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Sample records for coal particles final

  1. Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, E.S.

    1995-08-01

    In an effort to develop new disposable catalysts for direct coal liquefaction, several types of clay-supported pyrrhotite catalysts were prepared and tested. These included iron-pillared montmorillonite, mixed iron/alumina-pillared montmorillonite, iron-impregnated montmorillonite, and iron oxometallate-impregnated montmorillonite.

  2. Determining the radiative properties of pulverized-coal particles from experiments. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Menguec, M.P.

    1992-02-01

    A comprehensive coupled experimental-theoretical study has been performed to determine the effective radiative properties of pulverized-coal/char particles. The results obtained show that the ``effective`` scattering phase function of coal particles are highly forward scattering and show less sensitivity to the size than predicted from the Lorenz-Mie theory. The main reason for this is the presence of smaller size particles associated with each larger particle. Also, the coal/char particle clouds display more side scattering than predicted for the same size range spheres, indicating the irregular shape of the particles and fragmentation. In addition to these, it was observed that in the visible wavelength range the coal absorption is not gray, and slightly vary with the wavelength. These two experimental approaches followed in this study are unique in a sense that the physics of the problem are not approximated. The properties determined include all uncertainties related to the particle shape, size distribution, inhomogeneity and spectral complex index of refraction data. In order to obtain radiative property data over a wider wavelength spectrum, additional ex-situ experiments have been carried out using a Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) Spectrometer. The spectral measurements were performed over the wavelength range of 2 to 22 {mu}m. These results were interpreted to obtain the ``effective`` efficiency factors of coal particles and the corresponding refractive index values. The results clearly show that the coal/char radiative properties display significant wavelength dependency in the infrared spectrum.

  3. Combustion of dense streams of coal particles. Final report, August 29, 1990--February 28, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Annamalai, K.; Gopalakrishnan, C.; Du, X.

    1994-05-01

    The USA consumes almost 94 quads of energy (1 quad = 10{sup 15} BTU or 1.05 {times} 10{sup 15} KJ). The utilities account for about 30 quads of fossil energy where coal is predominantly used as energy source. The coal is ground to finer size and fired into the boiler as dense suspension. Under dense conditions, the particles burn at slower rate due to deficient oxygen within the interparticle spacing. Thus interactions exist amongst the particles for dense clouds. While the earlier literature dealt with combustion processes of isolated particles, the recent research focusses upon the interactive combustion. The interactive combustion studies include arrays consisting of a finite number of particles, and streams and clouds of a large number of particles. Particularly stream combustion models assume cylindrical geometry and predict the ignition and combustion characteristics. The models show that the ignition starts homogeneously for dense streams of coal particles and the ignition time show a minimum as the stream denseness is increased, and during combustion, there appears to be an inner flame within the stream and an outer flame outside the stream for a short period of time. The present experimental investigation is an attempt to verify the model predictions. The set-up consists of a flat flame burner for producing hot vitiated gases, a locally fluidizing feeder system for feeding coal particles, a particle collection probe for collecting particles and an image processing system for analyzing the flame structure. The particles are introduced as a stream into the hot gases and subsequently they ignite and burn. The ash % of fired and collected particles are determined and used to estimate the gasification efficiency or burnt fraction. The parametric studies include gas temperature, oxygen % in gases, residence time, and A:F ratio of the stream.

  4. Char particle fragmentation and its effect on unburned carbon during pulverized coal combustion. Final report, March 20, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.E.

    1997-12-31

    This document is the final report of work on a project concerned with the fragmentation of char particles during pulverized coal combustion that was conducted at the High Temperature Gasdynamics Laboratory at Stanford University, Stanford, California. The project is intended to satisfy, in part, PETC`s research efforts to understand the chemical and physical processes that govern coal combustion. The overall objectives of the project were: (1) to characterize the fragmentation events as a function of combustion environment, (2) to characterize fragmentation with respect to particle porosity and mineral loadings, (3) to assess overall mass loss rates with respect to particle fragmentation, and (4) to quantify the impact of fragmentation on unburned carbon in ash. The knowledge obtained during the course of this project can be used to predict accurately the overall mass loss rates of coals based on both the physical and chemical characteristics of their chars. The work provides a means of assessing reasons for unburned carbon in the ash of coal fired boilers and furnaces.

  5. Investigation of the effect of coal particle sizes on the interfacial and rheological properties of coal-water slurry fuels: Final report, July 1, 1994-June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Kihm, K.D.

    1996-10-01

    The scope of the project is two fold: (1) examining particle size effect on interfacial properties of CWS fuels by measuring static and dynamic surface tension properties of specially prepared CWS samples containing different ranges of coal particle sizes, and (2) studying the effect of particle size on CWS atomization characteristics by measuring mean diameters of several different CWS sprays generated by sonic air blasting. The results show that both static and dynamic surface tensions decrease with increasing coal particle size and mean droplet diameter of CW-S sprays also decreases with increasing coal particle size. Based on the experimental evidence we conjecture that three different energies are competing in slurry atomization: (1) the internal capillary holding between particles and water, (2) the interfacial surface tensile energy at the slurry surface contacting air, and (3) the external air blast shear energy acting against the former two energies. The internal capillary holding force decreases with increasing particle size. This force is believed to play a major role in determining the effect of particle size on CWS atomization.

  6. Experimental studies on the group ignition of a cloud of coal particles: Volume 2, Pyrolysis and ignition modeling. Final report, August 15, 1988--October 15, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Annamalai, K.; Ryan, W.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objectives of this work are to formulate a model to simulate transient coal pyrolysis, ignition, and combustion of a cloud of coal particles and to compare results of the program with those reported in the literature elsewhere.

  7. Particle toxicology: from coal mining to nanotechnology.

    PubMed

    Borm, Paul J A

    2002-03-01

    Particle research has been historically closely connected to industrial activities or materials, such as coal, asbestos, man-made mineral fibers, and more recently ambient particulate matter (PM). It is the purpose of this review to combine insights and developments in particle toxicology with the historical context of exposure and organizations sponsoring such research in Europe. In supporting research on particle-induced respiratory effects and mechanisms, research programs of the European Community on Steel and Coal (ECSC) have played a tremendous role. Current particle research in Europe is dominated by PM, and funded by the World Health Organization (WHO), European Union Framework programs, and the Health Effects Institute (HEI). Differences between historical and current research in particle toxicology include the exposure concentrations, particle size, target populations, endpoints, and length of exposure. Inhaled particle effects are no longer confined to the lung, since particles are suggested to translocate to the blood while lung inflammation invokes systemic responses. Finally, the particle size and concentrations have both been reduced about 100-fold from 2-5 mg/m3 to 20-50 mg/m3 and from 1-2 microm to 20-100 nm (ultrafine) as domestic fuel burning has decreased and vehicle sources have increased and attention has moved from coal mining industry to general environment. There is, however, a further occupational link to nanotechnology, which continuously produces new materials in the ultrafine range. Although inhalation exposure is considered to be minimal in this technology, some particles are produced to be used for carrier purpose in medical applications. Based on our current knowledge of particle toxicology, it is highly desirable that toxicology and technology are linked in this extremely rapid developing area, to learn more about potential risks and also to develop knowledge on the role of surface and size in particle toxicity.

  8. Particle-to-particle heterogeneous nature of coals. A case of large coal particles

    SciTech Connect

    Manovic, V.; Loncarevic, D.; Tokalic, R.

    2009-07-01

    In the present paper, the results of investigation of the heterogeneous nature of coals are given. Microscopic observations of coals of different rank and mineral matter content were performed. The content of minerals and macerals and the size of their grains were determined in the coal samples. Two samples of lignite rich in minerals were analyzed in detail by measuring the ash content for each particle and batches containing numerous (100) coal particles. The additional analyses were performed with the particles before and after sink-float separation. The obtained results showed an increase of heterogeneity with mineral matter content. The statistical analysis showed that many particles should be used for an experiment for obtaining reliable data with a desired level of certainty. In the case of batch experiments with 5 g Kolubara B coal (about 100 particles, size 4.76-7.0 mm), the experiment should be repeated at least 7, 19, and 100 times in order to obtain a mean value in the confidence intervals 5.0%, 2.5%, and 1.0%, respectively, for a 95% probability (if sample heterogeneity is the only cause for variations in results). However, regardless of increase of reproducibility and repeatability of obtained results, a large amount of samples and numerous repetitions of experiments cannot exclude differences in experimental results between homogenous and heterogeneous samples.

  9. Coal combustion aerothermochemistry research. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Witte, A.B.; Gat, N.; Denison, M.R.; Cohen, L.M.

    1980-12-15

    On the basis of extensive aerothermochemistry analyses, laboratory investigations, and combustor tests, significant headway has been made toward improving the understanding of combustion phenomena and scaling of high swirl pulverized coal combustors. A special attempt has been made to address the gap between scientific data available on combustion and hardware design and scaling needs. Both experimental and theoretical investigations were conducted to improve the predictive capability of combustor scaling laws. The scaling laws derived apply to volume and wall burning of pulverized coal in a slagging high-swirl combustor. They incorporate the findings of this investigation as follows: laser pyrolysis of coal at 10/sup 6/ K/sec and 2500K; effect of coal particle shape on aerodynamic drag and combustion; effect of swirl on heat transfer; coal burnout and slag capture for 20 MW/sub T/ combustor tests for fine and coarse coals; burning particle trajectories and slag capture; particle size and aerodynamic size; volatilization extent and burnout fraction; and preheat level. As a result of this work, the following has been gained: an increased understanding of basic burning mechanisms in high-swirl combustors and an improved model for predicting combustor performance which is intended to impact hardware design and scaling in the near term.

  10. Combustion of dense streams of coal particles

    SciTech Connect

    Annamalai, K.

    1991-01-01

    The main objective of our work is to obtain a specific velocity of the resulting flame and to maintain this flame consistent throughout the experiment. To optimize our work, theoretical study has been conducted relating the flow rate of the premixed gas (gas + air), stoichiometric coal mass flow rate, interparticle distance of the coal particles, number of particles and the max. coal mass flow rate needed to maintain a specific velocity. Runs were made for velocities of 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 m/s.

  11. From in situ coal to the final coal product: A case study of the Danville Coal Member (Indiana)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastalerz, Maria; Padgett, P.L.

    1999-01-01

    A surface coal mine operation and preparation plant in southwestern Indiana was sampled to examine variations in coal quality and coal petrography parameters for the Danville Coal Member of the Dugger Formation (Pennsylvanian-Desmoinesian, Westphalian D). Representative samples from in situ coal, preparation plant feeds, and a final coal product were collected in order to compare coal quality, coal petrography, trace element concentrations, and ash chemistry of the coal to those of the product. Coal quality parameters of the in situ samples and various feeds, coarse refuse, and final product were variable. The quality of the final coal product was best predicted by the coal quality of the clean coal feed (from the middle portions of the seam). Some trace element contents, especially lead and arsenic, varied between the coal feeds and the product. Lead contents increased in the feeds and product compared to the channel sample of the raw coal, possibly due to contamination in the handling process.A surface coal mine operation and preparation plant in southwestern Indiana was sampled to examine variations in coal quality and coal petrography parameters for the Danville Coal Member of the Dugger Formation (Pennsylvanian-Desmoinesian, Westphalian D). Representative samples from in situ coal, preparation plant feeds, and a final coal product were collected in order to compare coal quality, coal petrography, trace element concentrations, and ash chemistry of the coal to those of the product. Coal quality parameters of the in situ samples and various feeds, coarse refuse, and final product were variable. The quality of the final coal product was best predicted by the coal quality of the clean coal feed (from the middle portions of the seam). Some trace element contents, especially lead and arsenic, varied between the coal feeds and the product. Lead contents increased in the feeds and product compared to the channel sample of the raw coal, possibly due to contamination in

  12. Process for recovering fine coal particles from slurry of finely divided coal

    SciTech Connect

    Harada, K.; Ogino, E.; Yoshii, N.

    1982-08-24

    Fine coal particles are recovered from a slurry of finely divided coal by mixing coarsely divided coal and a binder together to cause the binder to adhere to the surfaces of the coarsely divided coal pieces, mixing the slurry with the coal pieces having the binder adhered thereto to cause fine coal particles to adhere to the binder over the surfaces of the coal pieces serving as nuclei and thereby form agglomerates, and separating the agglomerates from the remaining slurry portion to recover the fine coal particles along with the coarsely divided coal and the binder.

  13. Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The efficient production of environmentally acceptable distillate fuels requires catalysts for hydrogenation and cleavage of the coal macromolecules and removal of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur heteroatoms. The goal of the proposed research is to develop new catalysts for the direct liquefaction of coal. This type of catalyst consists of fine clay particles that have been treated with reagents which form pillaring structures between the aluminosilicate layers of the clay. The pillars not only hold the layers apart but also constitute the active catalytic sites for hydrogenation of the coal and the solvent used in the liquefaction. The pillaring catalytic sites are composed of pyrrhotite, which has been previously demonstrated to be active for coal liquefaction. The pyrrhotite sites are generated in situ by sulfiding the corresponding oxyiron species. The size of the catalyst will be less than 40 nm in order to promote intimate contact with the coal material. Since the clays and reagents for pillaring and activating the clays are inexpensive, the catalysts can be discarded after use, rather than regenerated by a costly process. The proposed work will evaluate methods for preparing the fine particle iron-pillared clay dispersions and for activating the particles to generate the catalysts. Characterization studies of the pillared clays and activated catalysts will be performed. The effectiveness of the pillared clay dispersion for hydrogenation and coal liquefaction will be determined in several types of testing.

  14. Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, E.S.

    1991-01-01

    The efficient production of environmentally acceptable distillate fuels requires catalysts for hydrogenation and cleavage of the coal macromolecules and removal of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur heteroatoms. The goal of the proposed research is to develop new catalysts for the direct liquefaction of coal. This type of catalyst consists of fine clay particles that have been treated with reagents which form pillaring structures between the aluminosilicate layers of the clay. The pillars not only hold the layers apart but also constitute the active catalytic sites for hydrogenation of the coal and solvent used in the liquefaction. The pillaring catalytic sites are composed of pyrrhotite, which has been previously demonstrated to be active for coal liquefaction. The pyrrhotite sites are generated in situ by sulfiding the corresponding oxyiron species. The size of the catalyst will be less than 40 nm in order to promote intimate contact with the coal material. Since the clays and reagents for pillaring and activating the clays are inexpensive, the catalysts can be discarded after use, rather than regenerated by a costly process. The proposed work will evaluate methods for preparing the fine particle iron-pillared clay dispersions and for activating the particles to generate the catalysts. Characterization studies of the pillared clays and activated catalysts will performed. The effectiveness of the pillared clay dispersion for hydrogenation and coal liquefaction will be determined in several types of testing. 5 refs., 1 tab.

  15. Variation in coal composition. A computational approach to study the mineral composition of individual coal particles

    SciTech Connect

    Charon, O.; Kang, S.G.; Graham, K.; Sarofim, A.F.; Beer, J.M. )

    1989-01-01

    Mineral matter transformations, and therefore fly ash evolution, during pulverized coal combustion depend on the amount, composition and spatial distribution of the inorganic matter within individual pulverized coal particles. Thus, it is necessary to have information on the mineral composition of individual particles, as well as that of the raw pulverized coal. A model has been developed to predict the variation of individual coal particle compositions. It uses CCSEM data for a given raw coal as input and randomly distributes the mineral inclusions in the coal volume. By random selection of monosize coal particles, it is possible to generate distributions of mineral content for any particle size distribution of coal. The model has been checked by comparing computed results with data on the composition variations of narrowly size and density classified fractions of an Upper Freeport bituminous coal. The results for individual coal particle compositions are used to generate information on the variability of the composition of the fly ash generated during combustion.

  16. Slagging retrofit pulsed coal combustor: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    A concept for a novel form of slagging retrofit pulsed coal combustor was tested in the laboratory. The combustor is based on controlled use of a form of high pressure amplitude combustion instability. The approach adopted was to resolve, in single pulse experiments, the basic technical issues arising in the development of the combustor. In a cold flow device, the issues of coal spatial distribution were addressed and a combustor and solids disperser configuration was developed to give uniform coal distribution in the combustor. Single pulse ignition experiments were conducted to determine the pressure rise in combustor, pressure rise-decay times, and coal conversion a function of various operating variables. Coal injection, flame propagation, and blowdown times leading to potential combustor size reduction of three times over steady flow combustors were demonstrated. The results give high pressure exhaust leading to potentially improved downstream heat transfer and reduced boiler size. Finally, zero-, one-, and two-dimensional mathematical models were developed in support of the experiments and also to provide design capability. 11 refs., 43 figs.

  17. Coal plasticity at high heating rates and temperatures. Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gerjarusak, S.; Peters, W.A.; Howard, J.B.

    1995-05-01

    Plastic coals are important feedstocks in coke manufacture, coal liquefaction, gasification, and combustion. During these processes, the thermoplastic behavior of these coals is also important since it may contribute to desirable or undesirable characteristics. For example, during liquefaction, the plastic behavior is desired since it leads to liquid-liquid reactions which are faster than solid-liquid reactions. During gasification, the elastic behavior is undesired since it leads to caking and agglomeration of coal particles which result in bed bogging in fixed or fluidized bed gasifiers. The plastic behavior of different coals was studied using a fast-response plastometer. A modified plastometer was used to measure the torque required to turn at constant angular speed a cone-shaped disk embedded in a thin layer of coal. The coal particles were packed between two metal plates which are heated electrically. Heating rates, final temperatures, pressures, and durations of experiment ranged from 200--800 K/s, 700--1300 K, vacuum-50 atm helium, and 0--40 s, respectively. The apparent viscosity of the molten coal was calculated from the measured torque using the governing equation of the cone-and-plate viscometer. Using a concentrated suspension model, the molten coal`s apparent viscosity was related to the quantity of the liquid metaplast present during pyrolysis. Seven coals from Argonne National Laboratory Premium Coal Sample Bank were studied. Five bituminous coals, from high-volatile to low-volatile bituminous, were found to have very good plastic behavior. Coal type strongly affects the magnitude and duration of plasticity. Hvb coals were most plastic. Mvb and lvb coals, though the maximum plasticity and plastic period were less. Low rank coals such as subbituminous and lignite did not exhibit any plasticity in the present studies. Coal plasticity is moderately well correlated with simple indices of coal type such as the elemental C,O, and H contents.

  18. Permeability of packed coal beds: The effect of particle size distribution, particle size and coal type

    SciTech Connect

    Greeff, S.C.; Slaghuis, J.H.; Walt, T.J. van der

    1998-12-31

    Sasol operates 97 Lurgi type gasifiers for the production of syngas using lump coal obtained from 7 captive coal mines. Permeability of packed coal beds of the coal has been identified as one of the major variables affecting stable operation which in turn affects maximum coal throughput and gas production. A tenth scale instrumented cold perspex model simulating a gasifier was constructed in which the pressure drop per unit bed length for a given gas flow could be measured. The effect of particle size distribution, particle size and coal type on the pressure drop (and hence permeability) was measured. The results were augmented by measuring void fractions as well as shape factors for the different coal types. The effect of size segregation during filling of the scale model was also investigated. Results have shown that bed permeability is strongly affected by the 3 variables investigated. The change in void fraction was found to be very small and could not be linked to the change in permeability. Size segregation resulted in a difference in gas flow rate between the center of the coal bed and against the wall of the model. The significance of the observations are discussed in terms of gasifier stability, optimum pressure drop and the effect of thermal size stability of coal upon entering the gasifier.

  19. Final Report of the Advanced Coal Technology Work Group

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Advanced Coal Technology workgroup reported to the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee. This page includes the final report of the Advanced Coal Technology Work Group to the Clean Air Act Advisory Committee.

  20. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies. Final report, September 19, 1988--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-12-31

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO{sub 2} emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R&D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  1. Temperature field around a laser-heated coal particle

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, B.; Liu, Y.H.; Zhou, Y.B.; Liu, Z.H.; Zheng, C.G.

    1997-12-31

    Holography was used to measure the temperature field around a laser heated coal particle. A man-made coal particle (with the size of 5mm in diameter and 5mm in length) was ignited by a laser beam (with the maximum power of 15W). And then the temperature distribution around the particle was obtained from the holograph which was developed by the authors. A bituminous coal, an anthracite and a sub-bituminous coal were used. It was interesting to find that there exists a zone near the particle surface where the temperature is higher than that at the surface for the bituminous coal during the combustion of the coal although the phenomenon was not found for the other coals. A mathematical model taking into account the laser induced energy was developed to calculate the temperature field around the particle. The predicted results were compared with the experimental ones.

  2. Coal preparation using magnetic separation. Volume 4. Evaluation of magnetic fluids for coal benefication. Final report. [Magnetic fluids are defined as dispersant-stabilized suspensions of ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic particles in a carrier fluid

    SciTech Connect

    Sladek, T.A.; Cox, C.H.

    1980-07-01

    Research objectives were to acquire a body of information on the properties and potential applications of magnetic fluids, to study the selective coating behavior of magnetic fluids when contacted with a mixture of organic an inorganic matter, and to determine the extent of coal beneficiation that can be acccomplished with fluid-enhanced magnetic separation. Objectives were achieved by performing an extensive literature survey and by acquiring and testing samples of three fluids and several commercially-important domestic coals. Coal beneficiation tests were conducted in a high intensity induced-roll dry magnetic separator and in a high-gradient matrix-type wet magnetic separator. The induced-roll device could not beneficiate untreated coal, but high yields of magnetic clean coal were obtained when the feed was first pretreated with magnetic fluid. The high-gradient separator did achieve substantial coal beneficiation of untreated coal, and level of coal cleaning increased moderately when the feed was pretreated with magnetic fluids. However, yield of the nonmagnetic clean coal decreased. All magnetic fluids tested exhibited the ability to wet both organic and inorganic surfaces but showed a preference for organic surfaces. Testing of a high-ash preparation-plant refuse indicated that the organic fluid was capable of selective attachment to the organic components of a complex feed mixture.

  3. Surface electrical properties of coal particles on interaction with polyelectrolytes

    SciTech Connect

    Evmenova, G.L.

    2006-07-15

    The paper presents experimental data obtained in determining an electrokinetic potential of coal particles during their interaction with coagulation and flocculation agents. It is established that flocculation agents allow decreasing electrokinetic potential of mineral particles up to the values that promote aggregation of the particles thereby enabling the control over the stability of coal dispersions.

  4. Cytotoxicity and genotoxicity induced by coal and coal fly ash particles samples in V79 cells.

    PubMed

    León-Mejía, Grethel; Silva, Luis F O; Civeira, Matheus S; Oliveira, Marcos L S; Machado, Miriana; Villela, Izabel Vianna; Hartmann, Andreas; Premoli, Suziane; Corrêa, Dione Silva; Da Silva, Juliana; Henriques, João Antônio Pêgas

    2016-12-01

    Exposure to coal and coal ashes can cause harmful effects in in vitro and in vivo systems, mainly by the induction of oxidative damage. The aim of this work was to assess cytotoxic and genotoxic effects using the V79 cell line treated with coal and coal fly ash particles derived from a coal power plant located in Santa Catarina, Brazil. Two coal samples (COAL11 and COAL16) and two coal fly ash samples (CFA11 and CFA16) were included in this study. COAL16 was co-firing with a mixture of fuel oil and diesel oil. The comet assay data showed that exposure of V79 cells to coal and coal fly ash particles induced primary DNA lesions. Application of lesion-specific endonucleases (FPG and ENDO III) demonstrated increased DNA effects indicating the presence of high amounts of oxidative DNA lesions. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus cytome assay analysis showed that exposure of V79 cells to high concentrations of coal and coal fly ash particles induced cytotoxic effects (apoptosis and necrosis) and chromosomal instability (nucleoplasmic bridges, nuclear buds, and micronucleus (MN) formation). These results may be associated with compounds contained in the surface of the particles as hazardous elements, ultrafine/nanoparticles, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) which were detected in the samples. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  5. Influence of Coal Particle Size on Coal Adsorption and Desorption Characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Aziz, Naj; Ren, Ting; Nemcik, Jan; Tu, Shihao

    2014-10-01

    Accurate testing coal isotherm can play a significant role in the areas of coal seam gas drainage, outburst control, CO2 geo-sequestration, coalbed methane (CBM) and enhanced coalbed methane recovery (ECBM) etc. The effect of particle size on the CO2 and CH4 sorption capacity of bituminous coal from Illawarra, Australia was investigated at 35°C and at pressure up to 4 MPa. A unique indirect gravimetric apparatus was used to measure the gas adsorption and desorption isotherms of coal of different particle sizes ranging from around 150 urn to 16 mm. Langmuir model was used to analysis the experimental results of all gases. Coal particle size was found to have an apparent effect on the coal ash content and helium density results. Coal with larger particle size had higher ash content and higher helium density. The sorption isotherm was found to be highly sensitive with helium density of coal which was determined in the procedure of testing the void volume of sample cell. Hence, coal particle size had a significant influence on the coal sorption characteristics including sorption capacity and desorption hysteresis for CO2 and CH4, especially calculated with dry basis of coal. In this study, the 150-212 um (150 um) coal samples achieved higher sorption capacity and followed by 2.36-3.35 mm (2.4 mm), 8-9.5 mm (8 mm) and 16-19 mm (16 mm) particle size samples. However, the differences between different coal particles were getting smaller when the sorption isotherms are calculated with dry ash free basis. Test with 150 um coal samples were also found to have relatively smaller desorption hysteresis compared with the other larger particle size samples. The different results including adsorption/desorption isotherm, Langmuir parameters and coal hysteresis were all analysed with the CO2 and CH4 gases.

  6. Pelletization of fine coals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sastry, K.V.S.

    1995-12-31

    Coal is one of the most abundant energy resources in the US with nearly 800 million tons of it being mined annually. Process and environmental demands for low-ash, low-sulfur coals and economic constraints for high productivity are leading the coal industry to use such modern mining methods as longwall mining and such newer coal processing techniques as froth flotation, oil agglomeration, chemical cleaning and synthetic fuel production. All these processes are faced with one common problem area--fine coals. Dealing effectively with these fine coals during handling, storage, transportation, and/or processing continues to be a challenge facing the industry. Agglomeration by the unit operation of pelletization consists of tumbling moist fines in drums or discs. Past experimental work and limited commercial practice have shown that pelletization can alleviate the problems associated with fine coals. However, it was recognized that there exists a serious need for delineating the fundamental principles of fine coal pelletization. Accordingly, a research program has been carried involving four specific topics: (i) experimental investigation of coal pelletization kinetics, (ii) understanding the surface principles of coal pelletization, (iii) modeling of coal pelletization processes, and (iv) simulation of fine coal pelletization circuits. This report summarizes the major findings and provides relevant details of the research effort.

  7. Research on fundamental aspects of inorganic particle deposition on coal-fired equipment. Final technical report, 6 September 1990--31 October 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Rosner, D.E.

    1995-01-01

    We review results of our recent DOE-PETC research program on the deposition dynamics of combustion-generated particles in power production technologies. We outline and illustrate the results of recently developed methods to predict total surface deposition rates and associated convective heat transfer reductions for targets exposed to a distribution of particles suspended in a mainstream. Our methods combine the essential features of recently developed single particle sticking probability laws with correlations of the inertial impaction of particles on targets in high Reynolds number cross-flow, to develop formulae and ``universal`` graphs which provide the dependence of particle deposition rates, and associated reductions in convective heat transfer, on such system parameters as mainstream velocity, mean suspended particle size and target size. The deposition rate/deposit microstructue/properties prediction and correlation procedures illustrated be incorporated into improved ``fouling propensity indices,`` to motivate, evaluate and implement ``ruggedization`` and/or fouling reduction strategies, and/or incorporated (as subroutines) into more ``comprehensive`` CFD models of an entire power plant.

  8. Investigation of coal structure. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nishioka, Masaharu

    1994-03-01

    A better understanding of coal structure is the first step toward more effective utilization of the most abundant hydrocarbon resource. Detailed characterization of coal structure is very difficult, even with today`s highly developed analytical techniques. This is primarily due to the amorphous nature of these high-molecular-weight mixtures. Coal has a polymeric character and has been popularly represented as a three-dimensional cross-linked network. There is, however, little or no information which positively verifies this model. The principal objective of this research was to further investigate the physical structure of coal and to determine the extent to which coal molecules may be covalently cross-linked and/or physically associated. Two common characterization methods, swellability and extractability, were used. A technique modifying the conventional swelling procedure was established to better determine network or associated model conformation. A new method for evaluating coal swelling involving laser scattering has also been developed. The charge-transfer interaction is relatively strong in high-volatile bituminous coal. Soaking in the presence of electron donors and acceptors proved effective for solubilizing the coal, but temperatures in excess of 200 C were required. More than 70 wt% of the coal was readily extracted with pyridine after soaking. Associative/dissociative equilibria of coal molecules were observed during soaking. From these results, the associated model has gained credibility over the network model as the representative structure of coal. Significant portions of coal molecules are unquestionably physically associated, but the overall extent is not known at this time.

  9. Utilization of low grade coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, C.E.

    1981-12-01

    Purpose was to construct and use a pilot furnace that could utilize low-grade coal (steam coal and coal fines) in place of oil or natural gas. This pilot furnace was tested on a 66-inch Raymond H.S. Roller Mill at the No. 1 plant of the James River Limestone Co. Results indicate that the commercial use is feasible; drying costs average $0.36 per ton with coal vs $0.80 per ton on annual basis when oil fired. Results are applicable to limestone manufacturers producing dry pulverized products. (DLC)

  10. Coal-sand attrition system and its importance in fine coal cleaning. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, R.K.; Zhu, Qinsheng

    1993-08-01

    It is known that ultra-fine coals are prerequisite for the deep cleaning of most US coal seams if environmental pollution arising from the use of such coals is to be minimized. Therefore, the production of finely liberated coal particles in conjunction with reduced heavy metal contaminants at low costs is desirable, if not mandatory. The liberation of intimately disseminated impurities from the coal matrix therefore, demands that the material be ground to a high degree of fineness. Similarily, some technologies for coal utilization require superfine particles (i.e., sizes less than ten microns). This implies additional costs for coal preparation plants due to the high energy and media costs associated with fine grinding operations. Besides, there are problems such as severe product contaminations due to media wear and impairment of the quality of coal. Hence, proper choice of grinding media type is important from the viewpoints of cost reduction and product quality. The use of natural quartz sand as grinding media in the comminution of industrial minerals in stirred ball mills has been indicated. The advantages of natural sand compared to steel media include low specific energy inputs, elimination of heavy metal contaminants and low media costs. In this work, the effect of rotor speed, solids concentration and feed-size are studied on four coals in conjunction with silica sand and steel shot. The results obtained are used to evaluate the suitability of silica sands as an alternative grinding media. for coal. Coal-sand and coal-steel systems are compared in terms of specific energy consumption, product fineness, media/wear contaminationanalysis and calorific values, liberation spectrum and particle shape characteristics. In general cleaner flotation concentrate was obtained from coals when they were ground with sand media. The zeta potential of coals was found to be different and lower when they ground with sand.

  11. Biological upgrading of coal liquids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    A large number of bacterial enrichments have been developed for their ability to utilize nitrogen and sulfur in coal liquids and the model compound naphtha. These bacteria include the original aerobic bacteria isolated from natural sources which utilize heteroatom compounds in the presence of rich media, aerobic nitrogen-utilizing bacteria and denitrifying bacteria. The most promising isolates include Mix M, a mixture of aerobic bacteria; ER15, a pyridine-utilizing isolate; ERI6, an aniline-utilizing isolate and a sewage sludge isolate. Culture optimization experiments have led to these bacteria being able to remove up to 40 percent of the sulfur and nitrogen in naphtha and coal liquids in batch culture. Continuous culture experiments showed that the coal liquid is too toxic to the bacteria to be fed without dilution or extraction. Thus either semi-batch operation must be employed with continuous gas sparging into a batch of liquid, or acid extracted coal liquid must be employed in continuous reactor studies with continuous liquid flow. Isolate EN-1, a chemical waste isolate, removed 27 percent of the sulfur and 19 percent of the nitrogen in fed batch experiments. Isolate ERI5 removed 28 percent of the nitrogen in coal liquid in 10 days in fed batch culture. The sewage sludge isolate removed 22.5 percent of the sulfur and 6.5 percent of the nitrogen from extracted coal liquid in continuous culture, and Mix M removed 17.5 percent of the nitrogen from medium containing extracted coal liquid. An economic evaluation has been prepared for the removal of nitrogen heteroatom compounds from Wilsonville coal liquid using acid extraction followed by fermentation. Similar technology can be developed for sulfur removal. The evaluation indicates that the nitrogen heteroatom compounds can be removed for $0.09/lb of coal liquid treated.

  12. Experimental studies on the group ignition of a cloud of coal particles

    SciTech Connect

    Annamalai, K.; Ruiz, M.; Vadakkath, A.; Gopalakrishnan, C.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objectives of this work are to formulate a model to simulate transient coal pyrolysis, ignition, and combustion of a cloud of coal particles and to compare results of the program with those reported in the literature elsewhere. The present work is reported in the following order. An introduction to group combustion is given followed by a review of earlier works. Next, the relevance of the present work to practical application and spray combustion modeling is discussed. A group combustion model is then presented for a spherical cloud of coal particles along with a set of dimensional and nondimensional equations. Finally, nonsteady results are generated for pyrolysis, ignition, and combustion of a cloud of coal particles. (VC)

  13. Advanced physical fine coal cleaning: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-12-01

    The contract objective was to demonstrate Advanced Energy Dynamics, Inc., (AED) Ultrafine Coal (UFC) electrostatic physical fine coal cleaning process as capable of: producing clean coal products of no greater than 2% ash; significantly reducing the pyritic sulfur content below that achievable with state-of-the-art coal cleaning; recovering over 80% of the available energy content in the run-of-mine coal; producing product and refuse with surface moisture below 30%. Originally the demonstration was to be of a Charger/Disc System at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Coal Quality Development Center (CQDC) at Homer City, Pennsylvania. As a result of the combination of Charger/Disc System scale-up problems and parallel development of an improved Vertical-Belt Separator, DOE issued a contract modification to perform additional laboratory testing and optimization of the UFC Vertical-Belt Separator System at AED. These comparative test results, safety analyses and an economic analysis are discussed in this report. 29 refs., 25 figs., 41 tabs.

  14. Surface magnetic enhancement for coal cleaning. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, J.Y.

    1992-10-01

    The program consisted of a fundamental study to define the chemistry for the interactions between magnetic reagent and mineral and coal particles, a laboratory study to determine the applicability of this technology on coal cleaning, and a parameter study to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of this technology for desulfurization and de-ashing under various processing schemes. Surface magnetic enhancement using magnetic reagent is a new technology developed at the Institute. This technology can be applied to separate pyrite and other minerals particles from coal with a magnetic separation after adsorbing magnetic reagent on the surface of pyrite and other minerals particles. Particles which have absorbed magnetic reagent are rendered magnetic. The adsorption can be controlled to yield selectivity. Thus, the separation of traditionally nonmagnetic materials with a magnetic separator can be achieved. Experiments have been performed to demonstrate the theoretical fundamentals and the applications of the technology. Adsorbability, adsorption mechanisms, and adsorption selectivity are included in the fundamental study. The effects of particle size, magnetic reagent dosage, solid contents, magnetic matrix, applied magnetic field strengths, retention times, and feed loading capacities are included in the application studies. Three coals, including Illinois No. 6, Lower Kittanning and Pocahontas seams, have been investigated. More than 90% pyritic sulfur and ash reductions have been achieved. Technical and economic feasibilities of this technology have been demonstrated in this study. Both are competitive to that of the froth flotation approach for coal cleaning.

  15. Coal surface structure and thermodynamics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, J.W.; Wernett, P.C.; Glass, A.S.; Quay, D.; Roberts, J.

    1994-05-01

    Coals surfaces were studied using static surface adsorption measurements, low angle x-ray scattering (LAXS), inverse gas chromatography (IGC) and a new {sup 13}C NMR relaxation technique. A comparison of surface areas determined by hydrocarbon gas adsorption and LAXS led to the twin conclusions that the hydrocarbons had to diffuse through the solid to reach isolated pores and that the coal pores do not form interconnected networks, but are largely isolated. This conclusion was confirmed when IGC data for small hydrocarbons showed no discontinuities in their size dependence as usually observed with porous solids. IGC is capable of providing adsorption thermodynamics of gases on coal surfaces. The interactions of non-polar molecules and coal surfaces are directly proportioned to the gas molecular polarizability. For bases, the adsorption enthalpy is equal to the polarizability interaction plus the heat of hydrogen bond formation with phenol. Amphoteric molecules have more complex interactions. Mineral matter can have highly specific effects on surface interactions, but with most of the molecules studied is not an important factor.

  16. ELECTROSTATIC SURFACE STRUCTURES OF COAL AND MINERAL PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    It is the purpose of this research to study electrostatic charging mechanisms related to electrostatic beneficiation of coal with the goal of improving models of separation and the design of electrostatic separators. Areas addressed in this technical progress report are (a) electrostatic beneficiation of Pittsburgh #8 coal powders as a function of grind size and processing atmosphere; (b) the use of fluorescent micro-spheres to probe the charge distribution on the surfaces of coal particles; (c) the use of electrostatic beneficiation to recover unburned carbon from flyash; (d) the development of research instruments for investigation of charging properties of coal. Pittsburgh #8 powders were beneficiated as a function of grind size and under three atmosphere conditions: fresh ground in air , after 24 hours of air exposure, or under N2 atmosphere. The feed and processed powders were analyzed by a variety of methods including moisture, ash, total sulfur, and pyritic sulfur content. Mass distribution and cumulative charge of the processed powders were also measured. Fresh ground coal performed the best in electrostatic beneficiation. Results are compared with those of similar studies conducted on Pittsburgh #8 powders last year (April 1, 1997 to September 30, 1997). Polystyrene latex spheres were charged and deposited onto coal particles that had been passed through the electrostatic separator and collected onto insulating filters. The observations suggest bipolar charging of individual particles and patches of charge on the particles which may be associated with particular maceral types or with mineral inclusions. A preliminary investigation was performed on eletrostatic separation of unburned carbon particles from flyash. Approximately 25% of the flyash acquired positive charge in the copper tribocharger. This compares with 75% of fresh ground coal. The negatively charged material had a slightly reduced ash content suggesting some enrichment of carbonaceous material

  17. Coal desulfurization by bacterial treatment and column flotation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kawatra, S.K.

    1994-06-01

    A review of the literature showed that bacterial leaching, using the microorganism Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, was a very effective technique for removing pyrite from coal, as it could dissolve even the finest pyrite particles without the need for expensive reagents or extreme processing conditions. Unfortunately, bacterial leaching is also rather slow, and so the initial goal of this research was to decrease the leaching time as much as possible. However, this still left the bacteria needing approximately a week to remove half of the pyritic sulfur, and so a faster technique was sought. Since it had been reported in the literature that T. ferrooxidans could be used to depress the flotation of pyrite during froth flotation of coal, this was investigated further. By studying the recovery mechanisms of coal-pyrite in froth flotation, it was found that pyrite was being recovered by entrainment and by locking to coal particles, not by true flotation of hydrophobic pyrite. Therefore, no pyrite depressant could be of any significant benefit for keeping pyrite out of the coal froth product, and it was much more important to prevent entrainment from occurring. Countercurrent flotation columns were invented to essentially eliminate entrainment effects, by washing the froth and reducing mixing of the froth and tailings products. Existing flotation columns tend to be quite simple, and in order to give reasonable product quality they must be very tall (typically 30--45 feet). As a result, they have difficulty in handling the high froth volumes which occur in coal flotation, and are awkward to install in existing plants. The bulk of this project therefore concentrated on developing an improved coal flotation column, and testing it under actual plant conditions.

  18. Apparatus for centrifugal separation of coal particles

    SciTech Connect

    Dickie, William; Cavallaro, Joseph A.; Killmeyer, Richard P.

    1991-01-01

    A gravimetric cell for centrifugal separation of fine coal by density has a cylindrical body and a butterfly valve or other apparatus for selectively sealing the body radially across the approximate center of the cylinder. A removable top is provided which seals the cylinder in the centrifuge and in unvented areas.

  19. The occurrence of quartz in coal fly ash particles

    SciTech Connect

    Meij R.; Nagengast S.; Winkel H.T.

    2000-10-15

    Quartz is present in both coal and residual ash. Ash originates from combustion of pulverised coal and, once removed from the flue gases by electrostatic precipitators (ESPs), it is called pulverized fuel ash (PFA). Thus, occupational exposure to PFA could also include exposure to silica. However, epidemiological studies did not show evidence of progressive massive fibrosis (PMF). In vitro tests demonstrated that PFA is less toxic than silica, and in vivo data of PFA did not support the importance of silica content for toxicity. Commissioned by the Dutch coal-fired power plants, KEMA has started a research project to determine the quartz content in coal and the corresponding PFA. It appears that on average 50% of the alpha-quartz in coal is found again in the total fraction of PFA (D50(ae) 31 {mu}m, where D50(ae) is the aerodynamically mass median diameter), whereas 16% is found in an even finer fraction (D50(ae) 10 {mu}m). The remaining part of the quartz is embedded in a glass phase. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with x-ray microanalyses (XMA) of cross-sections of 11,130 ash particles showed that quartz in PFAis present as unmelted sand particles. These quartz particles are angularly shaped. However, two types are to be distinguished: free coarse angular quartz particles (not respirable) and small angular quartz particles within the PFA particles. From the SEM/XMA results, it has to be concluded that the quartz in the respirable fraction is predominantly present within the original molten PFA particle. Since the effects of quartz are surface related, this elucidates the negative results of quartz-related effects of PFA in epidemiological, in vitro and in vivo studies. Besides, the amount of the total alpha-quartz in the respirable fraction of the ashes studied is less than 0.2%, so probably the Dutch occupational quartz standard of 0.075 mg m{sup 3} will not be exceeded.

  20. Evaluation of hyperbaric filtration for fine coal dewatering. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K.; Hogg, R.; Fonseca, A.

    1996-08-15

    The main objectives of the project were to investigate the fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction in fine coal dewatering, to conduct laboratory and pilot plant studies on the applicability of hyperbaric filter systems and to develop process conditions for dewatering of fine clean coal to less than 20% moisture. The program consisted of three phases, namely Phase 1 -- Model Development, Phase 2 -- Laboratory Studies, Phase 3 -- Pilot Plant Testing. The Pennsylvania State University led efforts in Phase 1, the University of Kentucky in Phase 2, and CONSOL Inc. in Phase 3 of the program. All three organizations were involved in all the three phases of the program. The Pennsylvania State University developed a theoretical model for hyperbaric filtration systems, whereas the University of Kentucky conducted experimental studies to investigate fundamental aspects of particle-liquid interaction and application of high pressure filter in fine coal dewatering. The optimum filtration conditions identified in Phase 1 and 2 were tested in two of the CONSOL Inc. coal preparation plants using an Andritz Ruthner portable hyperbaric filtration unit.

  1. Coal-water slurry (CWS) dispenser: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Loth, J.L.; Kulkarni, B.M.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis addressed some of the problems associated with using Coal-Water Slurry as a fuel in gas turbine combustors. A technique has been developed which reduces the velocity and average droplet size distribution needed for good atomization to achieve high combustion efficiency. Finely atomized droplets are desired to minimize the number of coal particles which fuse together in the high radiation zone. Any big droplet discharged from the atomizing nozzle will be slow to dry and ignite, which consequently may reduce the combustion efficiency. To study the characteristics of a CWS spray entering the combustor, a dryer dispenser unit was designed and built. Typical gas turbine operating conditions are discussed. Atomization aspects are discussed. CWS nozzles are found to produce high velocity spray with a wide range of particle sizes. Dried samples were studied under the scanning electron microscope. The micrographs of the samples collected in the range of 70 to 550/sup 0/F show that the individual coal particles are within a 15 micron range. The single droplet drying rate was found to be unrelated to that occurring inside a jet. Particles collected at room temperature are sharp and not rounded at the edges. Particles collected at 400/sup 0/F have a tendency to stay together; they are much more rounded at the edges than those collected at 70/sup 0/F. The individual particle size distribution is not much affected in the range of temperatures from 70 to 500/sup 0/F, but agglomeration is directly proportional to the dryer temperature. Since the particle size distribution of CWS does not change much in the range of 70 to 500/sup 0/F, predrying prior to entering the high radiation zone, is not beneficial. Fine CWS atomization is more important to decrease the ignition delay and to maximize the combustion efficiency.

  2. Numerical simulation of the devolatilization of a moving coal particle

    SciTech Connect

    Higuera, F.J.

    2009-05-15

    The devolatilization of an isolated coal particle moving relative to the surrounding gas is numerically simulated using a competing reaction model of the pyrolysis and assuming that the released volatiles burn in an infinitely thin diffusion flame around the particle or not at all. The temperature of the particle is assumed to be uniform and the effects of the heat of pyrolysis, the intraparticle mass transfer resistance, and the variation of the particle radius are neglected. The effects of the size and velocity of the particle and of the temperature and oxygen mass fraction of the gas on the particle and flame temperature histories, the devolatilization time and the yield of light and heavy volatiles are investigated. The motion of the particle may have an important effect on the shape and position of the flame of volatiles, but it has only a mild effect on the devolatilization process for the particle sizes typical of pulverized coal combustion. This effect increases for large particles or in the absence of radiation. The relative motion enhances the heat transfer between the particle and the gas, causing the devolatilization time to decrease at high gas temperatures and to increase at low gas temperatures. The numerical results are compared with a blowing-corrected Nusselt number correlation often used in heat transfer models of the process. (author)

  3. OPTIMIZATION OF COAL PARTICLE FLOW PATTERNS IN LOW NOX BURNERS

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt; Gregory E. Ogden; Jennifer Sinclair; Caner Yurteri

    2001-08-20

    The proposed research is directed at evaluating the effect of flame aerodynamics on NO{sub x} emissions from coal fired burners in a systematic manner. This fundamental research includes both experimental and modeling efforts being performed at the University of Arizona in collaboration with Purdue University. The objective of this effort is to develop rational design tools for optimizing low NO{sub x} burners to the kinetic emissions limit (below 0.2 lb./MMBTU). Experimental studies include both cold and hot flow evaluations of the following parameters: flame holder geometry, secondary air swirl, primary and secondary inlet air velocity, coal concentration in the primary air and coal particle size distribution. Hot flow experiments will also evaluate the effect of wall temperature on burner performance. Cold flow studies will be conducted with surrogate particles as well as pulverized coal. The cold flow furnace will be similar in size and geometry to the hot-flow furnace but will be designed to use a laser Doppler velocimeter/phase Doppler particle size analyzer. The results of these studies will be used to predict particle trajectories in the hot-flow furnace as well as to estimate the effect of flame holder geometry on furnace flow field. The hot-flow experiments will be conducted in a novel near-flame down-flow pulverized coal furnace. The furnace will be equipped with externally heated walls. Both reactors will be sized to minimize wall effects on particle flow fields. The cold-flow results will be compared with Fluent computation fluid dynamics model predictions and correlated with the hot-flow results with the overall goal of providing insight for novel low NO{sub x} burner geometry's.

  4. ELECTROSTATIC SURFACE STRUCTURES OF COAL AND MINERAL PARTICLES

    SciTech Connect

    1998-04-01

    This is the third semi-annual, technical progress report for this project. The following items are covered in the report: (1) Progress on the development of an instrument to perform ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, UPS, on surfaces in air. (2) Further development plans for the video particle image analyzer. (3) Calculations on the effect of space charge on the electric field inside a separator. (4) Outreach education involving two Arkansas high school students in the project. (5) Additional data on the effects of processing atmosphere on beneficiation. Included in the last section is a description of planned experiments using charged, fluorescent, polystyrene micro-particles to map the charge distribution on the larger coal particles and on polished coal surfaces.

  5. Experimental Study of the Ignition of Single Drops of Coal Suspensions and Coal Particles in the Oxidizer Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vershinina, K. Yu.; Glushkov, D. O.; Kuznetsov, G. V.; Strizhak, P. A.

    2017-01-01

    An experimental study has been made of the process of ignition of single drops of water-coal and organic water-coal suspensions and coal particles heated by the oxidizer flow. The low-temperature (400-600°C) regime of the initiation of combustion of commensurate (from 1 to 3 mm) drops of water-coal and organic water-coal suspensions and coal particles has been considered. With the use of a high-speed (up to 105 frames/s) video camera and Tema Automative software, the influence of the oxidizer temperature, the gas flow velocity, the size of suspension fuel drops, and the coal particle size on the conditions and integral characteristics of the induction period has been determined. The ignition delay times and the duration of the combustion process of the investigated fuel samples have been established. The features of the stages of stable low-temperature initiation of combustion have been determined.

  6. A model of coal particle drying in fluidized bed combustion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Komatina, M.; Manovic, V.; Saljnikov, A.

    2007-02-15

    Experimental and theoretical investigation on drying of a single coal particle in fluidized bed combustor is presented. Coal particle drying was considered via the moist shrinking core mechanism. The results of the drying test runs of low-rank Serbian coals were used for experimental verification of the model. The temperature of the coal particle center was measured, assuming that drying was completed when the temperature equalled 100{sup o}C. The influence of different parameters (thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of coal, fluidized bed temperature, moisture content and superheating of steam) on drying time and temperature profile within the coal particle was analyzed by a parametric analysis. The experimentally obtained results confirmed that the moist shrinking core mechanism can be applied for the mathematical description of a coal particle drying, while dependence between drying time and coal particle radius, a square law relationship, implicates heat transfer control of the process and confirms the validity of assumptions used in modeling.

  7. Decrease of calorific value and particle size in coal stockpiles

    SciTech Connect

    Sensogut, C.; Ozdeniz, A.H.

    2008-07-01

    During storage of excess amount of coal, they lose both their economical value and cause environmental problems. In this work, two industrial-sized stockpiles were constituted at a coal stockyard of Western Lignite Corporation (WLC) in Tuncbilek, Turkey. The size of the stockpiles, formed as triangle prisms, was about 10 m x 5 m wide with a height of 3 m; each mass being approximately 120 tons of coal in total. Some of the parameters that were effective on the stockpiles were measured in a continuous manner during this experimental work. The calorific losses and the decreases that occurred in particle size due to atmospheric conditions were also examined and detailed as the result of this work.

  8. Combustion of coal/water mixtures with thermal preconditioning. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Novack, M.; Roffe, G.; Miller, G.

    1985-12-01

    Thermal preconditioning is a process in which coal/water mixtures are vaporized to produce coal/steam suspensions, and then superheated to allow the coal to devolatilize producing suspensions of char particles in hydrocarbon gases and steam. This final product of the process can be injected without atomization, and burned directly in a gas turbine combustor. This paper reports on the results of an experimental program in which thermally preconditioned coal/water mixture was successfully burned with a stable flame in a gas turbine combustor test rig. Tests were performed at a mixture flowrate of 300 lb/hr and combustor pressure of 8 atmospheres. The coal/water mixture was thermally preconditioned and injected into the combustor over a temperature range from 350 to 600/sup 0/F, and combustion air was supplied at between 600 to 725/sup 0/F. Test durations generally varied between 10 to 20 minutes. Major results of the combustion testing were that: a stable flame was maintained over a wide equivalence ratio range, between phi = 2.4 (rich) to 0.2 (lean); and, combustion efficiency of over 99% was achieved when the mixture was preconditioned to 600/sup 0/F and the combustion air preheated to 725/sup 0/F. Measurements of ash particulates captured in the exhaust sampling probe located 20 inches from the injector face, show typical sizes collected to be about 1 micron, with agglomerates of these particulates to be not more than 8 microns. The original mean coal particle size for these tests, prior to preconditioning was 25 microns. System studies indicate that preconditioning can be incorporated into either stationary or mobile power plant designs without system derating. On the basis of these results, thermal pretreatment offers a practical alternative to fuel atomization in gas turbine applications. 20 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Fine particle coal as a source of energy in small-user applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rajan, S.

    1990-11-01

    The use of fine particle micronized coal as a source of energy for home heating applications has been explored in previous years under this program in a 150,000 Btu/hr pulse combustor. Experimental studies have been conducted on the combustion characteristics of micronized coal and combustion efficiencies have been measured. Emission levels of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} have been measured. In this final year of the program, the combustion and emissions characteristics of micronized coal were further explored in terms of the influence of stoichiometric ratio and frequency effects. Also, a model has been proposed which has potential for incorporating the unsteady mixing occurring in pulse combustors. 31 refs., 21 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Evaluation of dense-phase ultrafine coal (DUC) as a fuel alternative for oil- and gas-designed boilers and heaters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-12-01

    Utility and industrial firms currently using oil- and gas-fired boilers have an interest in substitution of coal for oil and gas as the primary boiler fuel. This interest stems from coal`s two main advantages over oil and gas-lower cost and security of supply. Recent efforts in the area of coal conversion have been directed to converting oil- and gas- fired boilers which were originally designed for coal-firing or were designed with some coal-firing capability. Boilers designed exclusively for oil- or gas-firing have not been considered viable candidates for coal conversion because they generally require a significant capacity derating and extensive and costly modifications. As a result, conversion of boilers in this class to coal-firing has generally been considered unattractive. Renewed interest in the prospects for converting boilers designed exclusively for oil- and gas-firing to coal firing has centered around the concept of using ``ultra fine`` coal as opposed to ``conventional grind`` pulverized coal. The main distinction being the finer particle size to which the former is ground. This fuel type may have characteristics which ameliorate many of the boiler problems normally associated with pulverized coal-firing. The overall concept for ultrafine coal utilization is based on a regional large preparation plant with distribution of a ready to fire fuel directly to many small users. This differs from normal practice in which final coal sizing is performed in pulverizers at the user`s site.

  11. Characterization of aerodynamic drag force on single particles: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kale, S.R.

    1987-10-01

    An electrodynamic balance was used to measure the drag coefficient and also to record the size and shape of spheres, and coal and oil shale particles (100 ..mu..m to 200 ..mu..m in size). The electrodynamic balance consisted of a central, and two end electrodes. The resulting electric field stably suspended a charged particle. A suspended particle, back illuminated by a light emitting diode, was viewed by a video camera. The image was analyzed for particle position control and was calibrated to give the diameter of spheres, or the area equivalent diameter of nonspherical particles. The drag coefficient was calculated from the air velocity and the dc voltage required to keep the particle at the balance center. The particle Reynolds number varied from 0.2 to 13. Three particles each of coal and oil shale were captured and photographed by a scanning electron microscope and the motion of all the particles was recorded on video tape. Drag coefficient vs Reynolds number data for spheres agreed well with correlations. Data for thirteen particles each of coal and oil shale indicated a power law relationship between drag coefficient and Reynolds number. All these particles exhibited higher drag than spheres and were also observed to rotate. The rotation, however, did not affect the drag coefficient. The choice of characteristic dimension affects the drag characteristics of oil shale more strongly than for coal, owing to the flake-like shape of oil shale. 38 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. Study of fine and ultrafine particles for coal cleaning

    SciTech Connect

    Birlingmair, D.; Buttermore, W.; Chmielewski, T.; Pollard, J.

    1990-04-01

    During the second quarter of work on this new project, critical review of the literature continued. Several new references related to gravity separation were identified and evaluated. A synopsis was assembled to summarize techniques developed by various researchers for the float/sink separation of ultrafine coal. In the reviewed literature, it was commonly concluded that substantial improvements in washability results for ultrafine coals can be obtained only through the application of dynamic (centrifugal) procedures, and through the use of dispersing aids such as ultrasound and surfactants. These results suggest the presence of physicochemical phenomena, typical of colloidal systems. In theoretical studies this quarter, the effects of Brownian motion on fine particle sedimentation have been identified and theoretically quantitated. The interaction between Brownian and gravitational forces was calculated, and a model was prepared to permit estimation of critical particle size in float/sink separations. In laboratory studies this quarter, aliquots of Upper Freeport coal were prepared and subjected to laboratory float/sink separations to investigate the relative effectiveness of static and centrifugal techniques for fine and ultrafine coal. This series will verify results of earlier work and provide a basis for comparing the effects which may result from further modifications to the separation techniques resulting from insights gained in the basic phenomena governing float/sink processes. 15 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Determination of the mineral distribution in pulverized coal using densitometry and laser particle sizing

    SciTech Connect

    Hong Zhang; Yan-xue Mo; Ming Sun; Xian-yong Wei

    2005-12-01

    Coal particle size and mineral matter content have important effects on coal combustion. The mineral content of five Chinese coals was determined by a method combining densitometry and particle-size analysis. The finer particles of pulverized samples were found to contain more mineral content. Rank also had a significant influence on the particle-size ash-content distribution of pulverized coal particles. The sharpest size-ash distribution was found in pulverized anthracite samples; a broader distribution was found with bituminous coal samples, while a uniform distribution was observed in pulverized lignite samples. Ash in higher ash anthracite or lower ash bituminous coal is more evenly distributed. It is a combined effect of size distribution, yield, and proximate analysis of their density separation fractions. Mineral matter tends to distribute more evenly in finer pulverized coals. This results from a relative increase of the low-density fraction in the finer particles. 13 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  14. [Experimental study on the size spectra and emission factor of ultrafine particle from coal combustion].

    PubMed

    Sun, Zai; Yang, Wen-jun; Xie, Xiao-fang; Chen, Qiu-fang; Cai, Zhi-liang

    2014-12-01

    The emission characteristics of ultrafine particles released from pulverized coal combustion were studied, the size spectra of ultrafine particles (5.6-560 nm) were measured with FMPS (fast mobility particle sizer) on a self-built aerosol experiment platform. Meanwhile, a particle dynamic evolution model was established to obtain the particle deposition rate and the emission rate through the optimized algorithm. Finally, the emission factor was calculated. The results showed that at the beginning of particle generation, the size spectra were polydisperse and complex, the initial size spectra was mainly composed of three modes including 10 nm, 30-40 nm and 100-200 nm. Among them, the number concentration of mode around 10 nm was higher than those of other modes, the size spectrum of around 100-200 nm was lognormal distributed, with a CMD (count median diameter) of around 16 nm. Then, as time went on, the total number concentration was decayed by exponential law, the CMD first increased and then tended to be stable gradually. The calculation results showed that the emission factor of particles from coal combustion under laboratory condition was (5.54 x 10(12) ± 2.18 x 10(12)) unit x g(-1).

  15. Thermally induced structural changes in coal combustion. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Flagan, R.C.; Gavalas, G.R.

    1992-01-01

    The effects of the temperature-time history during coal devolitization and oxidation on the physical properties and the reactivity of resulting char were studied experimentally for temperatures and residence times typical of pulverized combustion. Experiments were also carried out at somewhat lower temperatures and correspondingly longer residence times. An electrically heated laminar flow reactor was used to generate char and measure the rates of oxidation at gas temperatures about 1600K. Partially oxidized chars were extracted and characterized by gas adsorption and mercury porosimetry, optical and scanning electron microscopy, and oxidation in a thermogravimetric analysis system (TGA). A different series of experiments was conducted using a quadrople electrodynamic balance. Single particles were suspended electrodynamically and heated by an infrared laser in an inert or oxygen-containing atmosphere. During the laser heating, measurements were taken of particle mass, size/shape, and temperature.

  16. Mulled coal: A beneficiated coal form for use as a fuel or fuel intermediate. Phase 3, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    Energy International Corporation (El) was awarded a contract to evaluate a new concept for utilization of the fine coal wetcake produced by many of the physical beneficiation processes now under development. EI proposed development of a stabilized wetcake with properties that would facilitate storage, handling, transport, and subsequent conversion of the material into Coal-Water Fuel (CWF) at the point of use. The effort was performed in three phases. Phase I established the technical feasibility of stabilizing the fine coal ``wetcake`` in a form that can be readily handled and converted into a desired fuel form at the combustion site. The preferred form of stabilized ``wetcake`` was a granular free flowing material with the moisture encapsulated with the fine coal particles. The product was termed Mulled Coal. Phase I results indicated that the Mulled Coal was not only suitable as a CWF intermediate, but also had potential as a solid fuel. Phase II demonstrated the utilization of the Mulled Coal process to store and move fine coal products as a stable ``wetcake.`` Tasks in this phase tested components of the various systems required for storage, handling and combustion of the fine coals. Phase III expanded the technology by: 1. Evaluating Mulled Coal from representative coals from all producing regions in the US. 2. Development of bench-scale tests. 3. Design, construction, and operation of a 1 ton/hr continuous processing unit. 4. Evaluation of the effects of beneficiation. and 5. Developing an estimate of capital and operating costs for commercial units.

  17. Filtering coal-derived oil through a filter media precoated with particles partially solubilized by said oil

    DOEpatents

    Rodgers, Billy R.; Edwards, Michael S.

    1977-01-01

    Solids such as char, ash, and refractory organic compounds are removed from coal-derived liquids from coal liquefaction processes by the pressure precoat filtration method using particles of 85-350 mesh material selected from the group of bituminous coal, anthracite coal, lignite, and devolatilized coals as precoat materials and as body feed to the unfiltered coal-derived liquid.

  18. Modeling of particle radiative properties in coal combustion depending on burnout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gronarz, Tim; Habermehl, Martin; Kneer, Reinhold

    2016-08-01

    In the present study, absorption and scattering efficiencies as well as the scattering phase function of a cloud of coal particles are described as function of the particle combustion progress. Mie theory for coated particles is applied as mathematical model. The scattering and absorption properties are determined by several parameters: size distribution, spectral distribution of incident radiation and spectral index of refraction of the particles. A study to determine the influence of each parameter is performed, finding that the largest effect is due to the refractive index, followed by the effect of size distribution. The influence of the incident radiation profile is negligible. As a part of this study, the possibility of applying a constant index of refraction is investigated. Finally, scattering and absorption efficiencies as well as the phase function are presented as a function of burnout with the presented model and the results are discussed.

  19. Formation and retention of methane in coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hucka, V.J.; Bodily, D.M.; Huang, H.

    1992-05-15

    The formation and retention of methane in coalbeds was studied for ten Utah coal samples, one Colorado coal sample and eight coal samples from the Argonne Premium Coal Sample Bank.Methane gas content of the Utah and Colorado coals varied from zero to 9 cm{sup 3}/g. The Utah coals were all high volatile bituminous coals. The Colorado coal was a gassy medium volatile bituminous coal. The Argonne coals cover a range or rank from lignite to low volatile bituminous coal and were used to determine the effect of rank in laboratory studies. The methane content of six selected Utah coal seams and the Colorado coal seam was measured in situ using a special sample collection device and a bubble desorbometer. Coal samples were collected at each measurement site for laboratory analysis. The cleat and joint system was evaluated for the coal and surrounding rocks and geological conditions were noted. Permeability measurements were performed on selected samples and all samples were analyzed for proximate and ultimate analysis, petrographic analysis, {sup 13}C NMR dipolar-dephasing spectroscopy, and density analysis. The observed methane adsorption behavior was correlated with the chemical structure and physical properties of the coals.

  20. Kinetics assisted design of catalysts for coal liquefaction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, M.T.; Foley, H.C.; Calkins, W.H.; Scouten, C.

    1998-02-01

    The thermal and catalytic reactions of 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl (NBBM), a resid and coal model compound, were examined. Catalytic reaction of NBBM was carried out at 400 C under hydrogen with a series of transition metal-based catalytic materials including Fe(CO){sub 4}PPh{sub 3}, Fe(CO){sub 3}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}, Fe(CO){sub 2}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}CS{sub 2}, Fe(CO){sub 5}, Mo(CO){sub 6}, Mn{sub 2}(CO){sub 10}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and MoS{sub 2}. Experimental findings and derived mechanistic insights were organized into molecular-level reaction models for NBBM pyrolysis and catalysis. Hydropyrolysis and catalysis reaction families occurring during NBBM hydropyrolysis at 420 C were summarized in the form of reaction matrices which, upon exhaustive application to the components of the reacting system, yielded the mechanistic reaction model. Each reaction family also had an associated linear free energy relationship (LFER) which provided an estimate of the rate constant k{sub i} given a structural property of species i or its reaction. Including the catalytic reaction matrices with those for the pyrolysis model provided a comprehensive NBBM catalytic reaction model and allowed regression of fundamental LFER parameters for the catalytic reaction families. The model also allowed specification of the property of an optimal catalyst. Iron, molybdenum and palladium were predicted to be most effective for model compound consumption. Due to the low costs associated with iron and its disposal, it is a good choice for coal liquefaction catalysis and the challenge remains to synthesize small particles able to access the full surface area of the coal macromolecule.

  1. X-ray Computed Tomography of coal: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Maylotte, D.H.; Spiro, C.L.; Kosky, P.G.; Lamby, E.J.

    1986-12-01

    X-ray Computed Tomography (CT) is a method of mapping with x-rays the internal structures of coal. The technique normally produces 2-D images of the internal structures of an object. These images can be recast to create pseudo 3-D representations. CT of coal has been explored for a variety of different applications to coal and coal processing technology. In a comparison of CT data with conventional coal analyses and petrography, CT was found to offer a good indication of the total ash content of the coal. The spatial distribution of the coal mineral matter as seen with CT has been suggested as an indicator of coal washability. Studies of gas flow through coal using xenon gas as a tracer have shown the extremely complicated nature of the modes of penetration of gas through coal, with significant differences in the rates at which the gas can pass along and across the bedding planes of coal. In a special furnace designed to allow CT images to be taken while the coal was being heated, the pyrolysis and gasification of coal have been studied. Gasification rates with steam and CO/sub 2/ for a range of coal ranks have been obtained, and the location of the gasification reactions within the piece of coal can be seen. Coal drying and the progress of the pyrolysis wave into coal have been examined when the coal was subjected to the kind of sudden temperature jump that it might experience in fixed bed gasifier applications. CT has also been used to examine stable flow structures within model fluidized beds and the accessibility of lump coal to microbial desulfurization. 53 refs., 242 figs., 26 tabs.

  2. Chemical kinetics and transport processes in supercritical fluid extraction of coal. Final report, August 10, 1990--December 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    McCoy, B.J.; Smith, J.M.; Wang, M.; Zhang, C.J.

    1993-02-01

    The overall objective of this project was to study the supercritical fluid extraction of hydrocarbons from coal. Beyond the practical concern of deriving products from coal, the research has provided insights into the structure, properties, and reactivities of coal. Information on engineering fundamentals of coal thermolysis and extraction, including physical and chemical processes, is presented in this final report. To accomplish the goals of the project we developed continuous-flow experiments for fixed-bed samples of coal that allow two types of analysis of the extract: continuous spectrophotometric absorbance measurements of the lumped concentration of extract, and chromatographic determinations of molecular-weight distributions as a function of time. Thermolysis of coal yields a complex mixture of many extract products whose molecular-weight distribution (MWD) varies with time for continuous-flow, semibatch experiments. The flow reactor with a differential, fixed bed of coal particles contacted by supercritical t-butanol was employed to provide dynamic MWD data by means of HPLC gel permeation chromatography of the extract. The experimental results, time-dependent MWDs of extract molecules, were interpreted by a novel mathematical model based on continuous-mixture kinetics for thermal cleavage of chemical bonds in the coal network. The parameters for the MWDs of extractable groups in the coal and the rate constants for one- and two-fragment reaction are determined from the experimental data. The significant effect of temperature on the kinetics of the extraction was explained in terms of one- and two-fragment reactions in the coal.

