests at TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority): Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Crim, M.C.; Williamson, P.C.

    1987-02-01

    This report presents the results obtained from the EPRI cofunded tests conducted at TVA's 200 tpd Texaco coal gasification facility equipped with a water quench gasifier. Four US coals were tested at TVA: (1) Utah coal from the SUFCO mine, (2) Illinois No. 6 coal from the Amax Delta mine, (3) Pittsburgh No. 8 coal from the Blacksville No. 2 mine and (4) a high ash-fusion Maryland coal. The TVA tests were of short term duration totaling approximately 10 to 20 days of cumulative operation on each coal. The gasification behavior of each coal was tested under a wide range of process conditions and feed characteristics. All four coals produced carbon conversion of 92% or higher. Utah and Illinois No. 6 coals achieved carbon conversions of 95 to 97%. The high heating value Pittsburgh No. 8 coal had lower carbon conversion because the maximum allowable gasifier temperature was reached at relatively low O/C ratios. The high-ash fusion Maryland coal was gasified with a fluxing agent at temperatures within the design limit of the TVA gasifier. The gasification behavior of the coals was similar to that observed from tests at other Texaco gasifiers. However, earlier experiments at Texaco's Montebello Research Laboratories showed higher values for both carbon conversion and coal gas efficiency. 27 figs., 35 tabs.

  18. Catalytic coal gasification: an emerging technology.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, R L; Gallagher, J E; Lessard, R R; Wesslhoft, R D

    1982-01-08

    Catalytic coal gasification is being developed as a more efficient and less costly approach to producing methane from coal. With a potassium catalyst all the reactions can take place at one temperature, so that endothermic and exothermic reactions can be integrated in a single reactor. A key aspect of the concept involves continuous recycling of product carbon monoxide and hydrogen to the gasifier following separation of methane. Development of the process has advanced steadily since the basic concept was proposed in 1971. A 23-day demonstration run was recently completed in a process development unit with a coal feed rate of 1 ton per day. The next major step in the program will be to design and construct a large pilot plant to bring the technology to commercial readiness in the late 1980's.

  19. Assessment of the chemical, microbiological and toxicological aspects of post-processing water from underground coal gasification.

    PubMed

    Pankiewicz-Sperka, Magdalena; Stańczyk, Krzysztof; Płaza, Grażyna A; Kwaśniewska, Jolanta; Nałęcz-Jawecki, Grzegorz

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to provide a comprehensive characterisation (including chemical, microbiological and toxicological parameters) of water after the underground coal gasification (UCG) process. This is the first report in which these parameters were analysed together to assess the environmental risk of the water generated during the simulation of the underground coal gasification (UCG) process performed by the Central Mining Institute (Poland). Chemical analysis of the water indicated many hazardous chemical compounds, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, phenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Additionally, large quantities of inorganic compounds from the coal and ashes produced during the volatilisation process were noted. Due to the presence of refractory and inhibitory compounds in the post-processing water samples, the microbiological and toxicological analyses revealed the high toxicity of the UCG post-processing water. Among the tested microorganisms, mesophilic, thermophilic, psychrophilic, spore-forming, anaerobic and S-oxidizing bacteria were identified. However, the number of detected microorganisms was very low. The psychrophilic bacteria dominated among tested bacteria. There were no fungi or Actinomycetes in any of the water samples. Preliminary study revealed that hydrocarbon-oxidizing bacteria were metabolically active in the water samples. The samples were very toxic to the biotests, with the TU50 reaching 262. None of biotests was the most sensitive to all samples. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity testing of the water samples in Vicia uncovered strong cytotoxic and clastogenic effects. Furthermore, TUNEL indicated that all of the water samples caused sporadic DNA fragmentation in the nuclei of the roots. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process Development Unit. Phase 2. Quarterly technical progress report No. 2, October-December 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Slater, M. H.

    1981-01-20

    This represents the second quarterly progress report on Phase 2 of the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process Development Unit (PDU) Program. Phase 1 of this program started in March 1976 and included the design, construction, and initial operation of the PDU. On June 25, 1980, Phase 2 of the program was initiated. It covers a 1-year operations program utilizing the existing PDU and is planned to include five runs with a targeted total operating time of 9 weeks. During this report period, Run 6, the initial run of the Phase 2 program was completed. The gasification system was operated for a total of 95 h at pressures up to 10 atm. Average product gas HHV values of 100 Btu/scf were recorded during 10-atm operation, while gasifying coal at a rate of 1100 lb/h. The run was terminated when the melt overflow system plugged after 60 continuous hours of overflow. Following this run, melt withdrawal system revisions were made, basically by changing the orifice materials from Monofrax to an 80 Cobalt-20 Chromium alloy. By the end of the report period, the PDU was being prepared for Run 7.

  1. Site clean up of coal gasification residues

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Ding, Y.

    1995-12-31

    The coal gasification plant residues tested in this research consists of various particle sizes of rock, gravel, tar-sand agglomerates, fine sand and soil. Most of the soils particles were tar free. One of the fractions examined contained over 3000 ppM polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The residues were subjected to high pressure water jet washing, float and sink tests, and soil washing. Subsequent PAH analyses found less than 1 ppM PAHs in the water jet washing water. Soils washed with pure water lowered PAH concentrations to 276 ppM; the use of surfactants decreased PAHs to 47, 200, and 240 ppM for different test conditions. In the 47 ppM test, the surfactant temperature had been increased to 80 C, suggesting that surfactant washing efficiency can be greatly improved by increasing the solution temperature. The coal tar particles were not extracted by the surfactants used. Coke and tar-sand agglomerates collected from the float and sink gravimetric separation were tested for heating value. The tar exhibited a very high heating value, while the coke had a heating value close to that of bituminous coal. These processes are believed to have the potential to clean up coal gasification plant residues at a fairly low cost, pending pilot-scale testing and a feasibility study.

  2. Imaging the Underground Coal Gasification Zone with Microgravity Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotyrba, Andrzej; Kortas, Łukasz; Stańczyk, Krzysztof

    2015-06-01

    The paper describes results of microgravity measurements made on the surface over an underground geo reactor where experimental coal gasification was performed in a shallow seam of coal. The aim of the research was to determine whether, and to what extent, the microgravity method can be used to detect and image a coal gasification zone, especially caverns where the coal was burnt out. In theory, the effects of coal gasification process create caverns and cracks, e.g., zones of altered bulk density. Before the measurements, theoretical density models of completely and partially gasified coal were analysed. Results of the calculations of gravity field response showed that in both cases on the surface over the gasification zone there should be local gravimetric anomalies. Over the geo reactor, two series of gravimetric measurements prior to and after gasification were conducted. Comparison of the results of two measurement series revealed the presence of gravimetric anomalies that could be related to the cavern formation process. Data from these measurements were used to verify theoretical models. After the experiment, a small cavern was detected at the depth of the coal seam by the test borehole drilled in one of the anomalous areas.

  3. Influence of pressure on coal pyrolysis and char gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Haiping Yang; Hanping Chen; Fudong Ju; Rong Yan; Shihong Zhang

    2007-12-15

    Coal char structure varied greatly with pyrolysis pressure, which has a significant influence on the gasification reactivity. In this study, the influence of pressure on the behavior of coal pyrolysis and physicochemical structure and gasification characteristics of the resultant coal char was investigated using a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer combined with an ambient thermogravimetric analyzer. First, the pyrolysis of Shenfu (SF) bituminous coal was performed in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) at different pressures (0.1, 0.8, 1.5, 3, and 5 MPa). The volatile mainly evolved out at 400-800{sup o}C. The gas products are mainly CO{sub 2}, CO, CH{sub 4}, and light aliphatics with some water. It was observed that the pyrolysis of coal was shifted to lower temperature (50{sup o}C) with pressure increasing from ambient to 5 MPa, and the devolatilization rate of coal pyrolysis was decreased and the coal char yield was increased slightly. The structure of solid coal char was analyzed using FTIR, ASAP2020, and CNHS. In the solid char, the main organic functional groups are mainly CO, C-C (alkane), C-H ar, C-O-C, and C=C ar. The carbon content was increased while H content decreased. Finally, the gasification of the solid char was preformed at ambient pressure with CO{sub 2} as gasify agent. The gasification process of coal char can be divided into postpyrolysis and char gasification. Higher pressure accelerated the initial stage of char gasification, and higher gasification reactivity was observed for char derived at 5 MPa. 23 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  4. Apparatus for fixed bed coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Sadowski, Richard S.

    1992-01-01

    An apparatus for fixed-bed coal gasification is described in which coal such as caking coal is continuously pyrolyzed with clump formation inhibited, by combining the coal with a combustible gas and an oxidant, and then continually feeding the pyrolyzed coal under pressure and elevated temperature into the gasification region of a pressure vessel. The materials in the pressure vessel are allowed to react with the gasifying agents in order to allow the carbon contents of the pyrolyzed coal to be completely oxidized. The combustion of gas produced from the combination of coal pyrolysis and gasification involves combining a combustible gas coal and an oxidant in a pyrolysis chamber and heating the components to a temperature of at least 1600.degree. F. The products of coal pyrolysis are dispersed from the pyrolyzer directly into the high temperature gasification region of a pressure vessel. Steam and air needed for gasification are introduced in the pressure vessel and the materials exiting the pyrolyzer flow down through the pressure vessel by gravity with sufficient residence time to allow any carbon to form carbon monoxide. Gas produced from these reactions are then released from the pressure vessel and ash is disposed of.

  5. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix A: Coal gasification catalog

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    The scope of work in preparing the Coal Gasification Data Catalog included the following subtasks: (1) candidate system subsystem definition, (2) raw materials analysis, (3) market analysis for by-products, (4) alternate products analysis, (5) preliminary integrated facility requirements. Definition of candidate systems/subsystems includes the identity of and alternates for each process unit, raw material requirements, and the cost and design drivers for each process design.

  6. Catalysts for carbon and coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    McKee, Douglas W.; Spiro, Clifford L.; Kosky, Philip G.

    1985-01-01

    Catalyst for the production of methane from carbon and/or coal by means of catalytic gasification. The catalyst compostion containing at least two alkali metal salts. A particulate carbonaceous substrate or carrier is used.

  7. Update on the Great Plains Coal Gasification Project

    SciTech Connect

    Imler, D.L.

    1985-12-01

    The Great Plains Gasification Plant is the US's first commercial synthetic fuels project based on coal conversion. The ANG Coal Gasification Company is the administer of the Great Plains Coal Gasification Project for the United States Department of Energy. The Project is designed to convert 14 M TPD of North Dakota of lignite into 137.5 MM SCFD of pipeline quality synthetic natural gas (SNG). Located in Mercer County, North Dakota, the gasification plant, and an SNG pipeline. Some 12 years passed from the time the project was conceived unit it became a reality by producing SNG into the Northern Border pipeline in 1984 for use by millions of residential, commercial, and industrial consumers. In this paper, the basic processes utilized in the plant are presented. This is followed by a discussion of the start-up activities and schedule. Finally, some of the more interesting start-up problems are described.

  8. Numerical analysis of the process of combustion and gasification of the polydisperse coke residue of high-ash coal under pressure in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    A.Y. Maistrenko; V.P. Patskov; A.I. Topal; T.V. Patskova

    2007-09-15

    A numerical analysis of the process of 'wet' gasification of high-ash coal under pressure in a low-temperature fluidized bed has been performed. The applicability of the previously developed computational model, algorithm, and program for the case under consideration has been noted. The presence of 'hot spots' (short-time local heatings) at different points of the bed has been confirmed.

  9. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of heterogeneous catalytic ozonation and biological process.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Haifeng; Han, Hongjun; Jia, Shengyong; Hou, Baolin; Zhao, Qian

    2014-08-01

    Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW) was investigated employing heterogeneous catalytic ozonation integrated with anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR) and biological aerated filter (BAF) process. The results indicated that catalytic ozonation with the prepared catalyst (i.e. MnOx/SBAC, sewage sludge was converted into sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded manganese oxides) significantly enhanced performance of pollutants removal by generated hydroxyl radicals. The effluent of catalytic ozonation process was more biodegradable and less toxic than that in ozonation alone. Meanwhile, ANMBBR-BAF showed efficient capacity of pollutants removal in treatment of the effluent of catalytic ozonation at a shorter reaction time, allowing the discharge limits to be met. Therefore, the integrated process with efficient, economical and sustainable advantages was suitable for advanced treatment of real biologically pretreated CGW. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Coal gasification for electric power generation.

    PubMed

    Spencer, D F; Gluckman, M J; Alpert, S B

    1982-03-26

    The electric utility industry is being severely affected by rapidly escalating gas and oil prices, restrictive environmental and licensing regulations, and an extremely tight money market. Integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants have the potential to be economically competitive with present commercial coal-fired power plants while satisfying stringent emission control requirements. The current status of gasification technology is discussed and the critical importance of the 100-megawatt Cool Water IGCC demonstration program is emphasized.

  11. Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle

    DOEpatents

    Aiman, William R.; Gregg, David W.

    1983-01-01

    Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a duct gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor (10), and solar energy (20) is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front (16) and a pyrolysis front (12). A gasification zone (32) is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone (34) is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam (18), injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone (32), reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases (38) flow from the gasification zone (32) to the pyrolysis zone (34) to generate hot char. Gases (38) are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone (34) and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone (32). This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas (14) is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone (32) and the pyrolysis zone (34). The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

  12. Solar coal gasification reactor with pyrolysis gas recycle

    SciTech Connect

    Aiman, W.R.; Gregg, D.W.

    1983-11-15

    Coal (or other carbonaceous matter, such as biomass) is converted into a product gas that is substantially free from hydrocarbons. The coal is fed into a solar reactor and solar energy is directed into the reactor onto coal char, creating a gasification front and a pyrolysis front. A gasification zone is produced well above the coal level within the reactor. A pyrolysis zone is produced immediately above the coal level. Steam, injected into the reactor adjacent to the gasification zone, reacts with char to generate product gases. Solar energy supplies the energy for the endothermic steam-char reaction. The hot product gases flow from the gasification zone to the pyrolysis zone to generate hot char. Gases are withdrawn from the pyrolysis zone and reinjected into the region of the reactor adjacent the gasification zone. This eliminates hydrocarbons in the gas by steam reformation on the hot char. The product gas is withdrawn from a region of the reactor between the gasification zone and the pyrolysis zone. The product gas will be free of tar and other hydrocarbons, and thus be suitable for use in many processes.

  13. Production of Hydrogen from Underground Coal Gasification

    DOEpatents

    Upadhye, Ravindra S.

    2008-10-07

    A system of obtaining hydrogen from a coal seam by providing a production well that extends into the coal seam; positioning a conduit in the production well leaving an annulus between the conduit and the coal gasification production well, the conduit having a wall; closing the annulus at the lower end to seal it from the coal gasification cavity and the syngas; providing at least a portion of the wall with a bifunctional membrane that serves the dual purpose of providing a catalyzing reaction and selectively allowing hydrogen to pass through the wall and into the annulus; and producing the hydrogen through the annulus.

  14. Advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater by a novel integration of heterogeneous Fenton oxidation and biological process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Han, Hongjun; Zhuang, Haifeng; Hou, Baolin; Jia, Shengyong; Xu, Chunyan; Wang, Dexin

    2015-04-01

    Laboratorial scale experiments were conducted in order to investigate a novel system integrating heterogeneous Fenton oxidation (HFO) with anoxic moving bed biofilm reactor (ANMBBR) and biological aerated filter (BAF) process on advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated that HFO with the prepared catalyst (FeOx/SBAC, sewage sludge based activated carbon (SBAC) which loaded Fe oxides) played a key role in eliminating COD and COLOR as well as in improving the biodegradability of raw wastewater. The surface reaction and hydroxyl radicals (OH) oxidation were the mechanisms for FeOx/SBAC catalytic reaction. Compared with ANMBBR-BAF process, the integrated system was more effective in abating COD, BOD5, total phenols (TPs), total nitrogen (TN) and COLOR and could shorten the retention time. Therefore, the integrated system was a promising technology for engineering applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Modeling of the coal gasification processes in a hybrid plasma torch

    SciTech Connect

    Matveev, I.B.; Serbin, S.I.

    2007-12-15

    The major advantages of plasma treatment systems are cost effectiveness and technical efficiency. A new efficient electrodeless 1-MW hybrid plasma torch for waste disposal and coal gasification is proposed. This product merges several solutions such as the known inductive-type plasma torch, innovative reverse-vortex (RV) reactor and the recently developed nonequilibrium plasma pilot and plasma chemical reactor. With the use of the computational-fluid-dynamics-computational method, preliminary 3-D calculations of heat exchange in a 1-MW plasma generator operating with direct vortex and RV have been conducted at the air flow rate of 100 g/s. For the investigated mode and designed parameters, reduction of the total wall heat transfer for the reverse scheme is about 65 kW, which corresponds to an increase of the plasma generator efficiency by approximately 6.5%. This new hybrid plasma torch operates as a multimode, high power plasma system with a wide range of plasma feedstock gases and turn down ratio, and offers convenient and simultaneous feeding of several additional reagents into the discharge zone.

  16. High temperature electrochemical separation of H{sub 2}S from coal gasification process streams. Quarterly progress report, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Winnick, J.

    1992-10-01

    An advanced process for the separation of hydrogen sulfide from coal gasification product streams through an electrochemical membrane is being developed using the funds from this grant. H{sub 2}S is removed from the syn-gas stream, split into hydrogen, which enriches the syn-gas, and sulfur, which can be condensed from an inert gas sweep stream. The process allows removal of H{sub 2}S without cooling the gas stream and with negligible pressure loss through the separator. The process is economically attractive by the lack of adsorbents and the lack of a Claus process for sulfur recovery. Research conducted during the present quarter is here highlighted, with an emphasis on progress towards the goal of an economically viable H{sub 2}S removal technology for use in coal gasification facilities providing polished fuel for co-generation coal fired electrical power facilities and Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell electrical power facilities.

  17. Beluga coal gasification feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Chaney; Lawrence Van Bibber

    2006-07-15

    The objective of the study was to determine the economic feasibility of developing and siting a coal-based integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) plant in the Cook Inlet region of Alaska for the co-production of electric power and marketable by-products. The by-products, which may include synthesis gas, Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquids, fertilizers such as ammonia and urea, alcohols, hydrogen, nitrogen and carbon dioxide, would be manufactured for local use or for sale in domestic and foreign markets. This report for Phase 1 summarizes the investigation of an IGCC system for a specific industrial setting on the Cook Inlet, the Agrium U.S. Inc. ('Agrium') fertilizer plant in Nikiski, Alaska. Faced with an increase in natural gas price and a decrease in supply, the Agrium is investigating alternatives to gas as feed stock for their plant. This study considered all aspects of the installation and infrastructure, including: coal supply and cost, coal transport costs, delivery routes, feedstock production for fertilizer manufacture, plant steam and power, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) uses, markets for possible additional products, and environmental permit requirements. The Cook Inlet-specific Phase 1 results, reported here, provided insight and information that led to the conclusion that the second study should be for an F-T plant sited at the Usibelli Coal Mine near Healy, Alaska. This Phase 1 case study is for a very specific IGCC system tailored to fit the chemical and energy needs of the fertilizer manufacturing plant. It demonstrates the flexibility of IGCC for a variety of fuel feedstocks depending on plant location and fuel availability, as well as the available variety of gas separation, gas cleanup, and power and steam generation technologies to fit specific site needs. 18 figs., 37 tabs., 6 apps.

  18. Analysis of the organic contaminants in the condensate produced in the in situ underground coal gasification process.

    PubMed

    Smoliński, Adam; Stańczyk, Krzysztof; Kapusta, Krzysztof; Howaniec, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Addressing the environmental risks related to contamination of groundwater with the phenolics, benzene, toluene, ethyl benzene, xylene (BTEX) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), which might be potentially released from the underground coal gasification (UCG) under adverse hydrogeological and/or operational conditions, is crucial in terms of wider implementation of the process. The aim of this study was to determine the main organic pollutants present in the process condensate generated during the UCG trial performed on hard coal seam in the Experimental Mine 'Barbara', Poland; 8,933 L of condensate was produced in 813 h of experiment duration (including 456 h of the post-process stage) with average phenolics, BTEX and PAH concentrations of 576,000, 42.3 and 1,400.5 μg/L, respectively. The Hierarchical Clustering Analysis was used to explore the differences and similarities between the samples. The sample collected during the first 48 h of the process duration was characterized by the lowest phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene and pyrene contents, high xylene content and the highest concentrations of phenolics, benzene, toluene and ethyl benzene. The samples collected during the stable operation of the UCG process were characterized by higher concentrations of naphthalene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, while in the samples acquired in the post-process stage the lowest concentrations of benzene, toluene, naphthalene, acenaphthene and fluorene were observed.

  19. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    1999-10-01

    This is the progress report for the DOE grant DE-FG26-97FT97263 entitled, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'' for the period April 1999 to October 1999. The project is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University, the University of Tennessee Space Institute and Georgia Institute of Technology. The overall objectives of the project are to identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature and system pressure) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct thorough analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. During this reporting period, free swelling index measurements of the coal, fixed-bed gasification experiments, kinetic modeling of the catalyzed gasification, and X-ray diffraction analysis of catalyst and gasified char samples were undertaken. The gasification experiments were carried out using two different eutectic salt mixtures of Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (LNK) system and Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (NK) system. The gasification process followed a Langmuir-Hinshelwood type model. At 10 wt% of catalyst loading, the activation energy of the ternary catalyst system (LNK) was about half (98kJ/mol) the activation energy of the single catalyst system (K{sub 2}CO{sub 3}), which is about 170 kJ/ mole. The binary catalyst system (NK) showed activation energy of about 201 kJ/mol, which is slightly higher, compared to the K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} catalyst system. The ternary catalyst system was a much better eutectic catalyst system compared to the binary or single catalyst system. In general, a eutectic with a melting point

  20. New projects for CCGTs with coal gasification (Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olkhovskii, G. G.

    2016-10-01

    Perspectives of using coal in combined-cycle gas turbine units (CCGTs), which are significantly more efficient than steam power plants, have been associated with preliminary coal gasification for a long time. Due to gasification, purification, and burning the resulting synthesis gas at an increased pressure, there is a possibility to intensify the processes occurring in them and reduce the size and mass of equipment. Physical heat evolving from gasification can be used without problems in the steam circuit of a CCGT. The downside of these opportunities is that the unit becomes more complex and expensive, and its competitiveness is affected, which was not achieved for CCGT power plants with coal gasification built in the 1990s. In recent years, based on the experience with these CCGTs, several powerful CCGTs of the next generation, which used higher-output and cost-effective gas-turbine plants (GTPs) and more advanced systems of gasification and purification of synthesis gas, were either built or designed. In a number of cases, the system of gasification includes devices of CO vapor reforming and removal of the emitted CO2 at a high pressure prior to fuel combustion. Gasifiers with air injection instead of oxygen injection, which is common in coal chemistry, also find application. In this case, the specific cost of the power station considerably decreases (by 15% and more). In units with air injection, up to 40% air required for separation is drawn from the intermediate stage of the cycle compressor. The range of gasified coals has broadened. In order to gasify lignites in one of the projects, a transfer reactor was used. The specific cost of a CCGT with coal gasification rose in comparison with the period when such units started being designed, from 3000 up to 5500 dollars/kW.

  1. Commercial scale gasification test with Kentucky coal

    SciTech Connect

    Roeger, A.; Jones, J.E.

    1984-03-01

    The paper describes in some detail the coal testing programme carried out by Tri-State Synfuels. One of the major elements in the programme was a commercial-scale gasification test with Kentucky 9 coal in a Lurgi dry-bottom gasifier. This was carried out at the Sasol One plant in Sasolburg, S. Africa, in 1981. Other parts of the programme included coal selection, characterisation, stockpile weatherability, corrosion testing, by-product characterisation and waste water treatability.

  2. Development of mild gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

    1988-02-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. DE-AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1-Test Plan; Task 2-Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3-Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4-Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

  3. Development of mild gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Gillespie, B.L.

    1987-11-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

  4. Development of mild gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Derting, T.M.

    1988-07-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

  5. Development of mild gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, C.I.C.; Williams, S.W.

    1989-01-01

    Under a previous contract with Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC), Department of Energy (DOE) Contract No. AC21-84MC21108, UCC Research Corporation (UCCRC) built and tested a 1500 lb/day Mild Gasification Process Development Unit (MGU). The MGU, as tested under the previous contract, is shown in Figure 1. Testing completed under the previous contract showed that good quality hydrocarbon liquids and good quality char can be produced in the MGU. However, the MGU is not optimized. The primary objectives of the current project are to optimize the MGU and determine the suitability of char for several commercial applications. The program consists of four tasks; Task 1 -- Test Plan; Task 2 -- Optimization of Mild Gasification Process; Task 3 -- Evaluation of Char and Char/Coal Blends as a Boiler/Blast Furnace Fuel; and Task 4 -- Analysis of Data and Preparation of Final Report. Task 1 has been completed while work continued on Task 2.

  6. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 13. Gasification of Blind Canyon bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the thirteenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Blind Canyon bituminous coal, from July 31, 1984 to August 11, 1984. 6 refs., 22 figs., 20 tabs.

  7. Novel Low-Cost Process for the Gasification of Biomass and Low-Rank Coals

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Barton

    2009-03-05

    Farm Energy envisaged a phased demonstration program, in which a pilot-scale straw gasifier will be installed on a farm. The synthesis gas product will be used to initially (i) generate electricity in a 300 kW diesel generator, and subsequently (ii) used as a feedstock to produce ethanol or mixed alcohols. They were seeking straw gasification and alcohol synthesis technologies that may be implemented on farm-scale. The consortium, along with the USDA ARS station in Corvallis, OR, expressed interest in the dual-bed gasification concept promoted by WRI and Taylor Energy, LLC. This process operated at atmospheric pressure and employed a solids-circulation type oxidation/reduction cycle significantly different from traditional fluidized-bed or up-draft type gasification reactors. The objectives of this project were to perform bench-scale testing to determine technical feasibility of gasifier concept, to characterize the syngas product, and to determine the optimal operating conditions and configuration. We used the bench-scale test data to complete a preliminary design and cost estimate for a 1-2 ton per hour pilot-scale unit that is also appropriate for on-farm scale applications. The gasifier configuration with the 0.375-inch stainless steel balls recirculating media worked consistently and for periods up to six hours of grass feed. The other principle systems like the boiler, the air pump, and feeder device also worked consistently during all feeding operations. Minor hiccups during operation tended to come from secondary systems like the flare or flammable material buildup in the exit piping. Although we did not complete the extended hour tests to 24 or 48 hours due to time and budget constraints, we developed the confidence that the gasifier in its current configuration could handle those tests. At the modest temperatures we operated the gasifier, slagging was not a problem. The solid wastes were dry and low density. The majority of the fixed carbon from the grass

  8. Prediction and measurement of entrained flow coal gasification processes. Interim report, September 8, 1981-September 7, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Hedman, P.O.; Smoot, L.D.; Fletcher, T.H.; Smith, P.J.; Blackham, A.U.

    1984-01-31

    This volume reports interim experimental and theoretical results of the first two years of a three year study of entrained coal gasification with steam and oxygen. The gasifier facility and testing methods were revised and improved. The gasifier was also modified for high pressure operation. Six successful check-out tests at elevated pressure were performed (55, 75, 100, 130, 170, and 215 psig), and 8 successful mapping tests were performed with the Utah bituminous coal at an elevated pressure of 137.5 psig. Also, mapping tests were performed at atmospheric pressure with a Utah bituminous coal (9 tests) and with a Wyoming subbituminous coal (14 tests). The LDV system was used on the cold-flow facility to make additional nonreactive jets mixing measurements (local mean and turbulent velocity) that could be used to help validate the two-dimensional code. The previously completed two-dimensional entrained coal gasification code, PCGC-2, was evaluated through rigorous comparison with cold-flow, pulverized coal combustion, and entrained coal gasification data. Data from this laboratory were primarily used but data from other laboratories were used when available. A complete set of the data used has been compiled into a Data Book which is included as a supplemental volume of this interim report. A revised user's manual for the two-dimensional code has been prepared and is also included as a part of this interim report. Three technical papers based on the results of this study were published or prepared. 107 references, 57 figures, 35 tables.

  9. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-04-01

    The project, ''Catalytic Gasification of Coal Using Eutectic Salt Mixtures'', is being conducted jointly by Clark Atlanta University (CAU), the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) and the Georgia Institute of Technology (GT). The aims of the project are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for the gasification of Illinois No.6 coal; evaluate various impregnation or catalyst addition methods to improve catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (e.g., temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts in a bench-scale fixed bed reactor; and conduct thorough analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide a better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. The eutectic catalysts increased gasification rate significantly. The methods of catalyst preparation and addition had significant effect on the catalytic activity and coal gasification. The incipient wetness method gave more uniform catalyst distribution than that of physical mixing for the soluble catalysts resulting in higher gasification rates for the incipient wetness samples. The catalytic activity increased by varying degrees with catalyst loading. The above results are especially important since the eutectic catalysts (with low melting points) yield significant gasification rates even at low temperatures. Among the ternary eutectic catalysts studied, the system 39% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-38.5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-22.5% Rb{sub 2}CO{sub 3} showed the best activity and will be used for further bench scale fixed-bed gasification reactor in the next period. Based on the Clark Atlanta University studies in the previous reporting period, the project team selected the 43.5% Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-31.5% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-25% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} ternary eutectic and the 29% Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-71% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} binary eutectic for the fixed-bed studies

  10. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    result the technique of adding the eutectic to the raw coal was found to be better than using wet methods. Also, addition of the catalyst to the raw coal appeared to give better gasification results than addition to pyrolyzed coal. In addition, eutectic catalysts added to the coal yielded better gasification rates than rates obtained by mixing the individual salts in the eutectic ratio with the coal. These results, especially with the eutectic catalysts are very significant since the use of the low melting eutectics will reduce the severity of gasification processes.

  11. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    2000-04-01

    result the technique of adding the eutectic to the raw coal was found to be better than using wet methods. Also, addition of the catalyst to the raw coal appeared to give better gasification results than addition to pyrolyzed coal. In addition, eutectic catalysts added to the coal yielded better gasification rates than rates obtained by mixing the individual salts in the eutectic ratio with the coal. These results, especially with the eutectic catalysts are very significant since the use of the low melting eutectics will reduce the severity of gasification processes.

  12. Development of Biological Coal Gasification (MicGAS Process). Topical report, July 1991--February 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, K.C.

    1993-06-01

    Laboratory and bench scale reactor research carried out during the report period confirms the feasibility of biomethanation of Texas lignite (TxL) and some other low-rank coals to methane by specifically developed unique anaerobic microbial consortia. The data obtained demonstrates specificity of a particular microbial consortium to a given lignite. Development of a suitable microbial consortium is the key to the success of the process. The Mic-1 consortium was developed to tolerate higher coal loadings of 1 and 5% TxL in comparison to initial loadings of 0.01% and 0.1% TxL. Moreover, the reaction period was reduced from 60 days to 14 to 21 days. The cost of the culture medium for bioconversion was reduced by studying the effect of different growth factors on the biomethanation capability of Mic-1 consortium. Four different bench scale bioreactor configurations, namely Rotating Biological Contactor (RBC), Upflow Fluidized Bed Reactor (UFBR), Trickle Bed Reactor (TBR), and Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) were evaluated for scale up studies. Preliminary results indicated highest biomethanation of TxL by the Mic-1 consortium in the CSTR, and lowest in the trickle bed reactor. However, highest methane production and process efficiency were obtained in the RBC.

  13. Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal; Yaw D. Yeboah.

    1998-12-04

    The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. A review of the collected literature was carried out. The catalysts which have been used for gasification can be roughly classified under the following five groups: alkali metal salts; alkaline earth metal oxides and salts; mineral substances or ash in coal; transition metals and their oxides and salts; and eutectic salt mixtures. Studies involving the use of gasification catalysts have been conducted. However, most of the studies focused on the application of individual catalysts. Only two publications have reported the study of gasification of coal char in CO2 and steam catalyzed by eutectic salt mixture catalysts. By using the eutectic mixtures of salts that show good activity as individual compounds, the gasification temperature can be reduced possibly with still better activity and gasification rates due to improved dispersion of the molten catalyst on the coal particles. For similar metal/carbon atomic ratios, eutectic catalysts were found to be consistently more active than their respective single salts. But the exact roles that the eutectic salt mixtures play in these are not well understood and details of the mechanisms remain unclear. The effects of the surface property of coals and the application methods of eutectic salt mixture catalysts with coal chars on the reactivity of gasification will be studied. Based on our preliminary evaluation of the literature, a ternary

  14. Catalytic Gasification of Coal using Eutectic Salt Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Atul Sheth; Pradeep Agrawal; Yaw D. Yeboah

    1998-12-04

    The objectives of this study are to: identify appropriate eutectic salt mixture catalysts for coal gasification; assess agglomeration tendency of catalyzed coal; evaluate various catalyst impregnation techniques to improve initial catalyst dispersion; evaluate effects of major process variables (such as temperature, system pressure, etc.) on coal gasification; evaluate the recovery, regeneration and recycle of the spent catalysts; and conduct an analysis and modeling of the gasification process to provide better understanding of the fundamental mechanisms and kinetics of the process. A review of the collected literature was carried out. The catalysts which have been used for gasification can be roughly classified under the following five groups: alkali metal salts; alkaline earth metal oxides and salts; mineral substances or ash in coal; transition metals and their oxides and salts; and eutectic salt mixtures. Studies involving the use of gasification catalysts have been conducted. However, most of the studies focused on the application of individual catalysts. Only two publications have reported the study of gasification of coal char in CO2 and steam catalyzed by eutectic salt mixture catalysts. By using the eutectic mixtures of salts that show good activity as individual compounds, the gasification temperature can be reduced possibly with still better activity and gasification rates due to improved dispersion of the molten catalyst on the coal particles. For similar metal/carbon atomic ratios, eutectic catalysts were found to be consistently more active than their respective single salts. But the exact roles that the eutectic salt mixtures play in these are not well understood and details of the mechanisms remain unclear. The effects of the surface property of coals and the application methods of eutectic salt mixture catalysts with coal chars on the reactivity of gasification will be studied. Based on our preliminary evaluation of the literature, a ternary

  15. HR 160 performance in coal gasification equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Whittaker, G.S.

    1995-12-31

    An alloy 825 water-cooled component failed by sulfidation enhanced thermal fatigue in a commercial coal gasification system. In an attempt to improve component life the material of construction was changed to Haynes HR-160. After several years of operating experience the HR-160 has not provided the desired improvement. Analysis shows the failure mechanism has remained the same.

  16. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, April-June 1979

    SciTech Connect

    1980-04-01

    In DOE's program for the conversion of coal to gaseous fuels both high-and low-Btu gasification processes are being developed. High-Btu gas can be distributed economically to consumers in the same pipeline systems now used to carry natural gas. Low-Btu gas, the cheapest of the gaseous fuels produced from coal, can be used economically only on site, either for electric power generation or by industrial and petrochemical plants. High-Btu natural gas has a heating value of 950 to 1000 Btu per standard cubic foot, is composed essentially of methane, and contains virtually no sulfur, carbon monoxide, or free hydrogen. The conversion of coal to High-Btu gas requires a chemical and physical transformation of solid coal. Coals have widely differing chemical and physical properties, depending on where they are mined, and are difficult to process. Therefore, to develop the most suitable techniques for gasifying coal, DOE, together with the American Gas Association (AGA), is sponsoring the development of several advanced conversion processes. Although the basic coal-gasification chemical reactions are the same for each process, each of the processes under development have unique characteristics. A number of the processes for converting coal to high-Btu gas have reached the pilot plant Low-Btu gas, with a heating value of up to 350 Btu per standard cubic foot, is an economical fuel for industrial use as well as for power generation in combined gas-steam turbine power cycles. Because different low-Btu gasification processes are optimum for converting different types of coal, and because of the need to provide commercially acceptable processes at the earliest possible date, DOE is sponsoring the concurrent development of several basic types of gasifiers (fixed-bed, fluidized-bed, and entrained-flow).

  17. Current experiences in applied underground coal gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Justyn

    2010-05-01

    The world is experiencing greater stress on its ability to mine and exploit energy resources such as coal, through traditional mining methods. The resources available by extraction from traditional mining methods will have a finite time and quantity. In addition, the high quality coals available are becoming more difficult to find substantially increasing exploration costs. Subsequently, new methods of extraction are being considered to improve the ability to unlock the energy from deep coals and improve the efficiency of the exploitation of the resources while also considering the mitigation of global warming. Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is a leading commercial technology that is able to maximize the exploitation of the deep coal through extraction of the coal as a syngas (CO and H2) in situ. The syngas is then brought to the surface and efficiently utilized in any of combined cycle power generation, liquid hydrocarbon transport fuel production, fertilizer production or polymer production. Commercial UCG has been successfully operating for more than 50 years at the Yerostigaz facility in Angren, Uzbekistan. Yerostigaz is the only remaining UCG site in the former Soviet Union. Linc Energy currently owns 91.6% of this facility. UCG produces a high quality synthetic gas (syngas), containing carbon monoxide, hydrogen and methane. UCG produced syngas can be economically used for a variety of purposes, including: the production of liquid fuels when combined with Gas to Liquids (GTL) technology power generation in gas turbine combined cycle power stations a feedstock for different petrochemical processes, for example producing chemicals or other gases such as hydrogen, methane, ammonia, methanol and dimethyl ether Linc Energy has proven the combined use of UCG to Gas to Liquids (GTL) technologies. UCG to GTL technologies have the ability to provide energy alternatives to address increasing global demand for energy products. With these technologies, Linc Energy is

  18. Monitoring of Underground Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X.; Wagoner, J.; Ramirez, A.

    2012-08-31

    For efficient and responsible UCG operations, a UCG process must be monitored in the following three categories: 1) process parameters such as injection and product gas flow rates, temperature, pressure and syngas content and heating value; 2) geomechanical parameters, e.g., cavity and coal seam pressures, cavity development, subsidence and ground deformation; and 3) environmental parameters, e.g., groundwater chemistry and air quality. This report focuses on UCG monitoring with geophysical techniques that can contribute to monitoring of subsurface temperature, cavity development, burn front, subsidence and deformation.

  19. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 7. Gasification of Piney Tipple bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the seventh volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Piney Tipple bituminous coal. The period of the gasification test was July 18-24, 1983. 6 refs., 20 figs., 17 tabs.

  20. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 5. Gasification of Stahlman Stoker bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-03-31

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the fifth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Stahlman Stoker bituminous coal from Clarion County, PA. The period of the gasification test was April 30 to May 4, 1983. 4 refs., 16 figs., 10 tabs.

  1. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 4. Gasification of Leucite Hills subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-03-31

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the fourth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Leucite Hills subbituminous coal from Sweetwater County, Wyoming. The period of the gasification test was April 11-30, 1983. 4 refs., 23 figs., 27 tabs.

  2. Underground Coal Gasification - Experience of ONGC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, P. K.

    2017-07-01

    Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is expected to be game changer for nation like ours that requires large amounts of energy but have few natural resources other than coal. ONGC, being an integrated energy company and due to synergy between E & P operations and UCG, envisaged opportunities in UCG business. Its first campaign on UCG started in 1980s. With its initiative, a National Committee for UCG was constituted with representatives from Ministry of Petroleum, Dept. of Coal, CSIR, CMPDIL, State of Gujarat and ONGC for experimenting a pilot. It was decided in mid-1986 to carry out a UCG pilot in Sobhasan area of Mehsana district which was to be funded by OIDB. Two information wells were drilled to generate geological, geophysical, geo-hydrological data and core/coal samples. 3-D seismic survey data of Mehsana area was processed and interpreted and geological model was prepared. Basic designing of pilot project, drilling and completion, strategy of process wells and designing of surface facilities were carried out. The project could not be pursued further due to escalation in cost and contractual difficulty with design consultant. ONGC second UCG campaign commenced with signing of an agreement of collaboration (AOC) with Skochinsky Institute of Mining (SIM), Russia on 25th November 2004 for Underground Coal Gasification (UCG). In parallel, MOUs were signed with major coal and power companies, namely, Gujarat Industries Power Company Ltd (GIPCL), Gujarat Mineral Development Corporation Ltd (GMDC), Coal India Ltd (CIL), Singareni Colliery Company Ltd (SCCL) and NLC India Ltd. Under the AOC, suitability study was carried out for different sites belonging to MOU companies. Only Vastan mine block, Nani Naroli, Surat, Gujarat was found to be suitable for UCG. Therefore, subsequent stages of detailed characterization & pilot layout, detailed engineering design were taken up for Vastan site. After enormous efforts for quite long since 2006, in the absence of UCG policy

  3. Prediction and measurement of optimum operating conditions for entrained coal gasification processes. Quarterly technical progress report, No. 1, 1 November 1979-31 January 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Smoot, L.D.; Hedman, P.O.; Smith, P.J.

    1980-02-15

    This report summarizes work completed to predict and measure optimum operating conditions for entrained coal gasifications processes. This study is the third in a series designed to investigate mixing and reaction in entrained coal gasifiers. A new team of graduate and undergraduate students was formed to conduct the experiments on optimum gasification operating conditions. Additional coal types, which will be tested in the gasifier were identified, ordered, and delivered. Characterization of these coals will be initiated. Hardware design modifications to introduce swirl into the secondary were initiated. Minor modifications were made to the gasifier to allow laser diagnostics to be made on an independently funded study with the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. The tasks completed on the two-dimensional model included the substantiation of a Gaussian PDF for the top-hat PDF in BURN and the completion of a Lagrangian particle turbulent dispersion module. The reacting submodel is progressing into the final stages of debug. The formulation of the radiation submodel is nearly complete and coding has been initiated. A device was designed, fabricated, and used to calibrate the actual Swirl Number of the cold-flow swirl generator used in the Phase 2 study. Swirl calibrations were obtained at the normal tests flow rates and at reduced flow rates. Two cold-flow tests were also performed to gather local velocity data under swirling conditions. Further analysis of the cold-flow coal-dust and swirl test results from the previous Phase 2 study were completed.

  4. Development of an Integrated Multi-Contaminant Removal Process Applied to Warm Syngas Cleanup for Coal-Based Advanced Gasification Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Howard

    2010-11-30

    This project met the objective to further the development of an integrated multi-contaminant removal process in which H2S, NH3, HCl and heavy metals including Hg, As, Se and Cd present in the coal-derived syngas can be removed to specified levels in a single/integrated process step. The process supports the mission and goals of the Department of Energy's Gasification Technologies Program, namely to enhance the performance of gasification systems, thus enabling U.S. industry to improve the competitiveness of gasification-based processes. The gasification program will reduce equipment costs, improve process environmental performance, and increase process reliability and flexibility. Two sulfur conversion concepts were tested in the laboratory under this project, i.e., the solventbased, high-pressure University of California Sulfur Recovery Process High Pressure (UCSRP-HP) and the catalytic-based, direct oxidation (DO) section of the CrystaSulf-DO process. Each process required a polishing unit to meet the ultra-clean sulfur content goals of <50 ppbv (parts per billion by volume) as may be necessary for fuel cells or chemical production applications. UCSRP-HP was also tested for the removal of trace, non-sulfur contaminants, including ammonia, hydrogen chloride, and heavy metals. A bench-scale unit was commissioned and limited testing was performed with simulated syngas. Aspen-Plus®-based computer simulation models were prepared and the economics of the UCSRP-HP and CrystaSulf-DO processes were evaluated for a nominal 500 MWe, coal-based, IGCC power plant with carbon capture. This report covers the progress on the UCSRP-HP technology development and the CrystaSulf-DO technology.

