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Sample records for coal seam fire

  1. Geomorphology of coal seam fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuenzer, Claudia; Stracher, Glenn B.

    2012-02-01

    Coal fires occur in underground natural coal seams, in exposed surface seams, and in coal storage or waste piles. The fires ignite through spontaneous combustion or natural or anthropogenic causes. They are reported from China, India, USA, South Africa, Australia, and Russia, as well as many other countries. Coal fires lead to loss of a valuable resource (coal), the emission of greenhouse-relevant and toxic gases, and vegetation deterioration. A dangerous aspect of the fires is the threat to local mines, industries, and settlements through the volume loss underground. Surface collapse in coal fire areas is common. Thus, coal fires are significantly affecting the evolution of the landscape. Based on more than a decade of experience with in situ mapping of coal fire areas worldwide, a general classification system for coal fires is presented. Furthermore, coal seam fire geomorphology is explained in detail. The major landforms associated with, and induced by, these fires are presented. The landforms include manifestations resulting from bedrock surface fracturing, such as fissures, cracks, funnels, vents, and sponges. Further manifestations resulting from surface bedrock subsidence include sinkholes, trenches, depressions, partial surface subsidence, large surface subsidence, and slides. Additional geomorphologic coal fire manifestations include exposed ash layers, pyrometamorphic rocks, and fumarolic minerals. The origin, evolution, and possible future development of these features are explained, and examples from in situ surveys, as well as from high-resolution satellite data analyses, are presented. The geomorphology of coal fires has not been presented in a systematic manner. Knowledge of coal fire geomorphology enables the detection of underground coal fires based on distinct surface manifestations. Furthermore, it allows judgments about the safety of coal fire-affected terrain. Additionally, geomorphologic features are indicators of the burning stage of fires

  2. Induced polarization signature of coal seam fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Zhenlu; Revil, André; Mao, Deqiang; Wang, Deming

    2017-03-01

    Coal seam fires are a worldwide disaster of both ecological and economic importance. Their remote detection from the ground surface or using airborne techniques is required for developing efficient strategies to extinguish them. We investigate here the use of time-domain-induced polarization to localize coal seam fires. For laboratory experiments, we first introduce a modified time-domain-induced polarization methodology to quickly acquire and invert the secondary voltage distribution mapped after the shutdown of the primary current. A set of sandbox experiments is conducted in which coal is embedded into humidified sand. Raw coal alone generates significant induced polarization anomalies, above those shown by the sand. Even higher induced polarization anomalies are detected in presence of a coal seam fire. We postulate that the higher chargeability is due to the pyrolysis, which may enhance electronic polarization or the polarization associated with the cation exchange capacity (CEC) of the material. The position of the coal seam fire is well recovered inside the tank by inverting the secondary voltages in term of a source current density distribution. We also collected field data over a recognized coal seam fire in Colorado, USA. A chargeability anomaly (˜800 mV V-1) and a resistivity anomaly (˜1 Ohm m) are observed at the position of the coal seam fire. We propose a normalized burning front index (a scaled normalized chargeability) to image and localize, without ambiguity, the position of the coal seam fire in the subsurface. The 3-D reconstructed target is located below a negative self-potential anomaly (similarly to what is observed in laboratory experiments) and a temperature anomaly recorded at a depth of 30 cm.

  3. Induced polarization signature of coal seam fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Zhenlu; Revil, André; Mao, Deqiang; Wang, Deming

    2016-12-01

    Coal seam fires are a worldwide disaster of both ecological and economic importance. Their remote detection from the ground surface or using airborne techniques is required for developing efficient strategies to extinguish them. We investigate here the use of time-domain induced polarization to localize coal seam fires. For laboratory experiments, we first introduce a modified time-domain induced polarization methodology to quickly acquire and invert the secondary voltage distribution mapped after the shutdown of the primary current. A set of sandbox experiments is conducted in which coal is embedded into humidified sand. Raw coal alone generates significant induced polarization anomalies, significantly above those shown by the sand. Even higher induced polarization anomalies are detected in presence of a coal seam fire. We postulate that the higher chargeability is due to the pyrolysis, which may enhance electronic polarization or the polarization associated with the cation exchange capacity of the material. The position of the coal seam fire is well recovered inside the tank by inverting the secondary voltages in term of a source current density distribution. We also collected field data over a recognized coal seam fire in Colorado, USA. A chargeability anomaly (˜800 mV/V) and a resistivity anomaly (˜1 Ohm m) are observed at the position of the coal seam fire. We propose a normalized burning front index (a scaled normalized chargeability) to image and localize, without ambiguity, the position of the coal seam fire in the subsurface. The 3D reconstructed target is located below a negative self-potential anomaly (similarly to what is observed in laboratory experiments) and a temperature anomaly recorded at a depth of 30 cm.

  4. Exemplary geophysical investigations on coal seam fires in Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrecht, A.; Meyer, U.; Rüter, H.; Gundelach, V.; Lindner, H.; Schaumann, G.; Schlömer, S.; Guangliang, L.; Bing, K.; Jianjun, W.

    2009-04-01

    Within the framework of the Sino-German research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" different geophysical methods have been applied. The investigation area was the coal fire district of Wuda, located in the south-central part of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of Northern China. The Wuda coalfield is bordering in southeast with the Helan Shan (Helan Mountains), in the east with the mountains of the Ordos Massif, while in the west and north with the Gobi desert. It is a gentle north-south striking structural syncline with an aerial extent of 40 km2 and with elevations ranging between 1100 and 1300 m above sea level. The survey area is covered mainly by sandstone. Up to 18 mined coal seams extend to greater depths varying from a few metres down to several hundreds of metres below surface. The objective of subsequent geophysical surveys was to detect areas affected by coal seam fires by means of physical parameters acquired over the burning and burnt coal seams, to find out which methods are useful for fire detection, to accompany the extinguishing process and to control successful extinction. Airborne methods used are helicopter borne electromagnetics (HEM) and magnetics. Ground surveys for measuring transient electromagnetics, magnetics, ground penetrating radar and near surface temperature were carried out in selected parts of the helicopter survey. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) is an ideal method to detect voids in depth less than 50 m. An important point to extinguish a coal fire is to know the paths of oxygen transport from the surface to the fire. Some crevices which are potential paths for oxygen can be determined by GPR due to the resolution of the chosen frequency. The GPR system applied was built by GSSI and utilized for three different antennae length. The centre frequencies are 40, 80 and 200 MHz. A 200 MHz system was used to get detailed information close to the surface

  5. Assessment of the Influence of Fractures on the Dynamics of Coal Seam Fires by Numerical Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuttke, Manfred W.; Zeng, Qiang

    2016-04-01

    Uncontrolled burning coal seam fires still constitute major problems for the coal industry by destroying the resource, a serious hazard for the local people by severe environmental pollution, and a tremendous threat to the global environment by the emission of greenhouse gases and aerosols. In particular when the seams are lying shallow the alteration of the immediate surrounding of the coal seam fire feeds back on the dynamics of the fire. Thermal stress induced fracturing produces direct connections of the fire zone with the atmosphere. This influences the supply with oxygen, the venting of the exhaust gases, and the dissipation of heat. The first two processes are expected to enhance the fire propagation whereas the latter effect should slow it down. With our dedicated coal seam fire code ACME ("Amendable Coal-fire Modeling Exercise") we study these coupled effects of fractures in simulations of typical coal seam fire scenarios based on data from Xinjiang, China. Fractures are predefined as 1D/2D objects in a 2D/3D model geometry and are opened depending on the passage of the heat wave produced by the coal seam fire.

  6. Emergency assessment of potential debris-flow peak discharges, Coal Seam fire, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.; Gartner, Joseph E.; Rea, Alan H.; Garcia, Steven P.

    2002-01-01

    These maps present the results of assessments of peak discharges that can potentially be generated by debris flows issuing from the basins burned by the Coal Seam fire of June and July 2002, near Glenwood Springs, Colorado. The maps are based on a regression model for debris-flow peak discharge normalized by average storm intensity as a function of basin gradient and burned extent, and limited field checking. A range of potential peak discharges that could potentially be produced from each of the burned basins between 1 ft3/s (0.03 m3/s) and greater than 5,000 ft3/s (>141 m3/s) is calculated for the 5-year, 1-hour storm of 0.80 inches (20 mm). The 25-year, 1-hour storm of 1.3 inches (33 mm). The 100- year, 1-hour storm of 1.8 inches (46 mm) produced peak discharges between 1 and greater than 8,000 ft3/s (>227 m3/s). These maps are intended for use by emergency personnel to aid in the preliminary design of mitigation measures, and the planning of evacuation timing and routes.

  7. Gel retarder for fire prevention and extinguishing -- Its application for spontaneous combustion of coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    With its unique function, gel retarder has been successfully applied to extinguish fire at coal face, roadways and stop line of upper slice extraction, and a comparably perfect set of fire extinguishing techniques has been developed. The technique gathers together characteristics of water-fixation, leak-blocking, cooling, oxidation-retarding and heat-resisting. A new agglomerating agent without amine and corrosion has been developed to replace amine-salt and acid used in the past. Gel-injection technology cooperating with the grouting system on the ground solves previous problems in which gel-injection velocity was slow and materials transport was difficult. The technique has become the main measure to extinguish spontaneous combustion in coal mines in China. The use of gel retarder as an important means of underground fire prevention will be applied more widely to prevent and extinguish spontaneous fire in coal mines.

  8. Assessment of potential debris-flow peak discharges from basins burned by the 2002 Coal Seam fire, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.; Gartner, Joseph E.

    2003-01-01

    These maps present the results of assessments of peak discharges that can potentially be generated by debris flows issuing from the basins burned by the Coal Seam fire of June and July 2002, near Glenwood Springs, Colorado. The maps are based on a regression model for debris-flow peak discharge normalized by average storm intensity as a function of basin gradient and burned extent, and limited field checking. A range of potential peak discharges that could potentially be produced from each of the burned basins between 1 ft3/s (0.03 m3/s) and greater than 5,000 ft3/s (>141 m3/s) is calculated for the 5-year, 1-hour storm of 0.80 inches (20 mm). The 25-year, 1-hour storm of 1.3 inches (33 mm). The 100- year, 1-hour storm of 1.8 inches (46 mm) produced peak discharges between 1 and greater than 8,000 ft3/s (>227 m3/s). These maps are intended for use by emergency personnel to aid in the preliminary design of mitigation measures, and the planning of evacuation timing and routes.

  9. Analysis and mapping of post-fire hydrologic hazards for the 2002 Hayman, Coal Seam, and Missionary Ridge wildfires, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, J.G.; Smith, M.E.; Friedel, M.J.; Stevens, M.R.; Bossong, C.R.; Litke, D.W.; Parker, R.S.; Costello, C.; Wagner, J.; Char, S.J.; Bauer, M.A.; Wilds, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    Wildfires caused extreme changes in the hydrologic, hydraulic, and geomorphologic characteristics of many Colorado drainage basins in the summer of 2002. Detailed assessments were made of the short-term effects of three wildfires on burned and adjacent unburned parts of drainage basins. These were the Hayman, Coal Seam, and Missionary Ridge wildfires. Longer term runoff characteristics that reflect post-fire drainage basin recovery expected to develop over a period of several years also were analyzed for two affected stream reaches: the South Platte River between Deckers and Trumbull, and Mitchell Creek in Glenwood Springs. The 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year flood-plain boundaries and water-surface profiles were computed in a detailed hydraulic study of the Deckers-to-Trumbull reach. The Hayman wildfire burned approximately 138,000 acres (216 square miles) in granitic terrain near Denver, and the predominant potential hazard in this area is flooding by sediment-laden water along the large tributaries to and the main stem of the South Platte River. The Coal Seam wildfire burned approximately 12,200 acres (19.1 square miles) near Glenwood Springs, and the Missionary Ridge wildfire burned approximately 70,500 acres (110 square miles) near Durango, both in areas underlain by marine shales where the predominant potential hazard is debris-flow inundation of low-lying areas. Hydrographs and peak discharges for pre-burn and post-burn scenarios were computed for each drainage basin and tributary subbasin by using rainfall-runoff models because streamflow data for most tributary subbasins were not available. An objective rainfall-runoff model calibration method based on nonlinear regression and referred to as the ?objective calibration method? was developed and applied to rainfall-runoff models for three burned areas. The HEC-1 rainfall-runoff model was used to simulate the pre-burn rainfall-runoff processes in response to the 100-year storm, and HEC-HMS was used for runoff

  10. Cleaning of Croweburg Seam coal to improve boiler performance

    SciTech Connect

    Dospoy, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Recently an Oklahoma law was enacted that mandates that Oklahoma coal-fired utilities must burn a minimum of ten percent Oklahoma-mined coal. Public Service Company of Oklahoma (PSO), burning raw Croweburg Seam coal from Oklahoma as part of a blend, was interested in determining if cleaning the Croweburg Seam coal could reduce boiler slagging and fouling problems experienced at its Northeastern Station's Units 3 and 4. Studies of the Croweburg Seam coal performed at CQ Inc. in Homer City, Pennsylvania were used to determine the potential of physical cleaning for upgrading this coal. The test program involved commercial-scale cleaning tests with heavy-medium cyclones, two-stage water only cyclones, and froth flotation cells, well as extensive laboratory and pilot-scale tests. The coal evaluated during the test program responded well to cleaning. Results indicate the ash slagging and fouling can be significantly improved by cleaning. Significant reductions in ash, specific ash constituents, and trace element concentrations were also demonstrated along with increased heating value. Finally, although the raw coal tested can be classified as compliance'' prior to cleaning, the cleaning tests show that further reductions in SO{sub 2} emissions potential were possible, along with high energy recoveries and increased heating values and can be beneficial for improved plant performance.

  11. Influences Determining European Coal Seam Gas Deliverability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, G.

    2009-04-01

    Technically the coal basins of Europe have generated significant Gas In Place figures that has historically generated investor's interest in the development of this potential coal seam gas (CSG) resource. In the early 1980's, a wave of international, principally American, companies arrived, established themselves, drilled and then left with a poor record of success and disappointed investors. Recently a second wave of investment started after 2002, with the smaller companies leading the charge but have the lesson been learned from the past failures? To select a CSG investment project the common European approach has been to: 1. Find an old mining region; 2. Look to see if it had a coal mine methane gas problem; 3. Look for the non-mined coal seams; and 4. Peg the land. This method is perhaps the reason why the history of CSG exploration in Europe is such a disappointment as generally the coal mining regions of Europe do not have commercial CSG reservoir attributes. As a result, investors and governments have lost confidence that CSG will be a commercial success in Europe. New European specific principles for the determination of commercial CSG prospects have had to be delineated that allow for the selection of coal basins that have a strong technical case for deliverability. This will result in the return of investor confidence.

  12. Method for gasification of deep, thin coal seams

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, David W.

    1982-01-01

    A method of gasification of coal in deep, thin seams by using controlled bending subsidence to confine gas flow to a region close to the unconsumed coal face. The injection point is moved sequentially around the perimeter of a coal removal area from a production well to sweep out the area to cause the controlled bending subsidence. The injection holes are drilled vertically into the coal seam through the overburden or horizontally into the seam from an exposed coal face. The method is particularly applicable to deep, thin seams found in the eastern United States and at abandoned strip mines where thin seams were surface mined into a hillside or down a modest dip until the overburden became too thick for further mining.

  13. Method for gasification of deep, thin coal seams. [DOE patent

    DOEpatents

    Gregg, D.W.

    1980-08-29

    A method of gasification of coal in deep, thin seams by using controlled bending subsidence to confine gas flow to a region close to the unconsumed coal face is given. The injection point is moved sequentially around the perimeter of a coal removal area from a production well to sweep out the area to cause the controlled bending subsidence. The injection holes are drilled vertically into the coal seam through the overburden or horizontally into the seam from an exposed coal face. The method is particularly applicable to deep, thin seams found in the eastern United States and at abandoned strip mines where thin seams were surface mined into a hillside or down a modest dip until the overburden became too thick for further mining.

  14. Technology and means of a coal seam interval hydraulic fracturing for the seam degassing intensification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klishin, VI; Opruk, GY; Tatsienko, AL

    2017-02-01

    Interval hydraulic fracturing use for the seam degassing intensification actuality is explained. The known methods of degassing are reviewed. Technological scheme of the interval coal seam hydraulic fracturing implementation is worked out. The equipment to fulfill degassing intensification measures is suggested.

  15. Shield support selection based on geometric characteristics of coal seam

    SciTech Connect

    K. Goshtasbi; K. Oraee; F. Khakpour-yeganeh

    2006-01-15

    The most initial investment in longwall face equipping is the cost of powered support. Selection of proper shields for powered supports is based on load, geometric characterization of coal seams and economical considerations.

  16. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) and Coal Mining on Water Resources in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, D. A.

    2013-12-01

    Mining of coal bed methane deposits (termed ';coal seam gas' in Australia) is a rapidly growing source of natural gas in Australia. Indeed, expansion of the industry is occurring so quickly that in some cases, legislation is struggling to keep up with this expansion. Perhaps because of this, community concern about the impacts of coal seam gas development is very strong. Responding to these concerns, the Australian Government has recently established an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) to provide advice to the Commonwealth and state regulators on potential water-related impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining developments. In order to provide the underlying science to the IESC, a program of ';bioregional assessments' has been implemented. One aim of these bioregional assessments is to improve our understanding of the connectivity between the impacts of coal seam gas extraction and groundwater aquifers, as well as their connection to surface water. A bioregional assessment can be defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion, with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are now being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia which are underlain by coal reserves. This presentation will provide an overview of the issues related to the impacts of coal seam gas and coal mining on water resources in Australia. The methodology of undertaking bioregional assessments will be described, and the application of this methodology to six priority bioregions in eastern Australia will be detailed. Preliminary results of the program of research to date will be assessed in light of the requirements of the IESC to provide independent advice to the Commonwealth and State governments. Finally, parallels between the expansion of the industry in Australia with that

  17. Selective agglomeration of a Pittsburgh Seam coal with isooctane

    SciTech Connect

    Lai, R.; Killmeyer, R.; Utz, B.; Richardson, A.; Sinha, K.

    1992-01-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center initiated a research program in 1989 to investigate the fundamentals of selective agglomeration as applied to the cleaning of coals. The results of the initial study with Bruceton mine, Pittsburgh seam coal, using isooctane as an agglomerant, have been published. Subsequent to the successful reduction of the ash content of Bruceton coal to less than 0.9% after two cleaning stages, the study was extended to compare a coal from the same seam, but from Ohio. In the previous parameter optimization tests with Bruceton coal, particle size and slurry pH were found to be important parameters governing coal cleanability. Other researchers have obtained similar conclusions of the effects of particle size and coal slurry pH on the cleanability of various coals. In this study, the effects of these parameters on the cleanability of Powhatan coal were examined. Particle size reduction kinetics was examined first. Effects of size reduction (degree of mineral matter liberation), oil (isooctane)-to-coal ratio, and slurry pH on mineral matter rejection and combustible recovery were also examined. A petrographic comparison was conducted on the Powhatan and Bruceton coals to examine the degree of pyrite liberation as a function of particle size to elucidate why one coal from the same seam can be cleaned significantly better than another. (VC)

  18. Spatial Variation of Selenium in Appalachian Coal Seams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, L.; Tyner, J. S.; Perfect, E.; Yoder, D. C.

    2013-12-01

    The potential environmental impacts from coal extraction have led to many investigations of the geochemistry of coal. Previous studies have shown that selenium (Se) is an environmental contaminant due to its mutagenic effects on sensitive macro-organisms as a result of bioaccumulation in affected waters. Some regulatory authorities have responded by requiring the sampling of coal seams and adjacent rock for Se prior to authorizing a given coal mining permit. In at least one case, a single continuous rock core was sampled for Se to determine the threshold of Se across a 2.2 square kilometer proposed surface coal mine. To examine the adequacy of such an approach, we investigated the spatial variability and correlation of a West Virginia Geological and Economic Survey (WVGES) dataset of Se concentrations from coal seams collected within Appalachia (1088 samples). We conducted semi-variogram and Kriging cross-validation analyses on six coal seams from the dataset. Our findings suggest no significant spatial correlation of Se within a given coal seam.

  19. Coal cleaning: Progress and potential. [Deep and moderate cleaning of coal from different seams

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C.D.; Doctor, R.D.

    1986-11-01

    Results from a detailed analysis of sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) reductions achievable through ''deep'' physical coal cleaning (PCC) at 20 coal-fired power plants in the Ohio-Indiana-Illinois region are presented here. These plants all have capacities larger than 500 MWe, are currently without any flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) systems, and burn coal of greater than 1% sulfur content (in 1980). Their aggregate emissions of 2.4 million tons of SO/sub 2/ per year represent 55% of the SO/sub 2/ inventory for these states. The principal coal supplies for each power plant were identified and characterized as to coal seam and county of origin, so that published coal-washability data could be matched to each supplier. The SO/sub 2/ reductions that would result from deep cleaning (Level 4) and moderate cleaning (Level 3) of each coal were calculated using a PCC computer model. For deep cleaning, percentage reductions in sulfur content ranged from zero to 52%, with a mean value of 29%, and costs ranged from a low of $364/ton SO/sub 2/ removed to over $2000/ton SO/sub 2/ removed. Because coal suppliers to these power plants employ some voluntary coal cleaning, the anticipated emissions reduction from current levels if deep cleaning were used should be near 20%. These emissions reductions were projected using conventional coal-cleaning-circuit designs. The basic elements of typical commercial PCC designs are briefly described, and current research and development activities in physical, chemical, and biological desulfurization of coal are reviewed. Possible governmental actions to either encourage or mandate coal cleaning are identified and evaluated.

  20. Top coal caving longwall maximizes thick seam recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Duncan, G.; Sobey,. G.; Clarke, T.

    2007-07-15

    Austar's longwall system offers opportunities in coal seams thicker than 4.5 meters. The Longwall Top Coal Caving (LTCC) method was recently launched in Australia at Yancoal Australia's Austar mines in Hunter Valley, although 90 such longwalls already operate in China. The article describes the method and its installation at Austar. In September 2006 the LTCC face commenced production. The operation is described and measures to prevent spontaneous combustion are outlined. Future work on the longwall is mentioned. 11 figs.

  1. CO2 Sequestration in Unmineable Coal Seams: Potential Environmental Impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Yee; McCarthy Jones, J.R.; Harrison, D.K.; Irdi, G.A.; Frommell, E.A.; Dilmore, R.M.; Pique, P.J.; Brown, T.D

    2005-09-01

    An initial investigation into the potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams has been conducted, focusing on changes in the produced water during enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) production using a CO2 injection process (CO2-ECBM). Two coals have been used in this study, the medium volatile bituminous Upper Freeport coal (APCS 1) of the Argonne Premium Coal Samples series, and an as-mined Pittsburgh #8 coal, which is a high volatile bituminous coal. Coal samples were reacted with either synthetic produced water or field collected produced water and gaseous carbon dioxide at 40 οC and 50 bar to evaluate the potential for mobilizing toxic metals during CO2-ECBM/sequestration. Microscopic and x-ray diffraction analysis of the post-reaction coal samples clearly show evidence of chemical reaction, and chemical analysis of the produced water shows substantial changes in composition. These results suggest that changes to the produced water chemistry and the potential for mobilizing toxic trace elements from coalbeds are important factors to be considered when evaluating deep, unmineable coal seams for CO2 sequestration.

  2. 30 CFR 75.501 - Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.501 Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table. On and...

  3. 30 CFR 75.501 - Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.501 Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table. On and...

  4. 30 CFR 75.501 - Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.501 Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table. On and...

  5. 30 CFR 75.501 - Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams..., DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General § 75.501 Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table. On and...

  6. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, David

    2014-05-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States and potentially in Europe, extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus in Australia. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics, with hydraulic fracturing generally (but not always) required to extract coal seam gas also. However, as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas, the potential impacts of extraction and hydraulic fracturing on surface and groundwater resources may be potentially of more concern for coal seam gas than for shale gas. To determine the potential for coal seam gas extraction (and coal mining more generally) to impact on water resources and water-related assets in Australia, the Commonwealth Government has recently established an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (the IESC) to provide advice to Commonwealth and State Government regulators on potential water-related impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining developments. The IESC has in turn implemented a program of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment can be defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion, with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are now being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia which are underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the program can be found at http://www.environment.gov.au/coal-seam-gas-mining/bioregional-assessments.html. This presentation will provide an overview of the issues related to the impacts of coal seam gas extraction on surface and groundwater resources and water-related assets in Australia. The

  7. Numerical Modelling by FLAC on Coal Fires in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusat, D.; Drebenstedt, C.

    2009-04-01

    Coal fires occur in many countries all over the world (e.g. Australia, China, India, Indonesia, USA and Russia) in underground and on surface. In China the most coal fires occur especially in the North. Economical and environmental damages are the negative effects of the coal fires: coal fires induce open fractures and fissures within the seam and neighbouring rocks. So that these are the predominant pathways for oxygen flow and exhaust gases from a coal fire. All over northern China there are a large number of coal fires, which cause and estimated yearly coal loss of between 100 and 200 million tons ([1], [2], [3]). Spontaneous combustion is a very complicated process and is influenced by number of factors. The process is an exothermic reaction in which the heat generated is dissipated by conduction to the surrounding environment, by radiation, by convection to the ventilation flow, and in some cases by evaporation of moisture from the coal [4]. The coal fires are very serious in China, and the dangerous extent of spontaneous combustion is bad which occupies about 72.9% in mining coal seams. During coal mining in China, the coal fires of spontaneous combustion are quite severity. The dangerous of coal spontaneous combustion has been in 56% of state major coalmines [5]. The 2D and 3D-simulation models describing coal fire damages are strong tools to predict fractures and fissures, to estimate the risk of coal fire propagation into neighbouring seams, to test and evaluate coal fire fighting and prevention methods. The numerical simulations of the rock mechanical model were made with the software for geomechanical and geotechnical calculations, the programs FLAC and FLAC3D [6]. To fight again the coal fires, exist several fire fighting techniques. Water, slurries or liquefied nitrogen can be injected to cool down the coal or cut of air supply with the backfill and thereby extinct the fire. Air supply also can be cut of by covering the coal by soil or sealing of the

  8. Deep coal seams as a greener energy source: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranathunga, A. S.; Perera, M. S. A.; Ranjith, P. G.

    2014-12-01

    Today, coal and oil are the main energy sources used in the world. However, these sources will last for only a few decades. Hence, the investigation of possible energy sources to meet this crisis has become a crucial task. Coal bed methane (CBM) is a potential energy source which can be used to fulfil the energy demand. Since the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) emitted to the atmosphere from the use of CBM is comparatively very low compared to conventional energy sources, it is also a potential mitigation option for global warming. This paper reviews CBM recovery techniques with particular emphasis on CO2-enhanced coal bed methane (CO2-ECBM) recovery. The paper reviews (1) conventional CBM recovery techniques and problems associated with them, (2) CBM production-enhancement methods, including hydro-fracturing and enhanced CBM recovery techniques, such as N2-ECBM and CO2-ECBM, (3) the importance of the CO2-ECBM technique compared to other methods and problems with it, (4) the effect of CO2 injection during the CO2-ECBM process on coal seam permeability and strength and (5) current CO2-ECBM field projects and their progress. Although conventional CBM recovery methods are simple (basically related to the drawdown of the reservoir pressure to release methane from it), they are inefficient for the recovery of a commercially viable amount of methane from coal seams. Therefore, to enhance methane production, several methods are used, such as hydro-fracturing and ECBM (N2-ECBM and CO2-ECBM). The CO2-ECBM process has a number of advantages compared to other methane recovery techniques, as it contributes to the mitigation of the atmospheric CO2 level, is safer and more economical. However, as a result of CO2 injection into the coal seam during the CO2-ECBM process, coal mass permeability and strength may be crucially changed, due to the coal matrix swelling associated with CO2 adsorption into the coal matrix. Both injecting CO2 properties (gas type, CO2 phase and pressure

  9. Geology of coal fires: case studies from around the world

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn B. Stracher

    2008-01-15

    Coal fires are preserved globally in the rock record as burnt and volume-reduced coal seams and by pyrometamorphic rocks, explosion breccias, clinker, gas-vent-mineral assemblages, fire-induced faulting, ground fissures, slump blocks, and sinkholes. Coal fires are responsible for coronary and respiratory diseases and fatalities in humans, as well as arsenic and fluorine poisoning. Their heat energy, toxic fumes, and solid by-products of combustion destroy floral and faunal habitats while polluting the air, water, and soil. This volume includes chapters devoted to spontaneous combustion and greenhouse gases, gas-vent mineralogy and petrology, paralavas and combustion metamorphic rocks, geochronology and landforms, magnetic signatures and geophysical modeling, remote-sensing detection and fire-depth estimation of concealed fires, and coal fires and public policy.

  10. Mathematical modeling of hydraulic fracturing in coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    Olovyanny, A.G.

    2005-02-01

    Hydraulic fracturing of coal seam is considered as a process of development of discontinuities in rock mass elements due to change in hydrogeomechanical situation on filtration of fluid under pressure. Failure is associated with excess of the effective stresses over the rock tension strength. The problem on filtration and failure of massif is solved by the finite-element method using the procedure of fictitious nodal forces.

  11. Numerical modeling of hydrofracturing in a multilayer coal seam

    SciTech Connect

    Nasedkina, A.A.; Trufanov, V.N.

    2006-01-15

    The mathematical model of the process for hydrodynamic fracturing in a multilayer coal seam is proposed. The model is based on the equation of continuity and Darcy's law. The filtration-temperature analogy allows solving the obtained non-linear, non-stationary problem in an axisymmetric statement for the pressure function as the heat-conductivity problem, by the finite-element method. The calculation results yield estimation of the radius of degassing borehole influence zone.

  12. Quality of selected coal seams from Indiana: Implications for carbonization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.; Mastalerz, Maria; Padgett, P.

    2001-01-01

    The chemical properties of two high-volatile bituminous coals, the Danville Coal Member of the Dugger Formation and the Lower Block Coal Member of the Brazil Formation from southern Indiana, were compared to understand the differences in their coking behavior. It was determined that of the two, the Lower Block has better characteristics for coking. Observed factors that contribute to the differences in the coking behavior of the coals include carbon content, organic sulfur content, and oxygen/carbon (O/C) ratios. The Lower Block coal has greater carbon content than the Danville coal, leading to a lower O/C ratio, which is more favorable for coking. Organic sulfur content is higher in the Lower Block coal, and a strong correlation was found between organic sulfur and plasticity. The majority of the data for both seams plot in the Type III zone on a van Krevelen diagram, and several samples from the Lower Block coal plot into the Type II zone, suggesting a perhydrous character for those samples. This divergence in properties between the Lower Block and Danville coals may account for the superior coking behavior of the Lower Block coal. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Defeat the dragon: coal fires between self ignition and fire fighting

    SciTech Connect

    Manfred W. Wuttke; Stefan Wessling; Winfried Kessels

    2007-01-15

    Spontaneous coal fires in near surface coal seams are a worldwide recognized problem. They are destroying coal resources and emit climate relevant gases both in considerable amounts. While the extinction of such fires is a most desirable goal, the estimation of the actual input of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere is of great interest especially in the context of the Kyoto protocol as such values are needed as baseline for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) policies. Under the framework of the Sino-German coal-fire research project we are developing numerical models of such coal fires for the operational use in fire fighting campaigns. Based on our understanding of the governing physical and chemical processes that are relevant for the whole combustion process we simulate the coal fire spreading along the seams for typical situations. From these scenario calculations we deduce information needed to support the CDM baseline estimation and to assess the progress of fire extinguishing efforts like water injection and surface covering to dissipate the heat and suffocate the fire. We present case studies using the finite-element-code ROCKFLOW applied to realistic geometries based on field observations in the Shenhua Group Coal Mining Area Wuda (Inner Mongolia, PR China).

  14. Measuring Contours of Coal-Seam Cuts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Angle transducers measure angle between track sections as longwall shearer proceeds along coal face. Distance transducer functions in conjunction with angle transducers to obtain relative angles at known positions. When cut is complete, accumulated data are stored on cassette tape, and track profile is computed and displayed. Micro-processor-based instrument integrates small changes in angle and distance.

  15. The migration law of overlay rock and coal in deeply inclined coal seam with fully mechanized top coal caving.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jian; Chen, Shan-Le; Wang, Hua-Jun; Li, Yu-Cheng; Geng, Xiaowei

    2015-07-01

    In a mine area, some environment geotechnics problems always occure, induced by mined-out region such as the subsidence and cracks at ground level, deformation and destruction of buildings, landslides destruction of water resources and the ecological environment. In order to research the migration of surrounding rock and coal in steeply inclined super high seams which used fully mechanized top coal caving, a working face of a certain mine was made as an example, analyzed the migration law of the overlay rock and coal under different caving ratio of fully mechanized top coal caving with numerical simulation analysis. The results suggest that the laws of overlay rock deformation caused by deeply inclined coal seam were different from horizontal coal seam. On the inclined direction, with an increase of dip angle and caving ratio, the vertical displacement of overlay rock and coal became greater, the asymmetric phenomenon of vertical displacement became obvious. On the trend direction, active region and transition region in goaf became smaller along with the increase of mining and caving ratio. On the contrary, the stable region area became greater. Therefore, there was an essential difference between the mechanism of surface movement deformation with deeply inclined coal seam and that with horizontal coal seam.

  16. Nitrogen Injection To Flush Coal Seam Gas Out Of Coal: An Experimental Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Aziz, Naj; Ren, Ting; Nemcik, Jan; Tu, Shihao

    2015-12-01

    Several mines operating in the Bulli seam of the Sydney Basin in NSW, Australia are experiencing difficulties in reducing gas content within the available drainage lead time in various sections of the coal deposit. Increased density of drainage boreholes has proven to be ineffective, particularly in sections of the coal seam rich in CO2. Plus with the increasing worldwide concern on green house gas reduction and clean energy utilisation, significant attention is paid to develop a more practical and economical method of enhancing the gas recovery from coal seams. A technology based on N2 injection was proposed to flush the Coal Seam Gas (CSG) out of coal and enhance the gas drainage process. In this study, laboratory tests on CO2 and CH4 gas recovery from coal by N2 injection are described and results show that N2 flushing has a significant impact on the CO2 and CH4 desorption and removal from coal. During the flushing stage, it was found that N2 flushing plays a more effective role in reducing adsorbed CH4 than CO2. Comparatively, during the desorption stage, the study shows gas desorption after N2 flushing plays a more effective role in reducing adsorbed CO2 than CH4.

  17. Hybrid Technology of Hard Coal Mining from Seams Located at Great Depths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaja, Piotr; Kamiński, Paweł; Klich, Jerzy; Tajduś, Antoni

    2014-10-01

    Learning to control fire changed the life of man considerably. Learning to convert the energy derived from combustion of coal or hydrocarbons into another type of energy, such as steam pressure or electricity, has put him on the path of scientific and technological revolution, stimulating dynamic development. Since the dawn of time, fossil fuels have been serving as the mankind's natural reservoir of energy in an increasingly great capacity. A completely incomprehensible refusal to use fossil fuels causes some local populations, who do not possess a comprehensive knowledge of the subject, to protest and even generate social conflicts as an expression of their dislike for the extraction of minerals. Our times are marked by the search for more efficient ways of utilizing fossil fuels by introducing non-conventional technologies of exploiting conventional energy sources. During apartheid, South Africa demonstrated that cheap coal can easily satisfy total demand for liquid and gaseous fuels. In consideration of current high prices of hydrocarbon media (oil and gas), gasification or liquefaction of coal seems to be the innovative technology convergent with contemporary expectations of both energy producers as well as environmentalists. Known mainly from literature reports, underground coal gasification technologies can be brought down to two basic methods: - shaftless method - drilling, in which the gasified seam is uncovered using boreholes drilled from the surface, - shaft method, in which the existing infrastructure of underground mines is used to uncover the seams. This paper presents a hybrid shaft-drilling approach to the acquisition of primary energy carriers (methane and syngas) from coal seams located at great depths. A major advantage of this method is the fact that the use of conventional coal mining technology requires the seams located at great depths to be placed on the off-balance sheet, while the hybrid method of underground

  18. Role of unloading and filtration of gas in the development of main cracks in coal seams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feldman, E. P.; Kalugina, N. A.; Meln'ik, T. N.

    2017-01-01

    The development of main cracks in coal seams due to rapid unloading is analyzed using the methods of theoretical physics. A fracture criterion and a criterion for the time to fracture of an area at the edge of a coal seam are obtained.

  19. 30 CFR 75.501 - Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams... Equipment-General § 75.501 Permissible electric face equipment; coal seams above water table. On and after March 30, 1974, all electric face equipment, other than equipment referred to in paragraph (b) of §...