  3. Coal slurry tanker movements of western coal to east coast utilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rieber, M.

    1983-02-01

    From four western coal areas, coal slurry pipelines of 10 MMTY and 25 MMTY are designed and costed (1982 basis) for coal delivery to three ports. Supertankers are routed around South America, Panamax through the Panama Canal. Tanker characteristics are specified statistically and costs determined. A tidewater utility alternative is investigated. Based on western coal prices, adjusted for quality differentials, plus transport costs, delivered coal costs are compared to current east coast delivered steam coal prices. The proposed system is not economically feasible at current prices but may become commercial as steam coal demand increases and eastern coal prices rise.

  4. Coal gasification tests at TVA (Tennessee Valley Authority): Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Crim, M.C.; Williamson, P.C.

    1987-02-01

    This report presents the results obtained from the EPRI cofunded tests conducted at TVA's 200 tpd Texaco coal gasification facility equipped with a water quench gasifier. Four US coals were tested at TVA: (1) Utah coal from the SUFCO mine, (2) Illinois No. 6 coal from the Amax Delta mine, (3) Pittsburgh No. 8 coal from the Blacksville No. 2 mine and (4) a high ash-fusion Maryland coal. The TVA tests were of short term duration totaling approximately 10 to 20 days of cumulative operation on each coal. The gasification behavior of each coal was tested under a wide range of process conditions and feed characteristics. All four coals produced carbon conversion of 92% or higher. Utah and Illinois No. 6 coals achieved carbon conversions of 95 to 97%. The high heating value Pittsburgh No. 8 coal had lower carbon conversion because the maximum allowable gasifier temperature was reached at relatively low O/C ratios. The high-ash fusion Maryland coal was gasified with a fluxing agent at temperatures within the design limit of the TVA gasifier. The gasification behavior of the coals was similar to that observed from tests at other Texaco gasifiers. However, earlier experiments at Texaco's Montebello Research Laboratories showed higher values for both carbon conversion and coal gas efficiency. 27 figs., 35 tabs.

  5. Detection of magnetite particles in coal by ferromagnetic resonance

    SciTech Connect

    Malhotra, V.M.; Graham, W.R.M.

    1985-02-15

    The techniques of ferromagnetic (FMR) and electron paramagnetic resonance have been applied in studies of Pittsburgh No. 8 bituminous coal. The specimen has been found to be magnetically very heterogeneous, with paramagnetic Mn/sup 2 +/ and Fe/sup 3 +/, free radicals, and at least one ferromagnetic specie which is identified and characterized in the present paper. The temperature dependence of the spectral line shapes indicates the occurrence of a phase transition at 123 K for a finely ground powder sample and at 121 K for a hand-picked fragment; these temperatures are characteristic of the Verwey transition in magnetite, and confirm its presence in both samples. Linewidth data provide an upper limit of 0.07 ..mu..m on the particle size in the powdered sample. The chemical composition of the magnetite in the powdered sample is estimated, on the basis of the observed transition temperature, to be between Fe/sub 2.988/O/sub 4/ and Fe/sub 2.997/O/sub 4/. Spectra of the residue and the glass extract obtained after treatment of the powdered sample with HCl confirm the identification of magnetite, and indicate that it is not embedded in the organic matter in the coal, but should be easily removed either by acid treatment or magnetic separation. The results suggest the potential usefulness in the identification and physical and chemical characterization of ferro- and ferrimagnetic minerals in coals.

  6. OPTIMIZATION OF COAL PARTICLE FLOW PATTERNS IN LOW NOX BURNERS

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt; Gregory E. Ogden; Jennifer Sinclair; Stephanus Budilarto

    2001-09-04

    It is well understood that the stability of axial diffusion flames is dependent on the mixing behavior of the fuel and combustion air streams. Combustion aerodynamic texts typically describe flame stability and transitions from laminar diffusion flames to fully developed turbulent flames as a function of increasing jet velocity. Turbulent diffusion flame stability is greatly influenced by recirculation eddies that transport hot combustion gases back to the burner nozzle. This recirculation enhances mixing and heats the incoming gas streams. Models describing these recirculation eddies utilize conservation of momentum and mass assumptions. Increasing the mass flow rate of either fuel or combustion air increases both the jet velocity and momentum for a fixed burner configuration. Thus, differentiating between gas velocity and momentum is important when evaluating flame stability under various operating conditions. The research efforts described herein are part of an ongoing project directed at evaluating the effect of flame aerodynamics on NO{sub x} emissions from coal fired burners in a systematic manner. This research includes both experimental and modeling efforts being performed at the University of Arizona in collaboration with Purdue University. The objective of this effort is to develop rational design tools for optimizing low NO{sub x} burners. Experimental studies include both cold-and hot-flow evaluations of the following parameters: primary and secondary inlet air velocity, coal concentration in the primary air, coal particle size distribution and flame holder geometry. Hot-flow experiments will also evaluate the effect of wall temperature on burner performance.

  7. Enhancement of surface properties for coal beneficiation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, S.; Aplan, F.F.

    1992-01-30

    This report will focus on means of pyrite removal from coal using surface-based coal cleaning technologies. The major subjects being addressed in this study are the natural and modulated surface properties of coal and pyrite and how they may best be utilized to facilitate their separation using advanced surface-based coal cleaning technology. Emphasis is based on modified flotation and oil agglomerative processes and the basic principles involved. The four areas being addressed are: (1) Collectorless flotation of pyrite; (2) Modulation of pyrite and coal hydrophobicity; (3) Emulsion processes and principles; (4) Evaluation of coal hydrophobicity.

  8. Ultrafine grinding of low-rank coal: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchillon, C.W.; Steele, W.G.

    1986-08-01

    A study of ultrafine grinding of low-rank coals in a fluid-energy mill was undertaken. This report presents the results of the Phase I effort which included a review of the literature on ultrafine grinding, a review of theories of grinding, a combined grinding and drying experiment on Martin Lake Texas lignite, an evaluation of the energy requirements for the process, and an evaluation of the properties of the products from the grinding tests. A sample of Martin Lake Texas lignite was obtained and a series of tests were conducted in a fluid-energy mill at the Ergon, Inc., Micro-Energy Division development facility at Vicksburg, MS. The grinding fluids used were air at 116 F and steam at 225, 310, 350, 400, and 488 F as measured in the mill. The products of these tests were analyzed for volatile mattr, ash, total moisture, equilibrium moisture, heating value, density distribution, aerodynamic particle size classification, angle of repose, porosity, density, and particle size distribution. ASTM test procedures were followed where applicable. Ultimate and ash mineral analyses were also conducted on the samples. Results of the various tests are presented in detail in the report. In general, the fluid energy mill was used succssfully in simultaneous grinding and drying of the lignite. Particle size reduction to less than 10 microns on a population basis was achieved. The equilibrium moisture of the samples decreased with increasing grinding fluid temperatures. Density distribution studies showed that a significant fraction of the ash appeared in the >1.6 specific gravity particles. The energy required for the grinding/drying process increased with increasing mill temperatures. 29 refs., 18 figs., 13 tabs.

  9. Study of the comminution characteristics of coal by single particle breakage test device

    SciTech Connect

    Sahoo, R.

    2005-09-01

    Single-particle breakage tests of South Blackwater and Ensham coal from the Bowen Basin area in Queensland were conducted by a computer-monitored twin-pendulum device to measure the energy utilization pattern of the breakage particles. Three particle sizes (-16.0+13.2mm, -13.2+11.2mm, -11.2+9.5mm) of each coal were tested by a pendulum device at five input energy levels to measure the specific comminution energy. When particles were tested at constant input energy, the variation of comminution energy between the same size broken particles of Ensham coal was minimal, because Ensham coal is a softer and higher friability coal, which absorbs more input energy than harder coal during breakage tests. For different particle sizes, the specific comminution energy increases linearly with the input energy and the fineness of the breakage products increases with the specific comminution energy. The size distribution graphs are curved but approach linearity in the finer region. At a constant input energy, the twin pendulum breakage product results show that the fineness of the products increases with decrease in particle size and South Blackwater coal produced finer products than the Ensham coal. The t-curves are the family of size distribution curves, which can describe the product size distribution of the breakage particles during single-particle breakage tests.

  10. Wear mechanism and wear prevention in coal-fueled diesel engines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Schwalb, J.A.; Ryan, T.W.

    1991-10-01

    Coal fueled diesel engines present unique wear problems in the piston ring/cylinder liner area because of their tendency to contaminate the lube-oil with high concentrations of highly abrasive particles. This program involved a series of bench-scale wear tests and engine tests designed to investigate various aspects of the ring/liner wear problem and to make specific recommendations to engine manufacturers as to how to alleviate these problems. The program was organized into tasks, designed to accomplish the following objectives: (1) define the predominant wear mechanisms causing accelerated wear in the ring/liner area; (2) investigate the effectiveness of traditional approaches to wear prevention to prevent wear in coal-fueled engines; (3) further refine information on the most promising approaches to wear prevention; (4) present detailed information and recommendations to engine manufacturers on the most promising approach to wear prevention; (5) present a final report covering the entire program; (6)complete engine tests with a coal-derived liquid fuel, and investigate the effects of the fuel on engine wear and emissions.

  11. Digital image processing applications in the ignition and combustion of char/coal particles

    SciTech Connect

    Annamalai, K.; Kharbat, E.; Goplakrishnan, C.

    1992-12-01

    Digital image processing, is employed in this remarch study in order to visually investigate the ignition and combustion characteristics of isolated char/coal particles as well as the effect of interactivecombustion in two-particle char/coal arrays. Preliminary experiments are conducted on miniature isolated candles as well as two-candle arrays.

  12. Studies for the stabilization of coal-oil mixtures. Final report, August 1978-May 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Botsaris, G.D.; Glazman, Y.M.; Adams-Viola, M.

    1981-01-01

    A fundamental understanding of the stabilization of coal-oil mixtures (COM) was developed. Aggregation of the coal particles was determined to control both the sedimentation and rheological properties of the COM. Sedimentation stability of COM prepared with coal, 80% < 200 mesh, is achieved by particle aggregation, which leads to the formation of a network of particles throughout the oil. The wettability of coal powders was evaluated by the Pickering emulsion test and a spherical agglomeration test to assess its effect on the stability of various COM formulations. Sedimentation stability of hydrophilic coal-oil-water mixtures (COWM) involves the formation of water bridges between the coal particles, while less stabilization of oleophilic COWM is achieved by the formation of an emulsion. Anionic SAA were least sensitive to the coal type and enhanced the aggregation stability of the suspension. The effect of cationic SAA, nonionic SAA and polymer additives depended upon the specific chemical structure of the SAA, the water content of the COM and the type of coal. The sedimentation stability of ultrafine COM was not directly due to the fineness of the powder but due to the formation of a network of flocculated particles.

  13. Combustion characteristics of dry coal-powder-fueled adiabatic diesel engine: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kakwani, R.M.; Kamo, R.

    1989-01-01

    This report describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at investigating the combustion characteristics of dry coal powder fueled diesel engine. During this program, significant achievements were made in overcoming many problems facing the coal-powder-fueled engine. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept was used to enhance the combustion of coal powder fuel. The major coal-fueled engine test results and accomplishments are as follows: design, fabrication and engine testing of improved coal feed system for fumigation of coal powder to the intake air; design, fabrication and engine testing of the TICS chamber made from a superalloy material (Hastelloy X); design, fabrication and engine testing of wear resistant chrome oxide ceramic coated piston rings and cylinder liner; lubrication system was improved to separate coal particles from the contaminated lubricating oil; control of the ignition timing of fumigated coal powder by utilizing exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) and variable TICS chamber temperature; coal-fueled engine testing was conducted in two configurations: dual fuel (with diesel pilot) and 100% coal-fueled engine without diesel pilot or heated intake air; cold starting of the 100% coal-powder-fueled engine with a glow plug; and coal-fueled-engine was operated from 800 to 1800 rpm speed and idle to full load engine conditions.

  14. Final Report: Particle Physics Research Program

    SciTech Connect

    Karchin, Paul E.

    2011-09-01

    We describe recent progress in accelerator-based experiments in high-energy particle physics and progress in theoretical investigations in particle physics. We also describe future plans in these areas.

  15. Removal of organic and inorganic sulfur from Ohio coal by combined physical and chemical process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Attia, Y.A.; Zeky, M.El.; Lei, W.W.; Bavarian, F.; Yu, S.

    1989-04-28

    This project consisted of three sections. In the first part, the physical cleaning of Ohio coal by selective flocculation of ultrafine slurry was considered. In the second part, the mild oxidation process for removal of pyritic and organic sulfur.was investigated. Finally, in-the third part, the combined effects of these processes were studied. The physical cleaning and desulfurization of Ohio coal was achieved using selective flocculation of ultrafine coal slurry in conjunction with froth flotation as flocs separation method. The finely disseminated pyrite particles in Ohio coals, in particular Pittsburgh No.8 seam, make it necessary to use ultrafine ({minus}500 mesh) grinding to liberate the pyrite particles. Experiments were performed to identify the ``optimum`` operating conditions for selective flocculation process. The results indicated that the use of a totally hydrophobic flocculant (FR-7A) yielded the lowest levels of mineral matters and total sulfur contents. The use of a selective dispersant (PAAX) increased the rejection of pyritic sulfur further. In addition, different methods of floc separation techniques were tested. It was found that froth flotation system was the most efficient method for separation of small coal flocs.

  16. Pilot Plant Program for the AED Advanced Coal Cleaning System. Phase II. Interim final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    Advanced Energy Dynamics, Inc. (AED), has developed a proprietary coal cleaning process which employs a combination of ionization and electrostatic separation to remove both sulfur and ash from dry pulverized coal. The Ohio Department of Energy sponsored the first part of a program to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate the process in a continuous-flow pilot plant. Various coals used by Ohio electric utilities were characterized and classified, and sulfur reduction, ash reduction and Btu recovery were measured. Sulfur removal in various coals ranged from 33 to 68% (on a Btu basis). Ash removal ranged from 17 to 59% (on a Btu basis). Ash removal of particles greater than 53 microns ranged from 46 to 88%. Btu recovery ranged from 90 to 97%. These results, especially the large percentage removal of ash particles greater than 53 microns, suggest that the AED system can contribute materially to improved boiler performance and availability. The study indicated the following potential areas for commercial utilization of the AED process: installation between the pulverizer and boiler of conventional coal-fired power utilities; reclamation of fine coal refuse; dry coal cleaning to supplement, and, if necessary, to take the place of conventional coal cleaning; upgrading coal used in: (1) coal-oil mixtures, (2) gasification and liquefaction processes designed to handle pulverized coal; and (3) blast furnaces for making steel, as a fuel supplement to the coke. Partial cleaning of coking coal blends during preheating may also prove economically attractive. Numerous other industrial processes which use pulverized coal such as the production of activated carbon and direct reduction of iron ore may also benefit from the use of AED coal cleaning.

  17. Final safety assessment of Coal Tar as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    2008-01-01

    Coal Tar is a semisolid by-product obtained in the destructive distillation of bituminous coal, which functions in cosmetic products as a cosmetic biocide and denaturant--antidandruff agent is also listed as a function, but this is considered an over-the-counter (OTC) drug use. Coal Tar is a nearly black, viscous liquid, heavier than water, with a naphthalene-like odor and a sharp burning taste, produced in cooking ovens as a by-product in the manufacture of coke. Crude Coal Tar is composed of 48% hydrocarbons, 42% carbon, and 10% water. In 2002, Coal Tar was reported to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) to be used in four formulations, all of which appear to be OTC drug products. Coal Tar is monographed by the FDA as Category I (safe and effective) OTC drug ingredient for use in the treatment of dandruff, seborrhoea, and psoriasis. Coal Tar is absorbed through the skin of animals and humans and is systemically distributed. In short-term studies, mice fed a diet containing Coal Tar found it unpalatable, but no adverse effects were reported other than weight loss; rats injected with Coal Tar experienced malaise in one study and decreased water intake and increased liver weights in another; rabbits injected with Coal Tar residue experienced eating avoidance, respiratory difficulty, sneezing, and weight loss. In a subchronic neurotoxicity study using mice, a mixture of phenols, cresols, and xylenols at concentrations approximately equal to those expected in Coal Tar extracts produced regionally selective effects, with a rank order of corpus striatum > cerebellum > cerebral cortex. Coal Tar applied to the backs of guinea pigs increases epidermal thickness. Painting female rabbits with tar decreases the absolute and relative weights of the ovaries and decreased the number of interstitial cells in the ovary. Four therapeutic Coal Tar preparations used in the treatment of psoriasis were mutagenic in the Ames assay. Urine and blood from patients treated with Coal Tar

  18. Using ground and intact coal Samples to evaluate hydrocarbon fate during supercritical CO2 injection into coal beds: effects of particle size and coal moisture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolak, Jon; Hackley, Paul C.; Ruppert, Leslie F.; Warwick, Peter D.; Burruss, Robert

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the potential for mobilizing organic compounds from coal beds during geologic carbon dioxide (CO2) storage (sequestration), a series of solvent extractions using dichloromethane (DCM) and using supercritical CO2 (40 °C and 10 MPa) were conducted on a set of coal samples collected from Louisiana and Ohio. The coal samples studied range in rank from lignite A to high volatile A bituminous, and were characterized using proximate, ultimate, organic petrography, and sorption isotherm analyses. Sorption isotherm analyses of gaseous CO2 and methane show a general increase in gas storage capacity with coal rank, consistent with findings from previous studies. In the solvent extractions, both dry, ground coal samples and moist, intact core plug samples were used to evaluate effects of variations in particle size and moisture content. Samples were spiked with perdeuterated surrogate compounds prior to extraction, and extracts were analyzed via gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The DCM extracts generally contained the highest concentrations of organic compounds, indicating the existence of additional hydrocarbons within the coal matrix that were not mobilized during supercritical CO2 extractions. Concentrations of aliphatic and aromatic compounds measured in supercritical CO2 extracts of core plug samples generally are lower than concentrations in corresponding extracts of dry, ground coal samples, due to differences in particle size and moisture content. Changes in the amount of extracted compounds and in surrogate recovery measured during consecutive supercritical CO2extractions of core plug samples appear to reflect the transition from a water-wet to a CO2-wet system. Changes in coal core plug mass during supercritical CO2 extraction range from 3.4% to 14%, indicating that a substantial portion of coal moisture is retained in the low-rank coal samples. Moisture retention within core plug samples, especially in low-rank coals, appears to inhibit

  19. Extraction, separation, and analysis of high sulfur coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Olesik, S.V.; Pekay, L.A.; Larkins, W. Jr.

    1992-05-31

    The work described in this report studies the removal of sulfur by oxidative interaction of various cupric salts with coal and also considers the possibility of removing organic sulfur by the selective interaction of supercritical ethanol with the organic coal matrix. Either one of these methods could potentially be used to pretreat coals before burning. The primary purpose of these studies is to ascertain the nature of the chemical reactions occurring, the chemical composition of the resultant products, and information on possible reaction mechanisms. This information should allow prediction of reasonable reaction conditions for the removal of organosulfur compound from coal.

  20. Advanced physical fine coal cleaning spherical agglomeration. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    The project included process development, engineering, construction, and operation of a 1/3 tph proof-of-concept (POC) spherical agglomeration test module. The POC tests demonstrated that physical cleaning of ultrafine coal by agglomeration using heptane can achieve: (1) Pyritic sulfur reductions beyond that possible with conventional coal cleaning methods; (2) coal ash contents below those which can be obtained by conventional coal cleaning methods at comparable energy recoveries; (3) energy recoveries of 80 percent or greater measured against the raw coal energy content; (4) complete recovery of the heptane bridging liquid from the agglomerates; and (5) production of agglomerates with 3/8-inch size and less than 30 percent moisture. Test results met or exceeded all of the program objectives. Nominal 3/8-inch size agglomerates with less than 20 percent moisture were produced. The clean coal ash content varied between 1.5 to 5.5 percent by weight (dry basis) depending on feed coal type. Ash reductions of the run-of-mine (ROM) coal were 77 to 83 percent. ROM pyritic sulfur reductions varied from 86 to 90 percent for the three test coals, equating to total sulfur reductions of 47 to 72 percent.

  1. Biological degradation of low-rank coal: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, W.J.

    1989-06-01

    The principal objective of this research project as to investigate the potential for anaerobic bioconversion of low-rank coal. The research was divided into three phases, including: (a) assessment of biodegradation and coal chemistry, (b) anaerobic bioconversion of ''model'' low-rank coal constituents; and (c) anaerobic bioconversion of coal. A literature review of coal chemistry and microbially-mediated processes related to coal bioconversion was performed. Initial lab studies were conducted with selected ''model'' compounds, including simple aromatic constituents (phenol, cresol, catechol) as well as more complex aromatic compounds (naphthol, 9-phenanthrol, dibenzothiophene) which may be components of low-rank coal. Analytical procedures were developed for efficient extraction, separation and quantitation of the test ''model'' compounds. Additional studies with a benzene-derived extract of a low-rank coal sample were performed. Extraction and quantitation procedures were developed to assess bioconversion potential. Preliminary toxicity experiments with ''model'' compounds revealed partial inhibition of growth of selected pure bacterial cultres as well as inhibition of microbial consortia at concentrations above those used in our test system. For most of the test compounds, little or no inhibition (toxicity) was noted. Overall results suggest that complex aromatic constituents which may be representative of low-rank coal structure are relatively recalcitrant to microbial attack by natural microbial populations. 88 refs., 14 figs., 23 tabs.

  2. Fine coal fractionation using a magnetohydrostatic separation process CRADA 91-003. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Cho, Heechan; Killmeyer, R. P.

    1992-10-31

    The magnetohydrostatic separation (MHS) process uses a magnetic fluid which has the ability to float a submerged particle in a magnetic field. The objective of this project was to develop a technique for laboratory gravity fractionation of coal using MHS.

  3. New Particle Formation Study Final Campaign Report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, JN; McMurry, PH

    2015-01-01

    The scientific foci of the New Particle Formation Study were the formation and evolution of atmospheric aerosols and the impacts of newly formed particles on cloud processes. Specifically, we planned to: (1) to identify the species and mechanisms responsible for the initial steps of new particle formation, i.e., the formation of thermodynamically stable clusters; (2) investigate the role of acid-base chemistry in new particle growth through measurements of ammonia and amines as well as organic and inorganic acids in both atmospheric nanoparticles and the gas phase; (3) investigate the contribution of other surface area or volume-controlled processes to nanoparticle formation and growth; (4) create a comprehensive dataset related to new particle formation and growth that can be used as input for our own thermodynamic models as well as the modeling efforts by our Department of Energy (DOE) Aerosol Life Cycle working group collaborators; (5) characterize the increase of the number and activity of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) due to particle formation and growth; (6) determine the regional extent of new particle formation to address the role that atmospheric transport plays in determining the impacts, if any, of new particle formation on cloud number and properties.

  4. Low-rank coal thermal properties and diffusivity: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ramirez, W.F.

    1987-06-01

    This project developed techniques for measuring thermal properties and mass diffusivities of low-rank coals and coal powders. Using the concept of volume averaging, predictive models have been developed for these porous media properties. The Hot Wire Method was used for simultaneously measuring the thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity of both consolidated and unconsolidated low-rank coals. A new computer-interfaced experiment is presented and sample container designs developed for both coal powders and consolidated coals. A new mathematical model, based upon volume averaging, is presented for the prediction of these porous media properties. Velocity and temperature effects on liquid-phase dispersion through unconsolidated coal were determined. Radioactive tracer data were used to determine mass diffusivities. A new predictive mathematical model is presented based upon volume averaging. Vapor-phase diffusivity measurements of organic solvents in consolidated lignite coal are reported. An unsteady-state pressure response experiment with microcomputed-based data acquisition was developed to estimate dispersion coefficients through consolidated lignite coals. The mathematical analysis of the pressure response data provides the dispersion coefficient and the adsorption coefficient. 48 refs., 59 figs., 17 tabs.

  5. Predictors of plasticity in bituminous coals. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, W. G.; Reasoner, J. W.; Hower, J. C.; Yates, L. P.; Clark, C. P.; Davis, E.; Fitzpatrick, A.; Irefin, A.; Jiminez, A.; Jones, T. M.

    1984-02-01

    A group of 40 hvb coals, mostly from western Kentucky fields, has been examined with regard to ASTM Gieseler plastometric properties. Twenty-nine of these coals have also been studied over a range of temperatures by isothermal Gieseler plastometry. Raw Gieseler data provide melting and coking slopes and readily calculable fluidity spans. Maximum fluidity by slope intersection is a more consistent measure than observed maximum fluidity. Isothermal slopes and maximum fluidities follow Arrhenius temperature dependencies, with activation energies related systematically to fluid properties. These freshly sampled coals are also characterized by chemical, physical and petrographic criteria, by quantitative solvent extractions, by pyrolysis gas chromatography, by Fourier Transform infrared analysis of coals and extraction residues, by the HPLC analysis of coal extracts, and by optical microscopy of coals and Gieseler semi-coke residues. Multiple linear regression analysis yields three-term expressions which estimate maximum fluidities (both ASTM and isothermal) with R values of .90 to .92. Slopes and critical temperatures are similarly predictable. Plastometer experiments with selected coals under superatmospheric pressures show both melting slopes and maximum fluidities to be sharply increased, the latter by one to three orders of magnitude. Some suggestions are offered to accommodate this new information into the general body of knowledge concerning the phenomenon of plasticity in mid-ranked coals. 81 references, 28 figures, 40 tables.

  6. Ohio Coal Testing and Development Facility - Construction and operation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Ferris, D.D.

    1996-03-01

    On June 14, 1987, the Ohio Coal Development Office (OCDO) executed a grant agreement with ICF Kaiser Engineers (ICF Kaiser) for the planning and design (Phase I) of a Demonstration Advanced Technology Coal Preparation Facility. Subsequently, on December 1, 1990, OCDO executed a grant agreement with the American Electric Power Service Corporation (AEPSC) through its subsidiary, the Ohio Power Company, for the final design and construction (Phase II), testing and operation (Phase III), and marketing and future operation (Phase IV) of the facility. These phases were subcontracted to ICF Kaiser. AEPSC co-sponsored the project and donated a site at the Central Ohio Coal Company`s Unionville Coal Preparation Plant for locating the test plant. Central Ohio Coal supplied coal handling services, waste-product disposal, and water. The Ohio Power Company provided project oversight, electric power, and the test coals. The test results from the operation of the 30 tph advanced coal cleaning plant demonstrated that combining conventional physical coal cleaning with emerging advanced physical coal cleaning technologies was a cost-effective method to reduce sulfur emissions of Ohio coals. The following is a summary of the key findings of this project.

  7. Liquid Tin Anode Direct Coal Fuel Cell Final Program Report

    SciTech Connect

    Tao, Thomas

    2012-01-26

    This SBIR program will result in improved LTA cell technology which is the fundamental building block of the Direct Coal ECL concept. As described below, ECL can make enormous efficiency and cost contributions to utility scale coal power. This program will improve LTA cells for small scale power generation. As described in the Commercialization section, there are important intermediate military and commercial markets for LTA generators that will provide an important bridge to the coal power application. The specific technical information from this program relating to YSZ electrolyte durability will be broadly applicable SOFC developers working on coal based SOFC generally. This is an area about which very little is currently known and will be critical for successfully applying fuel cells to coal power generation.

  8. Low severity conversion of activated coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hirschon, A.S.; Ross, D.S.

    1990-01-01

    The results suggest that coal contains regions with structural components significantly reactive under the hydrothermal environment. Although the specific mechanism for this process remains to be developed, this activity is reminiscent of findings in studies of accelerated maturation of oil shale, where hydrothermal treatment (hydrous pyrolysis) leads to the production of petroleum hydrocarbons. In line with what has been seen in the oil shale work, the pretreatment-generated hydrocarbons and phenols appear to represent a further or more complete maturation of some fraction of the organic material within the coal. These observations could have an impact in two areas. The first is in the area of coal structure, where immature, reactive regions have not been included in the structures considered at present. The second area of interest is the more practical one of conversions to coal liquids and pyrolytic tars. It seems clear that the hydrothermal pretreatment changes the coal in some manner that favorably affects the product quality substantially and, as in the CO/water liquefaction case, favorably affects the yields. The conversions of coals of lower rank, i.e., less mature coals, could particularly benefit in terms of both product quality and product quantity. The second portion of this project also shows important benefits to coal conversion technology. It deals with synthesizing catalysts designed to cleave the weak links in the coal structure and then linking these catalysts with the pretreatment methods in Task 2. The results show that highly dispersed catalysts can effectively be used to increase the yields of soluble material. An important aspect of highly dispersed catalysts are that they can effectively catalyze coal conversion even in poor liquefaction solvents, thus making them very attractive in processes such as coprocessing where inexpensive liquefaction media such as resids are used.

  9. Particle Pressures in Fluidized Beds. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Jin, C.

    1996-09-01

    This project studies the particle pressure, which may be thought of as the force exerted by the particulate phase of a multiphase mixture, independently of that exerted by other phases. The project is divided into two parts, one concerning gas and the other liquid fluidized beds. Previous work on gas fluidized beds had suggested that the particle pressures are generated by bubbling action. Thus, for these gas fluidized bed studies, the particle pressure is measured around single bubbles generated in 2-D fluidized beds, using special probes developed especially for this purpose. Liquid beds are immune from bubbling and the particle pressures proved too small to measure directly. However, the major interest in particle pressures in liquid beds lies in their stabilizing effect that arises from the effective elasticity (the derivative of the particle pressure with respect to the void fraction): they impart to the bed. So rather than directly measure the particle pressure, we inferred the values of the elasticity from measurements of instability growth in liquid beds the inference was made by first developing a generic stability model (one with all the normally modeled coefficients left undetermined)and then working backwards to determine the unknown coefficients, including the elasticity.

  10. Particle pressures in fluidized beds. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Campbell, C.S.; Rahman, K.; Jin, C.

    1996-09-01

    This project studies the particle pressure, which may be thought of as the force exerted by the particulate phase of a multiphase mixture, independently of that exerted by other phases. The project is divided into two parts, one concerning gas and the other liquid fluidized beds. Previous work on gas fluidized beds had suggested that the particle pressures are generated by bubbling action. Thus, for these gas fluidized bed studies, the particle pressure is measured around single bubbles generated in 2-D fluidized beds, using special probes developed especially for this purpose. Liquid beds are immune from bubbling and the particle pressures proved too small to measure directly. However, the major interest in particle pressures in liquid beds lies in their stabilizing effect that arises from the effective elasticity (the derivative of the particle pressure with respect to the void fraction), they impart to the bed. So rather than directly measure the particle pressure, the authors inferred the values of the elasticity from measurements of instability growth in liquid beds; the inference was made by first developing a generic stability model (one with all the normally modeled coefficients left undetermined) and then working backwards to determine the unknown coefficients, including the elasticity.

  11. Temperatures of coal particle during devolatilization in fluidized bed combustion reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Komatina, M.; Manovic, V.; Saljnikov, A.

    2006-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the thermal behavior of coal during devolatilization in fluidized bed. Temperatures in the center of single coal particle were measured by thermocouple. Two coals were tested (brown coal Bogovina and lignite Kosovo), using dry coal particle, shaped into spherical form of diameters 7 and 10 mm, in temperature range from 300 to 850{sup o}C. Unsteady behavior of coal particle during heating and devolatilization in fluidized bed was described by a model that takes into account heat transfer between bed and particle surface, heat transfer through particle and an endothermic chemical reaction of first-order. Based on the mathematical model analysis and compared with experimental results, values of heat conductivity {lambda}{sub C} and heat capacity (C-p) of coal were determined. The best agreement was obtained for constant thermal properties, for brown coal {lambda}{sub C} = 0.20 W/mK and C{sub p} = 1200 J/kgK and for lignite {lambda}{sub C} = 0.17 W/mK and C-p = 1100 J/kgK.

  12. Mineralogical characterization of ambient fine/ultrafine particles emitted from Xuanwei C1 coal combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Senlin; Hao, Xiaojie; Liu, Dingyu; Wang, Qiangxiang; Zhang, Wenchao; Liu, Pinwei; Zhang, Rongci; Yu, Shang; Pan, Ruiqi; Wu, Minghong; Yonemochi, Shinich; Wang, Qingyue

    2016-03-01

    Nano-quartz in Xuanwei coal, the uppermost Permian (C1) coal deposited in the northwest of Yuanan, China, has been regarded as one of factors which caused high lung cancer incidence in the local residents. However, mineralogical characterization of the fine/ultrafine particles emitted from Xuanwei coal combustion has not previously been studied. In this study, PM1 and ultrafine particles emitted from Xuanwei coal combustion were sampled. Chemical elements in the ambient particles were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and mineralogical characterization of these ambient particles was investigated using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM/EDX) and transmission electronic microscopy, coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (TEM/EDX). Our results showed that the size distribution of mineral particles from the coal combustion emissions ranged from 20 to 200 nm. Si-containing particles and Fe-containing particles accounted for 50.7% of the 150 individual particles measured, suggesting that these two types of particles were major minerals in the ambient particles generally. The nano-mineral particles were identified as quartz (SiO2) and gypsum (CaSO4) based on their crystal parameters and chemical elements. Additionally, there also existed unidentified nano-minerals. Armed with these data, toxicity assessments of the nano-minerals will be carried out in a future study.

  13. Gaseous phase coal surface modification. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Okoh, J.M.; Pinion, J.; Thiensatit, S.

    1992-05-07

    In this report, we present an improved, feasible and potentially cost effective method of cleaning and beneficiating ultrafine coal. Increased mechanization of mining methods and the need towards depyritization, and demineralization have led to an increase in the quantity of coal fines generated in recent times. For example, the amount of {minus}100 mesh coal occurring in coal preparation plant feeds now typically varies from 5 to 25% of the total feed. Environmental constraints coupled with the greatly increased cost of coal have made it increasingly important to recover more of these fines. Our method chemically modifies the surface of such coals by a series of gaseous phase treatments employing Friedel-Crafts reactions. By using olefins (ethene, propene and butene) and hydrogen chloride catalyst at elevated temperature, the surface hydrophobicity of coal is enhanced. This increased hydrophobicity is manifest in surface phenomena which reflect conditions at the solid/liquid interphase (zeta potential) and those which reflect conditions at the solid/liquid/gas interphases (contact angle, wettability and floatability).

  14. Inhibition of retrogressive reactions in coal/petroleum co-processing. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Schobert, H.H.; Tomic, J.

    1993-05-25

    The objective of this study was to examine the processes in coal/petroleum coprocessing systems which led to coke formation. Specifically, the interactions between the petroleum residue and coal, leading to retrogressive products, were investigated. Five coals were reacted with five model compounds in order to investigate the coal conversions in a variety of solvents and to determine the role of the solvent in promoting or inhibiting coal conversion. The selected model compounds range from paraffinic to fully aromatic and were chosen as representative of types of compounds that are found in petroleum residua. Coprocessing experiments were conducted using the five coals and three petroleum residua. The effect of temperature on coal conversions was crucial. The coal conversions at 350 and 400{degree}C seem to be governed by the nature of the coal and to a lesser extent by the petroleum residua. Negative coal conversions were observed above 400{degree}C indicating that retrogressive processes had occurred. At temperatures higher than 400{degree}C, the petroleum residua undergo physical and chemical transformations and the influence of the petroleum residua on coal conversions is significant. The structural features of the residues indicated that the residues were predominately coal-derived. An overall increase in aromaticity was observed with increasing temperature which was also accompanied by loss of oxygen functional groups. The retrogressive reactions with non-caking coals involve carbonyl and carboxyl group leading to a final solid characterized by a cross-linked structure. In the case of caking coal, these reactions are governed by loss of aromatic oxygen groups and loss of alkyl groups.

  15. Distribution of trace elements in selected pulverized coals as a function of particle size and density

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Senior, C.L.; Zeng, T.; Che, J.; Ames, M.R.; Sarofim, A.F.; Olmez, I.; Huggins, Frank E.; Shah, N.; Huffman, G.P.; Kolker, A.; Mroczkowski, S.; Palmer, C.; Finkelman, R.

    2000-01-01

    Trace elements in coal have diverse modes of occurrence that will greatly influence their behavior in many coal utilization processes. Mode of occurrence is important in determining the partitioning during coal cleaning by conventional processes, the susceptibility to oxidation upon exposure to air, as well as the changes in physical properties upon heating. In this study, three complementary methods were used to determine the concentrations and chemical states of trace elements in pulverized samples of four US coals: Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, Elkhorn and Hazard, and Wyodak coals. Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) was used to measure the absolute concentration of elements in the parent coals and in the size- and density-fractionated samples. Chemical leaching and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectroscopy were used to provide information on the form of occurrence of an element in the parent coals. The composition differences between size-segregated coal samples of different density mainly reflect the large density difference between minerals, especially pyrite, and the organic portion of the coal. The heavy density fractions are therefore enriched in pyrite and the elements associated with pyrite, as also shown by the leaching and XAFS methods. Nearly all the As is associated with pyrite in the three bituminous coals studied. The sub-bituminous coal has a very low content of pyrite and arsenic; in this coal arsenic appears to be primarily organically associated. Selenium is mainly associated with pyrite in the bituminous coal samples. In two bituminous coal samples, zinc is mostly in the form of ZnS or associated with pyrite, whereas it appears to be associated with other minerals in the other two coals. Zinc is also the only trace element studied that is significantly more concentrated in the smaller (45 to 63 ??m) coal particles.

  16. Semiconductor electrochemistry of coal pyrite. Final technical report, September 1990--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Osseo-Asare, K.; Wei, Dawei

    1996-01-01

    This project seeks to advance the fundamental understanding of the physico-chemical processes occurring at the pyrite/aqueous interface, in the context of coal cleaning, coal desulfurization, and acid mine drainage. Central to this research is the use of synthetic microsize particles of pyrite as model microelectrodes to investigate the semiconductor electrochemistry of pyrite. The research focuses on: (a) the synthesis of microsize particles of pyrite in aqueous solution at room temperature, (b) the formation of iron sulfide complex, the precursor of FeS or FeS{sub 2}, and (c) the relationship between the semiconductor properties of pyrite and its interfacial electrochemical behavior in the dissolution process. In Chapter 2, 3 and 4, a suitable protocol for preparing microsize particles of pyrite in aqueous solution is given, and the essential roles of the precursors elemental sulfur and ``FeS`` in pyrite formation are investigated. In Chapter 5, the formation of iron sulfide complex prior to the precipitation of FeS or FeS{sub 2} is investigated using a fast kinetics technique based on a stopped-flow spectrophotometer. The stoichiometry of the iron sulfide complex is determined, and the rate and formation constants are also evaluated. Chapter 6 provides a summary of the semiconductor properties of pyrite relevant to the present study. In Chapters 7 and 8, the effects of the semiconductor properties on pyrite dissolution are investigated experimentally and the mechanism of pyrite dissolution in acidic aqueous solution is examined. Finally, a summary of the conclusions from this study and suggestions for future research are presented in Chapter 9.

  17. Coal surface control for advanced fine coal flotation. Final report, October 1, 1988--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; Hanson, J.S.; Diao, J.; Harris, G.H.; De, A.; Sotillo, F.; Somasundaran, P.; Harris, C.C.; Vasudevan, T.; Liu, D.; Li, C.; Hu, W.; Zou, Y.; Chen, W.; Choudhry, V.; Shea, S.; Ghosh, A.; Sehgal, R.

    1992-03-01

    The initial goal of the research project was to develop methods of coal surface control in advanced froth flotation to achieve 90% pyritic sulfur rejection, while operating at Btu recoveries above 90% based on run-of-mine quality coal. Moreover, the technology is to concomitantly reduce the ash content significantly (to six percent or less) to provide a high-quality fuel to the boiler (ash removal also increases Btu content, which in turn decreases a coal`s emission potential in terms of lbs SO{sub 2}/million Btu). (VC)

  18. Encoal mild coal gasification project: Final design modifications report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    The design, construction and operation Phases of the Encoal Mild Coal Gasification Project have been completed. The plant, designed to process 1,000 ton/day of subbituminous Power River Basin (PRB) low-sulfur coal feed and to produce two environmentally friendly products, a solid fuel and a liquid fuel, has been operational for nearly five years. The solid product, Process Derived Fuel (PDF), is a stable, low-sulfur, high-Btu fuel similar in composition and handling properties to bituminous coal. The liquid product, Coal Derived Liquid (CDL), is a heavy, low-sulfur, liquid fuel similar in properties to heavy industrial fuel oil. Opportunities for upgrading the CDL to higher value chemicals and fuels have been identified. Significant quantities of both PDF and CDL have been delivered and successfully burned in utility and industrial boilers. A summary of the Project is given.

  19. Improving the scheme for final comminution of the coal charge

    SciTech Connect

    Antonov, A.V.; Zagoruiko, S.I.; Vorob'ev, S.E.; Kress, L.A.; Stepura, P.G.

    1983-01-01

    Proceeding from laboratory and pilot plant tests of the screening of fine classes of coal under the effect of gravitational forces on stationary grates, and also from the experience of the Krivoi Rog and Kommunarsk Coke Works, the coal preparation division of OKhMK (Orsk-Khalilovo Intergrated Iron and Steel Works) adopted an industrial scheme of comminution of the coal before coking, screening out the fine classes ahead of the hammer crushers. In the bottom of the feeder chute a stamped screen was installed (dimensions 2100 x 1600 x 5 mm with apertures of 40 x 100 mm) with the large side perpendicular to the flow of coal. The distance between the apertures on the small side of the screen was 20 mm, on the large side 15 mm; the inclination was 60/sup 0/. The overscreen product enters the crusher, and the underscreen product is injected into the crushed charge without comminution.

  20. Applied research and evaluation of process concepts for liquefaction and gasification of western coals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, W. H.

    1980-09-01

    Fourteen sections, including five subsections, of the final report covering work done between June 1, 1975 to July 31, 1980 on research programs in coal gasification and liquefaction have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  1. Fact Sheet: Final Rule on Coal Combustion Residuals Generated by Electric Utilities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This fact sheet describes the final rule signed on December 19, 2014 establishing a comprehensive set of requirements for the disposal of coal combustion residuals generated by electric utilities in landfills and surface impoundments.

  2. Advanced coal-fueled gas turbine systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The configuration of the subscale combustor has evolved during the six years of this program from a system using only an impact separator to remove particulates to a system which also included a slagging cyclone separator before the lean-quench combustor. The system also now includes active slag tapping after the impact separator rather than a bucket to collect the slag. The subscale 12 MM Btu/hr (higher heating value, HHV) slagging combustor has demonstrated excellent coal-fired operation at 6 atm. The combustor has fired both coal-water mixtures (CWM) and pulverized coal (PC). Three Wyoming subbituminous coals and two bituminous coals have been successfully fired in the TVC. As a result of this active testing, the following conclusions may be drawn: (1) it was possible to achieve the full design thermal capacity of 12 MM Btu/hr with the subscale slagging combustor, while burning 100% pulverized coal and operating at the design pressure of 6 atm; (2) because of the separate-chamber, rich-lean design of the subscale slagging combustor, NO{sub x} emissions that easily meet the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) limits were achieved; (3) carbon burnout efficiency was in excess of 99% when 100% coal-fired; (4) ninety percent of the ash can be separated as slag in the impact separator, and a total 98 to 99% removed with the addition of the slagging cyclone separator; (5) Objectives for third-stage exit temperature (1850{degrees}F), and exit temperature pattern factor (14%) were readily achieved; (6) overall pressure loss is currently an acceptable 5 to 6% without cyclone separator and 7 to 9% with the cyclone; and (7) feeding pulverized coal or sorbent into the combustor against 6 atm pressure is achievable.

  3. Study of the evolution of particle size distributions and its effects on the oxidation of pulverized coal

    SciTech Connect

    Jimenez, Santiago; Ballester, Javier

    2007-11-15

    This paper discusses the factors influencing the evolution of particle size during the combustion of pulverized coal, as well as their consequences for the interpretation of burnout curves. A detailed experimental characterization of the evolution of the particle size distribution (PSD) of a pulverized coal (anthracite) burned under realistic conditions in an entrained flow reactor is presented and used as the reference data for the subsequent analysis. The data show evidence for particle fragmentation at relatively short times (or, equivalently, high unburnt fractions). The formation of fragments comparable in size to the parent coal/char particles is modeled with a simple fragmentation scheme, which results in an improved reproduction of the PSD's evolution. The effects of fragmentation on the burnout curves are then studied in detail. An enhancement of their curvature is observed, which results in a better fit of the experimental data; in particular, the high conversion range, where the largest discrepancies between predictions and measurements are usually found, is well reproduced with this ''extended'' model. Simultaneously, the increase of specific surface caused by particle fragmentation causes an increase in the conversion rate, and a smaller total conversion time. To fit the experimental data, new optimal kinetic parameters are calculated. Finally, the potential relevance of fragmentation in the simulation of industrial pf plants is discussed. (author)

  4. Developing anthracite coal water slurry fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Simmon, F.J.; Keller, D.V.; Marino, J.; Keller, D.S.; Ask, T.E.

    1993-09-01

    Public law has directed the Department of Defense (DOD) to increase the use of coal, particularly anthracite, at steam generating facilities. This study evaluates the feasibility of producing slurry fuel from anthracite coal and examines the combustion characteristics of the anthracite/water fuel slurry. The T-Process, a proprietary process developed by Otisca Industries, Ltd., Syracuse, NY, was used to produce anthracite-based coal water slurries for testing and combustion. Although it is feasible to manufacture anthracite water fuel, the slurries used in this research would not burn well without substantial amounts of natural gas cofiring. Stable combustion with reduced support fuel can probably be achieved by chemically or physically modifying the factors that affect combustion. Additional research to determine the differences between anthracite and bituminous slurries, to increase the residence time for anthracite slurries, and to manufacture slurries with oil rather than water needs to be conducted to help the DOD meet anthracite purchase/consumption targets. Coal, Combustion, Coal water fuel, Anthracite coal.

  5. Permeability changes in coal resulting from gas desorption. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, J.R.; Johnson, P.W.

    1992-11-30

    This report documents studies on the effects of gas sorption on coal, with the intent of eventually evaluating how sorption and strain affect permeability. These studies were, carried out at the University of Alabama during the period from 1989 through 1992. Two major experimental methods were developed and used. In the strain experiments, electronic strain gauges were attached to polished blocks of coal in order to measure linear and volumetric swelling due to gas sorption. The effects of bedding plane orientation, of gas type, and of coal type were investigated. In the gravimetric experiment the weight of small samples of coal was measured during exposure to high pressure gases. Sample measurements were corrected for buoyancy effects and for sample swelling, and the results were plotted in the form of Langmuir isotherms. Experiments were conducted to determine the effect of grain size, coal type, moisture, and of sorbant gas. The advantage of this method is that it can be applied to very small samples, and it enabled comparison liptinite versus vitrinite concentrates, and kerogen rich versus kerogen depleted oil shales. Also included is a detailed discussion of the makeup of coal and its effect on gas sorption behavior.

  6. Illinois coal reserve assessment and database development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Treworgy, C.G.; Prussen, E.I.; Justice, M.A.; Chenoweth, C.A.

    1997-11-01

    The new demonstrated reserve base estimate of coal of Illinois is 105 billion short tons. This estimate is an increase from the 78 billion tons in the Energy Information Administration`s demonstrated reserve base of coal, as of January 1, 1994. The new estimate arises from revised resource calculations based on recent mapping in a number of countries, as well as significant adjustments for depletion due to past mining. The new estimate for identified resources is 199 billion tons, a revision of the previous estimate of 181 billion tons. The new estimates incorporate the available analyses of sulfur, heat content, and rank group appropriate for characterizing the remaining coal resources in Illinois. Coal-quality data were examined in conjunction with coal resource mapping. Analyses of samples from exploration drill holes, channel samples from mines and outcrops, and geologic trends were compiled and mapped to allocate coal resource quantities to ranges of sulfur, heat content, and rank group. The new allocations place almost 1% of the demonstrated reserve base of Illinois in the two lowest sulfur categories, in contrast to none in the previous allocation used by the Energy Information Administration (EIA). The new allocations also place 89% of the demonstrated reserve base in the highest sulfur category, in contrast to the previous allocation of 69% in the highest category.

  7. Measurements of coal particle shape, mass and temperature histories: Impact of particle irregularity on temperature predictions and measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Sampath, R.; Yeboah, Y.D.; Maloney, D.J.; Woodruff, S.D.; Zondlo, J.W.

    1996-06-01

    Individual coal and carbon particles were levitated in an electrodynamic balance (EDB) and characterized using high-speed diode array and video based imaging systems to determine particle surface area, volume, drag, mass and density. These same particles were then heated bidirectionally using a long pulsed Nd:YAG laser to simulate combustion level heating fluxes (heating rates on order of 10{sup 4} to 10{sup 5} K/s). Measurements of particle surface temperature, size and laser temporal power variation were made and recorded during each heating experiment. Measured temperature histories were compared with a heat transfer analysis that accounted for variations in particle shape, mass, density, and laser heating power. Results of this study indicate that with well characterized materials of known properties agreement between measurement and model of within 20 K is typical throughout an entire heating and cooling profile. Large particle to particle variations are observed in coal particle temperature histories during rapid heating. These variations can be explained in large part by accounting for particle to particle property (shape, mass and density) variations. Even when accounting for particle to particle shape and density variation, however, model predictions greatly underestimate observed temperature histories. It is concluded that these discrepancies are largely due to uncertainties in the thermal properties (heat capacity and thermal conductivity) typically used to model coal combustion behavior.

  8. Liquid chromatographic analysis of coal surface properties. Final report, September 1991--February 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, K.C.

    1996-03-01

    Experiments on equilibrium adsorption loadings of various probe compounds on 60-200 mesh Illinois {number_sign}6 coal (PSOC-1539), Adaville {number_sign}1 coal (PSOC-1544), Wyodak coal (PSOC-1545) and Pittsburgh {number_sign}8 coal (PSOC-1549) were performed. the probe compounds include m-cresol, p-cresol, o-cresol, phenol, n-octanol, n-heptanol, n-propanol, isopropanol n-butanol, s-butanol, 2-butanol, t-butanol, 2-naphthol, cyclohexanol, 2-methyl-1-pentanol (2M1P), 4-methyl-2-pentanol (4M2P), benzene and toluene. Equilibrium adsorption of various probe compounds on the coals were measured with the inverse liquid chromatography method. Experiments on flotation of various 60-200 mesh treated coals such as Illinois {number_sign}6 coal (PSOC-1539), Adaville {number_sign}1 coal (PSOC-1544), Wyodak coal (PSOC-1545) and Pittsburgh {number_sign}8 coal (PSOC-1549) were performed. The chosen coals were treated with steam, nitrogen and air at 1 atm and 125-225{degrees}C for 24 hours. The coals were treated with water as well as 20-1000 ppm aqueous alcohol solutions for 3-24 hours at 150-225{degrees}C. The coals also were treated with 20-ppm alcohol aqueous solutions for 1-24 hours at the 0.002-g/min mass flow rate of alcohol aqueous solutions and at 225{degrees}C. Flotation experiments were conducted with a 500-cm{sup 3} batch-type micro flotation apparatus, introducing nitrogen at the bottom of the apparatus. This final report was prepared with the experimental data obtained during the period of September 1991-March 1994.

  9. Optimization of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy for coal powder analysis with different particle flow diameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Shunchun; Xu, Jialong; Dong, Xuan; Zhang, Bo; Zheng, Jianping; Lu, Jidong

    2015-08-01

    The on-line measurement of coal is extremely useful for emission control and combustion process optimization in coal-fired plant. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was employed to directly analyze coal particle flow. A set of tapered tubes were proposed for beam-focusing the coal particle flow to different diameters. For optimizing the measurement of coal particle flow, the characteristics of laser-induced plasma, including optical breakdown, the relative standard deviation of repeated measurement, partial breakdown spectra ratio and line intensity, were carefully analyzed. The comparison of the plasma characteristics among coal particle flow with different diameters showed that air breakdown and the random change in plasma position relative to the collection optics could significantly influence on the line intensity and the reproducibility of measurement. It is demonstrated that the tapered tube with a diameter of 5.5 mm was particularly useful to enrich the coal particles in laser focus spot as well as to reduce the influence of air breakdown and random changes of plasma in the experiment.

  10. ON TRIMODAL PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTIONS IN FLY ASH FROM PULVERIZED COAL COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Combustion generated fine particles, defined as those with aerodynamic diameters less than 2.5 micrometers, have come under increased regulatory scrutiny because of suspected links to adverse human health effects. Whereas classical theories regarding coal combustion suggest that ...

  11. The single electron transfer chemistry of coals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, J.W.; Flowers, R.A. II

    1994-12-31

    This research addressed electron donar properties and radical reactions in coal. Solid residues from pyridine Soxhlet extractions of Pocahontas No. 3, Upper Freeport, Pittsburgh No. 8, Illinois No. 6 and Wyodak coals were exposed to 4-vinylpyridine vapors and swelled. All of the 4-vinylpyridine could not be removed under vacuum at 100{degree}C. Diffuse reflectance FTIR revealed the presence of poly-(4-vinylpyridine) in the Illinois No. 6 and Wyodak coals. EPR spectra displayed the loss of inertinite radicals in Upper Freeport, Illinois No. 6 and Wyodak residues after exposure to 4-vinylpyridine. There was little change in the vitrinite radical density or environment. The molecule N,N{prime}-Diphenyl-p-phenylene diamine (DPPD) was exposed to the solid residues from pyridine Soxhlet extractions of the above coals. Diffuse reflectance FTIR failed to detect the imine product from radical reaction with DPPD. EPR spectra displayed the loss of inertinite radicals in Upper Freeport and Wyodak residues. 7,7,8,8-Tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) and Tetracyanoethylene (TCNE) were deposited into coals in pyridine. FTIR indicated complete conversion of TCNQ to a material with a singly occupied LUMO. In TCNE the LUMO is about 30% occupied. TCNQ and TCNE were deposited into the pyridine extracts and residues of Illinois No. 6 and Pittsburgh No. 8 coals. Only a small amount of the TCNQ and TCNE displayed nitrile shifts in the IR spectrum of a material with an occupied LUMO. It has been concluded that TCNQ must be part of the aromatic stacks in coal and the TCNQ LUMO is part of an extended band.

  12. Design of optimum coal-preparation systems for Missouri coal seams. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Erten, M.H.; Evans, J.J.; Lounsbury, P.J.; Holloran, R.A.

    1982-08-01

    The objectives of this research were (1) with the use of washability curves and other data, to design suitable coal preparation systems that will provide marketable coals with maximum yield and minimum ash and sulfur contents for raw coals obtained from different Missouri coal seams, and (2) to test the performance of units comprising the systems (flowsheets) with the use of the equipment available at the Mineral and Coal Preparation Laboratories of the University of Missouri at Rolla. On each channel sample, proximate analysis, float and sink, tabling, flotation, hydrocyclone, and forms of sulfur tests were conducted. Because of the limited quantities of core samples, only such tests as proximate analysis, washability, and forms of sulfur could be performed. A survey of the mining operations in the state of Missouri showed that at least six companies worked more than one seam at any time of the year and that most of the coal mined was direct-shipped to power plants. Since there were no data available about the washability and other characteristics of these jointly mined coals, new samples were prepared according to their production ratios and all the tests performed on individual samples were also applied to these joint samples. Also, for these samples the most suitable coal preparation systems (flowsheets) were designed and tested in the laboratory. The actual test results obtained with the use of eight different circuits for the six sets of jointly mined seams were compared with the individual test results. It was concluded that for optimum yield and maximum ash and sulfur removal, a physical washing system containing dense medium and Deister Table is the most suitable coal preparation method for Missouri coals.

  13. Analysis of chemical coal cleaning processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-06-01

    Six chemical coal cleaning processes were examined. Conceptual designs and costs were prepared for these processes and coal preparation facilities, including physical cleaning and size reduction. Transportation of fine coal in agglomerated and unagglomerated forms was also discussed. Chemical cleaning processes were: Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Ledgemont, Ames Laboratory, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (two versions), and Guth Process (KVB). Three of the chemical cleaning processes are similar in concept: PETC, Ledgemont, and Ames. Each of these is based on the reaction of sulfur with pressurized oxygen, with the controlling factor being the partial pressure of oxygen in the reactor. All of the processes appear technically feasible. Economic feasibility is less certain. The recovery of process chemicals is vital to the JPL and Guth processes. All of the processes consume significant amounts of energy in the form of electric power and coal. Energy recovery and increased efficiency are potential areas for study in future more detailed designs. The Guth process (formally designed KVB) appears to be the simplest of the systems evaluated. All of the processes require future engineering to better determine methods for scaling laboratory designs/results to commercial-scale operations. A major area for future engineering is to resolve problems related to handling, feeding, and flow control of the fine and often hot coal.

  14. Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

    1991-08-01

    A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW`s Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

  15. Utilization of coal-associated minerals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Slonaker, J. F.; Akers, D. J.; Alderman, J. K.

    1980-01-01

    Under contract number DE-AS21-77ET10533 with the US-DOE several methods of utilizing coal associated by-products were examined for potential commercial use. Such use could transform a costly waste disposal situation into new materials for further use and could provide incentive for the adoption of new coal utilization processes. Several utilization processes appear to have merit and are recommended for further study. Each process is discussed separately in the text of this report. Common coal cleaning processes were also examined to determine the effect of such processes on the composition of by-products. Data obtained in this portion of the research effort are reported in the Appendix. Information of this type is required before utilization processes can be considered. A knowledge of the mineral composition of these materials is also required before even simple disposal methods can be considered.

  16. Demonstrated reserve base for coal in New Mexico. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, G.K.

    1995-02-01

    The new demonstrated reserve base estimate of coal for the San Juan Basin, New Mexico, is 11.28 billion short tons. This compares with 4.429 billion short tons in the Energy Information Administration`s demonstrated reserve base of coal as of January 1, 1992 for all of New Mexico and 2.806 billion short tons for the San Juan Basin. The new estimate includes revised resource calculations in the San Juan Basin, in San Juan, McKinley, Sandoval, Rio Arriba, Bernalillo and Cibola counties, but does not include the Raton Basin and smaller fields in New Mexico. These estimated {open_quotes}remaining{close_quotes} coal resource quantities, however, include significant adjustments for depletion due to past mining, and adjustments for accessibility and recoverability.

  17. Feasibility of coal tar biodegradation by land treatment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fogel, S.

    1987-09-01

    Coal tar, a by-product of coal gasification, contains monoaromatic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) which have been identified as carcinogens. Billions of gallons of this waste have been disposed of at numerous gas manufacturing facilities in the United States. The treatment of tar-contaminated soil by bacterial degradation has shown great promise, since one-, two-, and three-ring PAH can be readily degraded by bacteria. Research was carried out to establish whether 4- and 5-ring PAH could also be degraded by bacteria. The data indicated that 4-ring PAH could degrade when dissolved in a hydrocarbon carrier or when applied to soil as a component of coal tar. Experiments to stimulate the bacterial degradation of benzo(a)pyrene, a 5-ring PAH, were unsuccessful.

  18. Experimental studies on the group ignition of a cloud of coal particles: Volume 2, Pyrolysis and ignition modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Annamalai, K.; Ryan, W.

    1992-01-01

    The primary objectives of this work are to formulate a model to simulate transient coal pyrolysis, ignition, and combustion of a cloud of coal particles and to compare results of the program with those reported in the literature elsewhere.

  19. Design, synthesis, and characterization of novel fine-particle, unsupported catalysts for coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, M.T.

    1991-02-22

    The first task in our proposed study of catalysts for coal liquefaction was to prepare ultrafine dispersed metal sulfide particles by reactive precipitation from solutions of appropriate metal precursors. At this point, equipment to allow us to prepare these air-sensitive materials in an anaerobic environment has been acquired and assembled. Initial experiments aimed at synthesizing iron sulfide particles have been initiated. As part of the investigation of short contact time catalytic coal liquefaction, initial efforts focused on the noncatalytic pyrolysis reactions of coal and a model compound, Dibenzyl ether (DBE). Two different reactor configurations were examined; catalytic experiments are planned for the coming month.

  20. Coal char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.L.

    1995-07-01

    A series of investigations of coal and char fragmentation during pulverized coal combustion is reported for a suite of coals ranging in rank from lignite to low-volatile (lv) bituminous coal under combustion conditions similar to those found in commercial-scale boilers. Experimental measurements are described that utilize identical particle sizing characteristics to determine initial and final size distributions. Mechanistic interpretation of the data suggest that coal fragmentation is an insignificant event and that char fragmentation is controlled by char structure. Chars forming cenospheres fragment more extensively than solid chars. Among the chars that fragment, large particles produce more fine material than small particles. In all cases, coal and char fragmentation are seen to be sufficiently minor as to be relatively insignificant factors influencing fly ash size distribution, particle loading, and char burnout.

  1. The Particle Physics Data Grid. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Livny, Miron

    2002-08-16

    The main objective of the Particle Physics Data Grid (PPDG) project has been to implement and evaluate distributed (Grid-enabled) data access and management technology for current and future particle and nuclear physics experiments. The specific goals of PPDG have been to design, implement, and deploy a Grid-based software infrastructure capable of supporting the data generation, processing and analysis needs common to the physics experiments represented by the participants, and to adapt experiment-specific software to operate in the Grid environment and to exploit this infrastructure. To accomplish these goals, the PPDG focused on the implementation and deployment of several critical services: reliable and efficient file replication service, high-speed data transfer services, multisite file caching and staging service, and reliable and recoverable job management services. The focus of the activity was the job management services and the interplay between these services and distributed data access in a Grid environment. Software was developed to study the interaction between HENP applications and distributed data storage fabric. One key conclusion was the need for a reliable and recoverable tool for managing large collections of interdependent jobs. An attached document provides an overview of the current status of the Directed Acyclic Graph Manager (DAGMan) with its main features and capabilities.

  2. Coal anion structure and chemistry of coal alkylation. Final report, March 1, 1979-February 29, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Stock, L.M.

    1980-01-01

    In accord with Task 1, some ether cleavage reactions were carried out in two different media - potassium/naphthalene/tetrahydrofuran and potassium/ ammonia - so that the merits and demerits of the two methods could be compared. Preliminary results suggest that both systems yield the same products, and that the ammonia medium is more convenient to work with, because of the absence of by-products such as reduced naphthalenes and tetralin. Dialkyl ethers were found to be least reactive compounds while the benzyl and phenyl ethers were found to be most reactive, as would be expected. The reductive alkylation of coal was carried out in ammonia at 25/sup 0/C. The tetrahydrofuran solubility of the reaction product was surprisingly low. We have obtained additional /sup 13/C)/sup 1/H) nmr data for tetrahydrofuran-soluble butylated coal and some model compounds; obtained additional Styragel(R) chromatography data of tetrahydrofuran-soluble coal labelled with 98%-enriched butyl-1,1-d/sub 2/ iodide; and obtained /sup 2/D nmr spectra of all the deuterium-labelled, tetrahydrofuran-soluble coal products. In accord with Task 4, we have undertaken a review of the information now available concerning the nature of Illinois No. 6 coal. Also, the effects of organic additives on the exchange reactions between tetralin-d/sub 12/ and diphenyl-methane and on the thermal cleavage reactions of several model compounds in tetralin were investigated to probe the relationship between structure and reactivity. The exchange reaction can be accelerated by coal, asphaltene-preasphaltene fractions derived from coal, compounds with labile bonds, or compounds which can be reduced readily. The pyridine-insoluble coal product, acids, and bases are inactive toward the exchange reaction.

  3. Froth flotation for fine-coal cleaning. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, T.J.

    1985-12-01

    Froth flotation of fine coal was investigated with the objectives of improving flotation at existing coal-cleaning plants and providing design guidance for future plants. Using hydrodynamically scaled-down laboratory and pilot flotation cells, and the Klimpel flotation model, a methodology was developed to relate laboratory-scale flotation results to full-scale flotation circuits. Froth Factor, the percent of froth over the froth lip, was determined to be the key element of this scale-up methodology. Results showed that simple, inexpensive changes in flotation parameters such as air rate and reagent dosages can significantly improve full-scale flotation product recovery and grade, and that more complex flotation circuitry can produce better recovery levels of high-grade coal than more commonly used rougher-only flotation circuits. In particular, cleaning rougher product can effectively reduce pyritic sulfur content. Results also demonstrated interaction between different size fractions of coal. Flotation rates were shown to depend on feed size consist, and it was found that separations based on differences in flotation rates are more advantageously performed on fine topsizes. Ultimate recoveries appear unaffected by size consist. 6 refs.

  4. Biological production of ethanol from coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Due to the abundant supply of coal in the United States, significant research efforts have occurred over the past 15 years concerning the conversion of coal to liquid fuels. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have concentrated on a biological approach to coal liquefaction, starting with coal-derived synthesis gas as the raw material. Synthesis gas, a mixture of CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and sulfur gases, is first produced using traditional gasification techniques. The CO, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} are then converted to ethanol using a bacterial culture of Clostridium 1jungdahlii. Ethanol is the desired product if the resultant product stream is to be used as a liquid fuel. However, under normal operating conditions, the ``wild strain`` produces acetate in favor of ethanol in conjunction with growth in a 20:1 molar ratio. Research was performed to determine the conditions necessary to maximize not only the ratio of ethanol to acetate, but also to maximize the concentration of ethanol resulting in the product stream.

  5. Improving the scheme for final comminution of the coal charge

    SciTech Connect

    Antonov, A.V.; Kress, L.A.; Stepura, P.G.; Vorob'ev, S.E.; Zayoruiko, S.I.

    1983-01-01

    Proceeding from laboratory and pilot plant tests of the screening of fine classes of coal under the effect of gravitational forces on stationary grates, and also from the experience of the Krivoi Rog and Kommunarsk Coke Works (1,2), the coal preparation division of OKhMK (Orsk-Khalilovo Integrated Iron and Steel Works) adopted an industrial scheme of comminution of coal before coking, screening out the fine classes ahead of the hammer crushers. In the bottom of the feeder chute a stamped screen was installed (dimensions 2100 X 1600 X 5 mm with apertures of 40 X 100 mm) with the large side perpendicular to the flow of coal. The distance between the apertures on the small side of the screen was 20 mm, on the large side 15 mm; the inclination was 60/sup 0/. The overscreen product enters the crusher, and the underscreen product is injected into the crushed charge without comminution. The improvement in the uniformity of the granulometric and qualitative composition of the prepared charge resulted in an improvement in the physicomechanical properties of the blast furnace coke. The mechanical strength of the coke by the M/sub 25/ index rose from 86.4 to 86.6%, while the abradability by the M/sub 10/ index decreased from 7.5 to 7.3%.

  6. Basic properties of coals and other solids. Final report, September 1, 1989--August 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Arnett, E.M.

    1992-12-31

    The previous project dissected the heats of interactions of a series of coals into components that represented Bronsted acidity, hydrogen-bonding acidity and dispersion force interactions through comparison with the simple prototype solid acids: sulfonic acid resin, silica, and graphitized carbon black respectively. The present grant has emphasized the interaction of basic components in the coal with strong Bronsted acids and boron trichloride, a very strong Lewis acid, with a brief examination of the interactions of the coals with phenols as weaker hydrogen-bonding acids. We have also compared several coals with liquids derived from them at Wilsonville and Exxon. Finally, we have examined the effect of citric acid washing on several coals.