  5. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of process stream extracts from a coal gasification system

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, R.W.; Benson, J.M.; Li, A.P.; Henderson, R.F.; Brooks, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Extracts of three complex organic environmental mixtures, two from an experimental coal gasifier (a raw gas and a clean gas sample) and one from a coke oven main, were examined for genotoxicity. Three short-term genotoxicity assay systems were used: Ames Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay, Chinese hamster ovary cell/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) gene locus mutation assay, and the Chinese hamster lung primary culture/sister chromatid exchange (CHL/SCE) assay. Aroclor-1254-induced rat liver homogenate fraction (S-9) was required to observe genotoxicity in both gene locus mutation assays (CHO/HGPRT and Ames). The relative survival of CHO cells exposed to extracts was highest in cells exposed to clean gas samples, with the raw gas sample being the most cytotoxic either with or without the addition of S-9. All three complex mixtures induced sister chromatid exchanges in primary lung cell cultures without the addition of S-9. The relative genotoxicity ranking of the samples varied between the mammalian and prokaryotic assay systems. The results of all three assays indicate that the cleanup process used in the experimental gasifier was effective in decreasing the genotoxic materials in the process stream. These data also reemphasize the necessity of evaluating genotoxicity of complex mixtures in a variety of short-term systems.

  6. Gasification of coal liquefaction residues

    SciTech Connect

    Lancet, M. S.

    1981-02-03

    A method is described for gasifying the bottoms fraction from a coal liquefaction process. The bottoms fraction are mixed with at least one finely-divided calcium compound selected from the group consisting of calcium oxide, calcium carbonate and calcium hydroxide with the calcium compound being of a size no larger than about -200 tyler mesh and present in an amount sufficient to produce agglomerate particles upon mixing with the bottoms fraction and thereafter the resulting agglomerate particles are gasified by reacting the agglomerate particles with steam in a fluidized bed.

  7. Indirect liquefaction of coal. [Coal gasification plus Fischer-Tropsch, methanol or Mobil M-gasoline process

    SciTech Connect

    1980-06-30

    The most important potential environmental problems uniquely associated with indirect liquefaction appear to be related to the protection of occupational personnel from the toxic and carcinogenic properties of process and waste stream constituents, the potential public health risks from process products, by-products and emissions and the management of potentially hazardous solid wastes. The seriousness of these potential problems is related partially to the severity of potential effects (i.e., human mortality and morbidity), but even more to the uncertainty regarding: (1) the probable chemical characteristics and quantities of process and waste streams; and (2) the effectiveness and efficiencies of control technologies not yet tested on a commercial scale. Based upon current information, it is highly improbable that these potential problems will actually be manifested or pose serious constraints to the development of indirect liquefaction technologies, although their potential severity warrants continued research and evaluation. The siting of indirect liquefaction facilities may be significantly affected by existing federal, state and local regulatory requirements. The possibility of future changes in environmental regulations also represents an area of uncertainty that may develop into constraints for the deployment of indirect liquefaction processes. Out of 20 environmental issues identified as likely candidates for future regulatory action, 13 were reported to have the potential to impact significantly the commercialization of coal synfuel technologies. These issues are listed.

  8. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: TEXACO GASIFICATION PROCESS TEXACO, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) has operated commercially for nearly 45 years on feeds such as natural gas, liquid petroleum fractions, coal, and petroleum coke. More than 45 plants are either operational or under development in the United States and abroad. Texaco has dev...

  9. DEMONSTRATION BULLETIN: TEXACO GASIFICATION PROCESS TEXACO, INC.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) has operated commercially for nearly 45 years on feeds such as natural gas, liquid petroleum fractions, coal, and petroleum coke. More than 45 plants are either operational or under development in the United States and abroad. Texaco has dev...

  10. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of process stream extracts from a coal gasification system.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, R W; Benson, J M; Li, A P; Henderson, R F; Brooks, A L

    1984-01-01

    Extracts of three complex organic environmental mixtures, two from an experimental coal gasifier (a raw gas and a clean gas sample) and one from a coke oven main, were examined for genotoxicity. Three short-term genotoxicity assay systems were used: Ames Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay, Chinese hamster ovary cell/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) gene locus mutation assay, and the Chinese hamster lung primary culture/sister chromatid exchange (CHL/SCE) assay. Aroclor-1254-induced rat liver homogenate fraction (S-9) was required to observe genotoxicity in both gene locus mutation assays (CHO/HGPRT and Ames). The relative survival of CHO cells exposed to extracts was highest in cells exposed to clean gas samples, with the raw gas sample being the most cytotoxic either with or without the addition of S-9. All three complex mixtures induced sister chromatid exchanges in primary lung cell cultures without the addition of S-9. The relative genotoxicity ranking of the samples varied between the mammalian and prokaryotic assay systems. Coke oven main extract produced fewer revertants in bacteria than the raw gas sample. However, the coke oven main extract was more genotoxic in the two eukaryotic systems (CHL/SCE and CHO/HGPRT) than was the raw gas sample. The results of all three assays indicate that the cleanup process used in the experimental gasifier was effective in decreasing the genotoxic materials in the process stream. These data also reemphasize the necessity of evaluating genotoxicity of complex mixtures in a variety of short-term systems.

  11. Evaluation of the genotoxicity of process stream extracts from a coal gasification system

    SciTech Connect

    Shimizu, R.W.; Benson, J.M.; Li, A.P.; Henderson, R.F.; Brooks, A.L.

    1984-01-01

    Extracts of three complex organic environmental mixtures, two from an experimental coal gasifier (a raw gas and a clean gas sample) and one from a coke oven main, were examined for genotoxicity. Three short-term genotoxicity assay systems were used: Ames Salmonella typhimurium reverse mutation assay, Chinese hamster ovary cell/hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (CHO/HGPRT) gene locus mutation assay, and the Chinese hamster lung primary culture/sister chromatid exchange (CHL/SCE) assay. Aroclor-1254-induced rat liver homogenate fraction (S-9) was required to observe genotoxicity in both gene locus mutation assays. The relative survival of CHO cells exposed to extracts was highest in cells exposed to clean gas samples, with the raw gas sample being the most cytotoxic either with or without the addition of S-9. All three complex mixtures induced sister chromatid exchanges in primary lung cell cultures without the addition of S-9. The relative genotoxicity ranking of the samples varied between the mammalian and prokaryotic assay systems. Coke oven main extract produced fewer revertants in bacteria than the raw gas sample. However, the coke oven main extract was more genotoxic in the two eukaryotic systems (CHL/SCE and CHO/HGPRT) than was the raw gas sample. The results of all three assays indicate that the cleanup process used in the experimental gasifier was effective in decreasing the genotoxic materials in the process stream. These data also reemphasize the necessity of evaluating genotoxicity of complex mixtures in a variety of short-term systems. 24 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  12. Steam jacket dynamics in underground coal gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otto, Christopher; Kempka, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) has the potential to increase the world-wide hydrocarbon reserves by utilization of deposits not economically mineable by conventional methods. In this context, UCG involves combusting coal in-situ to produce a high-calorific synthesis gas, which can be applied for electricity generation or chemical feedstock production. Apart from high economic potentials, in-situ combustion may cause environmental impacts such as groundwater pollution by by-product leakage. In order to prevent or significantly mitigate these potential environmental concerns, UCG reactors are generally operated below hydrostatic pressure to limit the outflow of UCG process fluids into overburden aquifers. This pressure difference effects groundwater inflow into the reactor and prevents the escape of product gas. In the close reactor vicinity, fluid flow determined by the evolving high reactor temperatures, resulting in the build-up of a steam jacket. Numerical modeling is one of the key components to study coupled processes in in-situ combustion. We employed the thermo-hydraulic numerical simulator MUFITS (BINMIXT module) to address the influence of reactor pressure dynamics as well as hydro-geological coal and caprock parameters on water inflow and steam jacket dynamics. The US field trials Hanna and Hoe Creek (Wyoming) were applied for 3D model validation in terms of water inflow matching, whereby the good agreement between our modeling results and the field data indicates that our model reflects the hydrothermal physics of the process. In summary, our validated model allows a fast prediction of the steam jacket dynamics as well as water in- and outflows, required to avoid aquifer contamination during the entire life cycle of in-situ combustion operations.

  13. Computational fluid dynamics modeling of coal gasification in a pressurized spout-fluid bed

    SciTech Connect

    Zhongyi Deng; Rui Xiao; Baosheng Jin; He Huang; Laihong Shen; Qilei Song; Qianjun Li

    2008-05-15

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling, which has recently proven to be an effective means of analysis and optimization of energy-conversion processes, has been extended to coal gasification in this paper. A 3D mathematical model has been developed to simulate the coal gasification process in a pressurized spout-fluid bed. This CFD model is composed of gas-solid hydrodynamics, coal pyrolysis, char gasification, and gas phase reaction submodels. The rates of heterogeneous reactions are determined by combining Arrhenius rate and diffusion rate. The homogeneous reactions of gas phase can be treated as secondary reactions. A comparison of the calculated and experimental data shows that most gasification performance parameters can be predicted accurately. This good agreement indicates that CFD modeling can be used for complex fluidized beds coal gasification processes. 37 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Coal gasification developments in Europe -- A perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Burnard, G.K.; Sharman, P.W.; Alphandary, M.

    1994-12-31

    This survey paper will review the development status of coal gasification in Europe and give a broad perspective of the future uptake of the technology. Three main families of gasifier design are currently being developed or demonstrated world-wide, namely fixed bed (also known as moving bed), fluidized bed and entrained flow. Gasifiers belonging to each of these families have been or are being developed in European countries. Of the three families, entrained flow gasifiers are at the most advanced stage of development, with two demonstration projects currently underway: these projects are based on designs developed by Shell and Krupp Koppers. Fixed bed systems have been developed to operate under either slagging or non-slagging conditions, ie, the British Gas-Lurgi and Tampella U-Gas systems, respectively. Fluid bed systems of various designs have also been developed, eg, the Rheinbraun HTW, British Coal and Ahlstrom systems. Gasification cycles can be based on either total or partial gasification, and the above designs represent both these options. In addition, a wide variety of fuel sources can be used in gasifiers, including bituminous coal, lignite, biomass, petroleum coke, etc or, indeed, any combination of these. The major demonstration projects in Europe are at Buggenum in the Netherlands, where a 250 MWe entrained flow gasifier based on Shell technology first gasified coal in December 1993. A further 335 MWe entrained flow gasifier, located at Puertollano in Spain, based on Krupp Koppers Prenflo technology, is at an advanced stage of construction.

  15. Low-energy process for separating hydrogen and methane in advanced coal-gasification processes. Final report, September 8, 1980-January 7, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, R.T.; Saunders, J.T.; Byers, S.G.; Wang, S.S.

    1983-01-01

    This report contains the detailed results of the following three-part study: Part I. Adsorption of H/sub 2//CH/sub 4/ from single and mixed gases on activated carbon, coals and chars; Part II. Adsorption of H/sub 2/S and its mixtures with H/sub 2//CH/sub 4/ on activated carbon, coals and chars; and Part III. Separation of H/sub 2//CH/sub 4/ and H/sub 2//CH/sub 4//H/sub 2/S mixtures by a temperature-cycling process. The original scope of the study, as indicated by the title of the report, has been expanded to include H/sub 2/S in the gas mixture. The inclusion of H/sub 2/S was to study the feasibility of combining the H/sub 2//CH/sub 4/ separation step with the H/sub 2/S removal step into a single process. The success of the feasibility study naturally leads to the possibility of separating both CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/S from H/sub 2/ and CH/sub 4/ in coal gasification products by the cyclic adsorption/desorption process. The results of the study are presented.

  16. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS Process). Quarterly report, January--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    This paper reports on the progress of several subtasks of the project. Another test with dual bioreactors was started to confirm the results obtained previously. Coal samples from the experiment in upflow bioreactors were characterized for mineral content. Solid residues from the bioreactor experiment were analyzed for humic acid content. Results are given for all three investigations.

  17. Coal gasification players, projects, prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Blankinship, S.

    2006-07-15

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) technology has been running refineries and chemical plants for decades. Power applications have dotted the globe. Two major IGCC demonstration plants operating in the United States since the mid-1900s have helped set the stage for prime time, which is now approaching. Two major reference plant designs are in the wings and at least two major US utilities are poised to build their own IGCC power plants. 2 figs.

  18. Science and Technology Gaps in Underground Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R; Burton, E; Friedmann, J

    2006-06-27

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is an appropriate technology to economically access the energy resources in deep and/or unmineable coal seams and potentially to extract these reserves through production of synthetic gas (syngas) for power generation, production of synthetic liquid fuels, natural gas, or chemicals. India is a potentially good area for underground coal gasification. India has an estimated amount of about 467 billion British tons (bt) of possible reserves, nearly 66% of which is potential candidate for UCG, located at deep to intermediate depths and are low grade. Furthermore, the coal available in India is of poor quality, with very high ash content and low calorific value. Use of coal gasification has the potential to eliminate the environmental hazards associated with ash, with open pit mining and with greenhouse gas emissions if UCG is combined with re-injection of the CO{sub 2} fraction of the produced gas. With respect to carbon emissions, India's dependence on coal and its projected rapid rise in electricity demand will make it one of the world's largest CO{sub 2} producers in the near future. Underground coal gasification, with separation and reinjection of the CO{sub 2} produced by the process, is one strategy that can decouple rising electricity demand from rising greenhouse gas contributions. UCG is well suited to India's current and emerging energy demands. The syngas produced by UCG can be used to generate electricity through combined cycle. It can also be shifted chemically to produce synthetic natural gas (e.g., Great Plains Gasification Plant in North Dakota). It may also serve as a feedstock for methanol, gasoline, or diesel fuel production and even as a hydrogen supply. Currently, this technology could be deployed in both eastern and western India in highly populated areas, thus reducing overall energy demand. Most importantly, the reduced capital costs and need for better surface facilities provide a platform for rapid

  19. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOEpatents

    Aquino, Dolores C.; DaPrato, Philip L.; Gouker, Toby R.; Knoer, Peter

    1986-01-01

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone (12) with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65.degree. C. and 110.degree. C. for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m.sup.3. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step.

  20. Fluidized bed gasification of extracted coal

    DOEpatents

    Aquino, D.C.; DaPrato, P.L.; Gouker, T.R.; Knoer, P.

    1984-07-06

    Coal or similar carbonaceous solids are extracted by contacting the solids in an extraction zone with an aqueous solution having a pH above 12.0 at a temperature between 65/sup 0/C and 110/sup 0/C for a period of time sufficient to remove bitumens from the coal into said aqueous solution, and the extracted solids are then gasified at an elevated pressure and temperature in a fluidized bed gasification zone (60) wherein the density of the fluidized bed is maintained at a value above 160 kg/m/sup 3/. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, water is removed from the aqueous solution in order to redeposit the extracted bitumens onto the solids prior to the gasification step. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 9. Gasification of Elkhorn bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the ninth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Elkhorn bituminous coal. The period of gasificastion test was September 13 to October 12, 1983. 9 refs., 24 figs., 35 tabs.

  2. Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system: Topical report, Process analysis, FY 1983

    SciTech Connect

    1987-07-31

    KRW Energy Systems, Inc., is engaged in the continuing development of a pressurized, fluidized-bed gasification process at its Waltz Mill Site in Madison, Pennsylvania. The overall objective of the program is to demonstrate the viability of the KRW process for the environmentally-acceptable production of low- and medium-Btu fuel gas from a variety of fossilized carbonaceous feedstocks and industrial fuels. This report presents process analysis of the 24 ton-per-day Process Development Unit (PDU) operations and is a continuation of the process analysis work performed in 1980 and 1981. Included is work performed on PDU process data; gasification; char-ash separation; ash agglomeration; fines carryover, recycle, and consumption; deposit formation; materials; and environmental, health, and safety issues. 63 figs., 43 tabs.

  3. Gasoline from coal in the state of Illinois: feasibility study. Volume I. Design. [KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    Volume 1 describes the proposed plant: KBW gasification process, ICI low-pressure methanol process and Mobil M-gasoline process, and also with ancillary processes, such as oxygen plant, shift process, RECTISOL purification process, sulfur recovery equipment and pollution control equipment. Numerous engineering diagrams are included. (LTN)

  4. Recent developments in coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Schad, M.K.; Hafke, C.F.

    1983-05-01

    The authors trace the historical development of the Lurgi fixed-bed gasifier, showing how its application has been expanded. Improvements have been made in the type and size of coal which can be gasified and in the quality of gas produced. Particular attention is given to the Ruhr 100 pressure gasifier and to the British Gas/Lurgi slagging gasifier. Current work includes a programme on fine-coal agglomeration.

  5. Hydrogen production via the KBW gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Michaels, H.J.; Cannon, J.F.; Probert, P.B.

    1982-03-01

    In October, 1981, Koppers Company, Inc. and the Babcock and Wilcox Company (an operating unit of McDermott, Inc.) formed a joint venture, KBW Gasification Systems, Inc. to serve the expanding synthetic fuels market. KBW is offering commercially an atmospheric pressure, oxygen blown, slagging type entrained flow gasification system. The KBW coal gasification system was designed to offer the synthetic fuels industry an efficient, reliable and advanced system that uses proven modern technology. It can gasify any rank of coal. This includes both Eastern and Western U.S. Coals. Caking properties of the coal do not affect the gasification process. The KBW gasifier can handle wide variations in ash quantity, ash fusion temperature, and sulfur content. It can gasify 100 percent of the mine output. It has major environmental advantages. Tar, phenols, and heavy hydrocarbons are not produced in the KBW gasifier because of the high gasification temperature. It does not produce methane. This eliminates the need for costly and energy intensive steam reforming. It is based on design data, knowledge, and experience possessed by Koppers and Babcock and Wilcox in the areas of coal preparation and handling, mass transfer, heat transfer equipment fabrication, and plant construction. The KBW gasifier has a larger internal volume than existing entrained flow gasifiers. This results in high throughput rates. Both the KBW gasifier and heat recovery boiler use components that have been proven through years of fabrication and service. Membrane walls constructed of vertical, water cooled tubes (which have been widely used in boilers) are used in the KBW gasifier and heat recovery boiler. This feature enables the gasifier to produce high pressure saturated steam that is subsequently superheated in the heat recovery boiler. The water cooled tubes can withstand much higher heat fluxes than jacket type cooling systems while assuring nucleate boiling.

  6. The role of high-Btu coal gasification technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    German, M. I.

    An analysis is given of the role and economic potential of Lurgi-technology gasification of coal to the year 2000, in relation to other gas-supply options, the further development of gasifier designs, and probable environmental impact. It is predicted that coal gasification may reach 10% of total gas supplies by the year 2000, with Eastern U.S. coal use reaching commercially significant use in the 1990's. It is concluded that coal gasification is the cleanest way of using coal, with minimal physical, chemical, biological and socioeconomic impacts.

  7. Method for in situ gasification of a subterranean coal bed

    DOEpatents

    Shuck, Lowell Z.

    1977-05-31

    The method of the present invention relates to providing controlled directional bores in subterranean earth formations, especially coal beds for facilitating in situ gasification operations. Boreholes penetrating the coal beds are interconnected by laser-drilled bores disposed in various arrays at selected angles to the major permeability direction in the coal bed. These laser-drilled bores are enlarged by fracturing prior to the gasification of the coal bed to facilitate the establishing of combustion zones of selected configurations in the coal bed for maximizing the efficiency of the gasification operation.

  8. An overview of the geological controls in underground coal gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohanty, Debadutta

    2017-07-01

    Coal’s reign will extend well into this millennium as the global demand for coal is expected to increase on average by 2-1% per year through 2019. Enhanced utilization of the domestic coal resource through clean coal technologies is necessary to meet the energy needs while achieving reduced emissions. Underground coal gasification (UCG) is one of such potential technologies. Geology of the area plays decisive role throughout the life of a UCG project and imperative for every phase of the project cycle starting from planning, site selection, design to cessation of operations and restoration of the site. Impermeable over/underlying strata with low porosity and less deformation are most suitable for UCG processes as they act as seal between the coal seam and the surrounding aquifers while limiting the degree of subsidence. Inrush of excess water into the gasification chamber reduces the efficacy of the process and may even quench the reactions in progress. Presence of fresh water aquifer in the vicinity of target coal seam should be abandoned in order to avoid groundwater contamination. UCG is not a proven technology that is still evolving and there are risks that need to be monitored and managed. Effective shutdown programme should intend at minimising the post-burn contaminant generation by flushing out potential organic and inorganic contaminants from the underground strata and treating contaminants, and to restore ground water quality to near baseline conditions.

  9. Status of health and environmental research relative to coal gasification 1976 to the present

    SciTech Connect

    Wilzbach, K.E.; Reilly, C.A. Jr.

    1982-10-01

    Health and environmental research relative to coal gasification conducted by Argonne National Laboratory, the Inhalation Toxicology Research Institute, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory under DOE sponsorship is summarized. The studies have focused on the chemical and toxicological characterization of materials from a range of process streams in five bench-scale, pilot-plant and industrial gasifiers. They also address ecological effects, industrial hygiene, environmental control technology performance, and risk assessment. Following an overview of coal gasification technology and related environmental concerns, integrated summaries of the studies and results in each area are presented and conclusions are drawn. Needed health and environmental research relative to coal gasification is identified.

  10. Advanced Hydrogen Transport Membrane for Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Schwartz, Joseph; Porter, Jason; Patki, Neil; Kelley, Madison; Stanislowski, Josh; Tolbert, Scott; Way, J. Douglas; Makuch, David

    2015-12-23

    A pilot-scale hydrogen transport membrane (HTM) separator was built that incorporated 98 membranes that were each 24 inches long. This separator used an advanced design to minimize the impact of concentration polarization and separated over 1000 scfh of hydrogen from a hydrogen-nitrogen feed of 5000 scfh that contained 30% hydrogen. This mixture was chosen because it was representative of the hydrogen concentration expected in coal gasification. When tested with an operating gasifier, the hydrogen concentration was lower and contaminants in the syngas adversely impacted membrane performance. All 98 membranes survived the test, but flux was lower than expected. Improved ceramic substrates were produced that have small surface pores to enable membrane production and large pores in the bulk of the substrate to allow high flux. Pd-Au was chosen as the membrane alloy because of its resistance to sulfur contamination and good flux. Processes were developed to produce a large quantity of long membranes for use in the demonstration test.

  11. Advanced geophysical underground coal gasification monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Mellors, Robert; Yang, X.; White, J. A.; Ramirez, A.; Wagoner, J.; Camp, D. W.

    2014-07-01

    Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) produces less surface impact, atmospheric pollutants and greenhouse gas than traditional surface mining and combustion. Therefore, it may be useful in mitigating global change caused by anthropogenic activities. Careful monitoring of the UCG process is essential in minimizing environmental impact. Here we first summarize monitoring methods that have been used in previous UCG field trials. We then discuss in more detail a number of promising advanced geophysical techniques. These methods – seismic, electromagnetic, and remote sensing techniques – may provide improved and cost-effective ways to image both the subsurface cavity growth and surface subsidence effects. Active and passive seismic data have the promise to monitor the burn front, cavity growth, and observe cavity collapse events. Electrical resistance tomography (ERT) produces near real time tomographic images autonomously, monitors the burn front and images the cavity using low-cost sensors, typically running within boreholes. Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is a remote sensing technique that has the capability to monitor surface subsidence over the wide area of a commercial-scale UCG operation at a low cost. It may be possible to infer cavity geometry from InSAR (or other surface topography) data using geomechanical modeling. The expected signals from these monitoring methods are described along with interpretive modeling for typical UCG cavities. They are illustrated using field results from UCG trials and other relevant subsurface operations.

  12. Sea pavement using sulfur obtained from coal gasification. Research report for dec 80-jul 81

    SciTech Connect

    Kasinskas, M.M.; LaChance, H.C.; Nashold, F.G.

    1981-10-01

    A sulfur-extended asphalt (SEA) pavement using sulfur obtained from a coal gasification process was placed in a commuter parking lot. This report covers the design, mixing and placement of the SEA material and associated problems.

  13. Wabash River coal gasification repowering project: Public design report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (the Project), conceived in October of 1990 and selected by the US Department of Energy as a Clean Coal IV demonstration project in September 1991, is expected to begin commercial operations in August of 1995. The Participants, Destec Energy, Inc., (Destec) of Houston, Texas and PSI Energy, Inc., (PSI) of Plainfield, Indiana, formed the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project Joint Venture (the JV) to participate in the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology (CCT) program by demonstrating the coal gasification repowering of an existing 1950`s vintage generating unit affected by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA). The Participants, acting through the JV, signed the Cooperative Agreement with the DOE in July 1992. The Participants jointly developed, and separately designed, constructed, own, and will operate an integrated coal gasification combined cycle (CGCC) power plant using Destec`s coal gasification technology to repower Unit {number_sign}1 at PSI`s Wabash River Generating Station located in Terre Haute, Indiana. PSI is responsible for the new power generation facilities and modification of the existing unit, while Destec is responsible for the coal gasification plant. The Project demonstrates integration of the pre-existing steam turbine generator, auxiliaries, and coal handling facilities with a new combustion turbine generator/heat recovery steam generator tandem and the coal gasification facilities.

  14. Report to Congress on Contracting Approaches to Coal Gasification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-07-01

    of specific contracting approaches to coal gasification technology projects and submit a report on the findings by March 1, 2007. The report requests...if any, that may prevent the Department from effectively implementing coal gasification technology projects and recommendations for new authorities necessary to enable the effective implementation of such projects."

  15. Modelling of Underground Coal Gasification Process Using CFD Methods / Modelowanie Procesu Podziemnego Zgazowania Węgla Kamiennego Z Zastosowaniem Metod CFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wachowicz, Jan; Łączny, Jacek Marian; Iwaszenko, Sebastian; Janoszek, Tomasz; Cempa-Balewicz, Magdalena

    2015-09-01

    The results of model studies involving numerical simulation of underground coal gasification process are presented. For the purpose of the study, the software of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was selected for simulation of underground coal gasification. Based on the review of the literature, it was decided that ANSYS-Fluent will be used as software for the performance of model studies. The ANSYS- -Fluent software was used for numerical calculations in order to identify the distribution of changes in the concentration of syngas components as a function of duration of coal gasification process. The nature of the calculations was predictive. A geometric model has been developed based on construction data of the georeactor used during the researches in Experimental Mine "Barbara" and Coal Mine "Wieczorek" and it was prepared by generating a numerical grid. Data concerning the georeactor power supply method and the parameters maintained during the process used to define the numerical model. Some part of data was supplemented based on the literature sources. The main assumption was to base the simulation of the georeactor operation on a mathematical models describing reactive fluid flow. Components of the process gas and the gasification agent move along the gasification channel and simulate physicochemical phenomena associated with the transfer of mass and energy as well as chemical reactions (together with the energy effect). Chemical reactions of the gasification process are based on a kinetic equation which determines the course of a particular type of equation of chemical coal gasification. The interaction of gas with the surrounding coal layer has also been described as a part of the model. The description concerned the transport of thermal energy. The coal seam and the mass rock are treated as a homogeneous body. Modelling studies assumed the coal gasification process is carried out with the participation of separately oxygen and air as a gasification agent

  16. Corrosion and degradation of test materials in the Mountain Fuel Resources 30 ton/day coal gasification Process Development Unit

    SciTech Connect

    Yurkewycz, R.

    1985-01-31

    One period of in-plant exposure (lower section of gasifier and steam superheater) of candidate alloys for gasification applications was completed in the Mountain Fuel Resources, Inc. (MFR) Process Development Unit (PDU). During this brief period of exposure (294 h gasifying coal), temperatures at the test sites were 140/sup 0/F (60/sup 0/C) at the lower section of the gasifier and ranged from 350/sup 0/ to 500/sup 0/F (177/sup 0/ to 260/sup 0/C) during steady-state periods in the steam superheater but were sometimes <300/sup 0/F (149/sup 0/C). These lower temperatures, encountered during process upsets, were in many cases lower than the dew point of the product gas. Operating pressures were 300 psi (2.1 MPa) in the gasifier and ranged from 50 to 200 psig (0.4 to 1.4 MPa gauge) in the superheater. Fouling of heat exchanger surfaces was also reported. At the lower section of the gasifier, A515 carbon steel, aluminized carbon steel, 2 1/4Cr-1Mo, 1 1/4Cr-1Mo, 9Cr-1Mo, and 410 SS suffered from heavy corrosion and they cannot be considered for use in this system. Types 304 SS and 316 SS showed acceptable general corrosion resistance, but they suffered from pitting. Incoloy 800 was the only one of the alloys tested that exhibited excellent resistance to overall corrosion and pitting. In the steam superheater, high alloy steels Type 310, 26-1, 18-2, and Type 304 incurred the least amount of corrosion damage; corrosion rates were <10 mpy (0.25 mm/y). Alloy Incoloy 800 performed nominally at 21 mpy (0.53 mm/y). The remaining alloys 1 1/4Cr-1/2Mo, 2 1/4Cr-1Mo, Type 410, 253MA and 9Cr-1Mo(Mod.) experienced unacceptable localized corrosion losses; corrosion rates were >150 mpy (3.81 mm/y). Pack-aluminized carbon steel A515 showed no evidence of diffusion zone penetration and was acceptable in corrosion performance. 14 refs., 9 figs., 7 tabs.

  17. Gasification of high ash, high ash fusion temperature bituminous coals

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, WanWang

    2015-11-13

    This invention relates to gasification of high ash bituminous coals that have high ash fusion temperatures. The ash content can be in 15 to 45 weight percent range and ash fusion temperatures can be in 1150.degree. C. to 1500.degree. C. range as well as in excess of 1500.degree. C. In a preferred embodiment, such coals are dealt with a two stage gasification process--a relatively low temperature primary gasification step in a circulating fluidized bed transport gasifier followed by a high temperature partial oxidation step of residual char carbon and small quantities of tar. The system to process such coals further includes an internally circulating fluidized bed to effectively cool the high temperature syngas with the aid of an inert media and without the syngas contacting the heat transfer surfaces. A cyclone downstream of the syngas cooler, operating at relatively low temperatures, effectively reduces loading to a dust filtration unit. Nearly dust- and tar-free syngas for chemicals production or power generation and with over 90%, and preferably over about 98%, overall carbon conversion can be achieved with the preferred process, apparatus and methods outlined in this invention.

  18. Method for control of subsurface coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Komar, Charles A.

    1976-12-14

    The burn front in an in situ underground coal gasification operation is controlled by utilizing at least two parallel groups of vertical bore holes disposed in the coalbed at spaced-apart locations in planes orthogonal to the plane of maximum permeability in the coalbed. The combustion of the coal is initiated in the coalbed adjacent to one group of the bore holes to establish a combustion zone extending across the group while the pressure of the combustion supporting gas mixture and/or the combustion products is regulated at each well head by valving to control the burn rate and maintain a uniform propagation of the burn front between the spaced-apart hole groups to gasify virtually all the coal lying therebetween.

  19. Coal gasification. Quarterly report, January-March 1979. [US DOE supported

    SciTech Connect

    1980-01-01

    Progress in DOE-supported coal gasification pilot plant projects is reported: company, location, contract number, funding, process description, history and progress in the current quarter. Two support projects are discussed: preparation of a technical data book and mathematical modeling of gasification reactors. (LTN)

  20. Distributed optical fiber temperature sensor applied in underground coal gasification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianfeng; Hu, Chuanlong; Zhang, Zaixuan; Gong, Huaping; Jin, Yongxing; Shen, Changyu

    2010-12-01

    Distributed optical fiber temperature sensor (DTS) for underground coal gasification (UCG) system using is studied in this paper. By measuring temperature of reacting mine gasification process can be controlled. Calibration of DTS and experiment result are introduced. The results show that, DTS can play an important role in UCG systems.

  1. Experimental and numerical studies of coal gasification with pressurized drop tube furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, D.H.; Park, H.Y.; Kim, C.Y.

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes coal gasification studies in a PDTF reactor for IGCC. The effects of changes in reaction temperature and oxygen/coal ratio on the coal gasification process have been investigated by utilizing a pressurized drop tube furnace. The objective of this study is to determine the reaction mechanisms and kinetics for gasification of imported coals under the simulated operating conditions of commercial entrained flow gasifier. The PDTF reactor is designed to operate up to a temperature of about 1,600 C, a pressure of up to 25 bar with a wide range of inert, reducing and oxidizing atmospheres. The effects of changes in reaction temperature and oxygen/coal ratio on the coal gasification process of Datong Chinese coal have been investigated by utilizing a pressurized drop tube furnace. Pulverized coal of under 200 mesh with a feed rate of 2g/min is fed into the reaction tube by transport nitrogen gas of 2 SLPM. Instead of using oxygen, air is used as a secondary stream of oxidant for the gasification reaction with feed rate of 4.1 to 9.5 SLPM according to the oxygen/coal ratio of 0.6 to 1.4, which is preheated up to the reaction temperature. The reaction temperature is changed to 1,000 C, 1,200 C and 1,400 C respectively. However, the effects of pressure and steam/coal ratio on gasification were not considered in this experiment. In order to provide the proper engineering analyses for design and operation of a commercial coal gasifier for IGCC, it is necessary to characterize the basic behavior of gasification of coals at the same operating condition as the gasifier. A Pressurized Drop Tube Furnace reactor is considered as an useful facility for the such kinetic studies.

  2. Encoal mild coal gasification project: Final design modifications report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The design, construction and operation Phases of the Encoal Mild Coal Gasification Project have been completed. The plant, designed to process 1,000 ton/day of subbituminous Power River Basin (PRB) low-sulfur coal feed and to produce two environmentally friendly products, a solid fuel and a liquid fuel, has been operational for nearly five years. The solid product, Process Derived Fuel (PDF), is a stable, low-sulfur, high-Btu fuel similar in composition and handling properties to bituminous coal. The liquid product, Coal Derived Liquid (CDL), is a heavy, low-sulfur, liquid fuel similar in properties to heavy industrial fuel oil. Opportunities for upgrading the CDL to higher value chemicals and fuels have been identified. Significant quantities of both PDF and CDL have been delivered and successfully burned in utility and industrial boilers. A summary of the Project is given.

  3. Mass balances for underground coal gasification in steeply dipping beds

    SciTech Connect

    Lindeman, R.; Ahner, P.; Davis, B.E.

    1980-01-01

    Two different mass balances were used during the recent underground coal gasification tests conducted in steeply dipping coal beds at Rawlins, Wyoming. The combination of both mass balances proved extremely useful in interpreting the test results. One mass balance which assumed char could be formed underground required the solution of 3 simultaneous equations. The assumption of no char decouples the 3 equations in the other mass balance. Both mass balance results are compared to the test data to provide an interpretation of the underground process.

  4. Results from the third LLL underground coal gasification experiment at Hoe Creek

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, R.W.; Thorsness, C.B.; Cena, R.J.; Aiman, W.R.; Stephens, D.R.

    1980-05-20

    A major objective of the US Energy Program is the development of processes to produce clean fuels from coal. Underground coal gasification is one of the most promising of these processes. If successful, underground coal gasification (UCG) would quadruple the proven reserves of the US coal. Cost for products produced from UCG are projected to be 65 to 75% of those from conventional coal conversion. Finally, UCG appears to possess environmental advantages since no mining is involved and there are less solid wastes produced. In this paper we describe results from the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal gasification test. The experiment employed a drilled channel between process wells spaced 130' apart. The drilled channel was enlarged by reverse combustion prior to forward gasification. The first week of forward gasification was carried out using air injection, during which 250 tons of coal were consumed yielding an average dry product gas heating value of 114 Btu/scf. Following this phase, steam and oxygen were injected (generally a 50-50 mixture) for 47 days, during which 3945 tons of coal were consumed at an average rate of 84 tons of coal per day and an average dry gas heating value of 217 Btu/scf. The average gas composition during the steam-oxygen phase was 37% H/sub 2/, 5% CH/sub 4/, 11% CO, and 44% CO/sub 2/. Gas recovery was approximately 82% during the test, and the average thermochemical efficiency was near 65%.

  5. The ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project, A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-03-15

    This report is a post-project assessment of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} Mild Coal Gasification Project, which was selected under Round III of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Demonstration Program. The CCT Demonstration Program is a government and industry cofunded technology development effort to demonstrate a new generation of innovative coal utilization processes in a series of commercial-scale facilities. The ENCOAL{reg_sign} Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Bluegrass Coal Development Company (formerly SMC Mining Company), which is a subsidiary of Ziegler Coal Holding Company, submitted an application to the DOE in August 1989, soliciting joint funding of the project in the third round of the CCT Program. The project was selected by DOE in December 1989, and the Cooperative Agreement (CA) was approved in September 1990. Construction, commissioning, and start-up of the ENCOAL{reg_sign} mild coal gasification facility was completed in June 1992. In October 1994, ENCOAL{reg_sign} was granted a two-year extension of the CA with the DOE, that carried through to September 17, 1996. ENCOAL{reg_sign} was then granted a six-month, no-cost extension through March 17, 1997. Overall, DOE provided 50 percent of the total project cost of $90,664,000. ENCOAL{reg_sign} operated the 1,000-ton-per-day mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company's Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming, for over four years. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC{trademark}) technology originally developed by SMC Mining Company and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basin (PRB) coal to produce two new fuels, Process-Derived Fuel (PDF{trademark}) and Coal-Derived Liquids (CDL{trademark}). The products, as alternative fuel sources, are capable of significantly lowering current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation thus reducing pollutants causing acid rain. In support of this overall objective

  6. Plant design and economic analysis for solar coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Aiman, W.R.; Thorsness, C.B.; Gregg, D.W.

    1981-04-09

    The advantage of the solar coal gasification (SCG) method, compared to a similar Lurgi plant, is conservation of coal; 40% more product can be produced from a given amount of coal. The primary detriment of SCG is an 8 h/day operation; which leads to a higher plant investment for a given annual production. This higher plant investment is twice as important as the cost of the heliostat field. Providing excess heliostat capacity to maximize the output of the processing units probably is economically justified. Operating costs are lower for SCG, but capital costs are higher. In the future, as coal costs increase relative to investment costs, the SCG plant will become more economical than the Lurgi plant.

  7. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 2. Gasification of Jetson bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-03-31

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report describes the gasification testing of Jetson bituminous coal. This Western Kentucky coal was gasified during an initial 8-day and subsequent 5-day period. Material flows and compositions are reported along with material and energy balances. Operational experience is also described. 4 refs., 24 figs., 17 tabs.

  8. BI-GAS coal-gasification program. Final report, November 1979-August 1982

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, M.J.

    1983-01-31

    The primary purpose of this report is to cover in detail activities at the BI-GAS Coal-Gasification Pilot Plant from November 1979 through August 1982. During this period Stearns-Roger Incorporated was the prime contractor for the project. Volume 2 contains topical reports which describe the operation of the gasifier and each of the auxiliary process areas as well as heat and material balance data, computer simulation, gasification of Pittsburgh seam coal and materials evaluation.

  9. Clean fuels from coal gasification.

    PubMed

    Squires, A M

    1974-04-19

    The quickest way to establish a visible new margin against energy demand is the historic producer serving small industry and gasifying Pennsylvania anthracite. In 2 years many producers could be in operation. The quickest way to obtain significant supplies of "new" gas or oil is to retrofit existing electricity and industrial boilers for power or industrial gas. Important results could be achieved in 6 years. Table 3 identifies development activities deserving high priority to speed the capture of gas and oil now burned in boilers, and to speed realization the advantages of combined-cycle equipment running on coal (8). Obviously, these activities are not enough. Many exciting and worthwhile concepts at various stages of development can furnish improved techniques for converting coal to pipeline gas and liquid fuels for the long run. Reviews of these concepts are available (6, 32, 35). I have neglected them in this article not to deny their importance but to stress the earlier opportunities from technology that is ready now, or nearly ready. The oil and gas industries might well consider the historical progression from Wells Fargo to Western Union to American Telephone and Telegraph to Radio Corporation of America. These industries will miss the boat if they regard themselves simply as purveyors of their historical fuels and not as purveyors of clean energy. The gas industry especially will be in trouble if it lets its major industrial customers, such as steel and electricity, provide their own supplies of power and industrial gas.

  10. Carbon dioxide sorption capacities of coal gasification residues.

    PubMed

    Kempka, Thomas; Fernández-Steeger, Tomás; Li, Dong-Yong; Schulten, Marc; Schlüter, Ralph; Krooss, Bernhard M

    2011-02-15

    Underground coal gasification is currently being considered as an economically and environmentally sustainable option for development and utilization of coal deposits not mineable by conventional methods. This emerging technology in combination with carbon capture and sorptive CO2 storage on the residual coke as well as free-gas CO2 storage in the cavities generated in the coal seams after gasification could provide a relevant contribution to the development of Clean Coal Technologies. Three hard coals of different rank from German mining districts were gasified in a laboratory-scale reactor (200 g of coal at 800 °C subjected to 10 L/min air for 200 min). High-pressure CO2 excess sorption isotherms determined before and after gasification revealed an increase of sorption capacity by up to 42%. Thus, physical sorption represents a feasible option for CO2 storage in underground gasification cavities.

  11. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 10. Gasification of Benton lignite

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the tenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of Benton lignite. The period of gasification test was November 1-8, 1983. 16 refs., 22 figs., 19 tabs.

  12. Investigation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from coal gasification.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong-cang; Jin, Bao-sheng; Zhong, Zhao-ping; Huang, Ya-ji; Xiao, Rui; Li, Da-ji

    2005-01-01

    The hazardous organic pollutants generated from coal gasification, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs), are highly mutagenic and carcinogenic. More researchers have paid particular attention to them. Using air and steam as gasification medium, the experiments of three kinds of coals were carried out in a bench-scale atmospheric fluidized bed gasifier. The contents of the 16 PAHs specified by US EPA in raw coal, slag, bag house coke, cyclone coke and gas were measured by HPLC to study the contents of PAHs in raw coal and the effects of the inherent characters of coals on the formation and release of PAHs in coal gasification. The experimental results showed that the distributions of PAHs in the gasified products are similar to raw coals and the total-PAHs content in coal gasification is higher than in raw coal(except Coal C). The total-PAHs contents increase and then decrease with the rise of fixed carbon and sulfur of coal while there has an opposite variation when volatile matters content increase. The quantities of PAHs reduce with the increase of ash content or the drop of heating value during coal gasification.

  13. Recent regulatory experience of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume III. Supporting case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ackerman, E.; Hart, D.; Lethi, M.; Park, W.; Rifkin, S.

    1980-02-01

    The MITRE Corporation conducted a five-month study for the Office of Resource Applications in the Department of Energy on the regulatory requirements of low-Btu coal gasification. During this study, MITRE interviewed representatives of five current low-Btu coal gasification projects and regulatory agencies in five states. From these interviews, MITRE has sought the experience of current low-Btu coal gasification users in order to recommend actions to improve the regulatory process. This report is the third of three volumes. It contains the results of interviews conducted for each of the case studies. Volume 1 of the report contains the analysis of the case studies and recommendations to potential industrial users of low-Btu coal gasification. Volume 2 contains recommendations to regulatory agencies.

  14. Enriched-air and oxygen gasification of Illinois No. 6 coal in a Texaco coal-gasification unit

    SciTech Connect

    Crouch, W.B.; Richter, G.N.; Dillingham, E.W.

    1982-02-01

    Four runs were made with Illinois No. 6 coal, from Peabody Coal Company River King Mine at Freeburg, Illinois, to demonstrate technology to integrate the Texaco Coal Gasification Process in an environmentally acceptable manner with gas turbines for combined cycle electric power generation. Operability and response of the gasifier and a Selexol acid gas removal unit were demonstrated during load changes utilizing both oxygen and enriched air as oxidants (transient runs). Steady state performance data on the gasifier, Selexol unit and gas turbine combustor were obtained at a variety of oxygen to coal ratios at different production rates utilizing each oxidant (steady state runs). Essentially no effect of charge rate on the syngas quality was noted. Environmental base line data were gathered for both oxidants. Results of the environmental tests and the turbine combustor tests are reported separately.