  20. Thermal effects of magmatic sills on coal seam metamorphism and gas occurrence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Liang; Cheng, Long-biao; Cheng, Yuan-ping; Yin, Guang-zhi; Cai, Chun-cheng; Xu, Chao; Jin, Kan

    2014-04-01

    Igneous intrusions in coal seams are found in 80 % of coal mines in the Huaibei coalfield, China, and coal and gas outburst accidents have occurred 11 times under a 120-m-thick sill in the Haizi mining field. The magma's heat had a significant controlling effect on coal seam gas occurrence. Based on theoretical analysis, experimental tests and site validation, we analyzed the temperature distribution following magma intrusion into coal measure strata and the variations in multiple physical parameters and adsorption/desorption characteristics between the underlying coal seams beneath the sill in the Haizi mining field and coal seams uninfluenced by magma intrusion in the adjacent Linhuan mining field. The research results show that the main factors controlling the temperature distribution of the magma and surrounding rocks in the cooling process include the cooling time and the thickness and initial temperature of the magmatic rock. As the distance from sill increases, the critical effective temperature and the duration of sustained high temperatures decrease. The sill in the Haizi mining field significantly promoted coal seam secondary hydrocarbon generation in the thermally affected area, which generated approximately 340 m3/t of hydrocarbon. In the magma-affected area, the metamorphic grade, micropore volume, amount of gas adsorption, initial speed of gas desorption, and amount of desorption all increase. Fluid entrapment by sills usually causes the gas pressure and gas content of the underlying coal seams to increase. As a result, the outburst risks from coal seams increases as well.

  1. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, David

    2015-04-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States and Europe, in Australia extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus to date. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics including the potential requirement for hydraulic fracturing. However as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas the potential impacts of extraction and hydraulic fracturing on surface and groundwater resources may be of even greater concern for coal seam gas than for shale gas. In Australia an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) has been established to provide scientific advice to federal and state government regulators on the impact that coal seam gas and large coal mining developments may have on water resources. This advice is provided to enable decisions to be informed by the best available science about the potential water-related impacts associated with these developments. To support this advice the Australian Government Department of the Environment has implemented a three-year programme of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment is defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are currently being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the program and results to date can be found at http://www.bioregionalassessments.gov.au. In this presentation the methodology for undertaking bioregional assessments will be described and the application of this methodology to six priority bioregions in eastern Australia

  2. Impacts of Coal Seam Gas (Coal Bed Methane) Extraction on Water Resources in Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, David

    2016-04-01

    While extraction of methane from shale gas deposits has been the principal source of the recent expansion of the industry in the United States and Europe, in Australia extraction of methane from coal bed methane deposits (termed 'coal seam gas' in Australia) has been the focus to date. The two sources of methane share many of the same characteristics including the potential requirement for hydraulic fracturing. However, as coal seam gas deposits generally occur at shallower depths than shale gas, the potential impacts of extraction on surface and groundwater resources may be of even greater concern. In Australia, an Independent Expert Scientific Committee (IESC) has been established to provide scientific advice to federal and state government regulators on the impact that coal seam gas and large coal mining developments may have on water resources. This advice is provided to enable decisions to be informed by the best available science about the potential water-related impacts associated with these developments. To support this advice, the Australian Government Department of the Environment has implemented a programme of research termed 'bioregional assessments' to investigate these potential impacts. A bioregional assessment is defined as a scientific analysis of the ecology, hydrology, geology and hydrogeology of a bioregion with explicit assessment of the potential direct, indirect and cumulative impacts of coal seam gas and large coal mining development on water resources. These bioregional assessments are currently being carried out across large portions of eastern Australia underlain by coal reserves. Further details of the programme and results to date can be found at http://www.bioregionalassessments.gov.au. Surface water and groundwater modelling is now complete for two regions where coal seam gas development may proceed, namely the Clarence-Moreton and Gloucester regions in eastern New South Wales. This presentation will discuss how the results of these

  3. Emissions by Uncontrolled Coal Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terschure, A. F.; Engle, M.; Heffern, E.; Hower, J.; Kolker, A.; Prakash, A.; Radke, L.

    2010-12-01

    Thousands of self-ignited coal fires, naturally occurring coal fires, and coal fires resulting from human activities persist for decades in underground coal mines, coal waste piles, and un-mined coal beds. These uncontrolled coal fires occur in all coal-bearing parts of the world and pose multiple threats to the global environment due to emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as CO2, CO, CH4, and other toxic substances such as mercury (Hg). Estimates of the amount of coal that is involved globally range between 20 and 600 Mt sing simple calculations, the only published peer-reviewed estimate of CO2 and Hg emissions from coal-fires in the United States (U.S.) are between 14 to 290 Mt/yr and 0.1 to 11.5 t/yr, respectively. In comparison, the U.S. coal-fired power plant fleet -the largest known anthropogenic source of CO2 and Hg to the atmosphere in the U.S.- emits ~2.4 Gt, and ~45 t annually, respectively. This paper builds on these results and will present result of a first-of-a-kind U.S.-based field campaign combining airborne remote sensing using thermal infrared technique and ground based measurements as a first step to constraining and scaling-up the emission factors, nature and extent of coal-fire emissions of CO2 and Hg to a global scale, which will allow for these emission sources to be better accounted for in global atmospheric models.

  4. Design of optimum coal-preparation systems for Missouri coal seams. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Erten, M.H.; Evans, J.J.; Lounsbury, P.J.; Holloran, R.A.

    1982-08-01

    The objectives of this research were (1) with the use of washability curves and other data, to design suitable coal preparation systems that will provide marketable coals with maximum yield and minimum ash and sulfur contents for raw coals obtained from different Missouri coal seams, and (2) to test the performance of units comprising the systems (flowsheets) with the use of the equipment available at the Mineral and Coal Preparation Laboratories of the University of Missouri at Rolla. On each channel sample, proximate analysis, float and sink, tabling, flotation, hydrocyclone, and forms of sulfur tests were conducted. Because of the limited quantities of core samples, only such tests as proximate analysis, washability, and forms of sulfur could be performed. A survey of the mining operations in the state of Missouri showed that at least six companies worked more than one seam at any time of the year and that most of the coal mined was direct-shipped to power plants. Since there were no data available about the washability and other characteristics of these jointly mined coals, new samples were prepared according to their production ratios and all the tests performed on individual samples were also applied to these joint samples. Also, for these samples the most suitable coal preparation systems (flowsheets) were designed and tested in the laboratory. The actual test results obtained with the use of eight different circuits for the six sets of jointly mined seams were compared with the individual test results. It was concluded that for optimum yield and maximum ash and sulfur removal, a physical washing system containing dense medium and Deister Table is the most suitable coal preparation method for Missouri coals.

  5. 30 CFR 75.501-1 - Coal seams above the water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Coal seams above the water table. 75.501-1 Section 75.501-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General §...

  6. 30 CFR 75.501-1 - Coal seams above the water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Coal seams above the water table. 75.501-1 Section 75.501-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General §...

  7. 30 CFR 75.501-1 - Coal seams above the water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Coal seams above the water table. 75.501-1 Section 75.501-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General §...

  8. 30 CFR 75.501-1 - Coal seams above the water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Coal seams above the water table. 75.501-1 Section 75.501-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General §...

  9. 30 CFR 75.501-1 - Coal seams above the water table.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Coal seams above the water table. 75.501-1 Section 75.501-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Electrical Equipment-General §...

  10. Stimulation of commercial coal seam methane production aimed at improving mining technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shubina, E. A.; Lukyanov, V. G.

    2016-09-01

    The relevance of the current research is due to the urgent need to revise the existing normative bases and procedures involved in intensive development of coal-methane deposits and commercial production of coal seam methane. The article presents the analysis of data on coal production volume and amount of methane emitted into the atmosphere in Kuzbass. There is a need to develop the exploration techniques that would allow implementing pre-mining gas drainage of coal seams and provide the companies with the guidance on coal seam methane drainage in very gassy coal mines. Commercial production of methane should become an integral part of economy and energy balance of the Russian Federation, which, in its turn, would enhance environmental protection due to reducing methane emissions, the largest source of greenhouse effect.

  11. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOEpatents

    Derbidge, T. Craig; Mulholland, James A.; Foster, Edward P.

    1986-01-01

    An air-purged burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired without the coking thereof on the burner components. The air-purged burner is designed for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal in a tangentially fired boiler.

  12. The South Canon Number 1 Coal Mine fire: Glenwood Springs, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn B. Stracher; Steven Renner; Gary Colaizzi; Tammy P. Taylor

    2004-07-01

    The South Canon Number 1 Coal Mine fire, in South Canyon west of Glenwood Springs, Colorado, is a subsurface fire of unknown origin, burning since 1910. Subsidence features, gas vents, ash, condensates, and red oxidized shales are surface manifestations of the fire. The likely success of conventional fire-containment methodologies in South Canyon is questionable, although drilling data may eventually suggest a useful control procedure. Drill casings in voids in the D coal seam on the western slope trail are useful for collecting gas samples, monitoring the temperature of subsurface burning, and measuring the concentration of gases such as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide in the field. Coal fire gas and mineral condensates may contribute to the destruction of floral and faunal habitats and be responsible for a variety of human diseases; hence, the study of coal gas and its condensation products may prove useful in understanding environmental pollution created by coal mine fires. The 2002 Coal Seam Fire, which burned over 12,000 acres and destroyed numerous buildings in and around Glenwood Springs, exemplifies the potential danger an underground coal fire poses for igniting a surface fire.

  13. Coal-fired ships reappear

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    A situation now exists where, in many countries, coal prices are almost half those of oil, and indications point toward this trend continuing. It is not surprising, therefore, that many shipowners are planning and building the next generation of steamships with coal-fired propulsion units. Six new coal-fired ships, the first for over 25 years, are now being built in Italy, Japan, and Spain. In the forefront in technology and systems for handling coal and ash is the British company Macawber Engineering. It has developed on-board systems responding to the problems created by coal handling on a modern steamship, problems that formed a major reason for the universal changeover to oil firing in the 1950s and 1960s. The traditional method of handling coal uses mechanical systems such as belt and draglink conveyors, and bucket elevators. These methods have disadvantages that make their use on ships far from satisfactory. Pneumatic conveying systems, due to their totally enclosed construction and relative simplicity, overcome these problems. The type of pneumatic system chosen, however, has to accommodate several other constraints imposed by on-board handling of coal. (SC)

  14. Integration of vertical and in-seam horizontal well production analyses with stochastic geostatistical algorithms to estimate pre-mining methane drainage efficiency from coal seams: Blue Creek seam, Alabama.

    PubMed

    Karacan, C Özgen

    2013-07-30

    Coal seam degasification and its efficiency are directly related to the safety of coal mining. Degasification activities in the Black Warrior basin started in the early 1980s by using vertical boreholes. Although the Blue Creek seam, which is part of the Mary Lee coal group, has been the main seam of interest for coal mining, vertical wellbores have also been completed in the Pratt, Mary Lee, and Black Creek coal groups of the Upper Pottsville formation to degasify multiple seams. Currently, the Blue Creek seam is further degasified 2-3 years in advance of mining using in-seam horizontal boreholes to ensure safe mining. The studied location in this work is located between Tuscaloosa and Jefferson counties in Alabama and was degasified using 81 vertical boreholes, some of which are still active. When the current long mine expanded its operation into this area in 2009, horizontal boreholes were also drilled in advance of mining for further degasification of only the Blue Creek seam to ensure a safe and a productive operation. This paper presents an integrated study and a methodology to combine history matching results from vertical boreholes with production modeling of horizontal boreholes using geostatistical simulation to evaluate spatial effectiveness of in-seam boreholes in reducing gas-in-place (GIP). Results in this study showed that in-seam wells' boreholes had an estimated effective drainage area of 2050 acres with cumulative production of 604 MMscf methane during ~2 years of operation. With horizontal borehole production, GIP in the Blue Creek seam decreased from an average of 1.52 MMscf to 1.23 MMscf per acre. It was also shown that effective gas flow capacity, which was independently modeled using vertical borehole data, affected horizontal borehole production. GIP and effective gas flow capacity of coal seam gas were also used to predict remaining gas potential for the Blue Creek seam.

  15. Integration of vertical and in-seam horizontal well production analyses with stochastic geostatistical algorithms to estimate pre-mining methane drainage efficiency from coal seams: Blue Creek seam, Alabama

    PubMed Central

    Karacan, C. Özgen

    2015-01-01

    Coal seam degasification and its efficiency are directly related to the safety of coal mining. Degasification activities in the Black Warrior basin started in the early 1980s by using vertical boreholes. Although the Blue Creek seam, which is part of the Mary Lee coal group, has been the main seam of interest for coal mining, vertical wellbores have also been completed in the Pratt, Mary Lee, and Black Creek coal groups of the Upper Pottsville formation to degasify multiple seams. Currently, the Blue Creek seam is further degasified 2–3 years in advance of mining using in-seam horizontal boreholes to ensure safe mining. The studied location in this work is located between Tuscaloosa and Jefferson counties in Alabama and was degasified using 81 vertical boreholes, some of which are still active. When the current long mine expanded its operation into this area in 2009, horizontal boreholes were also drilled in advance of mining for further degasification of only the Blue Creek seam to ensure a safe and a productive operation. This paper presents an integrated study and a methodology to combine history matching results from vertical boreholes with production modeling of horizontal boreholes using geostatistical simulation to evaluate spatial effectiveness of in-seam boreholes in reducing gas-in-place (GIP). Results in this study showed that in-seam wells' boreholes had an estimated effective drainage area of 2050 acres with cumulative production of 604 MMscf methane during ~2 years of operation. With horizontal borehole production, GIP in the Blue Creek seam decreased from an average of 1.52 MMscf to 1.23 MMscf per acre. It was also shown that effective gas flow capacity, which was independently modeled using vertical borehole data, affected horizontal borehole production. GIP and effective gas flow capacity of coal seam gas were also used to predict remaining gas potential for the Blue Creek seam. PMID:26435557

  16. Mechanism of Rock Burst Occurrence in Specially Thick Coal Seam with Rock Parting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian-chao; Jiang, Fu-xing; Meng, Xiang-jun; Wang, Xu-you; Zhu, Si-tao; Feng, Yu

    2016-05-01

    Specially thick coal seam with complex construction, such as rock parting and alternative soft and hard coal, is called specially thick coal seam with rock parting (STCSRP), which easily leads to rock burst during mining. Based on the stress distribution of rock parting zone, this study investigated the mechanism, engineering discriminant conditions, prevention methods, and risk evaluation method of rock burst occurrence in STCSRP through setting up a mechanical model. The main conclusions of this study are as follows. (1) When the mining face moves closer to the rock parting zone, the original non-uniform stress of the rock parting zone and the advancing stress of the mining face are combined to intensify gradually the shearing action of coal near the mining face. When the shearing action reaches a certain degree, rock burst easily occurs near the mining face. (2) Rock burst occurrence in STCSRP is positively associated with mining depth, advancing stress concentration factor of the mining face, thickness of rock parting, bursting liability of coal, thickness ratio of rock parting to coal seam, and difference of elastic modulus between rock parting and coal, whereas negatively associated with shear strength. (3) Technologies of large-diameter drilling, coal seam water injection, and deep hole blasting can reduce advancing stress concentration factor, thickness of rock parting, and difference of elastic modulus between rock parting and coal to lower the risk of rock burst in STCSRP. (4) The research result was applied to evaluate and control the risk of rock burst occurrence in STCSRP.

  17. Permeability prediction in deep coal seam: a case study on the No. 3 coal seam of the Southern Qinshui Basin in China.

    PubMed

    Guo, Pinkun; Cheng, Yuanping

    2013-01-01

    The coal permeability is an important parameter in mine methane control and coal bed methane (CBM) exploitation, which determines the practicability of methane extraction. Permeability prediction in deep coal seam plays a significant role in evaluating the practicability of CBM exploitation. The coal permeability depends on the coal fractures controlled by strata stress, gas pressure, and strata temperature which change with depth. The effect of the strata stress, gas pressure, and strata temperature on the coal (the coal matrix and fracture) under triaxial stress and strain conditions was studied. Then we got the change of coal porosity with strata stress, gas pressure, and strata temperature and established a coal permeability model under tri-axial stress and strain conditions. The permeability of the No. 3 coal seam of the Southern Qinshui Basin in China was predicted, which is consistent with that tested in the field. The effect of the sorption swelling on porosity (permeability) firstly increases rapidly and then slowly with the increase of depth. However, the effect of thermal expansion and effective stress compression on porosity (permeability) increases linearly with the increase of depth. The most effective way to improve the permeability in exploiting CBM or extracting methane is to reduce the effective stress.

  18. Rock Creek Methane from Multiple-Coal-Seams Completion Project. Semiannual report, July 1987-December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, C.D.; Dobscha, F.X.; Green, C.D.; Lambert, S.W.; Boyer, C.M.

    1988-03-01

    Phase I of the Rock Creek Methane from Multiple Coal Seams Completion Project is a multiyear joint venture investigating the combination of drilling, completion, stimulation, and production parameters required for the viable economic production of methane from shallow, multiple coal seams. Project activities at the Rock Creek site in 1987 focused on well drilling and completion, with special emphasis on wellbore acess and hydraulic stimulation. Data on drawdown analysis of the Mary Lee coal group, and testing limited-entry applications to multiseam simulation are included.

  19. Development of signal processing algorithms for ultrasonic detection of coal seam interfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purcell, D. D.; Ben-Bassat, M.

    1976-01-01

    A pattern recognition system is presented for determining the thickness of coal remaining on the roof and floor of a coal seam. The system was developed to recognize reflected pulse echo signals that are generated by an acoustical transducer and reflected from the coal seam interface. The flexibility of the system, however, should enable it to identify pulse-echo signals generated by radar or other techniques. The main difference being the specific features extracted from the recorded data as a basis for pattern recognition.

  20. Thermal surface characteristics of coal fires 1 results of in-situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Kuenzer, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    Natural underground coal fires are fires in coal seams occurring subsurface. The fires are ignited through a process named spontaneous combustion, which occurs based on a natural reaction but is usually triggered through human interaction. Coal mining activities expose coal to the air. This leads to the exothermal oxidation of the carbon in the coal with the air's oxygen to CO 2 and - under certain circumstances - to spontaneous combustion. Coal fires occur in many countries world wide - however, currently the Chinese coal mining industry faces the biggest problems with coal fires. Coal fires destroy the valuable resource coal and furthermore lead to many environmental degradation phenomena such as the deterioration of surrounding vegetation, land subsidence and the emission of toxic gasses (CO, N 2O). They additionally contribute to the emission of green house relevant gasses such as CO 2 and CH 4 to the atmosphere. In this paper we present thermal characteristics of coal fires as measured in-situ during a field campaign to the Wuda coal fire area in south-central Inner Mongolia, China. Thermal characteristics include temperature anomaly measurements at the surface, spatial surface temperature profiles of fire areas and unaffected background areas, diurnal temperature profiles, and temperature measurements inside of coal fire induced cracks in the overlying bedrock. For all the measurements the effects of uneven solar heating through influences of slope and aspect are considered. Our findings show that coal fires result in strong or subtle thermal surface anomalies. Especially the latter can easily be influenced by heating of the surrounding background material through solar influences. Temperature variation of background rocks with different albedo, slope, aspect or vegetation cover can substantially influence the detectability of thermal anomalies. In the worst case coal fire related thermal anomalies can be completely masked by solar patterns during the daytime

  1. Determination of the limit of oxidation in zones of sub-outcropping Chipanga Coal Seam, Moatize Coal Basin, Mozambique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, Lopo; Chafy, Algy; Xerinda, Leonardo

    2014-11-01

    Moatize Coal Basin (MCB) in Mozambique is a graben with sediments of Karoo age with thick coal seams that are under exploration and exploitation by the Vale Moçambique company. Presently, the exploitation is as an open-pit mine and in the future the works will extend to the area where formerly underground mines were under exploitation. It is well known throughout the World that Moatize basin is a World class deposit for coking and thermal coal and therefore Vale Moçambique is developing studies to rationalize the coal resources of the area. Due to its geological and tectonic story, the general structure of the sedimentary (and coal) layers shows wide open synclines and anticlines, and, as a consequence, in many areas coal seams approach the surface or even outcrop. Therefore, the sub-outcropping/outcropping zones of the seams are subjected directly to the weathering agents, subjecting the coal to oxidation phenomena, which are considered as a factor altering negatively the coking properties of coals. The objective is to study down to which depth the oxidation zone goes, i.e., to trace the Line of Oxidation, also known as LOX. The study deals with Chipanga seam, which is the thickest of all seams and the one with a more wide representation throughout the graben. This seam also sub-outcrops/outcrops in many places, and therefore it is essential to define the LOX. A drilling and coal sampling campaign was then developed along profiles defined according to the seam dip to determine the depth at which the LOX is located. Samples were subjected to washability tests, and the crucible swelling index (CSI) of the Float 1.35 was determined. The study shows a direct relationship between the depth of the Chipanga seam and its degree of oxidation, shown by the sudden decrease of the CSI when the coal seam approaches the surface. The sudden change of CSI generally occurs at a depth of ca. 10 m, with small variations around this value. Therefore it can be said that the depth of

  2. Categorical modeling on electrical anomaly of room-and-pillar coal mine fires and application for field electrical resistivity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Wujun; Wang, Yanming; Shao, Zhenlu

    2017-01-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of fire area delineation in coalfield with electrical prospecting, the categorical geoelectric models of coal fires are established according to geological and mining conditions. The room-and-pillar coal mine fires are divided into three types which are coal seam fire, goaf fire and subsidence area fire, respectively, and forward electrical simulations and inversion analysis of each type of coal fire are implemented. Simulation results show that the resistance anomalies of goaf fires exist around one and a half to two times higher than background field, in contrast, coal seam and subsidence area fires performance low resistivity response which are roughly half to two-third of background field resistivity, respectively. Identification of different fire types and delineation of coal fire areas are further presented. The inversion results which are validated by borehole survey prove that the presented method could eliminate the omission of coal fires with high resistance anomaly and provide a novel reference for fire extinguishing in the future.

  3. Adult Education and Radical Habitus in an Environmental Campaign: Learning in the Coal Seam Gas Protests in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ollis, Tracey; Hamel-Green, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This paper examines the adult learning dimensions of protestors as they participate in a campaign to stop coal seam gas exploration in Gippsland in Central Victoria, Australia. On a global level, the imposition of coal seam gas exploration by governments and mining companies has been the trigger for movements of resistance from environmental…

  4. Exploratory study of some potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    Hedges, S.W.; Soong, Y.; Jones, R.J.; Harrison, D.K.; Irdi, G.A.; Frommell, E.A.; Dilmore, R.M.; White, C.M.

    2007-01-01

    An initial investigation into the potential environmental impacts of CO2 sequestration in unmineable coal seams has been conducted, focusing on changes in the produced water during enhanced coalbed methane (ECBM) production, using a CO2 injection process (CO2-ECBM). A high volatile bituminous coal, Pittsburgh No. 8, was reacted with synthetic produced water and gaseous carbon dioxide at 40°C and 50 bar to evaluate the potential for mobilisation of toxic metals during CO2-ECBM/sequestration. Microscopic and X-ray diffraction analysis of the post-reaction coal samples clearly show evidence of chemical reaction and chemical analysis of the synthetic produced water shows substantial changes in composition. These results suggest that changes to the produced water chemistry and the potential for mobilising toxic trace elements from coal beds are important factors to be considered when evaluating deep, unmineable coal seams for CO2 sequestration.

  5. ESTIMATION OF NEAR SUBSURFACE COAL FIRE GAS EMISSIONS BASED ON GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATIONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen-Brauchler, D.; Meyer, U.; Schlömer, S.; Kus, J.; Gundelach, V.; Wuttke, M.; Fischer, C.; Rueter, H.

    2009-12-01

    Spontaneous and industrially caused subsurface coal fires are worldwide disasters that destroy coal resources, cause air pollution and emit a large amount of green house gases. Especially in developing countries, such as China, India and Malaysia, this problem has intensified over the last 15 years. In China alone, 10 to 20 million tons of coal are believed to be lost in uncontrolled coal fires. The cooperation of developing countries and industrialized countries is needed to enforce internationally concerted approaches and political attention towards the problem. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the framework of the Kyoto Protocol may provide an international stage for financial investment needed to fight the disastrous situation. A Sino-German research project for coal fire exploration, monitoring and extinction applied several geophysical approaches in order to estimate the annual baseline especially of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. As a result of this project, we present verifiable methodologies that may be used in the CDM framework to estimate the amount of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. We developed three possibilities to approach the estimation based on (1) thermal energy release, (2) geological and geometrical determinations as well as (3) direct gas measurement. The studies involve the investigation of the physical property changes of the coal seam and bedrock during different burning stages of a underground coal fire. Various geophysical monitoring methods were applied from near surface to determine the coal volume, fire propagation, temperature anomalies, etc.

  6. Assessment of uncertainty and degasification efficiency in coal seam gas drainage through stochastic reservoir simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Özgen Karacan, C.

    2016-04-01

    Coal seam degasification improves coal mine safety by reducing the gas content of coal seams and also by generating added value as an energy source. Coal bed reservoir simulation, as a reservoir management and forecasting tool, is one of the most effective ways to help with these two main objectives. However, as in all modeling and simulation studies, reservoir description and whether observed productions can be predicted are important considerations. Using geostatistical realizations as spatial maps of different coal reservoir properties is a more realistic approach than assuming uniform properties across the field. In fact, this approach can help with simultaneous history matching of multiple wellbores to enhance the confidence in spatial models of different coal properties that are pertinent to degasification. The problem that still remains, however, is the uncertainty in geostatistical, and thus reservoir, simulations originating from partial sampling of the seam that does not properly reflect the stochastic nature of coal property realizations. This study demonstrates the use of geostatistical realizations generated through sequential Gaussian simulation and co-simulation techniques and assesses the uncertainty in coal seam reservoir simulations with history matching errors. 100 individual realizations of 10 coal properties were generated using geostatistical techniques. These realizations were used to create 100 realization bundles (property datasets). Each of these bundles was then used in coal seam reservoir simulations for simultaneous history matching of degasification wells. History matching errors for each bundle were evaluated and the single set of realizations that would minimize the error for all wells was defined. Errors were compared with those of E-type and the average realization of the best matches. The study helped to determine the realization bundle that consisted of the spatial maps of coal properties, which resulted in minimum error. In

  7. A poromechanical model for coal seams saturated with binary mixtures of CH4 and CO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikoosokhan, Saeid; Vandamme, Matthieu; Dangla, Patrick

    2014-11-01

    Underground coal bed reservoirs naturally contain methane which can be produced. In parallel of the production of this methane, carbon dioxide can be injected, either to enhance the production of methane, or to have this carbon dioxide stored over geological periods of time. As a prerequisite to any simulation of an Enhanced Coal Bed Methane recovery process (ECBM), we need state equations to model the behavior of the seam when cleats are saturated with a miscible mixture of CH4 and CO2. This paper presents a poromechanical model of coal seams exposed to such binary mixtures filling both the cleats in the seam and the porosity of the coal matrix. This model is an extension of a previous work which dealt with pure fluid. Special care is dedicated to keep the model consistent thermodynamically. The model is fully calibrated with a mix of experimental data and numerical data from molecular simulations. Predicting variations of porosity or permeability requires only calibration based on swelling data. With the calibrated state equations, we predict numerically how porosity, permeability, and adsorbed amounts of fluid vary in a representative volume element of coal seam in isochoric or oedometric conditions, as a function of the pressure and of the composition of the fluid in the cleats.

  8. Coal-Fired Power Plant (Western Coal): Environmental characterization information report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-01-01

    The latest available environmental and technical information on coal-fired power plants was collected from a number of sources. The typical plant chosen for characterization was a 500/MWe pulverized-coal plant burning western low-sulfur coal. The plant uses an electrostatic precipitator, a lime/limestone scrubber, and a wet, mechanical draft cooling tower. The plant fuel is supplied from offsite mines by unit-train deliveries with surface mined, thick seam coal, which undergoes minimum preparation prior to pulverization. The process, plant operating parameters, resources needed, and environmental residuals and products associated with the power plant are presented. Annual resource usage and pollutant discharges are given, assuming an annual plant capacity factor of 80 percent. Quantities are given in terms of ten to the twelth power Btu's of electric energy produced. Several plants are discussed individually. Environmental regulations are discussed. The overall physical requirements of the plant for land and water are discussed.

  9. Coal-fired diesel generator

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The objective of the proposed project is to test the technical, environmental, and economic viability of a coal-fired diesel generator for producing electric power in small power generating markets. Coal for the diesel generator would be provided from existing supplies transported for use in the University`s power plant. A cleanup system would be installed for limiting gaseous and particulate emissions. Electricity and steam produced by the diesel generator would be used to supply the needs of the University. The proposed diesel generator and supporting facilities would occupy approximately 2 acres of land adjacent to existing coal- and oil-fired power plant and research laboratory buildings at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. The environmental analysis identified that the most notable changes to result from the proposed project would occur in the following areas: power plant configuration at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; air emissions, water use and discharge, and the quantity of solid waste for disposal; noise levels at the power plant site; and transportation of coal to the power plant. No substantive adverse impacts or environmental concerns were identified in analyzing the effects of these changes.

  10. In-situ coal seam and overburden permeability characterization combining downhole flow meter and temperature logs.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busse, Julia; Scheuermann, Alexander; Bringemeier, Detlef; Hossack, Alex; Li, Ling

    2016-06-01

    The planning and design of any coal mine development requires among others a thorough investigation of the geological, geotechnical and hydrogeological subsurface conditions. As part of a coal mine exploration program we conducted heat pulse vertical flow meter testing. The flow data were combined with absolute and differential temperature logging data to gain information about the hydraulic characteristics of two different coal seams and their over- and interburden. For the strata that were localised based on geophysical logging data including density, gamma ray and resistivity hydraulic properties were quantified. We demonstrate that the temperature log response complements the flow meter log response. A coupling of both methods is therefore recommended to get an insight into the hydraulic conditions in a coal seam and its overburden.

  11. Detecting voids in a 0.6 m coal seam, 7 m deep, using seismic reflection

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, R.D.; Steeples, D.W.

    1991-01-01

    Surface collapse over abandoned subsurface coal mines is a problem in many parts of the world. High-resolution P-wave reflection seismology was successfully used to evaluate the risk of an active sinkhole to a main north-south railroad line in an undermined area of southeastern Kansas, USA. Water-filled cavities responsible for sinkholes in this area are in a 0.6 m thick coal seam, 7 m deep. Dominant reflection frequencies in excess of 200 Hz enabled reflections from the coal seam to be discerned from the direct wave, refractions, air wave, and ground roll on unprocessed field files. Repetitive void sequences within competent coal on three seismic profiles are consistent with the "room and pillar" mining technique practiced in this area near the turn of the century. The seismic survey showed that the apparent active sinkhole was not the result of reactivated subsidence but probably erosion. ?? 1991.

  12. Comparison of outburst danger criteria of coal seams for acoustic spectral and instrumental forecast methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadrin, A. V.; Bireva, Yu A.

    2016-10-01

    Outburst danger criteria for the two methods of current coal seam outburst forecast are considered: instrumental - by the initial outgassing rate and chippings outlet during test boreholes drilling, and geo-physical - by relation of high frequency and low frequency components of noise caused by cutting tool of operating equipment probing the face area taking into consideration the outburst criteria correction based on methane concentration at the face area and the coal strength. The conclusion is made on “adjustment” possibility of acoustic spectral forecast method criterion amended by control of methane concentration at the coal face and the coal strength taken from the instrumental method forecast results.

  13. Blast-free mining of coal seams by excavators equipped with rotary dynamic buckets

    SciTech Connect

    Labutin, V.N.; Mattis, A.R.; Zaitseva, A.A.

    2005-04-01

    The necessity to equip cable excavators with rotary buckets is substantiated. The results of graphic-analytical analysis of the rotary bucket operation are presented, and its main advantages are determined in comparison with conventional buckets in mining coal seams of complex structure.

  14. Analysis of local fractures and crack growth in coal seams under compression

    SciTech Connect

    S.V. Kuznetsov; V.A. Trofimov

    2006-01-15

    An analysis is performed for the effect that a growing rock pressure in stress concentration zones has on development of local fractures of coal due to stratal water, and on closing-up of bedding joints, which confines this process. It is shown that all of unstable cracks in a seam grow dynamically until the related bedding crack closing-up.

  15. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Occluded natural gas... DETERMINATION PROCEDURES Requirements for Filings With Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.302 Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural...

  16. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Occluded natural gas... DETERMINATION PROCEDURES Requirements for Filings With Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.302 Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural...

  17. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Occluded natural gas... DETERMINATION PROCEDURES Requirements for Filings With Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.302 Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural...

  18. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Occluded natural gas... DETERMINATION PROCEDURES Requirements for Filings With Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.302 Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural...

  19. 18 CFR 270.302 - Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Occluded natural gas... DETERMINATION PROCEDURES Requirements for Filings With Jurisdictional Agencies § 270.302 Occluded natural gas produced from coal seams. A person seeking a determination that natural gas is occluded natural...

  20. The influence of hydrogeological disturbance and mining on coal seam microbial communities.

    PubMed

    Raudsepp, M J; Gagen, E J; Evans, P; Tyson, G W; Golding, S D; Southam, G

    2016-03-01

    The microbial communities present in two underground coal mines in the Bowen Basin, Queensland, Australia, were investigated to deduce the effect of pumping and mining on subsurface methanogens and methanotrophs. The micro-organisms in pumped water from the actively mined areas, as well as, pre- and post-mining formation waters were analyzed using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The methane stable isotope composition of Bowen Basin coal seam indicates that methanogenesis has occurred in the geological past. More recently at the mine site, changing groundwater flow dynamics and the introduction of oxygen in the subsurface has increased microbial biomass and diversity. Consistent with microbial communities found in other coal seam environments, pumped coal mine waters from the subsurface were dominated by bacteria belonging to the genera Pseudomonas and the family Rhodocyclaceae. These environments and bacterial communities supported a methanogen population, including Methanobacteriaceae, Methanococcaceae and Methanosaeta. However, one of the most ubiquitous micro-organisms in anoxic coal mine waters belonged to the family 'Candidatus Methanoperedenaceae'. As the Archaeal family 'Candidatus Methanoperedenaceae' has not been extensively defined, the one studied species in the family is capable of anaerobic methane oxidation coupled to nitrate reduction. This introduces the possibility that a methane cycle between archaeal methanogenesis and methanotrophy may exist in the anoxic waters of the coal seam after hydrogeological disturbance.

  1. Ground Penetrating Radar, a Method for Exploration and Monitoring of Coal Fires in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gundelach, Volker

    2010-05-01

    Due to the climate change it is a global task to fight against gas emission of coal fires. In China exists many burning coal seams which should be extinguished. A Chinese-German initiative tries to find new technologies and solutions to control these fires. Most of the fires are close to the surface in arid areas. In that case GPR is a possible geophysical method to get detailed information about the structure of the soil. Mining activities and the burning coal are leaving voids which collapse or still exist as dangerous areas. With GPR it is possible to detect voids and clefts. Crevices are potential paths for oxygen transport from the surface to the fire. The knowledge of these structures would help to extinguish the fire. The heat of the burning coal changes the permittivity and the conductivity of the rock. This affects the radar signal and makes it possible to separate burning zones from intact zones. Monitoring of the burning zones helps to find optimal solutions for fire extinguishing strategies. Several field campaigns were made in China. One campaign was in the province Xinjiang with a 50 MHz system from Mala on a steep dipping coal seam. Other campaigns were in the Inner Mongolia with 40 MHz to 200 MHz antennae from GSSI on shallow dipping coal seams. The experiences from these measurements will be shown. The surveys were collected in rough terrain. The data from the unshielded antennae contained a lot of effects coming through the air. The limits of detecting crevices with GPR will be demonstrated. Some parts of the measurements over burning coal were influenced by strong anomalies of the magnetization. Modeling of the radar signal helps at the interpretation. Parts of the interpretation from the surveys can be validated by the outcrop of the investigated structures. A spatial visualization of the results is the basis for discussions.

  2. Coal fired air turbine cogeneration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foster-Pegg, R. W.

    Fuel options and generator configurations for installation of cogenerator equipment are reviewed, noting that the use of oil or gas may be precluded by cost or legislation within the lifetime of any cogeneration equipment yet to be installed. A coal fueled air turbine cogenerator plant is described, which uses external combustion in a limestone bed at atmospheric pressure and in which air tubes are sunk to gain heat for a gas turbine. The limestone in the 26 MW unit absorbs sulfur from the coal, and can be replaced by other sorbents depending on types of coal available and stringency of local environmental regulations. Low temperature combustion reduces NOx formation and release of alkali salts and corrosion. The air heat is exhausted through a heat recovery boiler to produce process steam, then can be refed into the combustion chamber to satisfy preheat requirements. All parts of the cogenerator are designed to withstand full combustion temperature (1500 F) in the event of air flow stoppage. Costs are compared with those of a coal fired boiler and purchased power, and it is shown that the increased capital requirements for cogenerator apparatus will yield a 2.8 year payback. Detailed flow charts, diagrams and costs schedules are included.

  3. Factors involved in evaluating ground water impacts of deep coal mine drainage. [Pumping tests of wells drilled into the coal seam and development of mathematical models; detailed discussion

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.R.; Walton, W.C.