  7. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals. Volume I. Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1981-01-01

    This report describes the bituminous coal resources of the United States, identifies those resources which are potentially amenable to Underground Coal Gasification (UCG), identifies products and markets in the vicinity of selected target areas, identifies UCG concepts, describes the state of the art of UCG in bituminous coal, and presents three R and D programs for development of the technology to the point of commercial viability. Of the 670 billion tons of bituminous coal remaining in-place as identified by the National Coal Data System, 32.2 billion tons or 4.8% of the total are potentially amenable to UCG technology. The identified amenable resource was located in ten states: Alabama, Colorado, Illinois, Kentucky, New Mexico, Ohio, Oklahoma, Utah, Virginia, and West Virginia. The principal criteria which eliminated 87.3% of the resource was the minimum thickness (42 inches). Three R and D programs were developed using three different concepts at two different sites. Open Borehole, Hydraulic Fracture, and Electrolinking concepts were developed. The total program costs for each concept were not significantly different. The study concludes that much of the historical information based on UCG in bituminous coals is not usable due to the poor siting of the early field tests and a lack of adequate diagnostic equipment. This information gap requires that much of the early work be redone in view of the much improved understanding of the role of geology and hydrology in the process and the recent development of analytical tools and methods.

  8. Ignition of a coal particle at the low temperature of gas flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glushkov, Dmitrii O.; Sharypov, Oleg V.

    2015-01-01

    Regularities of physical and chemical processes occurring during the heating of the coal dust particles by low-temperature air flow are investigated by means of thermogravimetric analyzer TA SDT Q600 and experimental setup of optical diagnostics of multiphase flows based on PIV method. Qualitative and quantitative characteristics were established for the processes of the coal particle inert heating, moisture evaporation, thermal decomposition, combustible gas mixture formation, oxidation of volatiles and carbon. It was revealed that the temperature of the oxidizer required for the coal particle ignition is higher than 500 ∘C. The experimental data can be used to develop predictive mathematical models of technological processes fire hazard in pulverized coal systems of thermal power plants.

  9. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-31

    As a result of the investigations carried out during Phase 1 of the Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Generation Systems (Combustion 2000), the UTRC-led Combustion 2000 Team is recommending the development of an advanced high performance power generation system (HIPPS) whose high efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions will enable the US to use its abundant coal resources to satisfy current and future demand for electric power. The high efficiency of the power plant, which is the key to minimizing the environmental impact of coal, can only be achieved using a modern gas turbine system. Minimization of emissions can be achieved by combustor design, and advanced air pollution control devices. The commercial plant design described herein is a combined cycle using either a frame-type gas turbine or an intercooled aeroderivative with clean air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a coal-fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The best performance from the cycle is achieved by using a modern aeroderivative gas turbine, such as the intercooled FT4000. A simplified schematic is shown. In the UTRC HIPPS, the conversion efficiency for the heavy frame gas turbine version will be 47.4% (HHV) compared to the approximately 35% that is achieved in conventional coal-fired plants. This cycle is based on a gas turbine operating at turbine inlet temperatures approaching 2,500 F. Using an aeroderivative type gas turbine, efficiencies of over 49% could be realized in advanced cycle configuration (Humid Air Turbine, or HAT). Performance of these power plants is given in a table.

  10. Abrasive wear by diesel engine coal-fuel and related particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, L.K.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of the work summarized in this report was to obtain a basic understanding of the factors which are responsible for wear of the piston ring and cylinder wall surfaces in diesel engines utilizing coal-fuel. The approach included analytical studies using scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive x-ray analyses to characterize coal-fuel and various combustion particles, and two different wear tests. The wear tests were a modified pin-on-disk test and a block-on-ring test capable of either unidirectional or reciprocating-rotational sliding. The wear tests in general were conducted with mixtures of the particles and lubricating oil. The particles studied included coal-fuel, particles resulting from the combustion of coal fuel, mineral matter extracted during the processing of coal, and several other common abrasive particle types among which quartz was the most extensively examined. The variables studied included those associated with the particles, such as particle type, size, and hardness; variables related to contact conditions and the surrounding environment; and variables related to the type and properties of the test specimen materials.

  11. Particle Release Experiment (PRex) Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Keillor, Martin E.; Arrigo, Leah M.; Detwiler, Rebecca S.; Kernan, Warnick J.; Kirkham, Randy R.; MacDougall, Matthew R.; Chipman, Veraun D.; Milbrath, Brian D.; Rishel, Jeremy P.; Seifert, Allen; Seifert, Carolyn E.; Smart, John E.; Emer, Dudley

    2014-09-30

    An experiment to release radioactive particles representative of small-scale venting from an underground nuclear test was conducted to gather data in support of treaty verification and monitoring activities. For this experiment, a CO2-driven “air cannon” was used to release La-140 at ambient temperatures. Lanthanum-140 was chosen to represent the fission fragments because of its short half-life and prominent gamma-ray emissions; the choice was also influenced by the successful production and use of La-140 with low levels of radioactive contaminants in a Defence Research and Development Canada Field Trial. The source was created through activation of high-purity natural lanthanum oxide at the reactor of Washington State University, Pullman, Washington. Multiple varieties of witness plates and air samplers were laid in an irregular grid covering the area over which the plume was modeled to deposit. Aerial survey, a NaI(Tl) mobile spectrometer, and handheld and backpack instruments ranging from polyvinyl toluene to high-purity germanium were used to survey the plume. Additionally, three varieties of soil sampling were investigated. The relative sensitivity and utility of sampling and survey methods are discussed in the context of On-Site Inspection. The measurements and samples show a high degree of correlation and form a valuable set of test data.

  12. Fine coal cleaning. Final report for the period ending March 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D.J.

    1986-06-01

    Washability data on coals from the western United States is generally very limited and their response to standard washing techniques cannot be predicted. To expand the data base, the Department of Energy initiated a washability study for both conventional and fine-size ranges of western coals. The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) performed float-sink washability testing on 156 western coals crushed to 1 1/2'' x 0, 3/8'' x 0, and 14 mesh x 0. The University of North Dakota Energy Research Center (UNDERC) performed centrifugal float-sink washability resting on 61 of those 156 test coals crushed to 65 mesh x 0. In addition, 35 of the 65 mesh x 0 coals were further reduced to 200 mesh x 0 and tested, and three coals were pulverized to 325 mesh x 0 and tested. Generally, the higher-ranked coals were most amenable to the gravity separation technique. Pulverized of study coals to finer grain size distributions did not significantly improve the coal's Washabilities, as float ash content of 200 mesh x 0 and 325 mesh x 0 samples were generally similar to 65 mesh x 0 float ash content. UNDERC also investigated the applicability of oil agglomeration and froth floatation on the benefication of four selected economically important western coals. In general, these tests were not as successful at beneficiating western coals as the standard float-sink technique, which provided the highest degree of ash separation at the highest weight yields. This final report summarizes work completed on the float-sink washability data base, oil agglomeration testing, and froth flotation testing at UNDERC from May 1983 through March 1986. 12 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  13. Surface Properties of Photo-Oxidized Bituminous Coals: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-09-01

    Natural weathering has a detrimental effect on the hydrophobic nature of coal, which in turn can influence clean-coal recovery during flotation. Few techniques are available that can establish the quality of coal surfaces and that have a short analysis time to provide input for process control. Luminescence emissions which can be quantified with an optical microscope and photometer system, are measurably influenced by degree of weathering as well as by mild storage deterioration. In addition, it has been shown that when vitrinite is irradiated with a relatively high intensity flux of violet- or ultraviolet- light in the presence of air, photo-oxidation of the surface occurs. The combination of measuring the change in luminescence emission intensity with degree of surface oxidation provided the impetus for the current investigation. The principal aim of this research was to determine whether clear correlations could be established among surface oxygen functionality, hydrophobicity induced by photo-oxidation, and measurements of luminescence intensity and alteration. If successful, the project would result in quantitative luminescence techniques based on optical microscopy that would provide a measure of the changes in surface properties as a function of oxidation and relate them to coal cleanability. Two analytical techniques were designed to achieve these goals. Polished surfaces of vitrain bands or a narrow size fraction of powdered vitrain concentrates were photo-oxidized using violet or ultraviolet light fluxes and then changes in surface properties and chemistry were measured using a variety of near-surface analytical techniques. Results from this investigation demonstrate that quantitative luminescence intensity measurements can be performed on fracture surfaces of bituminous rank coals (vitrains) and that the data obtained do reveal significant variations depending upon the level of surface oxidation. Photo-oxidation induced by violet or ultraviolet light

  14. Single Particle Source Profiles of Gasoline and Diesel Powered Vehicles, Biomass Burning and Coal Combustion Exhaust Emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suess, D. T.; Prather, K. A.; Schauer, J.; Cass, G. R.

    2001-12-01

    Vehicular exhaust, biomass burning, and coal combustion are three significant aerosol sources that have local to global impacts on the earth's atmosphere. They may also contribute to health effects as they can emit carcinogenic species such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and trace metals including beryllium and vanadium. In these source characterization studies, combustion products were diluted to near ambient temperature and pressure using a two stage dilution source sampler. Diluted exhaust emissions were analyzed with an aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) obtaining real-time measurements of single particle size and chemical composition. In addition, samples were collected using a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI), which was operated in a manner compatible with advanced chemical analysis techniques, for size segregated mass concentrations. Due to the importance of these particle sources to the atmosphere, differentiating these emissions from each other and other particle sources is essential. Since ATOFMS is a relatively new single particle analysis technique, source characterization experiments are needed to determine qualitative signatures of specific particulate sources for their ambient identification. ATOFMS single particle mass spectra will be discussed introducing chemically distinct single particle types emitted from these combustion sources. Numerous particle types are emitted from each source, as indicated by distinct chemical associations on the single particle level. Examples include, the chemical associations of vanadium with organic carbon (OC) in gasoline powered vehicle emissions, calcium with black carbon (BC) in diesel powered vehicle emissions, beryllium and boron with BC in coal combustion emissions, and potassium with OC from biomass burning emissions. Most importantly, the overall particle type distributions from each source differ significantly. Finally, complementary MOUDI mass distribution data will

  15. Spin-mapping of coal structures with ESE and ENDOR. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Belford, R.L.; Clarkson, R.B.

    1993-06-01

    Several kinds of electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectra of coal (including whole coal, separated macerals, density-gradient separated fractions, and treated coals) and of model organic thought to be molecular constituents of coals were acquired and analyzed in order to probe the molecular structure and surface properties of coals and of model systems. Typically, the model compounds under investigation and their analogues are found in coals as stable free radicals which give rise to an EPR signal. In some cases, the model compounds were selected because they have some characteristic, such as a particular functional group or heteroatom which may be found in coals, which fits them to serve as test materials for methods development. Two critical instruments for this work - the W-band EPR spectrometer and the S-band ESE spectrometer - were built in this laboratory and were both further developed as part of this project. The ENDOR spectrometer also has been improved. During the course of this project, the W-band EPR system has proven to be the most fruitful tool for probing the chemical structures of coal with the ESE system providing the most valuable auxiliary data. The following report summarizes highlights of these studies. It provides some background, rationale, and selected data and results. Finally, a list of papers and presentations is provided together with abstracts of all of them.

  16. Investigation of formation of nitrogen compounds in coal combustion. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Blair, D.W.; Crane, I.D.; Wendt, J.O.L.

    1983-10-01

    This is the final report on DOE contract number DE-AC21-80MC14061. It concerns the formation of nitrogen oxide from fuel-bound nitrogen during coal combustion. The work reported was divided into three tasks. They addressed problems of time-resolving pyrolysis rates of coal under simulated combustion conditions, the combustion of the tar that results from such pyrolysis, and theoretical modeling of the pyrolysis process. In all of these tasks, special attention was devoted to the fate of coal nitrogen. The first two tasks were performed by Exxon Research and Engineering Company. 49 references.

  17. Enhanced coal hydrogasification via oxidative pretreatment. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.J.

    1992-04-16

    The gasification of coal char by hydrogen is much slower than in steam or carbon dioxide; moreover, hydrogasification rate in pure hydrogen decreases sharply with conversion for most carbons. To overcome this kinetic behavior, the oxidation of the char prior to and during hydrogasification has been investigated as a means of enhancing hydro gasification rate. Kinetic rate studies under well-characterized conditions have been complemented by careful surface analyses to characterize oxygen on the char surface prior to and during hydrogasification.

  18. Innovative coal-fueled diesel engine injector. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Badgley, P.; Doup, D.

    1991-05-01

    The purpose of this research investigation was to develop an electronic coal water slurry injection system in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of CWS at various engine load and speed conditions without external ignition sources. The combination of the new injection system and the TICS is designed to reduce injector nozzle spray orifice wear by lowering the peak injection pressure requirements. (VC)

  19. Effect of particle size on the spontaneous heating of a coal stockpile

    SciTech Connect

    Akguen, F. . Dept. of Mechanical Engineering); Arisoy, A. . Faculty of Mechanical Engineering)

    1994-10-01

    A large-scale apparatus has been used to evaluate the effect of particle size on the spontaneous heating of a coal stockpile. To accomplish this, coal with various ranges of particle size (between 2 and 50 mm in diameter) was oxidized in a cylinder of 3-m length and 0.3-m diameter. A critical range of particle size was observed, below which spontaneous heating leads to flaming combustion. From the results of the oxygen consumption and the temperature of the coal bed, the influence of particle size on the oxidation rate has been analyzed in greater depth. The oxygen conservation equation, in which the oxygen consumption rate is first order in oxygen concentration and obeys the Arrhenius equation, allows the determination of apparent activation energies and preexponential factors. Calculated values of these parameters, by fitting the experimental data to the integrated form of the oxygen conservation equation, have been used to evaluate the effect of particle size. It was of particular interest to determine the operating regime for coal-oxygen reaction and this was achieved by defining interest to determine the operating regime for coal-oxygen reaction and this was achieved by defining an empirical exponent for the particle diameter in the rate equation. This exponent indicated the oxidation regime for a change from chemical to pore diffusion control at successively higher temperatures.

  20. Sublimation and combustion of coal particles in the erosion laser torch

    SciTech Connect

    Bulat, A.; Shumrikov, V.; Osenny, V.

    2005-07-01

    Rate of coal particles' combustion in low-temperature plasma is of interest both from application and scientific points of view. Necessity of knowing parameters of the process of coal particles' combustion in plasma torch with the temperature of 2500-3000 K is governed by arising a number of state-of-the-art technological tasks related to the problems of finding new methods of power production, generation of high-calorific synthetic gases and using carbon as a high temperature structural material in nuclear power engineering. The present work deals with a rate of combustion of the sorbed coal particles in the erosion laser torch formed by means of interaction of pulse laser radiation (wave length {lambda} = 1,06 {mu}m, power density j = 10{sup 5} - 10{sup 7} Wcm{sup 2} with coals of various grades (in the wide range of carbon concentrations (80-95 %)). Physical and mathematical modeling of the process of coal particles' sublimation and combustion in non-equilibrium plasma flows with weight-average temperature of 2500-3000 K showed a good convergence of results for the particles of 10-100 {mu}m diameter and satisfactory one for the particles of {gt} 250{mu}m diameter.

  1. MHD coal combustor technology. Final report, phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    The design, performance, and testing of a 20-MW coal combustor for scaleup to 50 MW for use in an MHD generator are described. The design incorporates the following key features: (1) a two-stage combustor with an intermediate slag separator to remove slag at a low temperture, thus minimizing enthalpy losses required for heating and vaporizing the slag; (2) a first-stage pentad (four air streams impinging on one coal stream) injector design with demonstrated efficient mixing, promoting high carbon burnout; (3) a two-section first-stage combustion chamber; the first stage using a thin slag-protected refractory layer and the second section using a thick refractory layer, both to minimize heat losses; (4) a refractory lining in the slag separator to minimize heat losses; (5) a second-stage combustor, which provided both de-swirl of the combustion products exiting from the slag separator and simple mixing of the vitiated secondary air and seed; (6) a dense-phase coal feed system to minimize cold carrier gas entering the first-stage combustors; (7) a dry seed injection system using pulverized K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ with a 1% amorphous, fumed silicon dioxide additive to enhance flowability, resulting in rapid vaporization and ionization and ensuring maximum performance; and (8) a performance evaluation module (PEM) of rugged design based on an existing, successfully-fired unit. (WHK)

  2. Healy Clean Coal Project, Healy, Alaska final Environmental Monitoring Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-14

    This Environmental Monitoring Plan (EMP) provides the mechanism to evaluate the integrated coal combustion/emission control system being demonstrated by the Healy Clean Coal Project (HCCP) as part-of the third solicitation of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Program (CCT-III). The EMP monitoring is intended to satisfy two objectives: (1) to develop the information base necessary for identification, assessment, and mitigation of potential environmental problems arising from replication of the technology and (2) to identify and quantify project-specific and site-specific environmental impacts predicted in the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) documents (Environmental Impact Statement and Record of Decision). The EMP contains a description of the background and history of development of the project technologies and defines the processes that will take place in the combustion and spray dryer absorber systems, including the formation of flash-calcined material (FCM) and its use in sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) removal from the flue gases. It also contains a description of the existing environmental resources of the project area. The EMP includes two types of environmental monitoring that are to be used to demonstrate the technologies of the HCCP: compliance monitoring and supplemental monitoring. Compliance monitoring activities include air emissions, wastewater effluents, and visibility. Monitoring of these resources provide the data necessary to demonstrate that the power plant can operate under the required state and federal statutes, regulations, and permit requirements.

  3. Advanced concepts in coal liquefaction: Optimization of reactor configuration in coal liquefaction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pradhan, V.R.; Comolli, A.G.; Lee, L.K.

    1994-11-01

    The overall objective of this Project was to find the ways to effectively reduce the cost of coal liquids to about dollar 25 per barrel of crude oil equivalent. The work described herein is primarily concerned with the testing at the laboratory scale of three reactor configuration concepts, namely (1) a fixed-bed plug-flow reactor as a ``finishing reactor`` in coal liquefaction, (2) three-stage well-mixed reactors in series, and (3) interstage stream concentration/product separation. The three reactor configurations listed above were tested during this project using a 20 cc tubing microreactor, a fixed-bed plug flow reactor, and a two-stage modified Robinson-Mahoney reactor system. The reactor schemes were first evaluated based on theoretical modelling studies, then experimentally evaluated at the microautoclave level and laboratory scale continuous operations. The fixed-bed ``finishing reactor`` concept was evaluated in both the upflow and the downflow modes of operation using a partially converted coal-solvent slurry as feed. For most of the testing of concepts at the microautoclave level, simulated coal, recycle oil, and slurry feedstocks were either specially prepared (to represent a specific state of coal/resid conversion) and/or obtained from HRI`s other ongoing bench-scale and PDU scale coal liquefaction experiments. The three-stage continuous stirred tank reactors (CSTR) and interstage product stream separation/concentration concepts were tested using a simulated three-stage CSTR system by employing a laboratory-scale ebullated-bed system and a modified version of the HRI`s existing Robinson-Mahoney fixed catalyst basket reactor system. This testing was conducted as a fourteen day long continuous run, divided into four Conditions to allow for a comparison of the new three-stage CSTR and interstage product concentration concepts with a two-stage CSTR baseline configuration.

  4. Abrasive wear by coal-fueled diesel engine and related particles

    SciTech Connect

    Ives, L.K.

    1992-09-01

    The development of commercially viable diesel engines that operate directly on pulverized coal-fuels will require solution to the problem of severe abrasive wear. The purpose of the work described in this report was to investigate the nature of the abrasive wear problem. Analytical studies were carried out to determine the characteristics of the coal-fuel and associated combustion particles responsible for abrasion. Laboratory pinon-disk wear tests were conducted on oil-particle mixtures to determine the relationship between wear rate and a number of different particle characteristics, contact parameters, specimen materials properties, and other relevant variables.

  5. Relationships between composition and pulmonary toxicity of prototype particles from coal combustion and pyrolysis

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hypothesis that health effects associated with coal combustion fly-ash particles are exacerbated by the simultaneous presence of iron and soot was tested through two sets of experiments. The first set created prototype particles from complete and partial combustion, or oxygen...

  6. RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN COMPOSITION AND PULMONARY TOXICITY OF PROTOTYPE PARTICLES FROM COAL COMBUSTION AND PYROLYSIS (MONTREAL, CANADA)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hypothesis that health effects associated with coal combustion fly-ash particles are exacerbated by the simultaneous presence of iron and soot was tested through two sets of experiments. The first set created prototype particles from complete and partial combustion, or oxygen...

  7. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems. Volume 1, sections 1--5: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Helble, J.J.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A.; Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M.; Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L.; Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A.

    1992-11-01

    The inorganic constituents or ash contained in pulverized coal significantly increase the environmental and economic costs of coal utilization. For example, ash particles produced during combustion may deposit on heat transfer surfaces, decreasing heat transfer rates and increasing maintenance costs. The minimization of particulate emissions often requires the installation of cleanup devices such as electrostatic precipitators, also adding to the expense of coal utilization. Despite these costly problems, a comprehensive assessment of the ash formation and had never been attempted. At the start of this program, it was hypothesized that ash deposition and ash particle emissions both depended upon the size and chemical composition of individual ash particles. Questions such as: What determines the size of individual ash particles? What determines their composition? Whether or not particles deposit? How combustion conditions, including reactor size, affect these processes? remained to be answered. In this 6-year multidisciplinary study, these issues were addressed in detail. The ambitious overall goal was the development of a comprehensive model to predict the size and chemical composition distributions of ash produced during pulverized coal combustion. Results are described.

  8. Combustion and gasification characteristics of chars from four commercially significant coals of different rank. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nsakala, N.Y.; Patel, R.L.; Lao, T.C.

    1982-09-01

    The combustion and gasification kinetics of four size graded coal chars were investigated experimentally in Combustion Engineering's Drop Tube Furnace System (DTFS). The chars were prepared in the DTFS from commercially significant coals representing a wide range of rank; these included a Pittsburgh No. 8 Seam hvAb coal, an Illinois No. 6 Seam hvCb coal, a Wyoming Sub C, and a Texas Lignite A. Additionally, a number of standard ASTM and special bench scale tests were performed on the coals and chars to characterize their physicochemical properties. Results showed that the lower rank coal chars were more reactive than the higher rank coal chars and that combustion reactions of chars were much faster than the corresponding gasification reactions. Fuel properties, temperature, and reactant gas partial pressure had a significant influence on both combustion and gasification, and particle size had a mild but discernible influence on gasification. Fuel reactivities were closely related to pore structure. Computer simulation of the combustion and gasification performances of the subject samples in the DTFS supported the experimental findings.

  9. The immersion freezing behavior of ash particles from wood and brown coal burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grawe, Sarah; Augustin-Bauditz, Stefanie; Hartmann, Susan; Hellner, Lisa; Pettersson, Jan B. C.; Prager, Andrea; Stratmann, Frank; Wex, Heike

    2016-11-01

    It is generally known that ash particles from coal combustion can trigger ice nucleation when they interact with water vapor and/or supercooled droplets. However, data on the ice nucleation of ash particles from different sources, including both anthropogenic and natural combustion processes, are still scarce. As fossil energy sources still fuel the largest proportion of electric power production worldwide, and biomass burning contributes significantly to the global aerosol loading, further data are needed to better assess the ice nucleating efficiency of ash particles. In the framework of this study, we found that ash particles from brown coal (i.e., lignite) burning are up to 2 orders of magnitude more ice active in the immersion mode below -32 °C than those from wood burning. Fly ash from a coal-fired power plant was shown to be the most efficient at nucleating ice. Furthermore, the influence of various particle generation methods on the freezing behavior was studied. For instance, particles were generated either by dispersion of dry sample material, or by atomization of ash-water suspensions, and then led into the Leipzig Aerosol Cloud Interaction Simulator (LACIS) where the immersion freezing behavior was examined. Whereas the immersion freezing behavior of ashes from wood burning was not affected by the particle generation method, it depended on the type of particle generation for ash from brown coal. It was also found that the common practice of treating prepared suspensions in an ultrasonic bath to avoid aggregation of particles led to an enhanced ice nucleation activity. The findings of this study suggest (a) that ash from brown coal burning may influence immersion freezing in clouds close to the source and (b) that the freezing behavior of ash particles may be altered by a change in sample preparation and/or particle generation.

  10. 78 FR 26739 - Notice of Final Action on Petition From Earthjustice To List Coal Mines as a Source Category and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-08

    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 63 Notice of Final Action on Petition From Earthjustice To List Coal Mines as a Source Category and To Regulate Air Emissions From Coal Mines AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA..., the Acting EPA Administrator, Bob Perciasepe, signed a letter denying a petition to add coal mines...

  11. Study of hydrocyclone applications to separation processes for coal preparation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchillon, C.W.

    1981-01-01

    The project objectives were to conduct a literature survey, visit coal cleaning facilities, develop an empirical predictive model and a life cycle cost method - while involving several students in an introduction to coal technology. A computerized literature research of four files was made and the more pertinent references were reviewed and presented. A visit was made to the Paradise, Kentucky coal washing plant of TVA and the coal cleaning activity of PETC-DOE at Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. An empirical predictive model was developed for hydrocyclones based on one manufacturer's information on flow rates, pressure drops, hydrocyclone geometry, and particle sizes. This was combined with a life cycle economic analysis program to provide additional techniques for proper hydrocyclone selection criteria.

  12. Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Conkle, H.N.

    1992-09-29

    Battelle-Columbus and Amax Research & Development conducted a program to develop a process to transport, handle, store, and utilize ultra-fine, ultra-clean (UFUC) coals. The primary objective was to devise a cost-effective method, based on conventional pelletization techniques, to transform the sludge-like filter cake produced in advanced flotation cleaning processes into a product which could be used like lump coal. A secondary objective was the production of a pellet which could be readily converted into a coal water fuel (CWF) because the UFUC coal would ultimately be used as CWF. The resulting product would be a hard, waterproof pellet which could be easily reduced to small particle sizes and formulated with water into a liquid fuel.

  13. Cleavage and crosslinking of polymeric coal structures during pyrolysis. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McMillen, D.F.; Malhotra, R.

    1992-02-01

    The ultimate objective of this project was to develop a better understanding of volatiles production to help optimize the yield and character of condensable coproducts during coal pyrolysis or mild gasification. The specific objectives were to (1) Develop pyrolysis procedures that minimize secondary reactions; and (2) Develop coal pretreatments that current knowledge suggests will prorate bond scission or prevent retrograde reactions. Our approach was to study the pyrolysis of coals and tar-loaded coals by using several techniques that span a range of heating rates and pressures. Slow-heating pyrolyses were performed at low pressures in the inlet of a field ionization mass spectrometer and at atmospheric pressures in a thermogravimetric analyzer. Moderately rapid-heating pyrolyses were performed in a vacuum TGA apparatus and in sealed silica ampules heated in a molten-salt bath. The fastest heating rates were achieved with laser pyrolysis at about 30,000 X/s. The high tar yield seen in this work where the entire volume of the coal particle becomes hot and fluid at very nearly the same time, taken together with the evident non-vapor transport of the tar under these conditions, emphasizes the importance of better understanding the development of fluidity during coal heating. This specifically includes the profound effects--long-recognized but poorly understood that mild oxidation has in suppressing coal fluidity. It also includes the more recently recognized fact that heating in the presence of an inert gas produced substantially greater fluidity than does heating in the presence of combustion gases, even if the conditions are very fuel rich and all the oxygen itself has already been consumed when the coal particles are encountered.

  14. Characterization and evaluation of washability of Alaskan coals: Fifty selected seams from various coal fields: Final technical report, September 30, 1976-February 28, 1986. [50 coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, P.D.

    1986-09-01

    This final report is the result of a study initiated in 1976 to obtain washability data for Alaskan coals, to supplement the efforts of the US Department of Energy in their ongoing studies on washability of US coals. Washability characteristics were determined for fifty coal samples from the Northern Alaska, Chicago Creek, Unalakleet, Nenana, Matanuska, Beluga, Yentna and Herendeen Bay coal fields. The raw coal was crushed to 1-1/2 inches, 3/8 inch, 14 mesh and 65 mesh top sizes, and float-sink separations were made at 1.30, 1.40 and 1.60 specific gravities. A limited number of samples were also crushed to 200 and 325 mesh sizes prior to float-sink testing. Samples crushed to 65 mesh top size were also separated at 1.60 specific gravity and the float and sink products were characterized for proximate and ultimate analyses, ash composition and ash fusibility. 72 refs., 79 figs., 57 tabs.

  15. Particle and gas emissions from a simulated coal-burning household fire pit

    SciTech Connect

    Linwei Tian; Donald Lucas; Susan L. Fischer; S. C. Lee; S. Katharine Hammond; Catherine P. Koshland

    2008-04-01

    An open fire was assembled with firebricks to simulate the household fire pit used in rural China, and 15 different coals from this area were burned to measure the gaseous and particulate emissions. Particle size distribution was studied with a microorifice uniform-deposit impactor (MOUDI). Over 90% of the particulate mass was attributed to sub-micrometer particles. The carbon balance method was used to calculate the emission factors. Emission factors for four pollutants (particulate matter, CO{sub 2}, total hydrocarbons, and NOx) were 2-4 times higher for bituminous coals than for anthracites. In past inventories of carbonaceous emissions used for climate modeling, these two types of coal were not treated separately. The dramatic emission factor difference between the two types of coal warrants attention in the future development of emission inventories. 25 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Lock hopper valves for coal gasification. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-05-01

    The design, fabrication, and testing of two configurations of Lock Hopper Valves is described. These two configurations are intended to meet the requirements for four typical types of service in coal gasification plants. Operating pressures for either configuration is 1600 psi. One configuration is designed for use at temperatures up to 2000/sup 0/F, and the other for temperatures up to 850/sup 0/F. Several unique construction features are employed, including the extensive use of dense alumina ceramic, especially in the high-temperature valve. The description includes details of construction, and problems encountered during fabrication and testing, and proposed solutions to those problems.

  17. The use of ethanol to remove sulfur from coal. Final report, September 1991--December 1992; Revision

    SciTech Connect

    Savage, R.L.; Lazarov, L.K.; Prudich, M.E.; Lange, C.A.; Kumar, N.

    1994-03-10

    The initial technical goal in the project was to develop a chemical method for the cost effective removal of both inorganic and organic sulfur from Ohio coals. Verifying and using a process of reacting ethanol vapors with coal under conditions disclosed in U.S. Patent 4,888,029, the immediate technical objectives were to convert a small scale laborative batch process to a larger scale continuous process which can serve as the basis for commercial development of the technology. This involved getting as much information as possible from small scale batch autoclave or fluid bed laboratory reactors for use in pilot plant studies. The laboratory data included material balances on the coal and sulfur, temperature and pressure ranges for the reaction, minimum reaction times at different conditions, the effectiveness of different activators such as oxygen and nitric oxide, the amount and nature of by-products such as sulfur dioxide, hydrogen sulfide and acetaldehyde, the effect of coal particle size on the speed and completeness of the reaction, and the effectiveness of the reaction on different Ohio coals. Because the laboratory experiments using the method disclosed in U.S. 4,888,029 were not successful, the objective for the project was changed to develop a new laboratory process to use ethanol to remove sulfur from coal. Using copper as a catalyst and as an H{sub 2}S scavenger, a new laboratory procedure to use ethanol to remove sulfur from coal has been developed at Ohio University and a patent application covering this process was filed in March, 1993. The process is based on the use of copper as a catalyst for the dehydrogenation of ethanol to produce nascent hydrogen to remove sulfur from the coal and the use of copper as a scavenger to capture the hydrogen sulfide formed from the sulfur removed from coal.

  18. Fine particle clay catalysts for coal liquefaction. Quarterly technical report, May 9, 1991--August 8, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, E.S.

    1991-12-31

    The efficient production of environmentally acceptable distillate fuels requires catalysts for hydrogenation and cleavage of the coal macromolecules and removal of oxygen, nitrogen, and sulfur heteroatoms. The goal of the proposed research is to develop new catalysts for the direct liquefaction of coal. This type of catalyst consists of fine clay particles that have been treated with reagents which form pillaring structures between the aluminosilicate layers of the clay. The pillars not only hold the layers apart but also constitute the active catalytic sites for hydrogenation of the coal and the solvent used in the liquefaction. The pillaring catalytic sites are composed of pyrrhotite, which has been previously demonstrated to be active for coal liquefaction. The pyrrhotite sites are generated in situ by sulfiding the corresponding oxyiron species. The size of the catalyst will be less than 40 nm in order to promote intimate contact with the coal material. Since the clays and reagents for pillaring and activating the clays are inexpensive, the catalysts can be discarded after use, rather than regenerated by a costly process. The proposed work will evaluate methods for preparing the fine particle iron-pillared clay dispersions and for activating the particles to generate the catalysts. Characterization studies of the pillared clays and activated catalysts will be performed. The effectiveness of the pillared clay dispersion for hydrogenation and coal liquefaction will be determined in several types of testing.

  19. Semiconductor electrochemistry of coal pyrite. Final technical report, September 1990--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Osseo-Asare, K.; Wei, D.

    1996-01-01

    This project is concerned with the physiochemical processes occuring at the pyrite/aqueous interface, in the context of coal cleaning, desulfurization, and acid mine drainage. The use of synthetic particles of pyrite as model electrodes to investigate the semiconductor electrochemistry of pyrite is employed.

  20. Advanced Coal-Fueled Gas Turbine Program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Horner, M.W.; Ekstedt, E.E.; Gal, E.; Jackson, M.R.; Kimura, S.G.; Lavigne, R.G.; Lucas, C.; Rairden, J.R.; Sabla, P.E.; Savelli, J.F.; Slaughter, D.M.; Spiro, C.L.; Staub, F.W.

    1989-02-01

    The objective of the original Request for Proposal was to establish the technological bases necessary for the subsequent commercial development and deployment of advanced coal-fueled gas turbine power systems by the private sector. The offeror was to identify the specific application or applications, toward which his development efforts would be directed; define and substantiate the technical, economic, and environmental criteria for the selected application; and conduct such component design, development, integration, and tests as deemed necessary to fulfill this objective. Specifically, the offeror was to choose a system through which ingenious methods of grouping subcomponents into integrated systems accomplishes the following: (1) Preserve the inherent power density and performance advantages of gas turbine systems. (2) System must be capable of meeting or exceeding existing and expected environmental regulations for the proposed application. (3) System must offer a considerable improvement over coal-fueled systems which are commercial, have been demonstrated, or are being demonstrated. (4) System proposed must be an integrated gas turbine concept, i.e., all fuel conditioning, all expansion gas conditioning, or post-expansion gas cleaning, must be integrated into the gas turbine system.

  1. Phase equilibrium in coal liquefaction processes. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chao, K.C.

    1984-08-01

    Gas-liquid equilibrium data have been determined in simulation of coal liquefaction process conditions in mixtures of light gases + heavy hydrocarbons to add to the accumulated data previously reported in EPRI AP-1593. The mixture systems newly investigated are: methane + 9,10 dihydrophenanthrene; hydrogen + methane + 1-methylnaphthalene; hydrogen + carbon dioxide + tetralin; hydrogen + carbon dioxide + 1-methynaphthalene; hydrogen + carbon dioxide + quinoline; nitrogen + tetralin, + n-hexadecane, + 1-methylnaphthalene, + quinoline, and + m-cresol. Correlations for the solubilities of methane and carbon dioxide have been developed from the data based on the use of solubility parameter. The solubility of hydrogen was correlated in EPRI AP-1593. Two equations of state are developed for the description of both the gas solubility and the vaporization of the heavy oil. The Chain-of-Rotators (COR) equation of state explicitly accounts for the rotational molecular motion contribution to the pressure of a fluid. The Cubic-Chain-of-Rotators (CCOR) equation is obtained upon simplifying the COR equation. Interaction constants in the CCOR equation have been determined for the light gases with the heavy hydrocarbons based on data from this project, and the constants are correlated. Equilibrium flash vaporization has been experimentally determined for three coal liquids and for their mixtures with hydrogen. The data are correlated with the CCOR equation of state. 74 figures, 46 tables.

  2. Advanced direct coal liquefaction concepts. Final report, Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, D.J.; Parker, R.J.; Simpson, P.L.

    1994-07-01

    Integration of innovative steps into new advanced processes have the potential to reduce costs for producing liquid fuels. In this program, objective is to develop a new approach to liquefaction that generates an all distillate product slate at a reduced cost of about US$25/barrel of crude oil equivalent. A Counterflow Reactor was developed in cooperation with GfK mbH, Germany. Advantages are low hydrogen recycle rates and low feed preheating requirements. Coal/heavy oil slurry is injected into the top of the reactor while the recycle gas and make up hydrogen is introduced into the bottom; hydrogenation products are withdrawn from the top. PU study resulted in distillable oil yields up to 74 wt % on feed (dry ash free) from coprocessing feed slurries containing 40 wt % Vesta subbituminous coal and 60 wt % Cold Lake heavy vacuum tower bottoms. Technologies developed separately by CED and ARC were combined. A 1-kg/hr integrated continuous flow bench scale unit was constructed at the ARC site in Devon, Alberta, based on modifications to a unit at Nisku, Alberta (the modified unit was used in the preliminary economic evaluation).

  3. Combustion characterization of the blend of plant coal and recovered coal fines. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, S.; Scaroni, A.; Miller, B.; Choudhry, V.

    1992-12-31

    The overall objective of this proposed research program was to determine the combustion characteristics of the blend derived from mixing a plant coal and recovered and clean coal fines from the pond. During this study, one plant coal and three blend samples were prepared as 100% plant coal, 90% plant coal/10% fines, 85% plant coal/15% fines, and 80% plant coal /20% fines with a particle size distribution of 70% passing through {minus}200 mesh size. The plant coal and recovered coal fines were obtained from the Randolph Preparation Plant of Peabody Coal Co., Marissa, IL. These samples` combustion behavior will be examined in two different furnaces at Penn State University, i.e., a down-fired furnace and a drop-tube furnace. The down-fired furnace was used mainly to measure the emissions and ash deposition study, while the drop tube furnace was used to determine burning profile, combustion efficiency, etc. The burning profile of the plant coal and the three blends was determined in a thermogravimetric analyzer. Results indicated slower burning of the blends due to low volatile matter and oxidized coal particles. Combustion emissions of these samples were determined in the down-fired combustor, while relative ignition temperatures were determined in the drop tube furnace. Chemical composition of ashes were analyzed to establish a correlation with their respective ash fusion temperatures. Overall study of these samples suggested that the blended samples had combustion properties similar to the original plant coal. In other words, flames were stable under identical firing rates of approximately 200,000 Btu`s/hr and 25% excess air. CO, NO{sub x}, and SO{sub x}, were similar to each other and within the experimental error. Combustion efficiency of 99{sup +}% was achievable. Ash chemical analysis of each sample revealed that slagging and fouling should not be different from each other.

  4. Gazification of coal dust particles in the blast furnace tuyere apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shvydky, V. S.; Yaroshenko, Yu G.; Spirin, N. A.; Lavrov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    The mathematical statement of the problem on gasification of coal dust particles in the blast-furnace tuyere apparatus is given, which includes the motion equation of a variable mass particle, heat equation of a particle and the heat-balance equation of the blast flow. The results of calculations are obtained by using mathematical software packages (Mathcad, Maple). Relatively weak effect of the volatiles combustion process on the thermal state of the tuyere zone is shown.

  5. The effect of selective solvent absorption on coal conversion. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, J.W.

    1993-11-01

    Using a pair of different recycle oils from Wilsonville and {sup 1}H NMR, {sup 13}C NMR, gel permeation (GPC) chromatography, high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC), and elemental analysis, no significant differences were observed between the composition of the recycle oil and that portion of the oil not absorbed by the coal. For these complex mixtures, coals are not selective absorbants. Since most of the heteroatoms responsible for most of the specific interactions have been removed by hydrogenolyses, this is perhaps not surprising. To address the issue of the role of hydrogen bond donors in the reused as hydrogen donor coal, tetralin and 2-t-butyltetralin were used as hydrogen donor solvents. This work is reported in detail in Section 2. The basic idea is that the presence of the t-butyl group on the aromatic ring will hinder or block diffusion of the hydrogen donor into the coal resulting in lower conversions and less hydrogen transferred with 2-t-butyltetralin than with tetralin. Observed was identical amounts of hydrogen transfer and nearly identical conversions to pyridine solubles for both hydrogen donors. Diffusion of hydrogen donors into the coal does not seem to play a significant role in coal conversion. Finally, in Section 3 is discussed the unfavorable impact on conversion of the structural rearrangements which occur when Illinois No. 6 coal is swollen with a solvent. We believe this rearrangement results in a more strongly associated solid leading to the diminution of coal reactions. Hydrogen donor diffusion does not seem to be a major factor in coal conversion while the structural rearrangement does. Both areas warrant further exploration.

  6. Micro-agglomerate flotation for deep cleaning of coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chander, S.; Hogg, R.

    1997-01-15

    The development of practical technologies for the deep cleaning of coal has been seriously hampered by the problems of carrying out efficient coal/mineral separations at the very fine sizes (often finer than 10 {micro}m) needed to achieve adequate liberation of the mineral matter from the coal matrix. In this investigation a hybrid process--Micro-agglomerate flotation--which is a combination of oil-agglomeration and froth flotation was studied. The basic concept is to use small quantities of oil to promote the formation of dense micro-agglomerates with minimal entrapment of water and mineral particles and to use froth flotation to separate these micro-agglomerates from the water/dispersed-mineral phase. Since the floating units will be relatively large agglomerates (30--50 {micro}m in size) rather than fine coal particles (1--10 {micro}m) the problems of froth overload and water/mineral carryover should be significantly alleviated. There are, however, complications. The process involves at least five phases: two or more solids (coal and mineral), two liquids (oil and water) and one gas (air). It is demonstrated in this study that the process is very sensitive to fluctuations in operating parameters. It is necessary to maintain precise control over the chemistry of the liquid phases as well as the agitation conditions in order to promote selectivity. Both kinetics as well as thermodynamic factors play a critical role in determining overall system response.

  7. PAHs and organic matter partitioning and mass transfer from coal tar particles to water

    SciTech Connect

    Karim Benhabib; Marie-Odile Simonnot; Michel Sardin

    2006-10-01

    The coal tar found in contaminated soils of former manufactured gas plants and coking plants acts as a long-term source of PAHs. Organic carbon and PAH transfer from coal tar particles to water was investigated with closed-looped laboratory column experiments run at various particle sizes and temperatures. Two models were derived. The first one represented the extraction process at equilibrium and was based on a linear partitioning of TOC and PAHs between coal tar and water. The partition coefficient was derived as well as the mass of extractable organic matter in the particles. The second model dealt with mass transfer. Particle diffusion was the limiting step; organic matter diffusivity in the coal tar was then computed in the different conditions. A good consistency was obtained between experimental and computed results. Hence, the modeling of PAH migration in contaminated soils at the field scale requires taking into account coal tar as the source-term for PAH release. 28 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Coal-gasification systems: a guide to status, applications, and economics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Simbeck, D.R.; Dickenson, R.L.; Oliver, E.D.

    1983-06-01

    Coal gasification has been the subject of a great deal of study and development worldwide over the past decade. The open literature currently contains bewildering and often inconsistent information concerning the development status and economic viability of coal gasification systems. The Advanced Power Systems Division of EPRI has devoted considerable resources to the development and demonstration of coal gasification technology for ultimate use in electric-power-generation systems. The primary objective of this Guide is to provide current and consistent information concerning the status of commercial development, potential utility applications and EPRI-developed capital and operating costs for coal-gasification technologies that have already been demonstrated at commercial scale as well as for those that are close to commercial practice. Current commercial/developmental status of Lurgi, Koppers-Totzek, Texaco, Shell, British Gas Corporation/Lurgi, KILnGAS, Westinghouse and High Temperature Winkler is discussed. Environmental aspects, thermal performance, reliabiilty and cost information are provided for medium-Btu gas production; retrofitting and repowering existing steam plants; integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) systems; low-water-consumption IGCC systems; methanol from coal; once-through methanol production in an IGCC system; and IGCC systems employing advanced, molten-carbonate fuel cells. Finally, for comparison purposes, performance and cost estimates on a consistent basis are provided for coal-fired steam plants; oil-fired steam plants; oil- and gas-fired combined-cycle and combustion-turbine plants. 88 figures, 86 tables.

  9. Encoal mild coal gasification project: Encoal project final report, July 1, 1997--July 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    This document is the summative report on the ENCOAL Mild Coal Gasification Project. It covers the time period from September 17, 1990, the approval date of the Cooperative Agreement between ENCOAL and the US Department of Energy (DOE), to July 17, 1997, the formal end of DOE participation in the Project. The Cooperative Agreement was the result of an application by ENCOAL to the DOE soliciting joint funding under Round III of the Clean Coal Technology Program. By June 1992, the ENCOAL Plant had been built, commissioned and started up, and in October 1994, ENCOAL was granted a two-year extension, carrying the project through to September 17, 1996. No-cost extensions have moved the Cooperative Agreement end date to July 17, 1997 to allow for completion of final reporting requirements. At its inception, ENCOAL was a subsidiary of Shell Mining Company. In November 1992, Shell Mining Company changed ownership, becoming a subsidiary of Zeigler Coal Holding Company (Zeigler) of Fairview Heights, Illinois. Renamed successively as SMC Mining Company and then Bluegrass Coal Development Company, it remained the parent entity for ENCOAL, which has operated a 1,000-ton/day mild coal gasification demonstration plant near Gillette, Wyoming for nearly 5 years. ENCOAL operates at the Buckskin Mine owned by Triton Coal Company (Triton), another Zeigler subsidiary.

  10. Immersion calorimetry of fine coal particles and its relation to flotation

    SciTech Connect

    Melkus, T.G.; Chiang, S.H.; Wen, W.W.

    1987-01-01

    A Setaram C-80 heat flux microcalorimeter was used to study the surface and interfacial properties of fine coal particles in water containing flotation agents via heat of immersion measurements. Heat of immersion (..delta..H/sub imm/) is usually a small exothermic quantity and can be used to characterize a solid in terms of its relative hydrophobicity or hydrophilicity. The effects of coal type, surface oxidation, mineral matter content, kerosene concentration, and pH on the wetting characteristics were investigated. Although coal is a heterogeneous mixture of organic and inorganic materials, immersional calorimetry has proven to be quite helpful in measuring surface properties of coal, and the following conclusions can be drawn: The heat of immersion decreased with increasing kerosene concentration, which corresponds to the coal particles increasing hydrophobicity; in varying the pH, the ..delta..H/sub imm/ went through a minimum at a pH value of 6.5 to 7.0, which coincides with the reported optimum pH range for flotation; both oxidation and clay slime coating (addition of kaolin), which are known to make the coal less hydrophobic, increased the ..delta..H/sub imm/; and the trends that were shown to exist in the heat of immersion measurements (for varying kerosene concentration, pH oxidation, and clay slime coating) correlated well with independent flotation experiments. 16 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Japanese Negotiation through Emerging Final Particles in Everyday Talk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ono, Tsuyoshi; Thompson, Sandra A.; Sasaki, Yumi

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the grammar of Japanese "kara" "because/so" and "kedo" "but", traditionally understood as conjunctive particles whose function is to mark a "subordinate" clause and connect it to a following "main" clause. This article shows that, in conversation, these forms are often used turn-finally without an apparent main clause and…

  12. ACUTE PULMONARY AND SYSTEMIC EFFECTS OF INHALED COAL FLY ASH IN RATS: COMPARISON TO AMBIENT ENVIRONMENTAL PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although primary particle emissions of ash from coal-fired power plants are well controlled, coal fly ash (CFA) can still remain a significant fraction of the overall particle exposure for some plant workers and highly impacted communities. The effect of CFA on pulmonary and syst...

  13. Energy Policy Act Transportation Rate Study: Final Report on Coal Transportation

    EIA Publications

    2000-01-01

    This is the final in a series of reports prepared for the U.S. Congress by the Secretary of Energy on coal distribution and transportation rates as mandated by Title XIII, Section 1340, Establishment of Data Base and Study of Transportation Rates, of the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486).

  14. Characterization of airborne particles at a high-btu coal-gasification pilot plant.

    PubMed

    Davidson, C I; Santhanam, S; Stetter, J R; Flotard, R D; Gebert, E

    1982-12-01

    Airborne particles in fugitive emissions have been measured at a slagging fixed-bed coal-gasification pilot plant using lignite. Sampling was conducted during shutdown operations and opening of the gasifier following an aborted startup. Aerosol collected with a Sierra high-volume impactor was subjected to analysis by gas chromatography, mass spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy; aerosol collected with an Andersen low-volume impactor was subjected to flameless atomic absorption analysis. The data show that the bulk of the trace organic material is associated with small particles: these data are similar to data on ambient air reported in the literature. Particle morphologies resemble those of fly ash from coal combustion, including smooth spheres, vesicular spheres, and crystalline material. Trace element size distributions are bimodal and resemble data for ambient air. Pb-containing particles are generally submicron, while particles containing Al, Fe, and other crustal species are mostly of supermicron size. Aluminum-based aerosol enrichment factors calculated from the lignite composition show that the composition of the aerosol resembles that of the coal, with the exception of modest enrichments of Mg, Na, As, and Pb in the submicron size range. Aerosol enrichment factors based on the earth's crustal composition are somewhat greater than those based on coal composition for several elements, suggesting potential errors in using crustal enrichment data to investigate chemical fractionation during aerosol formation.

  15. Relationship between Particle Size Distribution of Low-Rank Pulverized Coal and Power Plant Performance

    DOE PAGES

    Ganguli, Rajive; Bandopadhyay, Sukumar

    2012-01-01

    Tmore » he impact of particle size distribution (PSD) of pulverized, low rank high volatile content Alaska coal on combustion related power plant performance was studied in a series of field scale tests. Performance was gauged through efficiency (ratio of megawatt generated to energy consumed as coal), emissions (SO 2 , NO x , CO), and carbon content of ash (fly ash and bottom ash).he study revealed that the tested coal could be burned at a grind as coarse as 50% passing 76 microns, with no deleterious impact on power generation and emissions.he PSD’s tested in this study were in the range of 41 to 81 percent passing 76 microns.here was negligible correlation between PSD and the followings factors: efficiency, SO 2 , NO x , and CO. Additionally, two tests where stack mercury (Hg) data was collected, did not demonstrate any real difference in Hg emissions with PSD.he results from the field tests positively impacts pulverized coal power plants that burn low rank high volatile content coals (such as Powder River Basin coal).hese plants can potentially reduce in-plant load by grinding the coal less (without impacting plant performance on emissions and efficiency) and thereby, increasing their marketability.« less

  16. Biological upgrading of coal-derived synthesis gas: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Barik, S.; Johnson, E.R.; Ko, C.W.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1986-10-01

    The technical feasibility of the biological conversion of coal synthesis gas to methane has been demonstrated in the University of Arkansas laboratories. Cultures of microorganisms have been developed which achieve total conversion in the water gas shift and methanation reactions in either mixed or pure cultures. These cultures carry out these conversions at ordinary temperatures and pressures, without sulfur toxicity. Several microorganisms have been identified as having commercial potential for producing methane. These include a mixed culture of unidentified bacteria; P. productus which produces acetate, a methane precursor; and Methanothrix sp., which produces methane from acetate. These cultures have been used in mixed reactors and immobilized cell reactors to achieve total CO and H/sub 2/ conversion in a retention time of less than two hours, quite good for a biological reactor. Preliminary economic projections indicate that a biological methanation plant with a size of 5 x 10/sup 10/ Btu/day can be economically attractive. 42 refs., 26 figs., 86 tabs.

  17. The mechanism of hydrogen incorporation in coal liquefaction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    The purpose of the research was to determine the detailed molecular mechanism for the introduction of hydrogen into coal when it is heated in an atmosphere of H{sub 2} in the absence of catalysts and to use this information as a baseline for the study of catalyzed processes. The plan was to study the reaction of model compounds with D{sub 2} in a glass-lined reactor of the authors` design and, by determining the distribution of D atoms in the reaction products, to deduce the reaction mechanism(s). As of the date of this report (Nov. 1995), the authors have, they believe conclusively, demonstrated the mechanism of the thermal process. They have studied several gas-phase reactions and, recently, have extended these to surface-immobilized models. The data are consistent in their support of the proposed sequence. Within the past year, they have begun to look at catalyzed hydrothermolysis and, while the work is at an early stage, they can draw a few significant conclusions, presented in the report.

  18. Enrichment and particle size dependence of polonium and other naturally occurring radionuclides in coal ash.

    PubMed

    Sahu, S K; Tiwari, M; Bhangare, R C; Pandit, G G

    2014-12-01

    Coal fired thermal power contributes 70% of power in India. Coal fired power generation results in huge amounts of fly ash and bottom ash of varying properties. Coal, which contains the naturally occurring radionuclides, on burning results in enrichment of these radionuclides in the ashes. In the present study, coal, bottom ash and fly ash samples collected from six coal-fired power plants in India were measured for (210)Po using alpha spectrometry and for natural U, (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K by an HPGe γ-ray spectrometer. (210)Po in fly ash ranged from 25.7 to 70 Bq/kg with a mean value of 40.5 Bq/kg. The range and mean activities of (238)U, (226)Ra, (232)Th, (40)K in fly ash were 38.5-101 (78.1), 60-105.7 (79), 20-125 (61.7) and 43.6-200 (100) Bq/kg respectively. Fly ash and bottom ash contains two to five times more natural radionuclides than feed coal. The results were compared with the available data from earlier studies in other countries. The effect of particle size on enrichment factor of the nuclides in fly ash was studied. (210)Po showed the largest size dependence with its concentration favoring the smaller particle size while (232)Th showed least size dependence. (238)U and (226)Ra showed behavior intermediate to that of (210)Po and (232)Th. Also the correlation between sulfur content of the feed coal and activity of (210)Po was investigated. Increased sulfur content in feed coal enhanced enrichment of (210)Po in ash.

  19. Mathematical modeling of the heat treatment and combustion of a coal particle. III. Volatile escape stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enkhjargal, Kh.; Salomatov, V. V.

    2011-05-01

    The present paper is a continuation of previous publications of the authors in this journal in which two phases of the multistage process of combustion of a coal particle were considered in detail with the help of mathematical modeling: its radiation-convection heating and drying. In the present work, the escape dynamics of volatiles is investigated. The physico-mathematical model of the thermodestruction of an individual coal particle with a dominant influence of endothermal effects has been formulated. Approximate-analytical solutions of this model that are of paramount importance for detailed analysis of the influence of the physical and regime parameters on the escape dynamics of volatiles have been found. The results obtained form the basis for engineering calculations of the volatile escape stage and can be used successfully in the search for effective regimes of burning of various solid fuels, in particular, Shivé-Ovoos coal of Mongolia.

  20. Activation of immune complement by fly ash particles from coal combustion. [Dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, J.O.; Rothenberg, S.J.; Kanapilly, G.M.; Hanson, R.L.; Scott, B.R.

    1982-06-01

    The interaction of immune complement with fly ash particles from coal combustion was studied in vitro. Fly ash from different coal combustors was incubated for 1 hr with pooled normal dog serum at 37/sup 0/C. The serum supernatants were assayed for complement by a 505 hemolytic (CH/sub 50/) endpoint method. Ash produced by burning one type of coal activated complement with up to 70% of the complement activated at 10 mg ash/ml serum. This activation was concentration dependent and a linear dose-response curve was obtained. Heat treatment and surface area measurements, as well as immunofluorescence studies, suggest that the active component(s) is volatile or heat labile, found on the surface of the particles, and removed by saline or water extraction.

  1. Effects of calcium magnesium acetate on the combustion of coal-water slurries. Final project report, 1 September 1989--28 February 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Levendis, Y.A.; Wise, D.; Metghalchi, H.; Cumper, J.; Atal, A.; Estrada, K.R.; Murphy, B.; Steciak, J.; Hottel, H.C.; Simons, G.

    1993-07-01

    To conduct studies on the combustion of coal water fuels (CWFs) an appropriate facility was designed and constructed. The main components were (1) a high-temperature isothermal laminar flow furnace that facilitates observation of combustion events in its interior. The design of this system and its characterization are described in Chapter 1. (2) Apparatus for slurry droplet/agglomerate particle generation and introduction in the furnace. These devices are described in Chapters 1 and 3 and other attached publications. (3) An electronic optical pyrometer whose design, construction theory of operation, calibration and performance are presented in Chapter 2. (4) A multitude of other accessories, such as particle fluidization devices, a suction thermometer, a velocimeter, high speed photographic equipment, calibration devices for the pyrometer, etc., are described throughout this report. Results on the combustion of CWF droplets and CWF agglomerates made from micronized coal are described in Chapter 3. In the same chapter the combustion of CWF containing dissolved calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) axe described. The combustion behavior of pre-dried CWF agglomerates of pulverized grain coal is contrasted to that of agglomerates of micronized coal in Chapter 4. In the same chapter the combustion of agglomerates of carbon black and diesel soot is discussed as well. The effect of CMA on the combustion of the above materials is also discussed. Finally, the sulfur capture capability of CMA impregnated micronized and pulverized bituminous coals is examined in Chapter 5.

  2. Effect of Particle Size Distribution on Wall Heat Flux in Pulverized-Coal Furnaces and Boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jun

    A mathematical model of combustion and heat transfer within a cylindrical enclosure firing pulverized coal has been developed and tested against two sets of measured data (one is 1993 WSU/DECO Pilot test data, the other one is the International Flame Research Foundation 1964 Test (Beer, 1964)) and one independent code FURN3D from the Argonne National Laboratory (Ahluwalia and IM, 1992). The model called PILC assumes that the system is a sequence of many well-stirred reactors. A char burnout model combining diffusion to the particle surface, pore diffusion, and surface reaction is employed for predicting the char reaction, heat release, and evolution of char. The ash formation model included relates the ash particle size distribution to the particle size distribution of pulverized coal. The optical constants of char and ash particles are calculated from dispersion relations derived from reflectivity, transmissivity and extinction measurements. The Mie theory is applied to determine the extinction and scattering coefficients. The radiation heat transfer is modeled using the virtual zone method, which leads to a set of simultaneous nonlinear algebraic equations for the temperature field within the furnace and on its walls. This enables the heat fluxes to be evaluated. In comparisons with the experimental data and one independent code, the model is successful in predicting gas temperature, wall temperature, and wall radiative flux. When the coal with greater fineness is burnt, the particle size of pulverized coal has a consistent influence on combustion performance: the temperature peak was higher and nearer to burner, the radiation flux to combustor wall increased, and also the absorption and scattering coefficients of the combustion products increased. The effect of coal particle size distribution on absorption and scattering coefficients and wall heat flux is significant. But there is only a small effect on gas temperature and fuel fraction burned; it is speculated

  3. Development and evaluation of coal/water mixture combustion technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Scheffee, R.S.; Rossmeissl, N.P.; Skolnik, E.G.; McHale, E.T.

    1981-08-01

    The objective was to advance the technology for the preparation, storage, handling and combustion of highly-loaded coal/water mixtures. A systematic program to prepare and experimentally evaluate coal/water mixtures was conducted to develop mixtures which (1) burn efficiently using combustion chambers and burners designed for oil, (2) can be provided at a cost less than that of No. 6 oil, and (3) can be easily transported and stored. The program consisted of three principal tasks. The first was a literature survey relevant to coal/water mixture technology. The second involved slurry preparation and evaluation of rheological and stability properties, and processing techniques. The third consisted of combustion tests to characterize equipment and slurry parameters. The first task comprised a complete search of the literature, results of which are tabulated in Appendix A. Task 2 was involved with the evaluation of composition and process variables on slurry rheology and stability. Three bituminous coals, representing a range of values of volatile content, ash content, and hardness were used in the slurries. Task 3 was concerned with the combustion behavior of coal/water slurry. The studies involved first upgrading of an experimental furnace facility, which was used to burn slurry fuels, with emphasis on studying the effect on combustion of slurry properties such as viscosity and particle size, and the effect of equipment parameters such as secondary air preheat and atomization.

  4. Investigation of the efect of the coal particle sizes on the interfacial and rheological properties of coal-water slurry fuels

    SciTech Connect

    Kihm, K.D.; Deignan, P.

    1995-11-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of particle size on coal-water slurry (CWS) surface tension properties. Two different coal powder samples of different size ranges were obtained through sieving of coal from the Upper Elkhorn Seam. The surfactant (anionic DDBS-soft, dodecylbenzene sulfonic acid) concentration varied from 0 to 1.0% in weight while the coal loading remained at 40% in weight for all the cases. A du Nouy ring tensiometer and a maximum bubble pressure tensiometer measured the static and dynamic surface tensions, respectively, The results show that both static and dynamic surface tensions tend to increase with decreasing coal particle sizes suspended in CWS fuels. Examination of the peak pressure, minimum pressure, surfactant diffusion time, and dead time were also made to correlate these microscopic pressure behavior with the macroscopic dynamic surface tension and to examine the accuracy of the experiment.

  5. Simulated coal gas MCFC power plant system verification. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-30

    The objective of the main project is to identify the current developmental status of MCFC systems and address those technical issues that need to be resolved to move the technology from its current status to the demonstration stage in the shortest possible time. The specific objectives are separated into five major tasks as follows: Stack research; Power plant development; Test facilities development; Manufacturing facilities development; and Commercialization. This Final Report discusses the M-C power Corporation effort which is part of a general program for the development of commercial MCFC systems. This final report covers the entire subject of the Unocal 250-cell stack. Certain project activities have been funded by organizations other than DOE and are included in this report to provide a comprehensive overview of the work accomplished.

  6. Dispersive approaches for three-particle final state interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Peng; Danilkin, I. V.; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

    2015-10-01

    In this work, we present different representations of the Khuri-Treiman equation and discuss advantages and disadvantages of each representation. In particular we focus on the inversion technique proposed by Pasquier, which, even though developed a long time ago, has not been used in modern analyses of data on three particle decays. We apply the method to a toy model and compare the sensitivity of this and alternative solution methods to the left-hand cut contribution. We also discuss the meaning and applicability of Watson's theorem when three particles in final states are involved.

  7. Novel nanodispersed coal liquefaction catalysts: Molecular design via microemulsion-based synthesis. Final technical report, October 1990--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Osseo-Asare, K.; Boakye, E.; Vittal, M.

    1995-04-01

    This report described the synthesis of Molybdenum Sulfides in microemulsions by acidification of ammonium tetrathiomolybdate. Molybdenum Sulfides have been shown to be potential coal liquefaction catalysts. The importance of particle size, temperature effects, and coal surface chemistry to impregnation are discussed.

  8. Development of an exposure system for the toxicological evaluation of particles derived from coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Pablo A; Gupta, Tarun; Kang, Choong-Min; Lawrence, Joy E; Ferguson, Stephen T; Wolfson, Jack M; Rohr, Annette C; Koutrakis, Petros

    2007-06-01

    To investigate the toxicity of particles originating from coal-fired power plants it is necessary to consider the effects of both primary particles and secondary components formed in the air through atmospheric reactions. This report describes a new exposure system that can be used to expose animals to both directly emitted particles and to secondary particles. The system consists of three main components. The first is a sampling system to continuously collect and dilute power plant stack emissions. The second is a reaction laboratory that contains reaction chambers to simulate atmospheric reactions. The following atmospheric reactions were simulated: (1) the oxidation of sulfur dioxide to form sulfuric acid, (2) the neutralization of sulfuric acid by ammonia, and (3) the reaction of alpha-pinene with ozone to form secondary organic aerosol. Using these chambers with the diluted emissions, different typical atmospheric scenarios can be simulated. The final component is a mobile toxicology laboratory where animals are exposed to the resulting test aerosols. We report here the characteristics of the test aerosol exposures obtained at a coal-fired electric power plant. Particle exposures were characterized for concentrations of mass, elements, elemental carbon, organic species, inorganic ions, strong acidity, particle number, and size distributions. Mass concentrations ranged from a few micrograms per cubic meter for a scenario of primary emissions only, to about 250 microg m(-3) for the most complex scenario. We show that the different scenarios produced a large variation in the composition of the test aerosol, thus potentially changing the toxicity of the emissions.

  9. Dispersive approaches for three-particle final state interaction

    DOE PAGES

    Guo, Peng; Danilkin, Igor V.; Szczepaniak, Adam P.

    2015-10-30

    In this work, we presented different representations of Khuri-Treiman equation, the advantage and disadvantage of each representations are discussed. With a scattering amplitude toy model, we also studied the sensitivity of solution of KT equation to left-hand cut of toy model and to the different approximate methods. At last, we give a brief discussion of Watson's theorem when three particles in final states are involved.

  10. Flow and design characteristics of the hydrocyclone for the recovery of coal fines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.K.

    1984-03-01

    The objective of this project was to do a basic study to identify the flow and design variables of the conventional hydrocyclone and experimentally determine how each one individually affects its operation while all the others are held constant. Spheres were initially used to model solid particles. It was then to be seen if the data using spheres could be used to determine optimum configurations for given applications. The specific application of interest in this project is the separation of coal fines from waste materials such as gob or settling pond settlings. The relevant variables of the standard hydrocyclone have been identified. Two experimental hydrocyclone systems have been designed and constructed so that the flow rate, inlet area, vortex finder length and diameter, underflow diameter, length of hydrocyclone chamber and cone angle can all be varied, one at a time, while all other variables are held constant. It was first shown that the sphere data compares well with data using random shaped coal particles with approximately the same mean diameters as the spheres. Then a hydrocyclone configuration was selected, by use of the sphere data, to separate coal fines from gob material. Good coal fines recovery from the gob (mineral waste) samples has been achieved on a batch basis. Recovery of 99% to 100% of the coal fines in a sample of gob has been achieved in the size range of from 0.187 inch (0.0047 m) to 0.500 inch (0.0127 m). Recovery of approximately 91% was achieved in the size range of from 0.0937 inch (0.0024 m) to 0.187 inch (0.0047 m). It should be emphasized that these results were obtained on a batch basis. 97 references, 5 figures, 3 tables.

  11. A study of Multistage/Multifunction Column for Fine Coal Cleaning CRADA PC93-005, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Ralph Lai; Shiao-Hung Chiang; Daxin He; Yuru Feng

    1998-09-04

    The overall objective of the this research project is to explore the potential applicability of a multistage column for fine coal cleaning and other applications in fluid particle separation. The research work identifies the design parameters and their effects on the performance of the separation device. The results of this study provide an engineering data basis for further development of this technology in coal cleaning and in general areas of fluid and particle separations.

  12. Quantitative measurement of atomic sodium in the plume of a single burning coal particle

    SciTech Connect

    van Eyk, P.J.; Ashman, P.J.; Alwahabi, Z.T.; Nathan, G.J.