  15. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    SciTech Connect

    Chellappa Balan; Debashis Dey; Sukru-Alper Eker; Max Peter; Pavel Sokolov; Greg Wotzak

    2004-01-31

    This study analyzes the performance and economics of power generation systems based on Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology and fueled by gasified coal. System concepts that integrate a coal gasifier with a SOFC, a gas turbine, and a steam turbine were developed and analyzed for plant sizes in excess of 200 MW. Two alternative integration configurations were selected with projected system efficiency of over 53% on a HHV basis, or about 10 percentage points higher than that of the state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) systems. The initial cost of both selected configurations was found to be comparable with the IGCC system costs at approximately $1700/kW. An absorption-based CO2 isolation scheme was developed, and its penalty on the system performance and cost was estimated to be less approximately 2.7% and $370/kW. Technology gaps and required engineering development efforts were identified and evaluated.

  16. Treatment of coal gasification wastewaters: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Donaldson, T.L.; Lee, D.D.; Singh, S.P.N.

    1987-03-01

    A bench-scale fluidized-bed bioreactor was operated for over 4 months to characterize the biooxidation of major organic pollutants in coal gasification wastewater obtained from the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. Monohydric phenol was degraded first, followed by more complex phenolics, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Organic components were assayed by methylene chloride extraction followed by gas chromatography. Genetic capability for degradation of naphthalene by the biofilm was identified by gene probe analysis. Further studies were conducted to determine if the existing biofilm could be enhanced for naphthalene degradation by supplemental inoculation with a microbial culture having good naphthalene-degrading capabilities. The biofilm response was monitored using gene probe techniques. An assessment of wastewater treatment technologies for coal conversion wastewaters was initiated. A bibliography was compiled, arrangements were initiated to collaborate with other investigators doing wastewater treatability studies, and a site visit was made to the Great Plains plant. 201 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Technical analysis of advanced wastewater-treatment systems for coal-gasification plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-03-31

    This analysis of advanced wastewater treatment systems for coal gasification plants highlights the three coal gasification demonstration plants proposed by the US Department of Energy: The Memphis Light, Gas and Water Division Industrial Fuel Gas Demonstration Plant, the Illinois Coal Gasification Group Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant, and the CONOCO Pipeline Gas Demonstration Plant. Technical risks exist for coal gasification wastewater treatment systems, in general, and for the three DOE demonstration plants (as designed), in particular, because of key data gaps. The quantities and compositions of coal gasification wastewaters are not well known; the treatability of coal gasification wastewaters by various technologies has not been adequately studied; the dynamic interactions of sequential wastewater treatment processes and upstream wastewater sources has not been tested at demonstration scale. This report identifies key data gaps and recommends that demonstration-size and commercial-size plants be used for coal gasification wastewater treatment data base development. While certain advanced treatment technologies can benefit from additional bench-scale studies, bench-scale and pilot plant scale operations are not representative of commercial-size facility operation. It is recommended that coal gasification demonstration plants, and other commercial-size facilities that generate similar wastewaters, be used to test advanced wastewater treatment technologies during operation by using sidestreams or collected wastewater samples in addition to the plant's own primary treatment system. Advanced wastewater treatment processes are needed to degrade refractory organics and to concentrate and remove dissolved solids to allow for wastewater reuse. Further study of reverse osmosis, evaporation, electrodialysis, ozonation, activated carbon, and ultrafiltration should take place at bench-scale.

  18. Preburn versus postburn mineralogical and geochemical characteristics of overburden and coal at the Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification site

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, R.L.; Youngberg, A.D.

    1983-12-01

    Hundreds of mineralogic and geochemical tests were done under US Department of Energy contracts on core samples taken from the Hanna underground coal gasification site. These tests included x-ray diffraction studies of minerals in coal ash, overburden rocks, and heat-altered rocks; x-ray fluorescence analyses of oxides in coal ash and heat-altered rocks; semi-quantitative spectrographic analyses of elements in coal, overburden, and heat-altered rocks; chemical analyses of elements and compounds in coal, overburden, and heat-altered rocks and ASTM proximate and ultimate analyses of coal and heat-altered coal. These data sets were grouped, averaged, and analyzed to provide preburn and postburn mineralogic and geochemical characteristics of rock units at the site. Where possible, the changes in characteristics from the preburn to the postburn state are related to underground coal gasification processes. 11 references, 13 figures, 8 tables.

  19. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGAS process). Final report, May 1, 1990--May 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    ARCTECH has developed a novel process (MicGAS) for direct, anaerobic biomethanation of coals. Biomethanation potential of coals of different ranks (Anthracite, bitumious, sub-bitumious, and lignites of different types), by various microbial consortia, was investigated. Studies on biogasification of Texas Lignite (TxL) were conducted with a proprietary microbial consortium, Mic-1, isolated from hind guts of soil eating termites (Zootermopsis and Nasutitermes sp.) and further improved at ARCTECH. Various microbial populations of the Mic-1 consortium carry out the multi-step MicGAS Process. First, the primary coal degraders, or hydrolytic microbes, degrade the coal to high molecular weight (MW) compounds. Then acedogens ferment the high MW compounds to low MW volatile fatty acids. The volatile fatty acids are converted to acetate by acetogens, and the methanogens complete the biomethanation by converting acetate and CO{sub 2} to methane.

  20. Soviet underground coal gasification on the rocks

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-13

    According to the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, the U.S.S.R. has abandoned large-scale development plans for coal-gasification projects, due to the low heating value of the gas produced at test burns at Angren, and to the cost, estimated at 132% of the standard Lurgi value, in contrast to the cost of approx. 65% of the standard Lurgi value in U.S. experimental burns. The U.S.S.R. coal-gasification effort has been in development since 1950, with a peak production of approx. 2 billion cu m/yr in 1966. The poor test burn results might have been caused by: drilling the boreholes too close to each other, which would increase drilling costs; the loss of a large amount of heat through a porous overburden; the lack of good underground diagnostics before and during a burn; and a lack of a good laboratory support program. The gas heating value was too low to warrant transportation far from the burn site, but most suitable burn sites are in remote areas. In the U.S.S.R., natural gas and open-pit lignite mining appear to be cheaper sources of energy.

  1. Modelling Test of Autothermal Gasification Process Using CFD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janoszek, Tomasz; Stańczyk, Krzysztof; Smoliński, Adam

    2017-06-01

    There are many complex physical and chemical processes, which take place among the most notable are the chemical reactions, mass and energy transport, and phase transitions. The process itself takes place in a block of coal, which properties are variable and not always easy to determine in the whole volume. The complexity of the phenomena results in the need for a construction of a complex model in order to study the process on the basis of simulation. In the present study attempts to develop a numerical model of the fixed bed coal gasification process in homogeneous solid block with a given geometry were mode. On the basis of analysis and description of the underground coal gasification simulated in the ex-situ experiment, a numerical model of the coal gasification process was developed. The model was implemented with the use of computational fluid dynamic CFD methods. Simulations were conducted using commercial numerical CFD code and the results were verified with the experimental data.

  2. Chicken-Bio Nuggets Gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Sheth, A.C.

    1996-12-31

    With the cost of landfill disposal skyrocketing and land availability becoming scarce, better options are required for managing our nation`s biomass waste. In response to this need, the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) is evaluating an innovative idea (described as Chicken-Bio Nuggets Gasification process) to gasify waste products from the poultry industry and industrial wood/biomass-based residues in {open_quotes}as-is{close_quotes} or aggregate form. The presence of potassium salts in the poultry waste as well as in the biomass can act as a catalyst in reducing the severity of the thermal gasification. As a result, the mixture of these waste products can be gasified at a much lower temperature (1,300-1,400{degrees}F versus 1,800-2,000{degrees}F for conventional thermal gasification). Also, these potassium salts act as a catalyst by accelerating the gasification reaction and enhancing the mediation reaction. Hence, the product gas from this UTSI concept can be richer in methane and probably can be used as a source of fuel (to replace propane in hard reach remote places) or as a chemical feed stock. Exxon Research and Engineering Company has tested a similar catalytic gasification concept in a fluid-bed gasifier using coal in a one ton/day pilot plant in Baytown, Texas. If found technically and economically feasible, this concept can be later on extended to include other kinds of waste products such as cow manure and wastes from swine, etc.

  3. Chemometric Study of the Ex Situ Underground Coal Gasification Wastewater Experimental Data.

    PubMed

    Smoliński, Adam; Stańczyk, Krzysztof; Kapusta, Krzysztof; Howaniec, Natalia

    2012-11-01

    The main goal of the study was the analysis of the parameters of wastewater generated during the ex situ underground coal gasification (UCG) experiments on lignite from Belchatow, and hard coal from Ziemowit and Bobrek coal mines, simulated in the ex situ reactor. The UCG wastewater may pose a potential threat to the groundwater since it contains high concentrations of inorganic (i.e., ammonia nitrogen, nitrites, chlorides, free and bound cyanides, sulfates and trace elements: As, B, Cr, Zn, Al, Cd, Co, Mn, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Hg, Se, Ti, Fe) and organic (i.e., phenolics, benzene and their alkyl derivatives, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) contaminants. The principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering analysis enabled to effectively explore the similarities and dissimilarities between the samples generated in lignite and hard coal oxygen gasification process in terms of the amounts and concentrations of particular components. The total amount of wastewater produced in lignite gasification process was higher than the amount generated in hard coal gasification experiments. The lignite gasification wastewater was also characterized by the highest contents of acenaphthene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene, whereas hard coal gasification wastewater was characterized by relatively higher concentrations of nitrites, As, Cr, Cu, benzene, toluene, xylene, benzo(a)anthracene, chrysene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(k)fluoranthene, and benzo(a)pyrene.

  4. A summary report on combustion and gasification processes

    SciTech Connect

    Rath, L.K.; Lee, G.T.

    1996-08-01

    Six poster papers regarding combustion and gasification were reviewed. These six papers address various different technology subjects: (1) underground coal gasification modeling, (2) wood gasification kinetics, (3) heat transfer surface pretreatment by iron implantation, (4) coal water slurry stabilization technology, (5) coal log pipeline technology, and (6) nuclear reactor decontamination. Summaries and comments of the following papers are presented: Characterization of Flow and Chemical Processes in an Underground Gasifier at Great Depth; Model for Reaction Kinetics in Pyrolysis of Wood; Development of a Stainless Steel Heat Transfer Surface with Low Scaling Tendency; Storage and Transportation of Coal Water Mixtures; Coal Log Pipeline: Development Status of the First Commercial System; and Decontamination of Nuclear Systems at the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station.

  5. Chemical looping coal gasification with calcium ferrite and barium ferrite via solid--solid reactions

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, Ranjani; Tian, Hanjing; Richards, George

    2016-01-01

    Coal gasification to produce synthesis gas by chemical looping was investigated with two oxygen carriers, barium ferrite (BaFe2O4) and calcium ferrite (CaFe2O4). Thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and fixed-bed flow reactor data indicated that a solid–solid interaction occurred between oxygen carriers and coal to produce synthesis gas. Both thermodynamic analysis and experimental data indicated that BaFe2O4 and CaFe2O4 have high reactivity with coal but have a low reactivity with synthesis gas, which makes them very attractive for the coal gasification process. Adding steam increased the production of hydrogen (H2) and carbon monoxide (CO), but carbon dioxide (CO2) remained low because these oxygen carriers have minimal reactivity with H2 and CO. Therefore, the combined steam–oxygen carrier produced the highest quantity of synthesis gas. It appeared that neither the water–gas shift reaction nor the water splitting reaction promoted additional H2 formation with the oxygen carriers when steam was present. Wyodak coal, which is a sub-bituminous coal, had the best gasification yield with oxygen carrier–steam while Illinois #6 coal had the lowest. The rate of gasification and selectivity for synthesis gas production was significantly higher when these oxygen carriers were present during steam gasification of coal. The rates and synthesis gas yields during the temperature ramps of coal–steam with oxygen carriers were better than with gaseous oxygen.

  6. Gasification of residual materials from coal liquefaction. Type III extended pilot plant evaluation of a pelletized and ground Kerr McGee mineral ash residue from SRC-I coal liquefaction process

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.M.; Robin, A.M.

    1984-02-01

    A Type III extended pilot plant evaluation of pelletized and ground Kerr McGee mineral ash residue, which was obtained from the liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal at the SRC-I coal liquefaction process pilot plant at Wilsonville, Alabama, was successfully completed at Texaco's Montebello Research Laboratory (MRL). A total of 60 tons of residue was gasified during three runs which were carried out at 950 psig in the MRL High Pressure Solids Gasification Unit II gasifier. The oxygen-to-residue ratio was varied to determine optimum operating conditions. The runs lasted from 6.9 hours to 56.3 hours and a total of 72.9 hours of on-stream time was accumulated. This work was authorized by DOE Delivery Order Number 9 under DOE contract DEAC-01-76ET-10137. It is part of a continuing project to evaluate residual materials from various DOE sponsored coal liquefaction projects to determine their suitability for conversion to hydrogen using one of the Texaco gasification processes. 5 figures, 5 tables.

  7. High temperature electrochemical separation of H{sub 2}S from coal gasification process streams. Quarterly progress report, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Winnick, J.

    1994-07-01

    An electrochemical membrane separation system for removing H{sub 2}S from coal gasification product steams is the subject of this investigation. The high operating temperature, flow-through design, and capability of selective H{sub 2}S removal and direct production of elemental sulfur offered by this process provide several advantages over existing and developmental H{sub 2}S removal technologies. Two experiments (Run {number_sign}17 & {number_sign}18) examining the removal capability of the EMS with cobalt cathode were performed this quarter. The focus dealt with H{sub 2}S removal as well as impeding hydrogen cross-over from the process gas side (cathode) of the membrane to the sweep gas side (anode).

  8. Coking and gasification process

    DOEpatents

    Billimoria, Rustom M.; Tao, Frank F.

    1986-01-01

    An improved coking process for normally solid carbonaceous materials wherein the yield of liquid product from the coker is increased by adding ammonia or an ammonia precursor to the coker. The invention is particularly useful in a process wherein coal liquefaction bottoms are coked to produce both a liquid and a gaseous product. Broadly, ammonia or an ammonia precursor is added to the coker ranging from about 1 to about 60 weight percent based on normally solid carbonaceous material and is preferably added in an amount from about 2 to about 15 weight percent.

  9. Method for using fast fluidized bed dry bottom coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Snell, George J.; Kydd, Paul H.

    1983-01-01

    Carbonaceous solid material such as coal is gasified in a fast fluidized bed gasification system utilizing dual fluidized beds of hot char. The coal in particulate form is introduced along with oxygen-containing gas and steam into the fast fluidized bed gasification zone of a gasifier assembly wherein the upward superficial gas velocity exceeds about 5.0 ft/sec and temperature is 1500.degree.-1850.degree. F. The resulting effluent gas and substantial char are passed through a primary cyclone separator, from which char solids are returned to the fluidized bed. Gas from the primary cyclone separator is passed to a secondary cyclone separator, from which remaining fine char solids are returned through an injection nozzle together with additional steam and oxygen-containing gas to an oxidation zone located at the bottom of the gasifier, wherein the upward gas velocity ranges from about 3-15 ft/sec and is maintained at 1600.degree.-200.degree. F. temperature. This gasification arrangement provides for increased utilization of the secondary char material to produce higher overall carbon conversion and product yields in the process.

  10. UTILIZATION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS MADE FROM COAL GASIFICATION SLAGS

    SciTech Connect

    Vas Choudhry; Stephen Kwan; Steven R. Hadley

    2001-07-01

    The objective of the project entitled ''Utilization of Lightweight Materials Made from Coal Gasification Slags'' was to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of manufacturing low-unit-weight products from coal gasification slags which can be used as substitutes for conventional lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates. In Phase I, the technology developed by Praxis to produce lightweight aggregates from slag (termed SLA) was applied to produce a large batch (10 tons) of expanded slag using pilot direct-fired rotary kilns and a fluidized bed calciner. The expanded products were characterized using basic characterization and application-oriented tests. Phase II involved the demonstration and evaluation of the use of expanded slag aggregates to produce a number of end-use applications including lightweight roof tiles, lightweight precast products (e.g., masonry blocks), structural concrete, insulating concrete, loose fill insulation, and as a substitute for expanded perlite and vermiculite in horticultural applications. Prototypes of these end-use applications were made and tested with the assistance of commercial manufacturers. Finally, the economics of expanded slag production was determined and compared with the alternative of slag disposal. Production of value-added products from SLA has a significant potential to enhance the overall gasification process economics, especially when the avoided costs of disposal are considered.

  11. LLNL Capabilities in Underground Coal Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, S J; Burton, E; Upadhye, R

    2006-06-07

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) has received renewed interest as a potential technology for producing hydrogen at a competitive price particularly in Europe and China. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) played a leading role in this field and continues to do so. It conducted UCG field tests in the nineteen-seventies and -eighties resulting in a number of publications culminating in a UCG model published in 1989. LLNL successfully employed the ''Controlled Retraction Injection Point'' (CRIP) method in some of the Rocky Mountain field tests near Hanna, Wyoming. This method, shown schematically in Fig.1, uses a horizontally-drilled lined injection well where the lining can be penetrated at different locations for injection of the O{sub 2}/steam mixture. The cavity in the coal seam therefore gets longer as the injection point is retracted as well as wider due to reaction of the coal wall with the hot gases. Rubble generated from the collapsing wall is an important mechanism studied by Britten and Thorsness.

  12. Global Development of Commercial Underground Coal Gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blinderman, M. S.

    2017-07-01

    Global development of Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) is considered here in light of latest trends of energy markets and environmental regulations in the countries that have been traditional proponents of UCG. The latest period of UCG development triggered by initial success of the Chinchilla UCG project (1997-2006) has been characterized by preponderance of privately and share-market funded developments. The deceleration of UCG commercialization has been in part caused by recent significant decrease of world oil, gas and coal prices. Another substantial factor was lack of necessary regulations governing extraction and conversion of coal by UCG method in the jurisdictions where the UCG projects were proposed and developed. Along with these objective causes there seem to have been more subjective and technical reasons for a slowdown or cancelation of several significant UCG projects, including low efficiency, poor environmental performance, and inability to demonstrate technology at a sufficient scale and/or at a competitive cost. Latest proposals for UCG projects are briefly reviewed.

  13. Calculation of the fixed bed coal gasification regimes by the use of thermodynamic model with macrokinetic constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donskoi, I. G.; Keiko, A. V.; Kozlov, A. N.; Svishchev, D. A.; Shamanskii, V. A.

    2013-12-01

    We discuss an equilibrium model of a fixed-bed solid fuel gasification process that takes into account macrokinetic constraints imposed on the rates of heterophase processes and allows the pyrolysis and gasification processes to be described in a fairly simple manner with the use of thermal analysis data. The results of calculations are compared with the measured parameters characterizing the Azeisk coal steam-air gasification process that were obtained in experiments on a laboratory setup.

  14. Mild coal gasification screw pyrolyzer development and design

    SciTech Connect

    Camp, D.W.

    1990-08-01

    Our objective is to produce information and design recommendations needed for the development of an efficient continuous process for the mild gasification of caking bituminous coals. We have focused on the development of an externally heated pyrolyzer in which the sticky, reacting coal is conveyed by one or more screws. We have taken a multifaceted approach to forwarding the development of the externally-heated screw pyrolyzer. Small scale process experiments on a 38-mm single screw pyrolyzer have been a major part of our effort. Engineering analyses aimed at producing design and scaleup equations have also been important. Process design recommendations follow from these. We critically review our experimental data and experience, and information from the literature and equipment manufactures for the purpose of making qualitative recommendations for improving practical pyrolyzer design and operation. Benchscale experiments are used to supply needed data and test some preliminary concepts. 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Study on the genotoxicity of 13 mild coal gasification products

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, B.Z.; Robbins, S.; Bryant, D.; Ong, T.; Ma, J.

    1994-12-31

    Mild gasification of coal is a technology being developed by the United States Department of Energy and private industry with the hope that a cleaner use of coal can help meet future energy needs. The mutagenicity of 13 gasification product samples from various coal mine sources, with different processing conditions and boiling point ranges, was studied using bacteria. The results show that 9 of the 13 composite samples displayed mutagenic activity in the Ames assay. Six mutagenic samples were further fractionated into basic, acidic nonpolar and polar neutral subfractions. All samples displayed mutagenic activity in the Ames assay with S9 in the nonpolar neutral subfraction. Five mutagenic samples were also tested for genotoxicity in three mammalian cell assays. None of the samples tested caused gene mutations in Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79) cells in the HGPRT assay system. However, all five samples were found to induce micronuclei and sister chromatid exchange in V79 cells. Chemical characterization of the subfractions indicates that the nonpolar neutral subfractions contain aromatic hydrocarbons. These compounds may be responsible for the genotoxic activity of samples.

  16. Wabash River coal gasification repowering project -- first year operation experience

    SciTech Connect

    Troxclair, E.J.; Stultz, J.

    1997-12-31

    The Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project (WRCGRP), a joint venture between Destec Energy, Inc. and PSI Energy, Inc., began commercial operation in November of 1995. The Project, selected by the United States Department of Energy (DOE) under the Clean Coal Program (Round IV) represents the largest operating coal gasification combined cycle plant in the world. This Demonstration Project has allowed PSI Energy to repower a 1950`s vintage steam turbine and install a new syngas fired combustion turbine to provide 262 MW (net) of electricity in a clean, efficient manner in a commercial utility setting while utilizing locally mined high sulfur Indiana bituminous coal. In doing so, the Project is also demonstrating some novel technology while advancing the commercialization of integrated coal gasification combined cycle technology. This paper discusses the first year operation experience of the Wabash Project, focusing on the progress towards achievement of the demonstration objectives.

  17. The potential for adding plastic waste fuel at a coal gasification power plant.

    PubMed

    Campbell, P E; Evans, R H; McMullan, J T; Williams, B C

    2001-12-01

    Plastics wastes from a municipal solid waste plant have a high energy content which make it an interesting option for co-processing with coal. The potential for adding plastic waste to a coal fired Texaco IGCC (Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle) power station is examined. The resulting efficiency increases due to the improved gasification qualities of plastic over coal. For the overall economics to be the same as the coal only case, the maximum amount that the power station can afford to spend on preparing the plastic waste for use is similar to the assumed coal cost, plus the avoided landfill cost, minus the transport cost. The location of the power station plays a key role, since this has an effect on the transport costs as well as on the landfill charges. The sensitivity of the economics of co-processing plastic waste with coal for a variety of power station operational parameters is presented.

  18. Advanced coal gasification system for electric power generation. Third quarterly progress report, April 1-June 30, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    1980-07-25

    The operation, maintenance and modifications to the Westinghouse gasification process development unit during the quarter are reviewed. The tests of the gasifier-agglomerator included direct coal feed as well as oxygen-blown gasification of a char or coal bed. Then the whole system was tested in single and double stage operation. Laboratory support involved fluidized bed test facilities at ambient temperature and at design temperature for devolatilization and gasification studies. Other laboratory systems were related to thermal analysis and pressurized high temperature studies of gasification and gas cleaning. (LTN)

  19. Gasification Characteristics of Coal/Biomass Mixed Fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, Reginald

    2014-09-01

    A research project was undertaken that had the overall objective of developing the models needed to accurately predict conversion rates of coal/biomass mixtures to synthesis gas under conditions relevant to a commercially-available coal gasification system configured to co-produce electric power as well as chemicals and liquid fuels. In our efforts to accomplish this goal, experiments were performed in an entrained flow reactor in order to produce coal and biomass chars at high heating rates and temperatures, typical of the heating rates and temperatures fuel particles experience in real systems. Mixed chars derived from coal/biomass mixtures containing up to 50% biomass and the chars of the pure coal and biomass components were subjected to a matrix of reactivity tests in a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) in order to obtain data on mass loss rates as functions of gas temperature, pressure and composition as well as to obtain information on the variations in mass specific surface area during char conversion under kinetically-limited conditions. The experimental data were used as targets when determining the unknown parameters in the chemical reactivity and specific surface area models developed. These parameters included rate coefficients for the reactions in the reaction mechanism, enthalpies of formation and absolute entropies of adsorbed species formed on the carbonaceous surfaces, and pore structure coefficients in the model used to describe how the mass specific surface area of the char varies with conversion. So that the reactivity models can be used at high temperatures when mass transport processes impact char conversion rates, Thiele modulus – effectiveness factor relations were also derived for the reaction mechanisms developed. In addition, the reactivity model and a mode of conversion model were combined in a char-particle gasification model that includes the effects of chemical reaction and diffusion of reactive gases through particle

  20. Lock hopper values for coal gasification plant service

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeneweis, E. F.

    1977-01-01

    Although the operating principle of the lock hopper system is extremely simple, valve applications involving this service for coal gasification plants are likewise extremely difficult. The difficulties center on the requirement of handling highly erosive pulverized coal or char (either in dry or slurry form) combined with the requirement of providing tight sealing against high-pressure (possibly very hot) gas. Operating pressures and temperatures in these applications typically range up to 1600 psi (110bar) and 600F (316C), with certain process requirements going even higher. In addition, and of primary concern, is the need for reliable operation over long service periods with the provision for practical and economical maintenance. Currently available data indicate the requirement for something in the order of 20,000 to 30,000 open-close cycles per year and a desire to operate at least that long without valve failure.

  1. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 8. Gasification of River King Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the eighth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of River King Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. The period of gasification test was July 28 to August 19, 1983. 6 refs., 23 figs., 25 tabs.

  2. A continuous two stage solar coal gasification system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mathur, V. K.; Breault, R. W.; Lakshmanan, S.; Manasse, F. K.; Venkataramanan, V.

    The characteristics of a two-stage fluidized-bed hybrid coal gasification system to produce syngas from coal, lignite, and peat are described. Devolatilization heat of 823 K is supplied by recirculating gas heated by a solar receiver/coal heater. A second-stage gasifier maintained at 1227 K serves to crack remaining tar and light oil to yield a product free from tar and other condensables, and sulfur can be removed by hot clean-up processes. CO is minimized because the coal is not burned with oxygen, and the product gas contains 50% H2. Bench scale reactors consist of a stage I unit 0.1 m in diam which is fed coal 200 microns in size. A stage II reactor has an inner diam of 0.36 m and serves to gasify the char from stage I. A solar power source of 10 kWt is required for the bench model, and will be obtained from a central receiver with quartz or heat pipe configurations for heat transfer.

  3. Properties and performance of materials in the coal gasification environment

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, V.L.; Black, H.L.

    1981-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings cosponsored by the Gas Research Institute, Metal Properties Council, Inc., American Society for Metals, and US Department of Energy. A large part of the conference covered materials testing conducted in simulated and actual coal-gasification conditions under the auspices of Subcommittee 9 of the MPC. Many of the investigators who have been active in evaluating materials for coal-conversion service during the past few years also contributed to the proceedings. Accordingly, this book is a valuable reference work on materials behavior in the chemically aggressive, high-temperature, high-pressure environments of coal-gasification plants.

  4. Geochemistry of ultra-fine and nano-compounds in coal gasification ashes: a synoptic view.

    PubMed

    Kronbauer, Marcio A; Izquierdo, Maria; Dai, Shifeng; Waanders, Frans B; Wagner, Nicola J; Mastalerz, Maria; Hower, James C; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Taffarel, Silvio R; Bizani, Delmar; Silva, Luis F O

    2013-07-01

    The nano-mineralogy, petrology, and chemistry of coal gasification products have not been studied as extensively as the products of the more widely used pulverized-coal combustion. The solid residues from the gasification of a low- to medium-sulfur, inertinite-rich, volatile A bituminous coal, and a high sulfur, vitrinite-rich, volatile C bituminous coal were investigated. Multifaceted chemical characterization by XRD, Raman spectroscopy, petrology, FE-SEM/EDS, and HR-TEM/SEAD/FFT/EDS provided an in-depth understanding of coal gasification ash-forming processes. The petrology of the residues generally reflected the rank and maceral composition of the feed coals, with the higher rank, high-inertinite coal having anisotropic carbons and inertinite in the residue, and the lower rank coal-derived residue containing isotropic carbons. The feed coal chemistry determines the mineralogy of the non-glass, non-carbon portions of the residues, with the proportions of CaCO₃ versus Al₂O₃ determining the tendency towards the neoformation of anorthite versus mullite, respectively. Electron beam studies showed the presence of a number of potentially hazardous elements in nanoparticles. Some of the neoformed ultra-fine/nano-minerals found in the coal ashes are the same as those commonly associated with oxidation/transformation of sulfides and sulfates.

  5. Pressurized pyrolysis and gasification of Chinese typical coal samples

    SciTech Connect

    Hanping Chen; Zhiwu Luo; Haiping Yang; Fudong Ju; Shihong Zhang

    2008-03-15

    This paper aims to understand the pyrolysis and gasification behavior of different Chinese coal samples at different pressures. First, the pyrolysis of four typical Chinese coals samples (Xiaolongtan brown coal, Shenfu bituminous coal, Pingzhai anthracite coal, and Heshan lean coal) were carried out using a pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer at ambient pressure and 3 MPa, respectively. The surface structure and elemental component of the resultant char were measured with an automated gas adsorption apparatus and element analyzer. It was observed that higher pressure suppressed the primary pyrolysis, while the secondary pyrolysis of coal particles was promoted. With respect to the resultant solid char, the carbon content increased while H content decreased; however, the pore structure varied greatly with increasing pressure for different coal samples. For Xiaolongtan brown coal (XLT) char, it decreased greatly, while it increased obviously for the other three char types. Then, the isothermal gasification behavior of solid char particles was investigated using an ambient thermal analyzer with CO{sub 2} as the gasifying agent at 1000{sup o}C. The gasification reactivity of solid char was decreased greatly with increasing pyrolysis pressure. However, the extent of change displayed a vital relation with the characteristics of the original coal sample. 26 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Potassium dichromate method of coal gasification the study of the typical organic compounds in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Jiankang; Qu, Guangfei; Dong, Zhanneng; Lu, Pei; Cai, Yingying; Wang, Shibo

    2017-05-01

    The national standard method is adopted in this paper the water - digestion spectrophotometry for determination of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), after ultrasonic processing of coal gasification water for CODCr measurement. Using the control variable method, measured in different solution pH, ultrasonic frequency, ultrasonic power, reaction conditions of different initial solution concentration, the change of coal gasification water CODCr value under the action of ultrasonic, the experimental results shows that appear when measurement is allowed to fluctuate, data, in order to explain the phenomenon we adopt the combination of the high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry before and after ultrasonic coal gasification qualitative analysis on composition of organic matter in water. To raw water sample chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis, combined with the spectra analysis of each peak stands for material, select coal gasification typical organic substances in water, with the method of single digestion, the equivalent CODCr values measured after digestion. Order to produce, coal gasification water contained high concentration organic wastewater, such as the national standard method is adopted to eliminate the organic material, therefore to measure the CODCr value is lower than actual CODCr value of the emergence of the phenomenon, the experiment of the effect of ultrasound [9-13] is promote the complex organic chain rupture, also explains the actual measurement data fluctuation phenomenon in the experiment.

  7. Refractory Degradation by Slag Attack in Coal Gasification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    chemicals and electric power. Feedstock materials such as coal , petroleum coke (petcoke), natural gas, or biomass contain numerous minerals and a...reacted with distinct microstructures are presented in Figure 5 and Figure 6. Coal slag on a grain agglomerate of both refractories remained on a...REFRACTORY DEGRADATION BY SLAG ATTACK IN COAL GASIFICATION Jinichiro Nakano 1,2 , Sridhar Seetharaman 1,2 , James Bennett 3 , Kyei-Sing

  8. High-Btu coal gasification technology in the nation's synthetic fuels future

    SciTech Connect

    German, M.I.

    1980-01-01

    Actively promoted by the gas industry since the early 1970s, high-Btu coal gasification promises to be the most economical and environmentally benign coal-based energy alternative. Estimates place potential supplies of SNG at 100 billion CF/yr by 1985 and 3.3 trillion CF by 2000. Most active projects plan to use the Lurgi gasifier along with a methanation step; this scheme compares favorably with more advanced processes in its ability to handle noncaking, high-ash Western coals. For Eastern coals, however, particularly those from the Illinois basin, the HYGAS, COGAS, and slagging Lurgi processes could prove more suitable. Because gas, oil, and electricity are interchangeable for many stationary applications, gasification technologies should be evaluated on the basis of their market potential, not relative to other gas sources. Besides being clean and safe, high-Btu coal gas can successfully penetrate the residential and commercial space-heating and the premium industrial-energy markets.

  9. Thermogravimetric and model-free kinetic studies on CO2 gasification of low-quality, high-sulphur Indian coals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Tonkeswar; Saikia, Ananya; Mahanta, Banashree; Choudhury, Rahul; Saikia, Binoy K.

    2016-10-01

    Coal gasification with CO2 has emerged as a cleaner and more efficient way for the production of energy, and it offers the advantages of CO2 mitigation policies through simultaneous CO2 sequestration. In the present investigation, a feasibility study on the gasification of three low-quality, high-sulphur coals from the north-eastern region (NER) of India in a CO2 atmosphere using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTA) has been made in order to have a better understanding of the physical and chemical characteristics in the process of gasification of coal. Model-free kinetics was applied to determine the activation energies (E) and pre-exponential factors (A) of the CO2 gasification process of the coals. Multivariate non-linear regression analyses were performed to find out the formal mechanisms, kinetic model, and the corresponding kinetic triplets. The results revealed that coal gasification with CO2 mainly occurs in the temperature range of 800∘-1400∘C and a maximum of at around 1100∘C. The reaction mechanisms responsible for CO2 gasification of the coals were observed to be of the ` nth order with autocatalysis (CnB)' and ` nth order (Fn) mechanism'. The activation energy of the CO2 gasification was found to be in the range 129.07-146.81 kJ mol-1.

  10. Transformation of the Fe-mineral associations in coal during gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waanders, F. B.; Bunt, J. R.

    2006-07-01

    The mineral matter associated with coal undergoes various transformations during the coal gasification process. Optimisation of the gasification process is necessary in the coal to liquids technology. The principle aim of this investigation was to determine the changes that the Fe-containing minerals and mineral associations undergo during gasification of coal. Due to the complexity of the counter-current coal-gas process used, a gasifier dissection was undertaken on one of the Sasol gasifiers. Detailed characterisation profiles of various properties of the coal were undertaken after a commercial-scale gasifier was shutdown for routine maintenance of which the Mössbauer spectroscopy technique will be described here. Representative samples from the gasifier were extracted after sufficient cooling was done to allow the safe turn-out of the gasifier. In the coal samples that entered the gasifier, pyrite was the abundant Fe-containing mineral, whilst the pyrite changed gradually to form, in conjunction with the SiO2 and Al2O3 present in the coal, a Fe-containing glass and hematite at the bottom, or ash grate of the gasifier.

  11. Removal of selected nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds in biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (BPCGW) using the catalytic ozonation process combined with the two-stage membrane bioreactor (MBR).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Hao; Han, Yuxing; Ma, Wencheng; Han, Hongjun; Ma, Weiwei

    2017-09-06

    Three identical anoxic-aerobic membrane bioreactors (MBRs) were operated in parallel for 300 consecutive days for raw (R1), ozonated (R2) and catalytic ozonated (R3) biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (BPCGW) treatment. The results demonstrated that catalytic ozonation process (COP) applied asa pretreatment remarkably improved the performance of the unsatisfactory single MBR. The overall removal efficiencies of COD, NH3-N and TN in R3 were 92.7%, 95.6% and 80.6%, respectively. In addition, typical nitrogenous heterocyclic compounds (NHCs) of quinoline, pyridine and indole were completely removed in the integrated process. Moreover, COP could alter sludge properties and reshape microbial community structure, thus delaying the occurrence of membrane fouling. Finally, the total cost for this integrated process was estimated to be lower than that of single MBR. The results of this study suggest that COP is a good option to enhance pollutants removal and alleviate membrane fouling in the MBR for BPCGW treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. In-situ coal-gasification data look promising

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-07-21

    According to a report given at the 6th Underground Coal Conversion Symposium (Afton, Oklahoma 1980), the Hoe Creek No. 3 underground coal-gasification experiments Oil Gas J. 77 sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Gas Research Institute and directed by the University of California Lawrence Livermore Laboratory demonstrated the feasibility of in-situ coal conversion and featured the use of a directionally drilled channel to connect the injection and production wells rather than the reverse-burn ordinarily used to produce the connecting channel. In the test, 2816 cu m of coal weighing (APPROX) 4200 tons was consumed, with (APPROX) 18% of the product gas escaping through the overburden or elsewhere. When air injection was used, the average heating value was 217 Btu/std cu ft. The average thermal efficiency of the burn was 65%, and the average gas composition was 35% hydrogen, 5% methane, 11% carbon monoxide, and 44% carbon dioxide. Subsidence occurred after completion of the test. The Uniwell gasification method, scheduled for use in the final experiment in the Deep-1 series of underground coal-gasification tests in Wyoming, seeks to prevent subsidence by use of concentric pipes which are inserted into the vertical well to control the combustion zone. Underground coal-gasification prospects and the mechanics of subsidence are discussed.

  13. Development program to support industrial coal gasification. Quarterly report 1

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-15

    The Development Program to Support Industrial Coal Gasification is on schedule. The efforts have centered on collecting background information and data, planning, and getting the experimental program underway. The three principal objectives in Task I-A were accomplished. The technical literature was reviewed, the coals and binders to be employed were selected, and tests and testing equipment to be used in evaluating agglomerates were developed. The entire Erie Mining facility design was reviewed and a large portion of the fluidized-bed coal gasification plant design was completed. Much of the work in Task I will be experimental. Wafer-briquette and roll-briquette screening tests will be performed. In Task II, work on the fluidized-bed gasification plant design will be completed and work on a plant design involving entrained-flow gasifiers will be initiated.

  14. LLNL Underground-Coal-Gasification Project. Quarterly progress report, July-September 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Stephens, D.R.; Clements, W.

    1981-11-09

    We have continued our laboratory studies of forward gasification in small blocks of coal mounted in 55-gal drums. A steam/oxygen mixture is fed into a small hole drilled longitudinally through the center of the block, the coal is ignited near the inlet and burns toward the outlet, and the product gases come off at the outlet. Various diagnostic measurements are made during the course of the burn, and afterward the coal block is split open so that the cavity can be examined. Development work continues on our mathematical model for the small coal block experiments. Preparations for the large block experiments at a coal outcrop in the Tono Basin of Washington State have required steadily increasing effort with the approach of the scheduled starting time for the experiments (Fall 1981). Also in preparation is the deep gasification experiment, Tono 1, planned for another site in the Tono Basin after the large block experiments have been completed. Wrap-up work continues on our previous gasification experiments in Wyoming. Results of the postburn core-drilling program Hoe Creek 3 are presented here. Since 1976 the Soviets have been granted four US patents on various aspects of the underground coal gasification process. These patents are described here, and techniques of special interest are noted. Finally, we include ten abstracts of pertinent LLNL reports and papers completed during the quarter.

  15. Corrosion performance of alumina scales in coal gasification environments

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.

    1997-02-01

    Corrosion of metallic structural materials in complex gas environments of coal gasification is a potential problem. The corrosion process is dictated by concentrations of two key constituents: sulfur as H{sub 2}S and Cl as HCl. This paper examines the corrosion performance of alumina scales that are thermally grown on Fe-base alloys during exposure to O/S mixed-gas environments. The results are compared with the performance of chromia-forming alloys in similar environments. The paper also discusses the available information on corrosion performance of alloys whose surfaces were enriched with Al by the pack-diffusion process, by the electrospark deposition process, or by weld overlay techniques.

  16. The calculation of gasification from coal in a fixed bed reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoersgen, B.; Koehne, H.

    1980-11-01

    A one dimension, two phase model for the transfer of coal into gas through the Lurgi pressure gasification process is discussed. Calculations for drying, devolatilization, and gasification are presented along with energy and mass transport operations. The heterogeneous chemical reactions of carbon with hydrogen, water vapor, and carbon dioxide, and the homogeneous reaction between carbon monoxide and water vapor are described by kinetic equations, that take into account deviations from thermodynamic equilibrium as the driving potential of the chemical reaction. Data from different types of coal and different gas compositions were used to test the model.

  17. Evaluation of coal pretreatment prior to co-processing

    SciTech Connect

    Guffey, F.D.; Barbour, F.A.; Blake, R.F.

    1991-12-01

    The Western Research Institute is currently developing a mild gasification process for the recovery of a stabilized char product for use as a fuel. A liquid product of limited value is produced during the mild gasification process that may be suited as a co-processing vehicle for coal-oil co-processing. Research was conducted to evaluate co-processing of this mild gasification liquid with coal. The two major areas of research discussed in this report are: (1) coal pretreatment with a coal-derived liquid to induce coal swelling and promote catalyst dispersion and (2) co-processing coal that has been thermally pretreated in the presence of the mild gasification liquid. The results of the investigation to evaluate co-processing of coal that has been thermally pretreated in the presence of the mild gasification liquid indicate that the thermal pretreatment adversely affected the coal-oil co-processing under hydrogen pressure. Thermally pretreated coals co-processed under a hydrogen atmosphere and without benefit of catalyst exhibited about 86 wt % conversion as compared to 96 wt % for coal that was only thermally dried. The addition of the iron pentacarbonyl catalyst precursor to the thermally pretreated coals did improve the conversion to near that of the dried coal. Results from analysis of the product obtained from co-processing the Illinois No. 6 coal showed it was upgraded in terms of oxygen content and hydrogen to carbon atomic ratio when compared to the mild gasification liquid.

  18. The feasibility of using combined TiO2 photocatalysis oxidation and MBBR process for advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater.

    PubMed

    Xu, Peng; Han, Hongjun; Hou, Baolin; Zhuang, Haifeng; Jia, Shengyong; Wang, Dexin; Li, Kun; Zhao, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the feasibility of using combined heterogeneous photocatalysis oxidation (HPO) and moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) process for advanced treatment of biologically pretreated coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The results indicated that the TOC removal efficiency was significantly improved in HPO. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis indicated that the HPO could be employed to eliminate bio-refractory and toxic compounds. Meanwhile, the BOD5/COD of the raw wastewater was increased from 0.08 to 0.49. Furthermore, in the integration of TiO2 photocatalysis oxidation and MBBR process, the effluent of COD, BOD5, TOC, NH4(+)-N and TN were 22.1 mg/L, 1.1 mg/L, 11.8 mg/L, 4.1mg/L and 13.7 mg/L, respectively, which all met class-I criteria of the Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard (GB18918-2002, China). The total operating cost was 2.8CNY/t. Therefore, there is great potential for the combined system in engineering applications as a final treatment for biologically pretreated CGW. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Gas core reactors for coal gasification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, H.

    1976-01-01

    The concept of using a gas core reactor to produce hydrogen directly from coal and water is presented. It is shown that the chemical equilibrium of the process is strongly in favor of the production of H2 and CO in the reactor cavity, indicating a 98% conversion of water and coal at only 1500 K. At lower temperatures in the moderator-reflector cooling channels the equilibrium strongly favors the conversion of CO and additional H2O to CO2 and H2. Furthermore, it is shown the H2 obtained per pound of carbon has 23% greater heating value than the carbon so that some nuclear energy is also fixed. Finally, a gas core reactor plant floating in the ocean is conceptualized which produces H2, fresh water and sea salts from coal.

  20. Gas core reactors for coal gasification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, H.

    1976-01-01

    The concept of using a gas core reactor to produce hydrogen directly from coal and water is presented. It is shown that the chemical equilibrium of the process is strongly in favor of the production of H2 and CO in the reactor cavity, indicating a 98% conversion of water and coal at only 1500 K. At lower temperatures in the moderator-reflector cooling channels the equilibrium strongly favors the conversion of CO and additional H2O to CO2 and H2. Furthermore, it is shown the H2 obtained per pound of carbon has 23% greater heating value than the carbon so that some nuclear energy is also fixed. Finally, a gas core reactor plant floating in the ocean is conceptualized which produces H2, fresh water and sea salts from coal.

  1. Corrosion and mechanical behavior of materials for coal gasification applications

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.