    1982-10-01

    The determination of probable ground water impacts of proposed deep coal mining is required as part of permit applications. Impact prediction generally involves well production test analysis and modeling of ground water systems associated with coal seams. Well production tests are often complicated due to the relatively low permeabilities of sandstones and shales of ground water systems. The effects of the release of water stored within finite diameter production wells must be considered. Well storage capacity appreciably affects early well production test time drawdown or time recovery data. Low pumping rates, limited cones of depression, and length of required pumping periods are important well production test design factors. Coal seam ground water system models are usually multilayered and leaky artesian. Mine shafts partially penetrate the ground water system. Simulation of coal mine drainage often involves the horizontal permeability and storage coefficient of the coal seam zone, vertical permeablities of sandstones and shales (aquifer) above and below the coal seam zone, and the hydrologic properties of the source bed above the aquifer overlying the coal seam zone. Ground water level declines in both the coal seam zone and source bed near land surface are necessary factors in impact analysis. An example of evaluation studies in southwest Indiana will illustrate factors involved in deep coal mine drainage modeling efforts.

  4. Organic geochemical study of sequences overlying coal seams; example from the Mansfield Formation (Lower Pennsylvanian), Indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastalerz, Maria; Stankiewicz, A.B.; Salmon, G.; Kvale, E.P.; Millard, C.L.

    1997-01-01

    Roof successions above two coal seams from the Mansfield Formation (Lower Pennsylvanian) in the Indiana portion of the Illinois Basin have been studied with regard to sedimentary structures, organic petrology and organic geochemistry. The succession above the Blue Creek Member of the Mansfield Formation is typical of the lithologies covering low-sulphur coals ( 2.%). The transgressive-regressive packages above both seams reflect the periodic inundation of coastal mires by tidal flats and creeks as inferred from bioturbation and sedimentary structures such as tidal rhythmites and clay-draped ripple bedforms. Geochemistry and petrology of organic facies above the Blue Creek coal suggest that tidal flats formed inland in fresh-water environments. These overlying fresh water sediments prevented saline waters from invading the peat, contributing to low-sulphur content in the coal. Above the unnamed coal, trace fossils and geochemical and petrological characteristics of organic facies suggest more unrestricted seaward depositional environment. The absence of saline or typically marine biomarkers above this coal is interpreted as evidence of very short periods of marine transgression, as there was not enough time for establishment of the precursor organisms for marine biomarkers. However, sufficient time passed to raise SO42- concentration in pore waters, resulting in the formation of authigenic pyrite and sulphur incorporation into organic matter.

  5. Petrographic and geochemical contrasts and environmentally significant trace elements in marine-influenced coal seams, Yanzhou mining area, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Gaisheng; Yang, P.; Peng, Z.; Chou, C.-L.

    2004-01-01

    The Yanzhou mining area in west Shandong Province, China contains coals of Permian and Carboniferous age. The 31 and 32 seams of the Permian Shanxi Formation and seams 6, 15-17 of the Carboniferous Taiyuan Formation were analyzed for coal petrology, mineralogy and geochemical parameters. The parameters indicate that the coal is high volatile bituminous in rank. The coal is characterized by high vitrinite and low to medium inertinite and liptinite contents. These properties may be related to evolution of the coal forming environment from more reducing conditions in a marine influenced lower delta plain environment for the early Taiyuan coals to more oxidizing paleoenvironments in an upper delta plain for the upper Shanxi coal seams. The major mineral phases present in the coal are quartz, kaolinite, pyrite and calcite. Sulfur is one of the hazardous elements in coal. The major forms of sulfur in coal are pyritic, organic and sulfate sulfur. Pyritic and organic sulfur generally account for the bulk of the sulfur in coal. Elemental sulfur also occurs in coal, but only in trace to minor amounts. In this paper, the distribution and concentration of sulfur in the Yanzhou mining district are analyzed, and the forms of sulfur are studied. The sulfur content of the Taiyuan coal seams is considerably higher than that of the Shanxi coals. Organic sulfur content is positively correlated to total and pyritic sulfur. The vertical variation of Cu, Zn, Pb, As, Th, U and sulfur contents in coal seam 3 of the Shanxi Formation in the Xinglongzhuang mine show that all these trace elements, with the exception of Th, are enriched in the top and bottom plies of the seam, and that their concentrations are also relatively high in the dirt bands within the seam. The pyritic sulfur is positively correlated with total sulfur, and both are enriched in the top, bottom and parting plies of the seam. The concentrations of the trace elements are closely related to sulfur and ash contents. Most of

  6. Numerical Study on 4-1 Coal Seam of Xiaoming Mine in Ascending Mining

    PubMed Central

    Tianwei, Lan; Hongwei, Zhang; Sheng, Li; Weihua, Song; Batugin, A. C.; Guoshui, Tang

    2015-01-01

    Coal seams ascending mining technology is very significant, since it influences the safety production and the liberation of dull coal, speeds up the construction of energy, improves the stability of stope, and reduces or avoids deep hard rock mining induced mine disaster. Combined with the Xiaoming ascending mining mine 4-1, by numerical calculation, the paper analyses ascending mining 4-1 factors, determines the feasibility of ascending mining 4-1 coalbed, and proposes roadway layout program about working face, which has broad economic and social benefits. PMID:25866840

  7. Study results on geotechnological processes of mining flat thick coal seams with top-coal drawing in face 21-1-5 of “Olzherasskaya” mine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senkus, V. V.; Ermakov, A. Yu

    2016-10-01

    In the paper the modes of hydraulic props of powered support are considered; the regularities of their loading are established that allows the powered support for thick flat seams mining with top-coal drawing to be chosen.

  8. Interpretation of Coal-Seam Sequestration Data Using a New Swelling and Shrinkage Model

    SciTech Connect

    Siriwardane, H.J.; Smith, D.H.

    2006-10-01

    This paper deals with the influence of swelling and shrinkage of coal on the production of methane from, and sequestration of carbon dioxide in, a coalbed reservoir. A three-dimensional swelling and shrinkage model was developed. It is based on constitutive equations that account for coupled fluid pressure-deformation behavior of a porous medium that undergoes swelling and shrinkage. The swelling and shrinkage strains are computed on the basis of the amounts of different gases (e.g., CO2, CH4) sorbed or desorbed. The amounts of sorption and desorption are computed from measured isotherms with the aid of the Ideal Adsorbed Solution model for mixed gases. The permeability of the reservoir is modified according to the swelling-shrinkage model. The paper presents numerical results for the influence of swelling and shrinkage on reservoir performance during injection of carbon dioxide. The paper includes results from a number of examples, and analysis of a field injection into a coal seam at a site in the San Juan basin. Results show that with the incorporation of swelling and shrinkage into the analysis, it is possible to get a better history-match of production data. Results also show that coal swelling can reduce the injection volumes of carbon dioxide significantly. The interpretation of field data with the new swelling-shrinkage model shows that the coal swelling during carbon dioxide sequestration in coal-seams is an important factor that can influence field performance.

  9. Geochemistry of autochthonous and hypautochthonous siderite-dolomite coal-balls (Foord Seam, Bolsovian, Upper Carboniferous), Nova Scotia, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zodrow, E.L.; Lyons, P.C.; Millay, M.A.

    1996-01-01

    The 11-13 m thick Foord Seam in the fault-bounded Stellarton Basin, Nova Scotia, is the thickest seam from the Euramerican floral province known to contain coal-balls. In addition to the first discovery of autochthonous coal-balls in the Foord Seam, Nova Scotia, its shale parting also contains hypautochthonous coal-balls with histologically preserved plant structures. The coal-ball discovery helps fill a stratigraphic gap in coal-ball occurrences in the upper Carboniferous (Bolsovian) of Euramerica. The autochthonous and hypautochthonous coal-balls have a similar mineralogical composition and are composed of siderite (81-100%), dolomite-ankerite (0-19%), minor quartz and illite, and trace amounts of 'calcite'. Similar is also their permineralizing mineralogy, which consists of dolomite-ankerite and siderite. Their low pyrite content and carbonate mineralogy, and nonmarine origin, differentiates the Foord Seam coal-balls from other Euramerican coal-ball occurrences. A preliminary geochemical model, which is based on oxygen and carbon isotopic data, indicates that siderite in both the autochthonous and hypautochthonous coal-balls is of very early diagenetic (nonmarine) origin from 13C-enriched bicarbonate derived from bacterial methanogenesis of organic matter.

  10. The influence of seam height on lost-time injury and fatality rates at small underground bituminous coal mines.

    PubMed

    Peters, R H; Fotta, B; Mallett, L G

    2001-11-01

    Due to variations in the thickness of U.S. coal seams, there is great variability in the height of the roof where underground miners work. Restrictions imposed by low seam heights have important safety consequences. As the height of their workplace decreases, miners must stoop, duck walk, or crawl, and their vision, posture, and mobility become increasingly restricted. Low seam height also places important restrictions on the design of mobile equipment and other mining machinery. Using the employment and injury data reported to the Mine Safety and Health Administration (MSHA) from 1990 to 1996, small underground bituminous coal mines with less than 50 employees were stratified by average coal seam height according to the following categories: low (< or =42"), medium (43"-60"), and high (> or =61"). Injury rates for both nonfatal days lost and fatality cases were examined by seam height and leading type of injury incidents. The leading types of incidents associated with fatalities were roof falls and powered haulage equipment. In comparison to high-seam mines, miners working in low or medium seams are at higher risk of being killed by powered haulage equipment, roof bolting machines, and falls of unsupported roof. The leading types of incidents associated with nonfatal injuries were handling materials and powered haulage. As mining height decreases, miners are at increasingly higher risk of having a nonfatal injury from incidents involving roof bolting machines, load-haul-dump equipment, personnel carriers, and powered haulage conveyors. As mining height increases, miners are at increasingly higher risk of having a nonfatal injury from slips and falls and incidents involving shuttle cars and roof and rib falls. Knee injuries are a particularly severe problem in low-seam mines. The rate of injuries to miners while crawling or kneeling is 10 times higher in low seams than in high seams.

  11. An analysis of injury claims from low-seam coal mines

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, S.; Moore, S.; Dempsey, P.G.

    2009-07-01

    The restricted workspace present in low-seam coal mines forces workers to adopt awkward working postures (kneeling and stooping), which place high physical demands on the knee and lower back. This article provides an analysis of injury claims for eight mining companies operating low-seam coal mines during calendar years 1996-2008. All cost data were normalized using data on the cost of medical care (MPI) as provided by the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Results of the analysis indicate that the knee was the body part that led in terms of claim cost ($4.2 million), followed by injuries to the lower back ($2.7 million). While the average cost per injury for these body parts was $13,100 and $14,400, respectively (close to the average cost of an injury overall), the high frequency of these injuries resulted in their pre-eminence in terms of cost. Analysis of data from individual mining companies suggest that knee and lower back injuries were a consistent problem across companies, as these injuries were each among the top five most costly part of body for seven out of eight companies studied. Results of this investigation suggest that efforts to reduce the frequency of knee and low back injuries in low-seam mines have the potential to create substantial cost savings.

  12. Relations between coal petrology and gas content in the Upper Newlands Seam, Central Queensland, Australia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walker, R.; Glikson, M.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2001-01-01

    The Upper Newlands Seam in the northern Bowen Basin, Queensland Australia consists of six benches (A-F) that have different petrographic assemblages. Benches C and E contain relatively abundant inertodetrinite and mineral matter, as well as anomalously high reflectance values; these characteristics support a largely allochthonous, detrital origin for the C and E benches. Fractures and cleats in the seam show a consistent orientation of northeast-southwest for face cleats, and a wide range of orientations for fractures. Cleat systems are well developed in bright bands, with poor continuity in the dull coal. Both maceral content and cleat character are suggested to influence gas drainage in the upper Newlands Seam. A pronounced positive correlation between vitrinite abundance and gas desorption data suggests more efficient drainage from benches with abundant vitrinite. Conversely, inertinite-rich benches are suggested to have less efficient drainage, and possibly retain gas within pore spaces, which could increase the outburst potential of the coal. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Ying, David H. S.; McDermott, Wayne T.; Givens, Edwin N.

    1985-01-01

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is operated under conditions to maximize the slurry slug frequency and thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency. The operating conditions controlled are (1) the pipe diameter and pipe arrangement, (2) the minimum coal/solvent slurry velocity, (3) the maximum gas superficial velocity, and (4) the range of the volumetric flow velocity ratio of gas to coal/solvent slurry.

  14. Co-firing of asphalt fired dust in pulverized coal fired boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Kiga, Takashi; Watanabe, Shinjl

    1999-07-01

    In order to make clear whether the dust collected at the electrostatic precipitator (EP) of asphalt fired boilers can be co-fired in pulverized coal fired boilers, laboratory-scale and bench-scale tests have been conducted. Test results showed that although dust from asphalt firing had as only a little amount of volatile matter as semi-anthracite or anthracite had, it revealed burn-out properties like bituminous. When it was co-fired with pulverized coal by 2% by that input, a considerable increase in SO{sub 2} emission was noted, while NOx emission was somewhat decreased compared with coal firing. From these verifications, it was confirmed that the co-firing of dust from asphalt firing in pulverized coal fired boiler was applicable to actual plants so far as the De-SOx system permitted.

  15. Demonstration of longwall mining in a steeply dipping coal seam. Research report, September 1977-May 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, M.R.; Reschke, L.M.

    1987-01-01

    This report describes the demonstration of longwall mining in a seam dipping 27 deg to 34 deg. Equipment was selected on the basis of capability, compatibility, and cost. The longwall equipment operated very well on the steep pitch with an average equipment downtime of 21.9%. Coal handling out by the face was a problem that caused an additional downtime of 19.5%. Development for the panels proved to be the major problem in the economics of longwall mining on a steeply dipping seam. During the first 9 months of operation, the longwall averaged 71.9 tons per man-shift (TPMS) and development averaged 0.6 TPMS. for an overall average of 14.1 TPMS.

  16. Firing of pulverized solvent refined coal

    DOEpatents

    Lennon, Dennis R.; Snedden, Richard B.; Foster, Edward P.; Bellas, George T.

    1990-05-15

    A burner for the firing of pulverized solvent refined coal is constructed and operated such that the solvent refined coal can be fired successfully without any performance limitations and without the coking of the solvent refined coal on the burner components. The burner is provided with a tangential inlet of primary air and pulverized fuel, a vaned diffusion swirler for the mixture of primary air and fuel, a center water-cooled conical diffuser shielding the incoming fuel from the heat radiation from the flame and deflecting the primary air and fuel steam into the secondary air, and a watercooled annulus located between the primary air and secondary air flows.

  17. Structure instability forecasting and analysis of giant rock pillars in steeply dipping thick coal seams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Xing-ping; Sun, Huan; Shan, Peng-fei; Cai, Ming; Cao, Jian-tao; Cui, Feng

    2015-12-01

    Structure stability analysis of rock masses is essential for forecasting catastrophic structure failure in coal seam mining. Steeply dipping thick coal seams (SDTCS) are common in the Urumqi coalfield, and some dynamical hazards such as roof collapse and mining- induced seismicity occur frequently in the coal mines. The cause of these events is mainly structure instability in giant rock pillars sandwiched between SDTCS. Developing methods to predict these events is important for safe mining in such a complex environment. This study focuses on understanding the structural mechanics model of a giant rock pillar and presents a viewpoint of the stability of a trend sphenoid fractured beam (TSFB). Some stability index parameters such as failure surface dips were measured, and most dips were observed to be between 46° and 51°. We used a digital panoramic borehole monitoring system to measure the TSFB's height (Δ H), which varied from 56.37 to 60.50 m. Next, FLAC3D was used to model the distribution and evolution of vertical displacement in the giant rock pillars; the results confirmed the existence of a TSFB structure. Finally, we investigated the acoustic emission (AE) energy accumulation rate and observed that the rate commonly ranged from 20 to 40 kJ/min. The AE energy accumulation rate could be used to anticipate impeding seismic events related to structure failure. The results presented provide a useful approach for forecasting catastrophic events related to structure instability and for developing hazard prevention technology for mining in SDTCS.

  18. "Knitting Nannas" and "Frackman": A Gender Analysis of Australian Anti-Coal Seam Gas Documentaries (CSG) and Implications for Environmental Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larri, Larraine J.; Newlands, Maxine

    2017-01-01

    "Frackman" ("FM") and "Knitting Nannas" ("KN") are two documentaries about the anti-coal seam gas movement in Australia. "Frackman" features a former construction worker turned eco-activist, Dayne Pratzky (DP), fighting coal seam gas extraction. "Knitting Nannas" follows a group of women…

  19. The Influence of a Local Fault Zone on High Energy Tremor Occurrence During Longwall Mining of a Coal Seam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojtecki, Łukasz; Knopik, Małgorzata; Zuberek, Wacław Marian

    2016-08-01

    Underground mining of coal seams in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin in Poland is accompanied by seismic activity of varying magnitude. The investigations which have been performed for several years distinguished high energy mine tremors connected directly with mining or coupled with geological structures, such as large faults. In mined seams, local fault zones occur. Faults in these zones are usually small, with throws comparable with coal seams thicknesses. Local fault zone may be responsible for the occurrence of high energy tremors as well as large faults, as presented in this article. An analysis of source mechanism of high energy tremors generated during longwall mining of the coal seam No. 510, with presence of a local fault zone, in one of the Polish hard coal mines in the Upper Silesian Coal Basin was performed. For this purpose, the seismic moment tensor inversion method was used. In most of foci, the process of shear predominated. Determined nodal plane parameters were correlated with parameters of faults forming the local fault zone. High energy tremors were generated mostly by dislocations on faults of the local fault zone. Weakening of roof rocks in the neighborhood of local fault zone takes an important role too, and was responsible for share of implosion in the focal mechanism.

  20. Emissions from Coal Fires and Their Impact on the Environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolker, Allan; Engle, Mark; Stracher, Glenn; Hower, James; Prakash, Anupma; Radke, Lawrence; ter Schure, Arnout; Heffern, Ed

    2009-01-01

    Self-ignited, naturally occurring coal fires and fires resulting from human activities persist for decades in underground coal mines, coal waste piles, and unmined coal beds. These uncontrolled coal fires occur in all coal-bearing parts of the world (Stracher, 2007) and pose multiple threats to the global environment because they emit greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) - as well as mercury (Hg), carbon monoxide (CO), and other toxic substances (fig. 1). The contribution of coal fires to the global pool of atmospheric CO2 is little known but potentially significant. For China, the world's largest coal producer, it is estimated that anywhere between 10 million and 200 million metric tons (Mt) of coal reserves (about 0.5 to 10 percent of production) is consumed annually by coal fires or made inaccessible owing to fires that hinder mining operations (Rosema and others, 1999; Voigt and others, 2004). At this proportion of production, coal amounts lost to coal fires worldwide would be two to three times that for China. Assuming this coal has mercury concentrations similar to those in U.S. coals, a preliminary estimate of annual Hg emissions from coal fires worldwide is comparable in magnitude to the 48 tons of annual Hg emissions from all U.S. coal-fired power-generating stations combined (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2002). In the United States, the combined cost of coal-fire remediation projects, completed, budgeted, or projected by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), exceeds $1 billion, with about 90% of that in two States - Pennsylvania and West Virginia (Office of Surface Mining Enforcement and Reclamation, 2008; fig. 2). Altogether, 15 States have combined cumulative OSM coal-fire project costs exceeding $1 million, with the greatest overall expense occurring in States where underground coal fires are predominant over surface fires, reflecting the greater cost of

  1. A simple and effective method for portraying and quantifying the macropetrography of lignites: A new tool for coal seam facies analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Sykes, R. ); Pratt, K.C. )

    1994-07-01

    All coal seams contain internal successions of lithologically distinct layers, although the layering in many seams may not be obvious in exposed faces or cores. The layers represent seam facies, and their detailed analysis can provide useful insight into the autogenic and allogenic controls on peat and coal formation. Nevertheless, the facies concept has not been extensively applied to coal seams, and hence the development of coal seam facies models has been slow. A major reason for this has been the lack of established methods for portraying the macropetrographic composition and texture of coal. Accordingly, for the identification and analysis of lithofacies, graphical methods of logging coal seam profiles should portray the vitrain/xylite and fusain components, and enable quantification of their size and content. No existing methods satisfy these requirements because they use symbols to portray coal types (see Bustin et al. 1985, p. 49--61, for selected examples), so the authors have devised a new method for use with lignites, which has proved effective in identifying and characterizing seam lithofacies. The method has been applied to lignite seams in the Ravenscrag Formation (Paleocene) of southern Saskatchewan, Canada. A newly exposed face of one seam and fresh cores of 18 other seams showed only indistinct layering, but dry sawing of the lignites revealed much greater proportions of xylite and fusain and the layering became obvious. The clarity of detail revealed in the sawn faces enabled the xylite, fusain, and coal/clastic contacts to be readily traced, providing true-scale graphic representations of the macropetrography. The representations of individual samples are referred to as lith-graphs whereas those of seam profiles are termed lith-logs.

  2. Managing produced water from coal seam gas projects: implications for an emerging industry in Australia.

    PubMed

    Davies, Peter J; Gore, Damian B; Khan, Stuart J

    2015-07-01

    This paper reviews the environmental problems, impacts and risks associated with the generation and disposal of produced water by the emerging coal seam gas (CSG) industry and how it may be relevant to Australia and similar physical settings. With only limited independent research on the potential environmental impacts of produced water, is it necessary for industry and government policy makers and regulators to draw upon the experiences of related endeavours such as mining and groundwater extraction accepting that the conclusions may not always be directly transferrable. CSG is widely touted in Australia as having the potential to provide significant economic and energy security benefits, yet the environmental and health policies and the planning and regulatory setting are yet to mature and are continuing to evolve amidst ongoing social and environmental concerns and political indecision. In this review, produced water has been defined as water that is brought to the land surface during the process of recovering methane gas from coal seams and includes water sourced from CSG wells as well as flowback water associated with drilling, hydraulic fracturing and gas extraction. A brief overview of produced water generation, its characteristics and environmental issues is provided. A review of past lessons and identification of potential risks, including disposal options, is included to assist in planning and management of this industry.

  3. Recycling of coal seam gas-associated water using vacuum membrane distillation.

    PubMed

    Heidarpour, Farideh; Shi, Jeffrey; Chae, So-Ryong

    2015-01-01

    Coal seam gas-associated water (CSGAW), which is a by-product of coal seam gas (CSG) production typically contains significant amounts of salts and has potential environmental issues. In this study, we optimized a bench-scale vacuum membrane distillation (VMD) process with flat-sheet hydrophobic polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) membranes for the treatment of synthetic CSGAW (conductivity = 15 mS/cm). To study performance of the VMD process, we explored the effects of feed temperature (T(f) = 60, 70, and 80°C), feed flow rate (V(f) = 60, 120, and 240 mL/min), and vacuum pressure (P(v) = 3, 6, and 9 kPa) on water permeability through the PTFE membrane in the VMD process. Under the optimum conditions (i.e. T(f) = 80°C, V(f) = 240 mL/min, P(v) = 3 kPa), water permeability and rejection efficiency of salts by the VMD process were found to be 5.5 L/m(2)/h (LMH) and 99.9%, respectively, after 2 h filtration. However, after 8 h operation, the water permeability decreased by 70% compared with the initial flux due to the formation of fouling layer of calcium, chloride, sodium, magnesium, and potassium on the membrane surface.

  4. A case study of multi-seam coal mine entry stability analysis with strength reduction method

    PubMed Central

    Tulu, Ihsan Berk; Esterhuizen, Gabriel S; Klemetti, Ted; Murphy, Michael M.; Sumner, James; Sloan, Michael

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, the advantage of using numerical models with the strength reduction method (SRM) to evaluate entry stability in complex multiple-seam conditions is demonstrated. A coal mine under variable topography from the Central Appalachian region is used as a case study. At this mine, unexpected roof conditions were encountered during development below previously mined panels. Stress mapping and observation of ground conditions were used to quantify the success of entry support systems in three room-and-pillar panels. Numerical model analyses were initially conducted to estimate the stresses induced by the multiple-seam mining at the locations of the affected entries. The SRM was used to quantify the stability factor of the supported roof of the entries at selected locations. The SRM-calculated stability factors were compared with observations made during the site visits, and the results demonstrate that the SRM adequately identifies the unexpected roof conditions in this complex case. It is concluded that the SRM can be used to effectively evaluate the likely success of roof supports and the stability condition of entries in coal mines. PMID:28239503

  5. Data base for analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Quarterly technical progress report, November-January 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, A; Suhr, N H; Spackman, W; Painter, P C; Walker, P L; Given, P H

    1981-04-01

    The basic objectives of this program are, first, to understand the systematic relationships between the properties of coals, and, second, to determine the nature of the lateral and vertical variability in the properties of a single seam. Multivariate statistical analyses applied to the Coal Data Base confirm a number of known trends for coal properties. In addition, nitrogen and some components of the ash analysis bear interesting relationships to rank. The macroscopic petrography of column samples of the Lower Kittanning seam reveals a significant difference between the sample from a marine-influenced environment and those from toward the margins of the basin where conditions were non-marine. The various methods of determining the amount and mineralogy of the inorganic fraction of coals are reviewed. General trends in seam thickness, ash, sulfur, volatile matter yield, and vitrinite reflectance of the Lower Kittanning seam of western Pennsylvania are presented. Controls of sedimentation are discussed in relation to the areal variability which has been observed. Differential subsidence and paleotopography appear to have played a major role during the deposition of the coal. The same controls may have maintained some influence upon the coalification process after deposition, especially along the eastern margin of the Lower Kittanning basin.

  6. Rapid Qualitative Risk Assessment for Contaminant Leakage From Coal Seams During Underground Coal Gasification and CO2 Injection

    SciTech Connect

    Friedmann, S J

    2004-07-02

    One of the major risks associated with underground coal gasification is contamination of local aquifers with a variety of toxic compounds. It is likely that the rate, volume, extent, and concentrations of contaminant plumes will depend on the local permeability field near the point of gasification. This field depends heavily on the geological history of stratigraphic deposition and the specifics of stratigraphic succession. Some coals are thick and isolated, whereas others are thinner and more regionally expressed. Some coals are overlain by impermeable units, such as marine or lacustrine shales, whereas others are overlain by permeable zones associated with deltaic or fluvial successions. Rapid stratigraphic characterization of the succession provides first order information as to the general risk of contaminant escape, which provides a means of ranking coal contaminant risks by their depositional context. This risk categorization could also be used for ranking the relative risk of CO{sub 2} escape from injected coal seams. Further work is needed to verify accuracy and provide some quantification of risks.

  7. Fired heater for coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Ying, David H. S.

    1984-01-01

    A fired heater for a coal liquefaction process is constructed with a heat transfer tube having U-bends at regular intervals along the length thereof to increase the slug frequency of the multi-phase mixture flowing therethrough to thereby improve the heat transfer efficiency.

  8. CO2 sequestration in deep coal seams: experimental characterization of the fundamental underlying mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pini, R.; Mazzotti, M.

    2012-04-01

    The process of injecting and storing carbon dioxide (CO2) into suitable deep geological formations, such as saline aquifers, (depleted) oil or gas reservoirs, and unmineable coal seams, is referred to as CO2 sequestration. In little more than a decade, this technology has emerged as one of the most important options for reducing CO2 emissions. Among the different options, unmineable coal seams are not as broadly distributed as saline aquifers or oil/gas reservoirs, but their peculiarity resides in the proven capacity of retaining significant amount of gas (mainly methane, CH4) for a very long time. Additionally, the injection of CO2 into the coal reservoir would enhance the recovery of this natural gas, a source of energy that will most likely play a key role in the power sector over the next 20 years from now. This process is called Enhanced Coal Bed Methane (ECBM) recovery and, as for enhanced oil recovery, it allows in principle offsetting the costs associated to the storage operation. A study was undertaken aimed at the experimental characterization of the fundamental mechanisms that take place during the process of injection and storage in coal reservoirs, namely adsorption and swelling (Pini et al 2010), and of their effects on the coal's permeability (Pini et al. 2009), the property that plays a dominant role in controlling fluid transport in a porous rock. An apparatus has been built that allows measuring the permeability of rock cores under typical reservoir conditions (high pressure and temperature) by the so-called transient step method. For this study, a coal core from the Sulcis coal mine in Sardinia (Italy) has been used. In the experiments, an inert gas (helium) was used to investigate the effects of the effective pressure on the permeability of the coal sample, whereas two adsorbing gases (CO2 and N2) to quantify those of adsorption and swelling. The experiments have been interpreted by a one-dimensional model that describes the fluid transport

  9. Coal-Fired Rocket Engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Floyd A.

    1987-01-01

    Brief report describes concept for coal-burning hybrid rocket engine. Proposed engine carries larger payload, burns more cleanly, and safer to manufacture and handle than conventional solid-propellant rockets. Thrust changeable in flight, and stops and starts on demand.

  10. A research of some problems of the exploration and exploitation of gas-bearing coal seam in Shanxi Province

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.Y.; Liu Kai

    1997-12-31

    In this paper the author explores the problems concerning the formation of the Shanxi gas-bearing coal bed, its long-range analyses and the exploration and exploitation of the gas-bearing coal bed there. In the section about the formation of Shanxi gas-bearing coal bed and its long-range analyses the authors explain the following problems: coal seam thickness, the permeability of the gas-bearing coal bed, overburden, the structure fracture, the seam mechanism of shear, the geological structure location, etc. The authors point out that the middle section of Hedong Coal Field (HCF), Qingsui Coal Field (QCF) and Xishan Coal Field (XCF) are the most favorable areas. In the section on the exploration and its exploitation the authors point out the chief works in each work stage and the application of the means of exploration and the layout method of the exploration project, thus providing a reliable foundation for the reference of the gas-bearing exploration.

  11. Description and mineralogy of Tertiary volcanic ash partings and their relationship to coal seams, near Homer, Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Reinink-Smith, L.M.

    1985-04-01

    Outcrops of Tertiary coal-bearing units in sea cliffs of the Kenai Peninsula provide an excellent study area for volcanic ash partings in coals. Twenty mid-to late-Miocene, 50-cm to 3-m thick coal seams exposed in the sea cliffs about 10 km west of Homer contain an average of 10 volcanic ash or lapilli tuff partings each. The bedding relationships of the coal with any one parting cannot be predicted, and the contacts of the partings with the coal range from very sharp to predominantly gradational. These bedding relationships provide clues about the surface on which the ashes fell and on which the coal was accumulating. For example, some ashes fell in standing water, others on irregular subaerial surfaces. The partings are in various stages of alteration to kaolinite and bentonite, and vary in thickness from a few millimeters to about 10 cm. The consistency and texture of the partings depend on the degree of alteration; the less altered partings display visible pumice fragments and euhedral feldspars, commonly within a finer grained matrix. Separate pumice fragments, excluding matrix, can also occur as partings in the coal. The more altered partings may be wet and plastic, or they may be well indurated claystones; the colors range from gray-yellow to dark brown. The indurated prints are more common in older part of the section. The coal seams may be capped by volcanic ash partings and are commonly underlain by a pencil shale of nonvolcanic origin.

  12. A Combined Micro-CT Imaging/Microfluidic Approach for Understating Methane Recovery in Coal Seam Gas Reservoirs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mostaghimi, P.; Armstrong, R. T.; Gerami, A.; Lamei Ramandi, H.; Ebrahimi Warkiani, M.

    2015-12-01

    Coal seam methane is a form of natural gas stored in coal beds and is one of the most important unconventional resources of energy. The flow and transport in coal beds occur in a well-developed system of natural fractures that are also known as cleats. We use micro-Computed Tomography (CT) imaging at both dry and wet conditions to resolve the cleats below the resolution of the image. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is used for calibration of micro-CT data. Using soft lithography technique, the cleat system is duplicated on a silicon mould. We fabricate a microfluidic chip using Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to study both imbibition and drainage in generated coal structures for understating gas and water transport in coal seam reservoirs. First, we use simple patterns observed on coal images to analyse the effects of wettability, cleat size and distribution on flow behaviour. Then, we study transport in a coal by injecting both distilled water and decane with a rate of 1 microliter/ min into the fabricated cleat structure (Figure 1), initially saturated with air. We repeat the experiment for different contact angles by plasma treating the microfluidic chip, and results show significant effects of wettability on the displacement efficiency. The breakthrough time in the imbibition setup is significantly longer than in the drainage. Using rapid video capturing, and high resolution microscopy, we measure the saturation of displacing fluid with respect to time. By measuring gas and liquid recovery in the outlet at different saturation, we predict relative permeability of coal. This work has important applications for optimising gas recovery and our results can serve as a benchmark in the verification of multiphase numerical models used in coal seam gas industry.

  13. Novel approach for extinguishing large-scale coal fires using gas-liquid foams in open pit mines.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinxiao; Wang, Deming; Qin, Botao; Tian, Fuchao; Shi, Guangyi; Dong, Shuaijun

    2015-12-01

    Coal fires are a serious threat to the workers' security and safe production in open pit mines. The coal fire source is hidden and innumerable, and the large-area cavity is prevalent in the coal seam after the coal burned, causing the conventional extinguishment technology difficult to work. Foams are considered as an efficient means of fire extinguishment in these large-scale workplaces. A noble foam preparation method is introduced, and an original design of cavitation jet device is proposed to add foaming agent stably. The jet cavitation occurs when the water flow rate and pressure ratio reach specified values. Through self-building foaming system, the high performance foams are produced and then infused into the blast drilling holes at a large flow. Without complicated operation, this system is found to be very suitable for extinguishing large-scale coal fires. Field application shows that foam generation adopting the proposed key technology makes a good fire extinguishment effect. The temperature reduction using foams is 6-7 times higher than water, and CO concentration is reduced from 9.43 to 0.092‰ in the drilling hole. The coal fires are controlled successfully in open pit mines, ensuring the normal production as well as the security of personnel and equipment.

  14. Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith

    DOEpatents

    Wagoner, Charles L.; Foote, John P.

    1995-01-01

    A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler, the converted boiler including a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones.

  15. Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith

    DOEpatents

    Wagoner, C.L.; Foote, J.P.

    1995-07-04

    A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler are disclosed. The converted boiler includes a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones. 19 figs.

  16. Mining geology of the Pond Creek seam, Pikeville Formation, Middle Pennsylvanian, in part of the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greb, S.F.; Popp, J.T.

    1999-01-01

    The Pond Creek seam is one of the leading producers of coal in the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field. The geologic factors that affect mining were investigated in several underground mines and categorized in terms of coal thickness, coal quality, and roof control. The limits of mining and thick coal are defined by splitting along the margin of the coal body. Within the coal body, local thickness variation occurs because of (1) leader coal benches filling narrow, elongated depressions, (2) rider coal benches coming near to or merging with the main bench, (3) overthrust coal benches being included along paleochannel margins, (4) cutouts occuring beneath paleochannels, and (5) very hard and unusual rock partings occuring along narrow, elongated trends. In the study area, the coal is mostly mined as a compliance product: sulfur contents are less than 1% and ash yields are less than 10%. Local increases in sulfur occur beneath sandstones, and are inferred to represent post-depositional migration of fluids through porous sands into the coal. Run-of-mine quality is also affected by several mine-roof conditions and trends of densely concentrated rock partings, which lead to increased in- and out-of-seam dilution and overall ash content of the mined coal. Roof control is largely a function of a heterolithic facies mosaic of coastal-estuarine origin, regional fracture trends, and unloading stress related to varying mine depth beneath the surface. Lateral variability of roof facies is the rule in most mines. The largest falls occur beneath modern valleys and parallel fractures, along paleochannel margins, within tidally affected 'stackrock,' and beneath rider coals. Shale spalling, kettlebottoms, and falls within other more isolated facies also occur. Many of the lithofacies, and falls related to bedding weaknesses within or between lithofacies, occur along northeast-southwest trends, which can be projected in advance of mining. Fracture-related falls occur independently of

  17. Executive roundtable on coal-fired generation

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-15

    Power Engineering magazine invited six industry executives from the coal-fired sector to discuss issues affecting current and future prospects of coal-fired generation. The executives are Tim Curran, head of Alstom Power for the USA and Senior Vice President and General Manager of Boilers North America; Ray Kowalik, President and General Manager of Burns and McDonnell Energy Group; Jeff Holmstead, head of Environmental Strategies for the Bracewell Giuliani law firm; Jim Mackey, Vice President, Fluor Power Group's Solid Fuel business line; Tom Shelby, President Kiewit Power Inc., and David Wilks, President of Energy Supply for Excel Energy Group. Steve Blankinship, the magazine's Associate Editor, was the moderator. 6 photos.

  18. Characterization and evaluation of washability of Alaskan coals: Fifty selected seams from various coal fields: Final technical report, September 30, 1976-February 28, 1986. [50 coal seams

    SciTech Connect

    Rao, P.D.

    1986-09-01

    This final report is the result of a study initiated in 1976 to obtain washability data for Alaskan coals, to supplement the efforts of the US Department of Energy in their ongoing studies on washability of US coals. Washability characteristics were determined for fifty coal samples from the Northern Alaska, Chicago Creek, Unalakleet, Nenana, Matanuska, Beluga, Yentna and Herendeen Bay coal fields. The raw coal was crushed to 1-1/2 inches, 3/8 inch, 14 mesh and 65 mesh top sizes, and float-sink separations were made at 1.30, 1.40 and 1.60 specific gravities. A limited number of samples were also crushed to 200 and 325 mesh sizes prior to float-sink testing. Samples crushed to 65 mesh top size were also separated at 1.60 specific gravity and the float and sink products were characterized for proximate and ultimate analyses, ash composition and ash fusibility. 72 refs., 79 figs., 57 tabs.