    2008-11-15

    The release of volatile sodium during coal combustion is a significant factor in the fouling and corrosion of heat transfer surfaces within industrial coal-fired boilers. A method for measuring the temporal release of atomic sodium from a single coal particle is described. Laser absorption was used to calibrate laser-induced fluorescence measurements of atomic sodium utilising the sodium D1 line (589.59 nm) in a purpose-designed flat flame environment. The calibration was then applied to planar laser-induced fluorescence measurements of sodium atoms in the plume from a single Victorian brown coal particle (53 mg) suspended within the flat flame. The peak concentration of atomic sodium was approximately 64.1 ppb after 1080.5 s, which appears to correspond to the end of char combustion. To our knowledge this is the first in situ quantitative measurement of the concentration field of atomic sodium in the plume above a burning particle. A simple kinetic model has been used to estimate the rate of sodium decay in the post-flame gases. Comparison of the estimated and measured decay rates showed reasonable agreement. (author)

  13. The chemical enhancement of the triboelectric separation of coal from pyrite and ash: A novel approach for electrostatic separation of mineral matter from coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gustafson, R.M.; DiMare, S.; Sabatini, J.

    1992-02-01

    Arthur D. Little, Inc., under contract to the US DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, has developed a triboelectric separation device for coal beneficiation, that employs an entrained-flow, rotating-cylinder concept. The described apparatus has been used to test the efficacy of chemical pretreatment and in-situ treatment of coal on separation efficiency. Coal particle entrainment is achieved with gaseous carbon dioxide and particle collection is accomplished by an electrostatic plate separator. The triboelectric separation device incorporates instrumentation for the direct measurement of charge in the dilute-phase particle stream. Some of the pretreatment materials investigated under this project to modify the surface charging characteristics of the coal included oleic acid, sodium oleate, quinoline and dicyclohexylamine. Ammonia and sulfur dioxide at a concentration up to 1000 ppM was used for in-situ treatment of the coal, with carbon dioxide as the carrier/inerting gas. Nitrogen was used earlier in the test program as the carrier/inerting gas for the coal, but a severe arcing problem was encountered in the electrostatic collector with nitrogen as the carrier gas. This problem did not occur when carbon dioxide was used. The report covers the chemical treatment employed, and summarizes and interprets the results achieved. In addition, an economic analysis of a full scale system based on this concept is presented.

  14. The effect of model fidelity on prediction of char burnout for single-particle coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    McConnell, Josh; Sutherland, James C.

    2016-07-09

    In this study, practical simulation of industrial-scale coal combustion relies on the ability to accurately capture the dynamics of coal subprocesses while also ensuring the computational cost remains reasonable. The majority of the residence time occurs post-devolatilization, so it is of great importance that a balance between the computational efficiency and accuracy of char combustion models is carefully considered. In this work, we consider the importance of model fidelity during char combustion by comparing combinations of simple and complex gas and particle-phase chemistry models. Detailed kinetics based on the GRI 3.0 mechanism and infinitely-fast chemistry are considered in the gas-phase. The Char Conversion Kinetics model and nth-Order Langmuir–Hinshelwood model are considered for char consumption. For devolatilization, the Chemical Percolation and Devolatilization and Kobayashi-Sarofim models are employed. The relative importance of gasification versus oxidation reactions in air and oxyfuel environments is also examined for various coal types. Results are compared to previously published experimental data collected under laminar, single-particle conditions. Calculated particle temperature histories are strongly dependent on the choice of gas phase and char chemistry models, but only weakly dependent on the chosen devolatilization model. Particle mass calculations were found to be very sensitive to the choice of devolatilization model, but only somewhat sensitive to the choice of gas chemistry and char chemistry models. High-fidelity models for devolatilization generally resulted in particle temperature and mass calculations that were closer to experimentally observed values.

  15. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2003-01-31

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NOx and low NOx combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). Tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} control, NO{sub x} control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. Previous research results have demonstrated that the inhalation of coal/MSS ash particles cause an increase in lung permeability than coal ash particles alone. Elemental analysis of the coal/MSS ash particles showed that Zn was more abundant in these ash particles than the ash particles of coal ash alone.

  16. Agglomeration rate and action forces between atomized particles of agglomerator and inhaled-particles from coal combustion.

    PubMed

    Wei, Feng; Zhang, Jun-ying; Zheng, Chu-guang

    2005-01-01

    In order to remove efficiently haled-particles emissions from coal combustions, a new way was used to put forward the process of agglomeration and the atomization was produced by the nozzle and then sprayed into the flue before precipitation devices of power station boiler in order to make inhaled-particles agglomerate into bigger particles, which can be easily removed but not change existing running conditions of boiler. According to this idea, a model is set up to study agglomeration rate and effect forces between fly ash inhaled-particles and atomized agglomerator particles. The developed agglomeration rate was expressed by relative particle number decreasing speed per unit volume. The result showed that viscosity force and flow resistance force give main influences on agglomeration effect of inhaled-particles, while springiness force and gravity have little effect on agglomeration effect of theirs. Factors influencing the agglomeration rate and effect forces are studied, including agglomerator concentration, agglomerator flux and agglomerator density, atomized-particles diameters and inhaled-particles diameter and so on.

  17. Use of foaming mud cement to terminate underground coal fires and to control subsidence of burn cavities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lucero, R.F.

    1988-09-29

    Foaming Mud Cement (FMC) is a class of materials related to cellular cement studied and developed for the purpose of addressing Abandoned Mine Land problems. During the 2-year program, significant advances were made using a specific methodology that properly employed will enable the successful termination of many surface and underground coal mine fires. Fundamental but key developments attained were: the ability to effectively isolate burning coal from the available air by effectively penetrating burning coal rubble with heat-resistive FMC and encapsulating and isolation of a wide range of coal particle sizes, resulting in permanent coal-fire termination by air exclusion. The materials developed were specifically designed to terminate underground coal fires and preventing further subsidence.

  18. Analysis of mass loss of a coal particle during the course of burning in a flow of inert material

    SciTech Connect

    Pelka, Piotr

    2009-08-15

    This paper is an attempt to explain the role of erosion during the process of coal combustion in a circulating fluidized bed. Different kinds of carbon deposits found in Poland, both bituminous as well as lignite with the particle of 10 mm in diameter were the subject of the research. According to many publications it is well known that erosion plays a significant role in coal combustion, by changing its mechanism as well as generating an additional mass loss of the mother particle. The purpose of this research was to determine the influence of an inert material on an erosive mass loss of a single coal particle burning in a two-phase flow. The determination of the influence of a coal type, the rate of flow of inert material and the temperature inside the furnace on the erosive mass loss of burning coal particle was also taken into consideration. The results obtained indicate that the velocity of the erosive mass loss depends on the chemical composition and petrographic structure of burning coal. The mechanical interaction of inert and burning coal particles leads to the shortening of the period of overall mass loss of the coal particle by even two times. The increase in the rate of flow of the inert material intensifies the generation of mass loss by up to 100%. The drop in temperature which slows down the combustion process, decreases the mass loss of the coal particle as the result of mechanical interaction of the inert material. As was observed, the process of percolation plays a significant role by weakening the surface of the burning coal. (author)

  19. Coal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brant, Russell A.; Glass, Gary B.

    1983-01-01

    Principle work of 23 state geological surveys is summarized. Work includes mapping/estimating coal resources, centralizing data in National Coal Resources Data System through cooperative programs, exploration drilling, and others. Comments on U.S. Geological Survey activities, coal-related conferences/meetings, and industry research activities are…

  20. H-coal fluid dynamics. Final report, August 1, 1977-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-16

    This report presents the results of work aimed at understanding the hydrodynamic behavior of the H-Coal reactor. A summary of the literature search related to the fluid dynamic behavior of gas/liquid/solid systems has been presented. Design details of a cold flow unit were discussed. The process design of this cold flow model followed practices established by HRI in their process development unit. The cold fow unit has been used to conduct experiments with nitrogen, kerosene, or kerosene/coal char slurries, and HDS catalyst, which at room temperature have properties similar to those existing in the H-Coal reactor. Mineral oil, a high-viscosity liquid, was also used. The volume fractions occupied by gas/liquid slurries and catalyst particles were determined by several experimental techniques. The use of a mini-computer for data collection and calculation has greatly accelerated the analysis and reporting of data. Data on nitrogen/kerosene/HDS catalyst and coal char fines are presented in this paper. Correlations identified in the literature search were utilized to analyze the data. From this analysis it became evident that the Richardson-Zaki correlation describes the effect of slurry flow rate on catalyst expansion. Three-phase fluidization data were analyzed with two models.

  1. Characterization of coal and charcoal by alpha-particle and gamma-ray spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrasco Lourtau, A. M.; Rubio Montero, M. P.; Jurado Vargas, M.

    2015-11-01

    Although coal and charcoal have similar physical and chemical characteristics, there are several crystallographic procedures used to distinguish and characterize them. But if the matrix is crushed, there is no standard procedure to distinguish coal from charcoal. In this work, a procedure to characterize coal and charcoal samples based on the radioactive content is proposed. The first assay is by gamma-ray spectrometry, which allows a part of the radioactive content to be determined rapidly and non-destructively. Then, alpha-particle spectrometry is applied to assay the content of those radionuclides which are difficult to determine precisely by gamma-ray spectrometry. This second technique requires prior chemical purification of the carbon sample in order to separate the corresponding radionuclides of interest.

  2. Combustion of pulverized coal in vortex structures. Final report, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Gollahalli, S.R.; Butuk, N.

    1996-03-01

    The objectives of the project were: (i) to understand the effects of heating one of the streams on the characteristics of shear layers, (ii) to investigate the changes in the characteristics of large scale vortex structures in the shear layer caused by the introduction of inert solid particles in one of the feed streams; (iii) to understand the effects of pyrolyzing solids on the shear layer behavior; and (iv) to study the effects of combustion of particles and their pyrolysis products on the shear layer structure, heat release rate, and pollutant emission characteristics. An experimental facility for generating two-dimensional shear layers containing vortex structures has been designed and fabricated. The experimental facility is essentially a low speed wind tunnel designed to (i) provide two gas streams, initially with uniform velocity profiles and isotropic turbulence, mixing at the end of a splitter plate, (ii) introduce vorticity by passively perturbing one of the streams, (iii) allow heating of one of the streams to temperatures high enough to cause pyrolysis of coal particles, and (iv) provide a natural gas flame in one of the streams to result in ignition and burning of coal particles.

  3. Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium. Final report, October 10, 1994--March 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Parekh, B.K.; Meloy, T.

    1997-12-31

    The Appalachian Clean Coal Technology Consortium is a group comprised of representatives from the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, West Virginia University, and the University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, that was formed to pursue research in areas related to the treatment and processing of fine coal. Each member performed research in their respective areas of expertise and the report contained herein encompasses the results that were obtained for the three major tasks that the Consortium undertook from October, 1994 through March, 1997. In the first task, conducted by Virginia Polytechnic Institute, novel methods (both mechanical and chemical) for dewatering fine coal were examined. In the second task, the Center for Applied Energy Research examined novel approaches for destabilization of [highly stable] flotation froths. And in the third task, West Virginia University developed physical and mathematical models for fine coal spirals. The Final Report is written in three distinctive chapters, each reflecting the individual member`s task report. Recommendations for further research in those areas investigated, as well as new lines of pursuit, are suggested.

  4. Adsorption of Rhodococcus Strain GIN-1 (NCIMB 40340) on Titanium Dioxide and Coal Fly Ash Particles

    PubMed Central

    Shabtai, Y.; Fleminger, G.

    1994-01-01

    Rhodococcus strain GIN-1 (NCIMB 40340) can be used to enrich and isolate a titanium-rich fraction from coal fly ash. The gram-positive bacterium was isolated by its ability to adhere strongly and rapidly to suspended particles of pure titanium dioxide or coal fly ash. Adsorption depends on the salt concentration and occurs in seawater. Lowering of the salt concentration or washing of particles with pure water did not, however, cause desorption of the bacteria from TiO2 particles; this was achieved by strong alkaline treatment or combined treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate and urea but not with dilute acids, alcohols, or cationic or nonionic detergents. The bacterium exhibits higher affinity towards oxides of Ti and Zn than to other oxides with similar distribution of particle size. Moreover, it adheres much faster to TiO2 than to magnetite (Fe3O4) or Al2O3. After about 1 min, more than 85% of the cells were adsorbed on TiO2, compared with adsorption of only 10 and 8% to magnetite and Al2O3, respectively. Adsorption of the bacteria on TiO2 occurs over a pH range of 1.0 to 9.0 and at temperatures from 4 to over 80°C. Scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray analysis revealed preferential adherence of the bacterium to coal ash particles richer in Ti. Stronger adhesion to TiO2 was also demonstrated in the translocation of bacteria, preadsorbed on magnetite, to TiO2 particles. The temporary co-adhesion to magnetite and TiO2 was exploited for the design of a prototype biomagnetic separation process in which bacterial cells serve as an adhesive mediator between magnetite and TiO2 particles in a mixture of Al, Si, and Ti oxides that simulates their proportion in the ash. Images PMID:16349369

  5. Adsorption of Rhodococcus Strain GIN-1 (NCIMB 40340) on Titanium Dioxide and Coal Fly Ash Particles.

    PubMed

    Shabtai, Y; Fleminger, G

    1994-09-01

    Rhodococcus strain GIN-1 (NCIMB 40340) can be used to enrich and isolate a titanium-rich fraction from coal fly ash. The gram-positive bacterium was isolated by its ability to adhere strongly and rapidly to suspended particles of pure titanium dioxide or coal fly ash. Adsorption depends on the salt concentration and occurs in seawater. Lowering of the salt concentration or washing of particles with pure water did not, however, cause desorption of the bacteria from TiO(2) particles; this was achieved by strong alkaline treatment or combined treatment with sodium dodecyl sulfate and urea but not with dilute acids, alcohols, or cationic or nonionic detergents. The bacterium exhibits higher affinity towards oxides of Ti and Zn than to other oxides with similar distribution of particle size. Moreover, it adheres much faster to TiO(2) than to magnetite (Fe(3)O(4)) or Al(2)O(3). After about 1 min, more than 85% of the cells were adsorbed on TiO(2), compared with adsorption of only 10 and 8% to magnetite and Al(2)O(3), respectively. Adsorption of the bacteria on TiO(2) occurs over a pH range of 1.0 to 9.0 and at temperatures from 4 to over 80 degrees C. Scanning electron microscopy combined with X-ray analysis revealed preferential adherence of the bacterium to coal ash particles richer in Ti. Stronger adhesion to TiO(2) was also demonstrated in the translocation of bacteria, preadsorbed on magnetite, to TiO(2) particles. The temporary co-adhesion to magnetite and TiO(2) was exploited for the design of a prototype biomagnetic separation process in which bacterial cells serve as an adhesive mediator between magnetite and TiO(2) particles in a mixture of Al, Si, and Ti oxides that simulates their proportion in the ash.

  6. A biomathematical model of particle clearance and retention in the lungs of coal miners.

    PubMed

    Kuempel, E D; O'Flaherty, E J; Stayner, L T; Smith, R J; Green, F H; Vallyathan, V

    2001-08-01

    To understand better the factors influencing the relationships among airborne particle exposure, lung burden, and fibrotic lung disease, we developed a biologically based kinetic model to predict the long-term retention of particles in the lungs of coal miners. This model includes alveolar, interstitial, and hilar lymph node compartments. The 131 miners in this study had worked in the Beckley, West Virginia, area and died during the 1960s. The data used to develop this model include exposure to respirable coal mine dust by intensity and duration within each job, lung and lymph node dust burdens at autopsy, pathological classification of fibrotic lung disease, and smoking history. Initial parameter estimates for this model were based on both human and animal data of particle deposition and clearance and on the biological and physical factors influencing these processes. Parameter estimation and model fit to the data were determined using least squares. Results show that the end-of-life lung dust burdens in these coal miners were substantially higher than expected from first-order clearance kinetics, yet lower than expected from the overloading of alveolar clearance predicted from rodent studies. The best-fitting and most parsimonious model includes processes for first-order alveolar-macrophage-mediated clearance and transfer of particles to the lung interstitium. These results are consistent with the particle retention patterns observed previously in the lungs of primates. The findings indicate that rodent models extrapolated to humans, without adjustment for the kinetic differences in particle clearance and retention, would be inadequate for predicting lung dust burdens in humans. Also, this human lung kinetic model predicts greater retained lung dust burdens from occupational exposure than predicted from current human models based on lower exposure data. This model is useful for risk assessment of particle-induced lung diseases, by estimating equivalent internal

  7. Attrition of coal ash particles in a fluidized-bed reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Tomeczek, J.; Mocek, P.

    2007-05-15

    Experimental data of ash-particles attrition in a fluidized bed is presented, and also the results of modeling. Five sizes of ash particles (1.02-1.25; 1.25-1.6; 1.6-2.0; 2.0-5.0; 5.0-10.0 mm) produced in an industrial CFB boiler were examined. A new model of mechanical attrition has been proposed which incorporates new parameters: the shape factor of particles and the ratio of the bed height to bed diameter, strongly influencing the rate of bed mass loss. The model describes very well experimental data for coal-ash particles attrition. The attrition-rate coefficient for ash particles was evaluated.

  8. Refining of fossil resin flotation concentrate from western coal. First quarterly final report, February 23, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J.D.

    1993-04-30

    During the first quarter of the project, from February 22, 1993 to March 31, 1993, the major work is to conduct project work plan and to organize the research term in order to successfully conduct this fossil resin refining project. Under a previous DOE-funded program, University of Utah and APT conducted a serious pilot-plant tests of selective flotation of fossil resin from Wasatch plateau coal (both UPL coal and CO-OP coal mines) of south central Utah. About 200 lbs high grade fossil resin flotation concentrate (approximate 75% resin content) was generated from those pilot-plant flotation tests. The resin flotation concentrate were naturally dried, sampled and storied into one kilo plastic bag for future use. The ash and moisture content of the resin concentrate is found to be 1.23% and 1.03 by weight respectively. As concluded from our previous research project, it was found that macroscopic fossil resin is friable and can be easily liberated from other coal macerals. Consequently the fossil resin particles tend to concentrate into the fine sizes during size reduction and coal preparation. Because of this property, the fine resinous coal streams in a coal preparation plant contain more than 6% hexane-soluble fossil resin, even when the run-of-mine coal contains only 3% fossil resin. Thus, the fossil resin flotation concentrate contains more fine resin particles ({minus}200 mesh). Under microscopic examination, it is also found that a notable amount of fine coal particle was still floated into the froth concentrate along with fossil resin particles.

  9. Heat and mass transfer in a coal-water fuel particle at the stage of "thermal" treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salomatov, V. V.; Syrodoy, S. V.; Kuznetsov, G. V.

    2016-07-01

    The problem of heat and mass transfer has been solved numerically under the conditions of coal-water fuel particle ignition. The concurrent processes of evaporation, filtration of steam, thermal decomposition of the organic part of coal, thermal and chemical interaction of steam and coke carbon, and oxidation of products of their reaction and volatiles by the external oxidizer have been taken into account. The scales of influence of individual thermophysical and thermochemical properties of coals on the characteristics and conditions of ignition of coal-water slurry have been determined.

  10. Enhanced control of fine particles following Title IV coal switching and NOx control

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.; Baldrey, K.E.; Bustard, C.J.; Martin, C.

    1997-12-31

    Electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) serve as the primary particle control devices for a majority of coal-fired power generating units in the United States. ESPs are used to collect particulate matter that range in size from less than one micrometer in diameter to several hundred micrometers. Many of the options that utilities will use to respond to Title IV of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments will result in changes to the ash that will be detrimental to the performance of the ESP causing increased emissions of fine particles and higher opacity. For example, a switch to low-sulfur coal significantly increases particle resistivity while low-NO{sub x} burners increase the carbon content of ashes. Both of these changes could result in derating of the boiler to comply with emissions standards. ADA has developed a chemical additive that is designed to improve the operation of ESI`s to bring these systems into compliance operation without the need for expensive capital modifications. The additives provide advantages over competing technologies in terms of low capital cost, easy to handle chemicals, and relatively non-toxic chemicals. In addition, the new additive is insensitive to ash chemistry which will allow the utility complete flexibility to select the most economical coal. Results from full-scale and pilot plant demonstrations are reported.

  11. Experimental studies on group ignition of a cloud of coal particles

    SciTech Connect

    Annamalai, K.

    1990-01-01

    While the combustion characteristics of a single coal particle are well known, most practical applications of coal combustion involve a large number of particles burning collectively as a group. A group combustion model has been developed which models the transient combustion of a spherical coal cloud. This model predicts ignition of a homogeneous mixture of volatiles and oxygen outside the cloud. The flame then moves to the cloud surface, where it anchors itself until all of the oxygen at the cloud surface is consumed. Two concentric flames are then formed, an outward propagating diffusion flame and an inward propagating premixed/diffusion flame which supplies heat to the particles for pyrolysis. Once the inner flame has consumed all the oxygen in the cloud, pyrolysis is complete and the outer flame consumes the released volatiles. As the volatiles are consumed, the flame approaches the cloud surface. Once all the volatiles have been consumed, the remaining char in the cloud burns at rate controlled by the rate of oxygen diffusion to the cloud. 5 refs., 14 figs.

  12. Rheology of coal-water slurries prepared by the high-pressure roll mill grinding of coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Fuerstenau, D.W.; De, A.

    1996-08-01

    The preparation of coal water slurries to replace fuel oil for direct combustion has become an important field in modem coal technology. The U.S. Department of Energy has planned or has underway several demonstration projects to burn coal-water slurries to replace fuel oil is attractive not only because there is an assured domestic supply of coal, but also on various technoeconomic grounds. Coal-water slurries combine the handling flexibility of fuel oil in power plants and various other industrial applications. This report discusses the rheology of coal-water slurries and the correlation to the coal preparation by grinding with a choke-fed high pressure roll mill. Performance of the roll mills and energy consumption are described.

  13. Measurement of ultrafine particle size distributions from coal-, oil-, and gas-fired stationary combustion sources.

    PubMed

    Chang, M C Oliver; Chow, Judith C; Watson, John G; Hopke, Philip K; Yi, Seung-Muk; England, Glenn C

    2004-12-01

    Currently, we have limited knowledge of the physical and chemical properties of emitted primary combustion aerosols and the changes in those properties caused by nucleation, condensation growth of volatile species, and particle coagulations under dilution and cooling in the ambient air. A dilution chamber was deployed to sample exhaust from a pilot-scale furnace burning various fuels at a nominal heat input rate of 160 kW/h(-1) and 3% excess oxygen. The formation mechanisms of particles smaller than 420 nm in electrical mobility diameter were experimentally investigated by measurement with a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) as a function of aging times, dilution air ratios, combustion exhaust temperatures, and fuel types. Particle formation in the dilution process is a complex mixture of nucleation, coagulation, and condensational growth, depending on the concentrations of available condensable species and solid or liquid particles (such as soot, ash) in combustion exhausts. The measured particle size distributions in number concentrations measured show peaks of particle number concentrations for medium sulfur bituminous coal, No. 6 fuel oil, and natural gas at 40-50 nm, 70-100 nm, and 15-25 nm, respectively. For No. 6 fuel oil and coal, the particle number concentration is constant in the range of a dilution air ratio of 50, but the number decreases as the dilution air ratio decreases to 10. However, for natural gas, the particle number concentration is higher at a dilution air ratio of 10 and decreases at dilution air ratios of 20-50. At a dilution air ratio of 10, severe particle coagulation occurs in a relatively short time. Samples taken at different combustion exhaust temperatures for these fuel types show higher particle number concentrations at 645 K than at 450 K. As the aging time of particles increases, the particles increase in size and the number concentrations decrease. The largest gradient of particle number distribution occurs within the

  14. Measurement and modeling of advanced coal conversion processes, Volume I, Part 2. Final report, September 1986--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, P.R.; Serio, M.A.; Hamblen, D.G.

    1995-09-01

    This report describes work pertaining to the development of models for coal gasification and combustion processes. This volume, volume 1, part 2, contains research progress in the areas of large particle oxidation at high temperatures, large particle, thick-bed submodels, sulfur oxide/nitrogen oxides submodels, and comprehensive model development and evaluation.

  15. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems. Volume 2, Sections 6 and 7: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Helble, J.J.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A.; Kang, Shin-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M.; Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L.; Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A.

    1992-11-01

    Results from an experimental investigation of the mechanisms governing the ash aerosol size segregated composition resulting from the combustion of pulverized coal in a laboratory scale down-flow combustor are described. The results of modeling activities used to interpret the results of the experiments conducted under his subtask are also described in this section. Although results from the entire program are included, Phase II studies which emphasized: (1) alkali behavior, including a study of the interrelationship between potassium vaporization and sodium vaporization; and (2) iron behavior, including an examination of the extent of iron-aluminosilicate interactions, are highlighted. Idealized combustion determination of ash particle formation and surface stickiness are also described.

  16. Improving the stability of coal slurries: Final report. [Polygalacturonic acid and gum tragacanth

    SciTech Connect

    Fogler, H.S.

    1988-12-01

    Polysaccharides were found to stabilize colloidal dispersions (such as coal particles and polystyrene latex particles) even at high ionic strengths. The stability studies with various kinds of polysaccharides showed that rod-like molecules (such as poly (galacturonic acid) and gum tragacanth) are much more effective stabilizers than highly-branched molecules such as arabinogalactan. This effective stabilization with the rod-like molecules was found to result from the adsorption of polysaccharides on the particles, i.e., the steric stabilization mechanism. The stability depends significantly on the solution pH, the molecular weight and the surface charge of particles. Adsorption isotherms, the zeta potential and the conformation of adsorbed molecules (the steric layer thicknesses) were measured as a function of the solution pH, the molecular weight and the surface charge. Photon correlation spectroscopy studies showed that the conformation of adsorbed molecules is strongly dependent on the solution pH, the molecular weight and the surface charge, suggesting that the dependence of stability on these parameters is due to the change of the conformation of the molecules adsorbed on the surface. In addition, the solution pH has a significant effect on the flocculation behavior of particles and can be modulated to bring about peptization of particles. This type of stabilization is referred to as electrosteric stabilization whereby steric stabilization is induced by changing the electrical properties of the system (the solution pH in this case). 41 refs., 43 figs., 10 tabs.

  17. Application of acoustic agglomeration to reduce fine particle emissions from coal combustion plants

    SciTech Connect

    Gallego-Juarez, J.A.; Riera-Franco De Sarabia, E.; Rodriguez-Corral, G.

    1999-11-01

    Removal of fine particles (smaller than 2.5 {micro}m) from industrial flue gases is, at present, one of the most important problems in air pollution abatement. These particles which are hazardous because of their ability to penetrate deeply into the lungs, are difficult to remove by conventional separation technology. Sonic energy offers a means to solve this problem. The application of a high-intensity acoustic field to an aerosol induces agglomeration processes which changes the size distribution in favor of larger particles, which are then easier to precipitate with a conventional separator. In this work, the authors present a semiindustrial pilot plant in which this process is applied for reduction of particle emissions in coal combustion fumes. This installation basically consists of an acoustic agglomeration chamber with a rectangular cross-section, driven by four high-power and highly directional acoustic transducers of 10 and/or 20 kHz, and an electrostatic precipitator (ESP). In the experiments, a fluidized bed coal combustor was used as fume generator, and a sophisticated air sampling station was set up to carry out measurements with fume flow rates up to about 2,000 m{sup 3}/h, gas temperatures of about 150 C, and mass concentrations in the range 1--5 g/m{sup 3}. The fine particle reduction produced by the acoustic filter was about 40% of the number concentration.

  18. Three-dimensional combined pyrometric sizing and velocimetry of combusting coal particles. II: Pyrometry.

    PubMed

    Toth, Pal; Draper, Teri; Palotas, Arpad B; Ring, Terry A; Eddings, Eric G

    2015-05-20

    Knowledge of the in situ temperature, size, velocity, and number density of a population of burning coal particles yields insight into the chemical and aerodynamic behavior of a pulverized coal flame (e.g., through means of combustion model validation). Sophisticated and reasonably accurate methods are available for the simultaneous measurement of particle velocity and temperature; however, these methods typically produce single particle measurements in small analyzed volumes and require extensive instrumentation. We present a simple, inexpensive method for the simultaneous, in situ, three-dimensional (3D) measurement of particle velocity, number density, size, and temperature. The proposed method uses a combination of stereo imaging, 3D reconstruction, multicolor pyrometry, and digital image processing techniques. The details of theoretical and algorithmic backgrounds are presented, along with examples and validation experiments. Rigorous uncertainty quantification was performed using numerical simulations to estimate the accuracy of the method and explore how different parameters affect measurement uncertainty. This paper, Part II of two parts that discuss this method [Appl. Opt.54, 4049 (2015)], describes particle temperature and size measurement in overexposed emission images.

  19. Combustion of dense streams of coal particles. Quarterly progress report No. 5, August 29, 1991--November 28, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Annamalai, K.

    1991-12-31

    The main objective of our work is to obtain a specific velocity of the resulting flame and to maintain this flame consistent throughout the experiment. To optimize our work, theoretical study has been conducted relating the flow rate of the premixed gas (gas + air), stoichiometric coal mass flow rate, interparticle distance of the coal particles, number of particles and the max. coal mass flow rate needed to maintain a specific velocity. Runs were made for velocities of 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 m/s.

  20. Development of the LICADO coal cleaning process. Final report, October 1, 1987--April 2, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-31

    Development of the liquid carbon dioxide process for the cleaning of coal was performed in batch, variable volume (semi-continuous), and continuous tests. Continuous operation at feed rates up to 4.5 kg/hr (10-lb/hr) was achieved with the Continuous System. Coals tested included Upper Freeport, Pittsburgh, Illinois No. 6, and Middle Kittanning seams. Results showed that the ash and pyrite rejections agreed closely with washability data for each coal at the particle size tested (-200 mesh). A 0.91 metric ton (1-ton) per hour Proof-of-Concept Plant was conceptually designed. A 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and a 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour plant were sized sufficiently to estimate costs for economic analyses. The processing costs for the 181 metric ton (200 ton) per hour and 45 metric ton (50 ton) per hour were estimated to be $18.96 per metric ton ($17.20 per ton) and $11.47 per metric ton ($10.40 per ton), respectively for these size plants. The costs for the 45 metric ton per hour plant are lower because it is assumed to be a fines recovery plant which does not require a grinding circuit of complex waste handling system.

  1. Coal-fluid properties with an emphasis on dense phase. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Klinzing, G.E.

    1985-04-01

    Many fossil fuel energy processes depend on the movement of solids by pneumatic transport. Despite the considerable amount of work reported in the literature on pneumatic transport, the design of new industrial systems for new products continues to rely to a great extent on empiricism. A pilot-scale test facility has been constructed at Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC), equipped with modern sophisticated measuring techniques (such as Pressure Transducers, Auburn Monitors and Micro Motion Mass Flow Meters) and an automatic computer-controlled data acquisition system to study the effects of particle pneumatic transport. Pittsburgh Seam and Montana Rosebud coals of varying size consist and moisture content were tested in the atmospheric and pressurized coal flow test loops (AP/CFTL and HP/CFTL) at PETC. The system parameters included conveying gas velocity, injector tank pressure, screw conveyor speed, pipe radius and pipe bends. In this report, results from the coal flow tests were presented and analyzed. Existing theories and correlations on two phase flows were reviewed. Experimental data were compared with values calculated from empirically or theoretically derived equations available in the literature and new correlations were proposed, when applicable, to give a better interpretation of the data and a better understanding of the various flow regimes involved in pneumatic transport. 55 refs., 56 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Char particle fragmentation and its effect on unburned carbon during pulverized coal combustion. Quarterly report, October 1--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, R.E.

    1995-03-01

    The project is intended to satisfy, in part, PETC`s research efforts to understand the chemical and physical processes that govern coal combustion. The work is pertinent to the char oxidation phase of coal combustion and focuses on how the fragmentation of coal char particles affects overall mass loss rates and how char fragmentation phenomena influence coal conversion efficiency. The knowledge and information obtained will allow the development of engineering models that can be used to predict accurately char particle temperatures and total mass loss rates during pulverized coal combustion. The overall objectives of the project are: (1) to characterize fragmentation events as a function of combustion environment, (2) to characterize fragmentation with respect to particle porosity and mineral loadings, (3) to assess overall mass loss rates with respect to particle fragmentation, and (4) to quantify the impact of fragmentation on unburned carbon in ash. The knowledge obtained during the course of this project will be used to predict accurately the overall mass loss rates of coals based on the mineral content and porosity of their chars. The work will provide a means of assessing reasons for unburned carbon in the ash of coal fired boilers and furnaces.

  3. The effect of model fidelity on prediction of char burnout for single-particle coal combustion

    DOE PAGES

    McConnell, Josh; Sutherland, James C.

    2016-07-09

    In this study, practical simulation of industrial-scale coal combustion relies on the ability to accurately capture the dynamics of coal subprocesses while also ensuring the computational cost remains reasonable. The majority of the residence time occurs post-devolatilization, so it is of great importance that a balance between the computational efficiency and accuracy of char combustion models is carefully considered. In this work, we consider the importance of model fidelity during char combustion by comparing combinations of simple and complex gas and particle-phase chemistry models. Detailed kinetics based on the GRI 3.0 mechanism and infinitely-fast chemistry are considered in the gas-phase.more » The Char Conversion Kinetics model and nth-Order Langmuir–Hinshelwood model are considered for char consumption. For devolatilization, the Chemical Percolation and Devolatilization and Kobayashi-Sarofim models are employed. The relative importance of gasification versus oxidation reactions in air and oxyfuel environments is also examined for various coal types. Results are compared to previously published experimental data collected under laminar, single-particle conditions. Calculated particle temperature histories are strongly dependent on the choice of gas phase and char chemistry models, but only weakly dependent on the chosen devolatilization model. Particle mass calculations were found to be very sensitive to the choice of devolatilization model, but only somewhat sensitive to the choice of gas chemistry and char chemistry models. High-fidelity models for devolatilization generally resulted in particle temperature and mass calculations that were closer to experimentally observed values.« less

  4. Aged particles derived from emissions of coal-fired power plants: The TERESA field results

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Choong-Min; Gupta, Tarun; Ruiz, Pablo A.; Wolfson, Jack M.; Ferguson, Stephen T.; Lawrence, Joy E.; Rohr, Annette C.; Godleski, John; Koutrakis, Petros

    2013-01-01

    The Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions Source Aerosols (TERESA) study was carried out at three US coal-fired power plants to investigate the potential toxicological effects of primary and photochemically aged (secondary) particles using in situ stack emissions. The exposure system designed successfully simulated chemical reactions that power plant emissions undergo in a plume during transport from the stack to receptor areas (e.g., urban areas). Test atmospheres developed for toxicological experiments included scenarios to simulate a sequence of atmospheric reactions that can occur in a plume: (1) primary emissions only; (2) H2SO4 aerosol from oxidation of SO2; (3) H2SO4 aerosol neutralized by gas-phase NH3; (4) neutralized H2SO4 with secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed by the reaction of α-pinene with O3; and (5) three control scenarios excluding primary particles. The aged particle mass concentrations varied significantly from 43.8 to 257.1 μg/m3 with respect to scenario and power plant. The highest was found when oxidized aerosols were neutralized by gas-phase NH3 with added SOA. The mass concentration depended primarily on the ratio of SO2 to NOx (particularly NO) emissions, which was determined mainly by coal composition and emissions controls. Particulate sulfate (H2SO4 + neutralized sulfate) and organic carbon (OC) were major components of the aged particles with added SOA, whereas trace elements were present at very low concentrations. Physical and chemical properties of aged particles appear to be influenced by coal type, emissions controls and the particular atmospheric scenarios employed. PMID:20462390

  5. Aged particles derived from emissions of coal-fired power plants: the TERESA field results.

    PubMed

    Kang, Choong-Min; Gupta, Tarun; Ruiz, Pablo A; Wolfson, Jack M; Ferguson, Stephen T; Lawrence, Joy E; Rohr, Annette C; Godleski, John; Koutrakis, Petros

    2011-08-01

    The Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions Source Aerosols (TERESA) study was carried out at three US coal-fired power plants to investigate the potential toxicological effects of primary and photochemically aged (secondary) particles using in situ stack emissions. The exposure system designed successfully simulated chemical reactions that power plant emissions undergo in a plume during transport from the stack to receptor areas (e.g., urban areas). Test atmospheres developed for toxicological experiments included scenarios to simulate a sequence of atmospheric reactions that can occur in a plume: (1) primary emissions only; (2) H(2)SO(4) aerosol from oxidation of SO(2); (3) H(2)SO(4) aerosol neutralized by gas-phase NH(3); (4) neutralized H(2)SO(4) with secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed by the reaction of α-pinene with O(3); and (5) three control scenarios excluding primary particles. The aged particle mass concentrations varied significantly from 43.8 to 257.1 µg/m(3) with respect to scenario and power plant. The highest was found when oxidized aerosols were neutralized by gas-phase NH(3) with added SOA. The mass concentration depended primarily on the ratio of SO(2) to NO(x) (particularly NO) emissions, which was determined mainly by coal composition and emissions controls. Particulate sulfate (H(2)SO(4) + neutralized sulfate) and organic carbon (OC) were major components of the aged particles with added SOA, whereas trace elements were present at very low concentrations. Physical and chemical properties of aged particles appear to be influenced by coal type, emissions controls and the particular atmospheric scenarios employed.

  6. Method and apparatus for removing coarse unentrained char particles from the second stage of a two-stage coal gasifier

    DOEpatents

    Donath, Ernest E.

    1976-01-01

    A method and apparatus for removing oversized, unentrained char particles from a two-stage coal gasification process so as to prevent clogging or plugging of the communicating passage between the two gasification stages. In the first stage of the process, recycled process char passes upwardly while reacting with steam and oxygen to yield a first stage synthesis gas containing hydrogen and oxides of carbon. In the second stage, the synthesis gas passes upwardly with coal and steam which react to yield partially gasified char entrained in a second stage product gas containing methane, hydrogen, and oxides of carbon. Agglomerated char particles, which result from caking coal particles in the second stage and are too heavy to be entrained in the second stage product gas, are removed through an outlet in the bottom of the second stage, the particles being separated from smaller char particles by a counter-current of steam injected into the outlet.

  7. The fate of alkali species in advanced coal conversion systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, G.N.; Wood, B.J.

    1991-11-01

    The fate of species during coal combustion and gasification was determined experimentally in a fluidized bed reactor. A molecular-beam sampling mags spectrometer was used to identify and measure the concentration of vapor phase sodium species in the high temperature environment. Concurrent collection and analysis of the ash established the distribution of sodium species between gas-entrained and residual ash fractions. Two coals, Beulah Zap lignite and Illinois No. 6 bituminous, were used under combustion and gasification conditions at atmospheric pressure. Steady-state bed temperatures were in the range 800--950{degree}C. An extensive calibration procedure ensured that the mass spectrometer was capable of detecting sodium-containing vapor species at concentrations as low as 50 ppb. In the temperature range 800{degree} to 950{degree}C, the concentrations of vapor phase sodium species (Na, Na{sub 2}O, NaCl, and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) are less than 0.05 ppm under combustion conditions with excess air. However, under gasification conditions with Beulah Zap lignite, sodium vapor species are present at about 14 ppm at a temperature of 820{degree}. Of this amount, NaCl vapor constitutes about 5 ppm and the rest is very likely NAOH. Sodium in the form of NaCl in coal enhances the vaporization of sodium species during combustion. Vapor phase concentration of both NaCl and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} increased when NaCl was added to the Beulah Zap lignite. Ash particles account for nearly 100% of the sodium in the coal during combustion in the investigated temperature range. The fine fly-ash particles (<10 {mu}m) are enriched in sodium, mainly in the form of sodium sulfate. The amount of sodium species in this ash fraction may be as high as 30 wt % of the total sodium. Sodium in the coarse ash particle phase retained in the bed is mainly in amorphous forms.

  8. Pneumatic conveying of coal and coal-limestone mixtures as applied to atmospheric fluidized-bed combustion. [Effects of moisture, velocity, particle size

    SciTech Connect

    Daw, C. S.; Thomas, J. F.

    1982-01-01

    Pneumatic conveying experiments with coal and coal-limestone mixtures were performed on a conveying system designed to represent the feed lines in the Tennessee Valley Authority 20 MW atmospheric fluidized bed combustor. The experimental conditions were chosen to cover the anticipated combustor operating ranges. The results have led to a fundamental understanding of the operating limits associated with coal surface moisture, air velocity, coal and limestone fines, solids to air ratio, and limestone to coal ratio. Coal surface moisture was found to be the most important parameter affecting handling and transport. Specific upper limits for surface moisture were established. It was demonstrated that addition of dry limestone can reduce the conveying problems associated with wet coal. The air velocities causing saltation and surge flow were determined for a variety of conveying conditions. These velocities were related qualitatively to solids to air ratio, particle size, and surface moisture. Conveying pressure drop was also measured for a variety of conditions. In the absence of saltation, the horizontal, frictional pressure drop was only a function of the solids to air ratio and the air flow conditions. Comparison of the ORNL pressure drop data with the results of other investigators had led to the conclusion that there are two basic modes of flow in dilute-phase conveying; a primarily viscous mode and a primarily inertial mode. A general pressure drop model has been developed for the inertial mode.

  9. Advanced coal-gasification technical analyses. Appendix 2: coal fines disposal. Final report, December 1982-September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Cover, A.E.; Hubbard, D.A.; Jain, S.K.; Shah, K.V.

    1986-01-01

    This report is a compilation of several studies conducted by KRSI under the Advanced Coal Gasification Technical Analyses contract with GRI. It addresses the issue of disposal and/or utilization of the coal fines that cannot be used as feedstock for fixed-bed (i.e. Lurgi) gasifiers. Specific items addressed are: (1) Technical, legal and economic aspects of fines burial, (2) Estimation of the premium for fines-free coal delivered to an SNG plant and resulting reduction in SNG production costs, (3) Comparison of the relative advantages and limitations of Winkler and GKT gasifiers to consuming fines, (4) Review of coal-size consist curves in the GRI Guidelines to assess the fines content of ROM coals, (5) a first-pass design and cost estimate using GKT gasifiers in tandem with Lurgi gasifiers in an North Dakota lignite-to-SNG plant to consume full range of coal-size consist, (6) Evaluation of the General Electric technology for extrusion of coal fines and testing of the extrudates in a fixed-bed gasifier, and (7) Investigation of equipment and variables involved in briquetting of coal fines, such that fines could be fed to the gasifiers along with the lump coal.

  10. Ultrasonic Method for Concentration and Particle Size Analysis in Dense Coal-water Slurry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Minghua; Su, Mingxu; Dong, Lili; Shang, Zhitao; Cai, Xiaoshu

    2007-06-01

    The concentration and particle size distribution in particulate two-phase flow are the important parameters in a wide variety of industrial areas. For the purpose of on-line characterizing dense coal-water slurry, ultrasonic methods have many advantages, such as no-dilution, real-time and no-invasion, while light-based techniques are not capable of providing information because optical methods normally require the sample to be diluted. In this paper, the modified Urick equation including temperature modification, which can be used to determine concentration from the measurement of velocity in the coal-water slurry, is evaluated on the basis of model analysis and experiments. Combined with the optimum regulation technique inverse algorithm, the particle size distribution of the coal-water slurry is obtained according to the attenuation prediction of Coupled-phase model plus Bouguer-Lambert-Beer-Law scattering model and experimental attenuation at frequencies ranges from 3MHz to 12MHz. This technique brings the possibility of using ultrasound for on-line measurement of dense slurry.

  11. Physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion-generated particles from coal-fired power plant, automobile and ship engine and charcoal kiln.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hwajin

    2015-04-01

    Similarities and differences in physico-chemical and optical properties of combustion generated particles from various sources were investigated. Coal-fired power plant, charcoal kiln, automobile and ship engine were major sources, representing combustions of coal, biomass and two different types of diesel, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) equipped with both SEM and HRTEM were used for physico-chemical analysis. Light absorbing properties were assessed using a spectrometer equipped with an integrating sphere. Particles generated from different combustion sources and conditions demonstrate great variability in their morphology, structure and composition. From coal-fired power plant, both fly ash and flue gas were mostly composed of heterogeneously mixed mineral ash spheres, suggesting that the complete combustion was occurred releasing carbonaceous species out at high temperature (1200-1300 °C). Both automobile and ship exhausts from diesel combustions show typical features of soot: concentric circles comprised of closely-packed graphene layers. However, heavy fuel oil (HFO) combusted particles from ship exhaust demonstrate more complex compositions containing different morphology of particles other than soot, e.g., spherical shape of char particles composed of minerals and carbon. Even for the soot aggregates, particles from HFO burning have different chemical compositions; carbon is dominated but Ca (29.8%), S (28.7%), Na(1%), and Mg(1%) are contained, respectively which were not found from particles of automobile emission. This indicates that chemical compositions and burning conditions are significant to determine the fate of particles. Finally, from biomass burning, amorphous and droplet-like carbonaceous particles with no crystallite structure are observed and they are generally formed by the condensation of low volatile species at low

  12. Measurements of emission factors for primary carbonaceous particles from residential raw-coal combustion in China - article no. L20815

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Y.J.; Zhi, G.R.; Feng, Y.L.; Fu, J.M.; Feng, J.L.; Sheng, G.Y.; Simoneit, B.R.T.

    2006-10-28

    The emission factors (EFs) of particles and their carbonaceous fractions, including black carbon (BC) and organic carbon (OC), are measured for residential burning of coal-chunks. Nine types of coals with wide-ranged thermal maturities were used. Particulate emissions from coal-stove are collected on quartz fiber filters through a dilution sampling system and analyzed for BC and OC by thermal-optical method. The EFs of particulate matter, OC, and BC from bituminous coal burning are 16.77, 8.29, and 3.32 g/kg, respectively, on the basis of burned dry and ash-free (daf) coal mass. They were much higher than those of anthracites, which are 0.78, 0.04, and 0.004 g/kg, respectively. Annual emission inventories of particles, OC, and BC from household coal burning are also estimated based on the EFs and coal consumption. The results of the calculations are 917.8, 477.7, and 128.4 gigagrams (Gg) for total particles, OC, and BC emitted in China during the year 2000.

  13. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2002-08-15

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NOx and low NOx combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). Tradeoffs between CO2 control, NOx control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. Previous research has yielded data on trace metal partitioning for MSS by itself, with natural gas assist, for coal plus MSS combustion together, and for coal alone. We have re-evaluated the inhalation health effects of ash aerosol from combustion of MSS both by itself and also together with coal. We have concluded that ash from the co-combustion of MSS and coal is very much worse from an inhalation health point of view, than ash from either MSS by itself or coal by itself. The reason is that ZnO is not the ''bad actor'' as had been suspected before, but the culprit is, rather, sulfated Zn. The MSS supplies the Zn and the coal supplies the sulfur, and so it is the combination of coal and MSS that makes that process environmentally bad. If MSS is to be burned, it should be burned without coal, in the absence of sulfur.

  14. Mechanism of surface enrichment and adhesion of coal combustion particulates. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shadman, F.; Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, J.O.L.

    1992-09-01

    This study focuses on the effect of alkali adsorption on the agglomeration of particles of bauxite, kaolinite, emathlite, lime, and two types of coal ash. An agglomeration (adhesion) temperature is defined which characterizes the adhesion propensity of particles. Using a small fluidized bed, a unique experimental technique is developed to measure this agglomeration point in-situ. The effects of alkali adsorption on the agglomeration characteristics of the substrates are determined. The agglomeration temperature of all substrates decreases as the alkali content increases. At low alkali loadings, alkali adsorption enhances particle agglomeration by forming new compounds of lower melting points. At high alkali concentrations, adhesion and agglomeration are caused by a layer of molten alkali which covers the exterior of the particles. Alkali surface composition of particles is studied using a Scanning Auger Microprobe (SAM). Results indicate that the alkali surface concentration decreases as agglomeration temperature increases. The use of additives to scavenge alkali vapors is further studied in a pilot scale downflow combustor. SAM surface analyses of additive particles indicate three mechanisms of alkali capture. Adsorption by reaction, surface condensation, and nucleation and coagulation with additive particles. These mechanisms may occur independently or simultaneously depending primarily on the alkali vapor concentration and the temperature profile along the combustion furnace. A mathematical model is developed to represent the kinetics and mechanisms of the alkali adsorption and agglomeration process. Modeling results indicate that the adsorption-reaction process is influenced by diffusion of alkali through the surface product layer. The model predictions of the alkali adsorbed as a function of minimum agglomeration temperature agree very well with the experimental results.

  15. Mulled coal: A beneficiated coal form for use as a fuel or fuel intermediate. Phase 1 feasibility studies: Final

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    Energy International is developing a technology that will create a staged formulation with the first coal form (Mulled Coal) that can be stored, transported, and pumped. Just prior to combustion, the Mulled Coal (MC) would be modified to provide the properties needed for proper atomization. This concept is an alternative to the expensive and energy intensive thermal drying processing of fine coal wet cakes. The material is suitable for both direct feed use in conventional and fluid bed combustors as well as on-site conversion to combustible slurries. By maintaining the coal form relatively close to the feed wet cake, only minor processing with low additive levels and low energy blending needed at the point of production. Its conversion to slurry or other use-feed form is made near the time of use and thus the requirements for stability, climatic control, and other storage, transport, and handling requirements are much less severe.

  16. Electrostatic surface structures of coal and mineral particles. Semi-annual report, September 1, 1996--March 1, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Mazumder, M.K.; Lindquist, D.; Tennal, K.B.

    1997-12-31

    This paper contains three progress reports: Tribocharging Properties of Coal -- UV Photoelectron Spectroscopy by Adam Brown and Nick Grable; Electrostatic Separation of Coal as a Function of Particle Size Distribution by Jian Zheng; and Development of an Image Analyzer for Size and Charge Analysis of Coal Particles by Kevin Tennal and Gan Kok Hwee. The first paper discusses a literature survey and the instrumentation for photoelectron spectroscopy. The second discusses particle size classifying and electrodynamic trapping of charged particles. The third paper discusses laser and transmitting optics, collection optics, high voltage drives, electrodes, synchronization circuitry, camera, analysis of images, and additional considerations. An appendix to this paper describes the equations with the image analyzer.

  17. Investigation of high velocity separator for particle removal in coal gasification plants. Phase II report

    SciTech Connect

    Linhardt, H.D.

    1980-01-15

    This report summarizes the results of Phase II of the High Velocity Particle Separator Program performed under Contract EF-77-C-01-2709. This high velocity wedge separator has the potential to reduce equipment size and cost of high temperature and pressurized particulate removal equipment for coal derived gases. Phase II has been directed toward testing and detailed conceptual design of an element suitable for a commercial scale high temperature, high pressure particle separator (HTPS). Concurrently, Phase IA has been conducted, which utilized the ambient analog method (AAM) for aerodynamic and collection performance investigation of each HTPS configuration prior and during hot testing. This report summarizes the results of Phase IA and II. The AAM effort established correlation of theoretical analysis and experiment for HTPS pressure drop, purge flow ratio and collection efficiency potential. Task I defined the initial test conditions to be the contract design point of 1800/sup 0/F and 350 psia. The 1800/sup 0/F, 350 psia testing represents the main high temperature testing with coal-derived particulates in the 2 to 10 micron range. Phase IA and Phase II have demonstrated efficient particle collection with acceptable pressure drop. In view of these encouraging results, it is reasonable to apply the developed technology toward future hot gas particulate cleanup requirements.

  18. Bioprocessing of lignite coals using reductive microorganisms. Final technical report, September 30, 1988--March 29, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, D.L.

    1992-03-29

    In order to convert lignite coals into liquid fuels, gases or chemical feedstock, the macromolecular structure of the coal must be broken down into low molecular weight fractions prior to further modification. Our research focused on this aspect of coal bioprocessing. We isolated, characterized and studied the lignite coal-depolymerizing organisms Streptomyces viridosporus T7A, Pseudomonas sp. DLC-62, unidentified bacterial strain DLC-BB2 and Gram-positive Bacillus megaterium strain DLC-21. In this research we showed that these bacteria are able to solubilize and depolymerize lignite coals using a combination of biological mechanisms including the excretion of coal solublizing basic chemical metabolites and extracellular coal depolymerizing enzymes.

  19. The influence of heat transfer conditions on the parameters characterizing the ignition of coal-water fuel particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syrodoy, S. V.; Kuznetsov, G. V.; Salomatov, V. V.

    2015-10-01

    The future of thermal power engineering both in Russia and abroad will depend in many respects on the use of coal as main fuel for generating heat and electricity. In this connection, matters concerned with development and introduction of new environmentally friendly and energy efficient coal firing technologies are becoming of much importance. Firing coal in the form of coal-water fuel is one of the most promising solutions. However, despite a rather long history of its development (more than 40 years), this technology has not found wide use as yet, which in all likelihood is due to lack of full mathematical and physicochemical models describing the processes that take place when a coal-water fuel particle undergoes thermal treatment and ignition. The article presents the results obtained from numerical solution of the coal-water fuel particle ignition problem taking into account simultaneously occurring main thermal treatment processes (thermal conductivity, water evaporation, filtration heat and mass transfer, thermal decomposition of the fuel organic part, and thermochemical interaction between water vapor and coke carbon). The ignition problem is solved using the finite difference method. For calculating the evaporation process taking into account nonequilibrium nature of the parameters at the interface boundary of the initial "coal-water fuel—dry coal" system, the method of capturing the phase transition front at the difference mesh node was used. The results obtained from numerical modeling were used for determining the conditions and parameters characterizing the ignition of coal-water fuel particles under the conditions typically existing in the furnace space of boiler units. The extent to which radiant heat transfer influences the ignition delay time is determined. It is shown that radiant heat transfer plays a determining role in the thermal preparation of fuel for ignition.

  20. Formation characteristics of aerosol particles from pulverized coal pyrolysis in high-temperature environments.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Du, Shan-Wen; Yang, Hsi-Hsien; Wu, Jheng-Syun

    2008-05-01

    The formation characteristics of aerosol particles from pulverized coal pyrolysis in high temperatures are studied experimentally. By conducting a drop-tube furnace, fuel pyrolysis processes in industrial furnaces are simulated in which three different reaction temperatures of 1000, 1200, and 1400 degrees C are considered. Experimental observations indicate that when the reaction temperature is 1000 degrees C, submicron particles are produced, whereas the particle size is dominated by nanoscale for the temperature of 1400 degrees C. Thermogravimetric analysis of the aerosol particles stemming from the pyrolysis temperature of 1000 degrees C reveals that the thermal behavior of the aerosol is characterized by a three-stage reaction with increasing heating temperature: (1) a volatile-reaction stage, (2) a weak-reaction stage, and (3) a soot-reaction stage. However, with the pyrolysis temperature of 1400 degrees C, the volatile- and weak-reaction stages almost merge together and evolve into a chemical-frozen stage. The submicron particles (i.e., 1000 degrees C) are mainly composed of volatiles, tar, and soot, with the main component of the nanoscale particles (i.e., 1400 degrees C) being soot. The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) contained in the aerosols are also analyzed. It is found that the PAH content in generated aerosols decreases dramatically as the pyrolysis temperature increases.

  1. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2003-06-02

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process.

  2. Inhalation health effects of fine particles from the co-combustion of coal and refuse derived fuel.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Art; Wendt, Jost O L; Wolski, Natacha; Hein, Klaus R G; Wang, Shengjun; Witten, Mark L

    2003-06-01

    This paper is concerned with health effects from the inhalation of particulate matter (PM) emitted from the combustion of coal, and from the co-combustion of refuse derived fuel (RDF) and pulverized coal mixtures, under both normal and low NO(x) conditions. Specific issues focus on whether the addition of RDF to coal has an effect on PM toxicity, and whether the application of staged combustion (for low NO(x)) may also be a factor in this regard. Ash particles were sampled and collected from a pilot scale combustion unit and then re-suspended and diluted to concentrations of approximately 1000 microg/m(3). These particles were inhaled by mice, which were held in a nose-only exposure configuration. Exposure tests were for 1 h per day, and involved three sets (eight mice per set) of mice. These three sets were exposed over 8, 16, and 24 consecutive days, respectively. Pathological lung damage was measured in terms of increases in lung permeability. Results show that the re-suspended coal/RDF ash appeared to cause very different effects on lung permeability than did coal ash alone. In addition, it was also shown that a "snapshot" of lung properties after a fixed number of daily 1-h exposures, can be misleading, since apparent repair mechanisms cause lung properties to change over a period of time. For the coal/RDF, the greatest lung damage (in terms of lung permeability increase) occurred at the short exposure period of 8 days, and thereafter appeared to be gradually repaired. Ash from staged (low NO(x)) combustion of coal/RDF appeared to cause greater lung injury than that from unstaged (high NO(x)) coal/RDF combustion, although the temporal behavior and (apparent) repair processes in each case were similar. In contrast to this, coal ash alone showed a slight decrease of lung permeability after 1 and 3 days, and this disappeared after 12 days. These observations are interpreted in the light of mechanisms proposed in the literature. The results all suggest that the

  3. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2001-08-01

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. To this end work is progress using an existing 17kW downflow laboratory combustor, available with coal and sludge feed capabilities. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NOx and low NOx combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). The proposed work uses existing analytical and experimental facilities and draws on 20 years of research on NO{sub x} and fine particles that has been funded by DOE in this laboratory. Four barrels of dried sewage sludge are currently in the laboratory. Insofar as possible pertinent mechanisms will be elucidated. Tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} control, NO{sub x} control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. For the Third Quarter of this project we present our data on trace metal partitioning obtained from combustion of MSS and Gas, MSS and Coal and Coal and Gas alone.

  4. Potential for thermal coal and Clean Coal Technology (CCT) in the Asia-Pacific. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, C.J.; Long, S.

    1991-11-22

    The Coal Project was able to make considerable progress in understanding the evolving energy situation in Asia and the future role of coal and Clean Coal Technologies. It is clear that there will be major growth in consumption of coal in Asia over the next two decades -- we estimate an increase of 1.2 billion metric tons. Second, all governments are concerned about the environmental impacts of increased coal use, however enforcement of regulations appears to be quite variable among Asian countries. There is general caution of the part of Asian utilities with respect to the introduction of CCT`s. However, there appears to be potential for introduction of CCT`s in a few countries by the turn of the century. It is important to emphasize that it will be a long term effort to succeed in getting CCT`s introduced to Asia. The Coal Project recommends that the US CCT program be expanded to allow the early introduction of CCT`s in a number of countries.

  5. Assessment of underground coal gasification in bituminous coals: potential UCG products and markets. Final report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-31

    The following conclusions were drawn from the study: (1) The US will continue to require new sources of energy fuels and substitutes for petrochemical feedstocks into the foreseeable future. Most of this requirement will be met using coal. However, the cost of mining, transporting, cleaning, and preparing coal, disposing of ash or slag and scrubbing stack gases continues to rise; particularly, in the Eastern US where the need is greatest. UCG avoids these pitfalls and, as such, should be considered a viable alternative to the mining of deeper coals. (2) Of the two possible product gases LBG and MBG, MBG is the most versatile. (3) The most logical use for UCG product in the Eastern US is to generate power on-site using a combined-cycle or co-generation system. Either low or medium Btu gas (LBG or MBG) can be used. (4) UCG should be an option whenever surface gasification is considered; particularly, in areas where deeper, higher sulfur coal is located. (5) There are environmental and social benefits to use of UCG over surface gasification in the Eastern US. (6) A site could be chosen almost anywhere in the Illinois and Ohio area where amenable UCG coal has been determined due to the existence of existing transportation or transmission systems. (7) The technology needs to be demonstrated and the potential economic viability determined at a site in the East-North-Central US which has commercial quantities of amenable bituminous coal before utilities will show significant interest.

  6. Technical data. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    This volume includes a description of the railway to transport the coal; possible unbalance in the electrical power supply is considered in detail, as well as communications, signalling, etc. The railway will also be used to transport ashes and sludges for waste disposal. Coal fines in the coal supply will be burned to generate power. A very brief description of the coal gasification plant and its components is accompanied by a printout of the dates final engineering is to be completed. Permit applications are listed and socio-economic factors are discussed. The financing plan is discussed in some detail: basically, a loan guarantee from the Synthetic Fuels Corporation; equity provided by investment tax credit, deferred taxes, AFUDC and the sponsors; price support; and gas purchase agreement (this whole section includes several legal details.). (LTN)

  7. Image analysis measurements of particle coefficient of restitution for coal gasification applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gibson, LaTosha M; Gopalan, Balaji; Pisupati, Sarma V; Shadle, Lawrence J

    2013-10-01

    New robust Lagrangian computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models are powerful tools that can be used to study the behavior of a diverse population of coal particle sizes, densities, and mineral compositions in entrained gasifiers. By using this approach, the responses of the particles impacting the wall were characterized over a range of velocities (1 to 8 m/s) and incident angles (90 to 20°). Within CFD models, the kinematic coefficient of restitution is the boundary condition defining the particle wall behavior. Four surfaces were studied to simulate the physical conditions of different entrained-flow gasification particle–surface collision scenarios: 1) a flat metal plate 2) a low viscosity silicon adhesive, 3) a high viscosity silicon adhesive, and 4) adhered particles on a flat metal plate with Young's modulus of elasticity ranging from 0.9 to 190 GPa. Entrained flow and drop experiments were conducted with granular coke particles, polyethylene beads and polystyrene pellets. The particle normal and tangential coefficients of restitution were measured using high speed imaging and particle tracking. The measured coefficients of restitution were observed to have a strong dependence on the rebound angles for most of the data. Suitable algebraic expressions for the normal and the tangential component of the coefficient of restitution were developed based upon ANOVA analysis. These expressions quantify the effect of normalized Young's modulus, particle equancy, and relative velocity on the coefficient of restitution. The coefficient of restitution did not have a strong dependence on the particle velocity over the range considered as long as the velocity was above the critical velocity. However, strong correlations were found between the degree of equancy of the particles and the mean coefficient of restitution such that the coefficient of restitution decreased for smaller particle equancies. It was concluded that the degree of equancy and the normalized Young

  8. Determination of iodine and bromine in coal and atmospheric particles by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Mingxing; Gao, Yunchuan; Wei, Biwen; Wu, Xiaowei

    2010-04-15

    Bromine and iodine in atmospheric particles or coal can cause environmental problems such as destruction of ozone in the atmosphere; therefore, the presence of these compounds has recently received increased attention. Here, a rapid and reliable method for the simultaneous determination of total bromine and iodine using ICP-MS analysis is described. Samples were dissolved in mixtures of 5 mL of HNO(3) and 2 mL of H(2)O(2) in a high pressure microwave digester. The solution was then oxidized by per-sulfate (Na(2)S(2)O(8)) in addition to a small amount of silver nitrate, after which the total bromine and iodine were measured simultaneously by ICP-MS. The signal memory effects of bromine and iodine during analysis were effectively decreased by washing with a new mixture agent (2% alcohol acidic solution, pH 1-2 adjusted with HCl). The detection limits for bromine and iodine using this method were about 3.2 microg L(-1) and 1.1 microg L(-1), respectively. Additionally, the spike recoveries were between 78.7% and 121% for bromine and iodine analysis, while the relative standard deviations ranged from 4.3% to 9.7%, and from 1.5% to 3.4% for bromine and iodine, respectively. The results of this study indicate that the method described here is suitable for the analysis of micro-amounts of bromine and iodine in atmospheric particles and coal samples.

  9. The influence of coal particles on self-ignition of methane-air mixture at temperatures 950-1200 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leschevich, V. V.; Penyazkov, O. G.; Shimchenko, S. Yu; Yaumenchykau, M. L.

    2016-11-01

    This paper represents experimental investigation of ignition of combustible gaseous mixture with reactive particles in the rapid compression machine at temperatures 950-1200 K and pressures 1.5-2.0 MPa. The experiments were carried out with stoichiometric methane-air mixture in the presence of coal particles with size 20-32 μm. It was found that the presence of these particles not only reduces ignition time but influences on the ignition temperature of mixture. It is ascertained that ignition time of methane in pure air is longer than with same mixture with addition coal dust. This difference is explained to preignition of methane near burning particles. It is shown that ignition of coal dust originates at the temperature of oxidant higher 850 K. Temperature of particles burning in methane-air and air environment heated by compression was measured. The mean temperature is 2500 K. It indicates possibility of premature ignition of gas mixture heated by compression to temperature 1000-1100 K by addition of coal particles.

  10. Effect of coal quality on maintenance costs at utility plants. Final report. [Effect of ash and sulfur content of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, E.C. Jr.

    1980-06-01

    In an attempt to determine if correlation exists between coal quality, as measured by its ash and sulfur contents, and the maintenance cost at utility plants, an examination was made of the actual maintenance cost experience of selected portions of five TVA coal-fired power plants as a function of the fuel quality consumed during an extended period of time. The results indicate that, according to our decision rules developed in compliance with accepted statistical practices, correlation does exist in many portions of the coal-fired plants for which sufficient maintenance cost records were available. The degree of correlation varies significantly among the individual portions of a particular plant as well as among the various plants. However, the indicators are sufficient to confirm that a change (within the design constraints of the unit) in the ash and/or sulfur content of the coal being consumed by a utility boiler will have a proportionate effect on the maintenance cost at the plant. In the cases examined, each percent variation in ash content could have a monetary effect of from $0.05 to $0.10 per ton of coal consumed. Similarly, each percent variation in sulfur content could influence maintenance costs from $0.30 to $0.50 per ton of coal. Since these values are based on preliminary analysis of limited data, they must be approached with caution and not removed from the context in which they are presented. However, if borne out by further study, the potential magnitude of such savings may be sufficient to justify the acquisition of superior coal supplies, either by changing the source and/or using preparation to obtain a lower ash and sulfur fuel.

  11. Impact of government regulations on leadtimes of coal facilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, J.; Carboni, J.V.; Shah, D.V.; White, J.M. Jr.

    1980-08-01

    The ability of the US to increase coal use depends on the leadtimes required to bring from inception into operation: (1) new coal use facilities such as powerplants, industrial boilers, coke ovens, and coal-based synfuel plants; and (2) new coal facilities including surface mines, deep mines, coal preparation plants, and railroad lines. This study examines the effect of government regulations on the leadtimes for the following ten facilities: surface mines on federal land; surface mines - private surface/private coal; underground coal mines; coal preparation plants; railroad lines; coal-fired electric generating plants; coal-fired industrial facilities; coke plants; synthetic fuels; and transmission lines. Environmental activities consume a significant portion of critical path time for all facilities. The time spent for obtaining permits and licenses account for as much as 63% of total critical path time in the case of a new railroad line servicing a coal mine in the western US. For surface mines, permitting accounts for 33% of total project critical path; for underground mines, it is 43%. Permitting requires 26 and 42% of the critical paths for new industrial facilities and power plants, respectively. Long durations of critical environmental activities account for much of the uncertainty surrounding the approval of large coal projects. Government regulations have also affected the way companies conduct their business. Dealing with government regulations has become as important to the completion of new coal facilities as project financing, design, and construction.

  12. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to ``conventional`` technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  13. Coking properties of coal under pressure and their influence on moving-bed gasification. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lancet, M.S.; Curran, G.P.; Sim, F.A.