    1980-05-01

    A state-of-the-art review is presented on the corrosion and mechanical behavior of materials at elevated temperatures in coal-gasification environments. The gas atmosphere in coal-conversion processes are, in general, complex mixtures which contain sulfur-bearing components (H/sub 2/S, SO/sub 2/, and COS) as well as oxidants (CO/sub 2//CO and H/sub 2/O/H/sub 2/). The information developed over the last five years clearly shows sulfidation to be the major mode of material degradation in these environments. The corrosion behavior of structural materials in complex gas environments is examined to evaluate the interrelationships between gas chemistry, alloy chemistry, temperature, and pressure. Thermodynamic aspects of high-temperature corrosion processes that pertain to coal conversion are discussed, and kinetic data are used to compare the behavior of different commercial materials of interest. The influence of complex gas environments on the mechanical properties such as tensile, stress-rupture, and impact on selected alloys is presented. The data have been analyzed, wherever possible, to examine the role of environment on the property variation. The results from ongoing programs on char effects on corrosion and on alloy protection via coatings, cladding, and weld overlay are presented. Areas of additional research with particular emphasis on the development of a better understanding of corrosion processes in complex environments and on alloy design for improved corrosion resistance are discussed. 54 references, 65 figures, 24 tables.

  2. Flow Simulation and Optimization of Plasma Reactors for Coal Gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Chunjun; Zhang, Yingzi; Ma, Tengcai

    2003-10-01

    This paper reports a 3-d numerical simulation system to analyze the complicated flow in plasma reactors for coal gasification, which involve complex chemical reaction, two-phase flow and plasma effect. On the basis of analytic results, the distribution of the density, temperature and components' concentration are obtained and a different plasma reactor configuration is proposed to optimize the flow parameters. The numerical simulation results show an improved conversion ratio of the coal gasification. Different kinds of chemical reaction models are used to simulate the complex flow inside the reactor. It can be concluded that the numerical simulation system can be very useful for the design and optimization of the plasma reactor.

  3. Air-based coal gasification in a two-chamber gas reactor with circulating fluidized bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubinin, A. M.; Tuponogov, V. G.; Kagramanov, Y. A.

    2017-01-01

    During the bed gasification of solid fuels, the process temperature in the reaction zone is not high enough for reaching the maximum rate of the chemical efficiency factor of the gasification process. In order to increase the chemical efficiency factor, it is necessary to supply extra heat to the reaction zone to increase the reaction temperature. In this article, coal gasification in a chamber with forced fluidized bed is considered and it is proposed to supply extra heat with a circulating flow of an inert particulate heat transfer agent. Circulating inert particulate material is successively heated by coal combustion in a cone chamber with bubbling fluidized bed and in a combustion chamber with a spherical nozzle that inhibits the forced fluidized bed. After that, the heat transfer agent heated to 930-950°C enters first in a gasification chamber with bubbling bed and then in a chamber with forced fluidized bed, where it transfers the physical heat to the air fuel mixture. The experiments conducted with crushed Borodinsky coal and inert particulate heat transfer agent (electrocorundum) showed the temperature rise in a gasification chamber with from 760 to 870°C and the increase in the combustible component (CO) concentration in the gasification products by 5.5%. Based on the kinetic equations of the fuel combustion reactions and the CO2 reduction to CO and on the thermal balance equations of combustion and gasification chambers, the simulation model for the gas composition and the temperature rate calculated by the height of reaction chambers was developed. The experimental temperature rates and product gas compositions are in good agreement with the simulation results based on the proposed kinetic gasification model.

  4. CO2 Capture and Storage in Coal Gasification Projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Anand B.; Phadke, Pranav C.

    2017-07-01

    In response to the global climate change problem, the world community today is in search for an effective means of carbon mitigation. India is a major developing economy and the economic growth is driven by ever-increasing consumption of energy. Coal is the only fossil fuel that is available in abundance in India and contributes to the major share of the total primary energy supply (TPES) in the country. Owing to the large unmet demand for affordable energy, primarily driven by the need for infrastructure development and increasing incomes and aspirations of people, as well as the energy security concerns, India is expected to have continued dependence on coal. Coal is not only the backbone of the electric power generation, but many major industries like cement, iron and steel, bricks, fertilizers also consume large quantities of coal. India has very low carbon emissions (˜ 1.5 tCO2 per capita) as compared to the world average (4.7 tCO2 per capita) and the developed world (11.2 tCO2 per capita). Although the aggregate emissions of the country are increasing with the rising population and fossil energy use, India has a very little contribution to the historical GHG accumulation in the atmosphere linked to the climate change problem. However, a large fraction of the Indian society is vulnerable to the impacts of climate change - due to its geographical location, large dependence on monsoon-based agriculture and limited technical, financial and institutional capacity. Today, India holds a large potential to offer cost-effective carbon mitigation to tackle the climate change problem. Carbon Capture and Storage (CCS) is the process of extraction of Carbon Dioxide (CO2) from industrial and energy related sources, transport to storage locations and long-term isolation from the atmosphere. It is a technology that has been developed in recent times and is considered as a bridging technology as we move towards carbon-neutral energy sources in response to the growing

  5. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 12. Gasification of Absaloka/Robinson subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial particpants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the twelfth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. this specific reports describes the gasification of Absaloka/Robinson subbituminous coal. This volume covers the test period June 18, 1984 to June 30, 1984. 4 refs., 20 figs., 18 tabs.

  6. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 3. Gasification of Rosebud sub-bituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-03-31

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the third volume in a series of documents prepared by Black, Sivalls and Bryson, Incorporated and describes the gasification of Rosebud subbituminous coal during the time period November 2-20, 1982. Test results and data are presented for the gasification of the coal and the operation of a slipstream tar scrubber to cool the gas and remove condensed tar. 5 refs., 29 figs., 18 tabs.

  7. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 17. Gasification and liquids recovery of four US coals

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-12-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and government agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the seventeenth in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This report describes the gasification and pyrolysis liquids recovery test for four different coals: Illinois No. 6, SUFCO, Indianhead lignite, and Hiawatha. This test series spanned from July 15, 1985, through July 28, 1985. 4 refs., 16 figs., 19 tabs.

  8. Anaerobic filters for the treatment of coal gasification wastewater.

    PubMed

    Suidan, M T; Siekerka, G L; Kao, S W; Pfeffer, J T

    1983-06-01

    A process train consisting of the following sequence of unit processes, a berl-saddle-packed anaerobic filter, an expanded bed, granular activated carbon anaerobic filter, and an activated sludge nitrification system was evaluated for the treatment of a synthetically prepared coal gasification wastewater. The first-stage anaerobic filter resulted in very little removal of organic matter and no methane production. Excellent reduction in organic matter occurred in the granular activated carbon anaerobic filter. The removal mechanism was initially adsorptive and near the end of the study, removal of organic matter was primarily through conversion to methane gas. It is felt that the success of the activated carbon anaerobic filter was due to the ability of the activated carbon to sequester some components of the wastewater that were toxic to the mixed culture of anaerobic microorganisms. The activated sludge nitrification system resulted in complete ammonia oxidation and was very efficient in final effluent polishing.

  9. Dry coal feeder development program at Ingersoll-Rand Research, Incorporated. [for coal gasification systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mistry, D. K.; Chen, T. N.

    1977-01-01

    A dry coal screw feeder for feeding coal into coal gasification reactors operating at pressures up to 1500 psig is described. Results on the feeder under several different modes of operation are presented. In addition, three piston feeder concepts and their technical and economical merits are discussed.

  10. TVA coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant project. Volume 5. Plant based on Koppers-Totzek gasifier. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    This volume presents a technical description of a coal gasification plant, based on Koppers-Totzek gasifiers, producing a medium Btu fuel gas product. Foster Wheeler carried out a conceptual design and cost estimate of a nominal 20,000 TPSD plant based on TVA design criteria and information supplied by Krupp-Koppers concerning the Koppers-Totzek coal gasification process. Technical description of the design is given in this volume.

  11. [Transformation of sulfur forms during coal pyrolysis and partial gasification in a fixed bed reactor].

    PubMed

    Li, Bin; Cao, Yan; Zhang, Jianmin; Huang, Jiejie; Wang, Yang; Chen, Fuyan

    2003-03-01

    The development of various process to the pre-desulfurization of coal was drawn more attention. In present study, the transformation of sulfur forms of three different ranks high sulfur coals during coal pyrolysis and partial gasification were investigated in a fixed bed reactor. The sulfur and carbon content analysis of original coal and coal char produced were determined by LECO SC-444 and wet chemical analysis according to Sugawara's method. The results showed that half of inorganic sulfur and partial of organic sulfur were removed during coal pyrolysis. And the sulfur removal was much more than carbon during pyrolysis process; and the sulfur in the coal char, especially the sulfide sulfur was removed completely during partial gasification process for both Datong coal and Xishan coal, the degree of sulfide sulfur removal could be increased with increasing temperature. At the same time, the results of Yima coal showed that the effect of fixed-sulfur by alkaline metals increased when the temperature was higher than 700 degrees C, which attribute to the increase of the fixed sulfur reaction rate and the decrease of mass-transfer limitation.

  12. Coal-gasification basic research and cost studies. Quarterly report No. 5

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-14

    Work was continued on basic research and cost studies supporting the Department of Energy's coal gasification program. Two major activities or tasks are being performed. The first activity (Task I) is the development of a process or processes to produce agglomerates from coal fines suitable for use as a feed to fixed-bed gasifiers. Seven US coals are being investigated. The second activity (Task II) is a design and cost study to examine the effects of gasifier selection on overall plant costs for a commercial-scale coal gasification facility. More than 100 pelletizing runs were performed during the quarter; these were in addition to the pelletizing runs made earlier. Like with briquettes, a large number of coal-binder compositions showed promise as a good gasifier feed material. Although, in general, the pellets were weaker than briquettes of similar compositions, many pellets displayed reasonably good strengths. The principal problem with pellets was their low green strengths. The strengths of pellets generally increased significantly upon drying and fell off only slightly during exposure to gasification temperatures. Of the binders examined, bentonite and gilsonite were found to be best. Task II work centered on: (1) bringing the original cost estimates for the proposed Erie Mining gasification plant up to date; and (2) designing a large briquetting facility, incorporating this facility into the Erie Mining plant designs, and developing cost estimates for the complete plant.

  13. Second stage gasifier in staged gasification and integrated process

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Guohai; Vimalchand, Pannalal; Peng, Wan Wang

    2015-10-06

    A second stage gasification unit in a staged gasification integrated process flow scheme and operating methods are disclosed to gasify a wide range of low reactivity fuels. The inclusion of second stage gasification unit operating at high temperatures closer to ash fusion temperatures in the bed provides sufficient flexibility in unit configurations, operating conditions and methods to achieve an overall carbon conversion of over 95% for low reactivity materials such as bituminous and anthracite coals, petroleum residues and coke. The second stage gasification unit includes a stationary fluidized bed gasifier operating with a sufficiently turbulent bed of predefined inert bed material with lean char carbon content. The second stage gasifier fluidized bed is operated at relatively high temperatures up to 1400.degree. C. Steam and oxidant mixture can be injected to further increase the freeboard region operating temperature in the range of approximately from 50 to 100.degree. C. above the bed temperature.

  14. Underground coal gasification: An overview of groundwater contamination hazards and mitigation strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Camp, David W.; White, Joshua A.

    2015-03-13

    Underground coal gasification is the in situ conversion of coal into an energy-rich product gas. It takes place deep underground, using chemical reactions to consume the coal and grow a cavity. Gas wells, drilled into the coal seam, inject reactant air, oxygen, and/or steam to sustain the reactions. Production wells then extract the product gas. Careful analysis and understanding of likely failure modes will help prevent and minimize impacts. This document provides a general description of the relevant processes, potential failure modes, and practical mitigation strategies. It can guide critical review of project design and operations.

  15. Creating power, technology and products: the role of coal gasification in Ohio's economy and energy future

    SciTech Connect

    2007-12-15

    The study examines how coal gasification (CG) combined with Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) technology could play a role in Ohio's economy and energy future - particularly in Northeast Ohio, a major center of manufacturing in the U.S. This working paper focuses primarily on opportunities for gasification projects to augment Ohio's economy. It examines economic activity factors related to coal gasification and how the location of a number of key support industries in Ohio could provide the state with a competitive advantage in this area. The study focuses on a polygeneration facility that would supply electricity and some other products as an example of the type of gasification facility that could, if a sufficient number of similar facilities were located in the area, serve as the stimulus for a new or expanded industry cluster. Although not further discussed in this paper, any Ohio gasification facility would be in close proximity to oil and gas fields that can serve as sites for sequestering the carbon dioxide separated out from the coal-gasification process. The potential economic impact of locating a polygeneration gasifier in Northeast Ohio is large. A significant portion of the inputs required for one $1.1+ billion facility can be supplied either within northeastern Ohio or from elsewhere in the state. Operation of the facility is estimated to increase annual statewide personal income by $39 million and Ohio output by $161 million. The Northeast Ohio region will account for 98 percent of the operational benefits. The report suggests several possible steps to convert this research to an action plan to build support for, and interest in, a coal-gasification industry cluster in Northeast Ohio. Outreach should focus on engaging industry leaders, foundations, and state and regional economic development leaders. 16 tabs., 3 apps.

  16. ENCOAL mild coal gasification project public design and construction report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    This Public Design Report describes the 1000 ton per day ENCOAL mild coal gasification demonstration plant now in operation at the Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The objective of the project is to demonstrate that the proprietary Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology can reliably and economically convert low Btu PRB coal into a superior, high-Btu solid fuel (PDF), and an environmentally attractive low-sulfur liquid fuel (CDL). The Project`s plans also call for the production of sufficient quantities of PDF and CDL to permit utility companies to carry out full scale burn tests. While some process as well as mechanical design was done in 1988, the continuous design effort was started in July 1990. Civil construction was started in October 1990; mechanical erection began in May 1991. Virtually all of the planned design work was completed by July 1991. Most major construction was complete by April 1992 followed by plant testing and commissioning. Plant operation began in late May 1992. This report covers both the detailed design and initial construction aspects of the Project.

  17. Proceedings of the ninth annual underground coal gasification symposium

    SciTech Connect

    Wieber, P.R.; Martin, J.W.; Byrer, C.W.

    1983-12-01

    The Ninth Underground Coal Gasification Symposium was held August 7 to 10, 1983 at the Indian Lakes Resort and Conference Center in Bloomingdale, Illinois. Over one-hundred attendees from industry, academia, National Laboratories, State Government, and the US Government participated in the exchange of ideas, results and future research plans. Representatives from six countries including France, Belgium, United Kingdom, The Netherlands, West Germany, and Brazil also participated by presenting papers. Fifty papers were presented and discussed in four formal sessions and two informal poster sessions. The presentations described current and future field testing plans, interpretation of field test data, environmental research, laboratory studies, modeling, and economics. All papers were processed for inclusion in the Energy Data Base.

  18. Biological treatability of in situ coal gasification wastewater

    SciTech Connect

    Bryant, C.W.; Cawein, C.C.; King, P.H.

    1988-04-01

    Wastewater from an underground coal-gasification (UCG) pilot facility is degraded aerobically in laboratory chemostats for a period of seven months. Pretreatment includes only dilution and phosphorous addition. The experimental design includes solids retention times from 10 to 30 days and dilution rates of 25% and 50%. Aerobic biological treatment provides removal of 83-91% COD, 82-90% TOC, and 56%-87% ammonia. The results extend the range of UCG wastewater strength to be effectively treated by biological processes. Air stripping is not a significant mechanism for carbon removal, but is estimated to have removed from 0% to 68% of the ammonia, depending upon operating conditions. The suitability of attached growth systems for treatment of this wastewater is indicated by: (1) Solids settling properties that would require very long clarification times in a full-scale, activated sludge system; and (2) the enhanced COD-removal filamentous organisms in one reactor.

  19. Policy and Regulatory Issues for Underground Coal Gasification in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Sunil K.

    2017-07-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is in its nascent stage of development. Most of the projects are in the nature of pilot projects. UCG technology requires acceptance in general commercial framework as it matures with the progress of time. Policy and regulatory framework, therefore, is considered here only in the expectation that UCG technology may finally be rolled out sooner than later. India is actively pursuing consultations with major countries which have recorded successes in implementing UCG technology in varying measures. In this background, the discussion on policy and regulatory framework is essentially an effort to capture the broad outline of the understanding of the UCG process in a regulatory construct as compared with other regulatory regimes of similar nature.

  20. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G. ); Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S. )

    1991-09-25

    The objectives of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. (VC)

  1. Production of hydrogen by direct gasification of coal with steam using nuclear heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Problems related to: (1) high helium outlet temperature of the reactor, and (2) gas generator design used in hydrogen production are studied. Special attention was given to the use of Oklahoma coal in the gasification process. Plant performance, operation, and environmental considerations are covered.

  2. Production of hydrogen by direct gasification of coal with steam using nuclear heat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Problems related to: (1) high helium outlet temperature of the reactor, and (2) gas generator design used in hydrogen production are studied. Special attention was given to the use of Oklahoma coal in the gasification process. Plant performance, operation, and environmental considerations are covered.

  3. Magnetohydrodynamic generator of electrical energy using gasification products of lignite coal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derevianko, V. A.; Slavin, V. S.; Sokolov, V. S.

    1980-10-01

    An investigation is presented of an MHD generator of electrical energy fueled by gasification products of lignite coals using the T-layer effect which eliminates caustic additives. A quasi-one-dimensional theory of linear MHD processes is constructed on the basis of MHD equations; a design of an industrial generator is discussed.

  4. Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags. Quarterly report, September 15--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    Coal gasification technologies are finding increasing commercial applications for power generation or production of chemical feedstocks. The integrated-gasification-combined-cycle (IGCC) coal conversion process has been demonstrated to be a clean, efficient, and environmentally acceptable method of generating power. However, the gasification process produces relatively large quantities of a solid waste termed slag. Regulatory trends with respect to solid waste disposal, landfill development costs, and public concern make utilization of slag a high-priority issue. Therefore, it is imperative that slag utilization methods be developed, tested, and commercialized in order to offset disposal costs. This project aims to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of the slag utilization technologies developed by Praxis to produce lightweight aggregates (LWA) and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag in a large-scale pilot operation, followed by total utilization of these aggregates in a number of applications.

  5. Simulation of coal gasification in a fluidized bed

    SciTech Connect

    O`Brien, T.J.

    1996-12-31

    In this analysis of coal gasification, a fundamental approach is used where a set of multiphase (Eulerian) fluid dynamic equations, obtained either by a suitable averaging technique (Anderson and Jackson, 1976; Drew, 1971) or the formulations of continuum mechanics (Drew, 1983), is used to describe the conservation of mass, momentum, and energy for three interpenetrating phases. The particles, like the fluidizing gas, are described as interpenetrating continua. Different particle types are treated as distinct phases; in this study, the feed coal and the bed char are represented as separate phases in order to account for their different histories. Constitutive laws account for the exchange of momentum between phases (``drag``) and interphase energy transfer. The stresses within the granular phases are determined by a formulation based on the kinetic theory, characterized by a ``granular temperature``. A computer code, based on this multiphase hydrodynamic model, has been developed at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center for the detailed simulation of gas and particle dynamics in heavily loaded coal conversion processes (Syamlal, Rogers, O`Brien, 1994; Syamlal, 1995). The hydrodynamic simulation showed the reactor operated in a jetting/bubbling mode. A gas jet penetrated a considerable distance into the bed, and then detached as ``bubbles`` which rose to the top of the column. The reaction scheme indicated that the feed coal did not begin to devolatilize until it had traversed this region, because of the time required to heat up. Thus, volatiles were not released in the jetting region of the bed, but higher in the bed. The oxygen fed with the coal, however, reacted immediately with the recirculating hot char. The net effect of the char reaction scheme was to created. CO, which burned in the region where.the jet detached, creating a, fairly stable ``flame``. The tar reaction scheme indicated that none of the tar escaped the bed.

  6. Fate of catechols in coal gasification condensate waters

    SciTech Connect

    Uhrich, K.E.

    1986-02-01

    Even after the wastewater has been subjected to rigorous cleaning, many chemicals still remain. In order to remove these compounds, they must be identified. Catechol is a compound which appears in the condensate water and, because its concentration changes, its fate is somewhat uncertain. In recent experiments modeling the condensate water conditions, catechol solutions were aerated in the presence of ammonia. Upon acidification of the solutions, a polymer precipitates. This polymer was compared to the black compound isolated from the condensate water by spectral and elemental analyses. The structures of the two polymers were reasonably similar. The kinetics of oxidation, as determined by the uptake of oxygen, indicates that the reaction was first order in catechol and oxygen. The rate was significantly enhanced by an increase in pH. Assuming that catechol is the only subunit of the polymers isolated from the different condensate waters, calculations would indicate that the initial catechol concentration varies from 440 to 1700 ppM. An attempt is being made to account for all of the carbon that appears in the water from the gasification process. Presently, only 60% to 70% of the carbon-containing products have been identified. Part of the remaining total organic carbon can be accounted for by the catechol polymer. Studying the fate of catechol in the coal gasification condensate water will help to develop an environmentally and financially feasible treatment of the wastewater. 4 refs.

  7. Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-08

    Praxis is working on a DOE/METC funded project to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of making lightweight and ultra- lightweight aggregates from slags left as solid by-products from the coal gasification process. These aggregates are produced by controlled heating of the slags to temperatures ranging between 1600 and 1900{degrees}F. Over 10 tons of expanded slag lightweight aggregates (SLA) were produced using a direct-fired rotary kiln and a fluidized bed calciner with unit weights varying between 20 and 50 lb/ft{sup 3}. The slag-based aggregates are being evaluated at the laboratory scale as substitutes for conventional lightweight aggregates in making lightweight structural concrete, roof tiles, blocks, insulating concrete, and a number of other applications. Based on the laboratory data, large-scale testing will be performed and the durability of the finished products evaluated. Conventional lightweight aggregates made from pyroprocessing expansible shales or clays are produced for $30/ton. The net production costs of SLA are in the range of $22 to $24/ton for large systems (44 t/d) and $26-$30/ton for small systems (220 t/d). Thus, the technology provides a good opportunity for economic use of gasification slags.

  8. Preparation and gasification of a Thailand coal-water fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Ness, R.O. Jr.; Anderson, C.M.; Musich, M.A.; Richter, J.J.; Dewall, R.A.; Young, B.C.; Nakanart, A.

    1996-12-31

    In response to an inquiry by the Department of Mineral Resources (DMR) in Thailand, the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) prepared a four-task program to assess the responsiveness of Wiang Haeng coal to the temperature and pressure conditions of hot-water drying (HWD). The results indicate that HWD made several improvements in the coal, notably increases in heating value and carbon content and reductions in equilibrium moisture and oxygen content. The equilibrium moisture content decreased from 37.4 wt% for the raw coal to about 20 wt% for the HWD coals. The energy density, determined at 500 cP, indicates an increase from 4450 to 6650 Btu/lb by hydrothermal treatment. Raw and HWD coal were then gasified at various mild gasification conditions of 700 C and 30 psig. The tests indicated that the coal is probably similar to other low-rank coals and will produce high levels of hydrogen and be fairly reactive.

  9. Optimization Review, Fairfield Coal Gasification Plant Superfund Site, Fairfield, Iowa

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Fairfield Coal Gasification Plant (FCGP) also known as the Fairfield Former Manufactured Gas Plant (MGP) is located in the southwest 1/4 of the southeast 1/4, Section 26, Township 72 North, Range 10 West of Jefferson County, Iowa.

  10. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals. Volume I. Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the bituminous coal resources of the United States, identifies those resources which are potentially amenable to Underground Coal Gasification (UCG), identifies products and markets in the vicinity of selected target areas, identifies UCG concepts, describes the state of the art of UCG in bituminous coal, and presents three R and D programs for development of the technology to the point of commercial viability. Of the 670 billion tons of bituminous coal remaining in-place as identified by the National Coal Data System, 32.2 billion tons or 4.8% of the total are potentially amenable to UCG technology. The identified amenable resource was located in ten states: Alabama, Colorado, Illinois, Kentucky, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Utah, Virginia, and West Virginia. The principal criteria which eliminated 87.3% of the resource was the minimum thickness (42 inches). Three R and D programs were developed using three different concepts at two different sites. Open Borehole, Hydraulic Fracture, and Electrolinking concepts were developed. The total program costs for each concept were not significantly different. The study concludes that much of the historical information based on UCG in bituminous coals is not usable due to the poor siting of the early field tests and a lack of adequate diagnostic equipment. This information gap requires that much of the early work be redone in view of the much improved understanding of the role of geology and hydrology in the process and the recent development of analytical tools and methods.

  11. Interaction and kinetic analysis for coal and biomass co-gasification by TG-FTIR.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chaofen; Hu, Song; Xiang, Jun; Zhang, Liqi; Sun, Lushi; Shuai, Chao; Chen, Qindong; He, Limo; Edreis, Elbager M A

    2014-02-01

    This study aims to investigate the interaction and kinetic behavior of CO2 gasification of coal, biomass and their blends by thermogravimetry analysis (TG). The gas products evolved from gasification were measured online with Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) coupled with TG. Firstly, TG experiments indicated that interaction between the coals and biomasses mainly occurred during co-gasification process. The most significant synergistic interaction occurred for LN with SD at the blending mass ratio 4:1. Furthermore, thermal kinetic analysis indicated that the activation energy involved in co-gasification decreased as the SD content increased until the blending ratio of SD with coal reached 4:1. The rise of the frequency factor indicated that the increase of SD content favored their synergistic interaction. Finally, FTIR analysis of co-gasification of SD with LN indicated that except for CO, most gases including CH3COOH, C6H5OH, H2O, etc., were detected at around 50-700°C.

  12. A review of the factors influencing the physicochemical characteristics of underground coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, L.H.

    2008-07-01

    In this article, the physicochemical characteristics of the oxidation zone, the reduction zone, and the destructive distillation and dry zone in the process of underground coal gasification (UCG) were explained. The effect of such major factors as temperature, coal type, water-inrush or -intake rate, the quantity and quality of wind blasting, the thickness of coal seams, operational pressure, the length, and the section of gasification gallery on the quality of the underground gas and their interrelationship were discussed. Research showed that the temperature conditions determined the underground gas compositions; the appropriate water-inrush or -intake rate was conducive to the improvement in gas heat value; the properties of the gasification agent had an obvious effect on the compositions and heat value of the product gas. Under the cyclically changing pressure, heat losses decreased by 60%, with the heat efficiency and gasification efficiency being 1.4 times and 2 times those of constant pressure, respectively. The test research further proved that the underground gasifier with a long channel and a big cross-section, to a large extent, improved the combustion-gasification conditions.

  13. Effect of petroleum coke addition on coal gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinnathambi, Chandra Mohan; Najib, Nur Khadijah Mohamad

    2014-10-01

    The main fuel for power generation is combustion of coal and/or natural gas. Natural gas is expensive but clean and less problematic, whereas coal is the reverse of natural gas. Natural gas resources are expected to last until 2020 where else coal has another 200 years expectancy. To replace the natural gas, synthetic gas (syngas) can be used as a substitute fuel. Syngas can be produced using coal as fuel. In this study we blend petcoke, a cheap solid carboneous fuel as an alternative to coal for the production of syngas using a 30 Kwattheat bubbling fluidized bed gasifier. The equivalent ratio (ER) was set at 2.8 and a gasification temperature was maintained between 680 to 710°C by manipulating between the feed flow rates and fluidizing medium. This condition was chosen as it proved to be the optimum based on the work by the same group. Various blend of coal:petcoke between 0 to 100% was analyzed. It was found that a 20:80, petcoke to coal gives a good correlation with 100% coal gasification.

  14. Agglomerating combustor-gasifier method and apparatus for coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Chen, Joseph L. P.; Archer, David H.

    1976-09-21

    A method and apparatus for gasifying coal wherein the gasification takes place in a spout fluid bed at a pressure of about 10 to 30 atmospheres and a temperature of about 1800.degree. to 2200.degree.F and wherein the configuration of the apparatus and the manner of introduction of gases for combustion and fluidization is such that agglomerated ash can be withdrawn from the bottom of the apparatus and gas containing very low dust loading is produced. The gasification reaction is self-sustaining through the burning of a stoichiometric amount of coal with air in the lower part of the apparatus to form the spout within the fluid bed. The method and apparatus are particularly suitable for gasifying coarse coal particles.

  15. Development of Highly Durable and Reactive Regenerable Magnesium-Based Sorbents for CO2 Separation in Coal Gasification Process

    SciTech Connect

    Javad Abbasian; Armin Hassanzadeh Khayyat; Rachid B. Slimane

    2005-06-01

    The specific objective of this project was to develop physically durable and chemically regenerable MgO-based sorbents that can remove carbon dioxide from raw coal gas at operating condition prevailing in IGCC processes. A total of sixty two (62) different sorbents were prepared in this project. The sorbents were prepared either by various sol-gel techniques (22 formulations) or modification of dolomite (40 formulations). The sorbents were prepared in the form of pellets and in granular forms. The solgel based sorbents had very high physical strength, relatively high surface area, and very low average pore diameter. The magnesium content of the sorbents was estimated to be 4-6 % w/w. To improve the reactivity of the sorbents toward CO{sub 2}, The sorbents were impregnated with potassium salts. The potassium content of the sorbents was about 5%. The dolomite-based sorbents were prepared by calcination of dolomite at various temperature and calcination environment (CO{sub 2} partial pressure and moisture). Potassium carbonate was added to the half-calcined dolomite through wet impregnation method. The estimated potassium content of the impregnated sorbents was in the range of 1-6% w/w. In general, the modified dolomite sorbents have significantly higher magnesium content, larger pore diameter and lower surface area, resulting in significantly higher reactivity compared to the sol-gel sorbents. The reactivities of a number of sorbents toward CO{sub 2} were determined in a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA) unit. The results indicated that at the low CO{sub 2} partial pressures (i.e., 1 atm), the reactivities of the sorbents toward CO{sub 2} are very low. At elevated pressures (i.e., CO{sub 2} partial pressure of 10 bar) the maximum conversion of MgO obtained with the sol-gel based sorbents was about 5%, which corresponds to a maximum CO{sub 2} absorption capacity of less than 1%. The overall capacity of modified dolomite sorbents were at least one order of magnitude

  16. TEXACO GASIFICATION PROCESS - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the evaluation of the Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The Texaco Gasification Process was developed by Texaco Inc. The TGP is a comm...

  17. TEXACO GASIFICATION PROCESS - INNOVATIVE TECHNOLOGY EVALUATION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes the evaluation of the Texaco Gasification Process (TGP) conducted under the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Superfund Innovative Technology Evaluation (SITE) Program. The Texaco Gasification Process was developed by Texaco Inc. The TGP is a comm...

  18. Two-stage coal gasification and desulfurization apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Bissett, Larry A.; Strickland, Larry D.

    1991-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a system which effectively integrates a two-stage, fixed-bed coal gasification arrangement with hot fuel gas desulfurization of a first stream of fuel gas from a lower stage of the two-stage gasifier and the removal of sulfur from the sulfur sorbent regeneration gas utilized in the fuel-gas desulfurization process by burning a second stream of fuel gas from the upper stage of the gasifier in a combustion device in the presence of calcium-containing material. The second stream of fuel gas is taken from above the fixed bed in the coal gasifier and is laden with ammonia, tar and sulfur values. This second stream of fuel gas is burned in the presence of excess air to provide heat energy sufficient to effect a calcium-sulfur compound forming reaction between the calcium-containing material and sulfur values carried by the regeneration gas and the second stream of fuel gas. Any ammonia values present in the fuel gas are decomposed during the combustion of the fuel gas in the combustion chamber. The substantially sulfur-free products of combustion may then be combined with the desulfurized fuel gas for providing a combustible fluid utilized for driving a prime mover.

  19. Numerical and experimental study of strata behavior and land subsidence in an underground coal gasification project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirdesai, N. N.; Singh, R.; Singh, T. N.; Ranjith, P. G.

    2015-11-01

    Underground Coal Gasification, with enhanced knowledge of hydrogeological, geomechanical and environmental aspects, can be an alternative technique to exploit the existing unmineable reserves of coal. During the gasification process, petro-physical and geomechanical properties undergo a drastic change due to heating to elevated temperatures. These changes, caused due to the thermal anisotropy of various minerals, result in the generation of thermal stresses; thereby developing new fracture pattern. These fractures cause the overhead rock strata to cave and fill the gasification chamber thereby causing subsidence. The degree of subsidence, change in fluid transport and geomechanical properties of the rock strata, in and around the subsidence zone, can affect the groundwater flow. This study aims to predict the thermo-geomechanical response of the strata during UCG. Petro-physical and geomechanical properties are incorporated in the numerical modelling software COMSOL Multiphysics and an analytical strength model is developed to validate and further study the mechanical response and heat conduction of the host rock around the gasification chamber. Once the problems are investigated and solved, the enhanced efficiency and the economic exploitation of gasification process would help meet country's energy demand.

  20. Hydrogen production by high-temperature steam gasification of biomass and coal

    SciTech Connect

    Kriengsak, S.N.; Buczynski, R.; Gmurczyk, J.; Gupta, A.K.

    2009-04-15

    High-temperature steam gasification of paper, yellow pine woodchips, and Pittsburgh bituminous coal was investigated in a batch-type flow reactor at temperatures in the range of 700 to 1,200{sup o}C at two different ratios of steam to feedstock molar ratios. Hydrogen yield of 54.7% for paper, 60.2% for woodchips, and 57.8% for coal was achieved on a dry basis, with a steam flow rate of 6.3 g/min at steam temperature of 1,200{sup o}C. Yield of both the hydrogen and carbon monoxide increased while carbon dioxide and methane decreased with the increase in gasification temperature. A 10-fold reduction in tar residue was obtained at high-temperature steam gasification, compared to low temperatures. Steam and gasification temperature affects the composition of the syngas produced. Higher steam-to-feedstock molar ratio had negligible effect on the amount of hydrogen produced in the syngas in the fixed-batch type of reactor. Gasification temperature can be used to control the amounts of hydrogen or methane produced from the gasification process. This also provides mean to control the ratio of hydrogen to CO in the syngas, which can then be processed to produce liquid hydrocarbon fuel since the liquid fuel production requires an optimum ratio between hydrogen and CO. The syngas produced can be further processed to produce pure hydrogen. Biomass fuels are good source of renewable fuels to produce hydrogen or liquid fuels using controlled steam gasification.

  1. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Feasibility analyses and systems engineering studies for a 20,000 tons per day medium Btu (MBG) coal gasification plant to be built by TVA in Northern Alabama were conducted. Major objectives were as follows: (1) provide design and cost data to support the selection of a gasifier technology and other major plant design parameters, (2) provide design and cost data to support alternate product evaluation, (3) prepare a technology development plan to address areas of high technical risk, and (4) develop schedules, PERT charts, and a work breakdown structure to aid in preliminary project planning. Volume one contains a summary of gasification system characterizations. Five gasification technologies were selected for evaluation: Koppers-Totzek, Texaco, Lurgi Dry Ash, Slagging Lurgi, and Babcock and Wilcox. A summary of the trade studies and cost sensitivity analysis is included.

  2. Supplemental studies for anthracite coal gasification to produce fuels and chemicals: NEPGAS Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-08-24

    Volume 2 contains: (1) comparative evaluations of several coal gasification processes (Westinghouse, Saarberg/Otto, KGN/PVC, Lurgi, Koppers-Totzek, Texaco, Shell-Koppers, BGC Slagging Lurgi, KT/KBW); (2) site conditions, coal sources and characteristics, recommendations for tests with the coal and gasifier selected, and evaluation of other engineering and environmental uncertainties; (3) continuation and update of environmental assessment and information needed for licensing application; (4) commercialization including market assessment, raw material supplies, water requirements, socio-economic factors, recommended plant capacity, economics and financial incentives needed, etc. (LTN)

  3. Multi-Criteria Evaluation of Coal Properties in Terms of Gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marciniak-Kowalska, Jolanta; Niedoba, Tomasz; Surowiak, Agnieszka; Tumidajski, Tadeusz

    2014-10-01

    This paper presents a comparative analysis of two types of coal taken from the ZG Janina and ZG Wieczorek coalmines. The aim of this study has been to analyze the suitability of the coal in the context of the gasification process. The types of coal vary considerably in terms of their characteristics. Each of them was subjected to treatment in a ten-ringed annular jig. A particle size of 0-18 mm constituted the feed. The separated coal was divided into five layers, each of them containing material from two additional annular jigs. Analysis of their characteristics was carried out for each of the five layers and for both types of coal obtained, taking into account both their physicochemical properties as well as chemical ones. Each of these characteristics was then presented in three-dimensional surface diagrams, where the ordinate (or Y-axis) and abscissa (X-axis) was the particle size and height in which the material ended up in the jig (expressed as a percentage of the total height of the device). On the basis of observations, it was found that the types of coal have different potential for gasification, although both types are within the limits specified on the basis of previous studies. A correlation analysis between particle size and remaining characteristics of coal was carried out for each of the layers, allowing to determine which of the studied characteristics induced changes significant from the point of view of the coal gasification process. The entire research and observation was supported by conclusions and findings, which shall form the basis for further, in-depth analysis of coal.

  4. Method for gasification of deep, thin coal seams

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, David W.

    1982-01-01

    A method of gasification of coal in deep, thin seams by using controlled bending subsidence to confine gas flow to a region close to the unconsumed coal face. The injection point is moved sequentially around the perimeter of a coal removal area from a production well to sweep out the area to cause the controlled bending subsidence. The injection holes are drilled vertically into the coal seam through the overburden or horizontally into the seam from an exposed coal face. The method is particularly applicable to deep, thin seams found in the eastern United States and at abandoned strip mines where thin seams were surface mined into a hillside or down a modest dip until the overburden became too thick for further mining.

  5. Method for gasification of deep, thin coal seams. [DOE patent

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, D.W.

    1980-08-29

    A method of gasification of coal in deep, thin seams by using controlled bending subsidence to confine gas flow to a region close to the unconsumed coal face is given. The injection point is moved sequentially around the perimeter of a coal removal area from a production well to sweep out the area to cause the controlled bending subsidence. The injection holes are drilled vertically into the coal seam through the overburden or horizontally into the seam from an exposed coal face. The method is particularly applicable to deep, thin seams found in the eastern United States and at abandoned strip mines where thin seams were surface mined into a hillside or down a modest dip until the overburden became too thick for further mining.

  6. Integration of stripping of fines slurry in a coking and gasification process

    DOEpatents

    DeGeorge, Charles W.

    1980-01-01

    In an integrated fluid coking and gasification process wherein a stream of fluidized solids is passed from a fluidized bed coking zone to a second fluidized bed and wherein entrained solid fines are recovered by a wet scrubbing process and wherein the resulting solids-liquid slurry is stripped to remove acidic gases, the stripped vapors of the stripping zone are sent to the gas cleanup stage of the gasification product gas. The improved stripping integration is particularly useful in the combination coal liquefaction process, fluid coking of bottoms of the coal liquefaction zone and gasification of the product coke.

  7. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project: A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-01-15

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCT) is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of a project selected in CCT Round IV, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering (WRCGR) Project, as described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy 1992). Repowering consists of replacing an existing coal-fired boiler with one or more clean coal technologies to achieve significantly improved environmental performance. The desire to demonstrate utility repowering with a two-stage, pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow, integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) system prompted Destec Energy, Inc., and PSI Energy, Inc., to form a joint venture and submit a proposal for this project. In July 1992, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project Joint Venture (WRCGRPJV, the Participant) entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. The project was sited at PSI Energy's Wabash River Generating Station, located in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The purpose of this CCT project was to demonstrate IGCC repowering using a Destec gasifier and to assess long-term reliability, availability, and maintainability of the system at a fully commercial scale. DOE provided 50 percent of the total project funding (for capital and operating costs during the demonstration period) of $438 million.

  8. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), General Electric Phase 1. Volume 3: Energy conversion subsystems and components. Part 3: Gasification, process fuels, and balance of plant

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boothe, W. A.; Corman, J. C.; Johnson, G. G.; Cassel, T. A. V.

    1976-01-01

    Results are presented of an investigation of gasification and clean fuels from coal. Factors discussed include: coal and coal transportation costs; clean liquid and gas fuel process efficiencies and costs; and cost, performance, and environmental intrusion elements of the integrated low-Btu coal gasification system. Cost estimates for the balance-of-plant requirements associated with advanced energy conversion systems utilizing coal or coal-derived fuels are included.

  9. Updraft gasification of salmon processing waste

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The purpose of this research is to judge the feasibility of gasification for the disposal of waste streams generated through salmon harvesting. Gasification is the process of converting carbonaceous materials into combustible “syngas” in a high temperature (above 700 °C), oxygen deficient environmen...

  10. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Maghzi, Shawn; Subramanian, Ramanathan; Rizeq, George; Singh, Surinder; McDermott, John; Eiteneer, Boris; Ladd, David; Vazquez, Arturo; Anderson, Denise; Bates, Noel

    2011-09-30

    The U.S. Department of Energy‘s National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE‘s bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and

  11. Product Characterization for Entrained Flow Coal/Biomass Co-Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Maghzi, Shawn; Subramanian, Ramanathan; Rizeq, George; Singh, Surinder; McDermott, John; Eiteneer, Boris; Ladd, David; Vazquez, Arturo; Anderson, Denise; Bates, Noel

    2011-12-11

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) is exploring affordable technologies and processes to convert domestic coal and biomass resources to high-quality liquid hydrocarbon fuels. This interest is primarily motivated by the need to increase energy security and reduce greenhouse gas emissions in the United States. Gasification technologies represent clean, flexible and efficient conversion pathways to utilize coal and biomass resources. Substantial experience and knowledge had been developed worldwide on gasification of either coal or biomass. However, reliable data on effects of blending various biomass fuels with coal during gasification process and resulting syngas composition are lacking. In this project, GE Global Research performed a complete characterization of the gas, liquid and solid products that result from the co-gasification of coal/biomass mixtures. This work was performed using a bench-scale gasifier (BSG) and a pilot-scale entrained flow gasifier (EFG). This project focused on comprehensive characterization of the products from gasifying coal/biomass mixtures in a high-temperature, high-pressure entrained flow gasifier. Results from this project provide guidance on appropriate gas clean-up systems and optimization of operating parameters needed to develop and commercialize gasification technologies. GE's bench-scale test facility provided the bulk of high-fidelity quantitative data under temperature, heating rate, and residence time conditions closely matching those of commercial oxygen-blown entrained flow gasifiers. Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) pilot-scale test facility provided focused high temperature and pressure tests at entrained flow gasifier conditions. Accurate matching of syngas time-temperature history during cooling ensured that complex species interactions including homogeneous and heterogeneous processes such as particle nucleation, coagulation, surface condensation, and gas

  12. Coal Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell System Study

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Wotzak; Chellappa Balan; Faress Rahman; Nguyen Minh

    2003-08-01

    The pre-baseline configuration for an Integrated Gasification Fuel Cell (IGFC) system has been developed. This case uses current gasification, clean-up, gas turbine, and bottoming cycle technologies together with projected large planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) technology. This pre-baseline case will be used as a basis for identifying the critical factors impacting system performance and the major technical challenges in implementing such systems. Top-level system requirements were used as the criteria to evaluate and down select alternative sub-systems. The top choice subsystems were subsequently integrated to form the pre-baseline case. The down-selected pre-baseline case includes a British Gas Lurgi (BGL) gasification and cleanup sub-system integrated with a GE Power Systems 6FA+e gas turbine and the Hybrid Power Generation Systems planar Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) sub-system. The overall efficiency of this system is estimated to be 43.0%. The system efficiency of the pre-baseline system provides a benchmark level for further optimization efforts in this program.

  13. Modelling of the process of coal dust combustion in a cyclone furnace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zarzycki, Robert; Bis, Zbigniew

    2017-04-01

    This study presents the concept of a cyclone furnace for coal dust oxy-fuel combustion and gasification. The results of numerical calculations for the combustion and gasification processes were also presented.

  14. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts

    SciTech Connect

    Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.