  19. Paleogeography of a Middle Pennsylvanian coal seam in the eastern Kentucky coal field

    SciTech Connect

    Jamal, M.A. . Allied Geophysical Labs.); Kusky, T.M. . Dept. of Geology)

    1992-01-01

    The middle Pennsylvanian Upper Elkhorn No.3 coal bed of the Breathitt Formation represents a swamp facies of a fluvial/deltaic complex eroded from the Appalachian hinterland. Geologic conditions during the peat formation and burial stages of the coal were determined by correlating measured sections, using maps of the thickness, number of partings, roof lithologies, and sulfur- ash-, and Btu-content of the Upper Elkhorn No. 3 coal. A paleogeographic reconstruction of the peat stage shows areas of marine-influence, in addition to well-protected and poorly-protected swamps. The peat swamp which deposited the coal developed on a very broad coastal plain consisting of deltaic-type sediments with increasing terrestrial conditions to the east and increasing marine conditions to the west. Prograding fluvial systems buried peat initially deposited in brackish to marine environments of the flood-basin. Pre-mining basin analysis leads to more effective exploration and exploitation, in particular coal quality (including sulfur and ash content), mineability, roof lithology and locations of channels can be predicted before mining.

  20. ENHANCED COAL BED METHANE PRODUCTION AND SEQUESTRATION OF CO2 IN UNMINEABLE COAL SEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Gary L. Cairns

    2002-04-01

    This is the first Technical Progress report for the subject agreement. During the first six months of the project, progress was made in arranging participation by other CONSOL departments, identifying a prospective site, developing an environmental assessment report, and securing land and coal rights. In addition, correspondences were drafted in response to NETL inquiries. These aspects of the project are discussed in detail in this report.

  1. The effect of zeolite treatment by acids on sodium adsorption ratio of coal seam gas water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoyu; Ozdemir, Orhan; Hampton, Marc A; Nguyen, Anh V; Do, Duong D

    2012-10-15

    Many coal seam gas (CSG) waters contain a sodium ion concentration which is too high relative to calcium and magnesium ions for environment acceptance. Natural zeolites can be used as a cheap and effective method to control sodium adsorption ratio (SAR, which is a measure of the relative preponderance of sodium to calcium and magnesium) due to its high cation exchange capacity. In this study, a natural zeolite from Queensland was examined for its potential to treat CSG water to remove sodium ions to lower SAR and reduce the pH value. The results demonstrate that acid activated zeolite at 30%wt solid ratio can reduce the sodium content from 563.0 to 182.7 ppm; the pH from 8.74 to 6.95; and SAR from 70.3 to 18.5. Based on the results of the batch experiments, the sodium adsorption capacity of the acid-treated zeolite is three times greater than that of the untreated zeolite. Both the untreated and acid-treated zeolite samples were characterized using zeta potential, surface characterization, DTA/TG and particle size distribution in order to explain their adsorption behaviours.

  2. Methanolobus zinderi sp. nov., a methylotrophic methanogen isolated from a deep subsurface coal seam.

    PubMed

    Doerfert, Sebastian N; Reichlen, Matthew; Iyer, Prabha; Wang, Mingyu; Ferry, James G

    2009-05-01

    A methanogenic organism from the domain Archaea (SD1(T)) was isolated from saline water released from a coal seam located 926 m below the surface via a methane-producing well near Monroe, Louisiana, USA. Growth and methanogenesis were supported with methanol, monomethylamine, dimethylamine or trimethylamine, but not with dimethylsulfide, formate, acetate or H(2)/CO(2). Cells grew in high-salt minimal medium but growth was stimulated with yeast extract or tryptone. Cells were single, non-motile, irregular coccoids 0.5-1.0 microm in diameter and the cell wall contained protein. Conditions for the maximum rate of growth were 40-50 degrees C, 0.2-0.6 M NaCl, 100->or=200 mM MgCl(2), and pH 7.0-8.0. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 42+/-1mol %. A comparison of 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that strain SD1(T) was most closely related to Methanolobus oregonensis DSM 5435(T) with 96 % gene sequence similarity. It is proposed that strain SD1(T) represents a novel species, Methanolobus zinderi sp. nov. The type strain is SD1(T) (=ATCC BAA-1601(T)=DSM 21339(T)).

  3. Palynology of an Early Permian coal seam from the Karoo Supergroup of Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbolini, N.; Bamford, M. K.

    2014-12-01

    Two borehole cores from the south-east area of the Mmamantswe coalfield (Mmamabula area), Botswana, provided 124 samples for palynological analysis. The assemblage is dominated by trilete and alete spores, indicating a parent flora of mostly lower order lycopods, sphenophytes and ferns. Distinctive taxa at Mmamantswe include Brevitriletes levis, Cannanoropollis densus, Gondisporites raniganjensis, Platysaccus radialis, Scheuringipollenites ovatus, and Verrucosisporites naumovae. Saccate pollen is less common, suggesting the assemblage reflects the local vegetation of the coal swamp. The Mmamantswe microflora has been sub-divided into two assemblage zones, with the lower Assemblage Zone 1 correlating with Assemblage Zone 1 of Anderson (northern Karoo Basin, South Africa), Biozone B of the Waterberg (South Africa) and the Milorgfjella assemblage (Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica). The upper Assemblage Zone 2 of Mmamantswe is correlated with Assemblage Zone 2 of Anderson (northern Karoo Basin, South Africa), Biozone C of the Waterberg (South Africa), and the No. 2 Seam assemblage (Witbank coalfield, South Africa). On the basis of these correlations the Mmamantswe microfloral assemblage is assigned to the Asselian, Sakmarian and Early Artinskian periods.

  4. Life Cycle Assessment of Coal-fired Power Production

    SciTech Connect

    Spath, P. L.; Mann, M. K.; Kerr, D. R.

    1999-09-01

    Coal has the largest share of utility power generation in the US, accounting for approximately 56% of all utility-produced electricity (US DOE, 1998). Therefore, understanding the environmental implications of producing electricity from coal is an important component of any plan to reduce total emissions and resource consumption. A life cycle assessment (LCA) on the production of electricity from coal was performed in order to examine the environmental aspects of current and future pulverized coal boiler systems. Three systems were examined: (1) a plant that represents the average emissions and efficiency of currently operating coal-fired power plants in the US (this tells us about the status quo), (2) a new coal-fired power plant that meets the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS), and (3) a highly advanced coal-fired power plant utilizing a low emission boiler system (LEBS).

  5. Lithology, petrography, and geochemistry of the Fire Clay coal, eastern Kentucky: Implications concerning the peat-forming environment

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yalan, Rimmer, S.M.; Ferm, J.C. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    In a study of polished block samples of ten columns of the Fire Clay coal seam in the Hyden East, Hazard South, and Vicco geological quadrangles, eastern Kentucky, eight different lithotypes were recognized on the basis of brightness, texture, and percentage of vitrain bands versus matrix. The lithotypes are: A, very bright luster, banded (vitrain bands > 90%); B, very bright luster, non-banded; C, bright luster, highly banded (vitrain bands > 50%); D, medium luster, moderate banded (vitrain bands 30--50%); E, medium luster, slightly banded (vitrain bands < 30%); F, dull luster non-banded; G, silky luster, fibrous; and F, disturbed. Point-count analysis of the different lithotypes revealed that the lithotypes can be differentiated according to maceral composition (telocollinite content, desmocollinite content, and others which includes the liptinite, inertinite, and minerals). The Fire Clay coal contains thick-walled, dumbell-shaped sporinite and framboidal pyrite in the upper parts of the two benches which are divided by the flint clay parting. High ash contents occur near the base, the roof, and the parting. High sulfur contents occur near the top of the two benches, corresponding to the occurrence of framboidal pyrite. A coal facies analysis of the Fire Clay coal suggests that for individual benches the peat-forming environment developed from a low-lying swamp to a raised swamp. In the early stages of swamp development, the existence of a fresh-water, low-lying swamp is suggested by the presence of banded lithotypes in the lower portion of the seam. In the later stages of swamp development, there was a transition to a raised swamp, as suggested by the presence of dull, non-banded lithotype in the upper portion of the seam.

  6. The Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    Progress continued at MHD coal-fired flow facility. UTSI reports on progress in developing the technology for the steam bottoming portion of the MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. No Proof-of-Concept (POC) testing was conducted during the quarter but data analyses are reported from the test conducted during the prior quarter. Major results include corrosion data from the first 500 hours of testing on candidate tube materials in the superheater test module (SHTM). Solids mass balance data, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and baghouse (BH) performance data, diagnostic systems and environmental data results from previous POC tests are included. The major activities this quarter were in facility modifications required to complete the scheduled POC test program. Activities reported include the installation of an automatic ash/seed removal system on the SHTM, the BH, and ESP hoppers. Also, a higher pressure compressor (350 psi) is being installed to provide additional blowing pressure to remove solids deposits on the convective heat transfer tubes in the high temperature zone where the deposits are molten. These activities are scheduled to be completed and ready for the next test, which is scheduled for late May 1990. Also, experiments on drying western coal are reported. The recommended system for modifying the CFFF coal system to permit processing of western coal is described. Finally, a new effort to test portions of the TRW combustor during tests in the CFFF is described. The status of system analyses being conducted under subcontract by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation is also described. 2 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Pore pressure propagation in a permeable thin-layer coal seam based on a dual porosity model: A case of risk prediction of water inrush in coalmines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, B.; Gao, F.; Yang, J. W.; Zhou, G. Q.

    2016-08-01

    Thin-layer coal seams, a type of filling coal rock body, are considered aquifer systems made up of dual porosity medium with immediate floor. A numerical simulation for the pore pressure propagation along a thin-layer coal seam was carried out for the case of the Zhaogezhuang coalmine in China. By valuing the permeability (Kf ) of the thin-layer coal seam, pore pressure variation with time was simulated and compared to the analytical solutions of a dual porosity model (DPM). The main conclusions were drawn as follow: (1) Seepage in the thin-layer coal seam was predominant in the whole process, and the distance of seepage was lengthened and the pore pressure decreased with increased Kf , (2) A series of simulated hydraulic graphs demonstrated that the pore pressure characteristics of peak-occurring and time-lag effects agreed with the analytical solutions of DPM; (3) By adjusting the parameters of DPM, two results of analytical solutions and numerical solutions fit well, particularly in the thin-layer coal seam, (4) The power law relationship between the peak-values and lag time of pore pressure were derived statistically under consideration of the Kf parameter in the range of 10-8 to 10-10 m2/pa-s orders, and it was reasonable that the Kf of the thin-layer coal seam was in the range of 10-8 m2/pa-s orders. The results were significantly helpful in decision-making for mining water prevention and prediction in practice.

  8. Data base for the analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Quarterly technical progress report, May-July 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Alan; Suhr, N. H.; Spackman, W.; Painter, P. C.; Walker, P. L.; Given, P. H.

    1980-10-01

    The basic objectives of this new program are, firstly, to understand the systematic relationships between the properties of coals and macerals, and, secondly, to determine the lateral and vertical variability in the properties of a single seam imposed by varying environmental conditions at the time of coal formation. Thirty-four coal samples were collected during the quarter from Pennsylvania and Illinois. To date, 54 vitrinite concentrates have been hand picked and will be studied by a range of physical and chemical techniques. One hundred and forty coal samples and 53 printouts of coal data were provided on request to the coal research community. The Lower Kittanning seam has been selected for the study of the variability in chemical, petrographic, mineralogic, fluid, and conversion properties of a single seam. A description of the structural and stratigraphic settings of the important coal seam as they relate to this investigation is given. Bivariate plots of data from the Lower Kittanning seam are presented. The fluid temperature range as measured with the Gieseler plastometer reaches a maximum at a reflectance of 1.10 to 1.15% and carbon content of 87 to 88% dmmf. Liquefaction conversion in a tubing-bomb reactor with tetralin shows a linear decrease with rank (reflectance). The problems associated with the application Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy to the characterization of coal structure are critically discussed. The micropore surface areas and micropore volumes of three selected coals and a vitrinite concentrate, as measured from uptake of CO/sub 2/ at 25/sup 0/C, increased with decreasing particle size. Work on measurements of apparent densities and uptake of methanol and water is in progress.

  9. Fayalite from Fe-rich paralavas of ancient coal fires in the Kuzbass, Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novikova, S. A.

    2009-12-01

    Fayalite is a common mineral of Fe-rich paralavas related to spontaneous combustion of coal seams. Fayalite has also been found in parabasalts from burned coal waste piles of the Chelyabinsk coal basin. Among paralavas from different combustion metamorphic (CM) complexes of the world, fayalite is the most widespread in the fused rocks of the Kuznetsk coal basin (Kuzbass) and the Ravat area in Tajikistan. The optimal conditions for fayalite formation as products of coal fires in the Kuzbass and Ravat resulted from a favorable combination of the composition of fused protolith (parental rocks) composed of pelitic and Fe-rich sediments and the redox conditions of the deep subsurface ( f_{O_2 } is lower than the QFM buffer). In the Kuzbass, fayalite is commonly hosted in high-silica aluminous Fe-rich paralavas composed of Fe-cordierite (sekaninaite), tridymite, hercynite-magnetite, cristobalite, aluminous clinoferrosilite, and Al-K silicic glass. The composition of all Kuzbass fayalites is close to the Fe2SiO4 end member. Kuzbass fayalites are characterized by a negligibly low CaO content and higher MnO and P2O5 contents like fayalites from burned rocks of other CM complexes. In Kuzbass paralavas, Fe-olivine is the late phase that crystallized after sekaninaite and tridymite, immediately before melt quenching.

  10. CONTROLLING MULTIPLE EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents and analyzes nine existing and novel control technologies designed to achieve multipollutant emissions reductions. It provides an evaluation of multipollutant emission control technologies that are potentially available for coal-fired power plants of 25 MW capa...

  11. Coal-Fired Power Plant Heat Rate Reductions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    View a report that identifies systems and equipment in coal-fired power plants where efficiency improvements can be realized, and provides estimates of the resulting net plant heat rate reductions and costs for implementation.

  12. Fires in abandoned coal mines and waste banks

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, A.G.; Chaiken, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Fires that occur in abandoned coal mines, waste banks, and in coal outcrops constitute a serious health, safety, and environmental hazard. Toxic fumes, the deterioration of air quality, and subsidence constitute the greatest hazards from these fires. Although fires on abandoned mined land (AML) occur in every coal-producing state, the severity of the problem varies. Methods to extinguish or control AML fires, including excavation, fire barriers, and sealing, are generally expensive and have a relatively low probability of success. This US Bureau of Mines report includes information from a variety of sources, i.e., agencies of the Federal Government, State agencies, research reports, conference proceedings, product information, and technical literature. This information has been collated into a comprehensive discussion of AML fire problems. Data on past fire control projects and on the estimated extent of the current problem have been compiled. Factors affecting the occurrence, propagation, and extinguishment of AML fires are discussed. Conventional fire control methods are described, and their probable effectiveness is evaluated. Information on the hazards of AML fires and safety considerations is included. The status of current technology, recent improvements in fire control methods, and areas of current research are discussed.

  13. Analysis of alternatives for using cable bolts as primary support at two low-seam coal mines

    PubMed Central

    Esterhuizen, Gabriel S.; Tulu, Ihsan B.

    2016-01-01

    Cable bolts are sometimes used in low-seam coal mines to provide support in difficult ground conditions. This paper describes cable bolting solutions at two low-seam coal mines in similar ground conditions. Both mines used support systems incorporating cable bolts as part of the primary support system. Two original cable bolt based support systems as well as two modified systems are evaluated to estimate their ability to prevent large roof falls. One of the support systems incorporated passive cable bolts, while the other used pre-tensioned cable bolts. The results and experience at the mines showed that the modified systems provided improved stability over the original support systems. The presence of the cable bolts is the most important contribution to stability against large roof falls, rather than the details of the support pattern. It was also found that a heavy steel channel can improve the safety of the system because of the ‘sling’ action it provides. Additionally, the analysis showed that fully-grouted rebar bolts load much earlier than the cable bolts, and pre-tensioning of the cable bolts can result in a more uniform distribution of loading in the roof. PMID:27722019

  14. A reactive transport modelling approach to assess the leaching potential of hydraulic fracturing fluids associated with coal seam gas extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallants, Dirk; Simunek, Jirka; Gerke, Kirill

    2015-04-01

    Coal Seam Gas production generates large volumes of "produced" water that may contain compounds originating from the use of hydraulic fracturing fluids. Such produced water also contains elevated concentrations of naturally occurring inorganic and organic compounds, and usually has a high salinity. Leaching of produced water from storage ponds may occur as a result of flooding or containment failure. Some produced water is used for irrigation of specific crops tolerant to elevated salt levels. These chemicals may potentially contaminate soil, shallow groundwater, and groundwater, as well as receiving surface waters. This paper presents an application of scenario modelling using the reactive transport model for variably-saturated media HP1 (coupled HYDRUS-1D and PHREEQC). We evaluate the fate of hydraulic fracturing chemicals and naturally occurring chemicals in soil as a result of unintentional release from storage ponds or when produced water from Coal Seam Gas operations is used in irrigation practices. We present a review of exposure pathways and relevant hydro-bio-geo-chemical processes, a collation of physico-chemical properties of organic/inorganic contaminants as input to a set of generic simulations of transport and attenuation in variably saturated soil profiles. We demonstrate the ability to model the coupled processes of flow and transport in soil of contaminants associated with hydraulic fracturing fluids and naturally occurring contaminants.

  15. EMISSIONS OF SULFUR TRIOXIDE FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of sulfur trioxide (SO3) are a key component of plume opacity and acid deposition. Consequently, these emissions need to be low enough not to cause opacity violations and acid deposition. Generally, a small fraction of sulfur in coal is converted to SO3 in coal-fired co...

  16. Data base for the analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Part 7. Petrographic variation due to depositional setting of the lower Kittanning seam, western Pennsylvania. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Allshouse, S.D.; Davis, A.

    1984-01-01

    Detailed megascopic and microscopic petrographic analyses were conducted on samples of the Lower Kittanning seam from western Pennsylvania. Relationships were sought between the paleoenvironmental setting of the coal swamp and the vertical and lateral variability of lithotypes, maceral composition and vitrinite types. Megascopically, the four samples collected from the freshwater facies of the seam are similar in appearance and relative lithotype composition, and display no distinct vertical zonations. The sample from the marine-influenced central portion of the basin (PSOC-1340) possesses a marked vertical zonation into a bright lower zone and a dull upper zone. The lower zone is similar in appearance to the freswater samples. Detailed microscopic analyses revealed that the vertical zonation of PSOC-1340 is apparent in both the maceral and vitrinite type composition. No similar zonation is apparent in the microscopic analysis of the four freshwater facies samples. Similarities between the lower zone of PSOC-1340 and the whole seam of the freshwater samples are most apparent in the vitrinite-type analysis. The lower zone of PSOC-1340 and the whole seam from the freshwater facies are considered to be laterally equivalent coal types. The dull upper zone of PSOC-1340 is considered to have formed in response to a major change in the paleoenvironment of the swamp, probably a marine transgression. 49 references, 25 figures, 15 tables.

  17. The Outburst Risk as a Function of the Methane Capacity and Firmness of a Coal Seam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierzbicki, Mirosław; Skoczylas, Norbert

    2014-12-01

    In most coal basins that are currently being exploited, gas and rock outbursts pose a considerable safety threat. The risk of their occurrence is frequently assessed by means of a parameter known as the methane capacity of coal. In a lot of countries, the evaluation of the mechanical properties of coal is conducted by means of another parameter: the firmness of coal. Due to the laboratory investigations and in situ observations carried out by the authors of this paper, it was possible to determine a function space in which the outburst risk can be described as a function of the methane capacity and firmness of a coal seam. This, in turn, made it possible to link the "gas factor" to the "mechanical factor", and thus provide a more comprehensive risk analysis. Wyrzuty gazów i skał stanowią duże zagrożenie w większości obecnie eksploatowanych zagłębi węglowych. Bardzo często wykorzystywanym parametrem oceny stanu zagrożenia wyrzutowego jest zawartość metanu w węglu. W wielu krajach do oceny mechanicznych parametrów węgla wykorzystuje się zwięzłość. Autorzy przeprowadzili badania laboratoryjne polegające na prowokacjach wyrzutów w skali laboratoryjnej. Jako materiał badawczy wykorzystane zostały brykiety węglowe. W trakcie badań wstępnych ustalona została zależność pomiędzy porowatością brykietów, a ich zwięzłością f oraz pomiędzy ciśnieniem nasycania metanem, a wskaźnikiem intensywności desorpcji dP. Pozwoliło to na przygotowywanie eksperymentów o kontrolowanych parametrach gazowych (wskaźnik intensywności desorpcji) oraz wytrzymałościowych (zwięzłość). Opracowana została metoda kontrolowania intensywności prowokacji wyrzutu poprzez określenie tempa spadku ciśnienia gazu przed czołem brykietu. Dzięki temu dla siatki parametrów f-dP możliwe było poszukiwanie minimalnej, skutecznej intensywności prowokacji wyrzutu. Znormalizowana wartość stałej czasowej spadku ciśnienia przed czołem brykietu powoduj

  18. Modelling of a coal seam of the deposit Đurđevik (BiH) by means of 2D reflection seismic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsenović, Siniša; Urošević, Milovan; Sretenović, Branislav; Cvetkov, Vesna; Životić, Dragana

    2016-06-01

    A low cost 2D reflection seismic survey was used to map the continuity of the main seams as well as the numerous faults at the Đurđevik sub-bituminous coal deposit (BiH). A 24-channel seismic data acquisition system was available for this survey. The natural high reflectivity of the coal seams and a favourable geometry of seismic profiles enabled the identification and correlation of major faults across the area. Rugged terrain presented challenges to both data acquisition and processing. Stacks of acceptable quality were obtained only after the application of surface consistent statics and careful application of multi-channel filtering. A set of recorded 2D lines was interpreted in a 3D environment. Inferred structural elements disrupting the seam continuity were identified and were in agreement with available drilling results and mine workings. The result of this work was used to reduce mining hazards and also to help optimise mine planning.

  19. Coal fired powerhouse wastewater pressure filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.L.; Diener, G.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Savannah River Site`s permit for construction of an industrial wastewater treatment facility to remove solids from the boiler blow-down and wet ash scrubber effluent of the A-Area coal fired powerhouse was rejected. Conventional clarification technology would not remove arsenic from the combined effluent sufficient to achieve human health criteria in the small receiving surface stream. Treatability studies demonstrated that an existing facility, which will no longer be needed for metal finishing wastewater, can very efficiently process the powerhouse wastewater to less than 35 {mu}g/L arsenic. Use of cationic and anionic polymers to flocculate both the wastewater and filter aid solids formed a ``bridged cake`` with exceptionally low resistance to flow. This will double the capacity of the Oberlin pressure filters with the Tyvek T-980 sub micron filter media. The affects of high sheer agitation and high temperature in the raw wastewater on the filtration process were also studied and adequate controls were demonstrated.

  20. JV Task 109 - Risk Assessment and Feasibility of Remedial Alternatives for Coal Seam at Garrison, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Jarda Solc

    2008-01-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) conducted an evaluation of alternative technologies for remediation of hydrocarbon-contaminated coal seam, including impacted soils and groundwater in Garrison, North Dakota. Geotechnical characteristics of the impacted fractured coal seam provide for rapid off-site contaminant transport, with the currently identified impacted zone covering an area of about 40 acres. Regardless of the exposure mechanism (free, dissolved, or vapor phase), results of laboratory tests confirmed secondary release of gasoline-based compounds from contaminated coal to water reaching concentrations documented from the impacted areas. Coal laboratory tests confirmed low risks associated with spontaneous ignition of gasoline-contaminated coal. High contaminant recovery efficiency for the vacuum-enhanced recovery pilot tests conducted at three selected locations confirmed its feasibility for full-scale remediation. A total of 3500 gallons (13.3 m{sup 3}) of contaminated groundwater and over 430,000 ft{sup 3} (12,200 m{sup 3}) of soil vapor were extracted during vacuum-enhanced recovery testing conducted July 17-24, 2007, resulting in the removal of about 1330 lb (603 kg) of hydrocarbons, an equivalent of about 213 gallons of product. The summary of project activities is as follows: (1) Groundwater and vapor monitoring for existing wells, including domestic wells, conducted on a monthly basis from December 12, 2006, to June 6, 2007. This monitoring activity conducted prior to initiation of the EERC field investigation was requested by NDDH in a letter dated December 1, 2006. (2) Drilling of 20 soil borings, including installation of extraction and monitoring wells conducted April 30-May 4 and May 14-18, 2007. (3) Groundwater sampling and water-table monitoring conducted June 11-13, 2007. (4) Evaluation of the feasibility of using a camera survey for delineation of mining voids conducted May 16 and September 10-11, 2007. (5) Survey of all wells

  1. Investigation into the gas-dynamic state of a coal seam under degassing and moistening

    SciTech Connect

    Ruban, A.D.; Zaburdyaev, G.S.; Zaburdyaev, V.S.

    2005-04-01

    Statistics are cited for the violation of gas and dust conditions in mines of Russia and the material damage caused by gas and dust explosions. It is shown that degassing and moistening of a seam is the most efficiently conducted by the hydraulic pulse action.

  2. An Initial Assessment of Coal-Fired Ship Operations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-11-01

    coal bunker. This line can be used to spray seawater into the coal bunker. However, since there is no way to seal off the chutes at the bottom of the...plants. There was insufficient room for installing more fans and ductwork . The additional electrical load and ductwork volume would be a problem. The...imported steam coal from 1.5 million tons in 1980 to 17 million tons in 1986 -87. The new coal fired bulk carriers have been designed to "go anywhere

  3. Direct coal-fired gas turbines for combined cycle plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rothrock, J.; Wenglarz, R.; Hart, P.; Mongia, H.

    1993-11-01

    The combustion/emissions control island of the CFTCC plant produces cleaned coal combustion gases for expansion in the gas turbine. The gases are cleaned to protect the turbine from flow-path degeneration due to coal contaminants and to reduce environmental emissions to comparable or lower levels than alternate clean coal power plant tedmologies. An advantage of the CFTCC system over other clean coal technologies using gas turbines results from the CFTCC system having been designed as an adaptation to coal of a natural gas-fired combined cycle plant. Gas turbines are built for compactness and simplicity. The RQL combustor is designed using gas turbine combustion technology rather than process plant reactor technology used in other pressurized coal systems. The result is simpler and more compact combustion equipment than for alternate technologies. The natural effect is lower cost and improved reliability. In addition to new power generation plants, CFTCC technology will provide relatively compact and gas turbine compatible coal combustion/emissions control islands that can adapt existing natural gas-fired combined cycle plants to coal when gas prices rise to the point where conversion is economically attractive. Because of the simplicity, compactness, and compatibility of the RQL combustion/emission control island compared to other coal technologies, it could be a primary candidate for such conversions.

  4. Western Cretaceous Coal Seam Project. Final project summary. Final topical report, 1 January 1988-31 August 1989 (research)

    SciTech Connect

    Mavor, M.J.; Close, J.C.

    1989-12-31

    A summary of the Western Cretaceous Coal Seam project conclusions and data collection efforts is presented in the report. The discussion includes a summary of the geologic, formation evaluation, and stimulation analyses of four major wells. The names operators and locations of these wells are: Hamilton No. 3, Mesa Operating Limited Partnership, San Juan Co. NM, Sec. 30, Twn. 32 N, Rng. 10 W; Northeast Blanco Unit No. 403, Blackwood Nichols Co., Ltd, Rio Arriba Co. NM, Sec. 9, Twn. 30 N, Rng. 7 W; Southern Ute - Mobil 36-1, McKenzie Methane Co., LaPlata Co. CO, Sec. 36, Twn 34 N, Rng. 10 W; and Colorado 32-7 No. 9, Mobil Oil Corp., LaPlata Co, CO, Sec. 4, Twn. 32 N, Rng. 7 W. The discussion includes a summary of 7 minor well efforts in addition to the above major efforts.

  5. Characterization of the organic structure of the Lower Kittanning coal seam using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and optical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Kuehn, D.W.

    1983-01-01

    Variations in organic structure of coal samples of the Lower Kittanning seam were determined with Fourier transform infared spectroscopy (FTIR) and reflectance at different wavelengths of visible light. FTIR is a relatively new method for obtaining quantitative data for the organic constituents of coal. The system not only provides spectra of greater quality than conventional infared spectroscopy, but it is coupled to an on-line minicomputer which allows the user to analyze data and perform a variety of manipulations. The data for vitrinite concentrates were compared with selected chemical data using bivariate and multivariate statistical techniques. Certain spectral bands showed high correlations with conventional rank parameters in bivariate analysis. Multivariate analysis revealed that some bands showed dependency on a given rank parameter while others were independent. Reflectance and refractive index showed dependency on each other whereas the absorption index appeared to be partially independent. Absorptive index also was independent of the data from FTIR analysis. Liquefaction data and Gieseler fluidity were included with FTIR data for the channel samples in bivariate and multivariate analyses. The analyses revealed that two infrared bands, aliphatic CH/sub 2/ at 2853 cm/sup -1/ and aromatic stretch between 3100 and 2990 cm/sup -1/ can best predict the liquefaction conversion and temperature of maximum fluidity of the Lower Kittanning seam samples. The areal variability in the distribution of FTIR and petrographic data was contoured, and revealed that environment of deposition was a primary control in the distribution of aliphatic groups and petrographic constituents, whereas rank determined the distribution of aromatic CH groups.

  6. Repowering a small coal-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Miell, R.

    2007-11-15

    The Arkansas River Power Authority (ARPA) Lamar Repowering Project is moving forward. The new generator, capable of producing 18 MW of electricity, is scheduled to be online in June 2008 bringing the total generation to 43 MW. New coal handling equipment, with infrared fire detectors, is almost complete. The new 18 MW steam turbine will be cooled by an air-cooled condenser. Coal will be delivered in a railroad spur to an unloading site then be unloaded onto a conveyor under the tracks and conveyed to two storage domes each holding 6000 tons of coal. It will be drawn out of these through an underground conveyor system, brought into a crusher, conveyed through overhead conveyors and fed into the new coal- fired fluidized bed boilers. 1 photo.

  7. Applications of coatings in coal-fired energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.

    1992-03-01

    Corrosion and erosion of metallic structural materials at elevated temperatures in complex multicomponent gas environments that include particulates are potential problems in many fossil energy systems, especially those using coal as a feedstock. The use of appropriate corrosion-resistant coatings on metallic components offers an avenue to minimize material degradation and extend component life. The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of coating performance in environments typical of pulverized-coal-fired boilers, coal gasification, fluidized-bed combustion, and gas turbines. The paper discusses the complexity of environments in different systems and the coating requirements for acceptable performance. Examples illustrate the morphology and corrosion/erosion performance of coating/structural alloy combinations exposed in some of these systems. La addition, future research and development needs are discussed for coating applications in several coal-fired systems.

  8. Natural Radiation in Wastes From Coal-Fired Power Plants ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    2016-09-07

    Fly ash, bottom ash and boiler slag from coal-fired power plants contain small amounts of naturally occurring radioactive material. Naturally radioactive materials that were in coal before processing mostly end up in fly ash, bottom ash and boiler slag. About 80 to 90 percent of fly ash, bottom ash and boiler slag are non-radioactive minerals, typically silicon, aluminum, iron and calcium.

  9. Characterization of open-cycle coal-fired MHD generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wormhoudt, J.; Yousefian, V.; Weinberg, M.; Kolb, C.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Cheng, W.; Bien, F.; Dvore, D.; Unkel, W.; Stewart, G.

    1980-09-01

    The successful design of full-scale, open-cycle, coal-fired MHD generators for baseload electrical production requires a detailed understanding of the plasma chemical and plasma dynamic characteristics of anticipated combustor and channel fluids. Progress in efforts to model the efficiency of an open-cycle, coal-fired MHD channel based on the characterization of the channel flow as well as laboratory experiments to validate the modeling effort is detailed. In addition, studies related to understanding arcing phenomena in the vicinity of an anode are reported.

  10. Environmental impact assessment at the Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, J L; Holt, J K

    1992-08-01

    The environmental program for the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) has been established to monitor and evaluate facility operations on a continuing basis in accordance with the purpose and policy of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Program objectives include: (1) Compliance with all applicable Federal, State, and local effluent regulations and DOE orders; (2) Compliance with commitments made in the ``Environmental Monitoring Program for the MHD Coal Fired Flow Facility at University of Tennessee Space Institute``; (3) Evaluation of the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control; (4) Assessing the potential impact of CFFF operations on the environment. (VC)

  11. Using plasma-fuel systems at Eurasian coal-fired thermal power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpenko, E. I.; Karpenko, Yu. E.; Messerle, V. E.; Ustimenko, A. B.

    2009-06-01

    The development of plasma technology for igniting solid fuels at coal-fired thermal power stations in Russia, Kazakhstan, China, and other Eurasian countries is briefly reviewed. Basic layouts and technical and economic characteristics of plasma-fuel systems installed in different coal-fired boiles are considered together with some results from using these systems at coal-fired thermal power stations.

  12. Time-Lapse Analysis of Methane Quantity in the Mary Lee Group of Coal Seams Using Filter-Based Multiple-Point Geostatistical Simulation.

    PubMed

    Karacan, C Özgen; Olea, Ricardo A

    2013-08-01

    Coal seam degasification and its success are important for controlling methane, and thus for the health and safety of coal miners. During the course of degasification, properties of coal seams change. Thus, the changes in coal reservoir conditions and in-place gas content as well as methane emission potential into mines should be evaluated by examining time-dependent changes and the presence of major heterogeneities and geological discontinuities in the field. In this work, time-lapsed reservoir and fluid storage properties of the New Castle coal seam, Mary Lee/Blue Creek seam, and Jagger seam of Black Warrior Basin, Alabama, were determined from gas and water production history matching and production forecasting of vertical degasification wellbores. These properties were combined with isotherm and other important data to compute gas-in-place (GIP) and its change with time at borehole locations. Time-lapsed training images (TIs) of GIP and GIP difference corresponding to each coal and date were generated by using these point-wise data and Voronoi decomposition on the TI grid, which included faults as discontinuities for expansion of Voronoi regions. Filter-based multiple-point geostatistical simulations, which were preferred in this study due to anisotropies and discontinuities in the area, were used to predict time-lapsed GIP distributions within the study area. Performed simulations were used for mapping spatial time-lapsed methane quantities as well as their uncertainties within the study area. The systematic approach presented in this paper is the first time in literature that history matching, TIs of GIPs and filter simulations are used for degasification performance evaluation and for assessing GIP for mining safety. Results from this study showed that using production history matching of coalbed methane wells to determine time-lapsed reservoir data could be used to compute spatial GIP and representative GIP TIs generated through Voronoi decomposition

  13. Applicability of the mixture of bituminous coal and anthracite to conventional pulverized coal firing boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Takano, Shin-Ichi; Kiga, Takashi; Miyamae, Shigehiro

    1994-12-31

    In some future, it is expected for Japanese power stations to be hard to get a high-grade coal like a bituminous coal. We conducted therefore pilot scale tests of pulverized blends of bituminous coal and anthracite using a 1.2MWt tunnel furnace in order to evaluate the applicability of the blends of bituminous coal and anthracite to conventional pulverized coal firing boilers. One kind of bituminous coal and two kinds of anthracite, one was of low ash content and another was of high ash content, were prepared for the test. Previously to pilot scale tests, coal properties and ash properties of the blends of bituminous coal and anthracite were analyzed to estimate the characteristics of combustion, ash deposition, and so on. In the test, we investigated the combustion efficiency, NOx emission, characteristics of ignition stability and grindability changing the blend rate of anthracite. Results of our study indicated that the critical restrictions on the blending rate of anthracite were unburnt carbon in fly ash and NOx emission as for coals tested. The acceptable limitation on blending rate of anthracite was 10 and 20%, respectively for two kinds of conventional pulverized coal fired boiler. Concerning to the grindability, it became worse with increasing the blending rate of anthracite from grindability test using a roller mill, while it became better estimating from HGI.

  14. Time-lapse analysis of methane quantity in Mary Lee group of coal seams using filter-based multiple-point geostatistical simulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karacan, C. Özgen; Olea, Ricardo A.

    2013-01-01

    The systematic approach presented in this paper is the first time in literature that history matching, TIs of GIPs and filter simulations are used for degasification performance evaluation and for assessing GIP for mining safety. Results from this study showed that using production history matching of coalbed methane wells to determine time-lapsed reservoir data could be used to compute spatial GIP and representative GIP TIs generated through Voronoi decomposition. Furthermore, performing filter simulations using point-wise data and TIs could be used to predict methane quantity in coal seams subjected to degasification. During the course of the study, it was shown that the material balance of gas produced by wellbores and the GIP reductions in coal seams predicted using filter simulations compared very well, showing the success of filter simulations for continuous variables in this case study. Quantitative results from filter simulations of GIP within the studied area briefly showed that GIP was reduced from an initial ∼73 Bcf (median) to ∼46 Bcf (2011), representing a 37 % decrease and varying spatially through degasification. It is forecasted that there will be an additional ∼2 Bcf reduction in methane quantity between 2011 and 2015. This study and presented results showed that the applied methodology and utilized techniques can be used to map GIP and its change within coal seams after degasification, which can further be used for ventilation design for methane control in coal mines.