    1982-08-01

    The coking properties of seven bituminous coals, including three Eastern US coals, one Midwestern US coal, a Western US coal and two from the UK were studied with respect to the possible utilization of these coals in moving bed gasifier systems. Complete physical, chemical and petrographic analyses were obtained for each coal in addition to the highly specialized CCDC simulated gasifier coking test data. The effects of total pressure, hydrogen partial pressure, heating rate and the addition of gob and tar on the fluidity and swelling properties of each coal was studied. Samples of each coal were shock heated under pressure to simulate coking in the top of a Lurgi gasifier. The resultant cokes were tested for various physical properties and the product yields were determined. Gas release patterns during pressurized pyrolysis were obtained in several instances. The data obtained in this work should provide a valuable data base for future gasifier feedstock evaluation programs.

  14. A new approach in ultrapurification of coal by selective flocculation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Moudgil, B.M.

    1992-04-01

    The specific objective of the present investigation is to develop a mathematical and computational model to elicit values of active sites ({phi}) and fractional surface coverage ({theta}) which would yield optimum separation of coal from coal pyrite and coal refuse. Attempts are to be made to select appropriate flocculants and experimental conditions to obtain {phi} and {theta} values as dictated by the theoretical model so as to achieve the desired separation in naturally occurring samples of fine coal. (VC)

  15. Evaluation of technology modifications required to apply clean coal technologies in Russian utilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    The report describes the following: overview of the Russian power industry; electric power equipment of Russia; power industry development forecast for Russia; clean coal technology demonstration program of the US Department of Energy; reduction of coal TPS (thermal power station) environmental impacts in Russia; and base options of advanced coal thermal power plants. Terms of the application of clean coal technology at Russian TPS are discussed in the Conclusions.

  16. Revised users manual, Pulverized Coal Gasification or Combustion: 2-dimensional (87-PCGC-2): Final report, Volume 2. [87-PCGC-2

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.J.; Smoot, L.D.; Brewster, B.S.

    1987-12-01

    A two-dimensional, steady-state model for describing a variety of reactive and non-reactive flows, including pulverized coal combustion and gasification, is presented. Recent code revisions and additions are described. The model, referred to as 87-PCGC-2, is applicable to cylindrical axi-symmetric systems. Turbulence is accounted for in both the fluid mechanics equations and the combustion scheme. Radiation from gases, walls, and particles is taken into account using either a flux method or discrete ordinates method. The particle phase is modeled in a Lagrangian framework, such that mean paths of particle groups are followed. Several multi-step coal devolatilization schemes are included along with a heterogeneous reaction scheme that allows for both diffusion and chemical reaction. Major gas-phase reactions are modeled assuming local instantaneous equilibrium, and thus the reaction rates are limited by the turbulent rate mixing. A NO/sub x/ finite rate chemistry submodel is included which integrates chemical kinetics and the statistics of the turbulence. The gas phase is described by elliptic partial differential equations that are solved by an iterative line-by-line technique. Under-relaxation is used to achieve numerical stability. The generalized nature of the model allows for calculation of isothermal fluid mechanicsgaseous combustion, droplet combustion, particulate combustion and various mixtures of the above, including combustion of coal-water and coal-oil slurries. Both combustion and gasification environments are permissible. User information and theory are presented, along with sample problems. 106 refs.

  17. Efficient ultrasonic grinding: a new technology for micron-sized coal. Final report, September 15, 1979-December 14, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Tarpley, W.B. Jr.; Howard, P.L.; Moulder, G.R.

    1981-01-01

    To burn coal most efficiently and cleanly, much smaller particle sizes are needed than can now be ground economically. This project was performed to demonstrate the technical feasibility of using ultrasonics to enhance grinding below the standard plant grind of 75 microns, and to extrapolate from this laboratory work the ultrasonic energy requirements for production use. Successively improved laboratory arrays demonstrated a repeatable production of particulates from 2000-micron coal to the desired size ranges (approximately 35% below 7 microns, 95% below 44 microns) with selective liberation of ash and pyrite inclusions to facilitate removal, with equipment translatable to production use, and the possibility of only 37 kwh/ton energy input requirement.

  18. Low-rank coal research: Volume 3, Combustion research: Final report. [Great Plains

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M. D.; Hajicek, D. R.; Zobeck, B. J.; Kalmanovitch, D. P.; Potas, T. A.; Maas, D. J.; Malterer, T. J.; DeWall, R. A.; Miller, B. G.; Johnson, M. D.

    1987-04-01

    Volume III, Combustion Research, contains articles on fluidized bed combustion, advanced processes for low-rank coal slurry production, low-rank coal slurry combustion, heat engine utilization of low-rank coals, and Great Plains Gasification Plant. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  19. Development and Dissemination of a Manual for Developing Coal Mining Curricula. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oglesby, Elizabeth H.; Katz, D. S.

    This report describes and summarizes the purposes, activities, major findings, and recommendations of three coal-related study reports: (1) An Assessment of Employment and Training needs for Coal and Gasification Occupations, (2) A Manual for Competency-Matched Instructional Resources for Developing Coal Mining Curricula, and (3) The Preparation…

  20. Anaerobic biprocessing of low rank coals. Final technical report, September 12, 1990--August 10, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, M.K.; Narayan, R.

    1993-08-05

    Coal solubilization under aerobic conditions results in oxygenated coal product which, in turn, makes the coal poorer fuel than the starting material. A novel approach has been made in this project is to remove oxygen from coal by reductive decarboxylation. In Wyodak subbituminous coal the major oxygen functionality is carboxylic groups which exist predominantly as carboxylate anions strongly chelating metal cations like Ca{sup 2+} and forming strong macromolecular crosslinks which contribute in large measure to network polymer structure. Removal of the carboxylic groups at ambient temperature by anaerobic organisms would unravel the macromoleculer network, resulting in smaller coal macromolecules with increased H/C ratio which has better fuel value and better processing prospects. These studies described here sought to find biological methods to remove carboxylic functionalities from low rank coals under ambient conditions and to assess the properties of these modified coals towards coal liquefaction. Efforts were made to establish anaerobic microbial consortia having decarboxylating ability, decarboxylate coal with the adapted microbial consortia, isolate the organisms, and characterize the biotreated coal products. Production of CO{sup 2} was used as the primary indicator for possible coal decarboxylation.

  1. Surface electrochemical control for fine coal and pyrite separation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wadsworth, M.E.; Bodily, D.M.; Hu, Weibai; Chen, Wanxiong; Huang, Qinping; Liang, Jun; Riley, A.M.; Li, Jun; Wann, Jyi-Perng; Zhong, Tingke; Zhu, Ximeng

    1993-01-20

    Laboratory flotation tests were carried out on three coals and on coal pyrite. Floatability measurements included natural floatability, flotation with a xanthate collector and salt flotation. The ranking of the floatability of the three coals were: Upper Freeport > Pittsburgh > Illinois. The floatability of mineral pyrite and coal pyrite increased markedly with xanthate concentration, but decreased with increased pH. In general, coal pyrite was more difficult to float than mineral pyrite. This was attributed to the presence of surface carbonaceous and mineral matter, since floatability of coal pyrite improved by acid pretreatment. Flotation tests demonstrated that the floatability of coal and mineral pyrite was greatly enhanced by the presence of an electrolyte. Flotation was also enhanced by the addition of modifiers such as CuSO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}S, CO{sub 2} and EDTA. Lime additions markedly reduced the floatability of coal pyrite. Enhanced floatability of coal pyrite resulted when the pyrite was anodically oxidized in a specially constructed electrochemical flotation cell Pretreatment in potential ranges previously observed for polysulfide and sulfur film formation resulted in the enhanced floatability. While interesting trends and influences, both chemical and electrochemical, markedly improved the floatability of coal, there is little hope for reverse flotation as an effective technology for coal/coal-pyrite separations. The effects of poor liberation and entrainment appear overriding.

  2. Impact of government regulations on leadtimes of coal facilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-08-01

    The ability of the US to increase coal use depends on the leadtimes required to bring from inception into operation: (1) new coal use facilities such as powerplants, industrial boilers, coke ovens, and coal-based synfuel plants; and (2) new coal facilities including surface mines, deep mines, coal preparation plants, and railroad lines. This study examines the effect of government regulations on the leadtimes for the following ten facilities: surface mines on federal land; surface mines - private surface/private coal; underground coal mines; coal preparation plants; railroad lines; coal-fired electric generating plants; coal-fired industrial facilities; coke plants; synthetic fuels; and transmission lines. These appendices contain summaries of legislation affecting the above coal facilities. Discussed are: the Clean Air Act; National Environmental Policy Act; Federal Coal Leasing Amendments Act; Surface Mining Control and Reclamation Act; Federal Land Policy and Management Act; River and Harbors Act; Federal Mine Health and Safety Amendments Act; Fish and Wildlife Coordination Act; National Historic Preservation Act; Endangered Species Act; the Clear Water Act; and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. (DMC)

  3. Investigation of flow behaviour of coal particles in a pilot-scale fluidized bed gasifier (FBG) using radiotracer technique.

    PubMed

    Pant, H J; Sharma, V K; Kamudu, M Vidya; Prakash, S G; Krishanamoorthy, S; Anandam, G; Rao, P Seshubabu; Ramani, N V S; Singh, Gursharan; Sonde, R R

    2009-09-01

    Knowledge of residence time distribution (RTD), mean residence time (MRT) and degree of axial mixing of solid phase is required for efficient operation of coal gasification process. Radiotracer technique was used to measure the RTD of coal particles in a pilot-scale fluidized bed gasifier (FBG). Two different radiotracers i.e. lanthanum-140 and gold-198 labeled coal particles (100 gm) were independently used as radiotracers. The radiotracer was instantaneously injected into the coal feed line and monitored at the ash extraction line at the bottom and gas outlet at the top of the gasifier using collimated scintillation detectors. The measured RTD data were treated and MRTs of coal/ash particles were determined. The treated data were simulated using tanks-in-series model. The simulation of RTD data indicated good degree of mixing with small fraction of the feed material bypassing/short-circuiting from the bottom of the gasifier. The results of the investigation were found useful for optimizing the design and operation of the FBG, and scale-up of the gasification process.

  4. 76 FR 45612 - Notice of Availability of the Buckskin Mine Hay Creek II Coal Lease-by-Application Final...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-29

    ...-Application Final Environmental Impact Statement, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS). The tract is being considered for sale as a result of a coal lease..., indirect, and cumulative environmental impacts of issuing the Hay Creek II LBA, case number WYW172684,...

  5. Application of geostatistics to coal-resource characterization and mine planning. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kauffman, P.W.; Walton, D.R.; Martuneac, L.; Kim, Y.C.; Knudsen, H.P.; Baafi, E.Y.; Lonergan, J.E.; Martino, F.

    1981-12-01

    Geostatistics is a proven method of ore reserve estimation in many non-coal mining areas but little has been published concerning its application to coal resources. This report presents the case for using geostatistics for coal mining applications and describes how a coal mining concern can best utilize geostatistical techniques for coal resource characterization and mine planning. An overview of the theory of geostatistics is also presented. Many of the applications discussed are documented in case studies that are a part of the report. The results of an exhaustive literature search are presented and recommendations are made for needed future research and demonstration projects.

  6. Analytical method for the evaluation of sulfur functionalities in American coals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Attar, A.

    1983-05-01

    This investigation consisted of the following 6 tasks: (1) improve the instrumentation for the sulfur functional groups analysis and make it more reliable. (2) create a set of reference standards of sulfur-containing compounds. (3) examine the sulfur groups distribution in untreated and desulfurized coals. (4) examine the sulfur functionalities in raw and processed coals, i.e., liquefied coals. (5) determine the distribution of sulfur functionalities in modified coals. (6) prepare computer programs for calculations related to the distribution of sulfur functional groups in coal. Each task is discussed and results are presented. Appendix A contains the computer program used to interpret the data. 31 references, 56 figures, 17 tables.

  7. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1990-- April 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.

    1992-02-15

    The Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science (CFFLS) is currently engaged in a three year contract with the US Department of Energy investigating a range of research topics dealing with direct coal liquefaction. This report summarizes the results of this program in its second year, from May 1, 1990 to April 30, 1991. Accomplishments for this period are presented for the following tasks: Iron-based catalysts for coal liquefaction, exploratory research on coal conversion, novel coal liquefaction concepts, and novel catalysts for coal liquefaction.

  8. The potential for underground coal gasification in Indiana. Final report to the Indiana Center for Coal Technology Research (CCTR)

    SciTech Connect

    John Rupp; Evgeny Shafirovich; Arvind Varma; Maria Mastalerz; Agnieszka Drobniak

    2009-03-15

    The preliminary feasability assessment analyses the potential for underground coal gasification within Indiana. A review of existing worldwide operations and geological requirements demonstrates that the application of UCG practices in Indiana has very significant potential benefits, but careful analysis of the specific geological conditions, physical and chemical properties of coals, water resources, coupled with an assessment of the state-of-the-art technologies must be conducted to identify potential UCG sites and to determine the feasibility of employing this technology in Indiana. Of particular importance is the relatively small number of active and successful operators of UCG projects around the world and that collaborations with one or two among them could be beneficial for all concerned. There are significant opportunities for economic development that will provide dividends for first movers in the Illinois basin. The report recommends nine 'promising zones' for UCG in two large coal deposits (the Springfield and Seelyville coal beds) in Knox, Gibson, Vanderburgh, Warrick and Posey counties. 69 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs., 1 app.

  9. Testing of pyrite flotation techniques on selected Ohio coals: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Arnold, B.J.; Torak, E.R.

    1989-05-01

    The project was conceived to demonstrate the combining of conventional physical coal cleaning with emerging advanced physical coal cleaning technologies in a cost-effective manner. The objectives of the program were to demonstrate that conventional coal cleaning followed by advanced coal cleaning of a crushed mid-gravity portion of the run-of-mine coal would produce a clean coal, suitable for use as a thermal coal, having a lower ash content and a lower sulfur dioxide emission potential than a coal cleaned only be current conventional cleaning technologies. As part of this program a number of advanced flotation techniques were tested to determine the feasibility of including them in the design of their Advanced Coal Preparation Facility. The program consisted of testing the Pittsburgh seam, the Middle Kittanning seam, and the Meigs Creek seam coals in the pilot flotation circuit at EPRI's Coal Quality Development Center (CQDC) in Homer City, Pennsylvania. This report contains all the data from OCDO's pilot flotation test program at the CQDC and the test data from the Middle Kittanning and Meigs Creek reverse flotation tests. 13 figs., 40 tabs.

  10. Effects of particle size and air flow rates on the runaway temperature of bituminous coal at 290K < T < 700K

    SciTech Connect

    Malhotro, V.M.; Crelling, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    Spontaneous ignition and combustion of coal are major problems not only for actual mining of coal but also for its transportation and for industrial users. Most coals are prone to spontaneous combustion, but their susceptibility to ignition increases as the coal rank decreases. However, there are many anomalies to this straight rank order susceptibility. Chamberlain and Hall have in fact, pointed out that some higher rank coals may be more susceptible to spontaneous ignition than lower rank coals. The causes and mechanisms of spontaneous ignition are enigmatic because exceptions exist for every previously-suggested, single cause. Several models have been advanced to describe spontaneous heating, however. Among these are coal rank, electrostatic effects, geological factors, temperature, microbial ignition, the reduction in reactivity due to deterioration, air flow rates, particle size, pyrite content, porosity and water wetting of coal. The purpose of this research was to examine the factors which may contribute to spontaneous ignition of ultrafine (particle size < 250 /mu/m) bituminous coals and maceral enriched fractions under storage, air flow and/or dense phase pneumatic conditions and to understand physical interactions and chemical reactions pathways which may lead to spontaneous ignition of bituminous coals. We have initiated spontaneous ignition, FTIR, DSC, TGA and EPR measurements to accumulate data which can be used to propose mathematical models for spontaneous ignition of stored and pneumatically conveyed coals. In this report, we present our preliminary results on a high-volatile bituminous coal subjected to ignition temperature and FTIR measurements.

  11. Rate enhancement for catalytic upgrading coal naphthas. Final of final technical progress report, July 1991--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, B.H.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this project is to remove sulfur, nitrogen, and oxygen from naphtha derived from coal liquefaction. The project is concerned with the development of hydrotreating catalysts. This period, a ruthenium sulfide catalyst has been studied.

  12. Regulations implementing the Federal Coal Mine Health and Safety Act of 1969, as amended. Employment Standards Administration, Labor. Final rule.

    PubMed

    2000-12-20

    On January 22, 1997, the Department issued a proposed rule to amend the regulations implementing the Black Lung Benefits Act. 62 FR 3338-3435 (Jan. 22, 1997). When the comment period closed on August 21, 1997, the Department had received written submissions from almost 200 interested persons, including coal miners, coal mine operators, insurers, physicians, and attorneys. The Department also held hearings in Charleston, West Virginia, and Washington, D.C. at which over 50 people testified. The Department carefully reviewed the testimony and the comments and, on October 8, 1999, issued a second notice of proposed rulemaking. 64 FR 54966-55072 (Oct. 8, 1999). In its second notice, the Department proposed changing several of the most important provisions in its initial proposal. The Department also explained its decision not to alter the original proposal with respect to other key regulations based on the comments received to date. Finally, the Department prepared an initial regulatory flexibility analysis. In order to ensure that small businesses that could be affected by the Department's proposal received appropriate notice of the Department's proposed changes, the Department mailed a copy of the second notice of proposed rulemaking to all coal mine operators contained in the databases maintained by the Mine Safety and Health Administration. The Department initially allowed interested parties until December 7, 1999 to file comments to its second proposal, but extended that period until January 6, 2000. The Department received 37 written submissions before the close of the comment period, from groups representing both coal miners and coal mine operators. The Department also received comments from individual miners, various coal mining and insurance companies, as well as from claims processing organizations, attorneys, and various professional organizations. The Department has carefully reviewed all of the comments, and is issuing its final rule. The rule contains a

  13. Analysis of char-slag interaction and near-wall particle segregation in entrained-flow gasification of coal

    SciTech Connect

    Montagnaro, Fabio; Salatino, Piero

    2010-05-15

    The fate of carbon particles during entrained-flow gasification of coal in the slagging regime is analyzed. More specifically, the study addresses the relevance of segregation of carbon particles in a near-wall region of the gasifier to coal conversion. Segregation of carbon particles is analyzed considering the effects of turbulence- and swirl-promoted particle migration toward the wall, interaction of the impinging particles with the wall ash layer, coverage of the slag layer by refractory carbon particles, accumulation of carbon particles in a dense-dispersed phase near the wall of the gasifier. Operating conditions of the gasifier and slag properties may be combined so as to give rise to a variety of conversion regimes characterized by distinctively different patterns of carbon particles segregation. A simple 1D model of an entrained-flow gasifier has been developed based on the conceptual framework of carbon particle segregation. The model aims at providing a general assessment of the impact of the different patterns of carbon particle segregation on the course and extent of carbon gasification. A sensitivity analysis with reference to selected model parameters is performed to identify key processes controlling carbon segregation and their impact on the gasifier performance. (author)

  14. Selective flotation of fossil resin from Western coal. Final report, July 1, 1990--May 25, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, G.F.; Miller, J.D.

    1992-05-25

    The proof-of-concept test program was designed to clarify a number of concerns that have been raised by coal companies who own the valuable resin resource. First, from laboratory bench-scale flotation experiments, a froth product from cleaner flotation containing more than 80% hexane-extractable resin at higher than 80% recovery can be produced. Pilot-plant testing was initiated to demonstrate the selective flotation of fossil resin and to establish a better confidence level in the new technology. Second, pilot-plant testing was designed to evaluate the effect and impact of random variation in slurry solids concentration and feed grade on this new selective fossil resin flotation technology. The flotation performance obtained under these industrial conditions is more realistic for process evaluation. Third, more accurate operating cost data was to be obtained for economic analysis. Fourth, sufficient quantities of the fossil resin concentrate were to be produced from the test program for evaluation by potential industrial users. Fifth, and finally, optimum levels for the operating variables were to be established. Such information was required for eventual scale-up and design of a fossil resin flotation plant. The pilot-plant proof-of-concept testing of selective resinate flotation has demonstrated that: (1) technically, the new flotation technologies discovered at the University of Utah and then improved upon by Advanced Processing Technologies, Inc. provide a highly efficient means to selectively recover fossil resin from coal. The proof-of-concept continuous flotation circuit (about 0.1 tph) resulted in fossil resin recovery with the same separation efficiency as was obtained from laboratory bench-scale testing (more than 80% recovery at about 80% concentrate grade); and (2) economically, the selective flotation process has been shown to be sufficiently profitable to justify the development of a fossil resin industry based on this new flotation process.

  15. Simulation of coal and char nitrogen reactions in combustion. [Final report, September 1992--August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kumpaty, S.K.

    1993-10-01

    The observed rate of increase of N{sub 2}O (0.18% to 0.26% annually) is a matter of increasing concern both because N{sub 2}O is a greenhouse gas and has a major and unfavorable influence on the ozone layer (Weiss, 1981). The combustion contribution to the overall nitrous oxide budget is difficult to assess; yet the emission of N{sub 2}O from fluidized bed combustion (FBC) has been identified in the past few years as significant. It was concluded in the European workshop, 1988 that the emission level from a coal-fired fluidized bed boiler is 50--200 ppM but it is only 1--20 ppM in boilers equipped with other types of combustion devices. For this reason it is worthwhile to investigate the emissions from FBC more thoroughly. Gaseous fuels (Miller and Bowman, 1989), but the N{sub 2}O emissions under fluidized bed conditions is poorly understood. In fluidized bed combustion, N{sub 2}O can arise from homogeneous gas phase reactions involving amines and cyano species (Hiltunen et al, 1991) or it can be formed from heterogeneous reactions (eg. char oxidation). Removal of N{sub 2}O can be brought about by gas phase reactions or by catalytic or non-catalytic heterogeneous reduction on char/limestone. This work was carried out with an objective of enhancing the fundamental understanding of coal and char nitrogen reaction pathways in fluidized bed combustion environment. The formation and destruction of HCN and N{sub 2}O under variety of influential parameters were investigated. This simulation contained a nonisothermal single particle combustion in a preheated reactor and a gas phase reaction are designed to stimulate the nitrogen chemistry in a circulating fluidzied bed. The LSODE differential equation solver used for single particle combustion and the CHEMKIN package, developed by Sandia National Laboratories, was applied for gas phase reactions. This computational work was done as an exploratory research program under the solicitation of the DOE fossil energy utilization.

  16. CYTOTOXICITY AND CELL SIGNALING IN MH-S CELLS: RELATIVE POTENCY OF DIESEL AND COAL COMBUSTION PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cytotoxicity and Cell Signaling in MH-S Cells: Relative Potency of Diesel and Coal Combustion Particles P. Singh1, Y. Kostetski2, M. Daniels1, T. Stevens3 and MI Gilmour 1USEPA, RTP, NC, 2National University of Singapore, Singapore, 3University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC<...

  17. Pilot scale single stage fine coal dewatering and briquetting process. Final technical report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, J.W.; Honaker, R.Q.; Ding, Y.

    1997-05-01

    The primary goal of the ongoing ICCI coal preparation research project is to reduce ash and sulfur content in coal by using fine grinding and other coal cleaning processes. The ultrafine coal particles that result from the grinding and cleaning operations are difficult to dewater, and create problems in their storage, handling and transportation. The objective of this research is to combine the dewatering and briquetting processes of fine coal preparation into a single stage operation, thereby enhancing the economic viability of utilizing fine coal. A bitumen based emulsion, Orimulsion, has proven to be an effective hydrophobic binder, which helps not only with the briquetting process but also in the expulsion of water from the coal. Encouraging results from the use of a ram extruder briquetting device led to experimentation in the production of briquettes using a lab scale roll briquetting device. In the first quarter of this reporting year, a commercially available lab scale roll briquetting machine was employed (Komarek B-100). Further testing was conducted for the rest of the year with the use of a pilot scale model (Komarek B220-A). Briquettes were produced and evaluated by comparing results developed by adjusting various parameters of the briquetting machines and feed material. Results further substantiate previous findings that curing time dictates both moisture content and strengths of briquettes, and slower roll speeds produce more robust briquettes. A statistical model was set up to determine the optimal range of operating parameters. The statistical model generated from these results provided basic relationships between the roll speed and briquette form pressure.

  18. Novel injector techniques for coal-fueled diesel engines. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Badgley, P.R.

    1992-09-01

    This report, entitled ``Novel Injector Techniques for Coal-Fueled Diesel Engines,`` describes the progress and findings of a research program aimed at development of a dry coal powder fuel injector in conjunction with the Thermal Ignition Combustion System (TICS) concept to achieve autoignition of dry powdered coal in a single-cylinder high speed diesel engine. The basic program consisted of concept selection, analysis and design, bench testing and single cylinder engine testing. The coal injector concept which was selected was a one moving part dry-coal-powder injector utilizing air blast injection. Adiabatics has had previous experience running high speed diesel engines on both direct injected directed coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel and also with dry coal powder aspirated into the intake air. The Thermal Ignition Combustion System successfully ignited these fuels at all speeds and loads without requiring auxiliary ignition energy such as pilot diesel fuel, heated intake air or glow or spark plugs. Based upon this prior experience, it was shown that the highest efficiency and fastest combustion was with the dry coal, but that the use of aspiration of coal resulted in excessive coal migration into the engine lubrication system. Based upon a desire of DOE to utilize a more modern test engine, the previous naturally-aspirated Caterpillar model 1Y73 single cylinder engine was replaced with a turbocharged (by use of shop air compressor and back pressure control valve) single cylinder version of the Cummins model 855 engine.

  19. Improvement of storage, handling, and transportability of fine coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, R.C. Jr.; Jamison, P.R.

    1996-03-01

    The Mulled Coal process is a technology which has evolved from a line of investigations which began in the 1970`s. There was a major breakthrough in 1990, and since then, with significant support from DOE-PETC, the technology has progressed from the conceptual stage to a proven laboratory process. It is a simple process which involves the addition of a low cost specifically formulated reagent to wet fine coal by mixing the two in a pug mill. Although the converted material (Mulled Coal) retains some of its original surface moisture, it handles, transports, and stores like dry coal. But, unlike thermally dried fine coal Mulled Coal is not dusty, it will not rewet, and it causes no fugitive dust problems. This project was designed to advance the technology from the status of a process which works well in the laboratory to the status of a technology which is fully ready for commercialization. Project objectives were to: 1. Prove the concept that the technology can be used to produce Mulled Coal of a consistent quality, on a continuous basis, at a convincing rate of production, and at a major preparation plant which produces fine clean coal on a commercial basis. 2. Prove the concept that Mulled Coal, either as a blend with coarser clean coal or as a stand-alone fuel will successfully pass through a representative cross section of conventional coal storage, handling and transportation environments without causing any of the problems normally associated with wet fine coal. 3 Test the design and reliability of Mulled Coal circuit equipment and controls. 4. Test the circuit over a wide range of operating conditions. 5. Project scale-up designs for major equipment components and control circuits. 6. Forecast capital and operating costs for commercial circuits ranging from 25 TPH to 75 TPH. This report describes the work, the test results, and conclusions at each step along the way.

  20. Structure of coal: new approaches to characterizing organonitrogen and organosulfur functionalities in coal and coal liquids. Final report. [Finnigan triple quadrupole mass spectrometers

    SciTech Connect

    Cooks, R.G.

    1983-01-01

    This report describes the application of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) to the analysis of coal-related materials. A Finnigan Triple State Quadrupole mass spectrometer was used for most of the results obtained in this study. Both collision energy (0 to 30 eV) and collision gas pressure (0 to 2.5 mtorr, typically argon) have significant effects on the spectra. Increasing the collision energy or collision pressure results in an increased fragmentation of the selected ion. The analytical utility of different chemical ionization (CI) reagent gases is shown. The MS/MS spectra of a selected ion obtained by isobutane and ammonia CI are identical, which paves the way for development of MS/MS libraries. A library is being developed especially for the analysis of coal-related materials. Three principal MS/MS scan modes (daughter, parent and neutral loss) are utilized in the analysis of coal-related materials. Parent and neutral loss scans characterize the complex mixture for particular chemical moieties (functional groups, structure type), while daughter scans are used for identification of specific components. SRC II was the principal sample studied by CI. Laser desorption methodology for coal analysis was developed. Other fuel-related materials were examined to generalize the analytical methodology being developed for the coal-related materials, including shale oil and diesel exhaust particulates. 35 references, 50 figures, 3 tables.

  1. Particle and Blood Cell Dynamics in Oscillatory Flows Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Juan M. Restrepo

    2008-09-01

    Our aim has been to uncover fundamental aspects of the suspension and dislodgement of particles in wall-bounded oscillatory flows, in flows characterized by Reynolds numbers en- compassing the situation found in rivers and near shores (and perhaps in some industrial processes). Our research tools are computational and our coverage of parameter space fairly broad. Computational means circumvent many complications that make the measurement of the dynamics of particles in a laboratory setting an impractical task, especially on the broad range of parameter space we plan to report upon. The impact of this work on the geophysical problem of sedimentation is boosted considerably by the fact that the proposed calculations can be considered ab-initio, in the sense that little to no modeling is done in generating dynamics of the particles and of the moving fluid: we use a three-dimensional Navier Stokes solver along with straightforward boundry conditions. Hence, to the extent that Navier Stokes is a model for an ideal incompressible isotropic Newtonian fluid, the calculations yield benchmark values for such things as the drag, buoyancy, and lift of particles, in a highly controlled environment. Our approach will be to make measurements of the lift, drag, and buoyancy of particles, by considering progressively more complex physical configurations and physics.

  2. Coal desulfurization during the combustion of coal/oil/water emulsions: an economic alternative clean liquid fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-04-01

    This report presents the Phase II results of a combustion program designed to assess the feasibility of utilizing coal/oil/water (COW) emulsions as a fuel for fire tube package boilers. Also examined was the effect of the addition of alkaline absorbents to the fuel for sulfur dioxide capture. Presented are the findings of testing involving optimizing sulfur dioxide removal while still maintaining a rheologically favorable fuel. Overall performance of COW as a boiler fuel was evaluated over long term operation. Emphasis was placed on burner design as well as coal characteristics. Three different bituminous coals were used during this program. Results indicate that COW emulsions may be a feasible alternative for oil in industrial fire tube boilers if the major problem, deposition buildup, can be resolved. This appears possible with a proper soot blower design. Soda ash is a viable means for obtaining at least 80% removal, using a 1:1 molar ratio. However, the deposition problem with soda ash indicated that stack injection may be a more feasible approach.

  3. Dissolving coal at moderate temperatures and pressures. Final report, August 20, 1982-September 30, 1984. [Benzylamine

    SciTech Connect

    Mayo, F.R.; Hirschon, A.S.; Sundback, K.A.

    1984-09-21

    The main objectives of this research were to make Illinois No. 6 coal liquid or soluble with inexpensive reagents (e.g., solvolysis with methanol and acids), without high pressure equipment, and to see if our soluble products would be more reactive than whole coal in liquefaction processes. These efforts are unpromising. However, efforts to make coal soluble by oxidation with nitric acid gave encouraging results. When Illinois No. 6 and Wyodak coals were allowed to stand in sunlight for 282 days, 27% of the original weight and 32% of the original carbon were lost. Concurrent experiments in the dark at 24/sup 0/C indicate that these coals are fairly stable in air in the dark; light causes most of the oxidation. The solubility properties of these aged coals will not be available before the end of this grant period. Several other minor lines of work, some very interesting, are summarized in order of decreasing significance. 1 figure, 6 tables.

  4. Thermodynamic assessment of the possibility of emission of submicron particles in the process of coal combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebedeva, L. N.; Kortsenshtein, N. M.; Samuilov, E. V.

    2014-12-01

    Methods of chemical thermodynamics of multicomponent reactive systems are used to study the distribution of the most volatile components (potassium and sodium) in the products of combustion of 15 types of coal. The effect of the mineral part of coals and various potassium and sodium compounds on the temperature of their transition into the gas phase is investigated. It is shown that the distribution of potassium and sodium in the products of coal combustion depends on the speciation of these elements in the initial coal; the mineral part composition; the ash content of coals; and the sulfur, potassium, and sodium content of the initial coals.

  5. Coal quality field test at Northeastern Unit 4 of Public Service Company of Oklahoma. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Giovanni, D.V.; Carr, R.C.; Landham, E.C.; Frompovicz, Z.J.; Vitta, P.K.; Thompson, R.E.

    1995-10-01

    Two products of coal quality research at the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) are available for field evaluation: Coal Quality Impact Model (CQIM{trademark}), and Fireside Testing Guidelines (FTG). The CQIM is a computer program that may be tailored to simulate the performance characteristics of a coal-fired power plant. The FTG is a technical report that guides utilities in conducting field tests to gather performance data and quantify the technical and economic impacts of different coals. Moreover, the results from field tests may be utilized to validate and assess the applicability of the CQIM. Field tests were conducted at Public Service Company of Oklahoma`s Northeastern Unit 4 to evaluate the coal quality impacts of coal switching on boiler performance and emissions. Northeastern Unit 4 was designed to generate 445 M (net), but is frequently operated at loads up 480 NM. The boiler was manufactured by Combustion Engineering (CE) and is rated at 3,200,000 lb/hr steam flow at 1,005F and 3,500 psig. Design reheat steam temperature is also 1,005F. The unit is equipped with a Lodge-Cottrell cold-side electrostatic precipitator for particulate matter control. Comprehensive tests were conducted on all major equipment components, including the pulverizers, fans, combustion equipment, boiler heat transfer surfaces, air preheater, and electrostatic precipitator. The tests were conducted with a baseline, 100% Wyoming coal, and two coal blends: a 90% Wyoming/10% Oklahoma coal, and a 70% Wyoming/30% Oklahoma coal. The CQIM was configured to predict the performance of the unit when burning each coal. The work was sponsored by EPRI and the US Department of Energy, and Public Service Company of Oklahoma (PSO) was the host utility company. This report summarizes results from the field test program, including potential heat rate improvements that were identified, and the differences in unit operations and performance for the two coals.

  6. Biodesulfurization techniques: Application of selected microorganisms for organic sulfur removal from coals. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Elmore, B.B.

    1993-08-01

    As an alternative to post-combustion desulfurization of coal and pre-combustion desulfurization using physicochemical techniques, the microbial desulfurization of coal may be accomplished through the use of microbial cultures that, in an application of various microbial species, may remove both the pyritic and organic fractions of sulfur found in coal. Organisms have been isolated that readily depyritize coal but often at prohibitively low rates of desulfurization. Microbes have also been isolated that may potentially remove the organic-sulfur fraction present in coal (showing promise when acting on organic sulfur model compounds such as dibenzothiophene). The isolation and study of microorganisms demonstrating a potential for removing organic sulfur from coal has been undertaken in this project. Additionally, the organisms and mechanisms by which coal is microbially depyritized has been investigated. Three cultures were isolated that grew on dibenzothiophene (DBT), a model organic-sulfur compound, as the sole sulfur source. These cultures (UMX3, UMX9, and IGTS8) also grew on coal samples as the sole sulfur source. Numerous techniques for pretreating and ``cotreating`` coal for depyritization were also evaluated for the ability to improve the rate or extent of microbial depyritization. These include prewashing the coal with various solvents and adding surfactants to the culture broth. Using a bituminous coal containing 0.61% (w/w) pyrite washed with organic solvents at low slurry concentrations (2% w/v), the extent of depyritization was increased approximately 25% in two weeks as compared to controls. At slurry concentrations of 20% w/v, a tetrachloroethylene treatment of the coal followed by depyritization with Thiobacillus ferrooxidans increased both the rate and extent of depyritization by approximately 10%.

  7. Advanced Coal Conversion Process Demonstration Project. Final technical progress report, January 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Advanced Coal Conversion Process (ACCP) Demonstration Project from January 1, 1995 through December 31, 1995. This project demonstrates an advanced, thermal, coal upgrading process, coupled with physical cleaning techniques, that is designed to upgrade high-moisture, low-rank coals to a high-quality, low-sulfur fuel, registered as the SynCoal Process. The coal is processed through three stages (two heating stages followed by an inert cooling stage) of vibrating fluidized bed reactors that remove chemically bound water, carboxyl groups, and volatile sulfur compounds. After thermal upgrading, the coal is put through a deep-bed stratifier cleaning process to separate the pyrite-rich ash from the coal. The SynCoal Process enhances low-rank, western coals, usually with a moisture content of 25 to 55 percent, sulfur content of 0.5 to 1.5 percent, and heating value of 5,5000 to 9,000 British thermal units per pound (Btu/lb), by producing a stable, upgraded, coal product with a moisture content as low as 1 percent, sulfur content as low as 0.3 percent, and heating value up to 12,000 Btu/lb. During this reporting period, the primary focus for the ACCP Demonstration Project team was to expand SynCoal market awareness and acceptability for both the products and the technology. The ACCP Project team continued to focus on improving the operation, developing commercial markets, and improving the SynCoal products as well as the product`s acceptance.

  8. Novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for temperature-programmed coal liquefaction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chunshan Song; Schobert, H.H.; Parfitt, D.P.

    1997-11-01

    Development of new catalysts is a promising approach to more efficient coal liquefaction. It has been recognized that dispersed catalysts are superior to supported catalysts for primary liquefaction of coals, because the control of initial coal dissolution or depolymerization requires intimate contact between the catalyst and coal. This research is a fundamental and exploratory study on catalytic coal liquefaction, with the emphasis on exploring novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts for coal liquefaction and the effectiveness of temperature-programmed liquefaction using dispersed catalysts. The primary objective of this research was to explore novel bimetallic dispersed catalysts from organometallic molecular precursors, that could be used in low concentrations but exhibit relatively high activity for efficient hydroliquefaction of coals under temperature-programmed conditions. We have synthesized and tested various catalyst precursors in liquefaction of subbituminous and bituminous coals and in model compound studies to examine how do the composition and structure of the catalytic precursors affect their effectiveness for coal liquefaction under different reaction conditions, and how do these factors affect their catalytic functions for hydrogenation of polyaromatic hydrocarbons, for cleavage of C-C bonds in polycyclic systems such as 4-(1-naphthylmethyl)bibenzyl, for hydrogenolysis of C-O bond such as that in dinaphthylether, for hydrodeoxygenation of phenolic compounds and other oxygen-containing compounds such as xanthene, and for hydrodesulfurization of polycyclic sulfur compounds such as dibenzothiophene. The novel bimetallic and monometallic precursors synthesized and tested in this project include various Mo- and Fe-based compounds.

  9. Oxidative derivatization and solubilization of coal. Final report. Period: October 1, 1986 - April 30, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, J.G.; Porowski, E.N.; Straub, A.M.

    1988-05-01

    We investigated the solubilization of coal by oxidative means to produce motor fuels. Nitric acid was used in the first of two approaches taken to cleave aliphatic linkages in coal and reduce the size of its macrostructure. Mild conditions, with temperatures up to a maximum of 75 C, and nitric acid concentrations below 20% by weight, characterize this process. The solid product, obtained in high yields, is soluble in polar organic solvents. Lower alcohols, methanol in particular, are of interest as carrier solvents in diesel fuel applications. Coals investigated were New York State peat, Wyodak subbituminous coal, North Dakota lignite, and Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal. The lower tank coals were easily converted and appear well suited to the process, while the bituminous Illinois No. 6 and Pitt Seam coals were unreactive. We concentrated our efforts on Wyodak coal and North Dakota lignite. Reaction conditions with regards to temperature, acid concentration, and time were optimized to obtain high product selectivity at maximum conversion. A continuous process scheme was developed for single pass coal conversions of about 50% to methanol-soluble product.

  10. Effect of reagent access on the reactivity of coals. Final report. [Maleic anhydride; dialkylmaleates

    SciTech Connect

    Larsen, J.W.

    1983-04-01

    The objective of this work is to determine the extent to which the mass transport of reagents into solid coals limits the reactivity of those coals. The purpose of task one is to determine the effect of reagent access on the acid catalyzed depolymerization of coals using phenols and/or alkyl phenyl ethers. For task two, the purpose is to determine the effect of coal swelling on its rate of reaction with a dienophile. Work on depolymerization of coals in hot, acidic phenol has been completed. The conclusion is that due to incomplete depolymerization, the complications of competing Friedel-Crafts alkylation, and the condensation reactions of the solvent, the depolymerization of coals in hot, acidic phenol is not a useful technique for solubilizing coals for structural investigations. In task two, the rate of the Diels-Alder reaction between bituminous coals and maleic anhydride was found to be diffusion controlled. The observations of simple Fickian diffusion and reaction rate constants much slower than the Diels-Alder reaction of maleic anhydride and anthracene have no other reasonable explanation than rate limiting mass transport. The diffusion rates were found to be independent of the degree of solvent swelling of the coal. In addition, the dependence of the observed rates on temperature and the size of the dienophile were measured. Results obtained using a series of dialkylmaleates are presented. Size was found to play only a small role as long as the reagent is planar. 2 tables.

  11. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2001-01-31

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NOx concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. To this end we shall use an existing 17kW downflow laboratory combustor, available with coal and sludge feed capabilities. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NOx and low NOx combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). The proposed work uses existing analytical and experimental facilities and draws on 20 years of research on NO{sub x} and fine particles that has been funded by DOE in this laboratory. Four barrels of dried sewage sludge are currently in the laboratory. Insofar as possible pertinent mechanisms will be elucidated. Tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} control, NO{sub x} control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. For the First Quarter of this three year project work has centered around recruiting a graduate student to take responsibility for execution of portions of the research, and modifying the furnace and supporting equipment to allow the combustion of coal/MMS mixtures. We have readied the analytical panel for measuring NO{sub x} and other gaseous pollutants. We expect initial experiments for data gathering for coal/MSS mixtures to commence in the next Quarter.

  12. Numerical simulation of air and oxy-fuel combustion of single coal particles using the reactive implicit continuous-fluid Eulerian (RICE) method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewtak, Robert

    2013-10-01

    The paper presents the mathematical model of air and oxy-fuel combustion of single coal particles. The combustion process has been treated as a spherically-symmetric one. The 1-dimensional time-dependent conservation equations governing the process have been numerically solved using the RICE method. The presence of a coal particle, which was treated as a discrete Lagrange particle, has modified the boundary conditions at the gas-solid interface. Numerical results show good agreement with the experimental results.

  13. Coal cleaning process

    SciTech Connect

    Kindig, J.K.

    1994-01-11

    Fine particle coal is beneficiated in specially designed dense medium cyclones to improve particle acceleration and enhance separation efficiency. Raw coal feed is first sized to remove fine coal particles. The coarse fraction is then separated into clean coal, middlings, and refuse. Middlings are comminuted for beneficiation with the fine fraction. The fine fraction is deslimed in a countercurrent cyclone circuit and then separated as multiple fractions of different size specifications in dense medium cyclones. The dense medium contains ultra-fine magnetite particles of a narrow size distribution which aid separation and improves magnetite recovery. Magnetite is recovered from each separated fraction independently, with non-magnetic effluent water from one fraction diluting feed to a smaller-size fraction, and improving both overall coal and magnetite recovery. Magnetite recovery is in specially designed recovery units, based on particle size, with final separation in a rougher-cleaner-scavenger circuit of magnetic drum separators incorporating a high strength rare earth magnet. 12 figs.

  14. Semi-quantitative ion microprobe mass analyses of mineral-rich particles from the upper freeport coal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Finkelman, R.B.; Simons, D.S.; Dulong, F.T.; Steel, E.B.

    1984-01-01

    An ion microprobe mass analyzer (IMMA) has been used to analyze semi-quantitatively mineral-rich coal particles from two separate facies of the Upper Freeport coal bed. Accuracy is estimated to be ??? 20% for those elements making up more than 0.1 wt.% of the particles and ??? 50% for elements making up less than 0.1 wt.%. Using IMMA data, we found statistically significant differences between the two samples for five (Fe, Ca, Mn, Li, Ce) of the 25 elements detected. For Li and Mn the differences between the mineral-rich particles within samples were similar to differences found between samples on a whole-coal basis. For Ca and Fe, the differences are attributed to different modes of occurrence, and for Ce, the differences are probably due to an irregular distribution of an inorganic phase. We conclude that the IMMA can be used to obtain semi-quantitative data that may provide insight into the distribution and mode of occurrence of some of the elements in coal. ?? 1984.

  15. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2001-05-04

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NO{sub x} concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. To this end we shall use an existing 17kW downflow laboratory combustor, available with coal and sludge feed capabilities. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NO{sub x} and low NO{sub x} combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). The proposed work uses existing analytical and experimental facilities and draws on 20 years of research on NO{sub x} and fine particles that has been funded by DOE in this laboratory. Four barrels of dried sewage sludge are currently in the laboratory. Insofar as possible pertinent mechanisms will be elucidated. Tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} control, NO{sub x} control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined.

  16. The use of neural networks to predict the particle-size distribution of coal ground in the PETC PRF hammermill

    SciTech Connect

    McKeegan, D.

    1996-04-01

    Sieve-analysis data obtained pursuant to grinding several types of coal using various settings of adjustable parameters on a hammer mill in PETC`s Process Research Facility were input to a neural-network simulation program in a variety of ways. The quality of the resulting particle-size predictions were tabulated and analyzed to determine which approach yielded the most accurate results. The simplicity of each approach was considered as a secondary factor. The most successful approaches yielded errors averaging 10 percent or less in the prediction of characteristic particle sizes such as the D-80 point. Generally speaking, the simpler approaches worked better, in that complicated manipulations of the input data produced either less accurate predictions or such small improvements in predictions that the extra effort seemed unjustified. Likely reasons for the success or failure of each approach are discussed. The methodology described could also prove useful for predicting coal particle sizes resulting from more complex grinding configurations.

  17. Integrated system for coal-methanol liquefaction and slurry pipeline transportation. Final report. [In slurry transport

    SciTech Connect

    Banks, W.F.; Davidson, J.K.; Horton, J.H.; Summers, C.W.

    1980-03-31

    The engineering economics of an integrated coal-to-methanol conversion system and coal-in-methanol transportation system are examined, under the circumstances of the western coalfields, i.e., long distances from major markets and scarcity of water in the vicinity of the mines. The transportation economics are attractive, indicating tariffs of approximately 40 cents per million Btu per thousand miles for the coal-methanol pipeline vs 60 cents via coal-water pipelines and upwards of a dollar via rail. Energy consumption is also less in the coal-methanol pipeline than in the coal-water pipeline, and about equal to rail. It is also concluded that, by a proper marriage of the synthetic fuel (methanolization) plant to the slurrification plant, most, and in some cases all, of the water required by the synthetic fuel process can be supplied by the natural moisture of the coal itself. Thus, the only technology which presently exists and by which synthetic fuel from western coal can displace petroleum in the automotive fuel market is the integrated methanol conversion and tranportation system. The key element is the ability of the methanol slurry pipeline to accept and to deliver dry (1 to 5% moisture) coal, allowing the natural coal moisture to be used as synthesis feedstock in satisfaction of the large water requirement of any synthetic fuel plant. By virtue of these unique properties, this integrated system is seen as the only means in the foreseeable future whereby western coal can be converted to synthetic fuel and moved to distant markets.

  18. A new model of coal-water interaction and relevance for dewatering. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Suuberg, E.M.; Yun, Y.; Lilly, W.D.; Leung, K.; Gates, T.; Otake, Y.; Deevi, S.C.

    1995-02-01

    This project was concerned with developing an improved understanding of how moisture is held in coals. There is a concern that the historically held view, that capillary condensation in pores plays a significant role, could not be correct, since the coal shrinks and swells in response to moisture loss and gain. Thus there is no well-defined pore system for holding the moisture. This appears true for a range of ranks from lignite to high volatile bituminous coal. Instead, it appears that something more like classical swelling of coals in solvents is responsible. This study examined this hypothesis by various means, considering both the mixing thermodynamics of coal and water (or coal and other swelling solvents) and by examining coal`s elastic response. The conclusion is that water does indeed behave like many other swelling solvents, but is a somewhat poor swelling solvent. The structure of the water swollen coal appears to remain fairly glassy, implying that many non-covalent crosslinks remain unbroken. The water interacts with coal only at certain types of adsorption sites. This is consistent with a second historical view that polar functionality is responsible for water retention. The filling of these sites, somewhat surprisingly, appeared to involve a strong enthalpic driving force, rather than the entropic driving force that characterizes solvent swelling in other solvents. The practical importance of these results for thermal dewatering processes is that the historical view is supported. That is, that pyrolytic polar group removal is necessary. An alternative suggestion, based upon attempts to further crosslink coal, has not received support.

  19. Combustion characterization of coals for industrial applications. Final technical report, January 1, 1981-May 29, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Nsakala, N.; Patel, R.L.; Lao, T.C.

    1985-03-01

    In-depth fundamental information was obtained from a two-inch inner diameter laminar flow reactor referred to as the Drop Tube Furnace System (DTFS). This information consists of the following: (1) pyrolysis kinetic characteristics of four coals of various rank (Texas lignite, Montana subbituminous, Alabama high volatile bituminous, and Pennsylvania anthracite); and (2) combustion kinetic studies of chars produced from the foregoing parent coals. A number of standard ASTM and special in-house bench scale tests were also performed on the coals and chars prepared therefrom to characterize their physicochemical properties. The pilot scale (500,000 Btu/hr) Controlled Mixing History Furnace (CMHF) was used to determine the effect of staged combustion on NO/sub x/ emissions control from an overall combustion performance of the Alabama high volatile bituminous coal. The quantitative fundamental data developed from this study indicate significant differences in coal/char chemical, physical, and reactivity characteristics, which should be useful to those interested in modeling coal combustion and pyrolysis processes. These results underscore the fact that coal selection is one of the keys governing a successful coal conversion/utilization process. The combustion kinetic information obtained on the high volatile bituminous coal has been used in conjunction with combustion engineering's proprietary mathematical models to predict the combustion performance of this coal in the Controlled Mixing History Furnace. Comparison of the predicted data with the experimental results shows a virtually one-to-one scale-up from the DTFS to the CMHF. These data should provide vital information to designers in the area of carbon burnout and NO/sub x/ reduction for large scale coal utilization applications. 31 refs., 28 figs., 17 tabs.

  20. Rheological properties essential for the atomization of Coal Water Slurries (CWS). Final report, September 1, 1991--July 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Ohene, F.

    1995-12-31

    The objective of this study was to understand the effect of low shear, high shear rheology, viscoelastic, and extensional properties on the atomization of CWS. In the atomization studies, the mean drop size of the CWS sprays were determined at various air-to-CWS ratios using a Malvern 2600 particle size analyzer and a Delavan Solid Cone Atomizing Nozzle. Solids-loading, coal particle size distributions, and chemical additives were varied in order to determine the significant properties that influence CWS atomization. A correlation of the mass mean droplet size with high shear, viscoelastic and extensional behaviors were made in order to determine the influence of these parameters on CWS atomization.

  1. Synergistic Utilization of Coal Fines and Municipal Solid Waste in Coal-Fired Boilers. Phase I Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    V. Zamansky; P. Maly; M. Klosky

    1998-06-12

    A feasibility study was performed on a novel concept: to synergistically utilize a blend of waste coal fines with so-called E-fuel for cofiring and reburning in utility and industrial boilers. The E-fuel is produced from MSW by the patented EnerTech's slurry carbonization process. The slurry carbonization technology economically converts MSW to a uniform, low-ash, low-sulfur, and essentially chlorine-free fuel with energy content of about 14,800 Btu/lb.

  2. Lignin-assisted coal depolymerization. [Final] technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Lalvani, S.B.; Muchmore, C.B.; Koropchak, J.A.; Kim, Jong Won

    1992-12-31

    Liquefaction of an Illinois bituminous and a caustic lignin was studied in an initial hydrogen pressure of 140 psig. Experiments were conducted in the temperature range of 325-375{degree}C in tetralin. The addition of lignin to coal was found to be synergistic in that it significantly improves the quality and yield of the liquid products obtained. Kinetic data for coal conversion enhancement due to lignin addition were obtained. A mathematical model describing the reaction chemistry, using lignin, has been proposed and developed. The analysis of the results indicates that the intermediates produced from lignin were responsible for enhancement in coal depolymerization rate, however, the intermediates are short-lived as compared to the time needed for a significant coal conversion yield. Coal depolymerization rate was found to be a function of time; compared to processing coal alone, it doubled upon reacting coal with lignin at 375{degree}C and after 67 minutes from the beginning of the experiment. Overall mass recoveries of 95--98% of the total mass charged to the reactor were obtained. A careful statistical analysis of the data shows that coal depolymerization yield is enhanced by 11.9% due to the lignin addition. The liquids obtained were examined for their elemental composition, and molecular weight determination by size exclusion chromatography. The stability of liquid products was characterized by determining their solubility in pentane and benzene, and by evaluating the molecular weight.

  3. Molecular biological enhancement of coal biodesulfurization. Final report, October 1988--December 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Kilbane, J.J. II; Bielaga, B.A.

    1991-12-01

    The overall objective of this project was to use molecular genetics to develop strains of bacteria with enhanced ability to remove sulfur from coal, and to obtain data that will allow the performance and economics of a coal biodesulfurization process to be predicted. (VC)

  4. Sorption and chemical transformation of PAHs on coal fly ash. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Mamantov, G.; Wehry, E.L.

    1995-02-01

    The objectives of this work were to characterize the interactions of coal fly ash with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH`s) and their derivatives, and to attempt to understand the influence of surface properties of coal ash in the chemical transformations of PAH`s.

  5. Secondary economic impact of acid deposition control legislation in six coal producing states: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.J.; Guthrie, S.J.

    1988-12-01

    Among the difficult policy questions on the US environmental agenda is what to do about emissions to the earth's atmosphere of pollutants that may result in ''acid rain''. The Congress has considered several pieces of legislation spelling out potential approaches to the problem and setting goals for emission reduction, mostly emphasizing the control of oxides of sulfur and nitrogen. Significant policy concern is the dollar costs to the nation's economy of achieving the intended effects of the legislation and the potential impacts on economic activity---in particular, losses of both coal mining and secondary service sector employment in states and regions dependent on the mining of high sulfur coal. There are several direct economic effects of regulations such as the acid rain control legislation. One of the more obvious effects was the switching from high sulfur coal to low sulfur coal. This would result in increases in employment and coal business procurements in low sulfur coal mining regions, but also would result in lower employment and lower coal business procurements in high sulfur coal mining areas. The potential negative effects are the immediate policy concern and are the focus of this report. 15 refs., 1 fig., 17 tabs.

  6. Low-rank coal research: Volume 2, Advanced research and technology development: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, M.D.; Swanson, M.L.; Benson, S.A.; Radonovich, L.; Steadman, E.N.; Sweeny, P.G.; McCollor, D.P.; Kleesattel, D.; Grow, D.; Falcone, S.K.

    1987-04-01

    Volume II contains articles on advanced combustion phenomena, combustion inorganic transformation; coal/char reactivity; liquefaction reactivity of low-rank coals, gasification ash and slag characterization, and fine particulate emissions. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  7. Conversion of Army heating plants to coal: three case studies. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Singer, R.; Collishaw, A.

    1982-03-01

    This study reports the results of three site-specific engineering studies to convert main heating plants to coal as a fuel. The Army installations examined were Redstone Arsenal, AL; Picatinny Arsenal, NJ; and the U.S. Military Academy (West Point) in New York. Each of these installations formerly fired coal and was converted to fuel oil about two decades ago. Researchers considered application of both current and advanced coal systems, which included direct combustion (either in suspension or on a grate), production and firing of low- and high-Btu coal-derived gas, and production and use of coal-derived liquid fuel. Both rehabilitation and replacement of plants were considered. Capital investment and annual operating costs are reported for alternative conversions. The report concludes that all three installations should change from fuel oil to coal based on the economics presented. The report recommends: that Redstone Arsenal rehabilitate and reconvert its boilers to fire coal; that Picatinny Arsenal build a new fluid bed boiler plant to replace the existing oil-fired plant; and that West Point build at a new location a coal-fired plant to replace the existing plant.

  8. Heterofunctionality interaction with donor solvent coal liquefaction. Final progress report, August 1982-April 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Cronauer, D.C.

    1984-05-01

    This project was undertaken to understand the role of the coal liquefaction solvent through a study of the interaction between the hydrogen donor solvent characteristics and the heterofunctionality of the solvent. Specifically, hydroxyl- and nitrogen-containing solvents were studied and characterized. A series of coal liquefaction experiments were carried out at 450/sup 0/C in a continuous feed stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) to observe the effect of adding phenolics to anthracene oil (AO) and SRC-II recycle solvents. The addition of phenol to AO at a ratio of 5/65 resulted in a nominal increase in coal conversion to THF solubles, but the amount of asphaltenes more than doubled resulting in a sizable net loss of solvent. The addition of m-cresol to both AO and SRC-II solvents had a positive effect on coal conversion to both THF and pentane solubles (oils). The partial removal of an OH-concentrate from SRC-II solvent was carried out using Amberlyst IRA-904 ion exchange resin. The resin-treated oil was only marginally better than raw SRC-II recycle solvent for coal liquefaction. Hydroaromatics having nitrogen functionality should be good solvents for coal liquefaction considering their effective solvent power, ability to penetrate and swell coal, and their ability to readily transfer hydrogen, particularly in the presence of oxygen functionality. However, these benefits are overshadowed by the strong tendency of the nitrogen-containing species to adduct with themselves and coal-derived materials.

  9. Desulfurization of coal. Final report. [Flotation followed by olefin and vinyl monomer treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Dichter, M.; Sanduja, M.

    1980-10-01

    Ohio coal, like many other types of coal, has a high sulfur as well as ash content. We at PRCA, through a series of steps involving the treatment of coal with an olefin-catalyst and/or catalyzed oxidizing system, have established the following: (1) Crushing and pulverizing of coal to a size of 150 to 200 mesh is an important factor in the process of desulfurization, as this allows improvement of the efficiency of flotation and chemical desulfurization. (2) Flotation results in a significant reduction of sulfur and ash content of the coal and reduces the amount of water absorbed on the pulverized coal when petroleum fractions are introduced into the flotation process. Coal containing 4.3% and 2.7% sulfur have been desulfurized to 2.8% to 3.0% and 1.5% to 1.9%, respectively. The ash content has been reduced after flotation from 10.7% to 6.5% of the Pittsburgh No. 8 coal and from 16.5% to 10.5% of a coal provided by Consolidation Coal Co. (3) Chemical treatment with olefins and monomers allows complete removal of the rest of the pyritic sulfur and part of the organic sulfur. The higher molecular weight olefins give better results and an introduction of some maleic anhydride monomer helps to get a higher reduction of the sulfur in the coal. The presence of an alkaline medium (NaOH or Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/) enhances the sulfur removal efficiency. (4) Elevated temperatures and pressures allows reduction of the time of reaction to obtain lower sulfur content coal. However, the pressure in the range of 100 to 200 psi allows achievement of an optimum desulfurization of treated coal. Even 25 to 30 psi has shown satisfactory results in the same time. (5) The results of desulfurization by a monomer (olefin) treatment are given. Further work on the desulfurization of the Ohio coals is recommended in a small scale pilot plant on a continuous basis. This pilot plant will represent an approximation of a real plant which will allow the necessary insight needed for scale up.

  10. Temperature effects on chemical structure and motion in coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Maciel, G.E.

    1996-09-30

    The objective of this project was to apply recently developed, state-of-the-art nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques to examine in situ changes in the chemical structure and molecular/macromolecular motion in coal as the temperature is increased above room temperature. Although alterations in the chemical structure of coal have been studied previously by {sup 13}C NMR, using quenched samples, the goal of this project was to examine these chemical structural changes, and changes in molecular/macromolecular mobility that may precede or accompany the chemical changes, at elevated temperatures, using modern {sup 13}C and {sup 1}H NMR techniques, especially {sup 1}H dipolar-dephasing techniques and related experiments pioneered in the laboratory for examining pyridine-saturated coals. This project consisted of the following four primary segments and related efforts on matters relevant to the first four tasks. (1) {sup 1}H NMR characterization of coal structure and mobility as a function of temperature variation over a temperature range (30--240 C) for which substantial chemical transformations were not anticipated. (2) {sup 1}H NMR characterization of coal structure, mobility and conversion as a function of temperature variation over a temperature range (240--500 C) for which chemical transformations of coal are known to occur. (3) {sup 13}C NMR investigation of coal structure/mobility as a function of temperature over a temperature range (30--240 C) for which substantial chemical transformations were not anticipated. (4) {sup 13}C NMR investigation of coal structure, dynamics and conversion as a function of temperature variation over a range (240--500 C) for which chemical transformations of coal are known to occur. (5) Related matters relevant to the first four tasks: (a) {sup 1}H CRAMPS NMR characterization of oil shales and their kerogen concentrates; and (b) improved quantitation in {sup 13}C MAS characterization of coals.

  11. Development of the chemical and electrochemical coal cleaning (CECC) process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Roe-Hoan; Basilio, C.I.

    1992-05-01

    The Chemical and Electrochemical Coal Cleaning (CECC) process developed at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University was studied further in this project. This process offers a new method of physically cleaning both low- and high-rank coals without requiring fine grinding. The CECC process is based on liberating mineral matter from coal by osmotic pressure. The majority of the work was conducted on Middle Wyodak, Pittsburgh No. 8 and Elkhorn No. 3 coals. The coal samples were characterized for a variety of physical and chemical properties. Parametric studies were then conducted to identify the important operating parameters and to establish the optimum conditions. In addition, fundamental mechanisms of the process were studied, including mineral matter liberation, kinetics of mineral matter and pyrite dissolution, ferric ion regeneration schemes and alternative methods of separating the cleaned coal from the liberated mineral matter. The information gathered from the parametric and fundamental studies was used in the design, construction and testing of a bench-scale continuous CECC unit. Using this unit, the ash content of a Middle Wyodak coal was reduced from 6.96 to 1.61% at a 2 lbs/hr throughput. With an Elkhorn No. 3 sample, the ash content was reduced from 9.43 to 1.8%, while the sulfur content was reduced from 1.57 to 0.9%. The mass balance and liberation studies showed that liberation played a more dominant role than the chemical dissolution in removing mineral matter and inorganic sulfur from the different bituminous coals tested. However, the opposite was found to be the case for the Wyodak coal since this coal contained a significant amount of acid-soluble minerals.

  12. Research in Neutrino Physics and Particle Astrophysics: Final Technical Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kearns, Edward

    2016-06-30

    The Boston University Neutrino Physics and Particle Astrophysics Group investigates the fundamental laws of particle physics using natural and man-made neutrinos and rare processes such as proton decay. The primary instrument for this research is the massive Super-Kamiokande (SK) water Cherenkov detector, operating since 1996 at the Kamioka Neutrino Observatory, one kilometer underground in a mine in Japan. We study atmospheric neutrinos from cosmic rays, which were first used to discover that neutrinos have mass, as recognized by the 2015 Nobel Prize in Physics. Our latest measurements with atmospheric neutrinos are giving valuable information, complementary to longbaseline experiments, on the ordering of massive neutrino states and as to whether neutrinos violate CP symmetry. We have studied a variety of proton decay modes, including the most frequently predicted modes such as p → e+π0 and p → ν K+, as well as more exotic baryon number violating processes such as dinucleon decay and neutronantineutron oscillation. We search for neutrinos from dark matter annihilation or decay in the universe. Our group has made significant contributions to detector operation, particularly in the area of electronics. Most recently, we have contributed to planning for an upgrade to the SK detector by the addition of gadolinium to the water, which will enable efficient neutron capture detection.

  13. Demonstration of coal reburning for cyclone boiler NO{sub x} control. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    As part of the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Innovative Clean Coal Technology Program, under Round 2, a project for Full Scale Demonstration of Coal Reburning for Cyclone Boiler Nitrogen Oxide (NO{sub x},) Control was selected. DOE sponsored The Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) Company, with Wisconsin Power & Light (WP&L) as the host utility, to demonstrate coal reburning technology at WP&L`s 110 MW{sub c}, cyclone-fired Unit No.2 at the Nelson Dewey Generating Station in Cassville, Wisconsin. The coal reburning demonstration was justified based on two prior studies. An Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and B&W sponsored engineering feasibility study indicated that the majority of cyclone-equipped boilers could successfully apply reburning technology to reduce NO{sub x}, emissions by 50 to 70%. An EPRI/Gas Research Institute (GRI)/B&W pilot-scale evaluation substantiated this conclusion through pilot-scale testing in B&W`s 6 million Btu/hr Small Boiler Simulator. Three different reburning fuels, natural gas, No. 6 oil, and pulverized coal were tested. This work showed that coal as a reburning fuel performs nearly as well as gas/oil without deleterious effects of combustion efficiency. Coal was selected for a full scale demonstration since it is available to all cyclone units and represents the highest level of technical difficulty-in demonstrating the technology.

  14. High-mass-flux coal gasifier. Final report, Phase III. [Bill high mom flux

    SciTech Connect

    Simpkin, A.J.; Montanino, L.N.; Reinhardt, T.F.; Ferger, T.M.

    1981-05-01

    This report describes the design, analysis, construction and test activities associated with bringing a short-residence-time, entrained-flow gasifier Process Development Unit (PDU) to operational status. The basis High Mass Flux (HMF) gasifier, incorporated in the PDU, operates at a coal through-put of twelve tons per day, a pressure of fifteen atmospheres and processes coal, oxygen and steam to produce a synthesis gas. When applied to the production of Substitute Natural Gas (SNG), the option exists to add secondary coal to the basic HMF gasifier, for the purpose of enhancing the methane content of the product. A secondary coal feed system was developed and its injection capability demonstrated in a cold flow test facility. Operability and performance of the synthesis gas stage of the HMF gasifier were demonstrated with Pittsburgh seam coal and North Dakota Lignite. Curtailment of testing precluded the conduct of any gasification tests with secondary coal injection. Included in the main program was a task to evaluate the effects of slag fluxing additives upon viscosity/temperature relationships for Pittsburgh seal coal slags. The testing associated with this task was conducted by the Alfred University Research Foundation (AURF).

  15. Development of high energy density fuels from mild gasification of coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    METC has concluded that MCG technology has the potential to simultaneously satisfy the transportation and power generation fuel needs in the most cost-effective manner. MCG is based on low temperature pyrolysis, a technique known to the coal community for over a century. Most past pyrolysis developments were aimed at maximizing the liquids yield which results in a low quality tarry product requiring significant and capital intensive upgrading. By properly tailoring the pyrolysis severity to control the liquid yield-liquid quality relationship, it has been found that a higher quality distillate-boiling liquid can be readily ``skimmed`` from the coal. The resultant liquids have a much higher H/C ratio than conventional pyrolytic tars and therefore can be hydroprocessed at lower cost. These liquids are also extremely enriched in l-, 2-, and 3-ring aromatics. The co-product char material can be used in place of coal as a pulverized fuel (pf) for power generation in a coal combustor. In this situation where the original coal has a high sulfur content, the MCG process can be practiced with a coal-lime mixture and the calcium values retained on the char can tie up the unconverted coal sulfur upon pf combustion of the char. Lime has also been shown to improve the yield and quality of the MCG liquids.

  16. Coal conversion at Picatinny Arsenal and Forts Campbell, Bragg, and Gordon: A feasibility study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, M.C.; Thurber, L.; Durbin, T.; Tarvin, R.