    1991-11-01

    This report is a final brief summary of development of a mild-gasification and char conversion process. Morgantown Energy Technology Center developed a concept called mild gasification. In this concept, devolatilization of coal under nonoxidizing and relatively mild temperature and pressure conditions can yield three marketable products: (1) a high-heating-value gas, (2) a high-aromatic coal liquid, and (3) a high-carbon char. The objective of this program is to develop an advanced, continuous, mild-gasification process to produce products that will make the concept economically and environmentally viable. (VC)

  15. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Merriam, N.W.; Jha, M.C.

    1991-11-01

    This report is a final brief summary of development of a mild-gasification and char conversion process. Morgantown Energy Technology Center developed a concept called mild gasification. In this concept, devolatilization of coal under nonoxidizing and relatively mild temperature and pressure conditions can yield three marketable products: (1) a high-heating-value gas, (2) a high-aromatic coal liquid, and (3) a high-carbon char. The objective of this program is to develop an advanced, continuous, mild-gasification process to produce products that will make the concept economically and environmentally viable. (VC)

  16. Combined cycle power plant incorporating coal gasification

    DOEpatents

    Liljedahl, Gregory N.; Moffat, Bruce K.

    1981-01-01

    A combined cycle power plant incorporating a coal gasifier as the energy source. The gases leaving the coal gasifier pass through a liquid couplant heat exchanger before being used to drive a gas turbine. The exhaust gases of the gas turbine are used to generate both high pressure and low pressure steam for driving a steam turbine, before being exhausted to the atmosphere.

  17. Low/medium-Btu coal-gasification assessment program for specific sites of two New York utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-12-01

    The scope of this study is to investigate the technical and economic aspects of coal gasification to supply low- or medium-Btu gas to the two power plant boilers selected for study. This includes the following major studies (and others described in the text): investigate coals from different regions of the country, select a coal based on its availability, mode of transportation and delivered cost to each power plant site; investigate the effects of burning low- and medium-Btu gas in the selected power plant boilers based on efficiency, rating and cost of modifications and make recommendations for each; and review the technical feasibility of converting the power plant boilers to coal-derived gas. The following two coal gasification processes have been used as the basis for this Study: the Combustion Engineering coal gasification process produces a low-Btu gas at approximately 100 Btu/scf at near atmospheric pressure; and the Texaco coal gasification process produces a medium-Btu gas at 292 Btu/scf at 800 psig. The engineering design and economics of both plants are described. Both plants meet the federal, state, and local environmental requirements for air quality, wastewater, liquid disposal, and ground level disposal of byproduct solids. All of the synthetic gas alternatives result in bus bar cost savings on a yearly basis within a few years of start-up because the cost of gas is assumed to escalate at a lower rate than that of fuel oil, approximately 4 to 5%.

  18. 300 MW combined-cycle plant with integrated coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Kehlhofer, R.H.

    1984-09-01

    The main obstacle to further expansion of the combined cycle principle is its lack of fuel flexibility. To this day, gas turbines are still limited to gaseous or liquid fuels. This paper shows a viable way to add a cheap solid fuel, coal, to the list. The plant system in question is a 2 X 150 MW combined-cycle plant of BBC Brown Boveri with integrated coal gasification plant of British Gas/Lurgi. The main point of interest is that All the individual components of the power plant described in this paper have proven their worth commercially. It is therefore not a pilot plant but a viable commercial proposition.

  19. Corrrosion of low-nickel weldments in coal gasification atmospheres

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K

    1984-12-01

    Coal gasification environments exhibit low oxygen and moderate-to-high sulfur partial pressures; under these conditions, structural alloys welded with high-nickel filler metals are susceptible to the sulfidation mode of attack even though the base metal itself has adequate resistance to sulfidation. To understand the role of nickel in the weldment on the corrosion process, a number of weldments of Incology 800H base metal welded with several commercially available low-nickel filler metals have been tested in mixed oxygen-sulfur atmospheres. Results on the compositional variations and morphological developments obtained from exposed specimens are presented. The results showed that high-nickel weld metal can accelerate the oxidation/sulfidation process. In addition, the weld interface region in all the alloys (irrespective of the nickel content of the filler metal) was susceptibel to accelerated attack in mixed-gas atmospheres; however, weldments with lower-nickel filler metals exhibited smaller scale thicknesses and showed significant promise for application in fossil fuel systems. 4 references, 15 figures, 3 tables.

  20. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 11. Gasification of Minnesota peat. [Peat pellets and peat sods

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-05-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a coooperative effort by private industrial participants and governmental agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) Group. This report is the eleventh volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific report describes the gasification of peat pellets and peat sods during 3 different test periods. 2 refs., 20 figs., 13 tabs.

  1. Temporal measurements and kinetics of selenium release during coal combustion and gasification in a fluidized bed.

    PubMed

    Shen, Fenghua; Liu, Jing; Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Yingju

    2016-06-05

    The temporal release of selenium from coal during combustion and gasification in a fluidized bed was measured in situ by an on-line analysis system of trace elements in flue gas. The on-line analysis system is based on an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), and can measure concentrations of trace elements in flue gas quantitatively and continuously. The results of on-line analysis suggest that the concentration of selenium in flue gas during coal gasification is higher than that during coal combustion. Based on the results of on-line analysis, a second-order kinetic law r(x)=0.94e(-26.58/RT)(-0.56 x(2) -0.51 x+1.05) was determined for selenium release during coal combustion, and r(x)=11.96e(-45.03/RT)(-0.53 x(2) -0.56 x+1.09) for selenium release during coal gasification. These two kinetic laws can predict respectively the temporal release of selenium during coal combustion and gasification with an acceptable accuracy. Thermodynamic calculations were conducted to predict selenium species during coal combustion and gasification. The speciation of selenium in flue gas during coal combustion differs from that during coal gasification, indicating that selenium volatilization is different. The gaseous selenium species can react with CaO during coal combustion, but it is not likely to interact with mineral during coal gasification.

  2. CATALYTIC GASIFICATION OF COAL USING EUTECTIC SALT MIXTURES

    SciTech Connect

    Atul Sheth; Chandramouli Sastry

    2001-03-31

    Most of the tasks on the project have successfully been completed and reported. A 12 month no-cost extension has been requested to complete the remaining tasks. This report summarizes the accomplishments of the first six months of the no-cost extensions period. The acetic acid extraction showed that acetic acid has more effect on the extraction of the ternary catalyst (LNK) ions than water. Based on the extraction results, the order of the recovery capability of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} using acetic acid, sulfuric acid and water extractions is sulfuric acid {ge} acetic acid > water; the order for K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is sulfuric acid > water >acetic acid; and the order for Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} is acetic acid > sulfuric acid >water. A process flowsheet for the catalyst recovery process was proposed based on the results. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) studies showed most of the particles (coal) appear amorphous. Some coal particles are as large as 50-60 {micro}m, but most are smaller. One can also easily see a few crystalline particles (10-20 {micro}m) with sharp facets and corners. The electron micrographs of gasified char samples (reactor-aged) of the LNKcoal mixture showed that a dramatic change is obvious in the morphology and crystallinity of the sample and is consistent with the results obtained from the x-ray diffraction studies. XRD studies of reactor-aged samples showed a substantial increase in the sample crystallinity (due to the gasification of amorphous carbon). The eutectic salt presumably mostly converted to sulfates.

  3. Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags

    SciTech Connect

    1999-09-30

    The integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) process is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of as-generated slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, the authors found that it would be extremely difficult for as-generated slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1,400 and 1,700 F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI), and internal resources. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases: Phase 1, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot scale

  4. UTILIZATION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS MADE FROM COAL GASIFICATION SLAGS

    SciTech Connect

    1999-03-29

    The integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) process is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of ''as-generated'' slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, we found that it would be extremely difficult for ''as-generated'' slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1400 and 1700 F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI), and internal resources. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases: Phase I, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot scale, and

  5. UTILIZATION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS MADE FROM COAL GASIFICATION SLAGS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2000-04-24

    The integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) process is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of ''as-generated'' slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, we found that it would be extremely difficult for ''as-generated'' slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1400 and 1700 F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI), and internal resources. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for, various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases Phase I, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot scale, and

  6. Retention of arsenic and selenium compounds using limestone in a coal gasification flue gas.

    PubMed

    Diaz-Somoano, Mercedes; Martinez-Tarazona, M Rosa

    2004-02-01

    Volatile arsenic and selenium compounds present in coals may cause environmental problems during coal combustion and gasification. A possible way to avoid such problems may be the use of solid sorbents capable of retaining these elements from flue gases in gas cleaning systems. Lime and limestone are materials that are extensively employed for the capture of sulfur during coal processing. Moreover, they have also proven to have good retention characteristics for arsenic and selenium during combustion. The aim of this work was to ascertain whether this sorbent is also useful for retaining arsenic and selenium species in gases produced in coal gasification. The study was carried out in a laboratory-scale reactor in which the sorbent was employed as a fixed bed, using synthetic gas mixtures. In these conditions, retention capacities for arsenic may reach 17 mg g(-1) in a gasification atmosphere free of H2S, whereas the presence of H2S implies a significant decrease in arsenic retention. In the case of selenium, H2S does not influence retention which may reach 65 mg g(-1). Post-retention sorbent characterization, thermal stability, and water solubility tests have shown that chemical reaction is one of the mechanisms responsible for the capture of arsenic and selenium, with Ca(AsO2)2 and CaSe being the main compounds formed.

  7. Biomass gasification chars for mercury capture from a simulated flue gas of coal combustion.

    PubMed

    Fuente-Cuesta, A; Diaz-Somoano, M; Lopez-Anton, M A; Cieplik, M; Fierro, J L G; Martínez-Tarazona, M R

    2012-05-15

    The combustion of coal can result in trace elements, such as mercury, being released from power stations with potentially harmful effects for both human health and the environment. Research is ongoing to develop cost-effective and efficient control technologies for mercury removal from coal-fired power plants, the largest source of anthropogenic mercury emissions. A number of activated carbon sorbents have been demonstrated to be effective for mercury retention in coal combustion power plants. However, more economic alternatives need to be developed. Raw biomass gasification chars could serve as low-cost sorbents for capturing mercury since they are sub-products generated during a thermal conversion process. The aim of this study was to evaluate different biomass gasification chars as mercury sorbents in a simulated coal combustion flue gas. The results were compared with those obtained using a commercial activated carbon. Chars from a mixture of paper and plastic waste showed the highest retention capacity. It was found that not only a high carbon content and a well developed microporosity but also a high chlorine content and a high aluminium content improved the mercury retention capacity of biomass gasification chars. No relationship could be inferred between the surface oxygen functional groups and mercury retention in the char samples evaluated. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Fabrication of Pd/Pd-Alloy Films by Surfactant Induced Electroless Plating for Hydrogen Separation from Advanced Coal Gasification Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Ilias, Shamsuddin; Kumar, Dhananjay

    2012-07-31

    Dense Pd, Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag composite membranes on microporous stainless steel substrate (MPSS) were fabricated by a novel electroless plating (EP) process. In the conventional Pd-EP process, the oxidation-reduction reactions between Pd-complex and hydrazine result in an evolution of NH{sub 3} and N{sub 2} gas bubbles. When adhered to the substrate surface and in the pores, these gas bubbles hinder uniform Pd-film deposition which results in dendrite growth leading to poor film formation. This problem was addressed by introducing cationic surfactant in the electroless plating process known as surfactant induced electroless plating (SIEP). The unique features of this innovation provide control of Pd-deposition rate, and Pd-grain size distribution. The surfactant molecules play an important role in the EP process by tailoring grain size and the process of agglomeration by removing tiny gas bubbles through adsorption at the gas-liquid interface. As a result surfactant can tailor a nanocrystalline Pd, Cu and Ag deposition in the film resulting in reduced membrane film thickness. Also, it produces a uniform, agglomerated film structure. The Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag membranes on MPSS support were fabricated by sequential deposition using SIEP method. The pre- and post-annealing characterizations of these membranes (Pd, Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag on MPSS substrate) were carried out by SEM, EDX, XRD, and AFM studies. The SEM images show significant improvement of the membrane surface morphology, in terms of metal grain structures and grain agglomeration compared to the membranes fabricated by conventional EP process. The SEM images and helium gas-tightness studies indicate that dense and thinner films of Pd, Pd-Cu and Pd-Ag membranes can be produced with shorter deposition time using surfactant. H{sub 2} Flux through the membranes fabricated by SIEP shows large improvement compared to those by CEP with comparable permselectivity. Pd-MPSS composite membrane was subjected to test for long term

  9. Conceptual design and assessment of a coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant. Volume 3. Summary. [Texaco; Koppers-Totzek

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Objective is a commercial-scale coal gasification facility producing clean medium-Btu gas (300 billion Btu/day) from 20,000 tons/day of bituminous coal. The process was narrowed down to either the Texaco process, the Koppers-Totzek process, or a combination of those two. This document is a summary description of the plants for both processes. Brief summary tables are presented for comparison. (DLC)

  10. Plasma-enhanced gasification of low-grade coals for compact power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Lee, Bong J.

    2011-10-01

    A high temperature of a steam torch ensures an efficient gasification of low-grade coals, which is comparable to that of high-grade coals. Therefore, the coal gasification system energized by microwaves can serve as a moderately sized power plant due to its compact and lightweight design. This plasma power plant of low-grade coals would be useful in rural or sparsely populated areas without access to a national power grid.

  11. Plasma-enhanced gasification of low-grade coals for compact power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Uhm, Han S.; Hong, Yong C.; Shin, Dong H.; Lee, Bong J.

    2011-10-15

    A high temperature of a steam torch ensures an efficient gasification of low-grade coals, which is comparable to that of high-grade coals. Therefore, the coal gasification system energized by microwaves can serve as a moderately sized power plant due to its compact and lightweight design. This plasma power plant of low-grade coals would be useful in rural or sparsely populated areas without access to a national power grid.

  12. Subtask 3.16 - Low-Cost Coal-Water Fuel for Entrained-Flow Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, C.M.

    1997-10-01

    The specific objective of this research project is to assess the potential process efficiency and pollution control benefits that may occur by applying the hydrothermal, or hot water-drying, process to low-rank coals as related to entrained-flow gasification systems. Project emphasis is on identifying more efficient coal dewatering and CWF formulation methods prior to gasification. A favorable estimate of incremental cost for integrated hydrothermal drying depends, in part, on increasing the particle size of the feed coal from minus 100 to minus 28 mesh for the purpose of simplifying the slurry concentration process. Two options will be reviewed for dewatering or concentrating the processed slurry: (1) repressurization and then concentration with sieve bends or (2) partial dewatering at system pressure with hydroclones. Both have their own merits, sieve bends being a low-cost alternative, while hydroclone application would not require additional pumping sections prior to gasification. Various CWF samples with different particle-size distributions and solids concentrations will be sent to equipment vendors for application review. Also, EERC cost models will be used to calculate the integral cost of adding the partial dewatering to the hydrothermal technology for a commercial-size facility.

  13. Presence of an Unusual Methanogenic Bacterium in Coal Gasification Waste

    PubMed Central

    Tomei, Francisco A.; Rouse, Dwight; Maki, James S.; Mitchell, Ralph

    1988-01-01

    Methanogenic bacteria growing on a pilot-scale, anaerobic filter processing coal gasification waste were enriched in a mineral salts medium containing hydrogen and acetate as potential energy sources. Transfer of the enrichments to methanol medium resulted in the initial growth of a strain of Methanosarcina barkeri, but eventually small cocci became dominant. The cocci growing on methanol produced methane and exhibited the typical fluorescence of methanogenic bacteria. They grew in the presence of the cell wall synthesis-inhibiting antibiotics d-cycloserine, fosfomycin, penicillin G, and vancomycin as well as in the presence of kanamycin, an inhibitor of protein synthesis in eubacteria. The optimal growth temperature was 37°C, and the doubling time was 7.5 h. The strain lysed after reaching stationary phase. The bacterium grew poorly with hydrogen as the energy source and failed to grow on acetate. Morphologically, the coccus shared similarities with Methanosarcina sp. Cells were 1 μm wide, exhibited the typical thick cell wall and cross-wall formation, and formed tetrads. Packets and cysts were not formed. Images PMID:16347791

  14. Presence of an unusual methanogenic bacterium in coal gasification waste.

    PubMed

    Tomei, F A; Rouse, D; Maki, J S; Mitchell, R

    1988-12-01

    Methanogenic bacteria growing on a pilot-scale, anaerobic filter processing coal gasification waste were enriched in a mineral salts medium containing hydrogen and acetate as potential energy sources. Transfer of the enrichments to methanol medium resulted in the initial growth of a strain of Methanosarcina barkeri, but eventually small cocci became dominant. The cocci growing on methanol produced methane and exhibited the typical fluorescence of methanogenic bacteria. They grew in the presence of the cell wall synthesis-inhibiting antibiotics d-cycloserine, fosfomycin, penicillin G, and vancomycin as well as in the presence of kanamycin, an inhibitor of protein synthesis in eubacteria. The optimal growth temperature was 37 degrees C, and the doubling time was 7.5 h. The strain lysed after reaching stationary phase. The bacterium grew poorly with hydrogen as the energy source and failed to grow on acetate. Morphologically, the coccus shared similarities with Methanosarcina sp. Cells were 1 mum wide, exhibited the typical thick cell wall and cross-wall formation, and formed tetrads. Packets and cysts were not formed.

  15. Construction labor assessment for coal gasification plant Murphy Hill, Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    TVA's planned construction of a coal gasification plant, capable of processing about 20,000 tons of coal per day into a clean-burning fuel, will be a large and complex construction project by any relevant measure. The plant site examined here is in northern Alabama near Murphy Hill. The project is estimated to require nearly 7000 workers at peak employment in 1985. It is projected that construction will start in early 1981 and be completed in 1988. Nearly 66 percent of all construction craft worker requirements are expected to occur during a 36-month period from 1984 to 1986, and about 25 percent are projected to occur during the 1985 calendar year alone. This construction labor market assessment report is directed toward establishing and analyzing data on construction labor requirements, and labor availability for the 75-mile geographical zone surrounding Murphy Hill, Alabama. The purpose of this report is to examine potential skilled labor shortages and some alternatives for alleviating those shortages, but not to address the array of socioeconomic implications of reducing shortages by training, by attracting workers who move permanently to the job site, or by attracting workers who live temporarily near the site and return home periodically. Parameters and assessments of the Murphy Hill construction labor market have been developed for: the 75-mile geographical zone surrounding the site; the major skilled construction trades involved; the time phase of construction labor demand; and projected craft-specific labor shortfalls. These objectives have been developed within the engineering bounds of the TVA's labor planning memo.

  16. Development of biological coal gasification (MicGas process): 13th Quarterly report, [July 1--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-28

    In examining methods for enhancing the biomethanation of TxL, several experiments were conducted to study the mechanisms of lowering the pH during biomethanation of Texas lignite (TxL) at higher solids loadings. Results indicated that: Treatment of TxL with different pH solutions did not influence the biomethanation process; The decrease in methane production at higher solids loadings still needs further investigations; Anaerobic conditions containing deoxygenated nitrogen:carbon dioxide provide better methanation of TxL; The most promising combination between the isolates from Mic-1 and Mic-4 was found to be combination D (KS14RMK8-1458); The KS14RMK8 shows the highest accumulation of acetate in the cell-free culture broth from this consortium.

  17. Feasibility Study of Coal Gasification/Fuel Cell/Cogeneration Economic and Financing Assessment,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-08-01

    I p "" r FEASIBILITY STUDY OF COAL GASIFICATION FUEL CELL COGENERATION ECONOMIC AND FINANCING ASSESSMENT Lfl Lfl ’-..,.a REPORT CLIN 0004-0005...GASIFICATION FUEL CELL COGENERATION ECONOMIC AND FINANCING ASSESSMENT REPORT CLIN 0004-0005 PREPARED FOR :...: DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY AND GEORGETOWN UNIVERSITY...Subtitle) 5. TYPE OF REPORT 6 PERIOD COVERED FEASIBILITY STUDY OF COAL GASIFICATION! Economic/Financing FUEL CELL/COGENERATION, ECONOMIC AND Analysis

  18. HIGH TEMPERATURE REMOVAL OF H{sub 2}S FROM COAL GASIFICATION PROCESS STREAMS USING AN ELECTROCHEMICAL MEMBRANE SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Jack Winnick; Meilin Liu

    2003-06-01

    A bench scale set-up was constructed to test the cell performance at 600-700 C and 1 atm. The typical fuel stream inlet proportions were 34% CO, 22% CO{sub 2}, 35% H{sub 2}, 8% H{sub 2}O, and 450-2000 ppm H{sub 2}S. The fundamental transport restrictions for sulfur species in an electrochemical cell were examined. Temperature and membrane thickness were varied to examine how these parameters affect the maximum flux of H{sub 2}S removal. It was found that higher temperature allows more sulfide species to enter the electrolyte, thus increasing the sulfide flux across the membrane and raising the maximum flux of H{sub 2}S removal. The results identify sulfide diffusion across the membrane as the rate-limiting step in H{sub 2}S removal. The maximum H{sub 2}S removal flux of 1.1 x 10-6 gmol H{sub 2}S min{sup -1} cm{sup -2} (or 3.5 mA cm{sup -2}) was obtained at 650 C, with a membrane that was 0.9 mm thick, 36% porous, and had an estimated tortuosity of 3.6. Another focus of this thesis was to examine the stability of cathode materials in full cell trials. A major hurdle that remains in process scale-up is cathode selection, as the lifetime of the cell will depend heavily on the lifetime of the cathode material, which is exposed to very sour gas. Materials that showed success in the past (i.e. cobalt sulfides and Y{sub 0.9}Ca{sub 0.1}FeO{sub 3}) were examined but were seen to have limitations in operating environment and temperature. Therefore, other novel metal oxide compounds were studied to find possible candidates for full cell trials. Gd{sub 2}TiMoO{sub 7} and La{sub 0.7}Sr{sub 0.3}VO{sub 3} were the compounds that retained their structure best even when exposed to high H{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O concentrations.

  19. ENCOAL mild coal gasification demonstration project. Annual report, October 1994--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This document is the combination of the fourth quarter report (July - September 1995) and the 1995 annual report for the ENCOAL project. The following pages include the background and process description for the project, brief summaries of the accomplishments for the first three quarters, and a detailed fourth quarter report. Its purpose is to convey the accomplishments and current progress of the project. ENCOAL Corporation, a wholly-owned subsidiary of SMC Mining Company (formerly Shell Mining company, now owned by Zeigler Coal Holding Company), has completed the construction and start-up of a mild gasification demonstration plant at Triton Coal Company`s Buckskin Mine near Gillette, Wyoming. The process, using Liquids From Coal (LFC) technology developed by SMC and SGI International, utilizes low-sulfur Powder River Basis coal to produce two new fuels, Process Derived Fuel (PDF) and Coal Derived Liquids (CDL). The products, as alternative fuels sources, are expected to significantly lower current sulfur emissions at industrial and utility boiler sites throughout the nation, thereby reducing pollutants causing acid rain. In the LFC technology, coal is first deeply dried to remove water physically. The temperature is further raised in a second stage which results in decomposition reactions that form the new products. This chemical decomposition (mild gasification) creates gases by cracking reactions from the feed coal. The chemically altered solids are cooled and further processed to make PDF. The gases are cooled, condensing liquids as CDL, and the residual gases are burned in the process for heat. The process release for the ENCOAL plant predicted that one ton of feed coal would yield roughly {1/2} ton of PDF and {1/2} barrel of CDL. By varying plant running conditions, however, it has since been learned that the actual CDL recovery rate may be as much as 15% to 20% above the projections.

  20. Encoal mild coal gasification project: Commercial plant feasibility study

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    In order to determine the viability of any Liquids from Coal (LFC) commercial venture, TEK-KOL and its partner, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries (MHI), have put together a technical and economic feasibility study for a commercial-size LFC Plant located at Zeigler Coal Holding Company`s North Rochelle Mine site. This resulting document, the ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Plant: Commercial Plant Feasibility Study, includes basic plant design, capital estimates, market assessment for coproducts, operating cost assessments, and overall financial evaluation for a generic Powder River Basin based plant. This document and format closely resembles a typical Phase II study as assembled by the TEK-KOL Partnership to evaluate potential sites for LFC commercial facilities around the world.

  1. Coal-gasification combined-cycle power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, J.A.

    1984-06-01

    Rolls-Royce has joined forces with Foster Wheeler to offer a modern power plant that integrates the benefits of coal gasification with the efficiency advantages of combined-cycle power generation. Powered by fuel gas from two parallel Lurgi slagging gasifiers, the 150-MW power station employs two Rolls-Royce SK60 gas-turbine generating sets. The proposed plant is designed for continuous power generation and should operate efficiently down to one-third of its rated capacity. Rolls estimates that the installed cost for this station would be lower than that for a conventional coal-fired station of the same output with comparable operating costs. Cooling water requirements would be less than half those of a coal-fired station.

  2. Effect of powdered activated carbon technology on short-cut nitrogen removal for coal gasification wastewater.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Han, Hongjun; Xu, Chunyan; Zhuang, Haifeng; Fang, Fang; Zhang, Linghan

    2013-08-01

    A combined process consisting of a powdered activated carbon technology (PACT) and short-cut biological nitrogen removal reactor (SBNR) was developed to enhance the removal efficiency of the total nitrogen (TN) from the effluent of an upflow anaerobic sludge bed (UASB) reactor, which was used to treat coal gasification wastewater (CGW). The SBNR performance was improved with the increasing of COD and TP removal efficiency via PACT. The average removal efficiencies of COD and TP in PACT were respectively 85.80% and 90.30%. Meanwhile, the NH3-N to NO2-N conversion rate was achieved 86.89% in SBNR and the total nitrogen (TN) removal efficiency was 75.54%. In contrast, the AOB in SBNR was significantly inhibited without PACT or with poor performance of PACT in advance, which rendered the removal of TN. Furthermore, PAC was demonstrated to remove some refractory compounds, which therefore improved the biodegradability of the coal gasification wastewater.

  3. Design of advanced fossil-fuel systems (DAFFS): a study of three developing technologies for coal-fired, base-load electric power generation. Integrated coal-gasification/combined power plant with BGC/Lurgi gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-06-01

    The objectives of this report are to present the facility description, plant layouts and additional information which define the conceptual engineering design, and performance and cost estimates for the BGC/Lurgi Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant. Following the introductory comments, the results of the British Gas Corporation (BGC)/Lurgi IGCC power plant study are summarized in Section 2. In Secion 3, a description of plant systems and facilities is provided. Section 4 includes pertinent performance information and assessments of availability, natural resource requirements and environmental impact. Estimates of capital costs, operating and maintenance costs and cost of electricity are presented in Section 5. A Bechtel Group Inc. (BGI) assessment and comments on the designs provided by Burns and Roe-Humphreys and Glasgow Synthetic Fuels, Inc. (BRHG) are included in Section 6. The design and cost estimate reports which were prepared by BRHG for those items within their scope of responsibility are included as Appendices A and B, respectively. Apendix C is an equipment list for items within the BGI scope. The design and cost estimate classifications chart referenced in Section 5 is included as Appendix D. 8 references, 18 figures, 5 tables.

  4. NETL, USDA design coal-stabilized biomass gasification unit

    SciTech Connect

    2008-09-30

    Coal, poultry litter, contaminated corn, rice hulls, moldly hay, manure sludge - these are representative materials that could be tested as fuel feedstocks in a hybrid gasification/combustion concept studied in a recent US Department of Energy (DOE) design project. DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) and the US Department of Agriculture (USDA) collaborated to develop a design concept of a power system that incorporates Hybrid Biomass Gasification. This system would explore the use of a wide range of biomass and agricultural waste products as gasifier feedstocks. The plant, if built, would supply one-third of electrical and steam heating needs at the USDA's Beltsville (Maryland) Agricultural Research Center. 1 fig., 1 photo.

  5. Conceptual design and assessment of a coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant. Volume 1. Koppers-Totzek gasifier. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Objective is to demonstrate the operation of a commercial-scale coal gasification facility producing clean medium-Btu gas (MPB). The facility will convert approx. 20,000 tons/d of bituminous coal into approx. 300 billion Btu/d of MBG. The process choice was narrowed down to the Texaco and Koppers-Totzek processes. This report presents the results of Bechtel's conceptual design and techno-economic assessment of the Koppers-Totzek process. (DLC)

  6. TVA coal-gasification commercial demonstration plant project. Volume 6. Plant based on Texaco gasifier. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    The baseline of a coal gasification plant producing medium Btu gas, based upon the Texaco gasification process is documented in this report. The coal gasification plant consists of four identical modules, each with a capacity of approximately 4800 tons of coal per day dry basis as delivered to the gasifiers. The entire plant (four modules) produces 1195.0 million standard cubic feet per day of gas with a GHV value of approximately 285 Btu/scf for a total heating value of about 341 billion Btu/day. The plant will be designed to meet all federal, state, and local standards and guidelines. A description of the plant by major sections is included as well as flow diagrams, stream balances and lists of major equipment.

  7. Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-30

    The integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) process is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of ''as-generated'' slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, we found that it would be extremely difficult for ''as-generated'' slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1400 and 1700 F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI), and internal resources. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases: Phase I, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot scale, and

  8. Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags

    SciTech Connect

    1999-12-30

    The integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) process is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of as-generated slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, the authors found that it would be extremely difficult for as-generated slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1,400 and 1,700 F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI), and internal resources. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases: Phase 1, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot scale

  9. UTILIZATION OF LIGHTWEIGHT MATERIALS MADE FROM COAL GASIFICATION SLAGS

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-24

    The integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) process is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. In previous projects, Praxis investigated the utilization of ''as-generated'' slags for a wide variety of applications in road construction, cement and concrete production, agricultural applications, and as a landfill material. From these studies, we found that it would be extremely difficult for ''as-generated'' slag to find large-scale acceptance in the marketplace even at no cost because the materials it could replace were abundantly available at very low cost. It was further determined that the unconverted carbon, or char, in the slag is detrimental to its utilization as sand or fine aggregate. It became apparent that a more promising approach would be to develop a variety of value-added products from slag that meet specific industry requirements. This approach was made feasible by the discovery that slag undergoes expansion and forms a lightweight material when subjected to controlled heating in a kiln at temperatures between 1400 and 1700 F. These results confirmed the potential for using expanded slag as a substitute for conventional lightweight aggregates (LWA). The technology to produce lightweight and ultra-lightweight aggregates (ULWA) from slag was subsequently developed by Praxis with funding from the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI), and internal resources. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of LWA and ULWA from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases: Phase I, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot scale, and

  10. A NOVEL CONCEPT FOR PREFERENTIAL PRODUCTION OF METHANE RICH SYNGAS FROM COAL GASIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    Majed, Toqan; Prabhat, Naredi

    2011-11-04

    The overall objective of this multi-phase SBIR project is to develop a coal gasifier concept that yields higher methane (CH4) concentration in the syngas without compromising on the heating value of the syngas. Higher concentration of CH4 in syngas is desirable because it has higher calorific value (per unit mass) than any other hydrocarbon. In addition, utilization of the CH4 rich syngas in fuel cells facilitates better control of fuel cell stack temperature which improves power generation efficiency. However, existing commercial gasifiers predominantly produce CO and H2 rich syngas that contains minimal amount of CH4. In order to obtain high heating value syngas with preferential production of CH4, this proposal proposes to gasify coal in combination with a renewable, liquid, waste feedstock in a novel gasification process design. The proposed liquid feedstock is rich in oxygen which reduces amount of oxygen needed to carryout the gasification process and thus the cost. In addition, CPS conducted a 1-D kinetic and equilibrium calculation which showed that the renewable feedstock reduces tar formation, and helps in achieving higher heating value and CH4 in the syngas. In recent proof-of-concept experiments, we have determined that methanol (CH3OH) addition during steam gasification or coal pyrolysis enhances methane formation. We hypothesize that the tars released during coal devolatilization react with the methanol generated radicals to form low molecular weight hydrocarbons, primarily CH4 has been proved correct. It also appears that because the ratio of methanol to coal and steam to coal ratio was too high during the batch reactor experiments, significant fraction of tar was also converted to CO. Therefore, in order to achieve higher methane in a cost effective manner, experiments need to be done in a continuous flow reactor at isothermal temperatures where the ratio of the additive and steam needs to be carefully controlled.

  11. Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project: A DOE Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    National Energy Technology Laboratory

    2002-01-15

    The goal of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Program (CCT) is to furnish the energy marketplace with a number of advanced, more efficient, and environmentally responsible coal utilization technologies through demonstration projects. These projects seek to establish the commercial feasibility of the most promising advanced coal technologies that have developed beyond the proof-of-concept stage. This document serves as a DOE post-project assessment (PPA) of a project selected in CCT Round IV, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering (WRCGR) Project, as described in a Report to Congress (U.S. Department of Energy 1992). Repowering consists of replacing an existing coal-fired boiler with one or more clean coal technologies to achieve significantly improved environmental performance. The desire to demonstrate utility repowering with a two-stage, pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow, integrated gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) system prompted Destec Energy, Inc., and PSI Energy, Inc., to form a joint venture and submit a proposal for this project. In July 1992, the Wabash River Coal Gasification Repowering Project Joint Venture (WRCGRPJV, the Participant) entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to conduct this project. The project was sited at PSI Energy's Wabash River Generating Station, located in West Terre Haute, Indiana. The purpose of this CCT project was to demonstrate IGCC repowering using a Destec gasifier and to assess long-term reliability, availability, and maintainability of the system at a fully commercial scale. DOE provided 50 percent of the total project funding (for capital and operating costs during the demonstration period) of $438 million. Construction for the demonstration project was started in July 1993. Pre-operational tests were initiated in August 1995, and construction was completed in November 1995. Commercial operation began in November 1995, and the demonstration period was completed in December

  12. High pressure rotary piston coal feeder for coal gasification applications

    DOEpatents

    Gencsoy, Hasan T.

    1977-05-24

    The subject development is directed to an apparatus for feeding pulverized coal into a coal gasifier operating at relatively high pressures and elevated temperatures. This apparatus is a rotary piston feeder which comprises a circular casing having a coal loading opening therein diametrically opposed from a coal discharge and contains a rotatable discoid rotor having a cylinder in which a reciprocateable piston is disposed. The reciprocation of the piston within the cylinder is provided by a stationary conjugate cam arrangement whereby the pulverized coal from a coal hopper at atmospheric pressure can be introduced into the cylinder cavity and then discharged therefrom into the high-pressure gasifier without the loss of high pressure gases from within the latter.

  13. A novel approach to highly dispersing catalytic materials in coal for gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bota, K.B.

    1990-01-01

    This project seeks to develop a technique, based on coal surface properties, for highly dispersing catalysts in coal for gasification and to investigate the potential of using potassium carbonate and calcium acetate mixtures as catalysts for coal gasification. The work is focused on the elucidation of coal-catalyst precursor interactions in solution and the variables which control the adsorption and dispersion of coal gasification metal catalysts. In order to optimize coal-metal ion interactions and hence maximize catalyst activity, the study examines the surface electrochemistry of a lignite, subbituminous, and bituminous coals and their demineralized and oxidized derivatives prior to loading with the catalytic materials. The surface electrical properties of the coals are investigated with the aid of electrophoresis, while the effects of the surface charge on the co-adsorption of K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} are studied by agitating the coals with aqueous solutions of potassium and calcium. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  14. Study on CO2 gasification reactivity and physical characteristics of biomass, petroleum coke and coal chars.

    PubMed

    Huo, Wei; Zhou, Zhijie; Chen, Xueli; Dai, Zhenghua; Yu, Guangsuo

    2014-05-01

    Gasification reactivities of six different carbonaceous material chars with CO2 were determined by a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). Gasification reactivities of biomass chars are higher than those of coke and coal chars. In addition, physical structures and chemical components of these chars were systematically tested. It is found that the crystalline structure is an important factor to evaluate gasification reactivities of different chars and the crystalline structures of biomass chars are less order than those of coke and coal chars. Moreover, initial gasification rates of these chars were measured at high temperatures and with relatively large particle sizes. The method of calculating the effectiveness factor η was used to quantify the effect of pore diffusion on gasification. The results show that differences in pore diffusion effects among gasification with various chars are prominent and can be attributed to different intrinsic gasification reactivities and physical characteristics of different chars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Mineralogical characterization of Sasol feed coals and corresponding gasification ash constituents

    SciTech Connect

    Aivo B. Hlatshwayo; Ratale H. Matjie; Zhongsheng Li; Colin R. Ward

    2009-05-15

    Feed coal and coarse ash particles (heated rock fragments and clinkers), produced from Sasol-Lurgi gasifier tests under different operating conditions, have been characterized by quantitative X-ray diffraction, electron microprobe analysis, and associated chemical techniques, as a basis for better understanding of the relations between the mineralogical and physical properties of the ash particles. Crystalline phases in the ashes include quartz particles inherited directly from the feed coal, as well as anorthite, mullite, and diopside, derived from solid-state reactions or crystallization of a silicate melt during the gasification process. Glass, cooled from the melt, is also abundant in the ash materials. The abundance of large particles of hard minerals in the coal or the ash, such as quartz, anorthite, pyrite, and diopside, has been correlated with a laboratory-determined abrasion index and may contribute significantly to wear on mechanical equipment during coal- or ash-handling operations. 21 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  16. Nitrogen mineralization from sludge in an alkaline, saline coal gasification ash environment.

    PubMed

    Mbakwe, Ikenna; De Jager, Pieter C; Annandale, John G; Matema, Taurai

    2013-01-01

    Rehabilitating coal gasification ash dumps by amendment with waste-activated sludge has been shown to improve the physical and chemical properties of ash and to facilitate the establishment of vegetation. However, mineralization of organic N from sludge in such an alkaline and saline medium and the effect that ash weathering has on the process are poorly understood and need to be ascertained to make decisions regarding the suitability of this rehabilitation option. This study investigated the rate and pattern of N mineralization from sludge in a coal gasification ash medium to determine the prevalent inorganic N form in the system and assess the effect of ash weathering on N mineralization. An incubation experiment was performed in which fresh ash, weathered ash, and soil were amended with the equivalent of 90 Mg ha sludge, and N mineralization was evaluated over 63 d. More N (24%) was mineralized in fresh ash than in weathered ash and soil, both of which mineralized 15% of the initial organic N in sludge. More nitrification occurred in soil, and most of the N mineralized in ash was in the form of ammonium, indicating an inhibition of nitrifying organisms in the ash medium and suggesting that, at least initially, plants used for rehabilitation of coal gasification ash dumps will take up N mostly as ammonium. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. Lock hopper valves for coal gasification. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of two configurations of Lock Hopper Valves is described. These two configurations are intended to meet the requirements for four typical types of service in coal gasification plants. Operating pressures for either configuration is 1600 psi. One configuration is designed for use at temperatures up to 2000/sup 0/F, and the other for temperatures up to 850/sup 0/F. Several unique construction features are employed, including the extensive use of dense alumina ceramic, especially in the high-temperature valve. The description includes details of construction, and problems encountered during fabrication and testing, and proposed solutions to those problems.

  18. Treatment of real coal gasification wastewater using a novel integrated system of anoxic hybrid two stage aerobic processes: performance and the role of pure oxygen microbubble.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Haifeng; Han, Hongjun; Shan, Shengdao

    2016-06-01

    A novel integrated system of anoxic-pure oxygen microbubble-activated sludge reactor-moving bed biofilm reactor was employed in treatment of real coal gasification wastewater. The results showed the integrated system had efficient performance of pollutants removal in short hydraulic retention time. While pure oxygen microbubble with the flow rate of 1.5 L/h and NaHCO3 dosage ratio of 2:1 (amount NaHCO3 to NH4 (+)-N ratio, mol: mol) were used, the removal efficiencies of COD, total phenols (TPh) and NH4 (+)-N reached 90, 95, and 95 %, respectively, with the influent loading rates of 3.4 kg COD/(m(3) d), 0.81 kg TPh/(m(3) d), and 0.28 kg NH4 (+)-N/(m(3) d). With the recycle ratio of 300 %, the concentrations of NO2 (-)-N and NO3 (-)-N in effluent decreased to 12 and 59 mg/L, respectively. Meanwhile, pure oxygen microbubble significantly improved the enzymatic activities and affected the effluent organic compositions and reduced the foam expansion. Thus, the novel integrated system with efficient, stable, and economical advantages was suitable for engineering application.

  19. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 19. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Liu, B.Y.H.; Pui, D.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-12-01

    A single-staged, fixed-bed, Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scrubber has been used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas Group (MIFGA). This report is the nineteenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This volume briefly summarizes the results of eighteen different gasification tests in which fourteen different fuels were gasified from May 1982 to August 1985. The design gasification performance of all coals evaluated are summarized. In addition, summary design and economic data for industrial coal gasification systems are presented. 28 refs., 2 figs., 22 tabs.

  20. DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Angel Sanjurjo

    2004-05-01

    Heat-exchangers, filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand demanding conditions of high temperatures and pressure differentials. Under the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas, the performance of components degrade significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. A review of the literature indicates that the corrosion reaction is the competition between oxidation and sulfidation reactions. The Fe- and Ni-based high-temperature alloys are susceptible to sulfidation attack unless they are fortified with high levels of Cr, Al, and Si. To impart corrosion resistance, these elements need not be in the bulk of the alloy and need only be present at the surface layers.

  1. Groundwater Management During Intermediate-to-Deep Underground Coal Gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavis, Shaun; Stanley, Edward; Mostade, Marc; Turner, Matthew

    2010-05-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a safe, economic way to extract energy from coal with significant environmental benefits compared with other coal-based energy production methods. However, in the wrong hands, UCG can adversely impact groundwater systems in two ways: 1) by contamination with inorganic and organic compounds; and 2) groundwater depletion. The hydrogeological conditions of UCG are highly site-specific and so the risks to groundwater have to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis. Site selection plays a fundamental role in managing these risks and it is possible to identify the general characteristics that will minimise risks of environmental impacts. However, large volumes of water, much of which will come from groundwater, are consumed during UCG projects, leading to possible significant groundwater depletion at such settings. Insufficient water supplies will impact the quality of the syngas produced by UCG because coal conversion efficiencies will decrease. Furthermore, depletion of groundwater levels may extend beyond the UCG site boundary, with consequent implications for regulatory regimes and any off-site groundwater users. Additional artificial water supplies may therefore be required, although the manner in which the water is delivered to the UCG system will also likely have an impact on syngas quality. Large volumes of water delivered via the injection well will likely impact gasification efficiency because 1) large amounts of heat will be used to vaporise the water leading to suppression of the reactor temperature and inhibition of (endothermic) gasification reactions; and 2) the "steam jacket" originally present around the UCG reactor will be absent, which will lead to further heat loss from the system. Additional water may therefore have to be supplied via the surrounding strata and/or coal seam, thus mimicking the natural conditions prior to groundwater depletion. Much of the hydrogeological modelling to date has focussed on a single

  2. Study of Indonesia low rank coal utilization on modified fixed bed gasification for combined cycle power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardianto, T.; Amalia, A. R.; Suwono, A.; Riauwindu, P.

    2015-09-01

    Gasification is a conversion process converting carbon-based solid fuel into gaseous products that have considerable amount of calorific value. One of the carbon-based solid fuel that serves as feed for gasification is coal. Gasification gaseous product is termed as syngas (synthetic gas) that is composed of several different gases. Syngas produced from gasification vary from one process to another, this is due to several factors which are: feed characteristics, operation condition, gasified fluid condition, and gasification method or technology. One of the utilization of syngas is for combined cycle power plant fuel. In order to meet the need to convert carbon-based solid fuel into gaseous fuel for combined cycle power plant, engineering adjustment for gasification was done using related software to create the syngas with characteristics of natural gas that serve as fuel for combined cycle power plant in Indonesia. Feed used for the gasification process in this paper was Indonesian Low Rank Coal and the method used to obtain syngas was Modified Fixed Bed Gasifier. From the engineering adjustment process, the yielded syngas possessed lower heating value as much as 31828.32 kJ/kg in gasification condition of 600°C, 3.5 bar, and steam to feed ratio was 1 kg/kg. Syngas characteristics obtained from the process was used as a reference for the adjustment of the fuel system modification in combined cycle power plant that will have the same capacity with the conversion of the system's fuel from natural gas to syngas.