  15. Coal fired power plant with pollution control and useful byproducts

    SciTech Connect

    Marten, J.H.; Lloyd, G.M.

    1990-04-17

    This patent describes a coal fired power plant. It comprises: coal gasification means for heating coal in the presence of an oxidant-lean atmosphere under partial coal-gasifying conditions; means for separating sulfur-containing compounds from the crude gas stream; means for converting the sulfur compound containing stream into elemental sulfur; energy-conversion means for burning a portion of the combustible gas stream and a portion of the carbonaceous char; flue gas desulfurization means for contacting the SO{sub 2}-containing flue gas with lime and limestone; gypsum desulfurization means for heating the gypsum and the remaining portion of carbonaceous char under reducing conditions utilizing burning of the remaining portion of the combustible gas stream; means for recycling the SO{sub 2}-containing gas stream to the coal gasification means.

  16. Assessing Connectivity Between an Overlying Aquifer and a Coal Seam Gas Resource Using Methane Isotopes, Dissolved Organic Carbon and Tritium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iverach, Charlotte P.; Cendón, Dioni I.; Hankin, Stuart I.; Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca E.; France, James L.; Nisbet, Euan G.; Baker, Andy; Kelly, Bryce F. J.

    2015-11-01

    Coal seam gas (CSG) production can have an impact on groundwater quality and quantity in adjacent or overlying aquifers. To assess this impact we need to determine the background groundwater chemistry and to map geological pathways of hydraulic connectivity between aquifers. In south-east Queensland (Qld), Australia, a globally important CSG exploration and production province, we mapped hydraulic connectivity between the Walloon Coal Measures (WCM, the target formation for gas production) and the overlying Condamine River Alluvial Aquifer (CRAA), using groundwater methane (CH4) concentration and isotopic composition (δ13C-CH4), groundwater tritium (3H) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. A continuous mobile CH4 survey adjacent to CSG developments was used to determine the source signature of CH4 derived from the WCM. Trends in groundwater δ13C-CH4 versus CH4 concentration, in association with DOC concentration and 3H analysis, identify locations where CH4 in the groundwater of the CRAA most likely originates from the WCM. The methodology is widely applicable in unconventional gas development regions worldwide for providing an early indicator of geological pathways of hydraulic connectivity.

  17. Assessing Connectivity Between an Overlying Aquifer and a Coal Seam Gas Resource Using Methane Isotopes, Dissolved Organic Carbon and Tritium

    PubMed Central

    Iverach, Charlotte P.; Cendón, Dioni I.; Hankin, Stuart I.; Lowry, David; Fisher, Rebecca E.; France, James L.; Nisbet, Euan G.; Baker, Andy; Kelly, Bryce F. J.

    2015-01-01

    Coal seam gas (CSG) production can have an impact on groundwater quality and quantity in adjacent or overlying aquifers. To assess this impact we need to determine the background groundwater chemistry and to map geological pathways of hydraulic connectivity between aquifers. In south-east Queensland (Qld), Australia, a globally important CSG exploration and production province, we mapped hydraulic connectivity between the Walloon Coal Measures (WCM, the target formation for gas production) and the overlying Condamine River Alluvial Aquifer (CRAA), using groundwater methane (CH4) concentration and isotopic composition (δ13C-CH4), groundwater tritium (3H) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentration. A continuous mobile CH4 survey adjacent to CSG developments was used to determine the source signature of CH4 derived from the WCM. Trends in groundwater δ13C-CH4 versus CH4 concentration, in association with DOC concentration and 3H analysis, identify locations where CH4 in the groundwater of the CRAA most likely originates from the WCM. The methodology is widely applicable in unconventional gas development regions worldwide for providing an early indicator of geological pathways of hydraulic connectivity. PMID:26530701

  18. Coal-fired power generaion, new air quality regulations, and future U.S. coal production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Root, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Tighter new regulation of stack gas emissions and competition in power generation are driving electrical utilities to demand cleaner, lower sulfur coal. Historical data on sulfur content of produced coals shows little variability in coal quality for individual mines and individual coal-producing counties over relatively long periods of time. If coal-using power generators follow the compliance patterns established in Phase I of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, then the industry's response to the tighter Phase II emissions standards will result in large amounts of coal production shifting from higher sulfur areas to areas with lower cost low sulfur coal. One reason this shift will likely occur is that currently only 30% of U.S. coal-fired electrical generating capacity is equipped with flue-gas scrubbers. In 1995, coal mines in the higher sulfur areas of the Illinois Basin and Northern and Central Appalachia employed 78% of all coal miners (>70,000 miners). A substantial geographical redistribution of the nation's coal supplies will likely lead to economic dislocations that will reach beyond local coal-producing areas.

  19. Electrical resistivity of coal-bearing rocks under high temperature and the detection of coal fires using electrical resistance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Zhenlu; Wang, Deming; Wang, Yanming; Zhong, Xiaoxing; Tang, Xiaofei; Xi, Dongdong

    2016-02-01

    Coal fires are severe hazards to environment, health and safety throughout the world. Efficient and economical extinguishing of these fires requires that the extent of the subsurface coal fires should be delineated. Electrical and electromagnetic methods have been used to detect coal fires in recent years. However, the resistivity change of coal-bearing rocks at high temperature is rarely investigated. The resistivity characteristics of coal fires at different temperatures and depths are seldomly researched as well. In this paper, we present the results of measurements of several coal-bearing rocks' resistivity and permeability under high temperature. Two major causes for the change in resistivity with increasing temperature are recognized, there are the increase of charge carriers and thermal fracturing, of which the first one is probably the dominant cause. A set of 2-D simulations is carried out to compare the relation of resolution and efficiency of coal fires detection to temperature and depth when adopting the electrical resistance tomography. The simulation results show that the resolution and efficiency decrease with the decrease of temperature and the increase of depth. Finally, the electrical resistance tomography is used to delineate coal fires in the Anjialing Open Pit Mine. Most low-resistivity regions are verified as coal-fire areas according to the long-term monitoring of borehole temperature. The results indicate that the electrical resistance tomography can be used as a tool for the detection of coal fires.

  20. Controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, R.

    2009-07-15

    Increasingly stringent US federal and state limits on mercury emissions form coal-fired power plants demand optimal mercury control technologies. This article summarises the successful removal of mercury emissions achieved with activated carbon injection and boiler bromide addition, technologies nearing commercial readiness, as well as several novel control concepts currently under development. It also discusses some of the issues standing in the way of confident performance and cost predictions. In testing conducted on western coal-fired units with fabric filters or TOXECON to date, ACI has generally achieved mercury removal rates > 90%. At units with ESPs, similar performance requires brominated ACI. Alternatively, units firing western coals can use boiler bromide addition to increase flue gas mercury oxidation and downstream capture in a wet scrubber, or to enhance mercury removal by ACI. At eastern bituminous fired units with ESPs, ACI is not as effective, largely due to SO{sub 3} resulting from the high sulfur content of the coal or the use of SO{sub 3} flue gas conditioning to improve ESP performance. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Emissions of sulfur trioxide from coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, R K; Miller, C A; Erickson, C; Jambhekar, R

    2004-06-01

    Emissions of sulfur trioxide (SO3) are a key component of plume opacity and acid deposition. Consequently, these emissions need to be low enough to not cause opacity violations and acid deposition. Generally, a small fraction of sulfur (S) in coal is converted to SO3 in coal-fired combustion devices such as electric utility boilers. The emissions of SO3 from such a boiler depend on coal S content, combustion conditions, flue gas characteristics, and air pollution devices being used. It is well known that the catalyst used in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for nitrogen oxides control oxidizes a small fraction of sulfur dioxide in the flue gas to SO3. The extent of this oxidation depends on the catalyst formulation and SCR operating conditions. Gas-phase SO3 and sulfuric acid, on being quenched in plant equipment (e.g., air preheater and wet scrubber), result in fine acidic mist, which can cause increased plume opacity and undesirable emissions. Recently, such effects have been observed at plants firing high-S coal and equipped with SCR systems and wet scrubbers. This paper investigates the factors that affect acidic mist production in coal-fired electric utility boilers and discusses approaches for mitigating emission of this mist.

  2. Draft Genome Sequence of Cellulosilyticum sp. I15G10I2, a Novel Bacterium Isolated from a Coal Seam Gas Water Treatment Pond

    PubMed Central

    Adelskov, Joseph

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cellulosilyticum sp. strain I15G10I2 was isolated from a coal seam gas water treatment pond at the Spring Gully water treatment facility, Roma, Queensland, Australia. Analysis of the genome of 4,489,861 bp and G+C content of 35.23% revealed that strain I15G10I2 shared limited similarity to members of the genus Cellulosilyticum, family Lachnospiraceae. PMID:28209824

  3. The Coal-Seq III Consortium. Advancing the Science of CO2 Sequestration in Coal Seam and Gas Shale Reservoirs

    SciTech Connect

    Koperna, George

    2014-03-14

    The Coal-Seq consortium is a government-industry collaborative that was initially launched in 2000 as a U.S. Department of Energy sponsored investigation into CO2 sequestration in deep, unmineable coal seams. The consortium’s objective aimed to advancing industry’s understanding of complex coalbed methane and gas shale reservoir behavior in the presence of multi-component gases via laboratory experiments, theoretical model development and field validation studies. Research from this collaborative effort was utilized to produce modules to enhance reservoir simulation and modeling capabilities to assess the technical and economic potential for CO2 storage and enhanced coalbed methane recovery in coal basins. Coal-Seq Phase 3 expands upon the learnings garnered from Phase 1 & 2, which has led to further investigation into refined model development related to multicomponent equations-of-state, sorption and diffusion behavior, geomechanical and permeability studies, technical and economic feasibility studies for major international coal basins the extension of the work to gas shale reservoirs, and continued global technology exchange. The first research objective assesses changes in coal and shale properties with exposure to CO2 under field replicated conditions. Results indicate that no significant weakening occurs when coal and shale were exposed to CO2, therefore, there was no need to account for mechanical weakening of coal due to the injection of CO2 for modeling. The second major research objective evaluates cleat, Cp, and matrix, Cm, swelling/shrinkage compressibility under field replicated conditions. The experimental studies found that both Cp and Cm vary due to changes in reservoir pressure during injection and depletion under field replicated conditions. Using laboratory data from this study, a compressibility model was developed to predict the pore-volume compressibility, Cp, and the matrix compressibility, Cm, of coal and shale, which was applied to

  4. The coal-fired gas turbine locomotive - A new look

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Purohit, G. P.

    1983-01-01

    Advances in turbomachine technology and novel methods of coal combustion may have made possible the development of a competitive coal fired gas turbine locomotive engine. Of the combustor, thermodynamic cycle, and turbine combinations presently assessed, an external combustion closed cycle regenerative gas turbine with a fluidized bed coal combustor is judged to be the best suited for locomotive requirements. Some merit is also discerned in external combustion open cycle regenerative systems and internal combustion open cycle regenerative gas turbine systems employing a coal gasifier. The choice of an open or closed cycle depends on the selection of a working fluid and the relative advantages of loop pressurization, with air being the most attractive closed cycle working fluid on the basis of cost.

  5. Fires in abandoned coal mines and waste banks. Information circular/1993

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, A.G.; Chaiken, R.F.

    1993-01-01

    Fires that occur in abandoned coal mines, waste banks and in coal outcrops constitute a serious health, safety and environmental hazard. Toxic fumes, the deterioration of air quality, and subsidence constitute the greatest hazards from these fires. Although fires on abandoned mined land (AML) occur in every coal producing state, the severity of the problem varies. Methods to extinguish or control AML fires, including excavation, fire barriers and sealing, are generally expensive and have a relatively low probability of success. The report includes information from a variety of sources. Factors affecting the occurrence, propagation and extinguishment of AML fires are discussed. Conventional fire control methods are described, and their probable effectiveness is evaluated.

  6. Direct firing of coal for power production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Papay, L. T.

    1978-01-01

    The use of new technology and advanced emission control hardware to reduce emissions from the direct combustion of coal to produce electricity in California is considered. The technical feasibilty of a demonstration project on an existing 81-MW boiler is demonstrated.

  7. Enrichment of Radon and Carbon Dioxide in the Open Atmosphere of an Australian Coal Seam Gas Field

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric radon (222Rn) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were used to gain insight into fugitive emissions in an Australian coal seam gas (CSG) field (Surat Basin, Tara region, Queensland). 222Rn and CO2 concentrations were observed for 24 h within and outside the gas field. Both 222Rn and CO2 concentrations followed a diurnal cycle with night time concentrations higher than day time concentrations. Average CO2 concentrations over the 24-h period ranged from ∼390 ppm at the control site to ∼467 ppm near the center of the gas field. A ∼3 fold increase in maximum 222Rn concentration was observed inside the gas field compared to outside of it. There was a significant relationship between maximum and average 222Rn concentrations and the number of gas wells within a 3 km radius of the sampling sites (n = 5 stations; p < 0.05). A positive trend was observed between CO2 concentrations and the number of CSG wells, but the relationship was not statistically significant. We hypothesize that the radon relationship was a response to enhanced emissions within the gas field related to both point (well heads, pipelines, etc.) and diffuse soil sources. Radon may be useful in monitoring enhanced soil gas fluxes to the atmosphere due to changes in the geological structure associated with wells and hydraulic fracturing in CSG fields. PMID:23444905

  8. Enrichment of radon and carbon dioxide in the open atmosphere of an Australian coal seam gas field.

    PubMed

    Tait, Douglas R; Santos, Isaac R; Maher, Damien T; Cyronak, Tyler J; Davis, Rachael J

    2013-04-02

    Atmospheric radon ((222)Rn) and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations were used to gain insight into fugitive emissions in an Australian coal seam gas (CSG) field (Surat Basin, Tara region, Queensland). (222)Rn and CO2 concentrations were observed for 24 h within and outside the gas field. Both (222)Rn and CO2 concentrations followed a diurnal cycle with night time concentrations higher than day time concentrations. Average CO2 concentrations over the 24-h period ranged from ~390 ppm at the control site to ~467 ppm near the center of the gas field. A ~3 fold increase in maximum (222)Rn concentration was observed inside the gas field compared to outside of it. There was a significant relationship between maximum and average (222)Rn concentrations and the number of gas wells within a 3 km radius of the sampling sites (n = 5 stations; p < 0.05). A positive trend was observed between CO2 concentrations and the number of CSG wells, but the relationship was not statistically significant. We hypothesize that the radon relationship was a response to enhanced emissions within the gas field related to both point (well heads, pipelines, etc.) and diffuse soil sources. Radon may be useful in monitoring enhanced soil gas fluxes to the atmosphere due to changes in the geological structure associated with wells and hydraulic fracturing in CSG fields.

  9. Direct estimation of diffuse gaseous emissions from coal fires: current methods and future directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engle, Mark A.; Olea, Ricardo A.; O'Keefe, Jennifer M. K.; Hower, James C.; Geboy, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Coal fires occur in nature spontaneously, contribute to increases in greenhouse gases, and emit atmospheric toxicants. Increasing interest in quantifying coal fire emissions has resulted in the adaptation and development of specialized approaches and adoption of numerical modeling techniques. Overview of these methods for direct estimation of diffuse gas emissions from coal fires is presented in this paper. Here we take advantage of stochastic Gaussian simulation to interpolate CO2 fluxes measured using a dynamic closed chamber at the Ruth Mullins coal fire in Perry County, Kentucky. This approach allows for preparing a map of diffuse gas emissions, one of the two primary ways that gases emanate from coal fires, and establishing the reliability of the study both locally and for the entire fire. Future research directions include continuous and automated sampling to improve quantification of gaseous coal fire emissions.

  10. Economic aspects of advanced coal-fired gas turbine locomotives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Houser, B. C.

    1983-01-01

    Increases in the price of such conventional fuels as Diesel No. 2, as well as advancements in turbine technology, have prompted the present economic assessment of coal-fired gas turbine locomotive engines. A regenerative open cycle internal combustion gas turbine engine may be used, given the development of ceramic hot section components. Otherwise, an external combustion gas turbine engine appears attractive, since although its thermal efficiency is lower than that of a Diesel engine, its fuel is far less expensive. Attention is given to such a powerplant which will use a fluidized bed coal combustor. A life cycle cost analysis yields figures that are approximately half those typical of present locomotive engines.

  11. The high moisture western coal processing system at the UTSI-DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, M.E.

    1996-02-01

    The original eastern coal processing system at the Department of Energy`s Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), located at the University of Tennessee Space Institute in Tullahoma, Tennessee, was modified to pulverize and dry Montana Rosebud, a western coal. Significant modifications to the CFFF coal processing system were required and the equipment selection criteria are reviewed. Coal processing system performance parameters are discussed. A summary of tests conducted and significant events are included.

  12. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G.

    1995-11-01

    Under US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) support, the development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 at the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment.

  13. Mutagenicity in emissions from coal- and oil-fired boilers.

    PubMed

    Alfheim, I; Bergström, J G; Jenssen, D; Møller, M

    1983-01-01

    The mutagenicity of emission samples from three oil-fired and four coal-fired boilers have been compared by using the Salmonella/microsome assay. Very little or no mutagenic activity was observed in samples from five of these boilers. The sample from one oil-fired boiler showed mutagenic activity of about 500 revertants/MJ, and the sample from a coal-fired fluidized bed combustor had an activity of 58,000 revertants/MJ measured with strain TA 98 in the absence of metabolic activation. All samples contained substances that were cytotoxic to the test bacteria, thus making it difficult to obtain linear dose-response curves. Mutagenic activity at low levels may remain undetected due to this toxicity of the samples. Samples with mutagenic activity below the detection limit in the Salmonella test have also been tested for forward mutations at the HGPRT locus in V79 hamster cells. Weak mutagenic effects were detected in two of the samples, whereas the sample from one oil-fired boiler remained negative. In this test, as well as in the Salmonella test, a strong cytotoxic effect could be observed with all samples.

  14. Stochastic reservoir simulation for the modeling of uncertainty in coal seam degasification

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Karacan, C. Özgen; Olea, Ricardo A.

    2015-01-01

    The study helped to determine the realization bundle that consisted of the spatial maps of coal properties, which resulted in minimum error. In addition, it was shown that both E-type and the average of realizations that gave the best match for invidual approximated the same properties resonably. Moreover, the determined realization bundle showed that the study field initially had 151.5 million m3 (cubic meter) of gas and 1.04 million m3 water in the coal, corresponding to Q90 of the entire range of probability for gas and close to Q75 for water. In 2013, in-place fluid amounts decreased to 138.9 million m3 and 0.997 million m3 for gas and water, respectively.

  15. Ways to Improve Russian Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tumanovskii, A. G. Olkhovsky, G. G.

    2015-07-15

    Coal is an important fuel for the electric power industry of Russia, especially in Ural and the eastern part of the country. It is fired in boilers of large (200 – 800 MW) condensing power units and in many cogeneration power plants with units rated at 50 – 180 MW. Many coal-fired power plants have been operated for more than 40 – 50 years. Though serviceable, their equipment is obsolete and does not comply with the current efficiency, environmental, staffing, and availability standards. It is urgent to retrofit and upgrade such power plants using advanced equipment, engineering and business ideas. Russian power-plant engineering companies have designed such advanced power units and their equipment such as boilers, turbines, auxiliaries, process and environmental control systems similar to those produced by the world’s leading manufacturers. Their performance and ways of implementation are discussed.

  16. An approach of surface coal fire detection from ASTER and Landsat-8 thermal data: Jharia coal field, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Priyom; Guha, Arindam; Kumar, K. Vinod

    2015-07-01

    Radiant temperature images from thermal remote sensing sensors are used to delineate surface coal fires, by deriving a cut-off temperature to separate coal-fire from non-fire pixels. Temperature contrast of coal fire and background elements (rocks and vegetation etc.) controls this cut-off temperature. This contrast varies across the coal field, as it is influenced by variability of associated rock types, proportion of vegetation cover and intensity of coal fires etc. We have delineated coal fires from background, based on separation in data clusters in maximum v/s mean radiant temperature (13th band of ASTER and 10th band of Landsat-8) scatter-plot, derived using randomly distributed homogeneous pixel-blocks (9 × 9 pixels for ASTER and 27 × 27 pixels for Landsat-8), covering the entire coal bearing geological formation. It is seen that, for both the datasets, overall temperature variability of background and fires can be addressed using this regional cut-off. However, the summer time ASTER data could not delineate fire pixels for one specific mine (Bhulanbararee) as opposed to the winter time Landsat-8 data. The contrast of radiant temperature of fire and background terrain elements, specific to this mine, is different from the regional contrast of fire and background, during summer. This is due to the higher solar heating of background rocky outcrops, thus, reducing their temperature contrast with fire. The specific cut-off temperature determined for this mine, to extract this fire, differs from the regional cut-off. This is derived by reducing the pixel-block size of the temperature data. It is seen that, summer-time ASTER image is useful for fire detection but required additional processing to determine a local threshold, along with the regional threshold to capture all the fires. However, the winter Landsat-8 data was better for fire detection with a regional threshold.

  17. A Field Study on Simulation of CO 2 Injection and ECBM Production and Prediction of CO 2 Storage Capacity in Unmineable Coal Seam

    DOE PAGES

    He, Qin; Mohaghegh, Shahab D.; Gholami, Vida

    2013-01-01

    CO 2 sequestration into a coal seam project was studied and a numerical model was developed in this paper to simulate the primary and secondary coal bed methane production (CBM/ECBM) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) injection. The key geological and reservoir parameters, which are germane to driving enhanced coal bed methane (ECBM) and CO 2 sequestration processes, including cleat permeability, cleat porosity, CH 4 adsorption time, CO 2 adsorption time, CH 4 Langmuir isotherm, CO 2 Langmuir isotherm, and Palmer and Mansoori parameters, have been analyzed within a reasonable range. The model simulation results showed good matches formore » both CBM/ECBM production and CO 2 injection compared with the field data. The history-matched model was used to estimate the total CO 2 sequestration capacity in the field. The model forecast showed that the total CO 2 injection capacity in the coal seam could be 22,817 tons, which is in agreement with the initial estimations based on the Langmuir isotherm experiment. Total CO 2 injected in the first three years was 2,600 tons, which according to the model has increased methane recovery (due to ECBM) by 6,700 scf/d.« less

  18. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-31

    As a result of the investigations carried out during Phase 1 of the Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Generation Systems (Combustion 2000), the UTRC-led Combustion 2000 Team is recommending the development of an advanced high performance power generation system (HIPPS) whose high efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions will enable the US to use its abundant coal resources to satisfy current and future demand for electric power. The high efficiency of the power plant, which is the key to minimizing the environmental impact of coal, can only be achieved using a modern gas turbine system. Minimization of emissions can be achieved by combustor design, and advanced air pollution control devices. The commercial plant design described herein is a combined cycle using either a frame-type gas turbine or an intercooled aeroderivative with clean air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a coal-fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The best performance from the cycle is achieved by using a modern aeroderivative gas turbine, such as the intercooled FT4000. A simplified schematic is shown. In the UTRC HIPPS, the conversion efficiency for the heavy frame gas turbine version will be 47.4% (HHV) compared to the approximately 35% that is achieved in conventional coal-fired plants. This cycle is based on a gas turbine operating at turbine inlet temperatures approaching 2,500 F. Using an aeroderivative type gas turbine, efficiencies of over 49% could be realized in advanced cycle configuration (Humid Air Turbine, or HAT). Performance of these power plants is given in a table.

  19. The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI summarizes the results of a multi-task research and development project directed toward the development of the technology for the commercialization of the steam bottoming plant for the MHD steam combined cycle power plant. The report covers the final test in a 2000-hour proof-of-concept (POC) test series on eastern coal, the plans and progress for the facility modifications and the conduct of the POC tests to be conducted with western coal. Results summarized in the report include chloride emissions from the particle removal (ESP/BH) processes, nitrogen and sulfur oxide emissions for various tests conditions, measurements of particulate control efficiency and management of the facility holding ponds during testing. Activities relating to corrosion and deposition probe measurements during testing and the fouling of heat transfer tubes and interaction with sootblowing cycles are summarized. The performance of both UTSI and Mississippi State University (MSU) advanced diagnostic systems is reported. Significant administrative and contractual actions are included. 2 refs., 28 figs., 7 tabs.

  20. Modeling and interpretation of two-phase flow and tracer studies from a subbituminous coal seam in the San Juan basin of New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Nuttall, H.E.; Travis, B.J.

    1980-01-01

    Field and modeling studies were performed to characterize two-phase flow within the natural cleat structure of an upper Cretaceous subbituminous coal seam. A two borehole pattern with open completion was used in a study of dewatering and tracer residence time distribution. Air was pumped into a five meter thick seam located about 170 meters below the surface. Krypton 85 was used as the airborne tracer. Air inflow and air and water production rates and tracer arrival times were monitored. The field tests were simulated with a two-phase, three component, porous flow code. Results showed that the air inflow and air and water outflow rates and breakthrough times could not be modeled assuming a uniform darcy-type permeability. The use of a pressure dependent permeability did provide, however, a much better match with the field data.

  1. Assessment of Self-Heating Susceptibility of Indian Coal Seams - A Neural Network Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panigrahi, D. C.; Ray, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    The paper addresses an electro-chemical method called wet oxidation potential technique for determining the susceptibility of coal to spontaneous combustion. Altogether 78 coal samples collected from thirteen different mining companies spreading over most of the Indian Coalfields have been used for this experimental investigation and 936 experiments have been carried out by varying different experimental conditions to standardize this method for wider application. Thus for a particular sample 12 experiments of wet oxidation potential method were carried out. The results of wet oxidation potential (WOP) method have been correlated with the intrinsic properties of coal by carrying out proximate, ultimate and petrographic analyses of the coal samples. Correlation studies have been carried out with Design Expert 7.0.0 software. Further, artificial neural network (ANN) analysis was performed to ensure best combination of experimental conditions to be used for obtaining optimum results in this method. All the above mentioned analysis clearly spelt out that the experimental conditions should be 0.2 N KMnO4 solution with 1 N KOH at 45°C to achieve optimum results for finding out the susceptibility of coal to spontaneous combustion. The results have been validated with Crossing Point Temperature (CPT) data which is widely used in Indian mining scenario. W pracy omówiono możliwości wykorzystania metody elektro-chemicznej zwanej metodą określania potencjału utleniającego w procesie mokrym do określania skłonności węgla do samozapłonu. Dla potrzeb eksperymentu zebrano 78 próbek węgla z trzynastu kopalni w obrębie Indyjskiego Zagłębia Węglowego. Przeprowadzono 936 eksperymentów, w różnych warunkach prowadzenia procesu aby zapewnić standaryzację metody w celu jej szerszego zastosowania. Dla każdej próbki przeprowadzono 12 eksperymentów metodą badania potencjału utleniającego w procesie mokrym. Wyniki skorelowano z własnościami danego węgla przez

  2. An evaluation of physical coal cleaning plus FGD for coal fired utility applications

    SciTech Connect

    Newman, J.; Kantesaria, P.; Huettenhain, H.

    1994-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990 (CAAA) requires utilities to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions from coal-fired power plants in two phases. Phase I takes effect January 1, 1995, requiring utilities to reduce SO{sub 2} emissions to 2.5 lb SO{sub 2}/MMBtu. Phase II becomes effective on January 1, 2000, requiring all plants above 25 MWe in capacity not to exceed SO{sub 2} emissions above 1.2 lb SO{sub 2}/MMBtu. Electric utilities who burn moderately high ash and sulfur bituminous coal and must develop a strategy to comply with the CAAA can choose from numerous options besides simple fuel switching or complete flue gas scrubbing. Below 2% Run of Mine (ROM) coal sulfur Strategy 2, conventional cleaning, provides the lowest cost. Below 4% sulfur in the ROM coal conventional cleaning plus confined zone dispersion (CZD), Strategy 7, is the best choice. The higher cost of advanced coal cleaning, promising an additional 12% SO{sub 2} reduction over the approximately 45% reduction by conventional cleaning, can only be justified for coals between 4 and 6% sulfur in the ROM coal. Strategy 8, advanced cleaning plus CZD has the lowest cost for this sulfur range. Higher sulfur coals require full scrubbing combined with conventional coal cleaning to achieve the lowest compliance cost for Phase I. For Phase II compliance advanced coal cleaning has no advantage over conventional cleaning. Full scrubbing will be required for ROM coals with more than 2% sulfur. Full scrubbing combined with conventional cleaning can achieve the lowest compliance cost compared to the other strategies.

  3. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings

    2001-01-31

    This is the second Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The focus of our efforts during the last three months have been on: (1) Completion of a long term field test for Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) at the Conectiv BL England Station Unit No.1, a 130 MW Cyclone fired boiler; (2) Extending our Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based NOx model to accommodate the chemistry for RRI in PC fired boilers; (3) Design improvements and calibration tests of the corrosion probe; and (4) Investigations on ammonia adsorption mechanisms and removal processes for Fly Ash.

  4. Overview of the influence of syn-sedimentary tectonics and palaeo-fluvial systems on coal seam and sand body characteristics in the Westphalian C strata, Campine Basin, Belgium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dreesen, Roland; Bossiroy, Dominique; Dusar, Michiel; Flores, R.M.; Verkaeren, Paul; Whateley, M. K. G.; Spears, D.A.

    1995-01-01

    The Westphalian C strata found in the northeastern part of the former Belgian coal district (Campine Basin), which is part of an extensive northwest European paralic coal basin, are considered. The thickness and lateral continuity of the Westphalian C coal seams vary considerably stratigraphically and areally. Sedimentological facies analysis of borehole cores indicates that the deposition of Westphalian C coal-bearing strata was controlled by fluvial depositional systems whose architectures were ruled by local subsidence rates. The local subsidence rates may be related to major faults, which were intermittently reactivated during deposition. Lateral changes in coal seam groups are also reflected by marked variations of their seismic signatures. Westphalian C fluvial depositional systems include moderate to low sinuosity braided and anastomosed river systems. Stable tectonic conditions on upthrown, fault-bounded platforms favoured deposition by braided rivers and the associated development of relatively thick, laterally continuous coal seams in raised mires. In contrast, rapidly subsiding downthrown fault blocks favoured aggradation, probably by anastomosed rivers and the development of relatively thin, highly discontinuous coal seams in topogenous mires.

  5. AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    During the previous report period, shredder system verification and testing was initiated at DONLEE's pilot facility located in York, Pennsylvania. General waste from the Lebanon VA Medical Center was transported to the pilot facility in York. The waste was fed into the unit starting December 18, 1991. The waste feed rate was adjusted to approximately 150 lb./hr. The stack monitoring portion of the shredder testing was conducted on January 28 and 29. The heat input was approximately 6 [times] l0[sup 6] BTU/hr. both days. On the first day, only coal and limestone were fed into the unit. On the second day, hospital waste, coal, and limestone were fed into the unit. On both days of testing, data included: coal, limestone, and ash samples and flow rates; all air flows; stack flue gas flow; combustor, cyclone, boiler, and baghouse; temperatures and pressures; stack concentration of dioxins and furans; stack concentration of heavy metals; stack concentration of HCI; stack concentration of PAH. The hospital waste feed during the second test was approximately 150 lb./hr. The PA DER requested that the final design of the Lebanon facility fire anthracite coal only. On February 4, the unit was lit off on anthracite coal. Operation on anthracite stabilized at a 1650 degree F combustor temperature. Hospital waste was fed into the unit while on anthracite without incident.

  6. Dissolved radon and uranium in groundwater in a potential coal seam gas development region (Richmond River Catchment, Australia).

    PubMed

    Atkins, Marnie L; Santos, Isaac R; Perkins, Anita; Maher, Damien T

    2016-04-01

    The extraction of unconventional gas resources such as shale and coal seam gas (CSG) is rapidly expanding globally and often prevents the opportunity for comprehensive baseline groundwater investigations prior to drilling. Unconventional gas extraction often targets geological layers with high naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) and extraction practices may possibly mobilise radionuclides into regional and local drinking water resources. Here, we establish baseline groundwater radon and uranium levels in shallow aquifers overlying a potential CSG target formation in the Richmond River Catchment, Australia. A total of 91 groundwater samples from six different geological units showed highly variable radon activities (0.14-20.33 Bq/L) and uranium levels (0.001-2.77 μg/L) which were well below the Australian Drinking Water Guideline values (radon; 100 Bq/L and uranium; 17 μg/L). Therefore, from a radon and uranium perspective, the regional groundwater does not pose health risks to consumers. Uranium could not explain the distribution of radon in groundwater. Relatively high radon activities (7.88 ± 0.83 Bq/L) in the fractured Lismore Basalt aquifer coincided with very low uranium concentrations (0.04 ± 0.02 μg/L). In the Quaternary Sediments aquifers, a positive correlation between U and HCO3(-) (r(2) = 0.49, p < 0.01) implied the uranium was present as uranyl-carbonate complexes. Since NORM are often enriched in target geological formations containing unconventional gas, establishing radon and uranium concentrations in overlying aquifers comprises an important component of baseline groundwater investigations.

  7. Algal growth and community structure in a mixed-culture system using coal seam gas water as the water source.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Jessica J; Slater, Frances R; Bai, Xue; Pratt, Steven

    2013-01-01

    Coal seam gas (CSG) is being touted as a transition fuel as the world moves towards low-carbon economies. However, the development of CSG reserves will generate enormous volumes of saline water. In this work, we investigate the potential of using this saline water to support mass algae production. Water and brine from a CSG water treatment facility (1.6 and 11.6 g total dissolved solids per litre (TDS L(-1)) respectively) were inoculated with algal biomass from freshwater and seawater environments and supplemented with nutrients in open, fed-batch reactors. Significant algal growth was recorded, with maximum specific growth rates in CSG water and CSG brine of 0.20 +/- 0.05 d(-1) and 0.26 +/- 0.04 d(-1) respectively. These maximum specific growth rates were equal to or greater than specific growth rates in deionized water and seawater diluted to the same salinity. However, algal growth lag time in CSG brine was between 7 and 9 times longer than in other waters. Microscopy and terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) were used to monitor community structure in the reactors. The same few algal species dominated all of the reactors, except for the CSG brine reactor at day 15. This result indicates that conditions in CSG brine select for different species of algae compared to seawater of the same salinity and other waters tested. The findings suggest that mass algae production in CSG water is feasible but algae community composition may be a function of CSG water chemistry. This has implications for the downstream use of algae.

  8. Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

    1991-08-01

    A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW`s Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

  9. Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

    1991-08-01

    A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW's Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

  10. Paleoecology of the Fire Clay coal bed in a portion of the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eble, C.F.; Hower, J.C.; Andrews, W.M.

    1994-01-01

    Vertically continuous increment samples of the Fire Clay coal bed (mid-Middle Pennsylvanian, late Westphalian B), collected from a portion of the Central Appalachian Basin, were studied palynologically, petrographically and geochemically in order to partially reconstruct the paleoecology and processes associated with peat formation in the ancient Fire Clay paleomire. Results indicate that four compositional groups can be identified. They are: (1) a Lycospora-vitrinite dominant group, characterized by high percentages of Lycospora and vitrinite macerals and generally low, but variable ash yields and sulfur contents; (2) a mixed palynoflora-high vitrinite group that petrographically is similar to group 1 except that it contains a more diverse palynoflora; (3) a mixed palynoflora-moderate/low vitrinite group characterized by various admixtures of lycopsid, fern and calamite miospores, increased percentages of liptinite and inertinite macerals, and low ash yields and sulfur contents; and (4) a mixed palynoflora-high ash yield group characterized by high percentages of small lycopsid, fern, and occasionally calamite and cordaite miospores, high liptinite and inertinite contents, high ash yields, and moderate to high sulfur contents. The Fire Clay coal bed contains a distinctive flint clay parting of probable volcanic origin that naturally divides the bed into two benches. These two benches, (upper and lower), are highly disparte in occurrence, appearance and composition. In the study area the lower bench generally is thin ( 0.75 m), laterally continous and mainly comprised of bright (mainly clarain) coal lithotypes. Overall ash yields and sulfur contents for this bench are generally low, although vertical variation is apparent. All of the compositional groups occur in the upper bench; in some columns, notably those that are thick and uninterrupted by clastic partings, groups 1 and 4 often occupy basal coal layers and groups 2 and 3 occur in higher layers. Other columns

  11. Forecasting long-term gas production of dewatered coal seams and fractured gas shales

    SciTech Connect

    Spivey, J.P.; Semmelbeck, M.E.