    1993-12-01

    Public Law 99-190 requires the Department of Defense to increase the use of coal at its facilities in the United States. This study investigated the feasibility of converting oil- and gas-fired heating plants to coal firing at four Army installations: Fort Bragg, NC; Fort Campbell, KY; Fort Gordon, GA; and Picatinny Arsenal, NJ. Information on the energy systems at the selected sites was gathered by site visit and survey, and project life cycle cost (LCC) was computationally estimated. The study concluded that, for the four installations, there would be a lower life-cycle cost (LCC) in maintaining the status quo than in building new plants. However, where new plant construction is planned, the larger the plants, the better its potential for cost-effectively using coal as a plant fuel. The use of coal at a new plant at Fort Bragg was found to be more cost effective than gas or oil, and may result in significant cost savings. For the other three installations studied, significant price increases in alternate fuels would be required before coal would become economically feasible (31 to 73 percent for gas, and 50 to 84 percent for 6 fuel oil). Ft. Bragg, NC, Army coal conversion program, Ft. Campbell, KY, Coal-fixed technologies, Ft. Gordon, GA, Cost-effectiveness.

  17. Mild coal pretreatment to improve liquefaction reactivity. Final technical report, September 1990--February 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, R.L.; Shams, K.G.

    1994-07-01

    Recent research efforts in direct coal liquefaction are focused on lowering the level of reaction severity, identification and determination of the causes of retrogressive reactions, and improving the economics of the process. Ambient pretreatment of coals using methanol and a trace amount of hydrochloric acid was extensively studied in connection with low severity coal liquefaction. Ambient pretreatment of eight Argonne coals using methanol/HCl improved THF-soluble conversions 24.5 wt % (maf basis) for Wyodak subbituminous coal and 28.4 wt % for Beulah-Zap lignite with an average increase of 14.9 wt % for the eight Argonne coals at 623 K (350{degrees}C) reaction temperature and 30 minutes reaction time. Optimal pretreatment conditions were determined using Wyodak and Illinois No. 6 coals. Acid concentration was the most important pretreatment variable studied; liquefaction reactivity increased with increasing acid concentration up to 2 vol %. The FTIR spectra of treated and untreated Wyodak coal samples demonstrated formation of carboxylic functional groups during pretreatment, a result of divalent (Ca, Mg) cationic bridge destruction. The extent of liquefaction reactivity directly correlated with the amount of calcium removed during pretreatment, and results from calcium ``addback`` experiments supported the observation that calcium adversely affected coal reactivity at low severity reaction conditions. Model compound studies using benzyl phenyl ether demonstrated that calcium cations catalyzed retrogressive reactions, inhibited hydrogenation reactions at low severity reaction conditions, and were more active at higher reaction temperatures. Based on kinetic data, mechanisms for hydrogenation-based inhibition and base-catalyzed retrogressive reactions are proposed. The base-catalyzed retrogressive reactions are shown to occur via a hydrogen abstraction mechanism where hydrogenation inhibition reactions are shown to take place via a surface quenching mechanism.

  18. Drying and reconstitution of subbituminous coal - CRADA 90-004. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wen, W W; Nowak, M A; Killmeyer, R P

    1991-10-30

    AMAX Coal Company (AMAX) has built a 200 tph, demonstration scale fluidized-bed drying process at their Belle Ayr Mine in Wyoming to dry the subbituminous coal of Wyodak seam from an average moisture content of 25-30 wt% to about 10 wt%. Currently, the dryer generates too many fines for proper transportation and handling. Though the raw coal is about 2-inch top size, about 80 wt% of the dryer product ends up finer than 28 mesh, and about 10 wt% of the dried coal is collected in the dryer bag house (minus 200 mesh). Paul Woessner, Director of Research and Development of AMAX, met with personnel from PETC Coal Preparation Division and expressed an interest in an investigation of the feasibility of applying the PETC`s humic acid binder to reconstitute the bag house fines from the dryer. This was an area in which PETC had been doing some research and had some expertise. As a result, AMAX and the U.S. Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) signed a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA, see appendix A) in June 1990 to produce, from fine subbituminous coal, economic low moisture reconstituted solid fuel forms that have suitable storage, handling, transportation, and combustion properties. PETC`s task in this agreement was to conduct broad, baseline studies in three areas: (1) to develop a humic acid binder from AMAX subbituminous coal using the PETC-developed Humic Acid Binder Process, (2) to reconstitute AMAX`s dried subbituminous coal fines from the bag house and the fluidized bed dryer product with humic acid binder, and (3) to produce low moisture, water-resistant pellets from raw subbituminous coal by the PETC-developed Lignipel Process. AMAX, on the other hand, agreed to produce 1-2 tons of reconstituted solid fuel for handleability and combustion tests and partially funded PETC`s efforts.

  19. Coal surface control for advanced physical fine coal cleaning technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Morsi, B.I.; Chiang, S.H.; Sharkey, A.; Blachere, J.; Klinzing, G.; Araujo, G.; Cheng, Y.S.; Gray, R.; Streeter, R.; Bi, H.; Campbell, P.; Chiarlli, P.; Ciocco, M.; Hittle, L.; Kim, S.; Kim, Y.; Perez, L.; Venkatadri, R.

    1992-01-01

    This final report presents the research work carried out on the Coal Surface Control for Advanced Physical Fine Coal Cleaning Technologies project, sponsored by the US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (DOE/PETC). The project was to support the engineering development of the selective agglomeration technology in order to reduce the sulfur content of US coals for controlling SO[sub 2] emissions (i.e., acid rain precursors). The overall effort was a part of the DOE/PETCs Acid Rain Control Initiative (ARCI). The overall objective of the project is to develop techniques for coal surface control prior to the advanced physical fine coal cleaning process of selective agglomeration in order to achieve 85% pyrite sulfur rejection at an energy recovery greater than 85% based on run-of-mine coal. The surface control is meant to encompass surface modification during grinding and laboratory beneficiation testing. The project includes the following tasks: Project planning; methods for analysis of samples; development of standard beneficiation test; grinding studies; modification of particle surface; and exploratory R D and support. The coal samples used in this project include three base coals, Upper Freeport - Indiana County, PA, Pittsburgh NO. 8 - Belmont County, OH, and Illinois No. 6 - Randolph County, IL, and three additional coals, Upper Freeport - Grant County- WV, Kentucky No. 9 Hopkins County, KY, and Wyodak - Campbell County, WY. A total of 149 drums of coal were received.

  20. Characterization of organic nitrogen in IBCSP coals. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Kruge, M.A.

    1991-12-31

    The overall objective of this study was to determine the content and distribution of organic nitrogen in a series of IBCSP coals and their isolated macerals. The specific objectives were: to determine the bulk nitrogen contents for coals, isolated macerals, oxidation products and residues, solvent extracts and their liquid chromatographic fractions, and pyrolyzates; to determine the distribution of organic nitrogen in all coal derivatives enumerated in Objective 1 which are Gas Chromatography (GC)-amenable. This will be accomplished by GC-Thermionic Specific Detectors; to determine the molecular structure of the major nitrogen compounds detected in Objective 2, using mass spectrometry.

  1. [Research in theoretical and experimental elementary particle physics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1998-11-01

    This report gives summaries of particle physics research conducted by different group members for Task A. A summary of work on the CLEO experiment and detector is included for Task B along with a list of CLEO publications. During the present grant period for Task C, the authors had responsibility for the design, assembly, and programming of the high-resolution spectrometer which looks for narrow peaks in the output of the cavity in the LLNL experiment. They successfully carried out this task. Velocity peaks are expected in the spectrum of dark matter axions on Earth. The computing proposal (Task S) is submitted in support of the High Energy Experiment (CLEO, Fermilab, CMS) and the Theory tasks.

  2. Atoms and Ions Interacting with Particles and Fields: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Robicheaux, Francis

    2014-09-18

    This grant supported research in basic atomic, molecular and optical physics related to the interactions of atoms with particles and fields. The duration of the grant was the 10 year period from 8/2003 to 8/2013. All of the support from the grant was used to pay salaries of the PI, postdocs, graduate students, and undergraduates and travel to conferences and meetings. The results were in the form of publications in peer reviewed journals. There were 65 peer reviewed publications over these 10 years with 8 of the publications in Physical Review Letters; all of the other articles were in respected peer reviewed journals (Physical Review A, New Journal of Physics, Journal of Physics B, ...). I will disuss the results for the periods of time relevant for each grant period.

  3. Final Report for Studies in Elementary Particle Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Piilonen, Leo; Takeuchi, Tatsu; Minic, Djordje; Link, Jonathan

    2013-11-01

    This is the final report of DOE Grant DE-FG05-92ER40709 awarded to the Virginia Tech high energy physics group. It covers the period February 1, 2010 through April 30, 2013. The high energy physics program at Virginia Tech supported by this grant is organized into three tasks: A for theory (Profs. Tatsu Takeuchi and Djordje Minic), B for heavy flavor physics with the Belle and Belle II experiments (Prof. Leo Piilonen), and N for neutrino physics (Profs. Jonathan Link and Piilonen).

  4. Coal conversion and biomass conversion: Volume 1: Final report on USAID (Agency for International Development)/GOI (Government of India) Alternate Energy Resources and Development Program

    SciTech Connect

    Kulkarni, A.; Saluja, J.

    1987-06-30

    The United States Agency for International Development (AID), in joint collaboration with the Government of India (GOI), supported a research and development program in Alternate Energy Resources during the period March 1983 to June 1987. The primary emphasis of this program was to develop new and advanced coal and biomass conversion technologies for the efficient utilization of coal and biomass feedstocks in India. This final ''summary'' report is divided into two volumes. This Report, Volume I, covers the program overview and coal projects and Volume II summarizes the accomplishments of the biomass projects. The six projects selected in the area of coal were: Evaluation of the Freeboard Performance in a Fluidized-Bed Combustor; Scale-up of AFBC boilers; Rheology, Stability and Combustion of Coal-Water Slurries; Beneficiation of Fine Coal in Dense Medium Cyclones; Hot Gas Cleanup and Separation; and Cold Gas Cleanup and Separation.

  5. Chemical effect of entrained particles in coal conversion streams. Sixth quarterly technical progress report, November 1, 1982-January 31, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Stinespring, C.; Yousefian, V.; Gruninger, J.; Annen, K.; Frankel, D.; Stewart, G.

    1983-01-01

    A major objective of the US Department of Energy is to increase coal utilization through the development of combustion stream cleanup technologies. Many of the existing cleanup devices as well as advanced concepts rely on heterogeneous processes (i.e., gas-solid interactions) to achieve efficient stream removal. Examples of such devices include particle injection and granular bed filters for alkali removal, limestone injection for SO/sub x/ removal in fluid bed combustors, dry injection for SO/sub x/removal in entrained combustion, and trace metal adsorption and removal on fly ash. Recent studies indicate that the successful use of turbines in combined cycle processes may depend on understanding the interaction between the gas phase alkali and particles in the combustion stream to substantially reduce turbine corrosion. This report documents progress in efforts to model the heterogeneous chemistry of coal combustion streams as well as laboratory studies to obtain critical input data for the report. 5 references, 15 figures.

  6. McHuchuma/Katewaka coal fired power plant feasibility study. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-22

    This study, conducted by Black and Veatch International, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report assesses the feasibility for the development of a new coal fueled power plant in Tanzania at the Mchuchuma/Katewaka coal concession area. Volume 3, the Main Report, is divided into the following sections: (1.0) Introduction; (2.0) Power System Development Studies; (3.0) Conceptual Design Summary of the Mchuchuma Coal Fired Power Plant; (4.0) Fuel Supply Evaluation; (5.0) Transmission System Evaluation; (6.0) Power Plant Site and Infrastructure Evaluation; (7.0) Environmental Impact Assessment; (8.0) Institutional Aspects; (9.0) Financial Evaluation and Benefit Analysis; (10.0) Sources of Finance; Appendix (A) Preliminary Design of Mchuchuma Coal Plant.

  7. Reducing the moisture content of clean coals. Volume 3, Belt filter press: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shields, G.

    1992-12-01

    Reducing the Moisture Content of Clean Coals, Volume 3: Belt Filter Press contains the results of an EPRI investigation into the performance of an alternative clean coal dewatering device. Investigators at EPRI`s Coal Quality Development Center (CQDC) designed test so that mathematical relationships predicting filter cake moisture and solids capture could be developed. They also compared the economics of installing and operating a belt filter press with a vacuum disc filter, which is its nearest equivalent. For 100M {times} 0 clean coal from the Upper Freeport seam, the belt filter press produced filter cake with an average moisture content of 30 percent. This moisture is 5 to 10 percentage points higher than moistures from a vacuum disc filter. Economic analysis shows that the belt filter press costs an additional $72,000 a year to operate in place of a vacuum disc filter.

  8. Ohio Coal Research Consortium fifth year final reports summary, September 1, 1994--February 29, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    As part of its efforts to improve the use of high-sulfur Ohio coal within environmental limits, the Ohio Coal Development Office, an entity within the Ohio Department of Development (OCDO/ODOD), in late 1988 established a consortium of four Ohio universities. The purpose of the Ohio Coal Research Consortium is to conduct a multi-year fundamental research programs focused on: (1) the enhancement or development of dry sorption processes for the economical removal of high levels of SO{sub 2} and other pollutants, and (2) an increased understanding of methods for reduction in air toxics emissions from combustion gases produced by burning high-sulfur Ohio coal. This report contains summaries of eleven studies in these areas.

  9. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1992--April 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.

    1996-03-01

    Research on sulfate and metal (Mo, Sn) promoted Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts in the current year focused on optimization of conditions. Parameters varied included temperature, solvent, solvent-to-coal ratio, and the effect of presulfiding versus in situ sulfiding. Oil yields were found to increase approximately proportionately with both temperature and solvent-to-coal ratio. The donor solvent, tetralin, proved to give better total conversion and oil yields than either 1-methylnaphthalene or Wilsonville recycle oil. A significant enhancement of both total liquefaction yields and oil yields from lignites and subbituminous coals has been achieved by incorporating iron into the coal matrix by cation exchange. A study has been conducted on the synthesis of iron, molybdenum, and tungsten catalysts using a laser pyrolysis technique.

  10. Ohio Coal Research Consortium fourth year final summary report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    As a part of its efforts to improve the use of high-sulfur Ohio coal within environmental limits, the Ohio Coal Development Office, an entity within the Ohio Department of Development (OCDO/ODOD), in late 1988 established a consortium of four Ohio universities. The purpose of the Ohio Coal Research Consortium is to conduct a multi-year fundamental research program focused on (1) the enhancement or development of dry sorption processes for the economical removal of high levels of SO{sub 2} and other pollutants and (2) an increased understanding of methods for reduction in air toxics emissions from combustion gases produced by burning high-sulfur Ohio coal. This report contains summaries of twelve studies in these areas.

  11. Coal-fired propulsion system dynamics. Volume 1. Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Greenlee, T.L.; Pearsons, J.L.

    1982-12-01

    This volume summarizes the objectives, scope, and conclusions of an effort that was undertaken to develop and analyze a dynamic model/simulation of a coal-fired ship with steam turbine propulsion system. The General Dynamics CV-3600 self-unloading coal collier was used as the basis for this effort. The effort was jointly sponsored by General Dynamics and the U.S. Department of Transportation, Maritime Administration, for the purpose of investigating the responsiveness of coal-fired ships in maneuvering and in restricted-water operation. The volume concludes with a set of specification results that indicate the component/control system design trends that should be followed to obtain a rapidly responding coal-fired propulsion system.

  12. Control of toxic metallic emissions formed during the combustion of Ohio coals. Final report, September 1, 1993--August 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, P.; Owens, T.M.; Wu, Chang-Yu

    1995-02-01

    The objective of the project was to characterize metallic emissions from representative coals and develop strategies for their control. Though metallic emissions from coal combustors have been extensively studied, more studies need to be performed to better characterize the interaction of various species which is required for the selection and design of sorbents for effective control of these emissions. Some coals are rich in sulfur, and utilities using these coals will have to use some form of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD). A technique for FGD is the use of calcium based sorbents, and the degree of metals capture of these sorbents under different conditions will be researched. The objective of the first year of the study was to understand the evolution of metallic aerosol size distributions and the capture characteristics of various sorbents. Also, the metallic emissions resulting from the combustion of two seams of Ohio coals were to be characterized. Studies on the evolution of the metallic aerosol size distributions have been completed and the use of silicon and calcium based sorbents for capture of lead species has been examined. Co-injection of metallic compounds along with organometallic silicon indicated a high degree of capture of lead in a certain temperature regime. Preliminary results with calcium based sorbents also indicate capture of metallic species. To gain a further understanding of the capture processes, in situ optical diagnostic studies were performed in collaboration with researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology. Spectroscopic studies (laser induced fluorescence coupled with particle scattering) were performed to help understand the mechanisms of metallic species capture.

  13. Coal-fueled diesel technology development. Final report, March 3, 1988--January 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-31

    Since 1979, the US Department of Energy has been sponsoring Research and Development programs to use coal as a fuel for diesel engines. In 1984, under the partial sponsorship of the Burlington Northern and Norfolk Southern Railroads, GE completed a 30-month study on the economic viability of a coal-fueled locomotive. In response to a GE proposal to continue researching the economic and technical feasibility of a coal-fueled diesel engine for locomotives, DOE awarded a contract to GE Corporate Research and Development for a three-year program that began in March 1985 and was completed in 1988. That program was divided into two parts: an Economic Assessment Study and a Technical Feasibility Study. The Economic Assessment Study evaluated the benefits to be derived from development of a coal-fueled diesel engine. Seven areas and their economic impact on the use of coal-fueled diesels were examined; impact on railroad infrastructure, expected maintenance cost, environmental considerations, impact of higher capital costs, railroad training and crew costs, beneficiated coal costs for viable economics, and future cost of money. The Technical Feasibility Study used laboratory- and bench-scale experiments to investigate the combustion of coal. The major accomplishments of this study were the development of injection hardware for coal water slurry (CWS) fuel, successful testing of CWS fuel in a full-size, single-cylinder, medium-speed diesel engine, evaluation of full-scale engine wear rates with metal and ceramic components, and the characterization of gaseous and particulate emissions. Full combustion of CWS fuel was accomplished at full and part load with reasonable manifold conditions.

  14. Dewatering studies of fine clean coal. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Parekh, B.K.

    1992-12-31

    Physical cleaning of ultra-fine coal using advanced froth flotation technique provides a low ash product; however, the amount of water associated with clean coal is high. Economic removal of water from the froth will be important for commercial applicability of the advanced flotation processes. The main objective of the present research program is to study and understand dewatering characteristics of ultra-fine clean coal and to develop process parameters to effectively reduce the moisture to less than 20 percent in the clean coal product. The research approach utilized synergistic effect of metal ions and surfactant addition to lower the moisture of clean coal using the conventional vacuum dewatering technique. The studies have identified a combinations of metal ions and surfactants in providing a 22 percent moisture filter cake. Surface chemical study indicated a direct correlation between the point-of-zero charge (PZC) of metal ion/fine coal system and lowering of moisture in the filter cake. Adsorption of either metal ions or surfactants alone did not provide a significant reduction of moisture in the filter cake. However, a combination of the two provided a filter cake containing about 22 percent moisture. Filtration tests conducted using a laboratory vacuum drum filter indicated that the results obtained in batch filtration could be reproduced on a continuous filtration unit. FT-IR studies indicated that anionic surfactant and metal ions form complex species which adsorbs on the fine coal and results in improved moisture reduction during filtration. Recommendations are offered for testing this novel dewatering process on a pilot scale at a coal preparation plant in Illinois.

  15. BI-GAS coal-gasification program. Final report, November 1979-August 1982

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, M.J.

    1983-01-31

    The primary purpose of this report is to cover in detail activities at the BI-GAS Coal-Gasification Pilot Plant from November 1979 through August 1982. During this period Stearns-Roger Incorporated was the prime contractor for the project. Volume 2 contains topical reports which describe the operation of the gasifier and each of the auxiliary process areas as well as heat and material balance data, computer simulation, gasification of Pittsburgh seam coal and materials evaluation.

  16. A novel concept for high conversion of coal to liquids. Final report, 1 September 1988--31 August 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, W.H.; Shabtai, J.

    1994-04-01

    A batch microreactor was designed and fabricated as a means of investigating maximum yields of liquids obtainable in very short reaction times of the order of a few seconds, and the maximum ratios of liquids/hydrocarbon (HC) gases obtainable under those conditions. A Wyodak sub-bituminous coal, crushed and sieved to {minus}200 mesh particle size, was used in the experiments, with a temperature of 500{degrees}C and a pressure of 1500 psi. The fine coal particles were fed dry to the reactor and heated to reaction temperature in times of one to two seconds. At a time of 3 seconds at reaction temperature, in a single pass a liquid yield of 60% by weight of the coal was obtained, accompanied by a ratio of liquids/(HC) gases of 30/1. When the unreacted solids were recycled to the reactor, and the results combined with those of the first pass, a liquid yield of 82% by weight of the coal was achieved, accompanied by a ratio of liquids/HC gases of 30/1. This ratio represents only about 3 wt percent HC gases, much lower that is produced in current advanced technologies, and represents a large saving in hydrogen consumption. A simulated distillation technique was applied to the liquids. The liquid product contained 86% by weight (of the liquids) total distillables (boiling point below 538{degrees}C), including 70% by weight of low-boiling fractions in the gasoline, kerosene and gas oil range (boiling point up to 325{degrees}C). The liquid product exhibited a H/C ratio of 1.5, which is considerably higher than observed in current advanced technologies for the primary liquids. Several catalysts were investigated. Iron catalysts, specifically ferric chloride hexahydrate and ferric sulfate pentahydrate, each produced these high conversions and high ratios of liquids/HC gases.

  17. Emissions from carpet combustion in a pilot-scale rotary kiln: comparison with coal and particle-board combustion.

    PubMed

    Konopa, Stephanie Lucero; Mulholland, James A; Realff, Matthew J; Lemieux, Paul M

    2008-08-01

    The use of post-consumer carpet as a potential fuel substitute in cement kilns and other high-temperature processes is being considered to address the problem of huge volumes of carpet waste and the opportunity of waste-to-energy recovery. Carpet represents a high volume waste stream, provides high energy value, and contains other recoverable materials for the production of cement. This research studied the emission characteristics of burning 0.46-kg charges of chopped nylon carpet squares, pulverized coal, and particle-board pellets in a pilot-scale natural gas-fired rotary kiln. Carpet was tested with different amounts of water added. Emissions of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and total hydrocarbons and temperatures were continuously monitored. It was found that carpet burned faster and more completely than coal and particle board, with a rapid volatile release that resulted in large and variable transient emission peaks. NO emissions from carpet combustion ranged from 0.06 to 0.15 g/MJ and were inversely related to CO emissions. Carpet combustion yielded higher NO emissions than coal and particle-board combustion, consistent with its higher nitrogen content. SO2 emissions were highest for coal combustion, consistent with its higher sulfur content than carpet or particle board. Adding water to carpet slowed its burn time and reduced variability in the emission transients, reducing the CO peak but increasing NO emissions. Results of this study indicate that carpet waste can be used as an effective alternative fuel, with the caveats that it might be necessary to wet carpet or chop it finely to avoid excessive transient puff emissions due to its high volatility compared with other solid fuels, and that controlled mixing of combustion air might be used to control NO emissions from nylon carpet.

  18. Western New York State coal-water fuel market and boiler-conversion study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-01

    This report examines the feasibility of converting industrial boilers in Western New York to burn coal-water fuel (CWF) and the attractiveness of producing CWF in this region. Use of coal would increase the diversification of fuel supplies. The project began with a market study to determine the market size and estimate the potential demand for CWF. The project then evaluated the technical and economic feasibility of converting two coal-designed boilers in Western New York, currently firing oil, to CWF. A coal supplier was located and an analysis was made of the options for developing a 315,000 tpy CWF production facility. Adapting an existing site with the facilities for coal receiving, handling, storing, and pollution control, such as a steelmaking facility, would provide the least-cost fuel. Coal-water fuel could be competitive with oil and, to a lesser extent, gas; however, the estimated savings failed to provide an adequate rate of return against the costs associated with converting the industrial boilers at this time.

  19. Fundamental research on novel process alternatives for coal gasification: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, A H; Knight, R A; Anderson, G L; Feldkirchner, H L; Babu, S P

    1986-10-01

    The Institute of Gas Technology has conducted a fundamental research program to determine the technical feasibility of and to prepare preliminary process evaluations for two new approaches to coal gasification. These two concepts were assessed under two major project tasks: Task 1. CO/sub 2/-Coal Gasification Process Concept; Task 2. Internal Recirculation Catalysts Coal Gasification Process Concept. The first process concept involves CO/sub 2/-O/sub 2/ gasification of coal followed by CO/sub 2/ removal from the hot product gas by a solid MgO-containing sorbent. The sorbent is regenerated by either a thermal- or a pressure-swing step and the CO/sub 2/ released is recycled back to the gasifier. The product is a medium-Btu gas. The second process concept involves the use of novel ''semivolatile'' materials as internal recirculating catalysts for coal gasification. These materials remain in the gasifier because their vapor pressure-temperature behavior is such that they will be in the vapor state at the hotter, char exit part of the reactor and will condense in the colder, coal-inlet part of the reactor. 21 refs., 43 figs., 43 tabs.

  20. Superacid Catalyzed Coal Conversion Chemistry. Final Technical Report, September 1, 1983-September 1, 1986

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Olah, G. A.

    1986-01-01

    This research project involved the study of a raw comparatively mild coal conversion process. The goal of the project was to study model systems to understand the basic chemistry involved and to provide a possible effective pretreatment of coal which significantly improves liquefaction-depolymerization under mild conditions. The conversion process operates at relatively low temperatures (170 degrees C) and pressures and uses an easily recyclable, stable superacid catalysts (HF-BF{sub 3}). It consequently offers an attractive alternative to currently available processes. From the present studies it appears that the modification of coal structure by electrophilic alkylation and subsequent reaction of alkylated coal with HF-BF{sub 3}-H{sub 2} system under mild conditions considerably improves the extractability of coal in pyridine and cyclohexane. On the other hand, nitration of coal and its subsequent reaction with HF-BF{sub 3}H{sub 2} decreases the pyridine and cyclohexane extractability. Study of model compounds under conditions identical with the superacidic HF/BF{sub 3}/H{sub 2} system provided significant information about the basic chemistry of the involved cleavage-hydrogenation reactions.

  1. PASSIVE CONTROL OF PARTICLE DISPERSION IN A PARTICLE-LADEN CIRCULAR JET USING ELLIPTIC CO-ANNULAR FLOW: A MEANS FOR IMPROVING UTILIZATION AND EMISSION REDUCTIONS IN PULVERIZED COAL BURNER

    SciTech Connect

    Ahsan R. Choudhuri

    2003-06-01

    A passive control technology utilizing elliptic co-flow to control the particle flinging and particle dispersion in a particle (coal)-laden flow was investigated using experimental and numerical techniques. Preferential concentration of particles occurs in particle-laden jets used in pulverized coal burner and causes uncontrollable NO{sub x} formation due to inhomogeneous local stoichiometry. This particular project was aimed at characterizing the near-field flow behavior of elliptic coaxial jets. The knowledge gained from the project will serve as the basis of further investigation on fluid-particle interactions in an asymmetric coaxial jet flow-field and thus is important to improve the design of pulverized coal burners where non-homogeneity of particle concentration causes increased NO{sub x} formation.

  2. Comparison of particle size distributions and elemental partitioning from the combustion of pulverized coal and residual fuel oil.

    PubMed

    Linak, W P; Miller, C A; Wendt, J O

    2000-08-01

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) research examining the characteristics of primary PM generated by the combustion of fossil fuels is being conducted in efforts to help determine mechanisms controlling associated adverse health effects. Transition metals are of particular interest, due to the results of studies that have shown cardiopulmonary damage associated with exposure to these elements and their presence in coal and residual fuel oils. Further, elemental speciation may influence this toxicity, as some species are significantly more water-soluble, and potentially more bio-available, than others. This paper presents results of experimental efforts in which three coals and a residual fuel oil were combusted in three different systems simulating process and utility boilers. Particle size distributions (PSDs) were determined using atmospheric and low-pressure impaction as well as electrical mobility, time-of-flight, and light-scattering techniques. Size-classified PM samples from this study are also being utilized by colleagues for animal instillation experiments. Experimental results on the mass and compositions of particles between 0.03 and > 20 microns in aerodynamic diameter show that PM from the combustion of these fuels produces distinctive bimodal and trimodal PSDs, with a fine mode dominated by vaporization, nucleation, and growth processes. Depending on the fuel and combustion equipment, the coarse mode is composed primarily of unburned carbon char and associated inherent trace elements (fuel oil) and fragments of inorganic (largely calcium-alumino-silicate) fly ash including trace elements (coal). The three coals also produced a central mode between 0.8- and 2.0-micron aerodynamic diameter. However, the origins of these particles are less clear because vapor-to-particle growth processes are unlikely to produce particles this large. Possible mechanisms include the liberation of micron-scale mineral inclusions during char fragmentation and burnout

  3. UCLA Intermediate Energy Nuclear and Particle Physics Research: Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Nefkens, B M.K.; Goetz, J; Lapik, A; Korolija, M; Prakhov, S; Starostin, A

    2011-05-18

    This project covers the following research: (a) Investigations into the structure of the proton and neutron. This is done by investigating the different resonance states of nucleons with beams of tagged, polarized photons, linearly as well as circularly, incident on polarized hydrogen/deuterium targets and measuring the production of {pi}{sup 0}, 2{pi}{sup }0, 3{pi}{sup 0}, {eta} , {eta}', {omega}, etc. The principal detector is the Crystal Ball multiphoton spectrometer which has an acceptance of nearly 4 . It has been moved to the MAMI accelerator facility of the University of Mainz, Germany. We investigate the conversion of electromagnetic energy into mesonic matter and conversely. (b) We investigate the consequences of applying the "standard" symmetries of isospin, G-parity, charge conjugation, C, P, T, and chirality using rare and forbidden decays of light mesons such as the {eta} ,{eta}' and {omega}. We also investigate the consequences of these symmetries being slightly broken symmetries. We do this by studying selected meson decays using the Crystal Ball detector. (c) We determine the mass, or more precisely the mass difference of the three light quarks (which are inputs to Quantum Chromodynamics) by measuring the decay rate of specially selected {eta} and {eta}' decay modes, again we use the Crystal Ball. (d)We have started a new program to search for the 33 missing cascade baryons using the CLAS detector at the Thomas Jefferson Laboratory. Cascade resonances are very special: they have double strangeness and are quite narrow. This implies that they can be discovered by the missing mass technique in photoproduction reactions such as in {gamma}p{yields}{Xi}{sup}K{sup +}K{sup +}. The cascade program is of particular importance for the upgrade to 12 GeV of the CLAS detector and for design of the Hall D at JLab. (e) Finally, we are getting more involved in a new program to measure the hadronic matter form factor of complex nuclei, in particular the "neutron

  4. Coal desulfurization during the combustion of coal/oil/water emulsions: an economic alternative liquid fuel. Final quarterly report, January 1, 1981-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Dooher, J.P.

    1981-05-01

    Combustion tests were performed using a Cleaver-Brooks 350 hp fire-tube boiler-furnace to determine the efficiency of sulfur dioxide removal using soda ash and micronized additives. A high sulfur, 4.7% Ohio bituminous coal, ground to 92% through 200 mesh, was mixed with medium weight No. 4 oil and water to form the emulsions. Soda ash and micronized dolomite were added to the emulsion for SO/sub 2/ removal. An emulsion, without additives, was first tested and a thermal efficiency of 88% was obtained. The best SO/sub 2/ removal was with soda ash with from 82% to 96% removal. There were problems with ash deposition and slagging in the second pass. Fuel preparation problems were encountered with high particle content micronized dolomite emulsions. The successful dolomite fuels had poor SO/sub 2/ removal results. The long term testing on a coal/oil/water emulsion without any additives has begun and no major problems have been encountered.

  5. Coal unit trains: operations, maintenance, and technology. Volume 4. Costs and benefits of aluminum coal cars. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Boghani, A.B.

    1984-11-01

    This report examines the costs and benefits to a utility of acquiring aluminum coal cars. After discussing the history of aluminum car production, the report describes in detail the characteristics of several aluminum cars now in use, and the experience of railroads and utilities with them. The effects of acquiring aluminum cars instead of steel cars on the fuel cost, crew cost, maintenance-of-way cost, and car costs (capital and maintenance) are discussed. An illustrative example is given, in which the internal rate of return (IRR) and payback period of the extra investment made to acquire aluminum cars are calculated. A parametric analysis is performed to determine the sensitivity of IRR and payback period to the freight-rate discount for the aluminum car, the inflation rate, the purchase price of aluminum and steel cars, their maintenance costs, bad order ratios, car lives, salvage values, trip length, and car utilization. The study concludes that the aluminum cars can be an excellent investment, provided a reasonable freight-rate discount is obtained. The first cost of an aluminum car compared to that of a steel car, its estimated downtime, its estimated maintenance cost, and the anticipated degree of its utilization are also shown to significantly affect the attractiveness of the extra investment. In addition, the study reveals that some aluminum cars have proved more durable in service than others. Thus, the importance of a thorough evaluation of the design of the aluminum cars being offered is demonstrated. 11 references, 15 figures, 8 tables.

  6. Thermodynamic and rheological properties of solid-liquid systems in coal processing. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1995-06-30

    The work on this project was initiated on September 1, 1991. The project consisted of two different tasks: (1) Development of a model to compute viscosities of coal derived liquids, and (2) Investigate new models for estimation of thermodynamic properties of solid and liquid compounds of the type that exist in coal, or are encountered during coal processing. As for task 1, a model for viscosity computation of coal model compound liquids and coal derived liquids has been developed. The detailed model is presented in this report. Two papers, the first describing the pure liquid model and the second one discussing the application to coal derived liquids, are expected to be published in Energy & Fuels shortly. Marginal progress is reported on task 2. Literature review for this work included compilation of a number of data sets, critical investigation of data measurement techniques available in the literature, investigation of models for liquid and solid phase thermodynamic computations. During the preliminary stages it was discovered that for development of a liquid or solid state equation of state, accurate predictive models for a number of saturation properties, such as, liquid and solid vapor pressures, saturated liquid and solid volumes, heat capacities of liquids and solids at saturation, etc. Most the remaining time on this task was spent in developing predictive correlations for vapor pressures and saturated liquid volumes of organic liquids in general and coal model liquids in particular. All these developments are discussed in this report. Some recommendations for future direction of research in this area are also listed.

  7. The use of ethanol to remove sulfur from coal. Final report, September 1991--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-04-15

    In developing the new Ohio University procedure the thermodynamic limitations of the reactions for removal of both pyritic and organic sulfur from coal at 400--600{degrees}C were studied using copper as a very strong H{sub 2}S-acceptor. Copper serves as a catalyst for ethanol dehydrogenation to form nascent hydrogen. Copper also serves as a scavenger to form copper sulfide from the hydrogen sulfide evolved during the reaction. Copper sulfide in turn serves as a catalyst for organic sulfur hydrodesulfurization reactions. If the coal to be desulfurized contains pyrite (FeS{sub 2}) or FeS, the copper scavenger effect reduces any back reaction of hydrogen sulfide with the iron and increases the removal of sulfur from the carbonaceous material. The desired effect of using copper can be achieved by using copper or copper containing alloys as materials of construction or as liners for a regenerable reactor. During the time period that Ohio Coal Development Office supported this work, small scale (560 grams) laboratory experiments with coals containing about 3.5% sulfur have achieved up to 90% desulfurization at temperatures of 500{degrees}C when using a copper reactor. Results from the autoclave experiments have identified the nature of the chemical reactions taking place. Because the process removes both pyritic and organic sulfur in coal, the successful scale up of the process would have important economic significance to the coal industry. Even though this and other chemical processes may be relatively expensive and far from being commercial, the reason for further development is that this process may hold the promise of achieving much greater sulfur reduction and of producing a cleaner coal than other methods. This would be especially important for small or older power plants and industrial boilers.

  8. Coal slurry pump development. Final report, October 1, 1979-March 31, 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, G.S.; Aukerman, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    A coal slurry pump development program for coal liquefaction was conducted by Rocketdyne Division, Rockwell International for the Department of Energy, Division of Fossil Fuel Processing. The program was initiated in October 1979 and consisted of fabrication and testing of a high-capacity, high-pressure, prototype, centrifugal slurry pump module that meets the following requiremennts for a coal/oil slurry with 50% concentration and 200 mesh coal: flowrate of 2500 gpm; operating pressure of 3000 psi; temperature of 550 F; pressure rise of 500 psi; a rotative speed of 3600 rpm; and a horsepower of 960. A two-stage, centrifugal slurry test pump was fabricated from steel castings and high wear-resistant materials for components exposed to slurry such as: cast white iron, titanium carbide, and tungsten carbide. A unique hydraulic design was utilized to reduce the severe wear on impeller and volute cutwater. The slurry pump incorporates a unique high-pressure, hydrostatic fluid seal capable of 3000 psi operating pressure. A slurry test facility for testing the centrifugal slurry pump was constructed at the Colorado School of Mines Research Institute (CSMRI), Golden, Colorado. The facility contains an 8-inch-diameter test loop, 1.7 million Btu/hr gas-fired oil heater, slurry head tank, boost pump, purge oil storage tank, high-pressure seal purge oil system, and a centrifuge/polishing filter system for recovering purge oil from the closed-loop coal slurry system. The prototype slurry pump successfully completed a three-phase hydraulic and wear test program in hot oil and hot coal/oil slurry, and achieved nearly continuous operation in slurry in excess of 242 hours with minimum wear. The feasibility of utilizing high-pressure centrifugal slurry pumps for coal liquefaction has been successfully demonstrated and further development is highly warranted. 73 figures, 19 tables.

  9. Coal desulfurization during the combustion of coal/oil/water emulsions: an economic alternative liquid fuel. Final quarterly report, September 26-December 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Dooher, J.P.

    1981-01-01

    Combustion tests were performed using a Cleaver-Brooks 350 hp fire-tube boiler-furnace to determine the efficiency of sulfur dioxide removal using soda ash and micronized additives. A high sulfur, 4% western Kentucky coal, pulverized to 78% through 200 mesh was mixed with medium weight No. 4 oil and water to form the emulsions. Soda ash and micronized limestone and hydrated lime were added to the emulsion for SO/sub 2/ removal. Baseline combustion tests were first conducted on emulsions without additives. Thermal efficiencies of over 88% were obtained. The best SO/sub 2/ removal was with soda ash, with 80% and 78% removal. There were problems with ash deposition in pass 2 during these tests. Fuel preparation problems were encountered with high particle content micronized limestone and hydrated lime emulsions. The successful fuels had poor SO/sub 2/ removal results.

  10. Design, synthesis, and characterization of novel fine-particle, unsupported catalysts for coal liquefaction. Technical progress report, October 26, 1990--January 26, 1991: Draft

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, M.T.

    1991-02-22

    The first task in our proposed study of catalysts for coal liquefaction was to prepare ultrafine dispersed metal sulfide particles by reactive precipitation from solutions of appropriate metal precursors. At this point, equipment to allow us to prepare these air-sensitive materials in an anaerobic environment has been acquired and assembled. Initial experiments aimed at synthesizing iron sulfide particles have been initiated. As part of the investigation of short contact time catalytic coal liquefaction, initial efforts focused on the noncatalytic pyrolysis reactions of coal and a model compound, Dibenzyl ether (DBE). Two different reactor configurations were examined; catalytic experiments are planned for the coming month.

  11. Coal precursors for production of carbon and graphite products. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, I.C.; Lewis, R.T.; Mayer, H.K.

    1996-04-08

    The main goal of this program was to demonstrate the utility of coal extracts from the West Virginia University (WVU) extraction process as suitable base raw materials for the carbon products encompassed by the Carbon Products Consortium (CPC) team. These include binder and impregnation pitches, Coke for graphite electrodes, Cokes for anodes and specialty graphite, matrices for C/C composites and raw material for mesophase pitch fibers. Previous work in this program has shown that the WVU coal extraction process coupled with hydrotreatment, does have the potential for achieving this objective. The current effort involved screening and evaluation of extracts produced by the WVU Group and recommending appropriate materials for scaleup for subsequent evaluation by Consortium Team members. The program involved an initial characterization of small-scale extracts using standard analytical methods and mesophase formation studies. This was followed by feedback to the WVU Group and to the CPC partners with recommendation of material for scaleup. Similar analytical and mesophase studies on some of the scaled-up extracts was performed. The activation of the coal extraction residues for the purpose of producing a useful active carbon was investigated. A further task was to fabricate a small graphite artifact using Coke derived from coal extract as the filler and the coal extract itself as a binder. The results of the studies are summarized in this report.

  12. Estimation of NO{sub x} emissions from pulverized coal-fired utility boilers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wildman, D.J.; Smouse, S.M.

    1995-05-01

    The formation of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) during pulverized-coal combustion in utility boilers is governed by many factors, including the boiler`s design characteristics and operating conditions, and coal properties. Presently, no simple, reliable method is publicly available to estimate NO{sub x} emissions from any coal-fired boiler. A neural network back-propagation algorithm was previously developed using a small data set of boiler design characteristics and operating conditions, and coal properties for tangentially fired boilers. This initial effort yielded sufficient confidence in the use of neural network data analysis techniques to expand the data base to other boiler firing modes. A new neural network-based algorithm has been developed for all major pulverized coal-firing modes (wall, opposed-wall, cell, and tangential) that accurately predicts NO{sub x} emissions using 11 readily available data inputs. A sensitivity study, which was completed for all major input parameters, yielded results that agree with conventional wisdom and practical experience. This new algorithm is being used by others, including the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). EPRI has included the algorithm in its new software for making emissions compliance decisions, the Clean Air Technology Workstation.

  13. High temperature alkali corrosion of ceramics in coal gas: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pickrell, G.R.; Sun, T.; Brown, J.J. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    There are several ceramic materials which are currently being considered for use as structural elements in coal combustion and coal conversion systems because of their thermal and mechanical properties. These include alumina (refractories, membranes, heat engines); silicon carbide and silicon nitride (turbine engines, internal combustion engines, heat exchangers, particulate filters); zirconia (internal combustion engines, turbine engines, refractories); and mullite and cordierite (particulate filters, refractories, heat exchangers). High temperature alkali corrosion has been known to cause premature failure of ceramic components used in advanced high temperature coal combustion systems such as coal gasification and clean-up, coal fired gas turbines, and high efficiency heat engines. The objective of this research is to systematically evaluate the alkali corrosion resistance of the most commonly used structural ceramics including silicon carbide, silicon nitride, cordierite, mullite, alumina, aluminum titanate, and zirconia. The study consists of identification of the alkali reaction products and determination of the kinetics of the alkali reactions as a function of temperature and time. 145 refs., 29 figs., 12 tabs.

  14. Photochemical coal dissolution. Final technical progress report, September 30, 1993--September 29, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Doetschman, D.C.

    1997-05-01

    A flowing solvent photochemical reactor was designed, built and tested. A modified ACE photochemical reactor, lamp and power supply were employed. They were modified to accommodate a silica column-constrained dispersed coal sample and a solvent flowing through the silica/coal column to sweep away coal extract. Before each experiment the column was packed with the mixture of silica and coal in the annular space around the lamp. A reflective aluminum surface (foil) reflected any light-transmitted through the column for multiple passes back through the sample. A variable speed Rainin Rabbit Plus peristaltic pump was interfaced to an IBM XT computer via a Gilson RS232/RS422 converter. The purpose of the computer control was to vary the speed of the pump so as to control the absorbance of the solution of coal extract in the solvent. Absorbances at a chosen wavelength were measured by a Spec 21 spectrophotometer with a flow cell connected to the column effluent port. A signal proportional to transmittance from the Spec 21 was delivered to the computer through a Keithley DAS 801 A/D plug-in the computer. The analysis of the Spec 21 signal and control of the pump speed was based on a QuickBasic computer program written by us.

  15. Coal-liquid fuel/diesel engine operating compatibility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffman, J.G.; Martin, F.W.

    1983-09-01

    This work is intended to assess the possibilities of using coal-derived liquids (CDL) represented by a specific type (SRC II) and shale-derived distillate fuel in blends of petroleum-derived fuels in medium-speed, high-output, heavy-duty diesel engines. Conclusions are as follows: (1) Blends of solvent refined coal and diesel fuel may be handled safely by experienced diesel engine mechanics. (2) A serious corrosion problem was found in the fuel pump parts when operating with solvent refined coal blended with petroleum. It is expected that a metallurgy change can overcome this problem. (3) Proper selection of materials for the fuel system is required to permit handling coal-derived liquid fuels. (4) A medium speed, high horsepower, 4-cycle diesel engine can be operated on blends of solvent refined coal and petroleum without serious consequences save the fuel system corrosion previously mentioned. This is based on a single, short durability test. (5) As represented by the product evaluated, 100% shale-derived distillate fuel may be used in a medium speed, high horsepower, 4-cycle diesel engine without significant consequences. (6) The shale product evaluated may be blended with petroleum distillate or petroleum residual materials and used as a fuel for medium speed, high horsepower, 4-cycle diesel engines. 7 references, 24 figures, 20 tables.

  16. Conceptual design of a coal-fired MHD retrofit. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-01

    Coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) technology is ready for its next level of development - an integrated demonstration at a commercial scale. The development and testing of MHD has shown its potential to be the most efficient, least costly, and cleanest way to burn coal. Test results have verified a greater than 99% removal of sulphur with a potential for greater than 60% efficiency. This development and testing, primarily funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has progressed through the completion of its proof-of-concept (POC) phase at the 50 MWt Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) and 28 MWt Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), thereby, providing the basis for demonstration and further commercial development and application of the technology. The conceptual design of a retrofit coal-fired MHD generating plant was originally completed by the MHD Development Corporation (MDC) under this Contract, DE-AC22-87PC79669. Thereafter, this concept was updated and changed to a stand-alone MHD demonstration facility and submitted by MDC to DOE in response to the fifth round of solicitations for Clean Coal Technology. Although not selected, that activity represents the major interest in commercialization by the developing industry and the type of demonstration that would be eventually necessary. This report updates the original executive summary of the conceptual design by incorporating the results of the POC program as well as MDC`s proposed Billings MHD Demonstration Project (BMDP) and outlines the steps necessary for commercialization.

  17. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2002-02-05

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NO{sub x} concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. To this end work is progress using an existing 17kW downflow laboratory combustor, available with coal and sludge feed capabilities. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NO{sub x} and low NO{sub x} combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). The proposed work uses existing analytical and experimental facilities and draws on 20 years of research on NO{sub x} and fine particles that has been funded by DOE in this laboratory. Four barrels of dried sewage sludge are currently in the laboratory. Insofar as possible pertinent mechanisms will be elucidated. Tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} control, NO{sub x} control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. For the Fifth Quarter of this project we focus on determining whether certain trace metals are associated with certain major species, such as calcium and iron. To this end we present data showing correlations between As, Se,and Sb and major species, such as Ca and Fe. Conversely, lack of correlation between trace metals and elements, such as aluminum can also be used to infer lack of chemical association.

  18. Emissions from carpet combustion in a pilot-scale rotary kiln: comparison with coal and particle-board combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Stephanie Lucero Konopa; James A. Mulholland; Matthew J. Realff; Paul M. Lemieux

    2008-08-15

    The use of post-consumer carpet as a potential fuel substitute in cement kilns and other high-temperature processes is being considered to address the problem of huge volumes of carpet waste and the opportunity of waste-to-energy recovery. Carpet represents a high volume waste stream, provides high energy value, and contains other recoverable materials for the production of cement. This research studied the emission characteristics of burning 0.46-kg charges of chopped nylon carpet squares, pulverized coal, and particle-board pellets in a pilot-scale natural gas-fired rotary kiln. Carpet was tested with different amounts of water added. Emissions of oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide (NO), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), and total hydrocarbons and temperatures were continuously monitored. It was found that carpet burned faster and more completely than coal and particle board, with a rapid volatile release that resulted in large and variable transient emission peaks. NO emissions from carpet combustion ranged from 0.06 to 0.15 g/MJ and were inversely related to CO emissions. Carpet combustion yielded higher NO emissions than coal and particleboard combustion, consistent with its higher nitrogen content. S{sub 2} emissions were highest for coal combustion, consistent with its higher sulfur content than carpet or particle board. Adding water to carpet slowed its burn time and reduced variability in the emission transients, reducing the CO peak but increasing NO emissions. Results of this study indicate that carpet waste can be used as an effective alternative fuel, with the caveats that it might be necessary to wet carpet or chop it finely to avoid excessive transient puff emissions due to its high volatility compared with other solid fuels, and that controlled mixing of combustion air might be used to control NO emissions from nylon carpet. 13 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. NOx, FINE PARTICLE AND TOXIC METAL EMISSIONS FROM THE COMBUSTION OF SEWAGE SLUDGE/COAL MIXTURES: A SYSTEMATIC ASSESSMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Jost O.L. Wendt

    2002-02-05

    This research project focuses on pollutants from the combustion of mixtures of dried municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and coal. The objective is to determine the relationship between (1) fraction sludge in the sludge/coal mixture, and (2) combustion conditions on (a) NO{sub x} concentrations in the exhaust, (b) the size segregated fine and ultra-fine particle composition in the exhaust, and (c) the partitioning of toxic metals between vapor and condenses phases, within the process. To this end work is progress using an existing 17kW downflow laboratory combustor, available with coal and sludge feed capabilities. The proposed study will be conducted in concert with an existing ongoing research on toxic metal partitioning mechanisms for very well characterized pulverized coals alone. Both high NO{sub x} and low NO{sub x} combustion conditions will be investigated (unstaged and staged combustion). The proposed work uses existing analytical and experimental facilities and draws on 20 years of research on NO{sub x} and fine particles that has been funded by DOE in this laboratory. Four barrels of dried sewage sludge are currently in the laboratory. Insofar as possible pertinent mechanisms will be elucidated. Tradeoffs between CO{sub 2} control, NO{sub x} control, and inorganic fine particle and toxic metal emissions will be determined. Progress in the Sixth Quarter (January 1, 2002 through March 31, 2002) was slow because of slagging problems in the combustor. These required the combustor to be rebuilt, a job that is not yet complete. A paper describing our results heretofore has been accepted by the Journal Environmental Science and Technology.

  20. Differential bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls associated with environmental particles: Microplastic in comparison to wood, coal and biochar.

    PubMed

    Beckingham, B; Ghosh, U

    2017-01-01

    Microplastic particles are increasingly being discovered in diverse habitats and a host of species are found to ingest them. Since plastics are known to sorb hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs) there is a question of what risk of chemical exposure is posed to aquatic biota from microplastic-associated contaminants. We investigate bioavailability of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) from polypropylene microplastic by measuring solid-water distribution coefficients, gut fluid solubilization, and bioaccumulation using sediment invertebrate worms as a test system. Microplastic-associated PCBs are placed in a differential bioavailability framework by comparing the results to several other natural and anthrogenic particles, including wood, coal, and biochar. PCB distribution coefficients for polypropylene were higher than natural organic materials like wood, but in the range of lipids and sediment organic carbon, and smaller than black carbons like coal and biochars. Gut fluid solubilization potential increased in the order: coal < polypropylene < biochar < wood. Interestingly, lower gut fluid solubilization for polypropylene than biochar infers that gut fluid micelles may have solubilized part of the biochar matrix while bioaccessibility from plastic can be limited by the solubilizing potential of gut fluids dependent on the solid to liquid ratio or renewal of fluids in the gut. Biouptake in worms was lower by 76% when PCBs were associated with polypropylene compared to sediment. The presence of microplastics in sediments had an overall impact of reducing bioavailability and transfer of HOCs to sediment-ingesting organisms. Since the vast majority of sediment and suspended particles in the environment are natural organic and inorganic materials, pollutant transfer through particle ingestion will be dominated by these particles and not microplastics. Therefore, these results support the conclusion that in most cases the transfer of organic pollutants to aquatic

  1. Illinois Clean Coal Institute 2005 annual report. Final technical report for the period September 1st, 2004, through August 31, 2005 on projects funded by the Illinois Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity

    SciTech Connect

    2005-11-08

    This final technical report contains the abstracts and executive summaries of projects funded through the Illinois Clean Coal Institute solicitation entitled 'Request for proposals No. 04-1(ICCI/RFP04-1)'. Support of these projects is by the Office of Coal Development and Department of Commerce and Economic Opportunity. The projects fall into the following categories: advanced coal mining technologies; coal preparation and coal production business practice; management of coal combustion byproducts; commercialization and technology transfer. Final project extensions are also recorded.

  2. Solvent-refined-coal (SRC) process. Volume II. Sections V-XIV. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    This report documents the completion of development work on the Solvent Refined Coal Process by The Pittsburgh and Midway Coal Mining Co. The work was initiated in 1966 under Office of Coal Research, US Department of Interior, Contract No. 14-01-0001-496 and completed under US Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC05-79ET10104. This report discusses work leading to the development of the SRC-I and SRC-II processes, construction of the Fort Lewis Pilot Plant for the successful development of these processes, and results from the operation of this pilot plant. Process design data generated on a 1 ton-per-day Process Development Unit, bench-scale units and through numerous research projects in support of the design of major demonstration plants are also discussed in summary form and fully referenced in this report.

  3. US bituminous coal test program in the British Gas/Lurgi (BGL) gasifier. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    de Souza, M.D.; Tart, K.R.; Eales, D.F.; Turna, O.

    1991-12-01

    The BGL moving-bed, slagging-gasification process is an extension of the commercially proven Lurgi dry-ash, moving-bed gasification process. British Gas and Lurgi have demonstrated the process over an 11-year period at the 350 and 500 t/d scale at British Gas` Westfield Development Center, Scotland, with a wide variety of US and British coals. British Gas also installed a gas purification and HICOM methanation plant at Westfield to treat approximately 190,000 sft{sup 3}/h of purified syngas. Objectives are: To demonstrate the suitability of US bituminous coals as feed-stocks in the BGL gasification process; to provide performance data for use in designing commercial-scale BGL-based gasification-combined-cycle (GCC) power plants; and to evaluate the performance of the British Gas HICOM process for methanation of US coal-derived syngas.

  4. Environmental aspects of the Brandon woods coal ash site. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, R.W.; Price, R.

    1994-05-01

    The Maryland Power Plant Research Program (PPRP) has evaluated the potential environmental effects of coal ash used as structural fill material at the Baltimore Gas and Electric Company (BG E) Brandon Woods Energy Business Park. The main purpose of the evaluation was to assess the potential for leachate constituents derived from the coal ash to affect ground and surface water quality. Ground water conditions at the site were evaluated using the water level readings collected from 21 shallow and deep monitoring wells installed by BG E prior to site development, and ground water quality data collected from the time the facility began coal ash filling operations in 1982 to December 1990. The absence of ground water quality degradation downgradient of the ash indicates that several site conditions minimize potential adverse enviromental impacts from leachate generation.

  5. Evaluation of anthracite as a coal-water slurry fuel. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-02-01

    This study evaluated the use of anthracite as a coal-water slurry fuel. The study consisted of two major activities: (1) fundamental slurry formulation experiments leading to the production and combustion characteristics investigation of suitable, anthracite slurries, and (2) analytical evaluations of the potential of anthracite slurry as a boiler fuel for new industrial and utility boiler application and for retrofit application of an industrial oil-fired boiler. The study results have shown that anthracite can be readily processed into a coal-water slurry with coal loading 70 wt % coal and 30% water plus chemical additives. Slurry viscosity, handling, and storage characteristics are similar to the bituminous coal-water slurries that are under active commercial development. Commercial anthracite-water slurry processing cost is projected to be only slightly higher than for bituminous coal-water slurry. Combustion testing in a small, industrial, water-tube boiler has shown that stable combustion of anthracite-water slurry can be achieved with high carbon conversion. The results also indicate that oxygen enrichment and secondary fuel firing can compensate for the low volatile content of the anthracite to achieve good combustion. Under the conditions assumed, anthracite-water slurry was not an economical fuel retrofit option for an existing oil-fired, industrial boiler. Contributing significantly to the economic results were the requirement for secondary fuel and oxygen to achieve good anthracite slurry combustion in the oil-designed boiler. Minimizing or eliminating the secondary fuel and oxygen requirements through a continued burner/boiler development program or more radical boiler modification to fire low-volatile fuel would greatly improve conversion economics and likely make anthracite-water slurry a candidate for industrial boiler fuel retrofit. 10 refs., 22 figs., 38 tabs.

  6. Thermodynamic model for calorimetric and phase coexistence properties of coal derived fluids. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Kabadi, V.N.

    1992-10-01

    The work on this project was initiated on September 1, 1989. The project consisted of three different tasks. 1. A thermodynamic model to predict VLE and calorimetric properties of coal liquids. 2. VLE measurements at high temperature and high pressure for coal model compounds and 3. Chromatographic characterization of coal liquids for distribution of heteroatoms. The thermodynamic model developed is an extension of the previous model developed for VLE of coal derived fluids (DOE Grant no. FG22-86PC90541). The model uses the modified UNIFAC correlation for the liquid phase. Some unavailable UNIFAC interactions parameters have been regressed from experimental VLE and excess enthalpy data. The model is successful in predicting binary VLE and excess enthalpy data. Further refinements of the model are suggested. An apparatus for the high pressure high temperature VLE data measurements has been built and tested. Tetralin-Quinoline is the first binary system selected for data measurements. The equipment was tested by measuring 325{degree}C isotherm for this system and comparing it with literature data. Additional isotherms at 350{degree}C and 370{degree}C have been measured. The framework for a characterization procedure for coal derived liquids has been developed. A coal liquid is defined by a true molecular weight distribution and distribution of heteroatoms as a function of molecular weights. Size exclusions liquid chromatography, elemental analysis and FTIR spectroscopy methods are used to obtain the molecular weight and hetroatom distributions. Further work in this area should include refinements of the characterization procedure, high temperature high pressure VLE data measurements for selective model compound binary systems, and improvement of the thermodynamic model using the new measured data and consistent with the developments in the characterization procedure.

  7. Steam pretreatment for coal liquefaction. Final report, September 26, 1990--March 18, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Graff, R.A.; Balogh-Nair, V.; Ivanenko, O.; Brathwaite, C.

    1995-10-16

    The objective of this study is to demonstrate the use of subcritical steam to pretreat coal for slurry liquefaction, allowing liquefaction to be carried out at lower severity and improving product yield and quality. Samples of Illinois No. 6 coal were pretreated in 750 psia steam at 340{degree}C for 15 minutes. These samples, as well as raw coal, were liquefied at high (400{degree}C, 30 min.) and low (385{degree}C, 15 min.) severity conditions under 1500 psia hydrogen with tetralin as the donor solvent. Improved yields were obtained at both conditions. (Improved yields were not obtained at a liquefaction temperature of 350{degree}C as that put the sample into the region of retrogressive reactions). The deleterious effects of slow heating and exposure of the sample to air were demonstrated. Under low severity conditions, steam pretreatment more that doubled the oil yield, increasing it from 12.5 to 29 wt %. Tests were also conducted with aromatic ethers as model compounds. These were exposed to inert gas and steam at pretreatment conditions and in some cases to liquid water at 315{degree}C. {alpha}-Benzylnaphthyl ether and {alpha}- naphthylmethyl phenyl ether show little difference in conversion and product distribution when the thermolysis atmosphere is changed from inert gas to steam. However when these compounds were reacted in the presence of 5 {angstrom} zeolite, the yields of the thermolysis products improved. Zeolite proved effective in suppressing isomerization of the starting materials. These results suggested that zeolites might be beneficial in steam pretreatment of coal and in coal liquefaction. Pretreatment and liquefaction of mixtures of coal and zeolites increases yields of asphaltenes and preasphaltenes.

  8. Non-intrusive measurement of particle charge: Electrostatic dry coal cleaning. Technical progress report No. 11, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    As has been previously reported, the charge measurement portion of this project has been broadened to include direct measurement techniques which yield an average particle charge per unit mass. These methods, which now include current measurements from the charging loop, an electrolytic collection solution and a Faraday cage have been employed to expand the charge measurement capabilities over those that were originally developed using the PDPA. The effects of gas velocity, humidity and temperature as well as particle size on charge was evaluated for different coals and silica. The charge accumulated on silica particles was linearly dependent on their velocity in the tribocharger for the velocities and mass loadings which were investigated. For coals, a linear increase in charge occurred over a more limited velocity range. Transport gas humidity had a much stronger effect on the charge established on silica particles than on coal particles.

  9. Wyoming coal-conversion project. Final technical report, November 1980-February 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming; contains list of appendices with title and identification

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    This final technical report describes what WyCoalGas, Inc. and its subcontractors accomplished in resolving issues related to the resource, technology, economic, environmental, socioeconomic, and governmental requirements affecting a project located near Douglas, Wyoming for producing 150 Billion Btu per day by gasifying sub-bituminous coal. The report summarizes the results of the work on each task and includes the deliverables that WyCoalGas, Inc. and the subcontractors prepared. The co-venturers withdrew from the project for two reasons: federal financial assistance to the project was seen to be highly uncertain; and funds were being expended at an unacceptably high rate.

  10. Coal pump development phase 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushida, R. O.; Sankur, V. D.; Gerbracht, F. G.; Mahajan, V.

    1980-01-01

    Techniques for achieving continuous coal sprays were studied. Coazial injection with gas and pressure atomization were studied. Coal particles, upon cooling, were found to be porous and fragile. Reactivity tests on the extruded coal showed overall conversion to gases and liquids unchanged from that of the raw coal. The potentials for applications of the coal pump to eight coal conversion processes were examined.

  11. Nitration of benzo[a]pyrene adsorbed on coal fly ash particles by nitrogen dioxide: role of thermal activation.

    PubMed

    Kristovich, Robert L; Dutta, Prabir K

    2005-09-15

    Nitration of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) by nitrogen dioxide (NO2) adsorbed on the surface of thermally activated coal fly ash and model aluminosilicate particles led to the formation of nitrobenzo[a]pyrenes as verified by extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). In situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was utilized to follow the nitration reaction on the surface of zeolite Y. Nitrobenzo[a]pyrene formation was observed along with the formation of nitrous acid and nitrate species. The formation of the BaP radical cation was also observed on thermally activated aluminosilicate particles by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. On the basis of GC/MS, DRIFTS, and ESR spectroscopy results, a mechanism of nitration involving intermediate BaP radical cations generated on thermally activated aluminosilicate particles is proposed. These observations have led to the hypothesis that nitration of adsorbed polyaromatic hydrocarbons on coal fly ash by reaction with nitrogen oxides can occur in the smokestack, but with the aging of the fly ash particles, the extent of the nitration reaction will be diminished.

  12. Nitration of benzo(a)pyrene adsorbed on coal fly ash particles by nitrogen dioxide: role of thermal activation

    SciTech Connect

    Robert L. Kristovich; Prabir K. Dutta

    2005-09-15

    Nitration of benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) by nitrogen dioxide (NO{sub 2}) adsorbed on the surface of thermally activated coal fly ash and model aluminosilicate particles led to the formation of nitrobenzo(2)pyrenes as verified by extraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Temperatures of up to 500{sup o}C were used. In situ diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was utilized to follow the nitration reaction on the surface of zeolite Y. Nitrobenzo(a)pyrene formation was observed along with the formation of nitrous acid and nitrate species. The formation of the BaP radical cation was also observed on thermally activated aluminosilicate particles by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. On the basis of GC/MS, DRIFTS, and ESR spectroscopy results, a mechanism of nitration involving intermediate BaP radical cations generated on thermally activated aluminosilicate particles is proposed. These observations have led to the hypothesis that nitration of adsorbed polyaromatic hydrocarbons on coal fly ash by reaction with nitrogen oxides can occur in the smokestack, but with the aging of the fly ash particles, the extent of the nitration reaction will be diminished. 52 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  13. A biomathematical model of particle clearance and retention in the lungs of coal miners. II. Evaluation of variability and uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Kuempel, E D; Tran, C L; Smith, R J; Bailer, A J

    2001-08-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the sources of variability and uncertainty in a previously developed human lung dosimetry model. That three-compartment model describes the retention and clearance kinetics of respirable particles in the gas-exchange region of the lungs. It was calibrated using exposure histories and lung dust burden data in U.S. coal miners. A multivariate parameter estimation and optimization method was developed for fitting the dosimetry model to these human data. Models with various assumptions about overloading of alveolar clearance and interstitialization (sequestration) of particles were evaluated. Variability in the estimated clearance rate coefficients was assessed empirically by fitting the model to groups' and to each miner's data. Distributions of lung and lymph node particle burdens were computed at working lifetime exposures, using the variability in the estimated individual clearance rate coefficients. These findings confirm those of the earlier analysis; i.e., the best-fitting exposure-dose model to these data has substantial interstitialization/sequestration of particles and no dose-dependent decline in alveolar clearance. Among miners with different characteristics for smoking, disease, and race, the group median estimated alveolar clearance rate coefficients varied by a factor of approximately 4. Adjustment for these group differences provided some improvement in the dosimetry model fit to all miners (up to 25% reduction in MSE), although unexplained interindividual differences made up the largest source of variability. The predicted mean lung and lymph node particle burdens at age 75 after exposure to respirable coal mine dust at 2 mg/m(2) for a 45-year working lifetime were 12 g (5th and 95th percentiles, 3.0-26 g) and 1.9 g (0.26-5.3), respectively. This study provides quantitative information on variability in particle retention and clearance kinetics in humans. It is useful for risk assessment by providing

  14. Western Cretaceous Coal Seam Project. Final project summary. Final topical report, 1 January 1988-31 August 1989 (research)

    SciTech Connect

    Mavor, M.J.; Close, J.C.

    1989-12-31

    A summary of the Western Cretaceous Coal Seam project conclusions and data collection efforts is presented in the report. The discussion includes a summary of the geologic, formation evaluation, and stimulation analyses of four major wells. The names operators and locations of these wells are: Hamilton No. 3, Mesa Operating Limited Partnership, San Juan Co. NM, Sec. 30, Twn. 32 N, Rng. 10 W; Northeast Blanco Unit No. 403, Blackwood Nichols Co., Ltd, Rio Arriba Co. NM, Sec. 9, Twn. 30 N, Rng. 7 W; Southern Ute - Mobil 36-1, McKenzie Methane Co., LaPlata Co. CO, Sec. 36, Twn 34 N, Rng. 10 W; and Colorado 32-7 No. 9, Mobil Oil Corp., LaPlata Co, CO, Sec. 4, Twn. 32 N, Rng. 7 W. The discussion includes a summary of 7 minor well efforts in addition to the above major efforts.

  15. Three-dimensional structure of flow in coal-cleaning cyclones: Final technical report, September 1, 1985-December 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, C.C.; Chiu, C.L.