  3. Advanced technology applications for second and third general coal gasification systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bradford, R.; Hyde, J. D.; Mead, C. W.

    1980-01-01

    The historical background of coal conversion is reviewed and the programmatic status (operational, construction, design, proposed) of coal gasification processes is tabulated for both commercial and demonstration projects as well as for large and small pilot plants. Both second and third generation processes typically operate at higher temperatures and pressures than first generation methods. Much of the equipment that has been tested has failed. The most difficult problems are in process control. The mechanics of three-phase flow are not fully understood. Companies participating in coal conversion projects are ordering duplicates of failure prone units. No real solutions to any of the significant problems in technology development have been developed in recent years.

  4. Combustion Engineering Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle Repowering Project: Clean Coal Technology Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    On February 22, 1988, DOE issued Program Opportunity Notice (PON) Number-DE-PS01-88FE61530 for Round II of the CCT Program. The purpose of the PON was to solicit proposals to conduct cost-shared ICCT projects to demonstrate technologies that are capable of being commercialized in the 1990s, that are more cost-effective than current technologies, and that are capable of achieving significant reduction of SO[sub 2] and/or NO[sub x] emissions from existing coal burning facilities, particularly those that contribute to transboundary and interstate pollution. The Combustion Engineering (C-E) Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Repowering Project was one of 16 proposals selected by DOE for negotiation of cost-shared federal funding support from among the 55 proposals that were received in response to the PON. The ICCT Program has developed a three-level strategy for complying with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) that is consistent with the President's Council on Environmental Quality regulations implementing NEPA (40 CFR 1500-1508) and the DOE guidelines for compliance with NEPA (10 CFR 1021). The strategy includes the consideration of programmatic and project-specific environmental impacts during and subsequent to the reject selection process.

  5. Interaction and its induced inhibiting or synergistic effects during co-gasification of coal char and biomass char.

    PubMed

    Ding, Liang; Zhang, Yongqi; Wang, Zhiqing; Huang, Jiejie; Fang, Yitian

    2014-12-01

    Co-gasification of coal char and biomass char was conducted to investigate the interactions between them. And random pore model (RPM) and modified random pore model (MRPM) were applied to describe the gasification behaviors of the samples. The results show that inhibiting effect was observed during co-gasification of corn stalk char with Hulunbeier lignite coal char, while synergistic effects were observed during co-gasification of corn stalk char with Shenmu bituminous coal char and Jincheng anthracite coal char. The inhibiting effect was attributed to the intimate contact and comparable gasification rate between biomass char and coal char, and the loss of the active form of potassium caused by the formation of KAlSiO4, which was proved to be inactive during gasification. While the synergistic effect was caused by the high potassium content of biomass char and the significant difference of reaction rate between coal char and biomass char during gasification.

  6. Evaluation of Coal Gasification/Combined Cycle Power Plant Feasibility at the Sewells Point Naval Complex, Norfolk, Virginia.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-07-01

    applicability to this phase of environmen- tal control in the gasification/combined cycle system: • Physical Solvent Processes : - Rectisol - Selexol ...at SPNC 1-9 1.3 Coal Availability 1-22 1.4 References 1-24 2.0 GASIFICATION PROCESSES 2-1 2.1 General Processes 2-2 1 2.2 Commercially Available...Gasifiers 2-14 2.3 Process Comparisons 2-18 1 2.4 References 2-31 3.0 COMBINED CYCLE PERFORMANCE 3-1 3.1 Combined Cycle Configuration 3-1 3.2 Cycle

  7. DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Angel Sanjurjo

    2004-05-01

    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. A review of the literature indicated that the Fe- and Ni-based high-temperature alloys are susceptible to sulfidation attack unless they are fortified with high levels of Cr, Al, and Si. To impart corrosion resistance, these elements need not be in the bulk of the alloy and need only be present at the surface layers. We selected diffusion coatings of Cr and Al, and surface coatings of Si and Ti for the preliminary testing. These coatings will be applied using the fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition technique developed at SRI which is rapid and relatively inexpensive. We have procured coupons of typical alloys used in a gasifier. These coupons will be coated with Cr, Al, Si, and Ti. The samples will be tested in a bench-scale reactor using simulated coal gas compositions. In addition, we will be sending coated samples for insertion in the gas stream of the coal gasifier.

  8. TPD study on SO{sub 2} gasification of coal char

    SciTech Connect

    Takarada, T.; Suzuki, Y.

    1996-10-01

    Elementary sulfur can be recovered from SO{sub 2}-containing gas by a gasification reaction between carbon and SO{sub 2}. Gasification of coal chars ranging from brown coal to anthracite was carried out in SO{sub 2} atmosphere using thermo-balance. The gasification temperature ranged from 923 to 1123 K. The SO{sub 2} concentration was 5.3 vol%. Yallourn coal, Australian brown coal, was impregnated with several catalysts. Potassium carbonate, sodium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, magnesium hydroxide and iron nitrate were used as the starting materials for catalyst impregnation. The active site for SO{sub 2} gasification of coal char was evaluated with TPD technique. The gasification profile was strongly depended on the coal type. High reactivities were observed for low rank coal chars. The gasification rate was enormously enhanced by the addition of alkaline metal catalyst. TPD pattern was depended on the coal type and the catalyst addition. The amount of CO and CO{sub 2} desorbed during TPD procedure in fairly correlated to the reaction rate of sample.

  9. Environmental research program for slagging fixed-bed coal gasification. Status report, November 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Wilzbach, K. E.; Stetter, J. R.; Reilly, Jr., C. A.; Willson, W. G.

    1982-02-01

    A collaborative environmental research program to provide information needed to assess the health and environmental effects associated with large-scale coal gasification technology is being conducted by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and the Grand Forks Energy Technology Center (GFETC). The objectives are to: investigate the toxicology and chemical composition of coal gasification by-products as a function of process variables and coal feed; compare the characteristics of isokinetic side-stream samples with those of process stream samples; identify the types of compounds responsible for toxicity; evaluate the chemical and toxicological effectiveness of various wastewater treatment operations; refine methodology for the collection and measurement of organic vapors and particulates in workplace air; and obtain preliminary data on workplace air quality. So far the toxicities of a set of process stream samples (tar, oil, and gas liquor) and side-stream condensates from the GFETC gasifier have been measured in a battery of cellular screening tests for mutagenicity and cytotoxicity. Preliminary data on the effects of acute and chronic exposures of laboratory animals to process tar have been obtained. The process tar has been chemically fractionated and the distribution of mutagenicity and compound types among the fractions has been determined. Organic vapors and particulates collected at various times and locations in the gasifier building have been characterized.

  10. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts. Task 4, Mild gasification tests

    SciTech Connect

    Merriam, N.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Kang, T.W.; Vaillancourt, M.B.

    1990-12-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) teamed with the AMAX Research and Development Center and Riley Stoker Corporation on Development of an Advanced, Continuous Mild-Gasification Process for the Production of Coproducts under contract DE-AC21-87MC24268 with the Morgantown Energy Technology of the US Department of Energy. The strategy for this project is to produce electrode binder pitch and diesel fuel blending stock by mild gasification of Wyodak coal. The char is upgraded to produce anode-grade carbon, carbon black, and activated carbon. This report describes results of mild-gasification tests conducted by WRI. Char upgrading tests conducted by AMAX will be described in a separate report.

  11. Circulating fluidized bed gasification of low rank coal: Influence of O2/C molar ratio on gasification performance and sulphur transformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Haixia; Zhang, Yukui; Zhu, Zhiping; Lu, Qinggang

    2016-08-01

    To promote the utilization efficiency of coal resources, and to assist with the control of sulphur during gasification and/or downstream processes, it is essential to gain basic knowledge of sulphur transformation associated with gasification performance. In this research we investigated the influence of O2/C molar ratio both on gasification performance and sulphur transformation of a low rank coal, and the sulphur transformation mechanism was also discussed. Experiments were performed in a circulating fluidized bed gasifier with O2/C molar ratio ranging from 0.39 to 0.78 mol/mol. The results showed that increasing the O2/C molar ratio from 0.39 to 0.78 mol/mol can increase carbon conversion from 57.65% to 91.92%, and increase sulphur release ratio from 29.66% to 63.11%. The increase of O2/C molar ratio favors the formation of H2S, and also favors the retained sulphur transforming to more stable forms. Due to the reducing conditions of coal gasification, H2S is the main form of the released sulphur, which could be formed by decomposition of pyrite and by secondary reactions. Bottom char shows lower sulphur content than fly ash, and mainly exist as sulphates. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements also show that the intensity of pyrite declines and the intensity of sulphates increases for fly ash and bottom char, and the change is more obvious for bottom char. During CFB gasification process, bigger char particles circulate in the system and have longer residence time for further reaction, which favors the release of sulphur species and can enhance the retained sulphur transforming to more stable forms.

  12. Alaska coal gasification feasibility studies - Healy coal-to-liquids plant

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Van Bibber; Charles Thomas; Robert Chaney

    2007-07-15

    The Alaska Coal Gasification Feasibility Study entailed a two-phase analysis of the prospects for greater use of Alaska's abundant coal resources in industrial applications. Phase 1, Beluga Coal Gasification Feasibility Study (Report DOE/NETL 2006/1248) assessed the feasibility of using gasification technology to convert the Agrium fertilizer plant in Nikiski, Alaska, from natural gas to coal feedstock. The Phase 1 analysis evaluated coals from the Beluga field near Anchorage and from the Usibelli Coal Mine near Healy, both of which are low in sulfur and high in moisture. This study expands the results of Phase 1 by evaluating a similar sized gasification facility at the Usibelli Coal mine to supply Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) liquids to central Alaska. The plant considered in this study is small (14,640 barrels per day, bbl/d) compared to the recommended commercial size of 50,000 bbl/d for coal-to-liquid plants. The coal supply requirements for the Phase 1 analysis, four million tons per year, were assumed for the Phase 2 analysis to match the probable capacity of the Usibelli mining operations. Alaska refineries are of sufficient size to use all of the product, eliminating the need for F-T exports out of the state. The plant could produce marketable by-products such as sulfur as well as electric power. Slag would be used as backfill at the mine site and CO{sub 2} could be vented, captured or used for enhanced coalbed methane recovery. The unexpected curtailment of oil production from Prudhoe Bay in August 2006 highlighted the dependency of Alaskan refineries (with the exception of the Tesoro facility in Nikiski) on Alaska North Slope (ANS) crude. If the flow of oil from the North Slope declines, these refineries may not be able to meet the in-state needs for diesel, gasoline, and jet fuel. Additional reliable sources of essential fuel products would be beneficial. 36 refs., 14 figs., 29 tabs., 3 apps.

  13. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H. ); Duthie, R.G. ); Wootten, J.M. )

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  14. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, R.A.; Wright, R.E.; Im, C.J.; Henkelman, M.R.; O`Neal, G.W.

    1992-11-01

    The objective of this project is to develop a continuous mild gasification process to convert highly caking coals to coal liquids, char and coke for near term commercial application. Task 3, Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study, has been underway since September 1989. In char upgrading studies, ``green`` uncured char briquettes have been prepared and calcined in 20-pound batches to evaluate the effects of char, binders, and heating conditions on final coke properties. A total of 150. formulations have been tested thus far in this work. Work on Task 4, Process Development Unit (PDU) Mild Gasification Study, has been in progress since February 1991, with the completion of a Continuous Mild Gasification Unit (CMGU) with a design rate of 1000 lb./hr. Since start-up of the CMGU, there have been 72 runs with a variety of operating conditions and coal types.

  15. Fixed-bed gasification research using US coals. Volume 16. Gasification of 2-inch Minnesota peat sods

    SciTech Connect

    Thimsen, D.; Maurer, R.E.; Pooler, A.R.; Pui, D.; Liu, B.; Kittelson, D.

    1985-10-01

    A single, fixed-bed Wellman-Galusha gasifier coupled with a hot, raw gas combustion system and scubber used to gasify numerous coals from throughout the United States. The gasification test program is organized as a cooperative effort by private industrial participants and government agencies. The consortium of participants is organized under the Mining and Industrial Fuel Gas (MIFGa) group. This report is the sixteenth volume in a series of reports describing the atmospheric pressure, fixed-bed gasification of US coals. This specific test report describes the gasification of two-inch Minnesota peat sods, which began on June 24, 1985 and was completed on June 27, 1985. 4 refs., 18 figs., 14 tabs.

  16. Updraft gasification of salmon processing waste.

    PubMed

    Rowland, Sarah; Bower, Cynthia K; Patil, Krushna N; DeWitt, Christina A Mireles

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to judge the feasibility of gasification for the disposal of waste streams generated through salmon harvesting. Gasification is the process of converting carbonaceous materials into combustible "syngas" in a high temperature (above 700 degrees C), oxygen deficient environment. Syngas can be combusted to generate power, which recycles energy from waste products. At 66% to 79% moisture, raw salmon waste streams are too wet to undergo pyrolysis and combustion. Ground raw or de-oiled salmon whole fish, heads, viscera, or frames were therefore "dried" by mixing with wood pellets to a final moisture content of 20%. Ground whole salmon with moisture reduced to 12% moisture was gasified without a drying agent. Gasification tests were performed in a small-scale, fixed-bed, updraft gasifer. After an initial start-up period, the gasifier was loaded with 1.5 kg of biomass. Temperature was recorded at 6 points in the gasifier. Syngas was collected during the short steady-state period during each gasifier run and analyzed. Percentages of each type of gas in the syngas were used to calculate syngas heating value. High heating value (HHV) ranged from 1.45 to 1.98 MJ/kg. Bomb calorimetry determined maximum heating value for the salmon by-products. Comparing heating values shows the efficiency of gasification. Cold gas efficiencies of 13.6% to 26% were obtained from the various samples gasified. Though research of gasification as a means of salmon waste disposal and energy production is ongoing, it can be concluded that pre-dried salmon or relatively low moisture content mixtures of waste with wood are gasifiable.

  17. Mild coal gasification: Product separation, pilot-unit support, twin screw heat transfer, and H sub 2 S evolution

    SciTech Connect

    Camp, D.W.; Wallman, P.H.; Coburn, T.T.

    1991-08-09

    Our general objective is to further the development of efficient continuous mild coal gasification processes. Our efforts this year have been in four main areas. A new thrust has been to identify and develop efficient processes to separate the vapor product stream into particulate-free liquid and mist-free gas. We continued work aimed at predicting heat transfer rates (hence throughput) in externally-heated twin-screw pyrolyzers. We sought to provide technical support for the design, installation, startup, and operation of the DOE-sponsored 500 kg/hr twin-screw mild gasification unit at Coal Technology Corporation (CTC). A smaller laboratory effort had the objective of identifying and testing the reaction mechanisms of sulfur species during coal pyrolysis. Detailed subproject objectives are given in their respective sections. 20 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Advanced coal-gasification technical analyses. Appendix 1: technology reviews. Final report, December 1982-September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Cover, A.E.; Hubbard, D.A.; Jain, S.K.; Shah, K.V.

    1986-01-01

    This document is a result of KRSI's activities to support the GRI/Advisors Committee thru the duration of the contract. It provides an overview of the gasification, shift/methanation, acid-gas removal, and sulfur-recovery technologies for use in coal-to SNG plant design. For selected processes in each technology area, Status Summary reports are presented. The non-proprietary information contained in these reports was utilized to assess the characteristics, efficiencies, and other performance variables of each process relative to criteria developed for each ssess the characteristics, efficiencies and other performance variables of each process relative to criteria developed for each technology area. The results of the assessment are presented in tables that can be utilized for selection of a process best suited for a given application. In the coal-gasification area, status summaries were prepared for Lurgi, GKT, Texaco, BGC/Lurgi, Westinghouse (now KRW), Exxon CCG, Shell and U-Gas processes. The Conventional Shift/Methanation, Combined Shift/Methanation, Direct Methanation and Comflux Methanation processes were selected for review of shift/methanation technology. In the acid-gas-removal technology area, evaluation of Selexol, Rectisol, Benfield and CNG processes is presented. For the sulfur-recovery technology area, Claus, Amoco Direct Oxidation, LO-CAT, Selectox, Stretford and Unisulf processes, were selected for assessment.

  19. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume III

    SciTech Connect

    Ghani, M.U.; Hobbs, M.L.; Hamblen, D.G.

    1993-08-01

    A generalized one-dimensional, heterogeneous, steady-state, fixed-bed model for coal gasification and combustion is presented. The model, FBED-1, is a design and analysis tool that can be used to simulate a variety of gasification, devolatilization, and combustion processes. The model considers separate gas and solid temperatures, axially variable solid and gas flow rates, variable bed void fraction, coal drying, devolatilization based on chemical functional group composition, depolymerization, vaporization and crosslinking, oxidation, and gasification of char, and partial equilibrium in the gas phase.

  20. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix B: Medium B+U gas design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A four module, 20,000 TPD, based on KT coal gasification technology was designed. The plant processes Kentucky No. 9 coal with provisions for up to five percent North Alabama coal. Medium BTU gas with heat content of 305 BTU/SCF and not more than 200 ppm sulfur is the primary plant product. Sulfur is recovered for scale as prilled sulfur. Ash disposal is on site. The plant is designed for zero water discharge. Trade studies provided the basis for not using boiler produced steam to drive prime movers. Thus process derived steam in excess of process requirements in superheated for power use in prime movers. Electricity from the TVA grid is used to supply the balance of the plant prime mover power requirements. A study of the effect of mine mouth coal cleaning showed that coal cleaning is not an economically preferred route. The design procedure involved defining available processes to meet the requirements of each system, technical/economic trade studies to select the preferred processes, and engineering design and flow sheet development for each module. Cost studies assumed a staggered construction schedule for the four modules beginning spring 1981 and a 90% on stream factor.

  1. Development of a model of entrained flow coal gasification and study of aerodynamic mechanisms of action on gasifier operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abaimov, N. A.; Ryzhkov, A. F.

    2015-11-01

    Problems requiring solution in development of modern highly efficient gasification reactor of a promising high power integrated gasification combined-cycle plant are formulated. The task of creating and testing a numerical model of an entrained-flow reactor for thermochemical conversion of pulverized coal is solved. The basic method of investigation is computational fluid dynamics. The submodel of thermochemical processes, including a single-stage scheme of volatile substances outlet and three heterogeneous reactions of carbon residue conversion (complete carbon oxidation, Boudouard reaction and hydrogasification), is given. The mass loss rate is determined according to the basic assumptions of the diffusion-kinetic theory. The equations applied for calculation of the process of outlet of volatile substances and three stages of fuel gasifi-cation (diffusion of reagent gas toward the surface of the coal particle, heterogeneous reactions of gas with carbon on its surface, and homogeneous reactions beyond the particle surface) are presented. The universal combined submodel Eddy Dissipation/Finite Rate Chemistry with standard (built-in) constants is used for numerical estimates. Aerodynamic mechanisms of action on thermochemical processes of solid fuel gasification are studied, as exemplified by the design upgrade of a cyclone reactor of preliminary thermal fuel preparation. Volume concentrations of combustible gases and products of complete combustion in the syngas before and after primary air and pulverized coal flows' redistribution are given. Volume concentrations of CO in syngas at different positions of tangential secondary air inlet nozzle are compared.

  2. Coal reserves and resources as well as potentials for underground coal gasification in connection with carbon capture and storage (CCS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilse, Jürgen

    2010-05-01

    . However, these otherwise unprofitable coal deposits can be mined economically by means of underground coal gasification, during which coal is converted into a gaseous product in the deposit. The synthesis gas can be used for electricity generation, as chemical base material or for the production of petrol. This increases the usability of coal resources tremendously. At present the CCS technologies (carbon capture and storage) are a much discussed alternative to other CO2 abatement techniques like efficiency impovements. The capture and subsequent storage of CO2 in the deposits created by the actual underground gasification process seem to be technically feasible.

  3. Evaluation of gasification and gas cleanup processes for use in molten carbonate fuel cell power plants. Final report. [Contains lists and evaluations of coal gasification and fuel gas desulfurization processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jablonski, G.; Hamm, J.R.; Alvin, M.A.; Wenglarz, R.A.; Patel, P.

    1982-01-01

    This report satisfies the requirements for DOE Contract AC21-81MC16220 to: List coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems suitable for supplying fuel to molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFC) in industrial and utility power plants; extensively characterize those coal gas cleanup systems rejected by DOE's MCFC contractors for their power plant systems by virtue of the resources required for those systems to be commercially developed; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC tolerance for particulates on the anode (fuel gas) side of the MCFC; develop an analytical model to predict MCFC anode side tolerance for chemical species, including sulfides, halogens, and trace heavy metals; choose from the candidate gasifier/cleanup systems those most suitable for MCFC-based power plants; choose a reference wet cleanup system; provide parametric analyses of the coal gasifiers and gas cleanup systems when integrated into a power plant incorporating MCFC units with suitable gas expansion turbines, steam turbines, heat exchangers, and heat recovery steam generators, using the Westinghouse proprietary AHEAD computer model; provide efficiency, investment, cost of electricity, operability, and environmental effect rankings of the system; and provide a final report incorporating the results of all of the above tasks. Section 7 of this final report provides general conclusions.

  4. Online compositional analysis in coal gasification environment using laser-induced plasma technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Kung-Li; Wu, Juntao; Wang, Zhe; Lee, Boon; Guida, Renato

    2006-08-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants have great potential for future clean-coal power generation. Today, the quality of coal is measured by sampling coal using various offline methods, and the syn-gas composition is determined by taking samples downstream of the gasifier and measured by gas chromatograph (GC). Laser induced plasma technology has demonstrated high sensitivity for elementary detection. The capability of free space transmission and focusing of laser beam makes laser induced plasma a unique technology for online compositional analysis in coal gasification environment and optimization control.

  5. Effects and characterization of an environmentally-friendly, inexpensive composite Iron-Sodium catalyst on coal gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monterroso, Rodolfo

    Coal gasification has been commercially used for more than 60 years in the production of fuels and chemicals. Recently, and due to the lowered environmental impacts and high efficiency derived from integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC), this process has received increased attention. Furthermore, upcoming strict CO2 emissions regulations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) will no longer be achievable by traditional means of coal combustion, therefore, growing dependence on different energy sources has drawn attention to clean coal technologies, such as coal-to-liquids processing, and the core of this process is also gasification. Gasification is an energy intensive process that can be substantially improved in terms of efficiency through the use of catalysts. In this study, the effect of the composite catalyst, FeCO3-Na2CO3, on gasification of a low-sulfur sub-bituminous Wyodak coal from the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming was investigated. The catalytic effects of the composite catalysts were evaluated by comparing their effluent gas compositions and carbon conversion kinetics to those achieved in the presence of either FeCO3 or Na2CO3 catalyst alone or without the presence of any catalyst. All of the evaluation work was conducted in a fixed bed gasifier at atmospheric pressure. Compared to raw coal with no catalyst, the composite catalyst is efficient in increasing the carbon conversion rate constant by as much as two times within the 700-800°C range due to its ability to reduce the activation energy of gasification by about 30-40%. Compared to pure sodium and iron catalysts, the composite catalyst can increase the yields of desired products H2 and CO at 800°C by 15% and 40%, respectively. The composite catalyst can not only synergize the advantages, but also overcome the challenges of pure iron or pure sodium based catalytic coal gasification processes. Moreover, the mechanisms of this particular catalytic coal gasification process

  6. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix F: Critical technology items/issues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Critical technology items and issues are defined in which there is a need for developmental research in order to assure technical and economic success for the state of the art of coal gasification in the United States. Technology development needs for the main processing units and the supporting units are discussed. While development needs are shown for a large number of systems, the most critical areas are associated with the gasifier itself and those systems which either feed the gasifier or directly receive products form the gasifier.

  7. Assessment of discharges from Sasol I Lurgi-based coal gasification plant. Final report Sep 81-Mar 82

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, S.J.; Kasper, G.; Nagy, J.F.; Tzou, A.; Pernot, L.S.

    1983-08-01

    The report discusses analytical information, obtained from Sasol I, on the emission and effluent streams analyzed in the normal course of operation and testing. The purpose was to provide EPA with representative information on a commercial-size Lurgi-based coal gasification project. The final report gives operating data and supplementary data, including material balances and pollutant distribution evaluations. Although much of this supplementary information is based on engineering estimates and calculations, it is believed to be representative of a Sasol I gasification operation. The data presented should be confirmed by a series of test runs before they are used for process design purposes, cost estimates, or environmental control studies.

  8. Treatability testing of KILnGAS and Texaco coal gasification wastewaters: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.L.; Eis, B.J.; Zeien, C.T.; Moe, T.A.; Turner, C.D.; Mayer, G.G.; Stephan, D.J.

    1988-07-01

    This report presents the results of treatability testing of wastewater from two coal gasification plants: the 600-tpd KILnGAS rotary-kiln gasifier in East Alton, Illinois, and the 1000-tyd Texaco entrained-flow gasifier at the Cool Water facility in Daggett, California. The wastewater was collected during steady-state operation of the gasifiers and shipped in barrels to the testing laboratory for characterization and treatment. Solvent extraction, steam stripping, biological treatment, granular activated carbon adsorption, ozonation, ion exchange, chemical precipitation, cooling tower evaporation, and wet air oxidation were evaluated in terms of their ability to meet the project's effluent quality targets. Preliminary process design criteria were also developed. Two sets of effluent discharge targets as well as a zero effluent discharge condition were established as goals for the testing. All of the effluent targets were met by the combination of processes used in the treatability testing program, with the exception of cyanide and COD for the KILnGAS wastewater and cyanide under one of the discharge conditions for the Texaco wastewater. These targets could likely be met by additional process steps or by further treatment with the processes tested. This test program confirmed that the principal containmants in these coal gasification wastewaters can be reduced to low concentrations by use of commercially proven treatment processes. 15 refs., 50 figs., 93 tabs.

  9. Underground coal gasification with integrated carbon dioxide mitigation supports Bulgaria's low carbon energy supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakaten, Natalie; Kempka, Thomas; Azzam, Rafig

    2013-04-01

    Underground coal gasification allows for the utilisation of coal reserves that are economically not exploitable due to complex geological boundary conditions. The present study investigates underground coal gasification as a potential economic approach for conversion of deep-seated coals into a high-calorific synthesis gas to support the Bulgarian energy system. Coupling of underground coal gasification providing synthesis gas to fuel a combined cycle gas turbine with carbon capture and storage is considered to provide substantial benefits in supporting the Bulgarian energy system with a competitive source of energy. In addition, underground voids originating from coal consumption increase the potential for geological storage of carbon dioxide resulting from the coupled process of energy production. Cost-effectiveness, energy consumption and carbon dioxide emissions of this coupled process are investigated by application of a techno-economic model specifically developed for that purpose. Capital (CAPEX) and operational expenditure (OPEX) are derived from calculations using six dynamic sub-models describing the entire coupled process and aiming at determination of the levelised costs of electricity generation (COE). The techno-economic model is embedded into an energy system-modelling framework to determine the potential integration of the introduced low carbon energy production technology into the Bulgarian energy system and its competitiveness at the energy market. For that purpose, boundary conditions resulting from geological settings as well as those determined by the Bulgarian energy system and its foreseeable future development have to be considered in the energy system-modelling framework. These tasks comprise integration of the present infrastructure of the Bulgarian energy production and transport system. Hereby, the knowledge on the existing power plant stock and its scheduled future development are of uttermost importance, since only phasing-out power

  10. Catalytic effects in coal gasification. Quarterly report, April-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Padrick, T D

    1980-11-01

    This quarterly report, for the period April through June 1980, summarizes the activities of Sandia National Laboratories' program on mineral matter effects in coal gasification. The objective is to determine the effects of mineral matter on the devolatilization of coal and on the subsequent char gasification. We have selected a basis set of Eastern bituminous coals whose mineral matter content, as determined by x-ray analysis of low-temperature ash, ranged from less than 5% to more than 20%. Chemical and physical characterization revealed that these coals had similar rank and petrographic content. Baseline thermal gravimetric experiments, in which the coals were heated from ambient to 1000/sup 0/C at 5/sup 0/C/min under nitrogen or hydrogen, have been completed. Work has been initiated to measure the composition of the gas evolved during both the devolatilization regime and the subsequent period of slower char gasification.

  11. Conceptual designs and assessments of a coal gasification demonstration plant. Volume I. Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-10-01

    This is C. F. Braun and Co's final report concerning conceptual designs and assessments in support of Phase I of TVA's Coal Gasification commercial demonstration plant. The report is organized into five volumes. Volume I is a nonproprietary document and provides a summary of the major technical and financial aspects of all three of the gasification processes assigned to us on this project. It is intended to provide an overview of the work accomplished without reference to the specific gasifier reports. Volumes II, III and IV provide detailed data on the Koppers-Totzek, Texaco and Babcock and Wilcox gasification processes respectively. Each volume contains nonproprietary information pertaining to the specific process documented. Volume V contains the task reports prepared concerning process selection studies and plant studies along with TVA's Design Criteria document that provided the basis for our work. Also included is the Gas Cost Guidelines writing and the Building sketches, that are common to all three processes. We believe that the three conceptual designs developed for this project and detailed in accompanying volumes have several unique features. Examples are the zero liquid effluent and the fact that a coal-fired boiler is not required. Because of the configuration of the site and its limited access, special designs will be required to impound the ash and slag, and special procedures will be needed to circumvent the problems imposed by the site during construction. Such items are addressed. From the Phase II design procurement and construction schedule standpoint, on a fast track basis, it appears possible that all three processes could come close to meeting TVA's target completion date.

  12. Great Plains Coal Gasification Project: Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1988 (Fourth fiscal quarter, 1987-1988)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-29

    This progress report describes the operation of the Great Plains Gasification Plant, including lignite coal production, SNG production, gas quality, by-products, and certain problems encountered. (LTN)

  13. Combustion and gasification characteristics of chars from four commercially significant coals of different rank. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nsakala, N.Y.; Patel, R.L.; Lao, T.C.

    1982-09-01

    The combustion and gasification kinetics of four size graded coal chars were investigated experimentally in Combustion Engineering's Drop Tube Furnace System (DTFS). The chars were prepared in the DTFS from commercially significant coals representing a wide range of rank; these included a Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam hvAb coal, an Illinois No. 6 Seam hvCb coal, a Wyoming Sub C, and a Texas Lignite A. Additionally, a number of standard ASTM and special bench scale tests were performed on the coals and chars to characterize their physicochemical properties. Results showed that the lower rank coal chars were more reactive than the higher rank coal chars and that combustion reactions of chars were much faster than the corresponding gasification reactions. Fuel properties, temperature, and reactant gas partial pressure had a significant influence on both combustion and gasification, and particle size had a mild but discernible influence on gasification. Fuel reactivities were closely related to pore structure. Computer simulation of the combustion and gasification performances of the subject samples in the DTFS supported the experimental findings.

  14. High resolution seismic survey (of the) Rawlins, Wyoming underground coal gasification area. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Youngberg, A.D.; Berkman, E.; Orange, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    In October 1982, a high resolution seismic survey was conducted at the Gulf Research and Development Company's underground coal gasification test site near Rawlins, Wyoming. The objectives of the survey were to utilize high resolution seismic technology to locate and characterize two underground coal burn zones. Seismic data acquisition and processing parameters were specifically designed to emphasize reflections at the shallow depths of interest. A three-dimensional grid of data was obtained over the Rawlins burn zones. Processing included time varying filters, trace composition, and two-dimensional areal stacking of the data in order to identify burn zone anomalies. An anomaly was discernable resulting from the rubble-collapse cavity associated with the burn zone which was studied in detail at the Rawlins 1 and 2 test sites. 21 refs., 20 figs.

  15. DIFFUSION COATINGS FOR CORROSION RESISTANT COMPONENTS IN COAL GASIFICATION SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Gopala N. Krishnan; Ripudaman Malhotra; Esperanza Alvarez; Kai-Hung Lau; Angel Sanjurjo

    2005-01-01

    Heat-exchangers, particle filters, turbines, and other components in integrated coal gasification combined cycle system must withstand the highly sulfiding conditions of the high temperature coal gas over an extended period of time. The performance of components degrades significantly with time unless expensive high alloy materials are used. Deposition of a suitable coating on a low cost alloy may improve is resistance to such sulfidation attack and decrease capital and operating costs. The alloys used in the gasifier service include austenitic and ferritic stainless steels, nickel-chromium-iron alloys, and expensive nickel-cobalt alloys. During this reporting period we coated coupons of selected alloy steels with diffusion coatings of Cr and Al, as well as with titanium and tantalum nitrides. The coated samples were analyzed for their surface composition. In several instances, the samples were also cut to determine the depth profile of the coating. Several of the early runs did not yield uniform or deep enough coatings and hence a significant portion of the effort in this period was devoted fixing the problems with our fluidized bed reactor. Before the end of the quarter we had prepared a number of samples, many of them in duplicates, and sent one set to Wabash River Energy Laboratory for them to install in their gasifier. The gasifier was undergoing a scheduled maintenance and thus presented an opportunity to place some of our coupons in the stream of an operating gasifier. The samples submitted included coated and uncoated pairs of different alloys.

  16. The development of Coke Carried-Heat Gasification Coal-Fired Combined Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Li; Xu, Xiangdong

    1999-12-01

    Carried-Heat Partial Gasification Combined cycle is a novel combined cycle which was proposed by Thermal Engineering Department of Tsinghua University in 1992. The idea of the system comes from the situation that the efficiency of the power plants in China is much lower than that of the advanced countries, but the coal consumption is much higher, which brings about the waste of primary energy resources and the pollution of the environment. With the deep study of the gasification technology, Coke Carried-Heat Gasification Coal-Fired Combined Cycle, as the improved system, came into birth in 1996 based on the partial gasification one. At the end of 1997, a new cycle scheme similar to IGCC was created. This paper focuses on several classes combined cycle put forward by Tsinghua University, depending on the plant configuration and carbon conversion, making the solution a viable and attractive option for efficient coal utilization.

  17. Energy Conversion Alternatives Study (ECAS), Westinghouse phase 1. Volume 3: Combustors, furnaces and low-BTU gasifiers. [used in coal gasification and coal liquefaction (equipment specifications)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamm, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Information is presented on the design, performance, operating characteristics, cost, and development status of coal preparation equipment, combustion equipment, furnaces, low-Btu gasification processes, low-temperature carbonization processes, desulfurization processes, and pollution particulate removal equipment. The information was compiled for use by the various cycle concept leaders in determining the performance, capital costs, energy costs, and natural resource requirements of each of their system configurations.

  18. [Inhibition of Denitrification by Total Phenol Load of Coal Gasification Wastewater].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-ying; Chen, Xiu-rong; Wang, Lu; Li, Jia-hui; Xu, Yan; Zhuang, You-jun; Yu, Ze-ya

    2016-03-15

    High loaded phenolic pollutants, refractory and high toxic, which existed in coal gasification wastewater, could cause the inhibition of sludge activity. In biological denitrification process of activated sludge treatment system, people tend to focus on the phenol inhibition on the efficiency and activity of nitrifying bacteria while there are few researches on the denitrification process. In order to investigate the inhibition of phenolic compounds from coal gasification wastewater on the denitrification and sludge activity, we used anoxic denitrification system to indentify the influence of different phenol load on denitrification efficiency (removal efficiency of NO₃⁻-N and NO₂⁻-N) as well as the stress and degradation activity of sludge. The results showed that when the concentration of total phenol was changed from 50 mg · L⁻¹ to 200 mg · L⁻¹, the removal rates of NO₃⁻-N and NO₂⁻-N were changed from 55% and 25% to 83% and 83% respectively. In the process of sludge domestication, the characteristics of denitrifying sludge were influenced to a certain degree.

  19. Advanced development of a pressurized ash agglomerating fluidized-bed coal gasification system. Quarterly progress report, October 1-December 31, 1982

    SciTech Connect

    1983-04-21

    The overall objective of the Westinghouse coal gasification program is to demonstrate the viability of the Westinghouse pressurized, fluidized bed, gasification system for the production of medium-Btu fuel gas for syngas, electrical power generation, chemical feedstocks, or industrial fuels and to obtain performance and scaleup data for the process and hardware. Progress reports are presented for the following tasks: (1) operation and maintenance of the process development unit (PDU); (2) process analysis; (3) cold flow scaleup facility; (4) process component engineering and design; and (5) laboratory support studies involving gas solids flow modeling and coal/ash behavior. 9 figures, 19 tables.

  20. International energy technology assessment: status of materials for coal gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Gehl, S.M.; Natesan, K.

    1981-11-01

    The difficulties in obtaining information on foreign technologies lead to serious limitations on the level of detail in the technology assessment. The extensive commercial operating experience with gasifiers of the Lurgi and Koppers-Totzek varieties has no counterpart in the US. This situation translates into a great deal of engineering data on the operating envelopes of ceramics and alloys. This type of information is crucial to the operation of a Lurgi gasifier, and some of it is translatable to other types of gasifiers. However, the emerging technologies envisaged for the US gasification programs and the developmental foreign programs require a much higher level of materials technology than is represented in current commercial practice. In the area of new materials for coal gasification applications, we find a rough equivalence between the levels of US and foreign technologies. In fact, our assessment indicates that the US holds a lead in the development and testing of alloys for high-temperature service in corrosive environments. However, a few significant technical developments have occurred in foreign countries without comparable domestic advances. These include the pilot-plant experience on refractories for slagging gasifiers (Shell-Koppers, Texaco, and BGC); the development of corrosion-resistant alloys based on refractory metals (BGC); and the long-term high-temperature creep tests (Karslruhe). Foreign organizations can almost always present the disclosure of large amounts of detailed technical information, if they so desire. Information-exchange agreements with the foreign organizations identified in this report may prove fruitful in providing the type of information needed for the US program.

  1. Analyzing organic sulfur in coal/char: Integrated mild gasification/XANES methods. Technical report, 1 March--31 May 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, S.R.; Huffman, G.P.

    1994-09-01

    The overall goal of this study is to improve the understanding of sulfur in coals/chars via the use of combined advanced non-destructive and advanced destructive methods of sulfur analysis. This study combines selective oxidation, analytical pyrolysis, and sulfur X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure Spectroscopy (XANES) analysis. Samples with a wide variety of sulfur contents, (0.63% to 4.40%) have been prepared for use in this study. This includes steam gasification chars, oxidized coals and desulfurized coals as well of the original unaltered coals. Mild pyrolysis and preliminary XANES data shows that the sulfur chemistry of gasification chars is significantly different from that of the original coals. Mild pyrolysis of the samples that were oxidized with peroxyacetic acid showed that the level of simple thiophene structures observed in the pyrolysis products declines with increasing levels of oxidation. Sulfur XANES spectra of treated samples showed various effects depending on the treatment severity. For the less severely treated samples (demineralization and solvent extraction), the XANES spectra were similar, although not identical, to the untreated coal spectra, whereas the more severe treatments (steam at 450 C; peroxyacetic acid at 25 C) showed preferential oxidation of one or more sulfur-bearing phases in the original coal. Additional samples have recently been examined by XANES and W-band EPR and the data is currently being processed and evaluated.

  2. Coal-gasification systems: a guide to status, applications, and economics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Simbeck, D.R.; Dickenson, R.L.; Oliver, E.D.

    1983-06-01

    Coal gasification has been the subject of a great deal of study and development worldwide over the past decade. The open literature currently contains bewildering and often inconsistent information concerning the development status and economic viability of coal gasification systems. The Advanced Power Systems Division of EPRI has devoted considerable resources to the development and demonstration of coal gasification technology for ultimate use in electric-power-generation systems. The primary objective of this Guide is to provide current and consistent information concerning the status of commercial development, potential utility applications and EPRI-developed capital and operating costs for coal-gasification technologies that have already been demonstrated at commercial scale as well as for those that are close to commercial practice. Current commercial/developmental status of Lurgi, Koppers-Totzek, Texaco, Shell, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi, KILnGAS, Westinghouse and High Temperature Winkler is discussed. Environmental aspects, thermal performance, reliabiilty and cost information are provided for medium-Btu gas production; retrofitting and repowering existing steam plants; integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems; low-water-consumption IGCC systems; methanol from coal; once-through methanol production in an IGCC system; and IGCC systems employing advanced, molten-carbonate fuel cells. Finally, for comparison purposes, performance and cost estimates on a consistent basis are provided for coal-fired steam plants; oil-fired steam plants; oil- and gas-fired combined-cycle and combustion-turbine plants. 88 figures, 86 tables.

  3. Mutagenicity of products from coal gasification and liquefaction in the Salmonella/microsome assay.

    PubMed

    Schoeny, R; Warshawsky, D; Hollingsworth, L; Hund, M; Moore, G

    1981-01-01

    As a first step in the assessment of their possible bio-effects, coal-related materials were tested for mutagenicity in the Salmonella/microsome assay. Of three coal gasification by-products tested, only a tar was mutagenic for any of four Salmonella strains. The following liquefaction materials were mutagenic for strains TA1538, TA98, and/or TA100: A liquefaction vehicle oil and coal hydrogenation filtered liquid, separated bottoms, vacuum overhead, and vacuum bottoms. Neither powdered coal nor water produced as a by-product of the hydrogenation process was positive in the Salmonella test. No coal-related material was mutagenic for the missense mutant TA1535 or for any strain in the absence of metabolic activation provided by rat hepatic homogenates (S9). In all but one instance Aroclor 1254-induced S9 provided the maximum activation for mutagenesis. Fractionation of all samples was undertaken by serial extraction with organic solvents of increasing polarity (hexane, toluene, methylene chloride, acetonitrile). Highly mutagenic materials were found in fractions of the hydrogenation filtered liquid, vacuum overhead, and vacuum bottoms. Thus far non-mutagenic samples have not yielded mutagenic components upon fractionation.

  4. Process for gasification of carbonaceous material

    SciTech Connect

    Lancet, M.S.; Gorin, E.

    1984-04-03

    A process of tar destruction in gasification of carbonaceous material comprises providing a mixture of finely divided calcium compound of a particle size smaller than 65 mesh and finely divided carbonaceous material of a particle size smaller than 65 mesh, the calcium compound to carbonaceous material ratio being from about 0.5 to 1.0 and contacting the mixture with CO/sub 2/ and tar exothermally whereby the tar is destroyed.

  5. Coal gasification systems engineering and analysis. Appendix G: Commercial design and technology evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A technology evaluation of five coal gasifier systems (Koppers-Totzek, Texaco, Babcock and Wilcox, Lurgi and BGC/Lurgi) and procedures and criteria for evaluating competitive commercial coal gasification designs is presented. The technology evaluation is based upon the plant designs and cost estimates developed by the BDM-Mittelhauser team.

  6. Monitoring polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons at a coal gasification facility: preliminary results

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, J.O.; Brandt, M.T.; Sutcliffe, C.; Reaux, C.; White, O.; Abazi, A.; Januzi, B.; Kapor, S.; Goldsmith, R.; Wambach, P.

    1984-01-01

    A characterization of PAH levels at a commercial coal gasification plant has been performed. This is the first study of PAH concentration in this work place of a full scale facility with this technology. The PAH data show similar results to those that have been found in other US coal conversion facilities and petroleum refineries. 22 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  7. Viability of underground coal gasification in the 'deep coals' of the Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    2007-06-15

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the PRB coal geology, hydrology, infrastructure, environmental and permitting requirements and to analyze the possible UCG projects which could be developed in the PRB. Project economics on the possible UCG configurations are presented to evaluate the viability of UCG. There are an estimated 510 billion tons of sub-bituminous coal in the Powder River Basin (PRB) of Wyoming. These coals are found in extremely thick seams that are up to 200 feet thick. The total deep coal resource in the PRB has a contained energy content in excess of twenty times the total world energy consumption in 2002. However, only approximately five percent of the coal resource is at depths less than 500 feet and of adequate thickness to be extracted by open pit mining. The balance is at depths between 500 and 2,000 feet below the surface. These are the PRB 'deep coals' evaluated for UCG in this report. The coal deposits in the Powder River Basin of Wyoming are thick, laterally continuous, and nearly flat lying. These deposits are ideal for development by Underground Coal Gasification. The thick deep coal seams of the PRB can be harvested using UCG and be protective of groundwater, air resources, and with minimum subsidence. Protection of these environmental values requires correct site selection, site characterization, impact definition, and impact mitigation. The operating 'lessons learned' of previous UCG operations, especially the 'Clean Cavity' concepts developed at Rocky Mountain 1, should be incorporated into the future UCG operations. UCG can be conducted in the PRB with acceptable environmental consequences. The report gives the recommended development components for UCG commercialization. 97 refs., 31 figs., 57 tabs., 1 app.