    1995-12-31

    Production decline curves are routinely used by engineers to predict the future performance of oil and gas wells. Because the results of decline curve predictions are used for calculating asset value and estimating future revenue, they are one of the most important tools reservoir engineers use. There are numerous variations on the basic exponential or hyperbolic decline analysis method. Fetkovitch and other have extended the decline curve analysis method to handle gas wells properly and to be able to estimate reservoir properties from the analysis of these data. However, there has been considerable drilling activity in the last 10 years into unconventional reservoirs whose wells do not follow the traditional production decline characteristic shapes. Among these problem reservoirs are coalbed methane and fractured shale reservoirs. A procedure is presented which allows forecasting long range performance of dewatered coal and fractured gas shale reservoirs having nonlinear adsorption isotherms, using constant pressure solutions to the flow equation for slightly compressible liquids. A correlation is presented to show the range of applicability of this procedure.

  12. Co-firing coal and municipal solid waste

    SciTech Connect

    Demirbas, A.

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this study was to experimentally investigate how different the organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) or municipal solid waste (MSW) utilizing strategies affects the gas emission in simple fluidized bed combustion (FBC) of biomass. In this study, ground OFMSW and pulverized coal (PC) were used for co-firing tests. The tests were carried out in a bench-scale bubbling FBC. Coal and bio-waste fuels are quite different in composition. Ash composition of the bio-waste fuels is fundamentally different from ash composition of the coal. Chlorine (Cl) in the MSW may affect operation by corrosion. Ash deposits reduce heat transfer and also may result in severe corrosion at high temperatures. Nitrogen (N) and carbon ) assessments can play an important role in a strategy to control carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions while raising revenue. Regulations such as subsidies for oil, liquid petroleum gas (LPG) for natural gas powered vehicles, and renewables, especially biomass lines, to reduce emissions may be more cost-effective than assessments. Research and development (RD) resources are driven by energy policy goals and can change the competitiveness of renewables, especially solid waste. The future supply of co-firing depends on energy prices and technical progress, both of which are driven by energy policy priorities.

  13. Quantifying greenhouse gas emissions from coal fires using airborne and ground-based methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engle, M.A.; Radke, L.F.; Heffern, E.L.; O'Keefe, J. M. K.; Smeltzer, C.D.; Hower, J.C.; Hower, J.M.; Prakash, A.; Kolker, A.; Eatwell, R.J.; ter, Schure A.; Queen, G.; Aggen, K.L.; Stracher, G.B.; Henke, K.R.; Olea, R.A.; Roman-Colon, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Coal fires occur in all coal-bearing regions of the world and number, conservatively, in the thousands. These fires emit a variety of compounds including greenhouse gases. However, the magnitude of the contribution of combustion gases from coal fires to the environment is highly uncertain, because adequate data and methods for assessing emissions are lacking. This study demonstrates the ability to estimate CO2 and CH4 emissions for the Welch Ranch coal fire, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA, using two independent methods: (a) heat flux calculated from aerial thermal infrared imaging (3.7-4.4td-1 of CO2 equivalent emissions) and (b) direct, ground-based measurements (7.3-9.5td-1 of CO2 equivalent emissions). Both approaches offer the potential for conducting inventories of coal fires to assess their gas emissions and to evaluate and prioritize fires for mitigation. ?? 2011.

  14. Compositional characteristics of the Fire Clay coal bed in a portion of eastern Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Hower, J.C.; Andrews, W.M. Jr.; Rimmer, S.M. ); Eble, C.F. )

    1991-08-01

    The Fire Clay (Hazard No. 4) coal bed (Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation) is one of the most extensively mined coal in eastern Kentucky. The coal is used for metallurgical and steam end uses and, with its low sulfur content, should continue to be a prime steam coal. This study focuses on the petrology, mineralogy, ash geochemistry, and palynology of the coal in an eight 7.5-min quadrangle area of Leslie, Perry, Knott, and Letcher counties.

  15. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    DOEpatents

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The gas turbine system includes a primary zone for burning coal in the presence of compressed air to produce hot combustion gases and debris, such as molten slag. The turbine system further includes a secondary combustion zone for the lean combustion of the hot combustion gases. The operation of the system is improved by the addition of a cyclone separator for removing debris from the hot combustion gases. The cyclone separator is disposed between the primary and secondary combustion zones and is in pressurized communication with these zones. In a novel aspect of the invention, the cyclone separator includes an integrally disposed impact separator for at least separating a portion of the molten slag from the hot combustion gases.

  16. Coal-fired boilers and reduction of NO sub x

    SciTech Connect

    Schoop, U. ); Frohlich, G., Harris, C.L. )

    1988-01-01

    The advantages of slag-tap furnaces are their high efficiency, employment of low-grade coal, limited pulverization work (in comparison with dry-bottom furnaces), and production of an ecologically safe and depositable product from the coal ash (granulated material). However, with the introducton of primary Denox measures problems could arise with firing control and flame stability in slag-tap furnaces. The availability of slag-tap boilers is primarily dependent on its refractory lining. The authors present an investigation to see if the introduction of primary NO{sub x} reduction measures causes problems for refractories. The tests were carried out on a natural circulation boiler in a West German power station.

  17. Improved low NOx firing systems for pulverized coal combustion

    SciTech Connect

    McCarthy, K.; Laux, S.; Grusha, J.; Rosin, T.; Hausman, G.L.

    1999-07-01

    More stringent emission limits or the addition of post combustion NOx control create the need for improvements of NOx emissions from pulverized coal boilers. Many boilers retrofitted with Low NOx technology during Phase 1 and Phase 2 of the CAAA fail or marginally meet their requirements. Technical solutions range from addition of overfire air and state-of-the-art low NOx burners to low cost additions of combustion enhancements. Regardless of the combustion NOx control method used, stoichiometries local to the burners must be maintained at the designed values at all times to provide high NOx performance at low efficiency loss due to unburned fuel. This paper describes Foster Wheeler's approach to NOx emission improvements for existing low NOx firing systems. The technology to measure air and coal flow individually for each burner and to control the parameters for optimum combustion are presented and discussed. Field experience shows the installation and advantages of the technology.

  18. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Martin Denison; Adel Sarofim; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Dave Swenson; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker

    2006-06-30

    This is the Final Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project was to develop cost-effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low-NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) provided co-funding for this program. This project included research on: (1) In furnace NOx control; (2) Impacts of combustion modifications on boiler operation; (3) Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalyst testing and (4) Ammonia adsorption/removal on fly ash. Important accomplishments were achieved in all aspects of the project. Rich Reagent Injection (RRI), an in-furnace NOx reduction strategy based on injecting urea or anhydrous ammonia into fuel rich regions in the lower furnace, was evaluated for cyclone-barrel and PC fired utility boilers. Field tests successfully demonstrated the ability of the RRI process to significantly reduce NOx emissions from a staged cyclone-fired furnace operating with overfire air. The field tests also verified the accuracy of the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) modeling used to develop the RRI design and highlighted the importance of using CFD modeling to properly locate and configure the reagent injectors within the furnace. Low NOx firing conditions can adversely impact boiler operation due to increased waterwall wastage (corrosion) and increased soot production. A corrosion monitoring system that uses electrochemical noise (ECN) corrosion probes to monitor, on a real-time basis, high temperature corrosion events within the boiler was evaluated. Field tests were successfully conducted at two plants. The Ohio Coal Development Office provided financial assistance to perform the field tests. To investigate soot behavior, an advanced model to predict soot production and destruction was implemented into an existing reacting CFD modeling tool. Comparisons between experimental data collected

  19. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; LIPFERT, F.; SUBRAMANIAM, S.; BLAKE, R.

    2005-09-21

    Mercury is a neurotoxin that accumulates in the food chain and is therefore a health concern. The primary human exposure pathway is through fish consumption. Coal-fired power plants emit mercury and there is uncertainty over whether this creates localized hot spots of mercury leading to substantially higher levels of mercury in water bodies and therefore higher exposure. To obtain direct evidence of local deposition patterns, soil and vegetations samples from around three U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of hot spots and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. At all three sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. It was estimated that less than 2% of the total mercury emissions from these plants deposited within 15 km of these plants. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the literature review findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to hot spots, near the plants. The major objective of the sampling studies was to determine if there was evidence for hot spots of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. From a public health perspective, such a hot spot must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must increase mercury concentrations to a level in which health effects are a concern in a water body large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study suggest that neither of these conditions has been met.

  20. COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Steven A. Benson; Jay R. Gunderson

    2001-04-01

    The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled for solving ash deposition as related to coal-fired utility boilers. While this report accurately captures the current state of knowledge in ash deposition, note that substantial research and development is under way to more completely understand and mitigate slagging and fouling. Thus, while comprehensive, this document carries the title ''interim,'' with the idea that future work will provide additional insight. Primary target audiences include utility operators and engineers who face plant inefficiencies and significant operational and maintenance costs that are associated with ash deposition problems. Pulverized and cyclone-fired coal boilers are addressed specifically, although many of the diagnostics and solutions apply to other boiler types. Logic diagrams, ash deposit types, and boiler symptoms of ash deposition are used to aid the user in identifying an ash deposition problem, diagnosing and verifying root causes, determining remedial measures to alleviate or eliminate the problem, and then monitoring the situation to verify that the problem has been solved. In addition to a step-by-step method for identifying and remediating ash deposition problems, this guideline document (Appendix A) provides descriptions of analytical techniques for diagnostic testing and gives extensive fundamental and practical literature references and addresses of organizations that can provide help in alleviating ash deposition problems.

  1. The safety and economics of high ash anthracite fired mixing with petroleum-coke in pulverized coal-fired furnace

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Z.; Sun, X.; Li, F.

    1996-12-31

    Petroleum-coke was fired only in CFB because of its content of high S and low volatile matter. It will bring environmental and flame stability problems if petroleum-coke is fired in a pulverized coal-fired furnace. Low rank anthracite is fired in many pulverized coal-fired furnaces without flame stability problems. Here the authors blend high ash anthracite with petroleum-coke as the fuel for a pulverized coal-fired furnace to decrease the ash content in the fuel. Experimental results had shown that in mixing with petroleum-coke, the combustion behavior of the blended fuel was improved and ash deposition characteristic would not change compared with high ash anthracite. Using coal/petroleum-coke as the fuel for furnace can bring great benefits for the environment and furnace. But S content in blended fuel must be controlled under the regulation of S content in coal and the volatile content should not decrease too low for the coal-fired furnace design to avoid the environmental and flame stability problems.

  2. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    DOEpatents

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The systems include a primary combustion compartment coupled to an impact separator for removing molten slag from hot combustion gases. Quenching means are provided for solidifying the molten slag removed by the impact separator, and processing means are provided forming a slurry from the solidified slag for facilitating removal of the solidified slag from the system. The released hot combustion gases, substantially free of molten slag, are then ducted to a lean combustion compartment and then to an expander section of a gas turbine.

  3. Biomass cofiring in full-sized coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Plasynski, S.I.; Costello, R.; Hughes, E.; Tillman, D.

    1999-07-01

    Biomass cofiring represents one alternative for reducing greenhouse gas emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil sources. Realizing this opportunity, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), a field site of the Department of Energy (DOE), along with the EPRI, initiated a Program around two-years ago to research the feasibility of coal-fired boilers in cofiring of biomass and other waste-derived fuels. The cooperative agreement between FETC and EPRI includes cofiring at six different electric utility sites and one steam generation site. Boilers include wall-fired, tangential, cyclone, and stokers ranging in size from 15 to 500 MWe. Biomass consisting of wood (usually) and switchgrass (in two cases) will be the fuel, and pulp and plastics may be used in some waste-derived fuels cofiring tests. This paper will focus only on the biomass cofired tests in electric utility boilers.

  4. Emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds from coal-, coal gangue-, and biomass-fired power plants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yulong; Yang, Chao; Peng, Lin; Li, Rumei; Bai, Huiling

    2016-10-01

    Face the large electricity demand, thermal power generation still derives the main way of electricity supply in China, account for 78.19% of total electricity production in 2013. Three types of thermal power plants, including coal-fired power plant, coal gangue-fired power plant and biomass-fired power plant, were chosen to survey the source profile, chemical reactivity and emission factor of VOCs during the thermal power generation. The most abundant compounds generated during coal- and coal gangue-fired power generation were 1-Butene, Styrene, n-Hexane and Ethylene, while biomass-fired power generation were Propene, 1-Butenen, Ethyne and Ethylene. The ratios of B/T during thermal power generation in this study was 0.8-2.6, which could be consider as the characteristics of coal and biomass burning. The field tested VOCs emission factor from coal-, coal gangue- and biomass-fired power plant was determined to be 0.88, 0.38 and 3.49 g/GJ, or showed as 0.023, 0.005 and 0.057 g/kg, with the amount of VOCs emission was 44.07, 0.08, 0.45 Gg in 2013, respectively. The statistical results of previous emission inventory, which calculated the VOCs emission used previous emission factor, may overestimate the emission amount of VOCs from thermal power generation in China.

  5. Condensing economizers for small coal-fired boilers and furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Litzke, W.

    1994-01-01

    Condensing economizers increase the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible and latent heat from exhaust gas. These economizers are currently being used commercially for this purpose in a wide range of applications. Performance is dependent upon application-specific factors affecting the utility of recovered heat. With the addition of a condensing economizer boiler efficiency improvements up to 10% are possible. Condensing economizers can also capture flue gas particulates. In this work, the potential use of condensing economizers for both efficiency improvement and control of particulate emissions from small, coal water slurry-fired boilers was evaluated. Analysis was done to predict heat transfer and particulate capture by mechanisms including: inertial impaction, interception, diffusion, thermophoretic forces, and condensation growth. Shell-and-tube geometries were considered with flue gas on the outside of Teflon-covered tubes. Experimental studies were done with both air- and water-cooled economizers refit to a small boiler. Two experimental arrangements were used including oil-firing with injection of flyash upstream of the economizer and direct coal water slurry firing. Firing rates ranged from 27 to 82 kW (92,000 to 280,000 Btu/hr). Inertial impaction was found to be the most important particulate capture mechanism and removal efficiencies to 95% were achieved. With the addition of water sprays directly on the first row of tubes, removal efficiencies increased to 98%. Use of these sprays adversely affects heat recovery. Primary benefits of the sprays are seen to be the addition of small impaction sites and future design improvements are suggested in which such small impactors are permanently added to the highest velocity regions of the economizer. Predicted effects of these added impactors on particulate removal and pressure drop are presented.

  6. Mapping the hydraulic connection between a coalbed and adjacent aquifer: example of the coal-seam gas resource area, north Galilee Basin, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenjiao; Mariethoz, Gregoire; Schrank, Christoph; Cox, Malcolm; Timms, Wendy

    2016-12-01

    Coal-seam gas production requires groundwater extraction from coal-bearing formations to reduce the hydraulic pressure and improve gas recovery. In layered sedimentary basins, the coalbeds are often separated from freshwater aquifers by low-permeability aquitards. However, hydraulic connection between the coalbed and aquifers is possible due to the heterogeneity in the aquitard such as the existence of conductive faults or sandy channel deposits. For coal-seam gas extraction operations, it is desirable to identify areas in a basin where the probability of hydraulic connection between the coalbed and aquifers is low in order to avoid unnecessary loss of groundwater from aquifers and gas production problems. A connection indicator, the groundwater age indictor (GAI), is proposed, to quantify the degree of hydraulic connection. The spatial distribution of GAI can indicate the optimum positions for gas/water extraction in the coalbed. Depressurizing the coalbed at locations with a low GAI would result in little or no interaction with the aquifer when compared to the other positions. The concept of GAI is validated on synthetic cases and is then applied to the north Galilee Basin, Australia, to assess the degree of hydraulic connection between the Aramac Coal Measure and the water-bearing formations in the Great Artesian Basin, which are separated by an aquitard, the Betts Creek Beds. It is found that the GAI is higher in the western part of the basin, indicating a higher risk to depressurization of the coalbed in this region due to the strong hydraulic connection between the coalbed and the overlying aquifer.

  7. Process to improve boiler operation by supplemental firing with thermally beneficiated low rank coal

    DOEpatents

    Sheldon, Ray W.

    2001-01-01

    The invention described is a process for improving the performance of a commercial coal or lignite fired boiler system by supplementing its normal coal supply with a controlled quantity of thermally beneficiated low rank coal, (TBLRC). This supplemental TBLRC can be delivered either to the solid fuel mill (pulverizer) or directly to the coal burner feed pipe. Specific benefits are supplied based on knowledge of equipment types that may be employed on a commercial scale to complete the process. The thermally beneficiated low rank coal can be delivered along with regular coal or intermittently with regular coal as the needs require.

  8. Fuel supply system and method for coal-fired prime mover

    DOEpatents

    Smith, William C.; Paulson, Leland E.

    1995-01-01

    A coal-fired gas turbine engine is provided with an on-site coal preparation and engine feeding arrangement. With this arrangement, relatively large dry particles of coal from an on-site coal supply are micro-pulverized and the resulting dry, micron-sized, coal particulates are conveyed by steam or air into the combustion chamber of the engine. Thermal energy introduced into the coal particulates during the micro-pulverizing step is substantially recovered since the so-heated coal particulates are fed directly from the micro-pulverizer into the combustion chamber.

  9. Evaluating the fate of metals in air pollution control residues from coal-fired power plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in air pollution control at coal-fired power plants are shifting mercury (Hg) and other metals from the flue gas at electric utilities to the coal ash. This paper presents data from the characterization of73 coal combustion residues (CCRs) evaluating the composition and c...

  10. 77 FR 58170 - Proposed Renewal of Existing Information Collection; Fire Protection (Underground Coal Mines)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-19

    ... (Underground Coal Mines) AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration, Labor. ACTION: Request for public... (facsimile). SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background Fire protection standards for underground coal mines....1100 requires that each coal mine be provided with suitable firefighting equipment adapted for the...

  11. Bioremediation for coal-fired power stations using macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David A; Paul, Nicholas A; Bird, Michael I; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-04-15

    Macroalgae are a productive resource that can be cultured in metal-contaminated waste water for bioremediation but there have been no demonstrations of this biotechnology integrated with industry. Coal-fired power production is a water-limited industry that requires novel approaches to waste water treatment and recycling. In this study, a freshwater macroalga (genus Oedogonium) was cultivated in contaminated ash water amended with flue gas (containing 20% CO₂) at an Australian coal-fired power station. The continuous process of macroalgal growth and intracellular metal sequestration reduced the concentrations of all metals in the treated ash water. Predictive modelling shows that the power station could feasibly achieve zero discharge of most regulated metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) in waste water by using the ash water dam for bioremediation with algal cultivation ponds rather than storage of ash water. Slow pyrolysis of the cultivated algae immobilised the accumulated metals in a recalcitrant C-rich biochar. While the algal biochar had higher total metal concentrations than the algae feedstock, the biochar had very low concentrations of leachable metals and therefore has potential for use as an ameliorant for low-fertility soils. This study demonstrates a bioremediation technology at a large scale for a water-limited industry that could be implemented at new or existing power stations, or during the decommissioning of older power stations.

  12. Heat pipe technology for coal-fired power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Uherka, K.L.; Holtz, R.E.; McLennan, G.A.; Koehl, E.R.

    1985-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of heat pipe R and D activities at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) during the 1977 to 1984 time period. The heat pipe development efforts were associated with a variety of DOE supported projects involving coal-fired prime movers for stationary power generation. The role of heat pipes for these power systems is in their potential application as thermal transport systems for integrating fluidized bed combustors (FBC) with prime movers ranging from Stirling engines in total energy systems (approx.10 MWe) to closed-cycle gas turbines in central power plants (approx.1000 MWe). The results of initial investigations at ANL demonstrated that high-temperature sodium heat pipes provided the best heat exchanger technology for integrating Stirling engines with coal-fired FBC systems. A major accomplishment included the development and validation of a computer code (ANL/HTP) which calculates heat pipe operating limits and other significant characteristics necessary for power plant design. A number of developmental and prototype heat pipes were designed and fabricated through a subcontract effort with Thermacore, Inc., and delivered to ANL for performance testing. Preliminary test results from ANL's Heat Pipe Test Facility, using induction heating and a gas-water calorimeter to establish energy balances, are given in the report. Test data obtained to date are consistent with ANL/HTP code predictions. 47 refs., 53 figs., 22 tabs.

  13. FUEL LEAN BIOMASS REBURNING IN COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey J. Sweterlitsch; Robert C. Brown

    2002-07-01

    This final technical report describes research conducted between July 1, 2000, and June 30, 2002, for the project entitled ''Fuel Lean Biomass Reburning in Coal-Fired Boilers,'' DOE Award No. DE-FG26-00NT40811. Fuel Lean Biomass Reburning is a method of staging fuel within a coal-fired utility boiler to convert nitrogen oxides (NOx) to nitrogen by creating locally fuel-rich eddies, which favor the reduction of NOx, within an overall fuel lean boiler. These eddies are created by injecting a supplemental fuel source, designated as the reburn fuel, downstream of the primary combustion zone. Chopped biomass was the reburn fuel for this project. Four parameters were explored in this research: the initial oxygen concentration ranged between 1%-6%, the amount of biomass used as the reburn fuel ranged between from 0%-23% of the total % energy input, the types of biomass used were low nitrogen switchgrass and high nitrogen alfalfa, and the types of carrier gases used to inject the biomass (nitrogen and steam). Temperature profiles and final flue gas species concentrations are presented in this report. An economic evaluation of a potential full-scale installation of a Fuel-Lean Biomass Reburn system using biomass-water slurry was also performed.

  14. Behavior of fluorine and chlorine in Spanish coal fired power plants with pulverized coal boilers and fluidized bed boiler.

    PubMed

    López-Vilariño, J M; Fernández-Martínez, G; Turnes-Carou, I; Muinategui-Lorenzo, S; López-Mahía, P; Prada-Rodríguez, D

    2003-06-01

    Behavior and contents of fluorine and chlorine in coal feedstock, combustion wastes (slag and fly ash) and emissions were studied in five conventional coal fired power plants and in a fluidized bed coal power plant. The halide levels found in the used coal were quite low. Mass balances and emission factors were calculated. The volatility of these elements makes the gaseous emission the main target between the residues. The influence of combustion parameters is not clearly established. Several analytical techniques (ion selective electrodes, capillary electrophoresis and ion chromatography) are employed to determinate the halide concentration in the different samples taken in the power plants studied (coal, slag, fly ash and flue gases).

  15. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Suuberg; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2002-01-31

    This is the sixth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Preliminary results from laboratory and field tests of a corrosion probe to predict waterwall wastage indicate good agreement between the electrochemical noise corrosion rates predicted by the probe and corrosion rates measured by a surface profilometer. Four commercial manufacturers agreed to provide catalyst samples to the program. BYU has prepared two V/Ti oxide catalysts (custom, powder form) containing commercially relevant concentrations of V oxide and one containing a W oxide promoter. Two pieces of experimental apparatus being built at BYU to carry out laboratory-scale investigations of SCR catalyst deactivation are nearly completed. A decision was made to carry out the testing at full-scale power plants using a slipstream of gas instead of at the University of Utah pilot-scale coal combustor as originally planned. Design of the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor was completed during this quarter. One utility has expressed interest in hosting a long-term test at one of their plants that co-fire wood with coal. Tests to study ammonia adsorption onto fly ash have clearly established that the only routes that can play a role in binding significant amounts of ammonia to the ash surface, under practical ammonia slip conditions, are those that must involve co-adsorbates.

  16. Numerical study of co-firing pulverized coal and biomass inside a cement calciner.

    PubMed

    Mikulčić, Hrvoje; von Berg, Eberhard; Vujanović, Milan; Duić, Neven

    2014-07-01

    The use of waste wood biomass as fuel is increasingly gaining significance in the cement industry. The combustion of biomass and particularly co-firing of biomass and coal in existing pulverized-fuel burners still faces significant challenges. One possibility for the ex ante control and investigation of the co-firing process are computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The purpose of this paper is to present a numerical analysis of co-firing pulverized coal and biomass in a cement calciner. Numerical models of pulverized coal and biomass combustion were developed and implemented into a commercial CFD code FIRE, which was then used for the analysis. Three-dimensional geometry of a real industrial cement calciner was used for the analysis. Three different co-firing cases were analysed. The results obtained from this study can be used for assessing different co-firing cases, and for improving the understanding of the co-firing process inside the calculated calciner.

  17. Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Conkle, H.N.; Raghavan, J.K.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1991-11-21

    The objective of this study is to develop technology that permits the practical and economic preparation, storage, handling, and transportation of coal pellets, which can be reslurried into Coal water fuels (CWF) suitable for firing in small- and medium-size commercial and industrial boilers, furnaces, and engines. The project includes preparing coal pellets and capsules from wet filter cake that can be economically stored, handled, transported, and reslurried into a CWF that can be suitably atomized and fired at the user site. The wet cakes studied were prepared from ultra-fine (95% -325 mesh) coal beneficiated by advanced froth-flotation techniques. The coals studied included two eastern bituminous coals, one from Virginia (Elkhorn) and one from Illinois (Illinois No. 6) and one western bituminous coal from Utah (Sky Line coal).

  18. Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Conkle, H.N.

    1992-03-17

    The objective of this study is to develop technology that permits the practical and economic preparation, storage, handling, and transportation of coal pellets, which can be reslurried into Coal water fuels (CWF) suitable for firing in small- and medium-size commercial and industrial boilers, furnaces, and engines. The project includes preparing coal pellets and capsules from wet filter cake that can be economically stored, handled, transported, and reslurried into a CWF that can be suitably atomized and fired at the user site. The wet cakes studied were prepared from ultra-fine (95% -325 mesh) coal beneficiated by advanced froth-flotation techniques. The coals studied included two eastern bituminous coals, one from Virginia (Elkhorn) and one from Illinois (Illinois No. 6) and one western bituminous coal from Utah (Sky Line coal).

  19. Coal-fired high performance power generating system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of > 47% thermal efficiency; NO[sub x] SO [sub x] and Particulates < 25% NSPS; Cost of electricity 10% lower; coal > 65% of heat input and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW[sub e] combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. Most of this report discusses the details of work on these components, and the R D Plan for future work. The discussion of the combustor designs illustrates how detailed modeling can be an effective tool to estimate NO[sub x] production, minimum burnout lengths, combustion temperatures and even particulate impact on the combustor walls. When our model is applied to the long flame concept it indicates that fuel bound nitrogen will limit the range of coals that can use this approach. For high nitrogen coals a rapid mixing, rich-lean, deep staging combustor will be necessary. The air heater design has evolved into two segments: a convective heat exchanger downstream of the combustion process; a radiant panel heat exchanger, located in the combustor walls; The relative amount of heat transferred either radiatively or convectively will depend on the combustor type and the ash properties.

  20. Impacts of TMDLs on coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-04-30

    The Clean Water Act (CWA) includes as one of its goals restoration and maintenance of the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. The CWA established various programs to accomplish that goal. Among the programs is a requirement for states to establish water quality standards that will allow protection of the designated uses assigned to each water body. Once those standards are set, state agencies must sample the water bodies to determine if water quality requirements are being met. For those water bodies that are not achieving the desired water quality, the state agencies are expected to develop total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) that outline the maximum amount of each pollutant that can be discharged to the water body and still maintain acceptable water quality. The total load is then allocated to the existing point and nonpoint sources, with some allocation held in reserve as a margin of safety. Many states have already developed and implemented TMDLs for individual water bodies or regional areas. New and revised TMDLs are anticipated, however, as federal and state regulators continue their examination of water quality across the United States and the need for new or revised standards. This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements its overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. One of the program missions of the DOE's NETL is to develop innovative environmental control technologies that will enable full use of the Nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. Some of the parameters for which TMDLs are being developed are components in discharges from coal-fired power

  1. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, D.D.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; ET AL.

    2004-03-30

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. There are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows (Lopez et al. 2003)). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg

  2. Airborne crystalline silica concentrations at coal-fired power plants associated with coal fly ash

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, J.; Yager, J.

    2006-08-15

    This study presents measurements of airborne concentrations of respirable crystalline silica in the breathing zone of workers who were anticipated to encounter coal fly ash. Six plants were studied; two were fired with lignite coal, and the remaining four plants used bituminous and subbituminous coals. A total of 108 personal breathing zone respirable dust air samples were collected. Bulk samples were also collected from each plant site and subjected to crystalline silica analysis. Airborne dust particle size analysis was measured where fly ash was routinely encountered. The results from bituminous and subbituminous fired plants revealed that the highest airborne fly ash concentrations are encountered during maintenance activities: 0.008 mg/m{sup 3} to 96 mg/m{sup 3} (mean of 1.8 mg/m{sup 3}). This group exceeded the threshold limit values (TLV) in 60% of the air samples. During normal production activities, airborne concentrations of crystalline silica ranged from nondetectable to 0.18 mg/m{sup 3} (mean value of 0.048 mg/m{sup 3}). Air samples collected during these activities exceeded the current and proposed TLVs in approximately 54% and 65% of samples, respectively. Limited amounts of crystalline silica were detected in samples collected from lignite-fired plants, and approximately 20% of these air samples exceeded the current TLV. Particle size analysis in areas where breathing zone air samples were collected revealed mass median diameters typically between 3 {mu}m and 8 {mu}m. Bulk and air samples were analyzed for all of the common crystalline silica polymorphs, and only alpha quartz was detected.

  3. THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY CO2 STORAGE PROJECT - PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF DEEP SALINE RESERVOIRS AND COAL SEAMS

    SciTech Connect

    Michael J. Mudd; Howard Johnson; Charles Christopher; T.S. Ramakrishnan, Ph.D.

    2003-08-01

    This report describes the geologic setting for the Deep Saline Reservoirs and Coal Seams in the Ohio River Valley CO{sub 2} Storage Project area. The object of the current project is to site and design a CO{sub 2} injection facility. A location near New Haven, WV, has been selected for the project. To assess geologic storage reservoirs at the site, regional and site-specific geology were reviewed. Geologic reports, deep well logs, hydraulic tests, and geologic maps were reviewed for the area. Only one well within 25 miles of the site penetrates the deeper sedimentary rocks, so there is a large amount of uncertainty regarding the deep geology at the site. New Haven is located along the Ohio River on the border of West Virginia and Ohio. Topography in the area is flat in the river valley but rugged away from the Ohio River floodplain. The Ohio River Valley incises 50-100 ft into bedrock in the area. The area of interest lies within the Appalachian Plateau, on the western edge of the Appalachian Mountain chain. Within the Appalachian Basin, sedimentary rocks are 3,000 to 20,000 ft deep and slope toward the southeast. The rock formations consist of alternating layers of shale, limestone, dolomite, and sandstone overlying dense metamorphic continental shield rocks. The Rome Trough is the major structural feature in the area, and there may be some faults associated with the trough in the Ohio-West Virginia Hinge Zone. The area has a low earthquake hazard with few historical earthquakes. Target injection reservoirs include the basal sandstone/Lower Maryville and the Rose Run Sandstone. The basal sandstone is an informal name for sandstones that overlie metamorphic shield rock. Regional geology indicates that the unit is at a depth of approximately 9,100 ft below the surface at the project site and associated with the Maryville Formation. Overall thickness appears to be 50-100 ft. The Rose Run Sandstone is another potential reservoir. The unit is located approximately 1

  4. Data base for the analysis of compositional characteristics of coal seams and macerals. Final report - Part 10. Variability in the inorganic content of United States' coals: a multivariate statistical study

    SciTech Connect

    Glick, D.C.; Davis, A.

    1984-07-01

    The multivariate statistical techniques of correlation coefficients, factor analysis, and cluster analysis, implemented by computer programs, can be used to process a large data set and produce a summary of relationships between variables and between samples. These techniques were used to find relationships for data on the inorganic constituents of US coals. Three hundred thirty-five whole-seam channel samples from six US coal provinces were analyzed for inorganic variables. After consideration of the attributes of data expressed on ash basis and whole-coal basis, it was decided to perform complete statistical analyses on both data sets. Thirty variables expressed on whole-coal basis and twenty-six variables expressed on ash basis were used. For each inorganic variable, a frequency distribution histogram and a set of summary statistics was produced. These were subdivided to reveal the manner in which concentrations of inorganic constituents vary between coal provinces and between coal regions. Data collected on 124 samples from three stratigraphic groups (Pottsville, Monongahela, Allegheny) in the Appalachian region were studied using analysis of variance to determine degree of variability between stratigraphic levels. Most variables showed differences in mean values between the three groups. 193 references, 71 figures, 54 tables.

  5. Liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic system evaluation. [coal-fired designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, R. R.; Lippert, T. E.

    1976-01-01

    The present study emphasizes a direct coal-fired design using a bubbly two-component flow of sodium and argon in the MHD generator and a Rankine steam-bottoming plant. Two basic cycles were studied, corresponding to argon temperatures of 922 and 1089 K at the duct inlet. The MHD duct system consisted of multiple ducts arranged in clusters and separated by iron magnet pole pieces. The ducts, each with an output of about 100 MW, were parallel to the flow, but were connected in series electrically to provide a higher MHD voltage. With channel efficiencies of 80%, a pump efficiency of 90%, and a 45% efficient steam-bottoming plant, the overall efficiency of the 1089 K liquid-metal MHD power plant was 43%.

  6. Electrode materials for coal-fired MHD generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, R. A.

    1980-10-01

    Metallic materials are evaluated as electrodes for coal fired MHD generators. A laboratory test that simulates the electrochemical and corrosive environment was developed and used to characterize electrode behavior in a diffuse current flow (nonarcing) mode of operation. High current density requires that an electron transport mechanism of current flow be maintained. With inert, stable electrodes, anode polarization occurs and ionic conduction prevails, limiting current to low values. The nature of this behavior and approaches to overcoming anodic polarization are studied as a function of electrode material, slag composition, and temperature. By operating at high temperatures and with controlled slag chemistries to produce a very fluid slag, depolarization may be achieved by mechanical mixing. Interrupted current flow are required to aid in breaking down anodic polarization.

  7. Southern thailand coal fired project: Feasibility study. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-09-01

    This study, conducted by Black & Veatch International, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report addresses various technical, environmental, and economic aspects of developing four 1,000 MW units of coal fired electric generating facilities at a site near Prachuap Khiri Khan. The study includes a cost estimate for the units and the fuel delivery port as well as the major conceptual design decisions made for the project. This volume of the report is the Feasibility Study and is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction/Summary; (2) Generation Planning Study; (3) Site Selection Study; (4) Project Description; (5) Fuel Resource Assessment; (6) Water Resource Assessment; (7) Technical Information to Support the Environmental Impact Assessment; (8) Plant Conceptual Design; (9) Transmission Interconnection; (10) Project Capital Cost Estimate; (11) Project Schedule; (12) Project Implementation Plan; (13) Project Risk Analysis.

  8. Modeling of a coal-fired natural circulation boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Bhambare, K.S.; Mitra, S.K.; Gaitonde, U.N.

    2007-06-15

    Modeling of a natural circulation boiler for a coal-fired thermal power station is presented here. The boiler system is divided into seven subcomponents, and for each section, models based on conservation of mass, momentum, and energy are formulated. The pressure drop at various sections and the heat transfer coefficients are computed using empirical correlations. Solutions are obtained by using SIMULINK. The model is validated by comparing its steady state and dynamic responses with the actual plant data. Open loop responses of the model to the step changes in the operating parameters, such as pressure, temperature, steam flow, feed water flow, are also analyzed. The present model can be used for the development and design of effective boiler control systems.

  9. Corrosion probes for fireside monitoring in coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2005-01-01

    Corrosion probes are being developed and combined with an existing measurement technology to provide a tool for assessing the extent of corrosion of metallic materials on the fireside in coal-fired boilers. The successful development of this technology will provide power plant operators the ability to (1) accurately monitor metal loss in critical regions of the boiler, such as waterwalls, superheaters, and reheaters; and (2) use corrosion rates as process variables. In the former, corrosion data could be used to schedule maintenance periods and in the later, processes can be altered to decrease corrosion rates. The research approach involves laboratory research in simulated environments that will lead to field tests of corrosion probes in coal-fired boilers. Laboratory research has already shown that electrochemically-measured corrosion rates for ash-covered metals are similar to actual mass loss corrosion rates. Electrochemical tests conducted using a potentiostat show the corrosion reaction of ash-covered probes at 500?C to be electrochemical in nature. Corrosion rates measured are similar to those from an automated corrosion monitoring system. Tests of corrosion probes made with mild steel, 304L stainless steel (SS), and 316L SS sensors showed that corrosion of the sensors in a very aggressive incinerator ash was controlled by the ash and not by the alloy content. Corrosion rates in nitrogen atmospheres tended to decrease slowly with time. The addition of oxygen-containing gases, oxygen and carbon dioxide to nitrogen caused a more rapid decrease in corrosion rate, while the addition of water vapor increased the corrosion rate.

  10. Arsenic and lead concentrations in the Pond Creek and Fire Clay coal beds, eastern Kentucky coal field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Robertson, J.D.; Wong, A.S.; Eble, C.F.; Ruppert, L.F.