    1988-03-30

    The objectives of this study were: (1) to utilize experimental data regarding the flow in cyclone, to develop mathematical models for simulating fluid flows in cyclones under different design and operational conditions; and (2) to simulate the motion of solid particles in the flow fields simulated. The mathematical models developed were tested on a cyclone. Computed fluid flows were very close to the measured, under the same operational conditions. Three dimensional trajectories of solid particles entering the cyclone were then simulated and plotted. These results were used in the analysis of separating efficiency. By testing the effects of any adjustments in the design, operational conditions, and fluid properties, the techniques developed can be instrumental in improving the performance of coal cleaning cyclones. 29 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Final report on agglomerate column flotation for cleaning and desulfurization of Ohio coal fines

    SciTech Connect

    Attia, Y.A.; El Zeky, M.; Yu, Mulong . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1990-08-30

    The objective of this research program was investigate the feasibility of cleaning and desulfurization of Ohio coal by an agglomerate column flotation process, which integrates selective flocculation with conventional column flotation. It was concluded earlier on in the program that the conventional design of flotation column was not particularly efficient for pyrite rejection. A novel design for flotation column system was conceived and a prototype unit was manufactured and tested in the laboratory. Several design and operational parameters for the column and the agglomerate flotation process were briefly investigated to define proper design and working conditions for a satisfactory performance. The novel design was compared with conventional design of flotation column through laboratory tests and through published results. The role of selective flocculation of coal including selective depression of pyrite has been identified and tested with both novel and conventional design of flotation columns. The results of these brief investigations, which are summarized in this report, suggest that: (1) excellent performance ca n be obtained with agglomerate column flotation using the new design. For example, a raw coal containing 3.16% total sulfur, 2.11% pyritic sulfur, and 17% ash can be cleaned to 1.91 % ash, 0.42% pyritic sulfur, 1.32% total sulfur, while maintaining a projected Btu/coal recovery of 86% (mmmf basis). This is equivalent to 89% ash removal and 81% pyritic sulfur (58% total sulfur) rejection. (2) The novel design of flotation column is superior to conventional design particularly for pyrite rejection.

  17. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit. Phase 1. Volume 2. Commercial plant study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kohl, Arthur L.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a test program conducted on the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process, which included the design, construction, and operation of a Process Development Unit (PDU). This process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air in a turbulent pool of molten sodium carbonate. Sulfur and ash are retained in the melt, and a small stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of the salt. The process can handle a wide variety of feed materials, including highly caking coals, and produces a gas relatively free from tars and other impurities. The gasification step is carried out at approximately 1800/sup 0/F. The PDU was designed to process 1 ton per hour of coal at pressures up to 20 atm. It is a completely integrated facility including systems for feeding solids to the gasifier, regenerating sodium carbonate for reuse, and removing sulfur and ash in forms suitable for disposal. Five extended test runs were made. The observed product gas composition was quite close to that predicted on the basis of earlier small-scale tests and thermodynamic considerations. All plant systems were operated in an integrated manner. Test data and discussions regarding plant equipment and process performance are presented. The program also included a commercial plant study which showed the process to be attractive for use in a combined cycle, electric power plant. The report is presented in two volumes, Volume 1, PDU Operations, and Volume 2, Commercial Plant Study.

  18. Geochemistry of a reclaimed coal slurry impoundment. Final technical report, September 1, 1993--November 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Dreher, G.B.; Roy, W.R.; Steele, J.D.; Heidari, M.

    1994-12-31

    The highly alkaline residue from the fluidized-bed combustion (FBC) of coal may be an environmentally acceptable material for use in neutralizing acid produced by the oxidation of pyrite in coal. slurry solids (CSS). Previous research indicated that FBC residues in mixtures with pyrite-rich CSS neutralized the acid produced by or attenuated the oxidation of pyrite in CSS. In the present research project we retrieved five drill cores from a reclaimed coal slurry impoundment, and installed three samplers in one of the core holes. The solids were chemically and mineralogically analyzed. Display of the mineralogical data on a cross section showed that pyrite was randomly distributed through much of the length of the coal slurry impoundment. Trace concentrations of heavy metals were correlated with pyrite in the core solids. Water samples were collected and analyzed. The water analyses showed that nutrients are insufficient to support plant growth without supplemental fertilization. The analytical data will provide background information necessary for the development of a predictive computer model of the kinetics of pyrite oxidation at near-neutral pH conditions. Programming of a computerized model to simulate pyrite oxidation under near-neutral pH conditions was begun. The program includes ideas from Morel and Hering (1993) and species are calculated in terms of 7 components of known concentrations. The ionic strength of the solution, the species activity coefficients, and the activities are calculated iteratively.

  19. Low-rank coal research: Volume 1, Control technology, liquefaction, and gasification: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, G.F.; Collings, M.E.; Schelkoph, G.L.; Steadman, E.N.; Moretti, C.J.; Henke, K.R.; Rindt, J.R.; Hetland, M.D.; Knudson, C.L.; Willson, W.G.

    1987-04-01

    Volume I contains articles on SO/sub x//NO/sub x/ control, waste management, low-rank direct liquefaction, hydrogen production from low-rank coals, and advanced wastewater treatment. These articles have been entered individually into EDB and ERA. (LTN)

  20. Documentation of the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States. Volume 2. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Herhal, A J; Britton, S G; Minnucci, C A

    1982-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the methodologies used to develop the 1979 Demonstrated Reserve Base (DRB) of coal. The main body of this report summarizes the methodological procedures used to develop each state reserve estimate. The appendices to the report provide a detailed description of the entire DRB process for each state.

  1. Land application of coal combustion by-products: Use in agriculture and land reclamation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Horn, M.E.

    1995-06-01

    Land application of coal combustion by-products (CCBP) can prove beneficial for a number of reasons. The data presented in this survey provide a basis for optimizing the rates and timing of CCBP applications, selecting proper target soils and crops, and minimizing adverse effects on soil properties, plant responses, and groundwater quality.

  2. Configurational diffusion of coal macromolecules. Final technical report, September 15, 1986--September 14, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Guin, J.A.; Curtis, C.W.; Tarrer, A.R.; Kim, S.; Hwang, D.; Chen, C.C.; Chiou, Z.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of our research was to obtain fundamental information regarding the functional dependence of the diffusion coefficient of coal molecules on the ratio of molecule to pore diameter. That is, the objective of our study was to examine the effect of molecule size and configuration on hindered diffusion of coal macromolecules through as porous medium. To best accomplish this task, we circumvented the complexities of an actual porous catalyst by using a well defined porous matrix with uniform capillaric pores, i.e., a track-etched membrane. In this way, useful information was obtained regarding the relationship of molecular size and configuration on the diffusion rate of coal derived macromolecules through a pore structure with known geometry. Similar studies were performed using a pellet formed of porous alumina, to provide a link between the idealized membranes and the actual complex pore structure of real catalyst extrudates. The fundamental information from our study will be useful toward the tailoring of catalysts to minimize diffusional influences and thereby increase coal conversion and selectivity for desirable products. (VC)

  3. Emission characteristics of carbonaceous particles from various residential coal-stoves in China

    SciTech Connect

    Guorui Zhi; Yingjun Chen; Yanli Feng; Shengchun Xiong; Jun Li; Gan Zhang; Guoying Sheng; Jiamo Fu

    2008-05-01

    China is thought to be the most important contributor to the global burden of carbonaceous aerosols, and residential coal combustion is the greatest emission source of black carbon (BC). In the present study, two high-efficiency household coal-stoves are tested together with honeycomb-coal-briquettes and raw-coal-chunks of nine different coals. Coal-burning emissions are collected onto quartz fiber filters (QFFs) and analyzed by a thermal-optical transmittance (TOT) method. Emission factors (EFs) of particulate matter (PM), organic carbon (OC), and elemental carbon (EC) are systematically measured, and the average EFs are calculated by taking into account our previous data. For bituminous coal-briquette and -chunk, EFs of PM, OC, and EC are 7.33, 4.16, and 0.08 g/kg and 14.8, 5.93, and 3.81 g/kg, respectively; and for anthracite-briquette and -chunk, they are 1.21, 0.06, and 0.004 g/kg and 1.08, 0.10, and 0.007 g/kg, respectively. Annual estimates for PM, OC, and EC emissions in China are calculated for the years of 2000 and 2005 according to the EFs and coal consumptions, and the results are consistent with our previous estimates. Bituminous coal-chunk contributes 68% and 99% of the total OC and EC emissions from household coal burning, respectively. Additionally, a new model of Aethalometer (AE90) is introduced into the sampling system to monitor the real-time BC concentrations. On one hand, AE90 provides a set of EFs for optical BC in parallel to thermal-optical EC, and these two data are generally comparable, although BC/EC ratios vary in different coal/stove combinations. On the other hand, AE90 offers a chance to observe the variation of BC concentrations during whole burning cycles, which demonstrates that almost all BC emits into the flue during the initial period of 15 min after coal addition into household stoves. 23 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Co-combustion of peanut hull and coal blends: Artificial neural networks modeling, particle swarm optimization and Monte Carlo simulation.

    PubMed

    Buyukada, Musa

    2016-09-01

    Co-combustion of coal and peanut hull (PH) were investigated using artificial neural networks (ANN), particle swarm optimization, and Monte Carlo simulation as a function of blend ratio, heating rate, and temperature. The best prediction was reached by ANN61 multi-layer perception model with a R(2) of 0.99994. Blend ratio of 90 to 10 (PH to coal, wt%), temperature of 305°C, and heating rate of 49°Cmin(-1) were determined as the optimum input values and yield of 87.4% was obtained under PSO optimized conditions. The validation experiments resulted in yields of 87.5%±0.2 after three replications. Monte Carlo simulations were used for the probabilistic assessments of stochastic variability and uncertainty associated with explanatory variables of co-combustion process.

  5. Assessment of discharges from Sasol I Lurgi-based coal gasification plant. Final report Sep 81-Mar 82

    SciTech Connect

    Thomson, S.J.; Kasper, G.; Nagy, J.F.; Tzou, A.; Pernot, L.S.

    1983-08-01

    The report discusses analytical information, obtained from Sasol I, on the emission and effluent streams analyzed in the normal course of operation and testing. The purpose was to provide EPA with representative information on a commercial-size Lurgi-based coal gasification project. The final report gives operating data and supplementary data, including material balances and pollutant distribution evaluations. Although much of this supplementary information is based on engineering estimates and calculations, it is believed to be representative of a Sasol I gasification operation. The data presented should be confirmed by a series of test runs before they are used for process design purposes, cost estimates, or environmental control studies.

  6. Coal desulfurization in a rotary kiln combustor. Final report, March 15, 1990--July 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Cobb, J.T. Jr.

    1992-09-11

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the combustion of coal and coal wastes in a rotary kiln reactor with limestone addition for sulfur control. The rationale for the project was the perception that rotary systems could bring several advantages to combustion of these fuels, and may thus offer an alternative to fluid-bed boilers. Towards this end, an existing wood pyrolysis kiln (the Humphrey Charcoal kiln) was to be suitably refurbished and retrofitted with a specially designed version of a patented air distributor provided by Universal Energy, Inc. (UEI). As the project progressed beyond the initial stages, a number of issues were raised regarding the feasibility and the possible advantages of burning coals in a rotary kiln combustor and, in particular, the suitability of the Humphrey Charcoal kiln as a combustor. Instead, an opportunity arose to conduct combustion tests in the PEDCO Rotary Cascading-Bed Boiler (RCBB) commercial demonstration unit at the North American Rayon CO. (NARCO) in Elizabethton, TN. The tests focused on anthracite culm and had two objectives: (a) determine the feasibility of burning anthracite culms in a rotary kiln boiler and (b) obtain input for any further work involving the Humphrey Charcoal kiln combustor. A number of tests were conducted at the PEDCO unit. The last one was conducted on anthracite culm procured directly from the feed bin of a commercial circulating fluid-bed boiler. The results were disappointing; it was difficult to maintain sustained combustion even when large quantities of supplemental fuel were used. Combustion efficiency was poor, around 60 percent. The results suggest that the rotary kiln boiler, as designed, is ill-suited with respect to low-grade, hard to burn solid fuels, such as anthracite culm. Indeed, data from combustion of bituminous coal in the PEDCO unit suggest that with respect to coal in general, the rotary kiln boiler appears inferior to the circulating fluid bed boiler.

  7. Effects of coal-derived trace species on performance of molten carbonate fuel cells. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    The Carbonate Fuel Cell is a very promising option for highly efficient generation of electricity from many fuels. If coal-gas is to be used, the interactions of coal-derived impurities on various fuel cell components need to be understood. Thus the effects on Carbonate Fuel Cell performance due to ten different coal-derived contaminants viz., NH{sub 3}, H{sub 2}S, HC{ell}, H{sub 2}Se, AsH{sub 3}, Zn, Pb, Cd, Sn, and Hg, have been studied at Energy Research Corporation. Both experimental and theoretical evaluations were performed, which have led to mechanistic insights and initial estimation of qualitative tolerance levels for each species individually and in combination with other species. The focus of this study was to investigate possible coal-gas contaminant effects on the anode side of the Carbonate Fuel Cell, using both out-of-cell thermogravimetric analysis by isothermal TGA, and fuel cell testing in bench-scale cells. Separate experiments detailing performance decay in these cells with high levels of ammonia contamination (1 vol %) and with trace levels of Cd, Hg, and Sn, have indicated that, on the whole, these elements do not affect carbonate fuel cell performance. However, some performance decay may result when a number of the other six species are present, singly or simultaneously, as contaminants in fuel gas. In all cases, tolerance levels have been estimated for each of the 10 species and preliminary models have been developed for six of them. At this stage the models are limited to isothermal, benchscale (300 cm{sup 2} size) single cells. The information obtained is expected to assist in the development of coal-gas cleanup systems, while the contaminant performance effects data will provide useful basic information for modeling fuel cell endurance in conjunction with integrated gasifier/fuel-cell systems (IGFC).

  8. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction. Final report, May 1, 1991--April 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Huffman, G.P.

    1996-03-01

    Extensive research continued on catalysts based on novel anion-treated (mainly sulfated) oxides and oxyhydroxides of iron [Fe{sub x}O{sub y}/SO{sub 4}]. In addition, sulfated oxides of tin as well as molybdenum promoted iron oxides were used. Incorporation of small amounts of sulfate, molybdate, or tungstate anions by wet precipitation/impregnation methods was found to increase the surface acidic character of iron oxides; more importantly, it reduced the grain sizes significantly with corresponding increases in specific surface areas. These anion-treated iron and tin oxides were more active for direct coal liquefaction and coal-heavy oil coprocessing than their untreated counterparts. With these catalyst systems, higher conversion levels are obtained as compared to the soluble precursors of iron and molybdenum at the same catalyst metalloading (3500 ppm iron and 50 ppm molybdenum with respect to coal). Sulfated iron oxides and oxyhydroxides were equally active as coal liquefaction catalysts. The sulfate, molybdate, and tungstate anions were found to have similar promotional effects on the properties and activities of iron oxides. One step in the synthesis of anion-treated iron and tin oxides is precipitation as hydroxides using either urea or ammonium hydroxide. The catalysts prepared using urea as a precipitation agent were more reproducible than those using ammonium, hydroxide in terms of activities and properties. These catalysts/catalyst precursors were characterized by several techniques to determine their physical (size and structure related) and chemical (acidity) properties. Sulfated and molybdated iron oxides were found to have grain sizes as small as 10-20 nm. An attempt was made to correlate the physicochemical properties of these catalysts with their activity for coal liquefaction.

  9. Kinetic modeling of the formation and growth of inorganic nano-particles during pulverized coal char combustion in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres

    DOE PAGES

    Shaddix, Christopher R.; Niu, Yanqing; Hui, Shi'en; ...

    2016-08-01

    In this formation of nano-particles during coal char combustion, the vaporization of inorganic components in char and the subsequent homogeneous particle nucleation, heterogeneous condensation, coagulation, and coalescence play decisive roles. Furthermore, conventional measurements cannot provide detailed information on the dynamics of nano-particle formation and evolution, In this study, a sophisticated intrinsic char kinetics model that considers ash effects (including ash film formation, ash dilution, and ash vaporization acting in tandem), both oxidation and gasification by CO2 and H2O, homogeneous particle nucleation, heterogeneous vapor condensation, coagulation, and and coalescence mechanisms is developed and used to compare the temporal evolution of themore » number and size of nano-particles during coal char particle combustion as a function of char particle size, ash content, and oxygen content in O2/N2 and O2/CO2 atmospheres .« less

  10. Fundamental studies of coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1995-01-01

    The authors have examined the pyrolysis of Argonne samples of Wyodak and Illinois No. 6 coal in argon, undecane, Tetralin, and water. The effects of the pyrolysis on individual particles of coal were monitored visually in a cell with diamond windows capable of operation to temperature and pressures in excess of 500{degrees}C and 3000 psi. The changes in the particles from ambient to 460{degrees}C were recorded in real time on video tape, and images were then taken from the tape record and analyzed. The study showed that in argon both coals developed tars at 350{degrees}-370{degrees}C. The tars then quickly evaporated, leaving core particles remarkably similar in size and shape to the initial particles. These observations suggest that coal does not melt nor become fully liquid when heated. Nor does the softened coal undergo crosslinking to generate coke. Rather the simple loss of volatiles leaves behind the core residue as coke. Contrary to the common view, there appears to be no link between the bond-breaking processes yielding tar and the interaction of the coal with H-donors leading to liquefaction. Water as a medium was surprising in its effect. Both coals began to shrink at 300{degrees}-350{degrees}C, with the effect appearing to be more of an erosion rather than a uniform loss of substance as seen in Tetralin. The Wyodak continued to shrink to 460{degrees}C to about half its initial size. With the Illinois No. 6 coal, however, the process reversed at around 420{degrees}C, and the particles appeared to grow with the evolution of a tar, continuing to 460{degrees}C. The authors submit that this final observation is evidence for hydrothermal synthesis of hydrocarbons at these conditions.

  11. Characterization of solid wastes for the proposed WyCoalGas gasification facility. Final technical report, November 1980-May 1982. [Proposed WyCoalGas project, Converse County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-01-01

    The proposed facility will produce large volumes of coal ash, both from the gasifiers and the steam generating boilers, and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) sludge, requiring disposal. Several other wastes will be produced in much smaller volumes. These major solid waste streams are characterized in this technical note. The waste characterizations are based on the analyses of samples from a test at the SASOL I (proprietary) Limited Coal Conversion facility in South Africa. The SASOL facility uses Lurgi gasifiers, and the test coal was from the Jacobs Ranch coal mine adjacent to the Rochelle mine. Solid waste samples from the XYZ Power Station power plant, which burns coal similar in composition to the Rochelle coal, were also collected and characterized. Wastes other than coal ashes and FGD sludge are characterized based on analyses of waste from similar processes or on existing data from Lurgi gasifiers and steam generating boilers. Section 2 of this note contains a summary of the waste characteristics with emphasis on those waste properties which will affect disposal requirements. Sample acquisition is discussed in Section 3. The final three sections present the detailed results of the waste characterizations. Section 4 describes the analyses that were performed to satisfy current regulations; Section 5 presents the results of a comprehensive analysis of the wastes, including trace element and organic analyses; Section 6 presents the physical properties of the wastes which will affect the waste handling and disposal operations.

  12. Hydrotreating of a Lurgi coal liquid. Phase one. Final report, June 1, 1978-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.B.; Conners, R.W.

    1980-07-01

    Coal liquids produced during the gasification of coal via the Lurgi Process were hydrotreated to determine whether sulfur, nitrogen and oxygen could be removed leaving a liquid product suitable for high grade use, e.g. refinery feed or chemicals. The experimental system was a semi-batch (continuous gas flow) stirred, slurry reactor. A commercial nickel-molybdenum catalyst was used which required presulfiding prior to hydrotreating. The reaction system was operated at 360 psig and at temperatures of 275, 300 and 325/sup 0/C. Product analysis was by gas chromatography. Qualitative determination of ammonia (primary denitrogenation product) and water (primary deoxygenation product) was made. Quantitative determination of hydrogen sulfide was performed. The lumped kinetics desulfurization reactions were pseudo first order with an apparent activation energy 14.500 Kcal/g mole.

  13. Supercritical fluid thermodynamics for coal processing. Final report, September 15, 1988--September 14, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    van Swol, F.; Eckert, C.A.

    1988-09-15

    The main objective of this research is to develop an equation of state that can be used to predict solubilities and tailor supercritical fluid solvents for the extraction and processing of coal. To meet this objective we have implemented a two-sided. approach. First, we expanded the database of model coal compound solubilities in higher temperature fluids, polar fluids, and fluid mixtures systems. Second, the unique solute/solute, solute/cosolvent and solute/solvent intermolecular interactions in supercritical fluid solutions were investigated using spectroscopic techniques. These results increased our understanding of the molecular phenomena that affect solubility in supercritical fluids and were significant in the development of an equation of state that accurately reflects the true molecular makeup of the solution. (VC)

  14. Advanced coal liquefaction. Final quarterly report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    Coal liquid upgrading using compound No. 9, 4-(1-naphthymethyl) bibenzyl, as a model was performed in a catalytic membrane reactor in this quarter. Membrane packed with granular catalyst synthesized from Si-CVD coatedy-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was used as a reactor. A control was also performed using the same reactor under a packed-bed operation mode. About 52% conversion of compound No. 9 was obtained in a packed-bed at 400{degrees}C and 200 psi. Under a similar operating condition, compound No. 9 was completely decomposed in the catalytic membrane reactor. The results offer the experimental evidence of enhanced upgrading efficiency of upgrading coal liquid using a membrane reactor. A similar study will be duplicated before the end of the contract.

  15. BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM. Final Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-10-01

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem in November 1990. The design of the project was completed in December 1993 and construction was completed in January 1995. The equipment startup period continued to November 1995 at which time the operating and testing program began. The blast furnace test program with different injected coals was completed in December 1998.

  16. Extraction of potential pollutants from Ohio coal by synergistic use of supercritical fluids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.

    1990-08-03

    A synergistic supercritical extraction process was developed and its feasibility demonstrated using a semi-batch extraction process unit. The process was found to be effective in selectively cleaning organic sulfur from Ohio coals. Optimal case involved a mixture of CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, and CH{sub 3}OH, and the removal of organic sulfur ranged from 35 to 55%. Combined with pyrite and mineral matter removal by gravity, the resulting coals would have 20--30% increased heating values and SO{sub 2} emissions would be down to 1.2--1.5 pounds per million Btu, thus meeting compliance requirements. Estimated cleaning cost including pyrite removal is $25 to 45 per ton. The most important cost factor is the operation at high pressures.

  17. Development of an extraction process for removal of heteroatoms from coal liquids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The main goal of this contract was to develop an extraction process for upgrading coal liquids; and in doing so, to reduce the hydrogen requirement in downstream upgrading processes and to yield valuable byproducts. This goal was to be achieved by developing a novel carbon dioxide extraction process for heteroatom removal from coal-derived naphtha, diesel, and jet fuel. The research plan called for the optimization of three critical process variables using a statistically-designed experimental matrix. The commercial potential of the new process was to be evaluated by demonstrating quantitatively the effectiveness of heteroatom removal from three different feedstocks and by conducting a comparative economic analysis of alternate heteroatom removal technologies. Accomplishments are described for the following tasks: food procurement and analysis process variable screening studies; and process assessment.

  18. High resolution seismic survey (of the) Rawlins, Wyoming underground coal gasification area. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Youngberg, A.D.; Berkman, E.; Orange, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    In October 1982, a high resolution seismic survey was conducted at the Gulf Research and Development Company's underground coal gasification test site near Rawlins, Wyoming. The objectives of the survey were to utilize high resolution seismic technology to locate and characterize two underground coal burn zones. Seismic data acquisition and processing parameters were specifically designed to emphasize reflections at the shallow depths of interest. A three-dimensional grid of data was obtained over the Rawlins burn zones. Processing included time varying filters, trace composition, and two-dimensional areal stacking of the data in order to identify burn zone anomalies. An anomaly was discernable resulting from the rubble-collapse cavity associated with the burn zone which was studied in detail at the Rawlins 1 and 2 test sites. 21 refs., 20 figs.

  19. Development of the electroacoustic dewatering (EAD) process for fine/ultrafine coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chauhan, S.P.; Kim, B.C.; Menton, R.; Senapati, N.; Criner, C.L.; Jirjis, B.; Muralidhara, H.S.; Chou, Y.L.; Wu, H.; Hsieh, P.; Johnson, H.R.; Eason, R.; Chiang, S.M.; Cheng, Y.S.; Kehoe, D.

    1991-10-31

    Battelle (Columbus, Ohio) undertook development of its electro-acoustic (EAD) process to demonstrate its commercial potential for continuous dewatering of fine and ultrafine coals. The pilot plant and laboratory results, provided in this report, show that a commercial-size EAD machine is expected to economically achieve the dewatering targets for {minus}100 mesh and {minus}325 mesh coals. The EAD process utilizes a synergistic combination of electric and acoustic (e.g., ultrasonic) fields in conjunction with conventional mechanical processes, such as belt presses, screw presses, plate and frame filter presses, and vacuum filters. The application of EAD is typically most beneficial after a filter cake is formed utilizing conventional mechanical filtration. (VC)

  20. Cyclone reburn using coal-water fuel: Pilot-scale development and testing. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Eckhart, C.F.; DeVault, R.F.

    1991-10-01

    There is an ongoing effort to develop retrofit technologies capable of converting oil- and/or gas-fired boilers to coal combustion. The objective of this project is to demonstrate the technical feasibility of an improved portion of a previously developed retrofit system designed for the purpose of converting oil/gas boilers. This improvement would almost entirely eliminate the use of premium fuels, thereby significantly increasing the economical attractiveness of the system. Specifically, the goals in this program were to replace natural gas as a reburning fuel with coal-water fuel (CWF). The advantages of such a system include: (1) increased return on investment (ROI) for conversions; (2) nearly complete elimination of premium oil or gas fuel; (3) a more integrated approach to the conversion of oil- or gas-designed boilers to CWF.

  1. Advanced turbine design for coal-fueled engines. Phase 1, Erosion of turbine hot gas path blading: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.H.; Johnson, B.V.

    1993-04-01

    The investigators conclude that: (1) Turbine erosion resistance was shown to be improved by a factor of 5 by varying the turbine design. Increasing the number of stages and increasing the mean radius reduces the peak predicted erosion rates for 2-D flows on the blade airfoil from values which are 6 times those of the vane to values of erosion which are comparable to those of the vane airfoils. (2) Turbine erosion was a strong function of airfoil shape depending on particle diameter. Different airfoil shapes for the same turbine operating condition resulted in a factor of 7 change in airfoil erosion for the smallest particles studied (5 micron). (3) Predicted erosion for the various turbines analyzed was a strong function of particle diameter and weaker function of particle density. (4) Three dimensional secondary flows were shown to cause increases in peak and average erosion on the vane and blade airfoils. Additionally, the interblade secondary flows and stationary outer case caused unique erosion patterns which were not obtainable with 2-D analyses. (5) Analysis of the results indicate that hot gas cleanup systems are necessary to achieve acceptable turbine life in direct-fired, coal-fueled systems. In addition, serious consequences arise when hot gas filter systems fail for even short time periods. For a complete failure of the filter system, a 0.030 in. thick corrosion-resistant protective coating on a turbine blade would be eroded at some locations within eight minutes.

  2. Control of pyrite surface chemistry in physical coal cleaning. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Luttrell, G.H.; Yoon, R.H.; Richardson, P.E.

    1993-05-19

    In Part I, Surface Chemistry of Coal Pyrite the mechanisms responsible for the inefficient rejection of coal pyrite were investigated using a number of experimental techniques. The test results demonstrate that the hydrophobicity of coal pyrite is related to the surface products formed during oxidation in aqueous solutions. During oxidation, a sulfur-rich surface layer is produced in near neutral pH solutions. This surface layer is composed mainly of sulfur species in the form of an iron-polysulfide along with a smaller amount of iron oxide/hydroxides. The floatability coal pyrite increases dramatically in the presence of frothers and hydrocarbon collectors. These reagents are believed to absorb on the weakly hydrophobic pyrite surfaces as a result of hydrophobic interaction forces. In Part III, Developing the Best Possible Rejection Schemes, a number of pyrite depressants were evaluated in column and conventional flotation tests. These included manganese (Mn) metal, chelating agents quinone and diethylenetriamine (DETA), and several commercially-available organic depressants. Of these, the additives which serve as reducing agents were found to be most effective. Reducing agents were used to prevent pyrite oxidation and/or remove oxidation products present on previously oxidized surfaces. These data show that Mn is a significantly stronger depressant for pyrite than quinone or DETA. Important factors in determining the pyrite depression effect of Mn include the slurry solid content during conditioning, the addition of acid (HCl), and the amount of Mn. The acid helps remove the oxide layer from the surface of Mn and promotes the depression of pyrite by Mn.

  3. Molten salt coal gasification process development unit. Phase 1. Volume 1. PDU operations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Kohl, A.L.

    1980-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a test program conducted on the Molten Salt Coal Gasification Process, which included the design, construction, and operation of a Process Development Unit. In this process, coal is gasified by contacting it with air in a turbulent pool of molten sodium carbonate. Sulfur and ash are retained in the melt, and a small stream is continuously removed from the gasifier for regeneration of sodium carbonate, removal of sulfur, and disposal of the ash. The process can handle a wide variety of feed materials, including highly caking coals, and produces a gas relatively free from tars and other impurities. The gasification step is carried out at approximately 1800/sup 0/F. The PDU was designed to process 1 ton per hour of coal at pressures up to 20 atm. It is a completely integrated facility including systems for feeding solids to the gasifier, regenerating sodium carbonate for reuse, and removing sulfur and ash in forms suitable for disposal. Five extended test runs were made. The observed product gas composition was quite close to that predicted on the basis of earlier small-scale tests and thermodynamic considerations. All plant systems were operated in an integrated manner during one of the runs. The principal problem encountered during the five test runs was maintaining a continuous flow of melt from the gasifier to the quench tank. Test data and discussions regarding plant equipment and process performance are presented. The program also included a commercial plant study which showed the process to be attractive for use in a combined-cycle, electric power plant. The report is presented in two volumes, Volume 1, PDU Operations, and Volume 2, Commercial Plant Study.

  4. Characterization of Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) Variant Activation by Coal Fly Ash Particles and Associations with Altered Transient Receptor Potential Ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) Expression and Asthma.

    PubMed

    Deering-Rice, Cassandra E; Stockmann, Chris; Romero, Erin G; Lu, Zhenyu; Shapiro, Darien; Stone, Bryan L; Fassl, Bernhard; Nkoy, Flory; Uchida, Derek A; Ward, Robert M; Veranth, John M; Reilly, Christopher A

    2016-11-25

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) channels are activated by environmental particulate materials. We hypothesized that polymorphic variants of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) would be uniquely responsive to insoluble coal fly ash compared with the prototypical soluble agonist capsaicin. Furthermore, these changes would manifest as differences in lung cell responses to these agonists and perhaps correlate with changes in asthma symptom control. The TRPV1-I315M and -T469I variants were more responsive to capsaicin and coal fly ash. The I585V variant was less responsive to coal fly ash particles due to reduced translation of protein and an apparent role for Ile-585 in activation by particles. In HEK-293 cells, I585V had an inhibitory effect on wild-type TRPV1 expression, activation, and internalization/agonist-induced desensitization. In normal human bronchial epithelial cells, IL-8 secretion in response to coal fly ash treatment was reduced for cells heterozygous for TRPV1-I585V. Finally, both the I315M and I585V variants were associated with worse asthma symptom control with the effects of I315M manifesting in mild asthma and those of the I585V variant manifesting in severe, steroid-insensitive individuals. This effect may be due in part to increased transient receptor potential ankyrin-1 (TRPA1) expression by lung epithelial cells expressing the TRPV1-I585V variant. These findings suggest that specific molecular interactions control TRPV1 activation by particles, differential activation, and desensitization of TRPV1 by particles and/or other agonists, and cellular changes in the expression of TRPA1 as a result of I585V expression could contribute to variations in asthma symptom control.

  5. Improved method for extinguishing coal-refuse fires. Final research report Jun 89-Feb 91

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, S.S.

    1991-04-01

    Coal refuse fires present environmental and personnel hazards to those living in the vicinity of the fire as well as those engaged in the reclamation efforts. The fire can also increase subsidence problems as well as prevent revegatation and reclamation of the site. Conventional efforts have been excavation and quenching; expensive, dangerous, and very often unsuccessful techniques. Water flooding has also proven unsuccessful due to the poor distribution of the water in the refuse pile. Water quickly drains from the coal refuse pile below its injection point with little or no laterial distribution. As an alternate to excavation and/or quenching, the feasibility of using water based foams to improve the distribution of water injected into a coal refuse fire was examined. Using surfactants to foam the water and gelling agents to reduce its fluidity, tests were conducted in the lab and the field. The foam still tends to follow the larger channels/openings in the pile, although above, as well as below the injection point. While the foam does improve water distribution in the pile, additional work needs to be conducted to prevent preferential channel flow and further improve distribution.

  6. Improved Fischer-Tropsch catalysts for indirect coal liquefaction. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.B. Jr.; Tong, G.T.; Chan, Y.W.; Huang, H.W.; McCarty, J.G.

    1989-02-01

    The Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS)reaction is the established technology for the production of liquid fuels from coal by an indirect route using coal-derived syngas (CO + H{sub 2}). Modern FTS catalysts are potassium- and copper-promoted iron preparations. These catalysts exhibit moderate activity with carbon monoxide-rich feedstocks such as the syngas produced by advanced coal gasification processes. However, the relatively large yields of by-product methane and high-molecular-weight hydrocarbon waxes detract from the production of desired liquid products in the C{sub 5}-C{sub 16} range needed for motor and aviation fuel. The goal of this program is to decrease undesirable portions of the FTS hydrocarbon yield by altering the Schultz-Flory polymerization product distribution through design and formulation of improved catalysts. Two approaches were taken: (1) reducing the yield of high-molecular-weight hydrocarbon waxes by using highly dispersed catalysts produced from surface-confined multiatomic clusters on acid supports and (2) suppressing methane production by uniformly pretreating active, selective conventional FTS catalysts with submonolayer levels of sulfur.

  7. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, W.P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1997-11-30

    This project was designed to evaluate the combustion performance of and emissions from a fluidized bed combustor during the combustion of mixtures of high sulfur and/or high chlorine coals and municipal solid waste (MSW). The project included four major tasks, which were as follows: (1) Selection, acquisition, and characterization of raw materials for fuels and the determination of combustion profiles of combination fuels using thermal analytical techniques; (2) Studies of the mechanisms for the formation of chlorinated organics during the combustion of MSW using a tube furnace; (3) Investigation of the effect of sulfur species on the formation of chlorinated organics; and (4) Examination of the combustion performance of combination fuels in a laboratory scale fluidized bed combustor. Several kinds of coals and the major combustible components of the MSW, including PVC, newspaper, and cellulose were tested in this project. Coals with a wide range of sulfur and chlorine contents were used. TGA/MS/FTIR analyses were performed on the raw materials and their blends. The possible mechanism for the formation of chlorinated organics during combustion was investigated by conducting a series of experiments in a tube furnace. The effect of sulfur dioxide on the formation of molecular chlorine during combustion processes was examined in this study.

  8. Development of a coal fired pulse combustor for residential space heating. Phase I, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of a program for the development of a coal-fired residential combustion system. This phase consisted of the design, fabrication, testing, and evaluation of an advanced pulse combustor sized for residential space heating requirements. The objective was to develop an advanced pulse coal combustor at the {approximately} 100,000 Btu/hr scale that can be integrated into a packaged space heating system for small residential applications. The strategy for the development effort included the scale down of the feasibility unit from 1-2 MMBtu/hr to 100,000 Btu/hr to establish a baseline for isolating the effect of scale-down and new chamber configurations separately. Initial focus at the residential scale was concentrated on methods of fuel injection and atomization in a bare metal unit. This was followed by incorporating changes to the advanced chamber designs and testing of refractory-lined units. Multi-fuel capability for firing oil or gas as a secondary fuel was also established. Upon completion of the configuration and component testing, an optimum configuration would be selected for integrated testing of the pulse combustor unit. The strategy also defined the use of Dry Ultrafine Coal (DUC) for Phases 1 and 2 of the development program with CWM firing to be a product improvement activity for a later phase of the program.

  9. Co-production of electricity and alternate fuels from coal. Final report, August 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The Calderon process and its process development unit, PDU, were originally conceived to produce two useful products from a bituminous coal: a desulfurized medium BTU gas containing primarily CO, H{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}O; and a desulfurized low BTU gas containing these same constituents plus N{sub 2} from the air used to provide heat for the process through the combustion of a portion of the fuel. The process was viewed as a means for providing both a synthesis gas for liquid fuel production (perhaps CH{sub 3}OH, alternatively CH{sub 4} or NH{sub 3}) and a pressurized, low BTU fuel gas, for gas turbine based power generation. The Calderon coal process comprises three principle sections which perform the following functions: coal pyrolysis in a continuous, steady flow unit based on coke oven technology; air blown, slagging, coke gasification in a moving bed unit based on a blast furnace technology; and a novel, lime pebble based, product gas processing in which a variety of functions are accomplished including the cracking of hydrocarbons and the removal of sulfur, H{sub 2}S, and of particulates from both the medium and low BTU gases. The product gas processing unit, based on multiple moving beds, has also been conceived to regenerate the lime pebbles and recover sulfur as elemental S.

  10. EDS coal liquefaction process development: Phase V. Final technical progress report, Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    1984-02-01

    All objectives in the EDS Cooperative Agreement for Phases III-B through V have been achieved for the RCLU pilot plants. EDS operations have been successfully demonstrated in both the once-through and bottoms recycle modes for coals of rank ranging from bituminous to lignitic. An extensive data base detailing the effects of process variable changes on yields, conversions and product qualities for each coal has been established. Continuous bottoms recycle operations demonstrated increased overall conversion and improved product slate flexibility over once-through operations. The hydrodynamics of the liquefaction reactor in RCLU were characterized through tests using radioactive tracers in the gas and slurry phases. RCLU was shown to have longer liquid residence times than ECLP. Support work during ECLP operations contributed to resolving differences between ECLP conversions and product yields and those of the small pilot plants. Solvent hydrogenation studies during Phases IIIB-V of the EDS program focused on long term activity maintenance of the Ni-MO-10 catalyst. Process variable studies for solvents from various coals (bituminous, subbituminous, and lignitic), catalyst screening evaluations, and support of ECLP solvent hydrogenation operations. Product quality studies indicate that highly cyclic EDS naphthas represent unique and outstanding catalytic reforming feedstocks. High volumes of high octane motor gasoline blendstock are produced while liberating a considerable quantity of high purity hydrogen.

  11. Hot coal gas desulfurization with manganese-based sorbents. Final report, September 1992--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Hepworth, M.T.; Slimane, R.B.

    1994-11-01

    The focus of much current work being performed by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) of the Department of Energy on hot coal-derived fuel gas desulfurization is in the use of zinc-based sorbents. METC has shown interest in formulating and testing manganese-based pellets as alternative effective sulfur sorbents in the 700 to 1200{degree}C temperature range. To substantiate the potential superiority of Mn-based pellets, a systematic approach toward the evaluation of the desulfurizing power of single-metal sorbents is developed based on thermodynamic considerations. This novel procedure considered several metal-based sorbents and singled out manganese oxide as a prime candidate sorbent capable of being utilized under a wide temperature range, irrespective of the reducing power (determined by CO{sub 2}/CO ratio) of the fuel gas. Then, the thermodynamic feasibility of using Mn-based pellets for the removal of H{sub 2}S from hot-coal derived fuel gases, and the subsequent oxidative regeneration of loaded (sulfided) pellets was established. It was concluded that MnO is the stable form of manganese for virtually all commercially available coal-derived fuel gases. In addition, the objective of reducing the H{sub 2}S concentration below 150 ppMv to satisfy the integrated gasification combined cycle system requirement was shown to be thermodynamically feasible. A novel process is developed for the manufacture of Mn-based spherical pellets which have the desired physical and chemical characteristics required.

  12. Innovative process for concentration of fine particle coal slurries. Technical report, September 1--November 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Rajchel, M. |; Harnett, D.; Fonseca, A.; Maurer, R.; Ehrlinger, H.P.

    1995-12-31

    Williams Technologies, Inc. and Clarke Rajchel Engineering are developing a technology (patent pending) to produce high quality coal water slurries from preparation plant fine coal streams. The WTI/CRE technology uses the novel implementation of high-shear cross-flow separation which replaces and enhances conventional thickening processes by surpassing normally achievable solids loadings. Dilute ultra-fine (minus 100 mesh) solids slurries can be concentrated to greater than 60 weight percent and re-mixed, as required, with de-watered coarser fractions to produce pumpable, heavily loaded coal slurries. The permeate (filtrate) resulting from this process has been demonstrated to be crystal clear and totally free of suspended solids. The primary objective of this project is to demonstrate the WTI/CRE coal slurry production process technology at the pilot scale. The technology will enable Illinois coal producers and users to realize significant coast and environmental benefits both by eliminating fine coal waste disposal problems and producing an IGCC fuel to produce power which meets all foreseeable clean air standards. In addition, testing is also directed at concentrating mine tailings material to produce a tailings paste which can be mine-back-, filled and thus eliminate the need for tailings ponds. This reporting period, September 1, 1995 through November 30, 1995, marked the inception of this project. During this period Task No. 1, Procurement and Set-Up, was completed. The pilot plant apparatus was constructed at the SIU Coal Research Center in Carterville, Illinois. All equipment and feedstock were received at the site.

  13. Devolatilization of coal particles in a flat flame -- Experimental and modeling study

    SciTech Connect

    Therssen, E.; Gourichon, L.; Delfosse, L.

    1995-10-01

    Pulverized coals have been tested under the conditions of industrial flames, with high heating rate and high temperatures. The chars were collected after different pyrolysis times. For eight coals, the devolatilized fraction of coal has been measured, as well as those of carbon, hydrogen and nitrogen. During pyrolysis, the evolution of the texture of the grains has been studied by measurement of their microporous surface area, which undergoes a large increase, depending on coal rank. The composition of the volatiles, as deduced from the ultimate and proximate analysis of chars, showed high volatile bituminous coals to essentially produce tars with an aromatic structure. Low and medium volatile bituminous coals produced light hydrocarbons on devolatilization and the char`s surface area continued increasing slowly during the whole of devolatilization, according to the slow increase of the fraction of hydrogen devolatilized. The char`s reactivity with oxygen was followed by measurements of Active Surface Area (ASA). It was shown that the ASA continuously decreases during devolatilization. Five models of devolatilization in the literature were tested and compared to the experimental results, assuming first-order reactions with respect to the remaining volatile matter. Badzioch`s model correctly fitted the experimental results and values of the rate constant obtained by computer trial and error adjustment were higher for lower ranks of the four bituminous coals. Anthony`s model also fits the measurements, provided an adjustment of the preexponential factor of activation energy for which it is shown that an infinite number of such pairs is suitable. If the model is run isothermally at the flame`s peak temperature, it also correctly fits the experimental results.

  14. Innovative process for concentration of fine particle coal slurries. Technical report, March 1- May 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Rajchel, M.; Ehrlinger, H.P.; Fonseca, A.; Mauer, R.

    1996-12-31

    Williams Technologies, Inc. And Clarke Rajchel Engineering are developing a technology (patent pending) to produce high quality coal water slurries from preparation plant fine coal streams. The WTI/CRE technology uses the novel implementation of high-shear cross-flow separation which replaces and enhances conventional thickening processes by surpassing normally achievable solids loadings. Dilute ultra-fine (minus 100 mesh) solids slurries can be, concentrated to greater than 60 weight percent and re-mixed, as required, with de-watered coarser fractions to produce pumpable, heavily loaded coal slurries. The permeate (filtrate) resulting from this process has been demonstrated to be crystal clear and totally free of suspended solids. The primary objective of this project was to demonstrate the WTI/CRE coal slurry production process technology at the pilot scale. The technology can enable Illinois coal producers and users to realize significant cost and environmental benefits both by eliminating fine coal waste disposal problems and producing an IGCC fuel to produce power which meets all foreseeable clean air standards. Testing was also directed at concentrating mine tailings material to produce a tailings paste which can be mine-back-filled, eliminating the need for tailings ponds. During the grant period, a laboratory-scale test apparatus (up to 3 GPM feed rate) was assembled and operated to demonstrate process performance over a range of feed temperatures and pressures. A dilute coal/water slurry from Consol, Inc.`s Rend Lake Preparation Plant was concentrated using the process to a maximum recorded solids loading of 61.9% solids by weight. Analytical results from the concentrate were evaluated by Destec Energy for suitability as an IGCC fuel.

  15. Development of a Coal Quality Expert. Final technical progress report No. 12, [January 1--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-12

    During the past quarter, Tasks 3, 4, 5, and 6 were active. Task 3 Pilot Scale Combustion Testing activity included data analysis of pilot- and bench-scale combustion samples in support of the development of CQE slogging and fouling models. Under Task 4, field testing at the fifth host utility site -- New England Power Service Company`s Brayton Point Unit 3 -- was completed in March with the testing of the alternate coal. Test plans were finalized for the sixth and final field test to be performed at Brayton Point Unit 2 in April 1993. Tasks 5 and 6 activities were directed at design and development of CQE base classes and objects, continued formulation and integration of CQE algorithms and submodels, development of the user interface prototype, and preparation of the Fireside Advisor.

  16. Erosion study in turbomachinery affected by coal and ash particles. Annual progress report, November 1, 1978-December 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Tabakoff, W.; Hamed, A.; Ramachandran, J.; Kotwal, R.; Beacher, B.

    1980-02-01

    Three alloys were tested in the test facility which has been designed to simulate the aerodynamic and thermodynamic conditions in the turbine. The effects on erosion due to the high tempeature coal ash gas stream was determined at several gas temperatures, particle velocities and angles of attack. The test results for 304 stainless steel, Rene 41 and A286, and the corresponding conclusions are presented. In addition, a series of experiments were conducted to determine the effects of fly ash constituents on the erosion of iron and nickel base alloys. A new semi-empirical equation has been obtained for the prediction of metal erosion due to the fly ash.

  17. Assessment of Methods for Estimating Risk to Birds from Ingestion of Contaminated Grit Particles (Final Report)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. EPA Ecological Risk Assessment Support Center (ERASC) announced the release of the final report entitled, Assessment of Methods for Estimating Risk to Birds from Ingestion of Contaminated Grit Particles. This report evaluates approaches for estimating the probabi...

  18. Final Report May 1, 2012 to May 31, 2015: "Theoretical Studies in Elementary Particle Physics"

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, John C.; Roiban, Radu

    2015-08-19

    This final report summarizes work at Penn State University from May 1, 2012 to May 31, 2015. The work was in theoretical elementary particle physics. Many new results in perturbative QCD, in string theory, and in related areas were obtained, with a substantial impact on the experimental program.

  19. Screening of candidate corrosion resistant materials for coal combustion environments -- Volume 4. Final report, January 31, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Boss, D.E.

    1997-12-31

    The development of a silicon carbide heat exchanger is a critical step in the development of the Externally-Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) power system. SiC is the only material that provides the necessary combination of resistance to creep, thermal shock, and oxidation. While the SiC structural materials provide the thermomechanical and thermophysical properties needed for an efficient system, the mechanical properties of the SiC tubes are severely degraded through corrosion by the coal combustion products. To obtain the necessary service life of thousands of hours at temperature, a protective coating is needed that is stable with both the SiC tube and the coal combustion products, resists erosion from the particle laden gas stream, is thermal-shock resistant, adheres to SiC during repeated thermal shocks (start-up, process upsets, shut-down), and allows the EFCC system to be cost competitive. The candidate protective materials identified in a previous effort were screened for their stability to the EFCC combustion environment. Bulk samples of each of the eleven candidate materials were prepared, and exposed to coal slag for 100 hours at 1,370 C under flowing air. After exposure the samples were mounted, polished, and examined via x-ray diffraction, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. In general, the alumina-based materials behaved well, with comparable corrosion depths in all five samples. Magnesium chromite formed a series of reaction products with the slag, which included an alumina-rich region. These reaction products may act as a diffusion barrier to slow further reaction between the magnesium chromite and the slag and prove to be a protective coating. As for the other materials; calcium titanate failed catastrophically, the CS-50 exhibited extension microstructural and compositional changes, and zirconium titanate, barium zironate, and yttrium chromite all showed evidence of dissolution with the slag.

  20. Testing of novel catalytic coal-gasification concepts. Task 1. Ultrasound-promoted catalysis. Final report, September 1986-September 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Mensinger, M.C.; Lau, F.S.; Wangerow, J.R.; Punwani, D.V.

    1990-07-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the effects of operating conditions, catalysts, and reactor configurations on ultrasound-promoted coal gasification. The operating conditions tested with lignite-water or lignite-water-salt slurries included temperatures and pressures in the range of 75 to 650 F, and 50 to 1200 psig, respectively. In tests conducted with nonaqueous slurries, the temperatures and pressures tested ranged from 650 to 720 F and 100 to 200 psig. Catalysts tested were KOH, LiOH, K2CO3, hydrogenation, SNOCAT, laterite, CRG-A, and ruthenium. The frequency of the ultrasonic horn was 20 kHz. Overall, at the conditions and with the catalysts and slurry media tested, ultrasound was not effective in sustaining coal gasification reactions. The most favorable results were obtained with a lignite-water slurry irradiated with high intensity ultrasound with KOH catalyst at 550 F and 1050 psig. After 1 hour of sonication, the carbon conversion to gas was about 5%. Analyses of the slurries from tests conducted with and without ultrasound showed that ultrasound significantly increased the types and quantities of components that were solubilized. As expected, ultrasound significantly reduced the particle size of lignite being irradiated.

  1. Advanced coal-fueled industrial cogeneration gas turbine system particle removal system development

    SciTech Connect

    Stephenson, M.

    1994-03-01

    Solar Turbines developed a direct coal-fueled turbine system (DCFT) and tested each component in subscale facilities and the combustion system was tested at full-scale. The combustion system was comprised of a two-stage slagging combustor with an impact separator between the two combustors. Greater than 90 percent of the native ash in the coal was removed as liquid slag with this system. In the first combustor, coal water slurry mixture (CWM) was injected into a combustion chamber which was operated loan to suppress NO{sub x} formation. The slurry was introduced through four fuel injectors that created a toroidal vortex because of the combustor geometry and angle of orientation of the injectors. The liquid slag that was formed was directed downward toward an impaction plate made of a refractory material. Sixty to seventy percent of the coal-borne ash was collected in this fashion. An impact separator was used to remove additional slag that had escaped the primary combustor. The combined particulate collection efficiency from both combustors was above 95 percent. Unfortunately, a great deal of the original sulfur from the coal still remained in the gas stream and needed to be separated. To accomplish this, dolomite or hydrated lime were injected in the secondary combustor to react with the sulfur dioxide and form calcium sulfite and sulfates. This solution for the sulfur problem increased the dust concentrations to as much as 6000 ppmw. A downstream particulate control system was required, and one that could operate at 150 psia, 1850-1900{degrees}F and with low pressure drop. Solar designed and tested a particulate rejection system to remove essentially all particulate from the high temperature, high pressure gas stream. A thorough research and development program was aimed at identifying candidate technologies and testing them with Solar`s coal-fired system. This topical report summarizes these activities over a period beginning in 1987 and ending in 1992.

  2. Northern Powder River basin coal, Montana. Final environmental statement, regional analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-01-01

    This environmental statement is in two parts: a regional analysis and a site-specific analysis of coal development in the northern Powder River basin region of Montana. The regional analysis addresses cumulative impacts of coal development in the region by 1990, with emphasis on industry proposals that now require or have recently required action by Federal and state authorities. A site-specific analysis of the proposed mining and reclamation plan for the Pearl mine makes up volumes 2 and 4 of this FES. Total annual coal production from the designated region of southeastern Montana is estimated at about 39 million tons by 1980, 50 million tons by 1985, and 53 million tons by 1990. The Big Sky, Pearl, and Spring Creek mines would collectively produce approximately 15% of the total by 1980, 26.5% by 1985, and 25% by 1990. Three impacts were determined to be locally significant. The National Ambient Air Quality Standards for total suspended particulates would frequently be exceeded near all three minesites during mine life. Degradation of air quality would cause subtle injury to vegetation within about 1 mile of the mines and about 4 miles of the generating units, slightly reducing vegetative productivity. Wildlife populations, primarily antelope, mule deer, and sage grouse, would be significantly reduced during mine life and probably for several decades after mining. No threatened or endangered species would be adversely affected.Social impacts would be significant in Colstrip and Forsyth - comparable to those experienced during the construction of Colstrip units 1 and 2. At least during the 2 or 3 years of most rapid growth, local governments, formal and informal institutions, and social networks in Colstrip and Forsyth would not be able to meet the demands placed on them. Comment letters and responses are included.

  3. Computer simulation of coal preparation plants. Part 2. User's manual. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Gottfried, B.S.; Tierney, J.W.

    1985-12-01

    This report describes a comprehensive computer program that allows the user to simulate the performance of realistic coal preparation plants. The program is very flexible in the sense that it can accommodate any particular plant configuration that may be of interest. This allows the user to compare the performance of different plant configurations and to determine the impact of various modes of operation with the same configuration. In addition, the program can be used to assess the degree of cleaning obtained with different coal feeds for a given plant configuration and a given mode of operation. Use of the simulator requires that the user specify the appearance of the plant configuration, the plant operating conditions, and a description of the coal feed. The simulator will then determine the flowrates within the plant, and a description of each flowrate (i.e., the weight distribution, percent ash, pyritic sulfur and total sulfur, moisture, and Btu content). The simulation program has been written in modular form using the Fortran language. It can be implemented on a great many different types of computers, ranging from large scientific mainframes to IBM-type personal computers with a fixed disk. Some customization may be required, however, to ensure compatibility with the features of Fortran available on a particular computer. Part I of this report contains a general description of the methods used to carry out the simulation. Each of the major types of units is described separately, in addition to a description of the overall system analysis. Part II is intended as a user's manual. It contains a listing of the mainframe version of the program, instructions for its use (on both a mainframe and a microcomputer), and output for a representative sample problem.

  4. Evaluation of coal-conversion catalysts. Final report, January 1978-December 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, A.L.

    1987-11-01

    A novel family of sulfur-resistant, low-carbon fouling hydrogenation catalysts were discovered by Catalysis Research Corporation for GRI. These catalysts promote the direct methanation reaction in which equal molar concentrations of H/sub 2/ and CO react to produce CH/sub 4/ and CO/sub 2/. IGT evaluated these catalysts. The work performed during the period included the following: Evaluated 12 sulfur-resistant catalysts for direct methanation; Obtained design data for the direct methanation process for British Gas Corp./Lurgi Slagging, Lurgi, Westinghouse, Underground Coal, and Shell gasification processes; and Performed life tests of 200 to 10,000 hours.

  5. Transformations of inorganic coal constituents in combustion systems. Volume 3, Appendices: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Helble, J.J.; Srinivasachar, S.; Wilemski, G.; Boni, A.A.; Kang, Shim-Gyoo; Sarofim, A.F.; Graham, K.A.; Beer, J.M.; Peterson, T.W.; Wendt, O.L.; Gallagher, N.B.; Bool, L.; Huggins, F.E.; Huffman, G.P.; Shah, N.; Shah, A.

    1992-11-01

    This report contains the computer codes developed for the coal combustion project. In Subsection B.1 the FORTRAN code developed for the percolative fragmentation model (or the discrete model, since a char is expressed as a collection of discrete elements in a discrete space) is presented. In Subsection B.2 the code for the continuum model (thus named because mineral inclusions are distributed in a continuum space) is presented. A stereological model code developed to obtain the pore size distribution from a two-dimensional data is presented in Subsection B.3.

  6. Autopsy studies of coal miners' lungs. Phase 2. Final report August 77-July 80

    SciTech Connect

    Ruckley, V.A.; Chapman, J.S.; Collings, P.L.; Douglas, A.N.; Fernie, J.M.

    1981-11-01

    This report is based on a post mortem study of the lungs and hearts of various groups of coal workers drawn from an original cohort of 500 men. The men had worked in collieries which took part in Pneumoconiosis Field Research and which covered the range of mining conditions in Britain. The aim of the study was to relate pathological evidence of pneumoconiosis, emphysema and bronchitis and the radiographic appearances of pneumoconiosis to both the dust retained in the lung and the respirable dust to which the men were exposed. Also included were studies of right-sided heart disease and respiratory function during life in relation to lung pathology.

  7. Final Report: "Collaborative Project. Understanding the Chemical Processes That Affect Growth Rates of Freshly Nucleated Particles"

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, James N.; McMurry, Peter H.

    2015-11-12

    This final technical report describes our research activities that have, as the ultimate goal, the development of a model that explains growth rates of freshly nucleated particles. The research activities, which combine field observations with laboratory experiments, explore the relationship between concentrations of gas-phase species that contribute to growth and the rates at which those species are taken up. We also describe measurements of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles in a variety of locales, as well as properties (especially hygroscopicity) that influence their effects on climate. Our measurements include a self-organized, DOE-ARM funded project at the Southern Great Plains site, the New Particle Formation Study (NPFS), which took place during spring 2013. NPFS data are available to the research community on the ARM data archive, providing a unique suite observations of trace gas and aerosols that are associated with the formation and growth of atmospheric aerosol particles.

  8. The physical and chemical characteristics of particles in indoor air where high fluoride coal burning takes place

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, S.L.; Ji, R.D.; Cao, S.R. )

    1990-12-01

    In China, more than 10 million people suffer from fluorosis caused by the burning of high fluoride coal. Analysis of the particulate matters of indoor air from these fluorosis areas reveals a logarithmic distribution of particle sizes. The levels of F- and SO4(2-) adsorbed or absorbed on the particles ranged from 16.27 to 46.18 micrograms/m3 and from 244.7 to 374.6 micrograms/m3, respectively. Gaseous and soluble fluorides constituted a considerable proportion of the inorganic fluorides. Nevertheless, the level of F- in air was considered to be inadequate to cause the observed severity of fluorosis. It is speculated that additional intake of F- from contaminated foods might also be a major factor contributing to the fluorosis. Additionally, some volatile elements (e.g., sulfur and its derivatives) might have some relation to fluorosis of this type.

  9. Determination of the radiative of pulverized-coal particles. Technical progress report, third quarter of the third year, March 15, 1990--June 15, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Menguec, M.P.; Dsa, D.; Manickavasagam, S.; Dutta, P.; Mahadeviah, A.

    1991-12-31

    For accurate modeling of radiative transfer in combustion systems, radiative properties of combustion products are required. It is usually difficult to calculate the properties of nonhomogeneous and irregular-shaped pulverized-coal and char particles, because of the lack of information on optical constants and unavailability of simple and accurate theoretical models. Because of this, it is preferable to determine the required properties from experiments in situ. This can be accomplished by combining optical diagnostic techniques with inverse analyses of radiative transfer problem. In this study, experiments were conducted using a CO{sub 2}-laser nephelometer to measure angular distribution of light scattered by a cold-layer of pulverized-coal particles. The data obtained from the experiments were used along with a new step-phase function approximation in a numerical inverse radiation scheme to obtain ``effective`` extinction coefficient and scattering phase function for coal particles in narrow size distributions. In addition to that, a mercury-arc-lamp monochromator system was used to obtain spectral absorption coefficient of coal particles as a function of wavelength and coal size.

  10. Bio-oxidation of thiocyanates typical of coal conversion effluents. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Neufeld, R. D.; Mattson, L.; Lubon, P.

    1981-01-08

    Thiocyanates have been found in most coal conversion and coke plant effluents. The objectives of this study were to develop data for the biological degradation fate kinetics of thiocyanate removal, and to develop material balance information for the fate of sulfur and nitrogen resulting from such bio-decomposition of aqueous thiocyanates. A literature review of thiocyanate bio-degradation indicates that while much biochemistry information is available, little information in the biological processing arena is known. Based on both batch and continuous culture experiments utilizing an activated sludge type of system with strictly thiocyanate degradating organisms, the specific utilization rate for SCN degradation was found to follow a substrate inhibition biokinetic relationship as: d(SCN)/dt-X = 2.24/(1 + (5/SCN) + (SCN/1340)/sup 6/) where; d(SCN)/dt-X = lb SCN used/lb biomass-day, SCN = mg/L SCN in effluent. The observed biomass sludge production rate was quantified as a function of sludge age in the bio-reactor. The major metabolic by-products of SCN aerobic biodegradation are ammonia and sulfate, with such formation being stochiometric with SCN. High levels of SCN in coal conversion and Stretford system effluents may lead to biological nitrification process requirements to be added to the wastetreatment scheme for compliance with BAT effluent ammonia discharge restrictions.

  11. Diffusion of gases in coals and chars: Final report, September 15, 1985--September 14, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.M.

    1988-01-01

    Eight PSOC coals representing a wide range of rank and geographic origin have been subjected to a wide range of pore structure analysis methods as well as gas diffusion measurements. Pore structure analysis techniques employed included carbon dioxide and nitrogen adsorption, helium pycnometry, mercury porosimetry, and low-field NMR spin-lattice relaxation measurements. In principle, NMR pore structure analysis avoids many of the problems associated with conventional pore structure methods such as pore structure changes during drying, sample compression, network/percolation effects, pore shape assumptions, and a limited pore size range. Spin-lattice relaxation measurements were conducted at a proton frequency of 20 MHz and 303 K using water contained in the coal pores. Pore size distributions were obtained via deconvolution of the NMR relaxation measurements using the method of regularization and application of the ''two fraction-fast exchange'' model of pore fluid behavior. A qualitative comparison of the NMR pore size distributions and surface areas (CO/sub 2//N/sub 2/) yielded good agreement. Monodisperse and bidisperse pore size distributions were noted with pore volume in the size range of <0.5 nm to 0.5 ..mu..m. Effective diffusivities of methane and nitrogen were measured at 303 K and ambient pressure using a pulse tracer analysis method. 37 refs., 14 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. High performance materials in coal conversion utilization. Final report, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    McCay, T.D.; Boss, W.H.; Dahotre, N.

    1996-12-01

    This report describes the research conducted at the University of Tennessee Space Institute on high performance materials for use in corrosive environments. The work was supported by a US Department of Energy University Coal Research grant. Particular attention was given to the silicon carbide particulate reinforced alumina matrix ceramic composite manufactured by Lanxide Corporation as a potential tubular component in a coal-fired recuperative high-temperature air heater. Extensive testing was performed to determine the high temperature corrosion effects on the strength of the material. A computer modeling of the corrosion process was attempted but the problem proved to be too complex and was not successful. To simplify the situation, a computer model was successfully produced showing the corrosion thermodynamics involved on a monolithic ceramic under the High Performance Power System (HIPPS) conditions (see Appendix A). To seal the material surface and thus protect the silicon carbide particulate from corrosive attack, a dense non porous alumina coating was applied to the material surface. The coating was induced by a defocused carbon dioxide laser beam. High temperature corrosion and strength tests proved the effectiveness of the coating. The carbon dioxide laser was also used to successfully join two pieces of the Lanxide material, however, resources did not allow for the testing of the resulting joint.

  13. Microbial recovery of metals from spent coal liquefaction catalysts. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sperl, P.L.; Sperl, G.T.

    1995-07-01

    This project was initiated on October 1, 1989, for the purpose of recovering metals from spent coal liquefaction catalysts. Two catalyst types were the subject of the contract. The first was a Ni-No catalyst support on alumina (Shell 324), the catalyst used in a pilot scale coal liquefaction facility at Wilsonville, Alabama. The second material was an unsupported ammonium molybdate catalyst used in a pilot process by the Department of Energy at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This material was obtained in late February 1990 but has not been pursued since the Mo content of this particular sample was too low for the current studies and the studies at the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center have been discontinued. The object of the contract was to treat these spent catalysts with microorganisms, especially Thiobacillus ferrooxidans , but also other Thiobacillus spp. and possibly Sulfolobus and other potential microorganisms, to leach and remove the metals (Ni and Mo) from the spent catalysts into a form which could be readily recovered by conventional techniques.

  14. Coal liquefaction process streams characterization and evaluation. Volume 2, Participants program final summary evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Brandes, S.D.; Robbins, G.A.; Winschel, R.A.; Burke, F.P.

    1994-05-01

    This 4.5-year project consisted of routine analytical support to DOE`s direct liquefaction process development effort (the Base Program), and an extensive effort to develop, demonstate, and apply new analytical methods for the characterization of liquefaction process streams (the Participants Program). The objective of the Base Program was to support the on-going DOE direct coal liquefaction process development program. Feed, process, and product samples were used to assess process operations, product quality, and the effects of process variables, and to direct future testing. The primary objective of the Participants Program was to identify and demonstrate analytical methods for use in support of liquefaction process develpment, and in so doing, provide a bridge between process design, development, and operation and analytical chemistry. To achieve this direct coal liquefaction-derived materials. CONSOL made an evaluation of each analytical technique. During the performance of this project, we obtained analyses on samples from numerous process development and research programs and we evaluated a variety of analytical techniques for their usefulness in supporting liquefaction process development. Because of the diverse nature of this program, we provide here an annotated bibliography of the technical reports, publications, and formal presentations that resulted from this program to serve as a comprehensive summary of contract activities.

  15. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Under the Fine Particulate Control/Air Toxics Program, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been performing comprehensive assessments of toxic substance emissions from coal-fired electric utility units. An objective of this program is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in evaluating hazardous air pollutant emissions as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has also performed comprehensive assessments of emissions from many power plants and provided the information to the EPA. The DOE program was implemented in two. Phase 1 involved the characterization of eight utility units, with options to sample additional units in Phase 2. Radian was one of five contractors selected to perform these toxic emission assessments.Radian`s Phase 1 test site was at southern Company Service`s Plant Yates, Unit 1, which, as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, was demonstrating the CT-121 flue gas desulfurization technology. A commercial-scale prototype integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) power plant was selected by DOE for Phase 2 testing. Funding for the Phase 2 effort was provided by DOE, with assistance from EPRI and the host site, the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI) project This document presents the results of that effort.

  16. Treatability testing of KILnGAS and Texaco coal gasification wastewaters: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, D.L.; Eis, B.J.; Zeien, C.T.; Moe, T.A.; Turner, C.D.; Mayer, G.G.; Stephan, D.J.

    1988-07-01

    This report presents the results of treatability testing of wastewater from two coal gasification plants: the 600-tpd KILnGAS rotary-kiln gasifier in East Alton, Illinois, and the 1000-tyd Texaco entrained-flow gasifier at the Cool Water facility in Daggett, California. The wastewater was collected during steady-state operation of the gasifiers and shipped in barrels to the testing laboratory for characterization and treatment. Solvent extraction, steam stripping, biological treatment, granular activated carbon adsorption, ozonation, ion exchange, chemical precipitation, cooling tower evaporation, and wet air oxidation were evaluated in terms of their ability to meet the project's effluent quality targets. Preliminary process design criteria were also developed. Two sets of effluent discharge targets as well as a zero effluent discharge condition were established as goals for the testing. All of the effluent targets were met by the combination of processes used in the treatability testing program, with the exception of cyanide and COD for the KILnGAS wastewater and cyanide under one of the discharge conditions for the Texaco wastewater. These targets could likely be met by additional process steps or by further treatment with the processes tested. This test program confirmed that the principal containmants in these coal gasification wastewaters can be reduced to low concentrations by use of commercially proven treatment processes. 15 refs., 50 figs., 93 tabs.