  8. Removal of phenol by powdered activated carbon prepared from coal gasification tar residue.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiong-Lei; Shen, Jun; Niu, Yan-Xia; Wang, Yu-Gao; Liu, Gang; Sheng, Qing-Tao

    2017-04-10

    Coal gasification tar residue (CGTR) is a kind of environmentally hazardous byproduct generated in fixed-bed coal gasification process. The CGTR extracted by ethyl acetate was used to prepare powdered activated carbon (PAC), which is applied later for adsorption of phenol. The results showed that the PAC prepared under optimum conditions had enormous mesoporous structure, and the iodine number reached 2030.11 mg/g, with a specific surface area of 1981 m(2)/g and a total pore volume of 0.92 ml/g. Especially, without loading other substances, the PAC, having a strong magnetism, can be easily separated after it adsorbs phenol. The adsorption of phenol by PAC was studied as functions of contact time, temperature, PAC dosage, solution concentration and pH. The results showed a fast adsorption speed and a high adsorption capacity of PAC. The adsorption process was exothermic and conformed to the Freundlich models. The adsorption kinetics fitted better to the pseudo-second-order model. These results show that CGTR can be used as a potential adsorbent of phenols in wastewater.

  9. Scaleup of mild gasification to a process development unit

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Saladin, N.; Mead, J.; Foster, H.

    1992-11-01

    The overall objectives of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. During the first ten months of this project. the NEPA Application for construction and operation of the PDU facility at the SIUC site was written and submitted for approval. In addition, the process design for the PDU was completed, bid packages for the PDU modules were prepared and sent to a slate of prospective bidders, and bids were received from the participating bidders.

  10. Investigation of Coal-biomass Catalytic Gasification using Experiments, Reaction Kinetics and Computational Fluid Dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglia, Francine; Agblevor, Foster; Klein, Michael; Sheikhi, Reza

    2015-12-31

    A collaborative effort involving experiments, kinetic modeling, and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was used to understand co-gasification of coal-biomass mixtures. The overall goal of the work was to determine the key reactive properties for coal-biomass mixed fuels. Sub-bituminous coal was mixed with biomass feedstocks to determine the fluidization and gasification characteristics of hybrid poplar wood, switchgrass and corn stover. It was found that corn stover and poplar wood were the best feedstocks to use with coal. The novel approach of this project was the use of a red mud catalyst to improve gasification and lower gasification temperatures. An important results was the reduction of agglomeration of the biomass using the catalyst. An outcome of this work was the characterization of the chemical kinetics and reaction mechanisms of the co-gasification fuels, and the development of a set of models that can be integrated into other modeling environments. The multiphase flow code, MFIX, was used to simulate and predict the hydrodynamics and co-gasification, and results were validated with the experiments. The reaction kinetics modeling was used to develop a smaller set of reactions for tractable CFD calculations that represented the experiments. Finally, an efficient tool was developed, MCHARS, and coupled with MFIX to efficiently simulate the complex reaction kinetics.

  11. A novel approach to highly dispersing catalytic materials in coal for gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Abotsi, G.M.K.; Bota, K.B.

    1989-01-01

    This project seeks to develop a technique, based on coal surface properties, for highly dispersing catalysts in coal for gasification and to investigate the potential of using potassium carbonate and calcium acetate mixtures as catalysts for coal gasification. The lower cost and high catalytic activity of the latter compound will produce economic benefits by reducing the amount of K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} required for high coal char reactivities. The work is focused on the elucidation of coal-catalyst precursor interactions in solution and the variables which control the adsorption and dispersion of coal gasification metal catalysts. In order to optimize coal-metal ion interactions and hence maximize catalyst activity, the study examines the surface electrochemistry of a lignite, a subbituminous, and a bituminous coals and their demineralized and oxidized derivatives prior to loading with the catalytic materials. The surface electrical properties of the coals are investigated with the aid of electrophoresis, while the effects of the surface charge on the adsorption of K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} are studied by agitating the coals with aqueous solutions of potassium and calcium. A zeta meter, a tube furnace, and other equipment required for the investigation have been acquired and installed. Preliminary work shows that the lignite (Psoc 1482) is negatively charged between pH 1.8 and pH 11.0 and has an isoelectric point of pH 1.8.

  12. A novel approach to highly dispersing catalytic materials in coal for gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Abotsi, M.K.; Bota, K.B.

    1990-01-01

    This project seeks to develop a technique, based on coal surface properties, for highly dispersing catalysts in coal for gasification and to investigate the potential of using potassium carbonate and calcium acetate mixtures as catalysts for coal gasification. The work is focused on the elucidation of coal-catalyst precursor interactions in solution and the variables which control the adsorption and dispersion of coal gasification metal catalysts. In order to optimize coal-metal ion interactions and hence maximize catalyst activity, the study examines the surface electrochemistry of a lignite, a subbituminous, and a bituminous coals and their demineralized and oxidized derivatives prior to loading with the catalytic materials. The surface electrical properties of the coals are investigated with the aid of electrophoresis, while the effects of the surface charge on the adsorption of K{sup +} and Ca{sup 2+} are studied by agitating the coals with aqueous solutions of potassium and calcium. Zeta potential studies show that the surfaces of the lignite are negatively charged between about pH2 to 11, the negative charge density increasing with increase in pH. Highly alkaline media promoted calcium adsorption due to high negative charge on the coal, while calcium uptake was inhibited in strongly acidic solutions.

  13. Feasibility of Biomass Biodrying for Gasification Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamidian, Arash

    An important challenge of biomass gasification is the limitation of feedstock quality especially the moisture content, which plays a significant role on the performance of gasification process. Gasification requires low moisture levels (20% and less) and several reports have emphasized on the moisture as a typical problem while gasifying biomass. Moisture affects overall reaction rates in the gasifiers as a result of temperature drop and ultimately increases tar content, decreases gas yield, changes the composition of produced gas and affects the efficiency. Therefore, it is mandatory to pre-treat the biomass before gasification and reduce the moisture content to the suitable and economic level. The well-known solutions are either natural drying (not practical for commercial plants) or conventional drying technologies (have high operating costs). Biodrying is an alternative process, which uses both convective air and heat of biological reactions as a source of energy, to reduce the moisture. In the biodrying reactor heat is generated from exothermic decomposition of organic fraction of biomass and that is why the process is called "self-heating process". Employing such technology for drying biomass at pre-treatment units of gasification process returns several economic and environmental advantages to mills. In Europe, municipal waste treatment (MSW) plants use the biodrying at commercial scale to degrade a part of the biodegradable fraction of waste to generate heat and reduce the moisture content for high quality SRF (Solid Recovered Fuel) production. In Italy, wine industry is seeking to develop biodrying for energy recovery of grape wastes after fermentation and distillation, which returns economic benefits to the industry. In Canada, the development of biodrying technology for pulp and paper industry was started at Ecole polytechnique de Montreal as an option for sludge management solution. Therefore, batch biodrying reactor was successfully developed in 2004

  14. Chemical and toxicological evaluation of underground coal gasification (UCG) effluents. The coal rank effect.

    PubMed

    Kapusta, Krzysztof; Stańczyk, Krzysztof

    2015-02-01

    The effect of coal rank on the composition and toxicity of water effluents resulting from two underground coal gasification experiments with distinct coal samples (lignite and hard coal) was investigated. A broad range of organic and inorganic parameters was determined in the sampled condensates. The physicochemical tests were supplemented by toxicity bioassays based on the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri as the test organism. The principal component analysis and Pearson correlation analysis were adopted to assist in the interpretation of the raw experimental data, and the multiple regression statistical method was subsequently employed to enable predictions of the toxicity based on the values of the selected parameters. Significant differences in the qualitative and quantitative description of the contamination profiles were identified for both types of coal under study. Independent of the coal rank, the most characteristic organic components of the studied condensates were phenols, naphthalene and benzene. In the inorganic array, ammonia, sulphates and selected heavy metals and metalloids were identified as the dominant constituents. Except for benzene with its alkyl homologues (BTEX), selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), zinc and selenium, the values of the remaining parameters were considerably greater for the hard coal condensates. The studies revealed that all of the tested UCG condensates were extremely toxic to V. fischeri; however, the average toxicity level for the hard coal condensates was approximately 56% higher than that obtained for the lignite. The statistical analysis provided results supporting that the toxicity of the condensates was most positively correlated with the concentrations of free ammonia, phenols and certain heavy metals.

  15. Co-gasification of coal and biomass: Synergy, characterization and reactivity of the residual char.

    PubMed

    Hu, Junhao; Shao, Jingai; Yang, Haiping; Lin, Guiying; Chen, Yingquan; Wang, Xianhua; Zhang, Wennan; Chen, Hanping

    2017-11-01

    The synergy effect between coal and biomass in their co-gasification was studied in a vertical fixed bed reactor, and the physic-chemical structural characteristics and gasification reactivity of the residual char obtained from co-gasification were also investigated. The results shows that, conversion of the residual char and tar into gas is enhanced due to the synergy effect between coal and biomass. The physical structure of residual char shows more pore on coal char when more biomass is added in the co-gasification. The migration of inorganic elements between coal and biomass was found, the formation and competitive role of K2SiO3, KAlSiO4, and Ca3Al2(SiO4)3 is a mechanism behind the synergy. The graphization degree is enhanced but size of graphite crystallite in the residual char decreases with biomass blending ratio increasing. TGA results strongly suggest the big difference in the reactivity of chars derived from coal and biomass in spite of influence from co-gasification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pyrolysis and gasification of coal at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    Zygourakis, K.

    1990-01-01

    We made considerable progress towards developing a thermogravimetric reactor with in-situ video imaging capability (TGA/IVIM). Such a reactor will allow us to observe macroscopic changes in the morphology of pyrolyzing particles and thermal ignitions while monitoring at the time the weight of pyrolyzing or reacting samples. The systematic investigation on the effects of pyrolysis conditions and char macropore structure on char reactivity continued. Pyrolysis and gasification experiments were performed consecutively in our TGA reactor and the char reactivity patterns were measured for a wide range of temperatures (400 to 600[degrees]C). These conditions cover both the kinetic and the diffusion limited regimes. Our results show conclusively that chars produced at high pyrolysis heating rates (and, therefore, having a more open cellular macropore structure) are more reactive and ignite more easily than chars pyrolyzed at low heating rates. These results have been explained using available predictions from theoretical models. We also investigated for the first time the effect of coal particle size and external mass transfer limitations on the reactivity patterns and ignition behavior of char particles combusted in air. Finally, we used our hot stage reactor to monitor the structural transformations occurring during pyrolysis via a video microscopy system. Pyrolysis experiments were videotaped and particle swelling and the particle ignitions were determined and analyzed using digitized images from these experiments.

  17. TVA coal-gasification plant conceptual design. Volume 1. Plant based on Executive overview (Summary). Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-01

    TVA plans to build a coal gasification plant to demonstrate the operation of a commercial scale coal gasification facility producing a clean medium Btu gas (MBG) for use in various industrial applications in the TVA region. In the Phase I efforts, Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation prepared conceptual designs, cost estimates, and trade-off studies of the following gasification systems: Lurgi Dry Bottom, Koppers-Totzek, Babcock and Wilcox, British Gas Slagger, and Texaco.

  18. Summary report: Trace substance emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.; Wetherold, B.; Maxwell, D.

    1996-10-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Louisiana Gasification Technology Inc. (LGTI) sponsored field sampling and analyses to characterize emissions of trace substances from LGTI`s integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant at Plaquemine, Louisiana. The results indicate that emissions from the LGTI facility were quite low, often in the ppb levels, and comparable to a well-controlled pulverized coal-fired power plant.

  19. Continuous coal processing method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ryason, P. R. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A coal pump is provided in which solid coal is heated in the barrel of an extruder under pressure to a temperature at which the coal assumes plastic properties. The coal is continuously extruded, without static zones, using, for example, screw extrusion preferably without venting through a reduced diameter die to form a dispersed spray. As a result, the dispersed coal may be continuously injected into vessels or combustors at any pressure up to the maximum pressure developed in the extrusion device. The coal may be premixed with other materials such as desulfurization aids or reducible metal ores so that reactions occur, during or after conversion to its plastic state. Alternatively, the coal may be processed and caused to react after extrusion, through the die, with, for example, liquid oxidizers, whereby a coal reactor is provided.

  20. IGDS/TRAP Interface Program (ITIP). Software User Manual (SUM). [network flow diagrams for coal gasification studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jefferys, S.; Johnson, W.; Lewis, R.; Rich, R.

    1981-01-01

    This specification establishes the requirements, concepts, and preliminary design for a set of software known as the IGDS/TRAP Interface Program (ITIP). This software provides the capability to develop at an Interactive Graphics Design System (IGDS) design station process flow diagrams for use by the NASA Coal Gasification Task Team. In addition, ITIP will use the Data Management and Retrieval System (DMRS) to maintain a data base from which a properly formatted input file to the Time-Line and Resources Analysis Program (TRAP) can be extracted. This set of software will reside on the PDP-11/70 and will become the primary interface between the Coal Gasification Task Team and IGDS, DMRS, and TRAP. The user manual for the computer program is presented.

  1. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes. 19th quarterly report, April 1, 1991--June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S.

    1991-09-25

    The objectives of this study are to establish the mechanisms and rates of basic steps in coal conversion processes, to integrate and incorporate this information into comprehensive computer models for coal conversion processes, to evaluate these models and to apply them to gasification, mild gasification and combustion in heat engines. (VC)

  2. Effect of fuel origin on synergy during co-gasification of biomass and coal in CO2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Zheng, Yan; Yang, Mingjun; Song, Yongchen

    2016-01-01

    The effect of fuel origin on synergy in coal/biomass blends during co-gasification has been assessed using a congruent-mass thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) method. Results revealed that synergy occurs when ash residuals are formed, followed by an almost complete gasification of biomass. Potassium species in biomass ash play a catalytic role in promoting gasification reactivity of coal char, which is a direct consequence of synergy during co-gasification. The SEM-EDS spectra provided conclusive evidence that the transfer of potassium from biomass to the surface of coal char occurs during co-pyrolysis/gasification. Biomass ash rich in silica eliminated synergy in coal/biomass blends but not to the extent of inhibiting the reaction rate of the blended chars to make it slower than that of separated ones. The best result in terms of synergy was concluded to be the combination of low-ash coal and K-rich biomass.

  3. Photoassisted electrolysis applied to coal gasification. Quarterly report, 1 July 1982-30 September 1982

    SciTech Connect

    Park, S.M.

    1982-01-01

    The literature search was continued on the electrochemical oxidation and reduction of coal. Humic acids are generated upon oxidation of coal in alkali media. Similar results were reported for the oxidation of coal. The reduction coal in nonaqueous solutions gave reduced coal of various degrees of hydrogenation depending on experimental conditions. These earlier results suggest that a proper combination of electrochemical oxidation and reduction of coal may lead to various classes of derivatized coal including liquid coals. Both CdS and CdSe thin film electrodes were tested for photoassisted coal gasification. Although high photocurrents were observed the electrodes were not stable. To stabilize the electrodes the electrode surface was modified by coating with a conductive organic polymer, which behaves as an electron transfer mediator. Various experiments in this effort are described.

  4. Study of early appearance of skin lesions in coal gasification workers.

    PubMed

    Begraca, M; Ukmata, H; Morris, S C; Canhasi, B; Haxhiu, M A

    1991-09-01

    A retrospective cohort morbidity study was conducted among workers employed at the Kosovo coal gasification plant and a reference population of open-pit lignite miners. The aim was to determine the rate of early skin cancer and pre-cancerous skin lesions. In 15 years of commercial operation of the coal gasification plant, seven workers were diagnosed with benign skin tumors, six with pre-cancerous skin diseases, but none with skin cancer. The lesions were significantly fewer than were reported earlier over a shorter time period and in a smaller population at a coal hydrogenation plant. Compared to the reference population who received medical care in the same clinic, gasification workers had a lower skin cancer rate, but a higher rate of benign skin tumors and potentially pre-cancerous skin diseases.

  5. Feed Processing, Handling, and Gasification

    SciTech Connect

    2006-04-01

    Both current and future sugar biorefineries will generate a wide variety of residue streams that can be used as feedstocks for thermochemical processes, including corn stover, corn fiber, lignin-rich materials, and distillers’ dried grain and solubles.

  6. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory underground coal gasification data base. [US DOE-supported field tests; data

    SciTech Connect

    Cena, R. J.; Thorsness, C. B.

    1981-08-21

    The Department of Energy has sponsored a number of field projects to determine the feasibility of converting the nation's vast coal reserves into a clean efficient energy source via underground coal gasification (UCG). Due to these tests, a significant data base of process information has developed covering a range of coal seams (flat subbituminous, deep flat bituminous and steeply dipping subbituminous) and processing techniques. A summary of all DOE-sponsored tests to data is shown. The development of UCG on a commercial scale requires involvement from both the public and private sectors. However, without detailed process information, accurate assessments of the commercial viability of UCG cannot be determined. To help overcome this problem the DOE has directed the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) to develop a UCG data base containing raw and reduced process data from all DOE-sponsored field tests. It is our intent to make the data base available upon request to interested parties, to help them assess the true potential of UCG.

  7. Gasification: A Cornerstone Technology

    ScienceCinema

    Gary Stiegel

    2016-07-12

    NETL is a leader in the science and technology of gasification - a process for the conversion of carbon-based materials such as coal into synthesis gas (syngas) that can be used to produce clean electrical energy, transportation fuels, and chemicals efficiently and cost-effectively using domestic fuel resources. Gasification is a cornerstone technology of 21st century zero emissions powerplants

  8. Gasification: A Cornerstone Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Stiegel

    2008-03-26

    NETL is a leader in the science and technology of gasification - a process for the conversion of carbon-based materials such as coal into synthesis gas (syngas) that can be used to produce clean electrical energy, transportation fuels, and chemicals efficiently and cost-effectively using domestic fuel resources. Gasification is a cornerstone technology of 21st century zero emissions powerplants

  9. Study on reactivity characteristics and synergy behaviours of rice straw and bituminous coal co-gasification.

    PubMed

    Wei, Juntao; Guo, Qinghua; Chen, Handing; Chen, Xueli; Yu, Guangsuo

    2016-11-01

    Co-gasification of rice straw (RS) and Shenfu bituminous coal (SF) was conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) to explore the effects of gasification temperature and blend ratio on reactivity characteristics and synergy behaviours of co-gasification. Moreover, the relationship between the synergy and the K/Ca transformation in co-gasification was studied using flame atomic absorption spectrum (FAAS) and in-situ heating stage microscope. The results showed that the whole reactivities increased with increasing RS proportion and gasification temperature. The transformation of water-soluble and ion-exchanged (ws-ie) calcium was enhanced in whole co-gasification and the ws-ie potassium transformation was obviously inhibited in mid-late reaction. Hence, synergy behaviours were synthetically determined by the enhancement of Ca deactivation and the strengthening of K catalysis. The inhibiting effect was occurred in initial co-gasification and was converted to the synergistic effect at a characteristic conversion, which decreased with increasing RS proportion and decreasing gasification temperature. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Co-gasification of bituminous coal and hydrochar derived from municipal solid waste: Reactivity and synergy.

    PubMed

    Wei, Juntao; Guo, Qinghua; He, Qing; Ding, Lu; Yoshikawa, Kunio; Yu, Guangsuo

    2017-09-01

    In this work, the influences of gasification temperature and blended ratio on co-gasification reactivity and synergy of Shenfu bituminous coal (SF) and municipal solid waste-derived hydrochar (HTC) were investigated using TGA. Additionally, active alkaline and alkaline earth metal (AAEM) transformation during co-gasification was quantitatively analyzed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer for correlating synergy on co-gasification reactivity. The results showed that higher char gasification reactivity existed at higher HTC char proportion and gasification temperature, and the main synergy behaviour on co-gasification reactivity was performed as synergistic effect. Enhanced synergistic effect at lower temperature was mainly resulted from more obviously inhibiting the primary AAEM (i.e. active Ca) transformation, and weak synergistic effect still existed at higher temperature since more active K with prominent catalysis was retained. Furthermore, more active HTC-derived AAEM remaining in SF sample during co-gasification would lead to enhanced synergistic effect as HTC char proportion increased. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Use of the Visualisation of Multidimensional Data Using PCA to Evaluate Possibilities of the Division of Coal Samples Space Due to their Suitability for Fluidised Gasification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamróz, Dariusz; Niedoba, Tomasz; Surowiak, Agnieszka; Tumidajski, Tadeusz

    2016-09-01

    Methods serving to visualise multidimensional data through the transformation of multidimensional space into two-dimensional space, enable to present the multidimensional data on the computer screen. Thanks to this, qualitative analysis of this data can be performed in the most natural way for humans, through the sense of sight. An example of such a method of multidimensional data visualisation is PCA (principal component analysis) method. This method was used in this work to present and analyse a set of seven-dimensional data (selected seven properties) describing coal samples obtained from Janina and Wieczorek coal mines. Coal from these mines was previously subjected to separation by means of a laboratory ring jig, consisting of ten rings. With 5 layers of both types of coal (with 2 rings each) were obtained in this way. It was decided to check if the method of multidimensional data visualisation enables to divide the space of such divided samples into areas with different suitability for the fluidised gasification process. To that end, the card of technological suitability of coal was used (Sobolewski et al., 2012; 2013), in which key, relevant and additional parameters, having effect on the gasification process, were described. As a result of analyses, it was stated that effective determination of coal samples suitability for the on-surface gasification process in a fluidised reactor is possible. The PCA method enables the visualisation of the optimal subspace containing the set requirements concerning the properties of coals intended for this process.

  12. Gasification Studies Task 4 Topical Report, Utah Clean Coal Program

    SciTech Connect

    Whitty, Kevin; Fletcher, Thomas; Pugmire, Ronald; Smith, Philip; Sutherland, James; Thornock, Jeremy; Hunsacker, Isaac; Li, Suhui; Kelly, Kerry; Puntai, Naveen; Reid, Charles; Schurtz, Randy

    2011-10-01

    A key objective of the Task 4 activities has been to develop simulation tools to support development, troubleshooting and optimization of pressurized entrained-flow coal gasifiers. The overall gasifier models (Subtask 4.1) combine submodels for fluid flow (Subtask 4.2) and heat transfer (Subtask 4.3) with fundamental understanding of the chemical (Subtask 4.4) and physical (Subtask 4.5) processes that take place as coal particles are converted to synthesis gas and slag. However, it is important to be able to compare predictions from the models against data obtained from actual operating coal gasifiers, and Subtask 4.6 aims to provide an accessible, non-proprietary system, which can be operated over a wide range of conditions to provide well-characterized data for model validation.

  13. Corrosion and degradation of test materials in the U-GAS coal-gasification pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Yurkewycz, R.; Firestone, R.F.

    1982-10-01

    Corrosion monitoring of materials was conducted in the operating environment of the IGT U-GAS coal gasification pilot plant between 1977 and 1982. Metal and refractory specimens were exposed in the fluid bed gasifier in the freeboard section. Metal coupons were also exposed in two test locations in the product gas scrubber and venturi collection tank. Exposure times (coal feed to gasifier) were 264 h, 392 h, and 981 h. The corrosion performance of most alloys in the first exposure compared to the second and third in the U-GAS gasifier freeborad section was quite different. The more aggressive conditions produced during the first-exposure period are attributed to processing of unwashed high-sulfur coals in the steam-air gasification mode. Of the group of alloys evaluated, alloy 6B showed acceptable corrosion performance in all three exposures. Although their performance was poor in the first period, alloys N155 and IN-671 showed marked improvement in corrosion resistance during the second and third exposure periods. The same was true of cobalt-base alloy 188 which was the best performing alloy in the second and third exposures. Pack-aluminized alloys IN-800 and Type 310 showed acceptable performance. Conditions at the coupon location in the product gas scrubber (off-gas) were extremely aggressive to a range of materials exposed except titanium 50A. In the product-gas scrubber sludge tank and venturi collection tank, only carbon steel A515 showed significant attack; in some cases Types 410 and 430 incurred only mild pitting attack. Exposure in the gasifier freeboard had no significant effect on refractory specimens.

  14. Gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Anderson, Richard G.; Cherish, Peter

    1983-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  15. Gasification system

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Anderson, Richard G.; Cherish, Peter

    1985-01-01

    A method and system for injecting coal and process fluids into a fluidized bed gasification reactor. Three concentric tubes extend vertically upward into the fluidized bed. Coal particulates in a transport gas are injected through an inner tube, and an oxygen rich mixture of oxygen and steam are injected through an inner annulus about the inner tube. A gaseous medium relatively lean in oxygen content, such as steam, is injected through an annulus surrounding the inner annulus.

  16. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts: Task 4. 6, Technical and economic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Hogsett, R.F.; Jha, M.C.

    1991-12-01

    Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of DOE has sponsored, and continues to sponsor, programs for the development of technology and market strategies which will lead to the commercialization of processes for the production of coproducts from mild gasification of coal. It has been recognized by DOE and industry that mild gasification is a promising technology with potential to economically convert coal into marketable products, thereby increasing domestic coal utilization. In this process, coal is devolatilized under non- oxidizing conditions at mild temperature (900--1100{degrees}F) and pressure (1--15psig). Condensation of the vapor will yield a liquid product that can be upgraded to a petroleum substitute, and the remaining gas can provide the fuel for the process. The residual char can be burned in a power plant. Thus, in a long-term national scenario, implementation of this process will result in significant decrease of imported oil and increase in coal utilization.

  17. Coal liquefaction quenching process

    DOEpatents

    Thorogood, Robert M.; Yeh, Chung-Liang; Donath, Ernest E.

    1983-01-01

    There is described an improved coal liquefaction quenching process which prevents the formation of coke with a minimum reduction of thermal efficiency of the coal liquefaction process. In the process, the rapid cooling of the liquid/solid products of the coal liquefaction reaction is performed without the cooling of the associated vapor stream to thereby prevent formation of coke and the occurrence of retrograde reactions. The rapid cooling is achieved by recycling a subcooled portion of the liquid/solid mixture to the lower section of a phase separator that separates the vapor from the liquid/solid products leaving the coal reactor.

  18. Plasma-Augmented Fluidized Bed Gasification of Sub-bituminous Coal in CO2-O2 Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lelievre, C.; Pickles, C. A.; Hultgren, S.

    2016-01-01

    The gasification of a sub-bituminous coal using CO2-O2 gas mixtures was studied in a plasma-augmented fluidized bed gasifier. Firstly, the coal was chemically characterized and the gasification process was examined using Thermogravimetric and Differential Thermal Analysis (TGA/DTA) in CO2, O2 and at a CO2 to O2 ratio of 3 to 1. Secondly, the equilibrium gas compositions were obtained using the Gibbs free energy minimization method (HSC Chemistry®7). Thirdly, gasification tests were performed in a plasma-augmented fluidized bed and the off-gas temperatures and compositions were determined. Finally, for comparison purposes, control tests were conducted using a conventional fluidized bed coal gasifier and these results were compared to those achieved in the plasma-augmented fluidized bed gasifier. The effects of bed temperature and CO2 to O2 ratio were studied. For both gasifiers, at a given bed temperature, the off-gas compositions were in general agreement with the equilibrium values. Also, for both gasifiers, an experimental CO2 to O2 ratio of about 3 to 1 resulted in the highest syngas grade (%CO + %H2). Both higher off-gas temperatures and syngas grades could be achieved in the plasma-augmented gasifier, in comparison to the conventional gasifier. These differences were attributed to the higher bed temperatures in the plasma-augmented fluidized bed gasifier.

  19. Structural characteristics and gasification reactivity of chars prepared from K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} mixed HyperCoals and coals

    SciTech Connect

    Atul Sharma; Hiroyuki Kawashima; Ikuo Saito; Toshimasa Takanohashi

    2009-04-15

    HyperCoal is a clean coal with mineral matter content <0.05 wt %. Oaky Creek (C = 82%), and Pasir (C = 68%) coals were subjected to solvent extraction method to prepare Oaky Creek HyperCoal, and Pasir HyperCoal. Experiments were carried out to compare the gasification reactivity of HyperCoals and parent raw coals with 20, 40, 50 and 60% K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} as a catalyst at 600, 650, 700, and 775{sup o}C with steam. Gasification rates of coals and HyperCoals were strongly influenced by the temperature and catalyst loading. Catalytic steam gasification of HyperCoal chars was found to be chemical reaction controlled in the 600-700{sup o}C temperature range for all catalyst loadings. Gasification rates of HyperCoal chars were found to be always higher than parent coals at any given temperature for all catalyst loadings. However, X-ray diffraction results showed that the microstructures of chars prepared from coals and HyperCoals were similar. Results from nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy show no significant difference between the chemical compositions of the chars. Significant differences were observed from scanning electron microscopy images, which showed that the chars from HyperCoals had coral-reef like structures whereas dense chars were observed for coals. 26 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Runge, B.D.; Ness, R.O. Jr.; Sharp, L.L.; Shockey, R.E.

    1992-07-01

    The char produced in the 100-lb/hr process development unit has been magnetically cleaned by AMAX and returned to the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). The final calcining step of the process is currently being performed in the 4-lb/hr continuous fluidized-bed reactor (CFBR). The liquid products generated by the PDU have been collected and split into usable fractions and fractions to be discarded. Samples of the coal-derived liquids have been sent to Merichem Corporation of Houston and Koppers Industries of Pittsburgh for determination of their usefulness as chemical feedstock for the production of cresylic acids and anode-grade-binder pitch. The technical and economic assessment performed by Xbi and J.E Sinor Consultants has been completed. The briquette testing being conducted at the EERC has produced high quality briquettes using a number of binder agents. The next step in the test matrix will include the use of coal-derived liquids from the PDU as the binder. An additional coal has been added to the mild gasification test matrix. AMAX recently acquired two eastern low-sulfur bituminous coals and suggested that a limited test schedule be conducted to determine the suitability of these coals for the mild gasification process. The sulfur levels in the raw coals are below the target levels suggested by the steel industry for metallurgical coke use. To date, it has not been possible to reach these goals using the high-sulfur Illinois Basin coals tested.

  1. Coal pump

    DOEpatents

    Bonin, John H.; Meyer, John W.; Daniel, Jr., Arnold D.

    1983-01-01

    A device for pressurizing pulverized coal and circulating a carrier gas is disclosed. This device has utility in a coal gasification process and eliminates the need for a separate collection hopper and eliminates the separate compressor.

  2. Hanna, Wyoming underground coal gasification data base. Volume 5. Hanna III field test research report

    SciTech Connect

    Bartke, T.C.; Fischer, D.D.; King, S.B.; Boyd, R.M.; Humphrey, A.E.

    1985-08-01

    This report is part of a seven-volume series on the Hanna, Wyoming, underground coal gasification field tests. Volume 1 is a summary of the project and each of Volumes 2 through 6 describes a particular test. Volume 7 is a compilation of all the data for the tests in Volumes 2 through 6. Hanna III was conducted during the spring and summer of 1977. The test involved only two process wells but also had twelve water monitoring wells, eight in the Hanna No. 1 coal seam and four in an aquifer above the coal seam. The test was designed to obtain information regarding the effects of the process on groundwater within the target seam and the overlying aquifer. The site for Hanna III had a low productivity aquifer above the Hanna No. 1 seam. The wells within the seam and the overlying aquifer were placed in such a manner that maximum information on groundwater flow and quality could be obtained. This report covers: (1) site selection and characterization; (2) test objectives; (3) facilities description; (4) pre-operation tests; (5) test operations summary; and (6) post-test activity. 4 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Producing fired bricks using coal slag from a gasification plant in indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, L.-M.; Chou, I.-Ming; Chou, S.-F.J.; Stucki, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is a promising power generation technology which increases the efficiency of coal-to-power conversion and enhances carbon dioxide concentration in exhaust emissions for better greenhouse gas capture. Two major byproducts from IGCC plants are bottom slag and sulfur. The sulfur can be processed into commercially viable products, but high value applications need to be developed for the slag material in order to improve economics of the process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of incorporating coal slag generated by the Wabash River IGCC plant in Indiana as a raw material for the production of fired bricks. Full-size bricks containing up to 20 wt% of the coal slag were successfully produced at a bench-scale facility. These bricks have color and texture similar to those of regular fired bricks and their water absorption properties met the ASTM specifications for a severe weathering grade. Other engineering properties tests, including compressive strength tests, are in progress.

  4. Mild gasification of Usibelli coal in an inclined fluidized-bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Merriam, N.W.; Thomas, K.P.; Cha, C.Y.

    1991-02-01

    Results of mild gasification tests of minus 16-mesh Usibelli coal in an inclined fluidized-bed reactor are described in this report. The minus 16-mesh fraction was separated from the coal by screening. The coal was dried to zero moisture content, and about 2 wt % of the volatiles was removed as gas by partial decarboxylation using a 100-lb/hr inclined fluidized-bed dryer. The dried coal was subjected to mild gasification at maximum temperatures of 1050 to 1250{degrees}F (566 to 677{degrees}C) and feed rates of 7.5 lb/hr while using a once-through flow of carbon dioxide as fluidizing gas in a 1-inch-wide, inclined fluidized-bed reactor. Mild gasification of the dried coal resulted in production of 44 to 56 wt % of the dried coal as char, 10 to 13 wt % as liquids, 17 to 28 wt % as gas, and 8 to 21 wt % as fines. The yield of moisture- and ash-free (MAF) liquids varied from 11.4 to 14.2 wt % of the dried coal feed. Chemical analysis was carried out on these products.

  5. Mild gasification of Usibelli coal in an inclined fluidized-bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Merriam, N.W.; Thomas, K.P.; Cha, C.Y.

    1991-02-01

    Results of mild gasification tests of minus 16-mesh Usibelli coal in an inclined fluidized-bed reactor are described in this report. The minus 16-mesh fraction was separated from the coal by screening. The coal was dried to zero moisture content, and about 2 wt % of the volatiles was removed as gas by partial decarboxylation using a 100-lb/hr inclined fluidized-bed dryer. The dried coal was subjected to mild gasification at maximum temperatures of 1050 to 1250{degrees}F (566 to 677{degrees}C) and feed rates of 7.5 lb/hr while using a once-through flow of carbon dioxide as fluidizing gas in a 1-inch-wide, inclined fluidized-bed reactor. Mild gasification of the dried coal resulted in production of 44 to 56 wt % of the dried coal as char, 10 to 13 wt % as liquids, 17 to 28 wt % as gas, and 8 to 21 wt % as fines. The yield of moisture- and ash-free (MAF) liquids varied from 11.4 to 14.2 wt % of the dried coal feed. Chemical analysis was carried out on these products.

  6. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products (Task 1), Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Knight, R.A.; Gissy, J.L.; Onischak, M.; Babu, S.P.; Carty, R.H.; Duthie, R.G.; Wootten, J.M.

    1991-09-01

    Under US DOE sponsorship, a project team consisting of the Institute of Gas Technology, Peabody Holding Company, and Bechtel Group, Inc. has been developing an advanced, mild gasification process to process all types of coal and to produce solid and condensable liquid co-products that can open new markets for coal. The three and a half year program (September 1987 to June 1991) consisted of investigations in four main areas. These areas are: (1) Literature Survey of Mild Gasification Processes, Co-Product Upgrading and Utilization, and Market Assessment; (2) Mild Gasification Technology Development: Process Research Unit Tests Using Slipstream Sampling; (3) Bench-Scale Char Upgrading Study; (4) Mild Gasification Technology Development: System Integration Studies. In this report, the literature and market assessment of mild gasification processes are discussed.

  7. Integrated coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Effron, Edward

    1978-01-01

    In a process for the liquefaction of coal in which coal liquids containing phenols and other oxygenated compounds are produced during the liquefaction step and later hydrogenated, oxygenated compounds are removed from at least part of the coal liquids in the naphtha and gas oil boiling range prior to the hydrogenation step and employed as a feed stream for the manufacture of a synthesis gas or for other purposes.

  8. Non-catalytic co-gasification of sub-bituminous coal and biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyendu, Guevara Che

    Fluidization characteristics and co-gasification of pulverized sub-bituminous coal, hybrid poplar wood, corn stover, switchgrass, and their mixtures were investigated. Co-gasification studies were performed over temperature range from 700°C to 900°C in different media (N2, CO2, steam) using a bubbling fluidized bed reactor. In fluidization experiments, pressure drop (Delta P) observed for coal-biomass mixtures was higher than those of single coal and biomass bed materials in the complete fluidization regime. There was no systematic trend observed for minimum fluidization velocity ( Umf) with increasing biomass content. However, porosity at minimum fluidization (εmf) increased with increasing biomass content. Channeling effects were observed in biomass bed materials and coal bed with 40 wt.% and 50 wt.% biomass content at low gas flowrates. The effect of coal pressure overshoot reduced with increasing biomass content. Co-gasification of coal and corn stover mixtures showed minor interactions. Synergetic effects were observed with 10 wt.% corn stover. Coal mixed with corn stover formed agglomerates during co-gasification experiments and the effect was severe with increase in corn stover content and at 900°C. Syngas (H2 + CO) concentrations obtained using CO2 as co-gasification medium were higher (~78 vol.% at 700°C, ~87 vol.% at 800°C, ~93 vol.% at 900°C) than those obtained with N2 medium (~60 vol.% at 700°C, ~65 vol.% at 800°C, ~75 vol.% at 900°C). Experiments involving co-gasification of coal with poplar showed no synergetic effects. Experimental yields were identical to predicted yields. However, synergetic effects were observed on H2 production when steam was used as the co-gasification medium. Additionally, the presence of steam increased H2/CO ratio up to 2.5 with 10 wt.% hybrid poplar content. Overall, char and tar yields decreased with increasing temperature and increasing biomass content, which led to increase in product gas.

  9. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.; Behrens, G.

    1995-11-01

    Toxic emissions were measured in the gaseous, solid and aqueous effluent streams in a coal-fired gasification plant. Several internal process streams were also characterized to assess pollution control device effectiveness. The program, consisted of three major phases. Phase I was the toxics emission characterization program described above. phase II included the design, construction and shakedown testing of a high-temperature, high-pressure probe for collecting representative trace composition analysis of hot (1200{degrees}F) syngas. Phase III consisted of the collection of hot syngas samples utilizing the high-temperature probe. Preliminary results are presented which show the emission factors and removal efficiencies for several metals that are on the list of compounds defined by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.

  10. Utilization of lightweight materials made from coal gasification slags. Quarterly report, March 1--May 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    Integrated-gasification combined-cycle (IGCC) technology is an emerging technology that utilizes coal for power generation and production of chemical feedstocks. However, the process generates large amounts of solid waste, consisting of vitrified ash (slag) and some unconverted carbon. The major objectives of the subject project are to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of commercial production of lightweight aggregates (LWA) and ultra-lightweight (ULWA) from slag and to test the suitability of these aggregates for various applications. The project goals are to be accomplished in two phases: Phase 1, comprising the production of LWA and ULWA from slag at the large pilot-scale, and Phase 2, which involves commercial evaluation of these aggregates in a number of applications. The following significant events occurred during this reporting period: testing of slag-based lightweight aggregates for roof tile and concrete applications.

  11. Development of an advanced, continuous mild gasification process for the production of co-products

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, R.E.; Wolfe, R.A.; Im, C.J.; Henkelman, M.R.; O`Neal, G.W.; McKinney, D.A.

    1993-12-31

    The objective of this project is to develop a continuous mild gasification process to convert highly caking coals to coal liquids, char and coke for near term commercial application. Coal liquids after fractionation can be blended with petroleum and used interchangeably with conventional fuels without modifications in gasoline and diesel engines. Char can be used as a carbon source in the production of ferroalloys and in mini-mills. Coke can be produced by upgrading char through briquetting and calcining and for use in the steel industry foundries and blast furnaces. In a step beyond the scope of the project, the plan is to finance, design and construct, in a partnership with others, a plant to produce coal liquid, char and coke in the initial range of 250,000 tons/year. In the Coal Technology Corporation CTC/CLC{reg_sign} Process, coal is continuously moved by interfolded twin screws through a heated retort in the absence of air. The residence time of the coal in the Continuous Mild Gasification Unit (CMGU) is in the range of 20--30 minutes. The coal is heated to controlled temperatures between 800{degree} and 1400{degree}F and is converted into char, condensible hydrocarbon liquids, small quantities of water, and non-condensible fuel gases. The coal derived fuel gases could supply all the required process heat, but for convenience, natural gas is used in the experimental unit. The process concept particularly suitable for highly caking coals which cannot be processed in fluidized bed or moving bed furnaces.

  12. Novel approach to coal gasification using chemically incorporated catalysts (Phase II). Appendix A-F. Final report, May 1978-June 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Feldmann, H.F.; Conkle, H.N.; Appelbaum, H.R.; Chauhan, S.P.

    1981-01-01

    This volume contains six appendices: experimental apparatus, test conditions, and results of catalytic coal treatment; direct hydrogasification; summary of test runs for hydrogasification of BTC; summary of test runs for hydrogasification of char; summary of steam/O/sub 2/ gasification runs; and process analysis. Forty tables and nine figures are also included.

  13. BIOMASS REACTIVITY IN GASIFICATION BY THE HYNOL PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A thermobalance reactor was used to evaluate the reactivity of poplar wood in gasification under the operating conditions specific for the Hynol process where biomass is gasified at 30 atm and 800E C with a hydrogen-rich gas recycled from methane synthesis. The gasification invol...

  14. BIOMASS REACTIVITY IN GASIFICATION BY THE HYNOL PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A thermobalance reactor was used to evaluate the reactivity of poplar wood in gasification under the operating conditions specific for the Hynol process where biomass is gasified at 30 atm and 800E C with a hydrogen-rich gas recycled from methane synthesis. The gasification invol...

  15. Conceptual design study of a coal gasification combined-cycle powerplant for industrial cogeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Nelson, S. G.; Straight, H. F.; Subramaniam, T. K.; Winklepleck, R. G.

    1981-03-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to assess technical feasibility, environmental characteristics, and economics of coal gasification. The feasibility of a coal gasification combined cycle cogeneration powerplant was examined in response to energy needs and to national policy aimed at decreasing dependence on oil and natural gas. The powerplant provides the steam heating and baseload electrical requirements while serving as a prototype for industrial cogeneration and a modular building block for utility applications. The following topics are discussed: (1) screening of candidate gasification, sulfur removal and power conversion components; (2) definition of a reference system; (3) quantification of plant emissions and waste streams; (4) estimates of capital and operating costs; and (5) a procurement and construction schedule. It is concluded that the proposed powerplant is technically feasible and environmentally superior.

  16. Conceptual design study of a coal gasification combined-cycle powerplant for industrial cogeneration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Nelson, S. G.; Straight, H. F.; Subramaniam, T. K.; Winklepleck, R. G.

    1981-01-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to assess technical feasibility, environmental characteristics, and economics of coal gasification. The feasibility of a coal gasification combined cycle cogeneration powerplant was examined in response to energy needs and to national policy aimed at decreasing dependence on oil and natural gas. The powerplant provides the steam heating and baseload electrical requirements while serving as a prototype for industrial cogeneration and a modular building block for utility applications. The following topics are discussed: (1) screening of candidate gasification, sulfur removal and power conversion components; (2) definition of a reference system; (3) quantification of plant emissions and waste streams; (4) estimates of capital and operating costs; and (5) a procurement and construction schedule. It is concluded that the proposed powerplant is technically feasible and environmentally superior.