    1997-01-01

    The Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation (Westphalian B) Pond Creek and Fire Clay coal beds are the 2 largest producing coal beds in eastern Kentucky. Single channel samples from 22 localities in the Pond Creek coal bed were obtained from active coal mines in Pike and Martin Countries, Kentucky, and a total of 18 Fire Clay coal bed channel samples were collected from localities in the central portion of the coal field. The overall objective of this study was to investigate the concentration and distribution of potentially hazardous elements in the Fire Clay and Pond Creek coal beds, with particular emphasis on As and Pb, 2 elements that are included in the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments as potential air toxics. The 2 coals are discussed individually as the depositional histories are distinct, the Fire Clay coal bed having more sites where relatively high-S lithologies are encountered. In an effort to characterize these coals, 40 whole channel samples, excluding 1-cm partings, were analyzed for major, minor and trace elements by X-ray fluorescence and proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy. Previously analyzed samples were added to provide additional geographic coverage and lithotype samples from one site were analyzed in order to provide detail of vertical elemental trends. The As and Pb levels in the Fire Clay coal bed tend to be higher than in the Pond Creek coal bed. One whole channel sample of the Fire Clay coal bed contains 1156 ppm As (ash basis), with a single lithotype containing 4000 ppm As (ash basis). Most of the As and Pb appears to be associated with pyrite, which potentially can be removed in beneficiation (particularly coarser pyrite). Disseminated finer pyrite may not be completely removable by cleaning. In the examination of pyrite conducted in this study, it does not appear that significant concentration of As or Pb occurs in the finer pyrite forms. The biggest potential problem of As- or Pb-enriched pyrite is, therefore, one of refuse

  11. Condensing economizers for small coal-fired equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.A.; Litzke, W.

    1994-04-01

    Condensing economizers can be used to increase the thermal efficiency of boilers and furnaces. This study focuses on evaluating indirect contact economizers as applied to heating equipment burning coal-water mixtures although the results can be extended to other fuels. In addition to dry gas sensible heat, latent heat is recovered from flue gas water vapor, improving system efficiency markedly. In addition to improving thermal efficiency, condensing economizers can also capture particulates. In tests to date up to 98% total removal has been measured. The primary objectives of this project are to evaluate the most important mechanisms involved in particle capture and to enhance capture in practical systems. The intent of the work is to contribute to the ongoing program at the Department of Energy/Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center in the development of coal-fired combustion equipment. These results are expected to be most applicable to smaller scale equipment where the low temperature heat from the economizer can be used. However, interest in the use of condensing economizers for industrial and utility applications is increasing and this work certainly is relevant in these sections also. The approach involves determining thermal efficiency improvement and particulate removal efficiency (experimental), and developing models capable of predicting system performance under varied operating conditions (theoretical). Gas temperature and condensation profiles through the economizers have been predicted and overall predicted performance are consistent with test results. Mechanisms for particle removal are discussed in this paper and predicted removal efficiencies as a function of particle diameter are presented.

  12. Condensing economizers for small coal-fired equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Litzke, Wai Lin; Butcher, T.A.; Park, N.A.

    1992-05-01

    Condensing economizers can be used to increase the thermal efficiency of boilers and furnaces. This study focuses on evaluating indirect contact economizers as applied to heating equipment burning coal-water mixtures although the results can be extended to other fuels. In addition to dry gas sensible heat, latent heat is recovered from flue gas water vapor, improving system efficiency markedly. In addition to improving thermal efficiency, condensing economizers can also capture particulates. In tests to date up to 89% removal has been measured. The primary objectives of this project are to evaluate the most important mechanisms involved in particle capture and to enhance capture in practical systems. The intent of the work is to contribute to the ongoing program at the Department of Energy/Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center in the development of coal-fired combustion equipment. These results are expected to be most applicable to smaller scale equipment, where the low temperature heat from the economizer can be used. The approach involves determining thermal efficiency improvement and particulate removal efficiency (experimental), and developing models capable of predicting system performance under varied operating conditions (theoretical). Gas temperature and condensation profiles through the economizers have been predicted and overall predicted performance are consistent with test results. Mechanisms for particle removal are discussed in this paper and predicted removal efficiencies as a function of particle diameter are presented. 4 refs.

  13. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2002-07-28

    This is the eighth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. CFD modeling studies of RRI in a full scale utility boiler have been performed that provide further insight into the NOx reduction process that occurs if the furnace is not adequately staged. In situ reactivity data indicate thus far that titania sulfates under SCR conditions but there is no indication of vanadia sulfation in agreement with some, but not most literature results. Additional analysis and advanced diagnostics are under way to confirm this result and determine its accuracy. Construction of a catalyst characterization reactor system is nearly complete, with a few remaining details discussed in this report. Shakedown testing of the SCR field reactor was completed at the University of Utah pilot-scale coal furnace. The CEM system has been ordered. Talks continued with American Electric Power about hosting a demonstration at their Rockport plant.

  14. Testing of a coal-fired diesel power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.P.; Balles, E.N.; Benedek, K.R.; Benson, C.E.; Rao, K.; Schaub, F.; Kimberley, J.; Itse, D.

    1993-01-01

    The POC coal-fired power plant consists of a Cooper-Bessemer LSC-6 engine (15.5 inch bore, 22 inch stroke) rated at 400 rev/min and 208 psi bmep producing approximately 1.8 MW of power. The power plant is fueled with `engine grade` coal slurry which has been physically cleaned to an ash level of approximately 1.5 to 2% (dry basis) and has a mean particle size of approximately 12 micron. CWS is injected directly into the combustion chamber through a fuel injector (one per cylinder) which was designed and developed to be compatible with the fuel. Each injector is fitted with a 19 orifice nozzle tip made with sapphire inserts in each orifice. The combustion chambers are fitted with twin diesel pilot injectors which provide a positive ignition source and substantially shorten the ignition delay period of the CWS fuel. Durable coatings (typically tungsten carbide) are used for the piston rings and cylinder liners to reduce wear rates. The emission control system consists of SCR for NO{sub x} control, sodium sorbent injection for SO{sub x} control, and a cyclone plus baghouse for particulate capture. The cyclone is installed upstream of the engine turbocharger which helps protect the turbine blades.

  15. Testing of a coal-fired diesel power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.P.; Balles, E.N.; Benedek, K.R.; Benson, C.E. , Inc., Cambridge, MA ); Rao, K.; Schaub, F. ); Kimberley, J. ); Itse, D. )

    1993-01-01

    The POC coal-fired power plant consists of a Cooper-Bessemer LSC-6 engine (15.5 inch bore, 22 inch stroke) rated at 400 rev/min and 208 psi bmep producing approximately 1.8 MW of power. The power plant is fueled with 'engine grade' coal slurry which has been physically cleaned to an ash level of approximately 1.5 to 2% (dry basis) and has a mean particle size of approximately 12 micron. CWS is injected directly into the combustion chamber through a fuel injector (one per cylinder) which was designed and developed to be compatible with the fuel. Each injector is fitted with a 19 orifice nozzle tip made with sapphire inserts in each orifice. The combustion chambers are fitted with twin diesel pilot injectors which provide a positive ignition source and substantially shorten the ignition delay period of the CWS fuel. Durable coatings (typically tungsten carbide) are used for the piston rings and cylinder liners to reduce wear rates. The emission control system consists of SCR for NO[sub x] control, sodium sorbent injection for SO[sub x] control, and a cyclone plus baghouse for particulate capture. The cyclone is installed upstream of the engine turbocharger which helps protect the turbine blades.

  16. Sequential simulation approach to modeling of multi-seam coal deposits with an application to the assessment of a Louisiana lignite

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olea, Ricardo A.; Luppens, James A.

    2012-01-01

    There are multiple ways to characterize uncertainty in the assessment of coal resources, but not all of them are equally satisfactory. Increasingly, the tendency is toward borrowing from the statistical tools developed in the last 50 years for the quantitative assessment of other mineral commodities. Here, we briefly review the most recent of such methods and formulate a procedure for the systematic assessment of multi-seam coal deposits taking into account several geological factors, such as fluctuations in thickness, erosion, oxidation, and bed boundaries. A lignite deposit explored in three stages is used for validating models based on comparing a first set of drill holes against data from infill and development drilling. Results were fully consistent with reality, providing a variety of maps, histograms, and scatterplots characterizing the deposit and associated uncertainty in the assessments. The geostatistical approach was particularly informative in providing a probability distribution modeling deposit wide uncertainty about total resources and a cumulative distribution of coal tonnage as a function of local uncertainty.

  17. Retrofitting oil-fired boilers to fire coal-water slurry: An economic evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Addy, S.N.; Considine, T.J.

    1994-12-31

    The United States Department of Defense (DOD) has been directed by Congress to decrease its dependence on foreign oil and increase its use of domestic coal. The use of micronized coal-water slurry fuels (MCWSFs) is one of the alternatives under consideration. This retrofitting has attendant costs and problems. The purpose of this paper is to present an economic evaluation of retrofitting oil-designed boilers to fire MCWSF. The evaluation is presented on two fronts: commercial and governmental. It also includes a stochastic risk analysis using Monte Carlo simulation. The variables that most strongly influence the economic feasibility of retrofitting to fire MCWSF are the differential fuel cost (DFC), the expected life of the boiler plant, its size (or capacity), total capital requirement (TCR), boiler derated capacity (BDC), and the discount rate. The TCR is modeled as a function of BDC. The DFC is the major driving force, and a DFC of at least $1.50/MMBtu is required for commercial viability. Given the current trend in oil prices, there seems to be not much incentive to retrofit commercially, however, DOD can take advantage of a lower discount rate.

  18. Fire Risk Assessment of Some Indian Coals Using Radial Basis Function (RBF) Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimaje, Devidas; Tripathy, Debi Prasad

    2017-04-01

    Fires, whether surface or underground, pose serious and environmental problems in the global coal mining industry. It is causing huge loss of coal due to burning and loss of lives, sterilization of coal reserves and environmental pollution. Most of the instances of coal mine fires happening worldwide are mainly due to the spontaneous combustion. Hence, attention must be paid to take appropriate measures to prevent occurrence and spread of fire. In this paper, to evaluate the different properties of coals for fire risk assessment, forty-nine in situ coal samples were collected from major coalfields of India. Intrinsic properties viz. proximate and ultimate analysis; and susceptibility indices like crossing point temperature, flammability temperature, Olpinski index and wet oxidation potential method of Indian coals were carried out to ascertain the liability of coal to spontaneous combustion. Statistical regression analysis showed that the parameters of ultimate analysis provide significant correlation with all investigated susceptibility indices as compared to the parameters of proximate analysis. Best correlated parameters (ultimate analysis) were used as inputs to the radial basis function network model. The model revealed that Olpinski index can be used as a reliable method to assess the liability of Indian coals to spontaneous combustion.

  19. Fire Risk Assessment of Some Indian Coals Using Radial Basis Function (RBF) Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimaje, Devidas; Tripathy, Debi Prasad

    2016-03-01

    Fires, whether surface or underground, pose serious and environmental problems in the global coal mining industry. It is causing huge loss of coal due to burning and loss of lives, sterilization of coal reserves and environmental pollution. Most of the instances of coal mine fires happening worldwide are mainly due to the spontaneous combustion. Hence, attention must be paid to take appropriate measures to prevent occurrence and spread of fire. In this paper, to evaluate the different properties of coals for fire risk assessment, forty-nine in situ coal samples were collected from major coalfields of India. Intrinsic properties viz. proximate and ultimate analysis; and susceptibility indices like crossing point temperature, flammability temperature, Olpinski index and wet oxidation potential method of Indian coals were carried out to ascertain the liability of coal to spontaneous combustion. Statistical regression analysis showed that the parameters of ultimate analysis provide significant correlation with all investigated susceptibility indices as compared to the parameters of proximate analysis. Best correlated parameters (ultimate analysis) were used as inputs to the radial basis function network model. The model revealed that Olpinski index can be used as a reliable method to assess the liability of Indian coals to spontaneous combustion.

  20. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-FIRED HIGH PERFORMANCE POWER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    1998-10-01

    A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolyzation process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2 which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, Al. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. This report addresses the areas of technical progress for this quarter. Preliminary process design was started with respect to the integrated test program at the PSDF. All of the construction tasks at Foster Wheeler's Combustion and Environmental Test

  1. Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-08-19

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were evaluated. The first type

  2. Arch mineral pursues multiple dipping seams

    SciTech Connect

    Sprouls, M.W.

    1981-07-01

    Arch Mineral's three Hanna Basin mines in Carbon County, WY, recover about eight million tpy from more than a dozen coal seams. Arch's experience has proven stripping techniques for dipping seams, and has revealed better methods for recontouring and revegetating mined land.

  3. COST OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) APPLICATION FOR NOX CONTROL ON COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides a methodology for estimating budgetary costs associated with retrofit applications of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology on coal-fired boilers. SCR is a postcombustion nitrogen oxides (NOx) control technology capable of providing NOx reductions >90...

  4. MERCURY CONTROL IN MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS AND COAL-FIRED UTILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Control of mercury (Hg) emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs) and coal-fired utilities has attracted attention due to current and potential regulations. Among several techniques evaluated for Hg control, dry sorbent injection (primarily injection of activated carbon) h...

  5. Status of NO sub x control for coal-fired power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teixeira, D. P.

    1978-01-01

    The status of technologies for controlling emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from coal-fired power plants is reviewed. A discussion of current technology as well as future NOx control approaches is presented. Advanced combustion approaches are included as well as post-combustion alternatives such as catalytic and noncatalytic ammonia-bases systems and wet scrubbing. Special emphasis is given to unresolved development issues as they relate to practical applications on coal-fired power plants.

  6. Analysis of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Processes for Potential Use on Army Coal-Fired Boilers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    TECHNICAL REPORT N-93 September 1980 ANALYSIS OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION (FGD) PROCESSES FOR POTENTIAL USE ON ARMY COAL-FIRED BOILERS TECHNICAL LIBRARY...REFERENCE: Technical Report N-93, Analysis of Flue Gas Desulfurization (FGD) Ppooesses for Potential Use on Army Coal-Fired Boilers Please take a few...REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE 1. REPORT NUMBER CERL-TR-N-93 2. GOVT ACCESSION NO «. TITLE (end Subtitle) ANALYSIS OF FLUE GAS DESULFURIZATION (FGD

  7. Use of multiple opportunity fuels in coal-fired cyclone boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Tillman, D.A.; Hus, P.; Hughes, E.

    1999-07-01

    Northern Indiana Public Service Company (NIPSCO), with support from USDOE-EERE, the USDOE Federal Energy Technology Center, and EPRI, is installing a materials handling system to fire a combination of wood waste and petroleum coke with the base coal in the No.7 boiler of Bailly Generating Station. The No.7 boiler is a 160 MW{sub e} (net) unit fired with four cyclones. It is typically fired with a blend of Illinois coal and Western coal. The gaseous combustion products from this boiler are ducted to a precipitator and then to a Pure Air scrubber for sulfur oxides removal. The Pure Air scrubber converts the SO{sub 2} into artificial gypsum. Typically the unit burns about 70 tons/hr of coal at full load. The Bailly Generating Station program, being implemented by Foster Wheeler Development Corporation, involves blending petroleum coke and wood waste with coal for combination opportunity fuel firing. Multiple fuel firing is intended to capture the advantages of each fuel: high volatility of biofuels and high Btu content of petroleum coke are among these characteristics. The objective of the program, then, is to reduce fuel costs at the station while improving combustion. The program involves constructing a fuel handling and blending system, and then testing the impacts of individual opportunity fuels with coal plus blends of opportunity fuels with coal. This paper reviews the program concept, the combustion modeling, the blending system design, and the results of baseline and laboratory testing to date.

  8. Speciation and mass distribution of mercury in a bituminous coal-fired power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung Jun; Seo, Yong-Chil; Jang, Ha-Na; Park, Kyu-Shik; Baek, Jeom-In; An, Hi-Soo; Song, Kwang-Chul

    Characterization and mass balance of mercury in a coal-fired power plant were carried out in a 500 MW, bituminous coal consuming electric utility boiler. This facility is equipped with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) in series as air pollution control devices (APCDs). Mercury sampling points were selected at both the up and down streams of the ESP and outlet of the FGD, which is at stack. Two different types of sampling methods were employed, one is the Ontario Hydro (OH) method (ASTM D6784) and the other is US EPA101A. Various samples were collected from the coal-fired power plant such as fuel coals, fly ash in hopper, lime/lime stone, gypsum, and effluent water from FGD. These samples were analyzed by US EPA 7470A and 7471A to understand the behavior and mass balance of mercury in the process of a coal-fired power plant. There are no significant differences between the two sampling methods, but the OH method seems to have more advantages for Hg sampling from a coal-fired power plant because mercury speciation is quite an important factor to estimate the mercury emission and control efficiency from combustion flue gas. Approximate Hg mass balance could be obtained from various samples in the study; however, a series of long-term and comprehensive study is required to evaluate the reliable Hg mass distribution and behavior in a coal-fired power plant.

  9. Detection, Analysis and Risk Assessment of Coal Fires in Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, Christian; Li, Jing; Wu, Jianjun; Erhler, Christoph; Jiang, Weiguo; Guo, Shan; Yang, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Uncontrolled combustion of coal is a serious problem on a global scale. Since coal can easily be oxidized and often has a prominent “self-heating” capacity, many coal types have a tendency to combust spontaneously once sufficient oxygen is available and natural cooling is prevented. The rapid expansion of uncontrolled small-scale coal mining activities during the last 30-40 years and the increasing amount of not adequate closed down and now abandoned coal mine sites are supposed to have led to an increase of human-induced coal fires. Thus, coalfield fires need to be not only inventoried at regional scales through rapid and cost effective methods, but also assessed, monitored and secured, wherever appropriate. This leads to major research and technological development objectives: Easy-to-use, routine remote and in-situ monitoring techniques, based on airborne and space borne imagery, to become part in an integrated long-term monitoring framework.

  10. Thermodynamic and hydrochemical controls on CH4 in a coal seam gas and overlying alluvial aquifer: new insights into CH4 origins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, D. Des. R.; Shouakar-Stash, O.; Morgenstern, U.; Aravena, R.

    2016-08-01

    Using a comprehensive data set (dissolved CH4, δ13C-CH4, δ2H-CH4, δ13C-DIC, δ37Cl, δ2H-H2O, δ18O-H2O, Na, K, Ca, Mg, HCO3, Cl, Br, SO4, NO3 and DO), in combination with a novel application of isometric log ratios, this study describes hydrochemical and thermodynamic controls on dissolved CH4 from a coal seam gas reservoir and an alluvial aquifer in the Condamine catchment, eastern Surat/north-western Clarence-Moreton basins, Australia. δ13C-CH4 data in the gas reservoir (‑58‰ to ‑49‰) and shallow coal measures underlying the alluvium (‑80‰ to ‑65‰) are distinct. CO2 reduction is the dominant methanogenic pathway in all aquifers, and it is controlled by SO4 concentrations and competition for reactants such as H2. At isolated, brackish sites in the shallow coal measures and alluvium, highly depleted δ2H-CH4 (<310‰) indicate acetoclastic methanogenesis where SO4 concentrations inhibit CO2 reduction. Evidence of CH4 migration from the deep gas reservoir (200–500 m) to the shallow coal measures (<200 m) or the alluvium was not observed. The study demonstrates the importance of understanding CH4 at different depth profiles within and between aquifers. Further research, including culturing studies of microbial consortia, will improve our understanding of the occurrence of CH4 within and between aquifers in these basins.

  11. Thermodynamic and hydrochemical controls on CH4 in a coal seam gas and overlying alluvial aquifer: new insights into CH4 origins

    PubMed Central

    Owen, D. Des. R.; Shouakar-Stash, O.; Morgenstern, U.; Aravena, R.

    2016-01-01

    Using a comprehensive data set (dissolved CH4, δ13C-CH4, δ2H-CH4, δ13C-DIC, δ37Cl, δ2H-H2O, δ18O-H2O, Na, K, Ca, Mg, HCO3, Cl, Br, SO4, NO3 and DO), in combination with a novel application of isometric log ratios, this study describes hydrochemical and thermodynamic controls on dissolved CH4 from a coal seam gas reservoir and an alluvial aquifer in the Condamine catchment, eastern Surat/north-western Clarence-Moreton basins, Australia. δ13C-CH4 data in the gas reservoir (−58‰ to −49‰) and shallow coal measures underlying the alluvium (−80‰ to −65‰) are distinct. CO2 reduction is the dominant methanogenic pathway in all aquifers, and it is controlled by SO4 concentrations and competition for reactants such as H2. At isolated, brackish sites in the shallow coal measures and alluvium, highly depleted δ2H-CH4 (<310‰) indicate acetoclastic methanogenesis where SO4 concentrations inhibit CO2 reduction. Evidence of CH4 migration from the deep gas reservoir (200–500 m) to the shallow coal measures (<200 m) or the alluvium was not observed. The study demonstrates the importance of understanding CH4 at different depth profiles within and between aquifers. Further research, including culturing studies of microbial consortia, will improve our understanding of the occurrence of CH4 within and between aquifers in these basins. PMID:27578542

  12. Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal

    SciTech Connect

    Conkle, H.N.; Raghavan, J.K.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1991-09-20

    The objective of this study is to develop technology that permits the practical and economic preparation, storage, handling, and transportation of coal pellets, which can be formulated into Coal-Water Fuels (CWFs) suitable for firing in small- and medium-size commercial and industrial boilers, furnaces, and engines.

  13. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or

  14. Coal-fired power plant and its emission reduction in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Kuntjoro, D.

    1994-12-31

    Power generation availability is one important key to the rapid growth of Indonesia`s industrial sector. To secure future national energy needs, coal-fired power generation has been set up as a primary energy source. There are environmental concerns related to the emission of gases, particulates, and ash resulting from coal combustion. This paper discusses emission controls from burning high calorie, low sulfur coal and the national strategy to reduce emissions.

  15. Escaping radioactivity from coal-fired power plants (CPPs) due to coal burning and the associated hazards: a review.

    PubMed

    Papastefanou, Constantin

    2010-03-01

    Coal, like most materials found in nature, contains trace quantities of the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, i.e. of (40)K and of (238)U, (232)Th and their decay products. Therefore, the combustion of coal results in the released into the environment of some natural radioactivity (1.48 TBq y(-1)), the major part of which (99%) escapes as very fine particles, while the rest in fly ash. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides measured in coals originated from coal mines in Greece varied from 117 to 435 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, from 44 to 255 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 59 to 205 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb, from 9 to 41 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Ra ((232)Th) and from 59 to 227 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. Fly ash escapes from the stacks of coal-fired power plants in a percentage of 3-1% of the total fly ash, in the better case. The natural radionuclide concentrations measured in fly ash produced and retained or escaped from coal-fired power plants in Greece varied from 263 to 950 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, from 142 to 605 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 133 to 428 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb, from 27 to 68 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Ra ((232)Th) and from 204 to 382 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. About 5% of the total ash produced in the coal-fired power plants is used as substitute of cement in concrete for the construction of dwellings, and may affect indoor radiation doses from external irradiation and the inhalation of radon decay products (internal irradiation) is the most significant. The resulting normalized collective effective doses were 6 and 0.5man-Sv(GWa)(-1) for typical old and modern coal-fired power plants, respectively.

  16. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding; Robert Hurt

    2003-12-31

    This is the fourteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Using the initial CFD baseline modeling of the Gavin Station and the plant corrosion maps, six boiler locations for the corrosion probes were identified and access ports have been installed. Preliminary corrosion data obtained appear consistent and believable. In situ, spectroscopic experiments at BYU reported in part last quarter were completed. New reactor tubes have been made for BYU's CCR that allow for testing smaller amounts of catalyst and thus increasing space velocity; monolith catalysts have been cut and a small reactor that can accommodate these pieces for testing is in its final stages of construction. A poisoning study on Ca-poisoned catalysts was begun this quarter. A possible site for a biomass co-firing test of the slipstream reactor was visited this quarter. The slipstream reactor at Rockport required repair and refurbishment, and will be re-started in the next quarter. This report describes the final results of an experimental project at Brown University on the fundamentals of ammonia / fly ash interactions with relevance to the operation of advanced NOx control technologies such as selective catalytic reduction. The Brown task focused on the measurement of ammonia adsorption isotherms on commercial fly ash samples subjected to a variety of treatments and on the chemistry of dry and semi-dry ammonia removal processes.

  17. Emissions of mercury and other trace elements from coal-fired power plants in Japan.

    PubMed

    Ito, Shigeo; Yokoyama, Takahisa; Asakura, Kazuo

    2006-09-01

    To evaluate trace element emissions from modern coal-fired power plants into the atmospheric environment in Japan, trace elements in the coal used in electric utility boilers, stack concentrations, emission rates and emission ratios of coal-fired power plants, and proportions of trace elements in coal-fired power plants were studied. The elements were As, B, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, F, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se and V, which are designated in the Law of Pollutant Release and Transfer Register. The particulate trace elements were collected in an electrostatic precipitator and a wet desulfurization scrubber. Emissions into the atmosphere were lower than 1% of the quantity in coal, but the volatile trace elements showed somewhat higher emission ratios. For mercury, the mean concentration in coal was 0.045 ppm, the mean emission rate was 4.4 microg/kW h, and the mean emission ratio was 27%, the highest ratio among all elements in this study. The total annual emission of mercury from coal-fired power plants of the electric power industry in Japan was estimated to be 0.63 t/y. On the basis of these data, the atmospheric environment loads from a coal-fired power station were investigated. The calculation of stack gas dispersion showed that maximum annual mean ground level concentrations were in the order of 10(-2) to 10(-5) of the background concentrations, and that the adverse effect of the emissions from the coal-fired power station was small.

  18. CHARACTERIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF RESIDUES FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determined on December 15, 2000, that regulations are needed to control the risks of mercury air emissions from coal-fired power plants. The thrust of these new regulations is to remove mercury from the air stream of fossil-fuel-fire...

  19. Prediction of the furnace heat absorption by utilizing thermomechanical analysis for various kinds of coal firing

    SciTech Connect

    Ishinomori, T.; Watanabe, S.; Kiga, T.; Wall, T.F.; Gupta, R.P.; Gupta, S.K.

    1999-07-01

    In order to predict the furnace heat absorption, which is sensitive to coal properties, an attempt to make a model universally applicable for any kind of pulverized coal fired boiler is in progress. First of all, the heat absorption rates on to furnace wall were surveyed for 600MWe pulverized coal fired boiler, and they were ranked into four levels by indicating a furnace heat absorption index (FHAI). Some ash composition is relatively well related to the FHAI, while a new index from thermomechanical analysis (TMA) offers a good prediction of the furnace heat absorption.

  20. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-12-31

    This is the eighteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Safety equipment for ammonia for the SCR slipstream reactor at Plant Gadsden was installed. The slipstream reactor was started and operated for about 1400 hours during the last performance period. Laboratory analysis of exposed catalyst and investigations of the sulfation of fresh catalyst continued at BYU. Thicker end-caps for the ECN probes were designed and fabricated to prevent the warpage and failure that occurred at Gavin with the previous design. A refurbished ECN probe was successfully tested at the University of Utah combustion laboratory. Improvements were implemented to the software that controls the flow of cooling air to the ECN probes.

  1. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Kalyan Annamalai; Dr. John Sweeten; Dr. Sayeed Mukhtar

    2001-02-05

    The following are proposed activities for quarter 2 (9/15/00-12/14/00): (1) Conduct TGA and fuel characterization studies--Task 1; (2) Perform re-burn experiments--Task 2; (3) Fabricate fixed bed gasifier/combustor--Task 3; and (4) Modify the 3D combustion modeling code for feedlot and litter fuels--Task 4. The following were achieved During Quarter 2 (9/15/00-12/14/00): (1) The chicken litter has been obtained from Sanderson farms in Denton, after being treated with a cyclonic dryer. The litter was then placed into steel barrels and shipped to California to be pulverized in preparation for firing. Litter samples have also been sent for ultimate/proximate laboratory analyses.--Task 1; (2) Reburn-experiments have been conducted on coal, as a base case for comparison to litter biomass. Results will be reported along with litter biomass as reburn fuel in the next report--Task 2; (3) Student has not yet been hired to perform task 3. Plans are ahead to hire him or her during quarter No. 3; and (4) Conducted a general mixture fraction model for possible incorporation in the code.

  2. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-09-30

    This is the seventeenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. The SCR slipstream reactor was assembled and installed at Plant Gadsden this quarter. Safety equipment for ammonia had not been installed at the end of the quarter, but will be installed at the beginning of next quarter. The reactor will be started up next quarter. Four ECN corrosion probes were reinstalled at Gavin and collected corrosion data for approximately one month. Two additional probes were installed and removed after about 30 hours for future profilometry analysis. Preliminary analysis of the ECN probes, the KEMA coupons and the CFD modeling results all agree with the ultrasonic tube test measurements gathered by AEP personnel.

  3. ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

    2002-12-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further improve NOx emissions and

  4. Coal-fired propulsion system dynamics. Volume 1. Executive summary. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Greenlee, T.L.; Pearsons, J.L.

    1982-12-01

    This volume summarizes the objectives, scope, and conclusions of an effort that was undertaken to develop and analyze a dynamic model/simulation of a coal-fired ship with steam turbine propulsion system. The General Dynamics CV-3600 self-unloading coal collier was used as the basis for this effort. The effort was jointly sponsored by General Dynamics and the U.S. Department of Transportation, Maritime Administration, for the purpose of investigating the responsiveness of coal-fired ships in maneuvering and in restricted-water operation. The volume concludes with a set of specification results that indicate the component/control system design trends that should be followed to obtain a rapidly responding coal-fired propulsion system.

  5. New mineral occurrences and mineralization processes: Wuda coal-fire gas vents of Inner Mongolia

    SciTech Connect

    Stracher, G.B.; Prakash, A.; Schroeder, P.; McCormack, J.; Zhang, X.M.; Van Dijk, P.; Blake, D.

    2005-12-01

    Five unique mineral assemblages that include the sulfates millosevichite, alunogen, anhydrite, tschermigite, coquimbite, voltaite, and godovikovite, as well as the halide salammoniac and an unidentified phase, according to X-ray diffraction and EDS data, were found as encrustations on quartzofeldspathic sand and sandstone adjacent to coal-fire gas vents associated with underground coal fires in the Wuda coalfield of Inner Mongolia. The mineral assemblage of alunogen, coquimbite, voltaite, and the unidentified phase collected front the same gas vent, is documented for the first time. Observations suggest that the sulfates millosevichite, alunogen, coquimbite, voltaite, godovikovite, and the unidentified phase, crystallized in response to a complex sequence of processes that include condensation, hydrothermal alteration, crystallization from solution, fluctuating vent temperatures, boiling, and dehydration reactions, whereas the halide salammoniac crystallized during the sublimation of coal-fire gas. Tschermigite and anhydrite formed by the reaction of coal-fire gas with quartzofelds pathic rock or by hydrothermal alteration of this rock and crystallization from an acid-rich aqueous solution. These minerals have potentially important environmental significance and may be vectors for the transmission of toxins. Coal fires also provide insight for the recognition in the geologic record of preserved mineral assemblages that are diagnostic of ancient fires.

  6. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR EMISSION REDUCTIONS FROM THE COAL-FIRED POWER SECTOR IN GROWING ECONOMIES: THE CASE OF COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY PLANTS IN RUSSIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    China, Russia and India together contribute over one-fourth of the total global greenhouse gas emissions from the combustion of fossil-fuels. This paper focuses on the Russian coal-fired power sector, and identifies potential opportunities for reducing emissions. The Russian powe...

  7. Geologic history of natural coal-bed fires, Powder River basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heffern, E.L.; Coates, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Coal-bed fires ignited by natural processes have baked and fused overlying sediments to form clinker, a hard red or varicolored rock, through much of the northern Great Plains of the United States (USA). The gently dipping coal beds in the region burn when regional downwasting brings them above the local water table. The resulting clinker forms a rim along the exposed edge of the coal bed in an ongoing process through geologic time. The resistant clinker is left capping buttes and ridges after the softer unbaked strata erode away. Clinker outcrops cover more than 4100 km2 in the Powder River basin (PRB), which lies in Wyoming (WY) and Montana (MT). The clinker in place records tens of billions of tons of coal that have burned, releasing gases into the atmosphere. The amount of clinker that has eroded away was at least an order of magnitude greater than the clinker that remains in place. Fission-track and uranium-thorium/ helium ages of detrital zircon crystals in clinker, and paleomagnetic ages of clinker, show that coal beds have burned naturally during at least the past 4 million years (Ma). The oldest in-place clinker that has been dated, collected from a high, isolated, clinker-capped ridge, has a fission track age of 2.8??0.6 Ma. Evidence of erosion and downcutting is also preserved by clinker clasts in gravel terraces. One clinker boulder in a terrace 360 m above the Yellowstone River has a fission track age of 4.0??0.7 Ma. Coal-bed fires are caused by lightning, wildfires, spontaneous combustion, or human activity on coal outcrops and in mines. Miners, government agencies, and ranchers have extinguished thousands of coal bed fires, but natural ignition continues where fresh coal has access to air. At any given time, hundreds of fires, mostly small, are burning. In the Powder River basin, the total amount of coal burned by natural fires in the last 2 Ma is one to two orders of magnitude greater than the total amount of coal removed by mining in the past

  8. Coal cleaning: Progress and potential

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C.D.; Doctor, R.D.

    1985-01-01

    Results from a detailed analysis of sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) reductions achievable through ''deep'' physical coal cleaning (PCC) at 20 coal-fired power plants in the Ohio-Indiana-Illinois region are presented in this paper. These plants all have capacities larger than 500 MWe are currently without any flue-gas-desulfurization (FGD) systems, and burn coal of greater than 1% sulfur content (in 1980). Their aggregate emissions of 2.4 million tons of SO/sub 2/ per year represents 55% of the SO/sub 2/ inventory for these states. The principal coal supplies for each power plant were identified and characterized as to coal seam and county of origin, so that published coal-washability data could be matched to each supplier. The SO/sub 2/ reductions that would result from deep cleaning and moderate cleaning of each coal were calculated using a PCC computer model.

  9. Impact of heat and mass transfer during the transport of nitrogen in coal porous media on coal mine fires.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bobo; Zhou, Fubao

    2014-01-01

    The application of liquid nitrogen injection is an important technique in the field of coal mine fire prevention. However, the mechanism of heat and mass transfer of cryogenic nitrogen in the goaf porous medium has not been well accessed. Hence, the implementation of fire prevention engineering of liquid nitrogen roughly relied on an empirical view. According to the research gap in this respect, an experimental study on the heat and mass transfer of liquid nitrogen in coal porous media was proposed. Overall, the main mechanism of liquid nitrogen fire prevention technology in the coal mine is the creation of an inert and cryogenic atmosphere. Cryogenic nitrogen gas vapor cloud, heavier than the air, would cause the phenomenon of "gravity settling" in porous media firstly. The cryogen could be applicable to diverse types of fires, both in the openings and in the enclosures. Implementation of liquid nitrogen open-injection technique in Yangchangwan colliery achieved the goals of fire prevention and air-cooling. Meanwhile, this study can also provide an essential reference for the research on heat and mass transfer in porous media in the field of thermal physics and engineering.

  10. Impact of Heat and Mass Transfer during the Transport of Nitrogen in Coal Porous Media on Coal Mine Fires

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Fubao

    2014-01-01

    The application of liquid nitrogen injection is an important technique in the field of coal mine fire prevention. However, the mechanism of heat and mass transfer of cryogenic nitrogen in the goaf porous medium has not been well accessed. Hence, the implementation of fire prevention engineering of liquid nitrogen roughly relied on an empirical view. According to the research gap in this respect, an experimental study on the heat and mass transfer of liquid nitrogen in coal porous media was proposed. Overall, the main mechanism of liquid nitrogen fire prevention technology in the coal mine is the creation of an inert and cryogenic atmosphere. Cryogenic nitrogen gas vapor cloud, heavier than the air, would cause the phenomenon of “gravity settling” in porous media firstly. The cryogen could be applicable to diverse types of fires, both in the openings and in the enclosures. Implementation of liquid nitrogen open-injection technique in Yangchangwan colliery achieved the goals of fire prevention and air-cooling. Meanwhile, this study can also provide an essential reference for the research on heat and mass transfer in porous media in the field of thermal physics and engineering. PMID:25054173

  11. How to control fugitive dust emissions from coal-fired plants

    SciTech Connect

    Kestner, M.O.

    1987-06-01

    Until coal-mining and -preparation methods are capable of producing a dust-free fuel supply, coal-fired powerplants will require controls for fugitive emissions. Fortunately, dust-control costs pale in comparison to costs for sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and stack particulate controls. Nor do dust controls penalize power production or combustion efficiency, as can the others. In this context, dust control is the least expensive and complex of all the environmental technologies enlisted by coal-fired plants. Coal is dusty by nature and, as fuel-supply departments know, each coal is unique. The dustiness of coal depends primarily on its surface moisture and size distribution. Plants handling dry and fine-particle fuels will have the most severe problems with dust emissions. The susceptibility of the fuel to oxidation and its friability also influence dustiness. Generally, western coals are dustier than eastern coals-the latter being higher rank fuels that are often washed. Western coals usually degrade more rapidly on exposure to the elements during storage, and typically contain less surface moisture.

  12. Fire in the hole - Paging in mines from Pennsylvania to China, coal fires threaten towns, poison air and water, and add to global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Krajick, K.

    2005-05-01

    China has the most coal fires, but India has the largest concentration of them. The effect of coal fires on the once thriving town of Centralia, Pennsylvania is described. There have been eight attempts to put the fire out using different methods (it has been burning for 43 years), but has now been left to burn. It could burn for another 205 years. The population of the town have mostly been relocated.