  17. Advanced coal-gasification technical analyses. Appendix 1: technology reviews. Final report, December 1982-September 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Cover, A.E.; Hubbard, D.A.; Jain, S.K.; Shah, K.V.

    1986-01-01

    This document is a result of KRSI's activities to support the GRI/Advisors Committee thru the duration of the contract. It provides an overview of the gasification, shift/methanation, acid-gas removal, and sulfur-recovery technologies for use in coal-to SNG plant design. For selected processes in each technology area, Status Summary reports are presented. The non-proprietary information contained in these reports was utilized to assess the characteristics, efficiencies, and other performance variables of each process relative to criteria developed for each ssess the characteristics, efficiencies and other performance variables of each process relative to criteria developed for each technology area. The results of the assessment are presented in tables that can be utilized for selection of a process best suited for a given application. In the coal-gasification area, status summaries were prepared for Lurgi, GKT, Texaco, BGC/Lurgi, Westinghouse (now KRW), Exxon CCG, Shell and U-Gas processes. The Conventional Shift/Methanation, Combined Shift/Methanation, Direct Methanation and Comflux Methanation processes were selected for review of shift/methanation technology. In the acid-gas-removal technology area, evaluation of Selexol, Rectisol, Benfield and CNG processes is presented. For the sulfur-recovery technology area, Claus, Amoco Direct Oxidation, LO-CAT, Selectox, Stretford and Unisulf processes, were selected for assessment.

  18. Cooperative research in coal liquefaction infratechnology and generic technology development: Final report, October 1, 1985 to December 31, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Sendlein, L.V.A.

    1987-06-29

    During the first year of its research program, the Consortium for Fossil Fuel Liquefaction Science has made significant progress in many areas of coal liquefaction and coal structure research. Research topics for which substantial progress has been made include integrated coal structure and liquefaction studies, investigation of differential liquefaction processes, development and application of sophisticated techniques for structural analysis, computer analysis of multivariate data, biodesulfurization of coal, catalysis studies, co-processing of coal and crude oil, coal dissolution and extraction processes, coal depolymerization, determination of the liquefaction characteristics of many US coals for use in a liquefaction database, and completion of a retrospective technology assessment for direct coal liquefaction. These and related topics are discussed in considerably more detail in the remainder of this report. Individual projects are processed separately for the data base.

  19. PULMONARY TOXICITY OF SIZE-CLASSIFIED COAL FLY ASH PARTICLES OF VARYING CARBON CONTENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies have shown that morbidity and mortality increase along with concentration of particulate matter (PM) in many different countries and regions despite great variations in the chemical makeup of the PM. In this study, Illinois bituminous coal with high sulfur...

  20. VARIATION OF ELEMENT SPECIATION IN COAL COMBUSTION AEROSOLS WITH PARTICLE SIZE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The speciation of sulfur, iron and key trace elements (Cr, As, Se, Zn) in combustion ash aerosols has been examined as a function of size from experimental combustion units burning Utah and Illinois bituminous coals. Although predominantly present as sulfate, sulfur was also pre...

  1. The use of NMR techniques for the analysis of water in coal and the effect of different coal drying techniques on the structure and reactivity of coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Netzel, D.A.; Miknis, F.P.; Wallace, J.C. Jr.; Butcher, C.H.; Mitzel, J.M.; Turner, T.F.; Hurtubise, R.J.

    1995-02-01

    Western Research Institute has conducted a study of different methods of coal drying as pretreatment steps before liquefaction. The objectives of this study were to develop a combined chemical dehydration/nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method for measuring the moisture content of coal, to measure the changes in coal structure that occur during drying, and to determine the effects of different drying methods on liquefaction reactivity of coals. Different methods of drying were investigated to determine whether coal drying can be accomplished without reducing the reactivity of coals toward liquefaction. Drying methods included thermal, microwave, and chemical dehydration. Coals of rank lignite to high volatile bituminous were studied. Coals that were dried or partially dried thermally and with microwaves had lower liquefaction conversions than coals containing equilibrium moisture contents. However, chemically dried coals had conversions equal to or greater than the premoisturized coals. The conversion behavior is consistent with changes in the physical structure and cross linking reactions because of drying. Thermal and microwave drying appear to cause a collapse in the pore structure, thus preventing donor solvents such as tetralin from contacting reactive sites inside the coals. Chemical dehydration does not appear to collapse the pore structure. These results are supported by the solvent swelling measurements in which the swelling ratios of thermally dried and microwave-dried coals were lower than those of premoisturized coals, indicating a greater degree of cross linking in the dried coals. The swelling ratios of the chemically dried coals were greater than those of the premoisturized coals because the pore structure remaining unchanged or increased when water was removed. These results are consistent with the NMR results, which did not show significant changes in coal chemical structure.

  2. Effect of coal beneficiation process on rheology/atomization of coal water slurries. Final report, October 1, 1992--July 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Ohene, F.

    1997-05-01

    To examine the factors that govern fine spray production during atomization of coal water slurries, an experimental study of the effect of coal beneficiation and their rheological properties on atomization of clean slurries was proposed. The objective of this study was to understand the effect of low shear, high shear rheology, and viscoelastic behavior on the atomization of beneficiated slurries.

  3. Production of cements from Illinois coal ash. Final technical report, September 1, 1995--August 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, J.C.; Bhatty, J.L.; Mishulovich, A.

    1997-05-01

    The objective of this program is to convert Illinois coal combustion residues, such as fly ash, bottom ash, and boiler slag, into novel cementitious materials for use in the construction industry. These residues are composed largely of SiO{sub 2}, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO, and CaO, which are also the major components of cement. Since the residues are used as an integral component of the cement and not just as additives to concrete, larger amounts of the residues can be utilized. The process uses submerged combustion to melt blends of coal combustion residues with lime, clay, and/or sand. The submerged combustion melter utilizes natural gas-oxidant firing directly into a molten bath to provide efficient melting of mineral-like materials. Use of this melter for cement production has many advantages over rotary kilns including very little, if any, grinding of the feed material, very low emissions, and compact size. During the first year of the program, samples of coal combustion residues were blended and mixed, as needed; with lime, clay, and/or sand to adjust the composition. Six mixtures, three with fly ash and three with bottom ash, were melted in a laboratory-scale furnace. The resultant products were used in mortar cubes and bars which were subjected to ASTM standard tests of cementitious properties. In the hydraulic activity test, mortar cubes were found to have a strength comparable to standard mortar cements. In the compressive strength test, mortar cubes were found to have strengths that exceeded ASTM blended cement performance specifications. In the ASR expansion test, mortar bars were subjected to alkali-silica reaction-induced expansion, which is a problem for siliceous aggregate-based concretes that are exposed to moisture. The mortar bars made with the products inhibited 85 to 97% of this expansion. These results show that residue-based products have an excellent potential as ASR-preventing additions in concretes.

  4. Solids throttling valves for coal conversion and utilization development. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sine, G.C.

    1980-11-01

    A complete test system to test, evaluate, and develop control valves for slurry letdown service in coal liquefaction plants is needed. The site identified for the test system was the SRC II Pilot Plant located at Ft. Lewis, Washington. The US Department of Energy, Morgantown Energy Technology Center, requested a test system design that would enable testing of various configuration letdown valves that would be compatible with the existing facility and have minimum impact on Pilot Plant operations. Drawings and specifications for such a test system were prepared, coordinated with Ft. Lewis personnel, revised to reflect Ft. Lewis operating personnel comments, and approved for use by the Morgantown Energy Technology Center. These drawings and specifications will enable the test system to be built, installed, and integrated with the existing facility by a general contractor.

  5. Advanced NMR-based techniques for pore structure analysis of coal. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.M.; Hua, D.W.

    1996-02-01

    During the 3 year term of the project, new methods have been developed for characterizing the pore structure of porous materials such as coals, carbons, and amorphous silica gels. In general, these techniques revolve around; (1) combining multiple techniques such as small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and adsorption of contrast-matched adsorbates or {sup 129}Xe NMR and thermoporometry (the change in freezing point with pore size), (2) combining adsorption isotherms over several pressure ranges to obtain a more complete description of pore filling, or (3) applying NMR ({sup 129}Xe, {sup 14}N{sub 2}, {sup 15}N{sub 2}) techniques with well-defined porous solids with pores in the large micropore size range (>1 nm).

  6. Coal liquefaction: A research and development needs assessment: Final report, Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    Schindler, H.D.; Burke, F.P.; Chao, K.C.; Davis, B.H.; Gorbaty, M.L.; Klier, K.; Kruse, C.W.; Larsen, J.W.; Lumpkin, R.E.; McIlwain, M.E.; Wender, I.; Stewart, N.

    1989-03-01

    Volume II of this report on an assessment of research needs for coal liquefaction contains reviews of the five liquefaction technologies---direct, indirect, pyrolysis, coprocessing, and bioconversion. These reviews are not meant to be encyclopedic; several outstanding reviews of liquefaction have appeared in recent years and the reader is referred to these whenever applicable. Instead, these chapters contain reviews of selected topics that serve to support the panel's recommendations or to illustrate recent accomplishments, work in progress, or areas of major research interest. At the beginning of each of these chapters is a brief introduction and a summary of the most important research recommendations brought out during the panel discussions and supported by the material presented in the review. A review of liquefaction developments outside the US is included. 594 refs., 100 figs., 60 tabs.

  7. Fire safety appraisal of residential wood and coal stoves in New York state. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lassoie, J.P.; Provencher, R.W.; Goff, G.R.; Brown, T.L.

    1983-04-01

    This study was designed to identify solid fuel (wood and coal) residential heating safety problems and associated causes, and the barriers to correction of these problems in NYS. Based on the research findings, recommendations were developed regarding public and private policies and services, legislation, and financial systems designed to improve the State's solid fuel heating safety situation. Data on solid fuel use was obtained via randomly conducted phone surveys, in-home resident interviews and solid fuel burning system inspections, and a mail survey of fire department chiefs. The most important barriers to safety were those of homeowner complacency (i.e., a sense of security grounded in ignorance -- in the nonpejorative sense) and apathy, with the former being the primary attitudinal barrier. The appendices vol. is the survey used.

  8. Documentation of the demonstrated reserve base of coal in the United States. Final report, Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    Herhal, A J; Britton, S G; Minnucci, C A

    1982-03-01

    The purpose of this report is to document the methodologies used to develop the 1979 Demonstrated Reserve Base (DRB) of coal. All primary source documents used to prepare the 1979 DRB were reviewed. Using the methodologies and documentation found in the 1979 DRB published report as a guide, each of the state-level published reserve estimates were re-derived. In those cases where the estimates could not be reproduced, EIA personnel from the Eastern and Western Energy Data Offices were consulted and the differences, for the most part, were resolved. Throughout this report an attempt was made to describe the information flow that was an integral part of the DRB development. Particular attention and emphasis was given to those instances where deviations from standard, published EIA procedures were used to derive the DRB estimates. The main body of this report summarizes the methodological procedures used to develop each state reserve estimate.

  9. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 2

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the

  10. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 3

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the

  11. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 4

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  12. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 5

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Bruce; Shea, Winton

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or {approx}28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to

  13. An Industrial-Based Consortium to Develop Premium Carbon Products from Coal Final Report - Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Bruce; Winton, Shea

    2010-12-31

    Since 1998, The Pennsylvania State University successfully managed the Consortium for Premium Carbon Products from Coal (CPCPC), which was a vehicle for industry-driven research on the promotion, development, and transfer of innovative technologies on premium carbon products from coal to the U.S. industry. The CPCPC was an initiative led by Penn State, its cocharter member West Virginia University (WVU), and the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), who also provided the base funding for the program, with Penn State responsible for consortium management. CPCPC began in 1998 under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-98FT40350. This agreement ended November 2004 but the CPCPC activity continued under cooperative agreement No. DE-FC26-03NT41874, which started October 1, 2003 and ended December 31, 2010. The objective of the second agreement was to continue the successful operation of the CPCPC. The CPCPC enjoyed tremendous success with its organizational structure, which included Penn State and WVU as charter members, numerous industrial affiliate members, and strategic university affiliate members together with NETL, forming a vibrant and creative team for innovative research in the area of transforming coal to carbon products. The key aspect of CPCPC was its industry-led council that selected proposals submitted by CPCPC members to ensure CPCPC target areas had strong industrial support. CPCPC had 58 member companies and universities engaged over the 7-year period of this contract. Members were from 17 states and five countries outside of the U.S. During this period, the CPCPC Executive Council selected 46 projects for funding. DOE/CPCPC provided $3.9 million in funding or an average of $564,000 per year. The total project costs were $5.45 million with $1.5 million, or ~28% of the total, provided by the members as cost share. Total average project size was $118,000 with $85,900 provided by DOE/CPCPC. In addition to the

  14. Renewable wood fuel: Fuel feed system for a pulverized coal boiler. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-01-01

    This report evaluates a pilot test program conducted by New York State Gas & Electric Corporation to evaluate the feasibility of co-firing a pulverized coal plant with renewable wood fuels. The goal was to establish that such a co-firing system can reduce air emissions while maintaining good operational procedures and cost controls. The test fuel feed system employed at Greenidge Station`s Boiler 6 was shown to be effective in feeding wood products. Emission results were promising and an economic analysis indicates that it will be beneficial to pursue further refinements to the equipment and systems. The report recommends further evaluation of the generation and emission impacts using woods of varied moisture contents and at varied Btu input rates to determine if a drying system would be a cost-effective option.

  15. Coal-fired propulsion system dynamics. Volume II. Program documentation and user's guide. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Greenlee, T.L.; Pearsons, J.L.

    1982-12-01

    This volume describes the use and internal details of a FORTRAN computer program that has been written for simulating the dynamic (transient) behavior of a dual-fired (coal or oil) ship propulsion system. The FORTRAN program implements and solves a system of coupled, nonlinear, first-order, ordinary differential equations that represent all major components of the ship propulsion system (feedwater pumps, boilers, headers, turbines, turbine/gears propeller shaft, and hull). These equations also represent all major control loops. The program incorporates a numerical linearization subroutine that can be used to generate the steady-state conditions for any operating point. This subroutine also produces a linearized version of the model that describes the transient behavior of the propulsion system in a neighborhood of the steady-state operating point. The eigenvalues (reciprocal time constants) of this linear model are also generated. A copy of the FORTRAN program is available on magnetic tape from MARAD.

  16. Selenium transformation in coal mine spoils: Its environmental impact assessment. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Harness, J.; Atalay, A.; Koll, K.J.; Zhang, H.; Maggon, D.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this program was to conduct an environmental impact assessment study for selenium from coal mine spoils. The use of in-situ lysimetry to predict selenium speciation, transformation, and mobility under natural conditions was evaluated. The scope of the study was to construct and test field-scale lysimeter and laboratory mini-column to assess mobility and speciation of selenium in coal mine overburden and soil systems; to conduct soil and groundwater sampling throughout the state of Oklahoma for an overall environmental impact assessment of selenium; and to conduct an in-depth literature review on the solubility, speciation, mobility, and toxicity of selenium from various sources. Groundwater and surface soil samples were also collected from each county in Oklahoma. Data collected from the lysimeter study indicated that selenium in the overburden of the abandoned mine site was mainly found in the selenite form. The amount of selenite found was too low and immobile to be of concern to the environment. The spoil had equilibrated long enough (over 50 years) that most of the soluble forms of selenium have already been lost. Examination of the overburden indicated the presence of pyrite crystals that precipitated over time. The laboratory mini-column study indicated that selenite is quite immobile and remained on the overburden material even after leaching with dilute acid. Data from groundwater samples indicated that based on the current permissible level for selenium in groundwater (0.01 mg Se/L), Oklahoma groundwater is widely contaminated with the element. However, according to the new regulation (0.05 mg Se/L), which is to be promulgated in 1992, only 9 of the 77 counties in the state exceed the limit.

  17. Investigation of two-phase flow processes in coal slurry/hydrogen heaters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Sam, R.G.; Crowley, C.J.

    1986-08-01

    Experimental and analytical results are presented for two-phase slug flow in a horizontal, transparent pipe at large diameter (6.75 in.) at high gas density (20 times the density of air at atmospheric pressure) and at liquid viscosities ranging from 1 to 1000 centipoise. The test section replicates 1 1/2 rectangular coils (40 ft by 10 ft) of a fired heater in a coal liquefaction plant. Regime transtion, pressure drop, void fraction, and slug characteristic data have been obtained for liquid superficial velocities ranging from 0.2 to 6 ft/s and gas superficial velocities ranging from 0.2 to 12 ft/s. Regime transition results have been compared with the Taitel-Dukler analytical flow regime map. The transition from stratified to slug flow, which is underpredicted by the original analysis, has been studied in particular. Comparison with the dimensionless transition criterion (gas Froude number) shows that increased liquid viscosity increases the liquid level at which the transition occurs. Pressure drop data at the transition have been used to evaluate the interfacial shear and to show that it is greater than is assumed in the Taitel-Dukler analysis. Sensitivity studies for the transition criterion and interfacial shear illustrate exactly why the transition is underpredicted on the flow regime map and how the predictions can be improved. Photos of the flow patterns illustrate the mechanism of slug formation at high viscosity compared with low viscosity. Pressure drop, void fraction, and slug characteristic results are compared with an analysis for pressure drop in slug flow, demonstrating better predictive capability of this model at large pipe size, high gas density, and high viscosity, compared with correlations from the literature. The pressure drop model is also shown to be in excellent agreement with coal liquefaction pilot plant data. 34 refs.

  18. SP-100 coated-particle fuel development. Phase I. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-03-01

    This document is the final report of Phase I of the SP-100 Coated-Particle Fuel Development Program conducted by GA Technologies Inc. for the US Department of Energy under contract DE-AT03-82SF11690. The general objective of the study conducted between September and December 1982 was to evaluate coated-particle type fuel as an alternate or backup fuel to the UO/sub 2/ tile-and-fin arrangement currently incorporated into the reference design of the SP-100 reactor core. This report presents and discusses the following topics in the order listed: the need for an alternative fuel for the SP-100 nuclear reactor; an abbreviated description of the reference and coated-particle fuel module concepts; the bases and results of the study and analysis leading to the preliminary design of a coated particle suitable for the SP-100 space power reactor; incorporation of the fuel particles into compacts and heat-pipe-cooled modules; initial efforts and plans to fabricate coated-particle fuel and fuel compacts; the design and performance of the proposed alternative core relative that of the reference fuel; and a summary of critical issues and conclusions consistent with the level of effort and duration of the study.

  19. Chemistry of coal-related microparticles. [Final report], 1 September 1989--31 August 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.J.; Krieger-Brockett, B.

    1993-01-11

    A new type of electrodynamic balance was designed, constructed and applied to the study of the chemistry of macerals and the chemical reaction between CaO sorbent particles and SO{sub 2}. The single-particle device was coupled to a Raman spectrometer. With this balance a single electrically charged microparticle is suspended in visible and infrared laser beams by means of superposed ac and dc electrical fields. The apparatus was designed to permit gas flow through the chamber so that gas-solid and gas-liquid chemical reactions can be carried out. A visible laser beam was used to illuminate the particle for Raman and fluorescence measurements, and an infrared laser beam was used to heat the particle. An overview of the experimental system is presented in Figure 1. The levitated particles were heated from two sides using a CO{sub 2} laser operating at the infrared wavelength of 10.6 {mu}m. The optical system used to direct the heating laser beam to the target is shown in Figure 2. Infrared detectors indicated in Figure 1 were used to measure the particle temperature by two-color pyrometery. A new technique was explored to independently determine the particle temperature; the method involves measuring the ratio of the intensities of Stokes and anti-Stokes Raman scattering signals. Although the method is not accurate near room temperature because of the weak and-Stokes signal at low temperatures, the method appears promising for high temperature measurement, and complements the pyrometry method. Optical pyrometry is quite suitable for black body emitters, but for the metal oxides of interest here, optical pyrometry was found to be less satisfactory than an alternate method.

  20. Annual Coal Distribution

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    The Annual Coal Distribution Report (ACDR) provides detailed information on domestic coal distribution by origin state, destination state, consumer category, and method of transportation. Also provided is a summary of foreign coal distribution by coal-producing state. All data for the report year are final and this report supersedes all data in the quarterly distribution reports.

  1. Recent advances in the perchloroethylene coal cleaning system

    SciTech Connect

    Fullerton, K.L.; Lee, S.; Kulik, C.J.

    1994-12-31

    The perchloroethylene coal desulfurization process has been shown to selectively remove both inorganic and organic sulfur as well as mineral matter from high sulfur Midwestern coals. The process consists of four stages: a wet grinding of the coal to {minus}200 mesh, an extraction stage used to remove organic sulfur, a float sink stage to remove pyritic sulfur and mineral matter, and finally, a steam stripping stage to remove residual perchloroethylene from the coal. Using this process, up to 70% of the organic sulfur and over 90% of the pyritic sulfur can be removed from the coal. Recent work has studied the effects of parameters such as type of coal, particle size, moisture content, process temperatures, etc., on the sulfur removal efficiency. In addition, a kinetic relation was established for several types of Midwestern coals and minimum extraction time was established. The kinetic study was also used to conduct simulation studies of batch, plug flow reactor, and continuous stirred tank reactor.

  2. Development and testing of a commercial scale coal-fired combustion system -- Phase 3. Final technical progress report, September 26, 1990--August 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Litka, A.; Breault, R.

    1994-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of work performed in the development and testing of a coal-fired space heating system for the commercial market sector. Although coal is the most plentiful energy resource in the US, its use since World War II has been largely restricted to utility power generation for environmental and economic reasons. Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant heating fuels for office buildings, apartment complexes, and similar structures. Generally, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program was to design, build, and test a coal-based heating system for this sector, and determine the economic viability and market potential for the system. Coal water slurry (CWS) fuel was chosen as the fuel form for this development effort. CWS eliminates the need to use dry pulverized coal with its attendant handling, metering, and dusting problems, as well as its explosive potential. A brief description of the overall system design is given in this report, as well as a discussion of the unique features of the system configuration and key components. This is followed by a summary of the testing performed, including a comparison between system performance and program goals. Finally, the results of the economic evaluation are presented, along with a commercialization plan for the technology. A key issue in the eventual commercialization of the technology is the availability of a competitively priced coal water slurry fuel. Predicted prices and availability of CWS are discussed.

  3. New concept for coal wettability evalution and modulation. Final report 1 January 1992--30 September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Weibai; Zou, Yuzhi; Wang, Qingping

    1995-12-31

    The study was concerned with a new concept for coal surface wettability evaluation and modulation. The objectives of the work were to study the fundamental surface chemistry for the evaluation of the surface wettability and floatability of coal nd minerals. A new separation strategy will contribute to the advanced selective separation of coal and pyrite. The theories of wettability and floatability of coal and mineral are discussed. A new concept of kinetic wettability, kinetic floatability, and kinetic collectability has been explored. In addition, their evaluation and correlation have been established. Some practical applications to improve the advanced selective flotation of coal and pyrite have been suggested.

  4. Management of solid wastes from the Limestone Injection Dry Scrubbing (LIDS) clean coal technology. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Musiol, W.F. Jr.; Czuczwa, J.M.

    1993-03-01

    The objectives of this project were to characterize by-products from a pilot Limestone Injection Dry Scrubbing (LIDS) process and to develop processes directed toward the safe and economic use or disposal of these wastes. Because LIDS is a developing Clean Coal technology, a database of chemical and physical characteristics of the by-product was first developed. During the course of this project, it was found that the waste alone did not form high-strength products sufficient for use in construction and engineering applications. Therefore, the project was redirected to evaluate the by-product as a soil-cement and Portland cement raw material, agricultural liming agent, backfill/landfill material component, and mine reclamation/neutralizing agent. Based on these evaluations, the most viable uses for the LIDS byproduct include use in mine reclamation or as a neutralization agent. If soluble sulfites can be minimized by avoiding a dolomitic LIDS reagent, use as an agricultural liming agent has promise. Interest from an Ohio utility in the LIDS process suggests possible application of results at the demonstration or commercial stages.

  5. Utilization of fuel cells to beneficially use coal mine methane. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, J.T.; O`Brien, D.G.; Miller, A.R.; Atkins, R.; Sanders, M.

    1996-03-01

    DOE has been given the responsibility to encourage industry to recover and use methane that is currently being released to the atmosphere. At this time the only method being employed at the Left Fork Mine to remove methane is the mine ventilation system. The methane content was measured at one one-hundredth of a percent. To prevent this methane from being vented to the atmosphere, degasification wells are proposed. To use the coal mine methane, it is proposed to use phosphoric-acid fuel cells to convert methane to electric power. These fuel cells contain (1) a steam reformer to convert the methane to hydrogen (and carbon dioxide), (2) the fuel cell stack, and (3) a power conditioner that provides 200 kW of 60 Hz alternating current output. The environmental impacts and benefits of using this technology ware summarized in the report. The study indicates the methane emission reduction that could be achieved on a national and Global level. The important point being that this technology is economically viable as is demonstrated in the report.

  6. Coal ash utilization for soil amendment to enhance water relations and turf growth. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Adriano, D.C.; Weber, J.T.

    1998-10-01

    A long-term (1993--96) field study assessed the effects of applying high rates of coal fly-ash as a soil amendment for the growth of the turf species, centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiroides). A Latin Square plot design was employed with a control (no ash applied), and 280, 560, and 1,120 Mg ha{sup {minus}1} (i.e., tonne/ha) application rates of unweathered baghouse fly-ash from a power station of the South Carolina Electric and Gas Company. The applied fly-ash was spread evenly over each plot area, rototilled, and allowed to weather for 8 months before seeding to centipedegrass. High levels of soluble salts, indicated by the electrical conductivity of the soil extracts, in tandem with the phytotoxic effect of B, apparently inhibited the initial plant establishment as shown by substantially lower germination counts in ashed soils. The plant height and root length, however, were not adversely affected, nor were the dry matter yields throughout the study period. Ash treatment did not significantly influence infiltration rate, bulk density, or temperature of the soil, but substantially improved its water holding capacity and plant available water. This enhanced water retention capacity apparently rendered the soil less droughty and improved the coherence and handling property of the harvested sod.

  7. Separation and structure elucidation of coal molecule fragments. Final report, February 1, 1976-August 31, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, R V; Jorgenson, J W; Maskarinec, M P; Kump, R L; Marli, F; Novotny, M; Todd, L J

    1980-01-01

    Separation and identification of the polynuclear aromatic and aliphatic fractions of solvent-refined coal and its recycle oil were performed using a combination of solvent partition and chromatographic fractionation procedures with glass-capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Chromatographic profiles were generated for each fraction and some semiquantitative data were also obtained. In total, 146 polynuclear aromatic components of SRC were tentatively identified by their molecular weights, as indicated by the mass spectra of the gas chromatography peaks. In addition, wherever possible, specific isomers have been indicated, based on comparison of spectral characteristics and retention data. Separation and identification of nitrogen-containing aromatics of the recycle oil of SRC was accomplished with a combination solvent partition and capillary gas chromatography with deactivated glass columns. High-precision retention measurements of known pyridine and quinoline derivatives are reported, utilizing parent aza-arenes as retention standards. Both precisely measured retention data and mass spectral information combined lead to positive identification of some compounds in SRC samples. A total of 48 two-membered or three-membered aza-arenes have been tentatively identified in the recycle oil.

  8. Thermal treatment for chlorine removal from coal. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Muchmore, C.B.; Hesketh, H.E.; Chen, Han Lin

    1992-12-31

    It was the goal of this research to provide the technical basis for development of a process to remove chlorine from coal prior to combustion, based on a thermal treatment process. Reaction rate constants and activation energy have been determined, and energy and mass balances performed. Substitution of a synthetic flue gas (7% 0{sub 2}, 12% CO{sub 2}, 81% N{sub 2}) for nitrogen in the tube furnace resulted in at least equivalent chlorine removal (85.5%) compared to nitrogen. The fluidized bed dechlorination system modifications have resulted in a steady increase in performance, the most recent run providing 64% reduction in chlorine concentration. Addition of supplemental heat to the column should permit attainment of the slightly higher temperatures required to attain over 80% removal of the chlorine. Calcium chloride by-product of 67% purity has been produced. A bench scale catenary grid concentrator with supplemental heating coils and limited insulation is capable of concentrating CaCl{sub 2} solution up to essentially 40%, with no sign of scale or plugging. Further development of the process should include a thorough evaluation of the use of combustion gases to serve as the fluidizing medium and to provide the energy for the thermal dechlorination process.

  9. Secondary atomization of coal-water fuels for gas turbine applications: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, T.U.; Kang, S.W.; Beer, J.M.

    1988-12-01

    The main research objective was to determine the effectiveness of the CWF treatments on atomization quality when applied to an ultrafine coal-water fuel (solids loading reduced to 50%) and to gas turbine operating conditions (atomization at elevated pressures). Three fuel treatment techniques were studied: (1) heating of CWF under pressure to produce steam as the pressure drops during passage of the CWF through the atomizer nozzle, (2) absorption of CO/sub 2/ gas in the CWF to produce a similar effect, and (3) a combination of the two treatments above. These techniques were expected to produce secondary atomization, that is, disruptive shattering of CWF droplets subsequent to their leaving the atomizing nozzle, and to lead to better burnout and finer fly ash size distribution. A parallel objective was to present quantitative information on the spray characteristics (mean droplet size, radial distribution of droplet size, and spray shape) of CWF with and without fuel treatment, applicable to the design of CWF-burning gas turbine combustors. The experiments included laser diffraction droplet size measurements and high-speed photographic studies in the MIT Spray Test Facility to determine mean droplet size (mass median diameter), droplet size distribution, and spray shape and angle. Three systems of atomized sprays were studied: (1) water sprays heated to a range of temperatures at atmospheric pressure; (2) CWF sprays heated at atmospheric pressure to different temperatures; and (3) sprays at elevated pressure. 31 refs., 47 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Application of the SULF-X process to coal conversion and utilization. Phase II final report

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, E.; Bramer, H.C.; New, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    Pittsburgh Environmental and Energy Systems, Inc. contracted with the Department of Energy to demonstrate the efficacy of an iron sulfide flue gas treatment system (FGT) for removing sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) and nitrogen oxides (NO/sub x/) and to correlate process variables to system performance. Laboratory and bench-scale testing was conducted with the SULF-X process, using both synthesized gas and actual flue gas from a coal-fired furnace. Laboratory tests resulted in 95% SO/sub 2/ removal and up to 95% NO/sub x/ removal. The bench-scale system demonstrated similar SO/sub 2/ removal efficiencies, but achieved only 39% NO/sub x/ removal due to relatively high oxygen concentrations in the flue gas and insufficient liquid-gas interfacial area within the absorber. Elemental sulfur was recovered during the regeneration steps. Total capital investment for the SULF-X system was estimated to be $91 to $103 per kilowatt (electric), compared to $90/kw for sodium solution scrubbing, $78 to $83/kw for magnesia slurry scrubbing and $74/kw for limestone slurry scrubbing. Annual operating costs for the SULF-X system were estimated to be 5.44 to 6.90 mills per kilowatt-hour, compared to 4.96 to 5.22 for sodium, 3.68 to 3.99 for magnesia and 3.73 to 4.25 for limestone. 6 references, 6 figures, 9 tables.

  11. Evaluation of 450-MWe BGL GCC power plants fueled with Pittsburgh No. 8 coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Pechtl, P.A.; Chen, T.P.; Thompson, B.H.; Greil, C.F.; Niermann, S.E.; Jandrisevits, M.; Attlefellner, H.

    1992-11-01

    In this study, a conceptual design and cost estimate were developed for a nominal 450 MW integrated gasification combined cycle plant using the British Gas/Lurgi slagging gasification process. The present study is a design update of a previous study (EPRI Report AP-6011). The major design improvements incorporated include use of the latest GE 7F gas turbine rating, integrating the air separation plant with gas turbine, use of fuel gas saturation for NO{sub x} control, use of treated gasifier waste water as makeup water for the fuel gas saturation, and several process changes in the acid gas removal and sulfur recovery areas. Alternate design options for feeding the excess coal fines to the gasifier, treating the gasifier waste water, and the use of conventional air separation without integration with gas turbine were evaluated. The design improvements incorporated were found to increase significantly the overall plant efficiency and reduce the cost reported in the previous study. The various design options evaluated were found to have significant impacts on the plant efficiency but negligible impacts on the cost of electricity.

  12. Assessment of instrumentation needs for advanced coal power plant applications: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, E.T.; Fischer, W.H.; Lipka, J.V.; Rutkowski, M.D.; Zaharchuk, R.

    1987-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify contaminants, identify instrumentation needs, assess available instrumentation and identify instruments that should be developed for controlling and monitoring gas streams encountered in the following power plants: Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle, Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion, and Gasification Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell. Emphasis was placed on hot gas cleanup system gas stream analysis, and included process control, research and environmental monitoring needs. Commercial process analyzers, typical of those currently used for process control purposes, were reviewed for the purpose of indicating commercial status. No instrument selection guidelines were found which were capable of replacing user interaction with the process analyzer vendors. This study leads to the following conclusions: available process analyzers for coal-derived gas cleanup applications satisfy current power system process control and regulatory requirements, but they are troublesome to maintain; commercial gas conditioning systems and in situ analyzers continue to be unavailable for hot gas cleanup applications; many research-oriented gas stream characterization and toxicity assessment needs can not be met by commercially available process analyzers; and greater emphasis should be placed on instrumentation and control system planning for future power plant applications. Analyzers for specific compounds are not recommended other than those needed for current process control purposes. Instead, some generally useful on-line laser-based and inductively coupled plasma methods are recommended for further development because of their potential for use in present hot gas cleanup research and future optimization, component protection and regulation compliance activities. 48 refs., 21 figs., 26 tabs.

  13. Clean coal technology III 10 MW demonstration of gas suspension absorption. Final public design report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    This report provides the nonproprietary design information for the ``10 MW Demonstration of Gas Suspension Absorption (GSA)`` Demonstration Project at Tennessee Valley Authority`s (TVA) Shawnee Power Station, Center for Emission Research (CER). The 10 MW Demonstration of GSA program is designed to demonstrate the performance of the GSA system in treating the flue gas from a boiler burning high sulfur coal. This project involves design, manufacturing, construction and testing of a retrofitted GSA system. This report presents a nonproprietary description of the technology and overall process performance requirements, plant location and plant facilities. The process, mechanical, structural and electrical design of the GSA system as well as project cost information are included. It also includes a description the modification or alterations made during the course of construction and start-up. Plant start-up provisions, environmental considerations and control, monitoring and safety considerations are also addressed for the process. This report, initially drafted in 1993, covers design information available prior to startup of the demonstration project. It does not reflect the results obtained in that project, which is now complete.

  14. Coal-fired propulsion system dynamics. Volume III. Dynamic analysis of the cv-3600. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Greenlee, T.L.; Pearsons, J.L.

    1982-12-01

    This volume summarizes the results of a thorough analysis of the CV-3600 dynamic model that was discussed in Volume II. The purpose of this effort was to determine general engineering details and specifications for coal-fired propulsion systems based on a detailed analysis of a specific propulsion system design. The basis for these specifications included the sensitivity of ship propulsion system response to component parameter and control variations such as grate travel speed and controls, spreader and distributor feed and controls, fan speed and damper controls, steam dump (sizing, control valve characteristics and controls), feedwater pump controls (drum level controls), throttle control, and desuperheater steam attemperation controls. To develop greater insight into the effects of these variations, both open-loop (without control) and closed-loop (with control) versions of the propulsion system were studied. The open and closed-loop responses were further analyzed through the use of linear models and eigenvalue analyses. Specific conclusions regarding desirable trends in component specification are provided as part of the conclusions in this volume.

  15. Studies of the effect of toxic coal particles on model membrane systems. Progress report, July 1, 1980-August 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Kurland, R.J.

    1985-04-01

    This progress report covers work done during the period July 1, 1980 to August 31, 1981, to study the effect of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) on artificial membrane systems chosen to model lung surfactant. Such PAH compounds adsorbed on flyash particles from coal combustion are of interest since they or their metabolic byproducts could be potential carcinogens. Since the composition of organic material adsorbed on flyash from fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of coal was and still is not well characterized, we chose as a model compound 2,3-dihydroxynaphthalene (2,3DHN) to represent to some extent the following relevant properties of those PAH compounds that might be particularly effective in interacting with and penetrating lung surfactant: solubility in water; solubility in hydrocarbon liquids; and its amphipathic character. This study was to determine whether PAH compounds (1) are miscible with surfactant; (2) modify the membrane structure when miscible; (3) can be transported (and at what rate) across a membrane. The detailed exposition of the results is classified by the particular instrumental technique used to achieve these objectives: surface film pressure versus area measurements; visible, UV and fluorescence spectroscopy; proton and phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Efforts concentrated on the first of these techniques. 9 figs.

  16. Advanced liquefaction using coal swelling and catalyst dispersion techniques. Volume 1, Final technical report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, C.W.; Gutterman, C.; Chander, S.

    1994-12-31

    The overall objective of this project was to develop a new approach for the direct liquefaction of coal to produce an all-distillate product slate at a sizable cost reduction over current technology. The approach integrated coal selection, pretreatment, coal swelling with catalyst impregnation, liquefaction, product recovery with characterization, alternate bottoms processing, and a technical assessment including an economic evaluation. Heterofunctional solvents were the most effective in swelling coals. Also solvent blends such as isopropanol/water were more effective than pure solvents alone. Impregnating slurry catalysts simultaneously during coal swelling showed that better uptake was achieved with nonswelling solvent and higher impregnation temperature. Some enhancement in initial coal conversion was seen liquefying SO{sub 2}-treated Black Thunder coal with slurry catalysts, and also when hydrogen donor liquefaction solvents were used. Noncatalytic reactions showed no benefit from SO{sub 2} treatment. Coupling coal swelling and SO{sub 2} treatment with slurry catalysts was also not beneficial, although high conversion was seen with continuous operation and long residence time, however, similar high conversion was observed with untreated coal. SO{sub 2} treatment is not economically attractive unless it provides about 17% increase in coal reactivity. In most cases, the best results were obtained when the coal was untreated and the slurry catalyst was added directly into the reactor. Foster Wheeler`s ASCOT process had better average liquid yields than either Wilsonville`s vacuum tower/ROSE combination or delayed coking process. This liquid product also had good quality.

  17. Coal combustion under conditions of blast furnace injection. Final technical report, September 1, 1992--August 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Crelling, J.C.; Case, E.R.

    1993-12-31

    A potentially new use for Illinois coal is as a fuel injected into a blast furnace to produce molten iron as the first step in steel production. Because of its increasing cost and decreasing availability, metallurgical coke is now being replaced by coal injected at the tuyere area of the furnace where the blast air enters. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the combustion of coal during the blast furnace injection process and to delineate the optimum properties of the feed coal. This investigation is significant to the use of Illinois coal in that the limited research to date suggests that coals of low fluidity and moderate to high sulfur and chlorine contents are suitable feedstocks for blast furnace injection. During the first phase of this project a number of the objectives were realized, specifically: (1) a blast furnace sampling system was developed and used successfully to collect samples inside an active furnace; (2) two sets of blast furnace samples were collected and petrographic analysis showed that char derived from injected coal is entering the reduction zone of the furnace; (3) a coal/char sampling probe was designed and fabricated; (4) the completion of a program of reactivity experiments on the injected coal char, blast furnace coke and Herrin No. 6 char. The results of the reactivity experiments indicate that Herrin No. 6 coal is similar or even superior to coals now being used in blast furnace injection and that additional testing is warranted.

  18. Characterization and evaluation of washability of Alaskan coals. Final technical report for Phase II, July 1, 1977-February 29, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, P. D.; Wolff, E. N.

    1980-10-01

    This report is a result of the second part of a continuing study to obtain washability data for Alaskan coals to supplement the efforts of the US Department of Energy in their ongoing studies on washability of US coals. Alaska, with its large coal resources, could supply the nation with environmentally acceptable low-ash, low-sulfur coals. Washability characteristics were determined for eleven coal samples, from the Northern Alaska, Broad Pass, Little Tonzona, Tramway Bar, Beluga, Yentna, Kenai and Nenana coal fields. The raw coals were crushed to 1-1/2 inches, 3/8 inch and 14 mesh top sizes and float-sink separations were made at 1.30, 1.40, and 1.60 specific gravities. Detailed results of the testing are given.

  19. Recovery of coal fines from preparation plant effluents. Final technical report, September 1, 1990--August 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhry, V.

    1991-12-31

    The objectives of this project were to test and demonstrate the feasibility of recovering coal fines that are currently disposed of with coal preparation plant effluent streams and producing a fine clean coal product that can be blended with the plant coarse clean coal. This recovery was effected by means of Michigan Technological University`s static tube flotation process, which was successfully demonstrated on a number of raw coals to reject 85% of the pyritic sulfur and recover 90% of the combustible matter. Under this project, the process parameters for the technology were modified for this application in order to recover a low-ash, low-sulfur clean coal that is, at a minimum, compatible with the quality of the clean coal currently produced by the preparation plant.

  20. Kinetics of coal pyrolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Seery, D.J.; Freihaut, J.D.; Proscia, W.M. ); Howard, J.B.; Peters, W.; Hsu, J.; Hajaligol, M.; Sarofim, A. ); Jenkins, R.; Mallin, J.; Espindola-Merin, B. ); Essenhigh, R.; Misra, M.K. )

    1989-07-01

    This report contains results of a coordinated, multi-laboratory investigation of coal devolatilization. Data is reported pertaining to the devolatilization for bituminous coals over three orders of magnitude in apparent heating rate (100 to 100,000 + {degree}C/sec), over two orders of magnitude in particle size (20 to 700 microns), final particle temperatures from 400 to 1600{degree}C, heat transfer modes ranging from convection to radiative, ambient pressure ranging from near vacuum to one atmosphere pressure. The heat transfer characteristics of the reactors are reported in detail. It is assumed the experimental results are to form the basis of a devolatilization data base. Empirical rate expressions are developed for each phase of devolatilization which, when coupled to an awareness of the heat transfer rate potential of a particular devolatilization reactor, indicate the kinetics emphasized by a particular system reactor plus coal sample. The analysis indicates the particular phase of devolatilization that will be emphasized by a particular reactor type and, thereby, the kinetic expressions appropriate to that devolatilization system. Engineering rate expressions are developed from the empirical rate expressions in the context of a fundamental understanding of coal devolatilization developed in the course of the investigation. 164 refs., 223 figs., 44 tabs.

  1. Influence of phase transformations and heat and mass exchange on the course of the processes of pyrolysis of single high-ash-coal particles at elevated pressures

    SciTech Connect

    V.P. Patskov

    2007-03-15

    A comparative analysis of equilibrium and nonequilibrium models for calculation of the rates of phase transitions (evaporation and condensation) of pyrolysis products and the influence of convective heat and mass exchange with inert ash particles and the gas flow in pyrolysis of single particles of high-ash bituminous coals in the operation of technological units with a circulating fluidized bed under pressure is made.

  2. The evolution of particles in the plume from a large coal-fired boiler with flue gas desulfurization.

    PubMed

    Imhoff, R E; Tanner, R L; Valente, R J; Luria, M

    2000-07-01

    Airborne measurements were made of gaseous and particulate species in the plume of a large coal-fired power plant after flue gas desulfurization (FGD) controls were installed. These measurements were compared with measurements made before the controls were installed. The light scattering and number and volume distributions of plume excess particles were determined by nephelometry and optical particle counting techniques. The plume impact based on optical techniques was much lower than that observed in earlier measurements. Indeed, plume excess volumes as a function of particle size were of the same magnitude as the variability of the background volume distribution. In situ excess plume scattering actually decreased with distance from the source, in contrast to pre-FGD conditions. The upper limit for the dry rate of SO2-to-SO4(2-) conversion was estimated from plume excess volume measurements to be about 4% hr-1. This is slightly greater than the upper limit, 3.5% hr-1, estimated by earlier researchers, but the same as that estimated using the present technique with the earlier data. The cross-plume profile of volume suggests SO2-to-SO4(2-) conversion is highest at the plume edges. The greatest benefit of SO2 reduction on plume excess volume and visibility appears to occur far down-wind of the source.

  3. Petrographic characterization of Kentucky coals. Final report. Part IV. A petrographic and chemical model for the evolution of the Tradewater Formation coals in Western Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Graese, A.M.; Hower, J.C.; Ferm, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    A depositional model for the coals of the Tradewater Formation and associated rock units was constructed as a predictive device for the occurrence of economically important low sulfur coal. Twenty-one cores were examined and ninety-eight coal samples were analyzed for maceral, ash, and sulfur contents. These data were then analyzed to determine regional variation as well as vertical variation in single coal columns. Core data indicate that the majority of the Tradewater rocks consist of irregularly distributed, coarsening-upward, fine-grained detrital material which was deposited in shallow bodies of water. Minor fossiliferous shales and limestones suggest a marine influence. Less common coarse-grained, fining-upward sequences appear to be deposits of meandering channels. Like the detrital rocks, the coal seams are also irregularly distributed and exhibit variable petrographic and chemical properties reflecting changes in the Eh and pH of the coal swamp waters as well as detrital influx into the swamps. These swamps were relatively limited in extent and probably occupied the upper reaches of the tidal zone. The lack of significant stratigraphic and geographic trends in the regional data suggests that this mode of deposition was widespread and continued for a long period of time. 42 references, 19 figures, 9 tables.

  4. Fire-safety appraisal of residential wood and coal stoves in New York State. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lassoie, J.P.; Provencher, R.W.; Goff, G.R.; Brown, T.L.

    1983-04-01

    This study was designed to identify solid fuel (wood and coal) residential heating safety problems and associated causes, and the barriers to correction of these problems in New York State. Data on solid fuel use was obtained via randomly conducted phone surveys, in-home resident interviews and solid fuel burning system inspections, and a mail survey of fire department chiefs. The study found that solid fuel (primarily wood) was a major heat source in 707,000, or 18% of the State's households (excluding Metropolitan New York City and southern Westchester County). Based on a safety evaluation system of 15 quantifiable installation, maintenance, and operation criteria developed during this study, the State's solid fuel heating systems were classified as being either safe (5.5%), unsafe (24.7%), hazardous (57.7%), or extremely hazardous (12.1%). The most important barriers to safety were those of homeowner complacency and apathy, with the former being the primary attitudinal barrier. Availability and affordability of safety information, and professional installation and inspection services generally were adequate; however, none of these had a substantial effect on the overall safety of the State's solid fuel systems. Results of the fire chief survey reflected a consensus of opinion on several key solid fuel safety issues. Fire chiefs believed that mandatory compliance by solid fuel users may be necessary for substantial improvement of the solid fuel safety situation due to the prevalence of certain attitudinal barriers. Recommendations designed to correct this situation through new, aggressive information and education programs and/or mandatory rules and regulations are presented and discussed. In addition, recommendations are presented for monitoring solid fuel safety, for cost assistance for homeowners to encourage the use of competent professionals, and for future research efforts. 25 references, 4 figures, 97 tables.

  5. Novel catalysts for upgrading coal-derived liquids. Final technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, L.T.; Savage, P.E.; Briggs, D.E.

    1995-03-31

    Research described in this report was aimed at synthesizing and evaluating supported Mo oxynitrides and oxycarbides for the selective removal of nitrogen, sulfur and oxygen from model and authentic coal-derived liquids. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported oxynitrides and oxycarbides were synthesized via the temperature programmed reaction of supported molybdenum oxides or hydrogen bronzes with NH{sub 3} or an equimolar mixture of CH{sub 4} and H{sub 2}. Phase constituents and composition were determined by X-ray diffraction, CHN analysis, and neutron activation analysis. Oxygen chemisorption was used to probe the surface structure of the catalysts. The reaction rate data was collected using specially designed micro-batch reactors. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-supported Mo oxynitrides and oxycarbides were competitively active for quinoline hydrodenitrogenation (HDN), benzothiophene hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and benzofuran hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). In fact, the HDN and HDO specific reaction rates for several of the oxynitrides and oxycarbides were higher than those of a commercial Ni-Mo/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} hydrotreatment catalyst. Furthermore, the product distributions indicated that the oxynitrides and oxycarbides were more hydrogen efficient than the sulfide catalysts. For HDN and HDS the catalytic activity was a strong inverse function of the Mo loading. In contrast, the benzofuran hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) activities did not appear to be affected by the Mo loading but were affected by the heating rate employed during nitridation or carburization. This observation suggested that HDN and HDS occurred on the same active sites while HDO was catalyzed by a different type of site.

  6. Refining of fossil resin flotation concentrate from western coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, G.F.; Miller, J.D.

    1995-02-16

    During the past several years, significant research efforts have been made to develop process technology for the selective flotation of fossil resin from western coals. As a result of these efforts, several new flotation technologies have been developed. Operation of a proof-of-concept continuous flotation circuit showed the selective flotation process to be sufficiently profitable to justify the development of a fossil resin industry. However, little attention has been given to the refining of the fossil resin flotation concentrate although solvent refining is a critical step for the fossil resin to become a marketable product. In view of this situation, DOE funded this two-year project to evaluate the following aspects of the fossil resin refining technology: 1) Characterization of the fossil resin flotation concentrate and its refined products; 2) Kinetics of fossil resin extraction; 3) Effects of operating variables on solvent extraction; 4) Extraction solvents; 5) Proof-of-concept continuous refining tests; and 6) Technical and economic analysis. The results from this research effort have led to the following conclusions: Hexane- or heptane-refined fossil resin has a light-yellow color, a melting point of 140 - 142{degrees}C, a density of 1.034 gram/cm, and good solubility in nonpolar solvents. Among the four solvents evaluated (hexane, heptane, toluene and ethyl acetate), hexane is the most appropriate solvent based on overall technical and economic considerations. Batch extraction tests and kinetic studies suggest that the main interaction between the resin and the solvent is expected to be the forces associated with solvation phenomena. Temperature has the most significant effect on extraction rate. With hexane as the solvent, a recovery of 90% cam be achieved at 50{degrees}C and 10% solids concentration with moderate agitation for 1 hour.

  7. Synthesis of model compounds for coal liquefaction research. Final report, April 15, 1990--April 14, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-11-01

    Coal liquefaction investigations required the availability of model compounds for mechanistic investigations. Towards this end, IITRI was funded to develop an approach for the synthesis of one of the target compound. This study was carried out in several phases as outlined here. Initial synthetic investigations on obtaining 2-tetrolol was carried out using high pressure and temperature reduction with Raney nickel catalyst. The next step consisted in incorporation of a hydroxymethyelene group at the C-3 position. This was successfully carried out utilizing 2-tetrolol, formaldehyde, and calcium oxide. An alternate improved method was developed using 3-carboxyl-2-naphthol. This required less time, gave a cheer product in higher yield. Efforts at the introduction of a chloromethylene group only yielded polymeric material or starting material in spite of protection the phenolic group by various groups. They synthesis of 3, 5-dimethyl-6- bromobenzyl chloride was successfully carried out by performing the Blank reaction of 2, 4-dimethyl bromobenzene. The product was characterized by GC/MS. Purification was not possible, as it was a complex mixture. Efforts at converting it to the acetate followed by separation to was not feasible. Unlike in the case of 2- hydroxyteralol, hydroxymetylation by established procedure yielded only the starting materials. Commercially available 4-methoxy-1- maphthaldehyde was protected as the ethylene acetal. The Wittig reagent 3-chlorobenzyl phosphonium bromide was prepared and condensed with 4-methoxy-1-napthaldehyde successfully and proved that the overall synthetic approach was proceeding in the desired direction. All the necessary intermediates have been synthesized,and we have demonstrated using model compounds, that the synthetic objective can be attained.

  8. Central Arkansas Energy Project: coal to medium-Btu gas. Volume 1. Feasibility study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-05-01

    The Central Arkansas Energy Project has as its objective the conversion of coal in a central location to a more readily usable energy source, medium Btu gas (MBG), for use at dispersed locations as fuel for power production and steam generation, or as a feedstock for chemical processing. The gasification plant will be located adjacent to AP and L's existing White Bluff Steam Electric Station near Redfield, Arkansas. A comprehensive 14-month study was performed to investigate the project feasibility. The study included preliminary design of the gasification plant including process engineering design bases, process flow diagrams, utility requirements, system descriptions, project engineering design, equipment specifications, plot plan and section plot plans, preliminary piping and instrument diagrams, and facilities requirements. Financial analyses and sensitivities were determined. Detailed design and construction schedules and manpower loadings were developed. Site characteristics and site suitability as well as an evaluation of the environmental safety, health and socioeconomic issues were performed. The results of these evaluations indicate that the gasification plant and pipeline are licensable and will have a minimal effect on the environment. An overall schedule for construction of the gasification plant was developed which indicated a 76 month requirement for design engineering and construction, including a 10 month start-up period. The estimated 1981 dollar project capital cost is $964 million. The escalated 1988 project capital cost is $1.370 billion. Financial analyses have indicated the plant would provide a 25% after-tax return on investment, based upon a 1988 MBG price of $11.02 MM Btu.

  9. Dynamic simulation models for selective sulfur removal in coal gasification systems. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Vysniauskas, T.; Sim, W.D.

    1985-07-01

    A study was conducted, under EPRI Agreement RP1038-6, to investigate the feasibility of using computer simulation models to predict the steady-state and transient behavior of selective acid gas treating units. One of the prime objectives was to determine whether these models could be used to simulate the acid gas absorption units in coal gasification-combined cycle (GCC) power plants. Two dynamic simulation models were investigated; one model was developed by S-Cubed (formerly Systems, Science and Software) and the other was an in-house program developed by Hyprotech Ltd. These models were tailored specifically for the Norton Co. SELEXOL process for this study and incorporated an empirically fitted property package to represent the solvent. Both models used the same property package and were tested against SELEXOL plant data provided from the Bi-Gas pilot plant in Homer City, Pennsylvania, the Texaco pilot plant in Montebello, California and the TVA pilot plant in Muscle Shoals, Alabama. The results of this study are presented in this report. Although there were inconsistencies in some of the plant data, the models appeared to compare favorably with the plant data. The S-Cubed and Hyprotech model yielded nearly identical results when tested against the Bi-Gas plant data. Overall, the Hyprotech model proved to be faster than the S-Cubed version by about an order of magnitude and therefore offered the more attractive option for general simulation applications. However, further work is still needed to improve the solvent property predictions in the model. 7 refs.

  10. Impact of nonequilibrium particle temperature considerations on seeded coal combustion plasma properties

    SciTech Connect

    Oni, A.A.

    1991-01-01

    This past quarter ending 12/30/91, the linear MHD channel simulation model has not only been completely specified but also fully modified to incorporate considerations for nonequilibrium particle temperatures. Testing of the modified model with the initial values from the first submodel (Richter's combustion zone model) and evaluation of the non-equilibrium particle temperature effect on the overall MHD performance is being held up. Reasons for the holdup is the lack of adequate response from Dr. Richter on questions about his nonequilibrium particle temperature model. These questions relate to our insistence to know precisely how the model works and also some review of the source code to ascertain that it is synchronization with our overall analytical development. We have decided to generate initial generator inlet particle parameter values by modifying the CEC code to provide particle parameter values.

  11. Characterization of the surface properties of Illinois basin coals. Final technical report, September 1, 1991--August 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Demir, I.; Harvey, R.D.; Lizzio, A.A.

    1992-12-31

    Surface area and pore volume distributions, surface charge, and surface chemical structure of the eight coals in the Illinois Basin Coal Sample Program (IBCSP) were determined. The IBC-101 coal has the lowest total and micropore (3.5-20.0 {Angstrom}) surface areas. The IBC-103 coal has the lowest mesopore (20-500 {Angstrom}) surface area. The mesopore surface areas of IBC-101, IBC-102, and IBC-107 coals are higher than the other four coals. Pore volume in pores <1800 {Angstrom} in diameter varies almost five-fold with IBC-103 coal having the lowest value. These differences may affect the reactivity of these coals during cleaning, conversion, and combustion processes. Surface charge and isoelectric points vary among the samples. The isoelectric point, where processes such as agglomeration and dewatering is most efficient, shifted to higher pH values for some of the samples upon exposure to air oxidation at room temperature. Diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIS) data indicate that the surfaces of the IBCSP coals contain aromatic hydrocarbon components, aliphatic hydrocarbons, and an aldehyde group. Ball-mill grinding reduced the organic hydroxyls and thus enriched relative concentrations of nonpolar aliphatic functional groups in the samples. The room temperature air oxidation did not cause any significant change on the surface chemical structure of the coals.

  12. Subcontracted R and D final report: SRC-I phase equilibrium and enthalpy data for coal liquefaction and solvent recovery areas. Vol. 3

    SciTech Connect

    Mehta, D.C.; Chu, I.C.; Kidnay, A.J.; Yesavage, V.F.

    1984-03-01

    The Enthalpy Program was a 20-month project initiated on January 18, 1982 by the International Coal Refining Company (ICRC) and under the technical direction of Professor Arthur J. Kidnay and Professor V.F. Yesavage at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM), Golden, Colorado. The objective of the program was to gather enthalpy data on representative pure model compounds, mixtures of model compounds, and selected coal-derived liquid samples furnished by ICRC. A copy of the technical agreement between ICRC and CSM is included in this report as Appendix A. This final report contains a complete description of the calorimeter and the experimental procedures used, separate data sections for each experimental task, and a copy of the technical agreement between ICRC and CSM. Data are presented for 11 coal liquid fractions. Each section of this report is organized to stand alone; thus, there are no general lists of references, tables of notation, or overall data tables.

  13. Electrostatic precipitation of particulate emissions from the combustion of coal-oil-water and coal-water-slurry in an industrial packaged boiler. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Noll, C.G.; Dooher, J.R.

    1984-12-01

    The report discusses the results of a research project designed to determine electrostatic-precipitation performance in collecting particulate emissions from coal-oil-water or coal-water slurry fuels. Measurements made on a mobile electrostatic precipitator (ESP) showed that New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) could be met by appropriate design and operation. Coal-oil-water fuels required a specific collection area (SCA) of 340 sq ft/1,000 ACFM flue gas, while coal-water slurry fuel needed 500 sq ft/ACFM flue gas to comply with NSPS. Specific electrode power densities were 200 watts/1,000 ACFM flue gas. The mobile ESP accepted flue gas from a packaged fire-tube boiler converted to coal-slurry firing. The fully instrumented boiler produced a fly-ash high-in carbon content, especially when burning CWS fuel. The high carbon content influenced fly-ash resistivity vs. temperature curves and must be taken into account in designing an ESP for this kind of service.

  14. Superacid Catalyzed Depolymerization and Conversion of Coals. Final Technical Report. [HF:BF{sub 2}/H{sub 2}

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Olah, G.

    1980-01-01

    We were interested in applying superacid catalyzed cleavage-depolymerization and ionic hydrogenation low temperature conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbon, as well as obtaining information about the reactions involved and the structure of intermediates of the coal liquefaction process. In order to show the feasibility of our proposed research we have carried out preliminary investigation in these areas. Preceding our work there was no practical application of a superacid system to coal liquefaction. We carried out an extensive study of the potential of the HF:BF{sub 3}/H{sub 2} system for coal hydroliquefaction. Under varying conditions of reactant ratio, reaction time and temperature, we were able to obtain over 95% pyridine extractible product by treating coal in HF:BF{sub 3}:H{sub 2} system at approx. 100 degrees C for 4 hours. The coal to acid ratio was 1:5 and FB{sub 3} at 900 psi and H{sub 2} at 500 psi were used. These are extremely encouraging results in that the conditions used are drastically milder than those used in any known process, such as Exxon donor solvent and related processes. The cyclohexane extractibility of the treated coal was as high as 27% and the yield of liquid distillate at 400 degrees C/5 x 10{sup -3}/sup torr/ was approx. 30%. The infrared spectrum of product coal, extracts and distillates were distinctly different from the starting coal and show a significant increase in the amount of saturates. The {sup 1}H NMR spectrum of cyclohexane extract of the treated coal shows essentially all aliphatic photons. The spectra of other treated coal extracts show increased amounts and types of aliphatic protons as well as significant amounts of protons bound to unsaturated sites. This again indicates that the HF-BF{sub 3} system is depolymerizing the coal to small fragments which are soluble in non-polar solvents.

  15. Superacid catalyzed depolymerization and conversion of coals. Final technical report. [HF:BF/sub 2//H/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Olah, G.

    1980-01-01

    We were interested in applying superacid catalyzed cleavage-depolymerization and ionic hydrogenation low temperature conversion of coal to liquid hydrocarbon, as well as obtaining information about the reactions involved and the structure of intermediates of the coal liquefaction process. In order to show the feasibility of our proposed research we have carried out preliminary investigation in these areas. Preceding our work there was no practical application of a superacid system to coal liquefaction. We carried out an extensive study of the potential of the HF:BF/sub 3//H/sub 2/ system for coal hydroliquefaction. Under varying conditions of reactant ratio, reaction time and temperature, we were able to obtain over 95% pyridine extractible product by treating coal in HF:BF/sub 3/:H/sub 2/ system at approx. 100/sup 0/C for 4 hours. The coal to acid ratio was 1:5 and FB/sub 3/ at 900 psi and H/sub 2/ at 500 psi were used. These are extremely encouraging results in that the conditions used are drastically milder than those used in any known process, such as Exxon donor solvent and related processes. The cyclohexane extractibility of the treated coal was as high as 27% and the yield of liquid distillate at 400/sup 0/C/5 x 10/sup -3//sup torr/ was approx. 30%. The infrared spectrum of product coal, extracts and distillates were distinctly different from the starting coal and show a significant increase in the amount of saturates. The /sup 1/H NMR spectrum of cyclohexane extract of the treated coal shows essentially all aliphatic photons. The spectra of other treated coal extracts show increased amounts and types of aliphatic protons as well as significant amounts of protons bound to unsaturated sites. This again indicattes that the HF-BF/sub 3/ system is depolymerizing the coal to small fragments which are soluble in non-polar solvents.

  16. The development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities: Phase 1 final report. Volume 1: Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Morrison, J.L.; Pisupati, S.V.

    1997-01-31

    The first phase of a three-phase project investigating the development of coal-based technologies for Department of Defense facilities has been completed. The objectives of the project are to: decrease DOD`s dependence on foreign oil and increase its use of coal; promote public and private sector deployment of technologies for utilizing coal-based fuels in oil-designed combustion equipment; and provide a continuing environment for research and development of coal-based fuel technologies for small-scale applications at a time when market conditions in the US are not favorable for the introduction of coal-fired equipment in the commercial and industrial capacity ranges. The Phase 1 activities were focused on developing clean, coal-based combustion technologies for the utilization of both micronized coal-water mixtures (MCWMs) and dry, micronized coal (DMC) in fuel oil-designed industrial boilers. The specific objective in Phase 1 was to deliver fully engineered retrofit options for a fuel oil-designed watertube boiler located on a DOD installation to fire either MCWM or DMC. This was achieved through a project consisting of fundamental, pilot-sale, and demonstration-scale activities investigating coal beneficiation and preparation, and MCWM and DMC combustion performance. In addition, detailed engineering designs and an economic analysis were conducted for a boiler located at the Naval Surface Warfare Center, near Crane, Indiana. Results are reported on MCWM and DMC combustion performance evaluation; engineering design; and cost/economic analysis.

  17. The mobile phase in coals: Its nature and modes of release: Final report: Part 1, Structural inferences from dry catalytic hydrogenation of a subbituminous coal

    SciTech Connect

    Terrer, M.T.; Derbyshire, F.J.

    1986-12-01

    In a study to provide insight into the two component structural model of coal and the mechanisms of coal liquefaction, an approach was adopted in which a subbituminous coal was reacted with hydrogen in the presence of an impregnated molybdenum sulphide catalyst and in the absence of solvent. Reactions were conducted at temperatures between 300 and 400/sup 0/C and for reaction times up to 180 min. The composition and yields of gaseous products, chloroform-soluble liquids and insoluble residues were followed as a function of the reaction conditions by means of different analytical and characterization techniques: gas chromatography; /sup 1/H NMR; elemental analysis; FTIR; solvent swelling in pyridine. 105 refs., 20 figs., 12 tabs.

  18. Design, synthesis, and characterization of novel fine-particle, unsupported catalysts for coal liquefaction

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, M.T.

    1991-09-11

    A series of carbonyl-based homogeneous catalyst precursors has been prepared. These species include: Fe(CO){sub 4}PPh{sub 3}, Fe(CO){sub 3}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}, Fe(CO){sub 2}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 2}CS{sub 2}, S{sub 2}Fe{sub 2}(CO){sub 6}, S{sub 2}Fe{sub 3}(CO){sub 9}. Fe(CO){sub 4}PPh{sub 3} was prepared by a combined photochemical and thermal route from triphenylphosphine (PPh{sub 3}) in iron pentacarbonyl (Fe(CO){sub 5}). This preparation procedure, which is selective to the monosubstituted product, is outlined herein. Currently these compounds are being tested as catalysts/catalyst precursors with coal or model compounds in the tubing bomb reactors to provide information relating catalytic activity to catalyst structure and properties. (VC)

  19. Characteristics of American coals in relation to their conversion into clean-energy fuels. Final report. [1150 samples of US coals

    SciTech Connect

    Spackman, W.; Davis, A.; Walker, P.L.; Lovell, H.L.; Vastola, F.J.; Given, P.H.; Suhr, N.H.; Jenkins, R.G.

    1982-06-01

    To further characterize the Nation's coals, the Penn State Coal Sample Bank and Data Base were expanded to include a total of 1150 coal samples. The Sample Bank includes full-seam channel samples as well as samples of lithotypes, seam benches, and sub-seam sections. To the extent feasible and appropriate basic compositional data were generated for each sample and validated and computerized. These data include: proximate analysis, ultimate analysis, sulfur forms analysis, calorific value, maceral analysis, vitrinite reflectance analysis, ash fusion analysis, free-swelling index determination, Gray-King coke type determination, Hardgrove grindability determination, Vicker's microhardness determination, major and minor element analysis, trace element analysis, and mineral species analysis. During the contract period more than 5000 samples were prepared and distributed. A theoretical and experimental study of the pyrolysis of coal has been completed. The reactivity of chars, produced from all ranks of American coals, has been studied with regard to reactivity to air, CO/sub 2/, H/sub 2/ and steam. Another area research has concerned the catalytic effect of minerals and various cations on the gasification processes. Combustion of chars, low volatile fuels, coal-oil-water-air emulsions and other subjects of research are reported here. The products of this research can be found in 23 DOE Technical Research Reports and 49 published papers. As another mechanism of technology transfer, the results have been conveyed via more than 70 papers presented at a variety of scientific meetings. References to all of these are contained in this report.

  20. Dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, and psoriasis drug products containing coal tar and menthol for over-the-counter human use; amendment to the monograph. Final rule

    SciTech Connect

    2006-03-15

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is issuing a final rule amending the final monograph (FM) for over-the-counter (OTC) dandruff, seborrheic dermatitis, and psoriasis drug products to include the combination of 1.8 percent coal tar solution and 1.5 percent menthol in a shampoo drug product to control dandruff. FDA did not receive any comments or data in response to its previously proposed rule to include this combination. This final rule is part of FDA's ongoing review of OTC drug products.