  17. FUNDAMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF FUEL TRANSFORMATIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION AND GASIFICATION TECHNOLOGIES

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hurt; Joseph Calo; Thomas H. Fletcher; Alan Sayre

    2005-04-29

    The goal of this project was to carry out the necessary experiments and analyses to extend current capabilities for modeling fuel transformations to the new conditions anticipated in next-generation coal-based, fuel-flexible combustion and gasification processes. This multi-organization, multi-investigator project has produced data, correlations, and submodels that extend present capabilities in pressure, temperature, and fuel type. The combined experimental and theoretical/computational results are documented in detail in Chapters 1-8 of this report, with Chapter 9 serving as a brief summary of the main conclusions. Chapters 1-3 deal with the effect of elevated pressure on devolatilization, char formation, and char properties. Chapters 4 and 5 deal with advanced combustion kinetic models needed to cover the extended ranges of pressure and temperature expected in next-generation furnaces. Chapter 6 deals with the extension of kinetic data to a variety of alternative solid fuels. Chapter 7 focuses on the kinetics of gasification (rather than combustion) at elevated pressure. Finally, Chapter 8 describes the integration, testing, and use of new fuel transformation submodels into a comprehensive CFD framework. Overall, the effects of elevated pressure, temperature, heating rate, and alternative fuel use are all complex and much more work could be further undertaken in this area. Nevertheless, the current project with its new data, correlations, and computer models provides a much improved basis for model-based design of next generation systems operating under these new conditions.

  18. Enhanced anaerobic biodegradability of real coal gasification wastewater with methanol addition.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei; Han, Hongjun; Yuan, Min; Li, Huiqiang

    2010-01-01

    Coal gasification effluent is a typical refractory industrial wastewater with a very poor anaerobic biodegradability due to its toxicity. Methanol was introduced to improve anaerobic biodegradability of real coal gasification wastewater, and the effect of methanol addition on the performance was investigated in a mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor with a hydraulic retention time of 24 hr. Experimental results indicated that anaerobic treatment of coal gasification wastewater was feasible with the addition of methanol. The corresponding maximum COD and phenol removal rates were 71% and 75%, respectively, with methanol concentration of 500 mg COD/L for a total organic loading rate of 3.5 kg COD/(m3 x day) and a phenol loading rate of 0.6 kg/(m3 x day). The phenol removal rate was not improved with a higher methanol concentration of 1000 mg COD/L. Substrate utilization rate (SUR) tests indicated that the SURs of phenol were 106, 132, and 83 mg phenol/(g VSS x day) at methanol concentrations of 250, 500, and 1000 mg COD/L, respectively, and only 45 mg phenol/(g VSS x day) in the control reactor. The presence of methanol could reduce the toxicity of coal gasification wastewater and increase the biodegradation of phenolic compounds.

  19. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Carr, Norman L.; Moon, William G.; Prudich, Michael E.

    1983-01-01

    A C.sub.5 -900.degree. F. (C.sub.5 -482.degree. C.) liquid yield greater than 50 weight percent MAF feed coal is obtained in a coal liquefaction process wherein a selected combination of higher hydrogen partial pressure, longer slurry residence time and increased recycle ash content of the feed slurry are controlled within defined ranges.

  20. Subtask 4.2 - Coal Gasification Short Course

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Galbreath

    2009-06-30

    Major utilities, independent power producers, and petroleum and chemical companies are intent on developing a fleet of gasification plants primarily because of high natural gas prices and the implementation of state carbon standards, with federal standards looming. Currently, many projects are being proposed to utilize gasification technologies to produce a synthesis gas or fuel gas stream for the production of hydrogen, liquid fuels, chemicals, and electricity. Financing these projects is challenging because of the complexity, diverse nature of gasification technologies, and the risk associated with certain applications of the technology. The Energy & Environmental Research Center has developed a gasification short course that is designed to provide technical personnel with a broad understanding of gasification technologies and issues, thus mitigating the real or perceived risk associated with the technology. Based on a review of research literature, tutorial presentations, and Web sites on gasification, a short course presentation was prepared. The presentation, consisting of about 500 PowerPoint slides, provides at least 7 hours of instruction tailored to an audience's interests and needs. The initial short course is scheduled to be presented September 9 and 10, 2009, in Grand Forks, North Dakota.

  1. Biological removal of organic constituents in quench water from a slagging, fixed-bed coal-gasification pilot plant

    SciTech Connect

    Stamoudis, V C; Luthy, R G

    1980-02-01

    This study is part of an effort to assess the efficiency of activated-sludge treatment for removal of organic constituents from high-Btu coal-gasification pilot-plant quench waters. A sample of raw-gas quench water was obtained from the Grand Forks Energy and Technology Center's pilot plant, which employs the slagging, fixed-bed gasification process. The quench water generated in the processing of Indian Head lignite was pretreated to reduce ammonia and alkalinity, and then diluted and subjected to long-term biological treatment, followed by detailed characterization and analysis of organic constituents. The pretreated (influent) and treated (effluent) samples were extracted using a methylene chloride, pH-fractionation method to obtain acid, base, and neutral fractions, which were analyzed by capillary-column gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Over 99% of the total extractable and chromatographable organic material in the influent acid fraction was composed of phenol and alkylated phenols. Biological treatment removed these compounds almost completely. Major components of the influent base fraction were alkylated pyridines, anilines, aminopyrroles, imidazoles and/or pyrazoles, diazines, and quinolines. Removal efficiency of these compounds ranged between 90 and 100%. The influent neutral fraction was composed mainly of cycloalkanes, cycloalkenes, naphthalene, indole, acetophenone, and benzonitrile. Alkylated benzenes were generally absent. Removal efficiencies of these compounds were generally very good, except for certain alkylated cycloalkanes and cycloalkenes. Results are compared with those of a similar study on HYGAS coal-gasification quench water.

  2. Development of an advanced continuous mild gasification process for the production of coproducts

    SciTech Connect

    Merriam, N.W.; Cha, C.Y.; Kang, T.W.; Vaillancourt, M.B.

    1990-12-01

    Western Research Institute (WRI) teamed with the AMAX Research and Development Center and Riley Stoker Corporation on Development of an Advanced, Continuous Mild-Gasification Process for the Production of Coproducts under contract DE-AC21-87MC24268 with the Morgantown Energy Technology of the US Department of Energy. The strategy for this project is to produce electrode binder pitch and diesel fuel blending stock by mild gasification of Wyodak coal. The char is upgraded to produce anode-grade carbon, carbon black, and activated carbon. This report describes results of mild-gasification tests conducted by WRI. Char upgrading tests conducted by AMAX will be described in a separate report.

  3. Apparatus for processing coal

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.M.

    1985-02-12

    Apparatus for processing coal to prevent the creation of extreme fines and to extract pyrites from the principal coal fractions in which there are two air circulating circuits having processing components which cooperate in their respective circuits to result initially in substantial extraction of fines in the first circuit while releasing principal granulated coal fractions and pyrites to the second circuit where specific gravity separation of the pyrites and principal coal fractions occur. The apparatus includes a source of drying heat added to the air moving in the circuits and delivered at the places where surface moisture drying is most effective. Furthermore, the apparatus is operated so as to reduce coal to a desired size without creating an excessive volume of extreme fines, to separate pyrites and hard to grind components by specific gravity in a region where fines are not present, and to use the extreme fines as a source of fuel to generate drying heat.

  4. Cool Water Coal Gasification Program: Environmental monitoring plan. Final Report, non-proprietary. Executive summary. Report for 1984-1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-07-07

    The Energy Security Act of 1980 established a program to provide financial assistance to private industry in the construction and operation of commercial-scale synthetic-fuels plants. The Cool Water Coal Gasification Program is one of the four projects awarded financial assistance. The Program agreed to comply with existing environmental-monitoring regulations and to develop an Environmental Monitoring Plan incorporating supplemental monitoring in the areas of water, air, solid waste, worker health and safety, and socio-economic impacts during the period 1984-89. As the first commercial-scale integrated gasification combined-cycle plant for generating energy from coal, the plant is designed to process a variety of coals with no liquid discharge, produce non-hazardous solid wastes, and produce very few air emissions. This Executive Summary highlights five years of operations, using main and quench gasifiers and four types of coals. Summary tables demonstrate that environmental performance met all permit requirements, and performance of major pollution-control systems met or exceeded design pollutant-removal efficiencies. Fugitive emissions, waste water, solid waste, ambient air, and indicator parameter monitoring are also discussed. No areas of major environmental concern were identified.

  5. Comparative study on combined co-pyrolysis/gasification of walnut shell and bituminous coal by conventional and congruent-mass thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) methods.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Fan, Di; Zheng, Yan

    2016-01-01

    Combined co-pyrolysis/gasification of bituminous coal (BC) and walnut shell (WS) are comparatively studied with both conventional and congruent-mass thermogravimertric analysis (TGA) methods. The results indicate that BC and WS exhibit additivity in the co-pyrolysis step. However, the gasification reactivity of chars in subsequent gasification step exhibits remarkable sample-mass dependence, which causes the illusions in synergy and inhibition effects when conventional TGA tests are conducted. A congruent-mass TGA method has been developed to overcome the limitations of the conventional TGA mode. One of the advantages of this method is that it can reduce to a minimum the effect of sample mass on reactivity. Thus, the degree of synergy or inhibition can be directly estimated from the deviation of the experimental TG curves between the two separated and blended samples. We recommend this method in studying the co-processing behavior between coal and biomass. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Catalytic gasification of coal using eutectic salts: recovery, regeneration, and recycle of spent eutectic catalysts.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Atul C; Sastry, Chandramouli; Yeboah, Yaw D; Xu, Yong; Agarwal, Pradeep

    2003-04-01

    Catalyst recovery studies were conducted for gasified chars produced from steam gasification of Illinois #6 coal catalyzed with two different catalyst systems. A ternary (43.5 mol% Li2CO3-31.5 mol% Na2COr-25 mol% K2CO3) and a binary (29 mol% Na2CO3-71 mol% K2CO3) eutectic catalyst system were used for gasifying coal. Various extraction schemes, such as water extraction, H2SO4 extraction, and acetic acid extraction, were evaluated with respect to their extraction efficiencies. Effects of major process variables, such as solvent-to-char ratio, mixing time, temperature, and concentration, on the extraction efficiency were evaluated. A process schematic for the entire catalyst recovery, regeneration, and recycle scheme was developed and the preliminary process economics were determined based on these extraction schemes. H2SO4 extraction was found to be the most desirable. It also turned out to be more attractive than a once-through throwaway system.

  7. Results of the characterization of an in situ coal gasification site in the state of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Bartel, L. C.; Dobecki, T. L.; Stone, R.

    1980-01-01

    Sandia Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, and the Laramie Energy Technology Center participated in a Department of Energy funded program to select and characterize a potential underground coal gasification test site in the State of Washington. A site in the Centralia-Chehalis coal district, satisfying certain criteria, was selected for characterization. The characterization procedures included surface and borehole techniques and hydrology tests. Geologic structure and coal seam structure and continuity were determined using surface geophysical prospecting (seismic and electromagnetic surveys) and borehole geophysical (logging and cross-borehole, inseam seismic) techniques. A complete suite of geophysical logs was taken in eight exploratory boreholes to determine lithology and properties of the coal and surrounding strata. Coal cores taken from four different exploratory boreholes were analyzed to determine coal quality. Results of the characterization show that the coal seam of interest is approximately 47 ft thick at a depth of 570 to 600 ft at the site. The seam is characterized by high ash content, relatively low overall heating value, and a low permeability. The site appears suitable for conducting an underground coal gasification test.

  8. Characterization of a potential underground coal gasification site in the state of Washington

    SciTech Connect

    Bartel, L. C.; Dobecki, T. L.; Stone, R.

    1980-01-01

    Sandia Laboratories, Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, and the Laramie Energy Technology Center participated in a Department of Energy funded program to select and characterize a potential underground coal gasification test site in the State of Washington. A site in the Centralia-Chehalis coal district, satisfying certain criteria, was selected for characterization. The characterization procedures included surface and borehole techniques and hydrology tests. Geologic structure and coal seam structure and continuity were determined using surface geophysical prospecting (seismic and electromagnetic surveys) and borehole geophysical (logging and cross-borehole, in-seam seismic) techniques. A complete suite of geophysical logs was taken in eight exploratory boreholes to determine lithology and properties of the coal and surrounding strata. Coal cores taken from four different exploratory boreholes were analyzed to determine coal quality. Results of the characterization show that the coal seam of interest is approximately 47 ft thick at a depth of 570 to 600 ft at the site. The seam is characterized by high ash content, relatively low overall heating value, and a low permeability. The site appears suitable for conducting an underground coal gasification test.

  9. Hazardous air pollutant testing at the LGTI coal gasification plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wetherold, R.G.; Williams, W.A.; Maxwell, D.P.; Mann, R.M.

    1995-06-01

    A comprehensive hazardous air pollutant test program was conducted in November 1994 at the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI), plant in Plaquemine, Louisiana. This program was sponsored by DOE/PETC, the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Destec Energy. In May of 1995, additional testing of the hot syngas stream was conducted at the LGTI facility under this same program. DOE/METC provided additional technical support for the hot gas testing effort. In this paper, the sampling and analytical methods used during the November and May test program are summarized. The hot gas testing is described in greater detail. In particular, the hot gas sampling probe and probe insertion/withdrawal system are discussed. The sampling probe was designed to collect particulate and extract gas samples at process temperature and pressure. The design of the probe system is described, and the operating procedures are summarized. The operation of the probe during the testing is discussed, and photographs of the testing are provided. In addition to the summaries and descriptions of the test methodologies, selected preliminary emissions results of the November sampling are included in the paper.

  10. The production of high quality coke by the CTC continuous mild gasification process

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfe, R.A.; Wright, R.E.; Im, C.J.; Henkelman, M.R.; McKinney, D.A.

    1994-12-31

    Coal Technology Corporation (CTC) in association with the US Department of Energy has developed, patented, and demonstrated a new process to continuously produce high quality coke in less than two hours without the normal environmental emissions associated with existing by-product coke ovens. This process involves the production of three new marketable products from bituminous caking type coals: (1) continuous coke for foundry and blast furnace applications; (2) char containing less than 10 percent volatiles for use in the ferroalloy smelting furnaces; and (3) coal derived liquids for use in the transportation and chemical industry. The CTC Char, Liquids, and Coke (CLC) Mild Gasification Process utilizes a unique twin screw reaction system to produce a devolatilized char from a wide variety of caking and non-caking coals in an environmentally clean system. The CTC/CLC Process is a two-stage carbonization system with a low temperature mild gasification stage followed by a high temperature calcining stage in a totally enclosed system with condensing of the coal liquids and the utilization of the off-gases as the reactor heat source. The process has been demonstrated in a 10-ton per day pilot plant and is now ready for commercialization. The coke and char products meet or exceed the existing quality specification now used in the industry. The coke can be produced in either uniform or irregular shapes to meet the required porosity of foundry and blast furnaces.

  11. Manufacture of gasification briquettes from meager-lean coal for use in chemical fertilizer-plant gasifiers

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Zesheng; Yang Qiaowen; Zhao Yinrong; Wang Xingou; Hu Kunmo; Wang Shiquan; Tao Xilo; Wang Guangnan; Meng Zhongze

    1998-12-31

    Chinese fertilizer plants, especially middle or small fertilizer plants, feed lump anthracite to atmospheric fixed bed gasifiers to produce fuel gas and syngas. However, the available lump coal meets less than one half the demand for fertilizer production, and the price of good lump anthracite has risen. Most good anthracite is produced in Shanxi Province. Chemical fertilizer plants in other areas pay high transportation costs and leave Shanxi mines with waste fine coal and slime that cause environmental pollution. So, it is important to fully utilize fine anthracite coal or bituminous coal to produce the industrial gasification briquettes. That may mitigate the disparity between supply and demand of lump coal, reduce the fertilizer production cost, and decrease the degree of environmental pollution. The briquettes don`t require heat-drying in their production and have the characteristics of high strength and water resistance. This technology is very important for local fertilizer plants where only meager-lean coal is produced. This paper discusses the processing technique and parameters, the quality standards and testing methods of briquettes made from meager-lean coal.

  12. Gasification. 2nd. ed.

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher Higman; Maarten van der Burgt

    2008-02-15

    This book covers gasification as a comprehensive topic, covering its many uses, from refining, to natural gas, to coal. It provides an overview of commercial processes and covers applications relevant to today's demands. The new edition is expanded and provides more detail on the integration issues for current generation, state-of-the-art Integrated Gasification Combined Cycles (IGCC); CO{sub 2} capture in the IGCC context addressing the issues of pre-investment and retrofitting as well as defining what the term 'CO{sub 2} capture ready' might mean in practice; issues of plant reliability, availability and maintainability (RAM) including as evaluation of feedback from existing plants; implementation of fuel cell technology in IGCC concepts. Contents are: Introduction; The Thermodynamics of Gasification; The Kinetics of Gasification and Reactor Theory; Feedstocks and Feedstock Characteristics; Gasification Processes; Practical Issues; Applications; Auxiliary Technologies; Economics, environmental, and Safety Issues; Gasification and the Future. 5 apps.

  13. Coal Liquefaction Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, T. F.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a graduate level engineering course offered at the University of Southern California on coal liquefaction processes. Lecture topics and course requirements are discussed. A 64-item bibliography of papers used in place of a textbook is included. (BT)

  14. Coal Liquefaction Processes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yen, T. F.

    1979-01-01

    Described is a graduate level engineering course offered at the University of Southern California on coal liquefaction processes. Lecture topics and course requirements are discussed. A 64-item bibliography of papers used in place of a textbook is included. (BT)

  15. Assessment of coal gasification/hot gas cleanup based advanced gas turbine systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The major objectives of the joint SCS/DOE study of air-blown gasification power plants with hot gas cleanup are to: (1) Evaluate various power plant configurations to determine if an air-blown gasification-based power plant with hot gas cleanup can compete against pulverized coal with flue gas desulfurization for baseload expansion at Georgia Power Company's Plant Wansley; (2) determine if air-blown gasification with hot gas cleanup is more cost effective than oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (3) perform Second-Law/Thermoeconomic Analysis of air-blown IGCC with hot gas cleanup and oxygen-blown IGCC with cold gas cleanup; (4) compare cost, performance, and reliability of IGCC based on industrial gas turbines and ISTIG power island configurations based on aeroderivative gas turbines; (5) compare cost, performance, and reliability of large (400 MW) and small (100 to 200 MW) gasification power plants; and (6) compare cost, performance, and reliability of air-blown gasification power plants using fluidized-bed gasifiers to air-blown IGCC using transport gasification and pressurized combustion.

  16. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Karr, Jr., Clarence

    1977-04-19

    An improved coal liquefaction process is provided which enables conversion of a coal-oil slurry to a synthetic crude refinable to produce larger yields of gasoline and diesel oil. The process is characterized by a two-step operation applied to the slurry prior to catalytic desulfurization and hydrogenation in which the slurry undergoes partial hydrogenation to crack and hydrogenate asphaltenes and the partially hydrogenated slurry is filtered to remove minerals prior to subsequent catalytic hydrogenation.

  17. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Skinner, Ronald W.; Tao, John C.; Znaimer, Samuel

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to an improved process for the production of liquid carbonaceous fuels and solvents from carbonaceous solid fuels, especially coal. The claimed improved process includes the hydrocracking of the light SRC mixed with a suitable hydrocracker solvent. The recycle of the resulting hydrocracked product, after separation and distillation, is used to produce a solvent for the hydrocracking of the light solvent refined coal.

  18. Modeling and Numerical Investigation of the Process of Vapor-Oxygen Gasification of Solid Fuels in a Vertical Flow Reactor Under Pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokhman, B. B.

    2014-09-01

    With the use of the developed model, detailed information has been obtained on the working process in a flow reactor with single- and two-stage schemes of vapor-oxygen gasification of coals under a pressure of 3 MPa. The dependence of the ratios of mass flow rates O2/coal and H2O/coal on the type of fuel has been established and their optimal values for the "Shell" process have been found. At a given consumption ratio of gas coal and brown coal of brand B1, the optimum diameters of particles providing minimum combustible loss of the carbon mixture have been determined. It has been found that the content of methane in the syngas in the case of two-stage gasification is much higher than in the case of single-stage gasification.

  19. In situ gasification process for producing product gas enriched in carbon monoxide and hydrogen

    DOEpatents

    Capp, John P.; Bissett, Larry A.

    1978-01-01

    The present invention is directed to an in situ coal gasification process wherein the combustion zone within the underground coal bed is fed with air at increasing pressure to increase pressure and temperature in the combustion zone for forcing product gases and water naturally present in the coal bed into the coal bed surrounding the combustion zone. No outflow of combustion products occurs during the build-up of pressure and temperature in the combustion zone. After the coal bed reaches a temperature of about 2000.degree. F and a pressure in the range of about 100-200 psi above pore pressure the airflow is terminated and the outflow of the combustion products from the combustion zone is initiated. The CO.sub.2 containing gaseous products and the water bleed back into the combustion zone to react endothermically with the hot carbon of the combustion zone to produce a burnable gas with a relatively high hydrogen and carbon monoxide content. About 11 to 29 percent of the gas recovered from the combustion zone is carbon monoxide which is considerably better than the 4 to 10 percent carbon monoxide obtained by employing previously known coal gasification techniques.

  20. Geomechanical Analysis of Underground Coal Gasification Reactor Cool Down for Subsequent CO2 Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarhosis, Vasilis; Yang, Dongmin; Kempka, Thomas; Sheng, Yong

    2013-04-01

    Underground coal gasification (UCG) is an efficient method for the conversion of conventionally unmineable coal resources into energy and feedstock. If the UCG process is combined with the subsequent storage of process CO2 in the former UCG reactors, a near-zero carbon emission energy source can be realised. This study aims to present the development of a computational model to simulate the cooling process of UCG reactors in abandonment to decrease the initial high temperature of more than 400 °C to a level where extensive CO2 volume expansion due to temperature changes can be significantly reduced during the time of CO2 injection. Furthermore, we predict the cool down temperature conditions with and without water flushing. A state of the art coupled thermal-mechanical model was developed using the finite element software ABAQUS to predict the cavity growth and the resulting surface subsidence. In addition, the multi-physics computational software COMSOL was employed to simulate the cavity cool down process which is of uttermost relevance for CO2 storage in the former UCG reactors. For that purpose, we simulated fluid flow, thermal conduction as well as thermal convection processes between fluid (water and CO2) and solid represented by coal and surrounding rocks. Material properties for rocks and coal were obtained from extant literature sources and geomechanical testings which were carried out on samples derived from a prospective demonstration site in Bulgaria. The analysis of results showed that the numerical models developed allowed for the determination of the UCG reactor growth, roof spalling, surface subsidence and heat propagation during the UCG process and the subsequent CO2 storage. It is anticipated that the results of this study can support optimisation of the preparation procedure for CO2 storage in former UCG reactors. The proposed scheme was discussed so far, but not validated by a coupled numerical analysis and if proved to be applicable it could

  1. Influence of high carbon monoxide concentration on the carbon dioxide gasification of a selected coal char

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Nancy Ko-Chieh

    2000-11-01

    This study focuses on the effect of high CO concentration on CO2 gasification rates of chars of Illinois #6 coal, a bituminous coal that is industrially important because of its relatively high reactivity and low pollutant emissions. A pressurized thermogravimetric analyzer (PTGA) is used to obtain char gasification mass loss and surface area measurements. The mass loss profiles of Illinois #6 chars were measured at temperatures of 1200 and 1273K and pressures of 1.4, 10, and 25 atm in CO2-CO and CO2-N2 mixtures. CO concentrations between 10%--90% at 1.4 atm and 10%--85% at 25 atm were used. The surface areas of the chars are determined from room-temperature (298K) CO2 adsorption on chars after successive stages of partial gasification. A variable partial pressure gas adsorption technique was developed to effectively utilize the PTGA for CO2 surface area measurements. Using experimental mass loss and surface area data combined with structural and kinetics modeling, an overall gasification curve description of kinetically-limited char-CO2 gasification reactivity is formulated for the life span of the char. The model consists of an intrinsic char reactivity expression with a conversion-dependent surface area modifier. First the surface area modifier is developed based on a random pore model and particle mode of burning relations. It is used with the unified gasification curve concept to interpret the isothermal gasification profiles and extrapolate the data to obtain the reactivity at the onset of char conversion. These isothermal initial char reactivities determined at selected gasification conditions are then used to calculate rate coefficients in the kinetics component of the model. The proposed reaction mechanism contains paths for both gas phase and adsorbed CO to interfere with the gasification of Illinois #6 chars by CO 2. The main effect of adsorbed CO in the range of experimental conditions used in this study is to occupy carbon sites that could otherwise be

  2. Scale-up of mild gasification to a process development unit

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, J.A.L.; Carty, R.H.; Saladin, N.; Foster, H.

    1992-06-01

    The work performed during the second quarterly reporting period (February 21 through May 20, 1992) on the research program, Scale-Up of Mild Gasification to a Process Development Unit'' is presented in this report. The overall objective of this project is to develop the IGT Mild-Gasification (MILDGAS) process for near-term commercialization. The specific objectives of the program are to: (1) design, construct, and operate a 24-tons/day adiabatic process development unit (PDU) to obtain process performance data suitable for further design scaleup. (2) obtain large batches of coal-derived co-products for industrial evaluation. (3) prepare a detailed design of a demonstration unit. (4) develop technical and economic plans for commercialization of the MILDGAS process. The MILDGAS process is a continuous closed system for producing liquid and solid (char) co-products at mild operating conditions up to 50 psig and 1300[degrees]F. It is capable of processing a wide range of both eastern caking and western noncaking coals. The PDU to be constructed is comprised of a 2.5-ft ID adiabatic gasifier for the production of char, coal liquids, and gases; a thermal cracker for upgrading of the coal liquids; and a hot briquetting unit for the production of form coke and smokeless fuel briquettes. The facility will also incorporate support equipment for environmentally acceptable disposal of process waste.

  3. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, Charles H.

    1986-01-01

    A process for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range.

  4. Coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Wright, C.H.

    1986-02-11

    A process is described for the liquefaction of coal wherein raw feed coal is dissolved in recycle solvent with a slurry containing recycle coal minerals in the presence of added hydrogen at elevated temperature and pressure. The highest boiling distillable dissolved liquid fraction is obtained from a vacuum distillation zone and is entirely recycled to extinction. Lower boiling distillable dissolved liquid is removed in vapor phase from the dissolver zone and passed without purification and essentially without reduction in pressure to a catalytic hydrogenation zone where it is converted to an essentially colorless liquid product boiling in the transportation fuel range. 1 fig.

  5. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals: potential UCG products and markets. Final report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-31

    The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) The US will continue to require new sources of energy fuels and substitutes for petrochemical feedstocks into the foreseeable future. Most of this requirement will be met using coal. However, the cost of mining, transporting, cleaning, and preparing coal, disposing of ash or slag and scrubbing stack gases continues to rise; particularly, in the Eastern US where the need is greatest. UCG avoids these pitfalls and, as such, should be considered a viable alternative to the mining of deeper coals. (2) Of the two possible product gases LBG and MBG, MBG is the most versatile. (3) The most logical use for UCG product in the Eastern US is to generate power on-site using a combined-cycle or co-generation system. Either low or medium Btu gas (LBG or MBG) can be used. (4) UCG should be an option whenever surface gasification is considered; particularly, in areas where deeper, higher sulfur coal is located. (5) There are environmental and social benefits to use of UCG over surface gasification in the Eastern US. (6) A site could be chosen almost anywhere in the Illinois and Ohio area where amenable UCG coal has been determined due to the existence of existing transportation or transmission systems. (7) The technology needs to be demonstrated and the potential economic viability determined at a site in the East-North-Central US which has commercial quantities of amenable bituminous coal before utilities will show significant interest.

  6. Wabash Valley Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, Coal to Fischer Tropsch Jet Fuel Conversion Study

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Jayesh; Hess, Fernando; Horzen, Wessel van; Williams, Daniel; Peevor, Andy; Dyer, Andy; Frankel, Louis

    2016-06-01

    This reports examines the feasibility of converting the existing Wabash Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) plant into a liquid fuel facility, with the goal of maximizing jet fuel production. The fuels produced are required to be in compliance with Section 526 of the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA 2007 §526) lifecycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions requirements, so lifecycle GHG emissions from the fuel must be equal to or better than conventional fuels. Retrofitting an existing gasification facility reduces the technical risk and capital costs associated with a coal to liquids project, leading to a higher probability of implementation and more competitive liquid fuel prices. The existing combustion turbine will continue to operate on low cost natural gas and low carbon fuel gas from the gasification facility. The gasification technology utilized at Wabash is the E-Gas™ Technology and has been in commercial operation since 1995. In order to minimize capital costs, the study maximizes reuse of existing equipment with minimal modifications. Plant data and process models were used to develop process data for downstream units. Process modeling was utilized for the syngas conditioning, acid gas removal, CO2 compression and utility units. Syngas conversion to Fischer Tropsch (FT) liquids and upgrading of the liquids was modeled and designed by Johnson Matthey Davy Technologies (JM Davy). In order to maintain the GHG emission profile below that of conventional fuels, the CO2 from the process must be captured and exported for sequestration or enhanced oil recovery. In addition the power utilized for the plant’s auxiliary loads had to be supplied by a low carbon fuel source. Since the process produces a fuel gas with sufficient energy content to power the plant’s loads, this fuel gas was converted to hydrogen and exported to the existing gas turbine for low carbon power production. Utilizing low carbon fuel gas and

  7. Subcontracted R and D final report: analysis of samples obtained from GKT gasification test of Kentucky coal. Nonproprietary version

    SciTech Connect

    Raman, S.V.

    1983-09-01

    A laboratory test program was performed to obtain detailed compositional data on the Gesellshaft fuer Kohle-Technologie (GKT) gasifier feed and effluent streams. GKT performed pilot gasification tests with Kentucky No. 9 coal and collected various samples which were analyzed by GKT and the Radian Corporation, Austin, Texas. The coal chosen had good liquefaction characteristics and a high gasification reactivity. No organic priority pollutants or PAH compounds were detected in the wash water, and solid waste leachates were within RCRA metals limits.

  8. Economic benefits of the coal-gasification program at GRI (Gas Research Institute). Annual report, September 1982-June 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Haas, S.M.; Marshalla, R.A.; Nesbitt, D.M.; Oman, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    Analysis shows that the value through 2025 at a five percent real discount rate of the overall economic benefit that would result from the technical success of coal gasification under GRI funding compared to failure is 33 billion dollars. The portion of that expected benefit specifically attributable to GRI funding is computed to be 6 billion dollars. The analysis concludes that despite the different time frames toward which coal gasification and other key supply programs are directed, their benefits are highly linked.

  9. Advanced coal-gasification technical analyses. Appendix 3: technical/economic evaluations. Final report, December 1982-September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Cover, A.E.; Hubbard, D.A.; Jain, S.K.; Shah, K.V.

    1986-01-01

    This document contains the final report on four tasks performed by KRSI as part of the Advanced Coal Gasification Technical Analysis contract with GRI. It provides extensive, consistent technical and economic information regarding application of (1) Lurgi gasification, (2) Westinghouse (now KRW) gasification, and (3) Direct Methanation (with Lurgi gasifiers) processes to produce SNG from North Dakota lignite. The results of Lurgi and Westinghouse studies were used to develop a plant size vs. cost-of-SNG relationship. The report on each task consists of a block flow diagram, component material balance, process flow sheets showing operating conditions and principal equipment in each major process area, a narrative process description, utility balances, plant efficiency calculations, documentation of design and cost-estimation basis and an economic analysis performed in accordance with the GRI Guidelines. Economic analysis consisted of capital-cost breakdown according to plant areas, variable operating and maintenance costs, and calculation of levelized, constant-dollar cost-of-gas with and without process development allowances (PDA). The sensitivities of the gas cost to major variables are presented in graphical form. For the plant size vs. cost-of-SNG task, similar information is provided at eight different plant capacities based on both Lurgi or Westinghouse gasifiers.

  10. Low-Btu coal gasification in the United States: company topical. [Brick producers

    SciTech Connect

    Boesch, L.P.; Hylton, B.G.; Bhatt, C.S.

    1983-07-01

    Hazelton and other brick producers have proved the reliability of the commercial size Wellman-Galusha gasifier. For this energy intensive business, gas cost is the major portion of the product cost. Costs required Webster/Hazelton to go back to the old, reliable alternative energy of low Btu gasification when the natural gas supply started to be curtailed and prices escalated. Although anthracite coal prices have skyrocketed from $34/ton (1979) to over $71.50/ton (1981) because of high demand (local as well as export) and rising labor costs, the delivered natural gas cost, which reached $3.90 to 4.20/million Btu in the Hazelton area during 1981, has allowed the producer gas from the gasifier at Webster Brick to remain competitive. The low Btu gas cost (at the escalated coal price) is estimated to be $4/million Btu. In addition to producing gas that is cost competitive with natural gas at the Webster Brick Hazelton plant, Webster has the security of knowing that its gas supply will be constant. Improvements in brick business and projected deregulation of the natural gas price may yield additional, attractive cost benefits to Webster Brick through the use of low Btu gas from these gasifiers. Also, use of hot raw gas (that requires no tar or sulfur removal) keeps the overall process efficiency high. 25 references, 47 figures, 14 tables.

  11. Coal Liquefaction desulfurization process

    DOEpatents

    Givens, Edwin N.

    1983-01-01

    In a solvent refined coal liquefaction process, more effective desulfurization of the high boiling point components is effected by first stripping the solvent-coal reacted slurry of lower boiling point components, particularly including hydrogen sulfide and low molecular weight sulfur compounds, and then reacting the slurry with a solid sulfur getter material, such as iron. The sulfur getter compound, with reacted sulfur included, is then removed with other solids in the slurry.

  12. Sulfur emission from Victorian brown coal under pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion and gasification conditions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Luguang; Bhattacharya, Sankar

    2013-02-05

    Sulfur emission from a Victorian brown coal was quantitatively determined through controlled experiments in a continuously fed drop-tube furnace under three different atmospheres: pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion, and carbon dioxide gasification conditions. The species measured were H(2)S, SO(2), COS, CS(2), and more importantly SO(3). The temperature (873-1273 K) and gas environment effects on the sulfur species emission were investigated. The effect of residence time on the emission of those species was also assessed under oxy-fuel condition. The emission of the sulfur species depended on the reaction environment. H(2)S, SO(2), and CS(2) are the major species during pyrolysis, oxy-fuel, and gasification. Up to 10% of coal sulfur was found to be converted to SO(3) under oxy-fuel combustion, whereas SO(3) was undetectable during pyrolysis and gasification. The trend of the experimental results was qualitatively matched by thermodynamic predictions. The residence time had little effect on the release of those species. The release of sulfur oxides, in particular both SO(2) and SO(3), is considerably high during oxy-fuel combustion even though the sulfur content in Morwell coal is only 0.80%. Therefore, for Morwell coal utilization during oxy-fuel combustion, additional sulfur removal, or polishing systems will be required in order to avoid corrosion in the boiler and in the CO(2) separation units of the CO(2) capture systems.

  13. Geological and Rock Mechanics Perspectives for Underground Coal Gasification in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Ajay K.; Singh, Rajendra

    2017-07-01

    The geological resources of coal in India are more than 308 billion tonnes upto a depth of 1200 m, out of which proved reserve has been reported at around 130 billion tonnes. There is an increasing requirement to increase the energy extraction efficiency from coal as the developmental prospects of India increase. Underground coal gasification (UCG) is a potential mechanism which may be utilized for extraction of deep-seated coal reserves. Some previous studies suggest that lignites from Gujarat and Rajasthan, along with tertiary coals from northeastern India can be useful from the point of view of UCG. We discuss some geological literature available for these areas. Coming to the rock mechanics perspectives, during UCG the rock temperature is considerable high. At this temperature, most empirical models of rock mechanics may not be applied. In this situation, the challenges for numerical modelling of UCG sites increases manifold. We discuss some of the important modelling geomechanical issues related to UCG in India.

  14. Pulsed combustion process for black liquor gasification

    SciTech Connect

    Durai-Swamy, K.; Mansour, M.N.; Warren, D.W.

    1991-02-01

    The objective of this project is to test an energy efficient, innovative black liquor recovery system on an industrial scale. In the MTCI recovery process, black liquor is sprayed directly onto a bed of sodium carbonate solids which is fluidized by steam. Direct contact of the black liquor with hot bed solids promotes high rates of heating and pyrolysis. Residual carbon, which forms as a deposit on the particle surface, is then gasified by reaction with steam. Heat is supplied from pulse combustor resonance tubes which are immersed within the fluid bed. A portion of the gasifier product gas is returned to the pulse combustors to provide the energy requirements of the reactor. Oxidized sulfur species are partially reduced by reaction with the gasifier products, principally carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The reduced sulfur decomposed to solid sodium carbonate and gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). Sodium values are recovered by discharging a dry sodium carbonate product from the gasifier. MTCI's indirectly heated gasification technology for black liquor recovery also relies on the scrubbing of H{sub 2}S for product gases to regenerate green liquor for reuse in the mill circuit. Due to concerns relative to the efficiency of sulfur recovery in the MTCI integrated process, an experimental investigation was undertaken to establish performance and design data for this portion of the system.

  15. Advanced coal-gasification technical analyses. Appendix 2: coal fines disposal. Final report, December 1982-September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Cover, A.E.; Hubbard, D.A.; Jain, S.K.; Shah, K.V.

    1986-01-01

    This report is a compilation of several studies conducted by KRSI under the Advanced Coal Gasification Technical Analyses contract with GRI. It addresses the issue of disposal and/or utilization of the coal fines that cannot be used as feedstock for fixed-bed (i.e. Lurgi) gasifiers. Specific items addressed are: (1) Technical, legal and economic aspects of fines burial, (2) Estimation of the premium for fines-free coal delivered to an SNG plant and resulting reduction in SNG production costs, (3) Comparison of the relative advantages and limitations of Winkler and GKT gasifiers to consuming fines, (4) Review of coal-size consist curves in the GRI Guidelines to assess the fines content of ROM coals, (5) a first-pass design and cost estimate using GKT gasifiers in tandem with Lurgi gasifiers in an North Dakota lignite-to-SNG plant to consume full range of coal-size consist, (6) Evaluation of the General Electric technology for extrusion of coal fines and testing of the extrudates in a fixed-bed gasifier, and (7) Investigation of equipment and variables involved in briquetting of coal fines, such that fines could be fed to the gasifiers along with the lump coal.

  16. Geology of the Hanna Formation, Hanna Underground Coal Gasification Site, Hanna, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Oliver, R.L.; Youngberg, A.D.

    1984-01-01

    The Hanna Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) study area consists of the SW1/4 of Section 29 and the E1/2SE1/4 of Section 30 in Township 22 North, Range 81 West, Wyoming. Regionally, this is located in the coal-bearing Hanna Syncline of the Hanna Basin in southeast Wyoming. The structure of the site is characterized by beds dipping gently to the northeast. An east-west fault graben complex interrupts this basic trend in the center of the area. The target coal bed of the UCG experiments was the Hanna No. 1 coal in the Hanna Formation. Sedimentary rocks comprising the Hanna Formation consist of a sequence of nonmarine shales, sandstones, coals and conglomerates. The overburden of the Hanna No. 1 coal bed at the Hanna UCG site was divided into four broad local stratigraphic units. Analytical studies were made on overburden and coal samples taken from cores to determine their mineralogical composition. Textural and mineralogical characteristics of sandstones from local stratigraphic units A, B, and C were analyzed and compared. Petrographic analyses were done on the coal including oxides, forms of sulfur, pyrite types, maceral composition, and coal rank. Semi-quantitative spectrographic and analytic geochemical analyses were done on the overburden and coal and relative element concentrations were compared. Trends within each stratigraphic unit were also presented and related to depositional environments. The spectrographic analysis was also done by lithotype. 34 references, 60 figures, 18 tables.

  17. Coal processing plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitterlich, W.; Bohn, T.; Eickhoff, H. G.; Geldmacher, H.; Mengis, W.; Oomatia, H.; Stroppel, K. G.

    1980-08-01

    The efficient design of processing plants which combine various coal based technologies in order to maximize the effectiveness of coal utilization is considered. The technical, economical and ecological virtues which compound plants for coal conversion offer are assayed. Twenty-two typical processes of coal conversion and product refinement are selected and described by a standardized method of characterization. An analysis of product market and a qualitative assessment of plant design support six different compound plant propositions. The incorporation of such coal conversion schemes into future energy supply systems was simulated by model calculations. The analysis shows that byproducts and nonconverted materials from individual processes can be processed in a compound plant in a profitable manner. This leads to an improvement in efficiencies. The product spectrum can be adapted to a certain degree to demand variations. Furthermore, the integration of fluidized bed combustion can provide an efficient method of desulfurization. Compound plants are expected to become economic in the 1990's. A necessary condition to compound technologies is high reliability in the functioning of all individual processes.

  18. Encoal mild coal gasification project: Encoal project final report, July 1, 1997--July 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This document is the summative report on the ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project. It covers the time period from September 17, 1990, the approval date of the Cooperative Agreement between ENCOAL and the US Department of Energy (DOE), to July 17, 1997, the formal end of DOE participation in the Project. The Cooperative Agreement was the result of an application by ENCOAL to the DOE soliciting joint funding under Round III of the Clean Coal Technology Program. By June 1992, the ENCOAL Plant had been built, commissioned and started up, and in October 1994, ENCOAL was granted a two-year extension, carrying the project through to September 17, 1996. No-cost extensions have moved the Cooperative Agreement end date to July 17, 1997 to allow for completion of final reporting requirements. At its inception, ENCOAL was a subsidiary of Shell Mining Company. In November 1992, Shell Mining Company changed ownership, becoming a subsidiary of Zeigler Coal Holding Company (Zeigler) of Fairview Heights, Illinois. Renamed successively as SMC Mining Company and then Bluegrass Coal Development Company, it remained the parent entity for ENCOAL, which has operated a 1,000-ton/day mild coal gasification demonstration plant near Gillette, Wyoming for nearly 5 years. ENCOAL operates at the Buckskin Mine owned by Triton Coal Company (Triton), another Zeigler subsidiary.

  19. Handbook of gasifiers and gas-treatment systems. [39 gasification processes and 40 gas processing systems

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, R.D.

    1982-09-01

    In February 1976, the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) published the Handbook of Gasifiers and Gas Treatment Systems. The intent of this handbook was to provide a ready reference to systems that are or may be applicable to coal conversion technology. That handbook was well received by users and was subsequently reprinted many times. The Department of Energy (successor agency to the ERDA) expands, revises and updates the Handbook in this volume. This new Handbook is not intended as a comparative evaluation, but rather as an impartial reference on recent and current technology. The Handbook now presents 39 gasification technologies and 40 gas processing systems that are or may be applicable to coal conversion technology. The information presented has been approved or supplied by the particular licensor/developer.

  20. Rapid Qualitative Risk Assessment for Contaminant Leakage From Coal Seams During Underground Coal Gasification and CO2 Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, S J

    2004-07-02

    One of the major risks associated with underground coal gasification is contamination of local aquifers with a variety of toxic compounds. It is likely that the rate, volume, extent, and concentrations of contaminant plumes will depend on the local permeability field near the point of gasification. This field depends heavily on the geological history of stratigraphic deposition and the specifics of stratigraphic succession. Some coals are thick and isolated, whereas others are thinner and more regionally expressed. Some coals are overlain by impermeable units, such as marine or lacustrine shales, whereas others are overlain by permeable zones associated with deltaic or fluvial successions. Rapid stratigraphic characterization of the succession provides first order information as to the general risk of contaminant escape, which provides a means of ranking coal contaminant risks by their depositional context. This risk categorization could also be used for ranking the relative risk of CO{sub 2} escape from injected coal seams. Further work is needed to verify accuracy and provide some quantification of risks.