  13. Development and testing of industrial scale, coal fired combustion system, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.

    1993-02-15

    A major part of the work in this quarter was on the combustor tests in task 2. Three of the six planned tests in this task were completed. The first two were parametric tests of nominal one shift, (8 hour) duration on coal. Due to failure of the UV detector in the first test only several hours of coal fired operation were completed. In the second test, coal fired operation continued for the planned one shift until the 4 ton coal bin was empty. After reviewing this work with DOE, it was decided to focus the remaining test on longer duration operation with each test at one optimum condition. The third test was planned for two shift coal fired operation. Due to a problem with the pilot gas ignitor, combustion was delayed by 5 hours from 7 AM to Noon. As a result coal fired operation was limited to one shift between 3 PM and 11 PM. Throughout this period the combustor remained at one fixed condition with the use of computer control. Results for these three tests are presented in this report. Most of the work on the task 4 design and cost of a 20 MW combined gas-steam turbine power plant using the air cooled combustor was completed in the previous quarter. The results obtained by the A/E subcontractor on the installation desip and cost were evaluated in the present quarter and they are summarized in this report.

  14. Internal Structure of Vitrinite and Sporinite in the View of Micro-FTIR Spectroscopy Using the Example of Coal from the Seam 405 of the Upper-Silesian Coal Basin (USCB)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komorek, Joanna

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the internal structure of vitrinite and sporinite obtained from coal from the seam 405. The examinations were performed with the use of infrared spectroscopy in the micro-area (micro-FTIR). Studies have shown that vitrinite is characterized by lower content of aliphatic components and greater content of aromatic components than sporinite. Sporinite is characterized by longer and less branched aliphatic chains than vitrinite. It was found that vitrinite internal structure is characterized by a greater relative content of aromatic than aliphatic components. The degree of condensation of aromatic rings in structure of vitrinite increases, when the coal rank rises. Studies have shown that the transformation of the vitrinite internal structure towards a structure characterized by a greater degree condensation of aromatic components proceeds at the cost of restructuring the aliphatic groups and is related to the restructuring of the aromatic systems. The structure of sporinite is characterized by a greater participation of aliphatic bonds as compared to aromatic bonds. The relative content of the aliphatic components decreases together with increase of aromatic hydrogen functional group CHar content in the internal structure of sporinite when the coal rank rises. The aliphatic bonds in the sporinite are subject to restructuring. The aliphatic chains are getting increasingly shorter.

  15. Nighttime NOx Chemistry in Coal-Fired Power Plant Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fibiger, D. L.; McDuffie, E. E.; Dube, W. P.; Veres, P. R.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Lee, B. H.; Green, J. R.; Fiddler, M. N.; Ebben, C. J.; Sparks, T.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Montzka, D.; Campos, T. L.; Cohen, R. C.; Bililign, S.; Holloway, J. S.; Thornton, J. A.; Brown, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) play a key role in atmospheric chemistry. During the day, they catalyze ozone (O3) production, while at night they can react to form nitric acid (HNO3) and nitryl chloride (ClNO2) and remove O3 from the atmosphere. These processes are well studied in the summer, but winter measurements are more limited. Coal-fired power plants are a major source of NOx to the atmosphere, making up approximately 30% of emissions in the US (epa.gov). NOx emissions can vary seasonally, as well as plant-to-plant, with important impacts on the details of the plume chemistry. In particular, due to inefficient plume dispersion, nighttime NOx emissions from power plants are held in concentrated plumes, where rates of mixing with ambient O3 have a strong influence on plume evolution. We will show results from the aircraft-based WINTER campaign over the northeastern United States, where several nighttime intercepts of power plant plumes were made. Several of these intercepts show complete O3 titration, which can have a large influence on NOx lifetime, and thus O3 production, in the plume. When power plant NO emissions exceed background O3 levels, O3 is completely consumed converting NO to NO2. In the presence of O3, NO2 will be oxidized to NO3, which will then react with NO2 to form N2O5, which can then form HNO3 and/or ClNO2 and, ultimately, remove NOx from the atmosphere or provide next-day oxidant sources. If there is no O3 present, however, no further chemistry can occur and NO and NO2 will be transported until mixing with sufficient O3 for higher oxidation products. Modeling results of plume development and mixing, which can tell us more about this transport, will also be presented.

  16. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Hong-Shig Shim; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2003-01-30

    This is the tenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NO{sub x} control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, progress was made on the computational simulation of a full-scale boiler with the purpose of understanding the potential impacts of burner operating conditions on soot and NO{sub x} generation. Sulfation tests on both the titania support and vanadia/titania catalysts were completed using BYU's in situ spectroscopy reactor this quarter. These experiments focus on the extent to which vanadia and titania sulfate in an SO{sub 2}-laden, moist environment. Construction of the CCS reactor system is essentially complete and the control hardware and software are largely in place. A large batch of vanadia/titania catalyst in powder form has been prepared for use in poisoning tests. During this quarter, minor modifications were made to the multi-catalyst slipstream reactor and to the control system. The slipstream reactor was installed at AEP's Rockport plant at the end of November 2002. In this report, we describe the reactor system, particularly the control system, which was created by REI specifically for the reactor, as well as the installation at Rockport.

  17. Ash chemistry aspects of straw and coal-straw co-firing in utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Frandsen, F.J.; Nielsen, H.P.; Hansen, L.A.; Hansen, P.F.B.; Andersen, K.H.

    1998-12-31

    Deposits formed in straw-fired grate-boilers showed significant amounts of KCl (40--80% (w/w)) and KCl-coated Ca-Si-rich particles. CFB co-firing of straw and coal caused deposits in the convective pass containing predominantly K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} (50--60% (w/w)) with small amounts of KCl close to the metal surface. In pulverized coal-straw co-fired boilers, deposits almost free of KCl were found. Most of the potassium in these deposits is derived from K-Al-Si-rich fly ash particles and the rest occurs as K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The presence of K-Al-Si-rich fly ash particles indicates that solid residue quality and reuse of fly ash in cement and concrete production rather than deposit formation may be of concern when utilizing straw in pulverized fuel boilers. This paper provides a review of Danish experiences with high-temperature ash deposit formation in the following full-scale utility boilers: Slagelse CHP (31 MWth), Haslev CHP (23 MWth) and Rudkoebing CHP (10.7 MWth), all straw-fired grate-boilers; Grenaa CHP (80 MWth), a coal-straw co-fired Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) boiler; and the Midtkraft-Studstrup Power Station, Unit 1 (380 MWth), a coal-straw co-fired PF-boiler.

  18. A Study on Spreading Direction of Coal-fire Based with TIR Remote Sensing in Wuda Coalfield from 2000 to 2006, Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, H.-Y.; Jiang, X.-G.; Song, X.-F.; Ni, Z.-Y.; Gao, C.-X.; Zhang, Y.-Z.; Liu, L.

    2014-03-01

    Coal fires are a common and serious problem in most coal producing countries. Coal fires could not only lead to a huge loss of non-renewable energy resources, but it also can cause many environmental problems such as GHG emission, land subsidence and increment of surface temperature. So it is very important to monitor the dynamic changes of coal fires. As far as large scale coal field, remote sensing provided researchers with a new and useful technique for coal fire detection. This paper developed a research over coal fire spreading direction using a multi-temporal TIR remote sensing approach. The results successfully showed that the direction of coal fire spreading and predicted the coal fire direction of development on a regional scale or on a whole coal field scale, and a quantitative analysis of coal fires was made in the research. The results showed that the coal fires had an average annual increase of 0.5 million square meters from 1999 to 2006, and the TIR remote sensing proved to be an available tool for coal fire mapping and prediction of coal fire development.

  19. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Kalyan Annamalai; Dr. John Sweeten; Dr. Sayeed Mukhtar

    2000-10-24

    The following are proposed activities for quarter 1 (6/15/00-9/14/00): (1) Finalize the allocation of funds within TAMU to co-principal investigators and the final task lists; (2) Acquire 3 D computer code for coal combustion and modify for cofiring Coal:Feedlot biomass and Coal:Litter biomass fuels; (3) Develop a simple one dimensional model for fixed bed gasifier cofired with coal:biomass fuels; and (4) Prepare the boiler burner for reburn tests with feedlot biomass fuels. The following were achieved During Quarter 5 (6/15/00-9/14/00): (1) Funds are being allocated to co-principal investigators; task list from Prof. Mukhtar has been received (Appendix A); (2) Order has been placed to acquire Pulverized Coal gasification and Combustion 3 D (PCGC-3) computer code for coal combustion and modify for cofiring Coal: Feedlot biomass and Coal: Litter biomass fuels. Reason for selecting this code is the availability of source code for modification to include biomass fuels; (3) A simplified one-dimensional model has been developed; however convergence had not yet been achieved; and (4) The length of the boiler burner has been increased to increase the residence time. A premixed propane burner has been installed to simulate coal combustion gases. First coal, as a reburn fuel will be used to generate base line data followed by methane, feedlot and litter biomass fuels.

  20. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-26

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems'' Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis. The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The specified primary objectives are: NO[sub x] emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; SO[sub x] emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; and particulate emissions not greater than one-half NSPS. The specific secondary objectives are: Improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation; reduced air toxics emissions; increased generating efficiency. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives and a preliminary design of a commercial generation unit.

  1. Effect of occupation on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in coal-fired thermal plant workers

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sandeep; Gill, Manmeet Singh; Gupta, Kapil; Manchanda, KC

    2013-01-01

    Background: Air pollution from coal-fired power units is large and varied, and contributes to a significant number of negative environmental and health effects. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of coal dust-induced toxicity in coal-fired power plants. Aim: The aim of the study was to measure free radical damage and the antioxidant activity in workers exposed to varying levels of coal dust. Material and Methods: The study population consisted of workers in coal handling unit, turbine unit, and boiler unit (n = 50 each), working in thermal power plant; and electricians (n = 50) from same department were taken as controls. Lipid peroxidation was measured by malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and antioxidant activity was determined by superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels. Statistical analysis was carried out by Student's unpaired t-test. Result: MDA levels showed significant increase (P > 0.001) in the thermal power plant workers than the electricians working in the city. The levels of SOD and GPx were significantly higher (P > 0.001) in electricians as compared to subjects working in thermal plant. Among the thermal plant workers, the coal handling unit workers showed significant increase (P > 0.001) in MDA and significant decrease in SOD and GPx than the workers of boiler and turbine unit workers. Conclusion: Oxidative stress due to increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in antioxidant activity results from exposure to coal dust and coal combustion products during thermal plant activities. PMID:24083143

  2. Particle and gas emissions from a simulated coal-burning household fire pit

    SciTech Connect

    Linwei Tian; Donald Lucas; Susan L. Fischer; S. C. Lee; S. Katharine Hammond; Catherine P. Koshland

    2008-04-01

    An open fire was assembled with firebricks to simulate the household fire pit used in rural China, and 15 different coals from this area were burned to measure the gaseous and particulate emissions. Particle size distribution was studied with a microorifice uniform-deposit impactor (MOUDI). Over 90% of the particulate mass was attributed to sub-micrometer particles. The carbon balance method was used to calculate the emission factors. Emission factors for four pollutants (particulate matter, CO{sub 2}, total hydrocarbons, and NOx) were 2-4 times higher for bituminous coals than for anthracites. In past inventories of carbonaceous emissions used for climate modeling, these two types of coal were not treated separately. The dramatic emission factor difference between the two types of coal warrants attention in the future development of emission inventories. 25 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Potential of hybrid geothermal/coal fired power plants in Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The City of Burbank and the Ralph M. Parsons Company studies showed several advantages for hybrid geothermal/coal fired power plants, as follows: (1) the estimated cost of producing electricity in hybrid plant is about 18.3 mills/kWh, compared to 19.3 mills/kWh in an all-coal fired power plant; (2) the coal requirements for a given plant can be reduced about 12 to 17%; and (3) the geothermal brines can be used for power plant cooling water, and in some cases, as boiler feedwater. The pertinent results of the City of Burbank studies are summarized and applied to the geothermal and coal resources of Arizona for possible future utilization.

  4. Design and implementation of a pulverised coal flow monitoring system for coal-fired power plant applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Xiangchen; Hu, Yonghui; Huang, Xiaobin; Yan, Yong

    2014-04-01

    On-line continuous monitoring of pulverised coal in fuel injection pipelines will allow power plant operators to understand fuel conveying conditions and ultimately to achieve higher combustion efficiency and lower pollutant emissions. This paper presents the design, implementation and trials of an instrumentation system for on-line non-intrusive measurement of pulverised coal in a power plant environment. An array of three identical electrostatic electrodes is housed in a sensing head to determine multiple measurement results from different electrode pairs. Flow parameters such as flow velocity, relative mass flow rate and fuel distribution between injection pipes can be obtained by fusing the multiple results. On-plant trials on 488 mm bore pneumatic conveying pipelines at a 600 MW coal-fired power plant were undertaken following preliminary system evaluation tests on a 50 mm bore laboratory test rig. Experimental results demonstrate that monitoring of pulverised coal flow is achieved using the developed instrumentation system under real industrial conditions. The developed technology is likely to find immediate applications, leading to improved performance of coal-fired power plants, efficient use of fuel, and subsequent reductions in emissions.

  5. As, Hg, and Se flue gas sampling in a coal-fired power plant and their fate during coal combustion.

    PubMed

    Otero-Rey, José R; López-Vilariño, José M; Moreda-Piñeiro, Jorge; Alonso-Rodríguez, Elia; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; López-Mahía, Purificación; Prada-Rodríguez, Darío

    2003-11-15

    As, Hg, and Se are the most volatile elements in the flue gas from a coal-fired power plant. Significant amounts of these elements cause an undesired direct gaseous emission, which leads to a serious environmental health risk. The main focus of this study is to evaluate the possibility of simultaneous sampling of these volatile elements using an accurate official method for Hg (the most volatile element). A study of As, Hg, and Se emissions from a 1400 MW coal-fired power plant equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) was carried out for the combustion of a mixture of two types of coal. Simultaneous sampling of coal, bottom ash, fly ash, flue gas, and particles associated with the gas phase has been performed. Flue gas has been sampled by the Ontario Hydro Method Sampling Train, an ASTM method for Hg speciation. This sampling method was tested for As and Se sampling. As and Se determinations have been performed by HG-AAS, and Hg has been determined by CV-AAS. The results were used to examine the following: overall mass balances, relative distribution of these elements in the coal-fired power plant; As, Hg, and Se concentrations in coal and combustion residues; and predominant oxidation state for Hg in flue gas. The mass balances obtained for As, Hg, and Se were satisfactory in all cases; nevertheless, relative enrichment values in fly ash for As and Se were low; therefore, we concluded that As sampling in flue gas can be conducted by application of the Ontario Hydro Method; nevertheless Se released in the gas phase is not completely collected by this sampling train. Application of this sampling method allowed for performance of Hg speciation. The results indicated that Hg(II) was the predominant species in flue gas. It has also been proved that 24%, more than 99.8%, and 90% for As, Hg, and Se in the stack emissions, respectively, were in the gaseous phase.

  6. Characterization of pressurized fluidized bed and pulverized coal fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Doss, H.S.; Pietruszkiewicz, J.; Thomas, G.O.; Hamm, J.R.; Bezella, W.A.

    1984-01-01

    This paper presents the major technical and economic characteristics of a steam-cooled and an air-cooled pressurized fluidized bed (PFB) power plant concept along with the characteristics of a pulverized coal fired power plant equipped with an adipic acid enhanced wet-limestone flue gas desulfurization system. The conceptual designs were prepared to satisfy a set of common groundrules that were developed for the study. The power plants are of the grassroots type, located on a generic plant site. The designs incorporate technological advances available for commercialization in the 1990 time frame. The net power outputs of the base case plants, using Illinois No. 6 coal, range from 502 MWe for the pulverized coal fired plant to 554 MWe for the air-cooled PFB plant. The net power plant heat rates vary from 9725 Btu/kWh for the pulverized coal fired plant to 8710 Btu/kWh for the steam-cooled PFB plant. For the economic groundrules set for the study, the pulverized coal fired plant utilizing an advanced flue gas desulfurization concept had the lowest specific capital cost and lowest levelized cost of electricity. However, utility and site specific conditions could materially alter the relative merits of the various concepts in a given utility application.

  7. Estimation of NO{sub x} emissions from pulverized coal-fired utility boilers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wildman, D.J.; Smouse, S.M.

    1995-05-01

    The formation of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) during pulverized-coal combustion in utility boilers is governed by many factors, including the boiler`s design characteristics and operating conditions, and coal properties. Presently, no simple, reliable method is publicly available to estimate NO{sub x} emissions from any coal-fired boiler. A neural network back-propagation algorithm was previously developed using a small data set of boiler design characteristics and operating conditions, and coal properties for tangentially fired boilers. This initial effort yielded sufficient confidence in the use of neural network data analysis techniques to expand the data base to other boiler firing modes. A new neural network-based algorithm has been developed for all major pulverized coal-firing modes (wall, opposed-wall, cell, and tangential) that accurately predicts NO{sub x} emissions using 11 readily available data inputs. A sensitivity study, which was completed for all major input parameters, yielded results that agree with conventional wisdom and practical experience. This new algorithm is being used by others, including the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). EPRI has included the algorithm in its new software for making emissions compliance decisions, the Clean Air Technology Workstation.

  8. CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING OF THE FORMS OF MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis L. Laudal

    2001-08-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) required the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine whether the presence of mercury in the stack emissions from fossil fuel-fired electric utility power plants poses an unacceptable public health risk. EPA's conclusions and recommendations were presented in the Mercury Study Report to Congress (1) and the Utility Air Toxics Report to Congress (1). The first report addressed both the human health and environmental effects of anthropogenic mercury emissions, while the second addressed the risk to public health posed by the emission of mercury and other hazardous air pollutants from steam-electric generating units. Given the current state of the art, these reports did not state that mercury controls on coal-fired electric power stations would be required. However, they did indicate that EPA views mercury as a potential threat to human health. In fact, in December 2000, the EPA issued an intent to regulate for mercury from coal-fired boilers. However, it is clear that additional research needs to be done in order to develop economical and effective mercury control strategies. To accomplish this objective, it is necessary to understand mercury behavior in coal-fired power plants. The markedly different chemical and physical properties of the different mercury forms generated during coal combustion appear to impact the effectiveness of various mercury control strategies. The original Characterization and Modeling of the Forms of Mercury from Coal-Fired Power Plants project had two tasks. The first was to collect enough data such that mercury speciation could be predicted based on relatively simple inputs such as coal analyses and plant configuration. The second was to field-validate the Ontario Hydro mercury speciation method (at the time, it had only been validated at the pilot-scale level). However, after sampling at two power plants (the Ontario Hydro method was validated at one of them), the EPA issued an

  9. Coal Seam Methane Pressure as a Parameter Determining the Level of the Outburst Risk - Laboratory and in Situ Research / Ciśnienie Złożowe Jako Parametr Określający Stan Zagrożenia Wyrzutami Metanu I Skał - Badania Laboratoryjne I Kopalniane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skoczylas, Norbert

    2012-12-01

    Scarcity of research focusing on the evaluation of the coal seam methane pressure as a parameter determining the outburst risk makes it difficult to assess the value for which the level of this risk increases considerably. It is obvious that, apart from the gas factor, the evaluation of the threat should also take into account the strength factor. The research presented in this paper attempted at estimating the level of the outburst risk on the basis of the coal seam methane pressure value and firmness of coal. In this work, the author seeks to present both the relevant laboratory research and the measurements carried out in mines.

  10. Depositional history of the Fire Clay coal bed (Late Duckmantian), Eastern Kentucky, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greb, S.F.; Eble, C.F.; Hower, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    More than 3800 coal thickness measurements, proximate analyses from 97 localities, and stratigraphic and sedimentological analyses from more than 300 outcrops and cores were used in conjunction with previously reported palynological and petrographic studies to map individual benches of the coal and document bench-scale variability in the Fire Clay (Hazard No. 4) coal bed across a 1860 km2 area of the Eastern Kentucky Coal Field. The bench architecture of the Fire Clay coal bed consists of uncommon leader benches, a persistent but variable lower bench, a widespread, and generally thick upper bench, and local, variable rider benches. Rheotrophic conditions are inferred for the leader benches and lower bench based on sedimentological associations, mixed palynomorph assemblages, locally common cannel coal layers, and generally high ash yields. The lower bench consistently exhibits vertical variability in petrography and palynology that reflects changing trophic conditions as topographic depressions infilled. Infilling also led to unconfined flooding and ultimately the drowning of the lower bench mire. The drowned mire was covered by an air-fall volcanic-ash deposit, which produced the characteristic flint clay parting. The extent and uniform thickness of the parting suggests that the ash layer was deposited in water on a relatively flat surface without a thick canopy or extensive standing vegetation across most of the study area. Ash deposits led to regional ponding and establishment of a second planar mire. Because the topography had become a broadly uniform, nutrient-rich surface, upper-bench peats became widespread with large areas of the mire distant to clastic sources. Vertical sections of thick (> 70 cm), low-ash yield, upper coal bench show a common palynomorph change from arborescent lycopod dominance upward to fern and densospore-producing, small lycopod dominance, inferred as a shift from planar to ombrotrophic mire phases. Domed mires appear to have been

  11. Comparison of the energy and environmental performances of nine biomass/coal co-firing pathways.

    PubMed

    Kabir, Md Ruhul; Kumar, Amit

    2012-11-01

    Life cycle energy and environmental performances of nine different biomass/coal co-firing pathways to power generation were compared. Agricultural residue (AR), forest residue (FR), and whole trees (WT) as feedstock were analyzed for direct (DC) and parallel co-firing (PC) in various forms (e.g., chip, bale and pellet). Biomass co-firing rate lies in the range of 7.53-20.45% (energy basis; rest of the energy comes from coal) for the co-firing pathways, depending on type of feedstock and densification. Net energy ratios (NER) for FR-, WT-, and AR-based co-firing pathways were 0.39-0.42, 0.39-0.41, and 0.37-0.38, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions were 957-1004, 967-1014, and 1065-1083 kg CO(2eq)/MWh, acid rain precursor (ARP) emissions were 5.16-5.39, 5.18-5.41, and 5.77-5.93 kgSO(2eq)/MWh, and ground level ozone precursor (GOP) emissions were 1.79-1.89, 1.82-1.93, and 1.88-1.91 kg (NO(x)+VOC)/MWh, respectively. Biomass/coal co-firing life cycle results evaluated in this study are relevant for any jurisdiction around the world.

  12. Climate control on Quaternary coal fires and landscape evolution, Powder River basin, Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Riihimaki, C.A.; Reiners, P.W.; Heffern, E.L.

    2009-03-15

    Late Cenozoic stream incision and basin excavation have strongly influenced the modern Rocky Mountain landscape, but constraints on the timing and rates of erosion are limited. The geology of the Powder River basin provides an unusually good opportunity to address spatial and temporal patterns of stream incision. Numerous coal seams in the Paleocene Fort Union and Eocene Wasatch Formations within the basin have burned during late Cenozoic incision, as coal was exposed to dry and oxygen-rich near-surface conditions. The topography of this region is dominated by hills capped with clinker, sedimentary rocks metamorphosed by burning of underlying coal beds. We use (U-Th)/He ages of clinker to determine times of relatively rapid erosion, with the assumption that coal must be near Earth's surface to burn. Ages of 55 in situ samples range from 0.007 to 1.1 Ma. Clinker preferentially formed during times in which eccentricity of the Earth's orbit was high, times that typically but not always correlate with interglacial periods. Our data therefore suggest that rates of landscape evolution in this region are affected by climate fluctuations. Because the clinker ages correlate better with eccentricity time series than with an oxygen isotope record of global ice volume, we hypothesize that variations in solar insolation modulated by eccentricity have a larger impact on rates of landscape evolution in this region than do glacial-interglacial cycles.

  13. 76 FR 23768 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... Utility Steam Generating Units and Standards of Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired Electric Utility... Performance for Fossil-Fuel-Fired Electric Utility, Industrial- Commercial-Institutional, and Small Industrial... Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric Utility Steam Generating Units and Standards of Performance for...

  14. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.; McGowan, J.G.

    1995-12-31

    The development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 and the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment. Economics may one day dictate that it makes sense to replace oil or natural gas with coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn these fuels. The objective of the current program is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of this overall objective, the following specific areas were targeted: A coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb/MBtu; Achieving combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and Calculating economic payback periods as a function of key variables. The overall program has consisted of five major tasks: (1) A review of current state-of-the-art coal firing system components; (2) Design and experimental testing of a prototype HEACC burner; (3) Installation and testing of a HEACC system in a commercial retrofit application; (4) Economic evaluation of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications; and (5) Long term demonstration under commercial user demand conditions. This paper will summarize the latest key experimental results (Task 3) and the economic evaluation (Task 4) of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications. 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital waste

    SciTech Connect

    Coulthard, E.J.; Roy, R.R.

    1992-05-29

    The unit to be installed at Lebanon Veteran's Affairs Medical Center will prove that circulating fluidized bed combustion can provide economically viable and efficient hospital waste destruction and steam generation. The State permitting process is proceeding. The air quality division of the Department of Environmental Resources has requested the use of anthracite coal only. Anthracite has a much lower sulfur content than bituminous coal. The use of the anthracite coal has been approved by the Department of Veteran's Affairs. The DER permit will specify the use of antrhacite coal. The State permitting approval is expected in the near future. Testing with the shredding system at the Donlee Pilot facility has been completed. The results predict the Lebanon VA facility will meet both NSPS regulations and the BAT guidelines proposed by the State of Pennsylvania. There have been no significant problems encountered to date.

  16. CONTROL OF NOX EMISSIONS FROM U.S. COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from U.S. coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: In general, NOx control technologies are categorized as being either primary or secondary control technologies. Primary technologies reduce the amount of NOx pr...

  17. DOE/NETL's field tests of mercury control technologies for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Feeley; James Murphy; Lynn Brickett; Andrew O'Palko

    2005-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) is conducting a comprehensive research and development program directed at advancing the performance and economics of mercury control technologies for coal-fired power plants. This article presents results from ongoing full-scale and slipstream field tests of several mercury control technologies. 15 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT INJECTION TECHNOLOGY ON A TANGENTIALLY COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILER (YORKTOWN LIMB DEMONSTRATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes activities conducted and results achieved in an EPA-sponsored program to demonstrate Limestone Injection Multistage Burner (LIMB) technology on a tangentially fired coal-burning utility boiler, Virginia Power's 180-MWe Yorktown Unit No. 2. his successfully d...

  19. APPLICATION OF REBURNING TO COAL-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILERS IN TAIWAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives an overview of the characteristics of coal-fired industrial boilers in Taiwan and projections of the cost and performance data for retrofitting several boilers with reburning. The impacts of reburning fuel type on the reburning system design and cost effectivenes...

  20. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING OF MERCURY CONTROL IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the existing knowledge base applicable to mercury (Hg) control in coal-fired boilers and outlines the gaps in knowledge that can be filled by experimentation and data gathering. Mercury can be controlled by existing air pollution control devices or by retrofit...

  1. Control of mercury emissions from coal fired electric uitlity boilers: An update

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coal-fired power plants in the U.S. are known to be the major anthropogenic source of domestic mercury emissions. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently proposed to reduce emissions of mercury from these plants. In March 2005, EPA plans to promulgate final regulat...

  2. Evaluation of air toxic emissions from advanced and conventional coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, P.; Epstein, M.; Gould, L.; Botros, P.

    1995-12-31

    This paper evaluates the air toxics measurements at three advanced power systems and a base case conventional fossil fuel power plant. The four plants tested include a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, integrated gasification combined cycle, circulating fluidized bed combustor, and a conventional coal-fired plant.

  3. MENU OF NOX EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews NOx control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, revision of the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for NOx emissions from utility sources, and Ozone Transpor...

  4. Nitrogen oxides emission control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ravi K; Hall, Robert E; Khan, Sikander; Culligan, Kevin; Lani, Bruce W

    2005-09-01

    Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increasingly important to implement state-of-the-art NOx control technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NOx control options for these boilers. It discusses the established commercial primary and secondary control technologies and examines what is being done to use them more effectively. Furthermore, the paper discusses recent developments in NOx controls. The popular primary control technologies in use in the United States are low-NOx burners and overfire air. Data reflect that average NOx reductions for specific primary controls have ranged from 35% to 63% from 1995 emissions levels. The secondary NOx control technologies applied on U.S. coal-fired utility boilers include reburning, selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Thirty-six U.S. coal-fired utility boilers have installed SNCR, and reported NOx reductions achieved at these applications ranged from 15% to 66%. Recently, SCR has been installed at >150 U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. Data on the performance of 20 SCR systems operating in the United States with low-NOx emissions reflect that in 2003, these units achieved NOx emission rates between 0.04 and 0.07 lb/10(6) Btu.

  5. PROTOTYPE SCALE TESTING OF LIMB TECHNOLOGY FOR A PULVERIZED-COAL-FIRED BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes results of an evaluation of furnace sorbent injection (FSI) to control sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. (NOTE: FSI of calcium-based sorbents has shown promise as a moderate SO2 removal technology.) The Electric Power Research I...

  6. EPA Research Highlights: Minimizing SO3 Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    There have been substantial reductions in emissions of particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide through the application of control technologies and strategies. The installation of control technologies has added to the complexity of coal-fired boilers and their ope...

  7. NOVEL ECONOMICAL HG(0) OXIDATION REAGENT FOR MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have developed a novel economical additive for elemental mercury (Hg0) removal from coal-fired boilers. The oxidation reagent was rigorously tested in a lab-scale fixed-bed column with the Norit America's FGD activated carbon (DOE's benchmark sorbent) in a typical PRB...

  8. NOVEL MERCURY OXIDANT AND SORBENT FOR MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have successfully developed novel efficient and cost-effective sorbent and oxidant for removing mercury from power plant flue gases. These sorbent and oxidant offer great promise for controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants burning a wide range of c...

  9. Co-combustion of solid recovered fuels in coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Thiel, Stephanie; Thomé-Kozmiensky, Karl Joachim

    2012-04-01

    Currently, in ten coal-fired power plants in Germany solid recovered fuels from mixed municipal waste and production-specific commercial waste are co-combusted and experiments have been conducted at other locations. Overall, in 2010 approximately 800,000 tonnes of these solid recovered fuels were used. In the coming years up to 2014 a slight decline in the quantity of materials used in co-combustions is expected. The co-combustion activities are in part significantly influenced by increasing power supply from renewable sources of energy and their impact on the regime of coal-fired power plants usage. Moreover, price trends of CO₂ allowances, solid recovered fuels as well as imported coal also have significant influence. In addition to the usage of solid recovered fuels with biogenic content, the co-combustion of pure renewable biofuels has become more important in coal-fired power plants. The power plant operators make high demands on the quality of solid recovered fuels. As the operational experience shows, a set of problems may be posed by co-combustion. The key factors in process engineering are firing technique and corrosion. A significant ecological key factor is the emission of pollutants into the atmosphere. The results of this study derive from research made on the basis of an extensive literature search as well as a survey on power plant operators in Germany. The data from operators was updated in spring 2011.

  10. Does proximity to coal-fired power plants influence fish tissue mercury?

    PubMed

    Sackett, Dana K; Aday, D Derek; Rice, James A; Cope, W Gregory; Buchwalter, David

    2010-11-01

    Much of the mercury contamination in aquatic biota originates from coal-fired power plants, point sources that release mercury into the atmosphere. Understanding mercury dynamics is primarily important because of the toxic threat mercury poses to wildlife and humans through the consumption of contaminated fish. In this study, we quantified the relative importance of proximity to coal-fired power plants on mercury accumulation in two fish species of different trophic positions. Fish, water and sediment were collected and analyzed from 14 lakes, seven near to (<10 km) and seven far from (>30 km) coal-fired power plants. Lower tissue mercury and higher tissue selenium concentrations were measured in fish collected near power plants. Moreover, mercury accumulation in fish was driven by biotic characteristics (e.g., trophic position, total length, age), waterbody characteristics (e.g., pH, dissolved organic carbon and sulfate) and distance from power plants. Proximity to an atmospheric point-source of mercury and selenium, such as a coal-fired power plant, affects the quantities of mercury and selenium accumulated in fish tissue. Differences in accumulation are hypothesized to be driven in part by selenium-mitigated reductions in fish tissue mercury near power plants. Although reduced fish tissue mercury in systems near power plants may decrease mercury-specific risks to human consumers, these benefits are highly localized and the relatively high selenium associated with these tissues may compromise ecological health.

  11. Characteristics of NOx emission from Chinese coal-fired power plants equipped with new technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zizhen; Deng, Jianguo; Li, Zhen; Li, Qing; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Liguo; Sun, Yezhu; Zheng, Hongxian; Pan, Li; Zhao, Shun; Jiang, Jingkun; Wang, Shuxiao; Duan, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Coal combustion in coal-fired power plants is one of the important anthropogenic NOx sources, especially in China. Many policies and methods aiming at reducing pollutants, such as increasing installed capacity and installing air pollution control devices (APCDs), especially selective catalytic reduction (SCR) units, could alter NOx emission characteristics (NOx concentration, NO2/NOx ratio, and NOx emission factor). This study reported the NOx characteristics of eight new coal-fired power-generating units with different boiler patterns, installed capacities, operating loads, and coal types. The results showed that larger units produced less NOx, and anthracite combustion generated more NOx than bitumite and lignite combustion. During formation, the NOx emission factors varied from 1.81 to 6.14 g/kg, much lower than those of older units at similar scales. This implies that NOx emissions of current and future units could be overestimated if they are based on outdated emission factors. In addition, APCDs, especially SCR, greatly decreased NOx emissions, but increased NO2/NOx ratios. Regardless, the NO2/NOx ratios were lower than 5%, in accordance with the guidelines and supporting the current method for calculating NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants that ignore NO2.

  12. [Comprehensive fuzzy evaluation of nitrogen oxide control technologies for coal-fired power plants].

    PubMed

    Yu, Chao; Wang, Shu-xiao; Hao, Ji-ming

    2010-07-01

    A multi-level assessment index system was established to quantitatively and comprehensively evaluate the performance of typical nitrogen oxide control technologies for coal-fired power plants. Comprehensive fuzzy evaluation was conducted to assess six NO, control technologies, including low NO, burner (LNB), over the fire (OFA), flue gas reburning (Reburning), selective catalyst reduction (SCR), selective non-catalyst reduction (SNCR) and hybrid SCR/SNCR. Case studies indicated that combination of SCR and LNB are the optimal choice for wall-fired boilers combusting anthracite coal which requires NO, removal efficiency to be over 70%, however, for W-flame or tangential boilers combusting bituminous and sub-bituminous coal which requires 30% NO, removal, LNB and reburning are better choices. Therefore, we recommend that in the developed and ecological frangible regions, large units burning anthracite or meager coal should install LNB and SCR and other units should install LNB and SNCR. In the regions with environmental capacity, units burning anthracite or meager coal shall install LNB and SNCR, and other units shall apply LNB to reduce NO, emissions.

  13. Conceptual design of a coal-fired MHD retrofit. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-01

    Coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) technology is ready for its next level of development - an integrated demonstration at a commercial scale. The development and testing of MHD has shown its potential to be the most efficient, least costly, and cleanest way to burn coal. Test results have verified a greater than 99% removal of sulphur with a potential for greater than 60% efficiency. This development and testing, primarily funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has progressed through the completion of its proof-of-concept (POC) phase at the 50 MWt Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) and 28 MWt Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), thereby, providing the basis for demonstration and further commercial development and application of the technology. The conceptual design of a retrofit coal-fired MHD generating plant was originally completed by the MHD Development Corporation (MDC) under this Contract, DE-AC22-87PC79669. Thereafter, this concept was updated and changed to a stand-alone MHD demonstration facility and submitted by MDC to DOE in response to the fifth round of solicitations for Clean Coal Technology. Although not selected, that activity represents the major interest in commercialization by the developing industry and the type of demonstration that would be eventually necessary. This report updates the original executive summary of the conceptual design by incorporating the results of the POC program as well as MDC`s proposed Billings MHD Demonstration Project (BMDP) and outlines the steps necessary for commercialization.

  14. Oxygen-Fired CO{sub 2} Recycle for Application to Direct CO{sub 2} Capture form Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Gale

    2010-09-26

    The Southern Research/Southern Company 1 MWth Pilot-Scale Coal-Fired Test Facility was successfully retrofit to fire in either the traditional air-fired mode or with 100% oxygen and recycled flue gas, with a fully integrated feedback and control system, including oxygen and recycled flue gas modulation during startup, transfer, and shutdown, safety and operational interlocks, and data acquisition. A MAXON Staged Oxygen Burner for Oxy-Coal Applications produced a stable flame over a significant range of firing turn-down, staging, and while firing five different U.S. coal types. The MAXON burner design produces lower flame temperatures than for air firing, which will enable (A) Safe operation, (B) Reduction of recycle flow without concern about furnace flame temperatures, and (C) May likely be affective at reducing slagging and fouling in the boiler and super heater at full-scale Power Plants. A CFD model of the Oxy-fired Combustion Research Facility (OCRF) was used to predict the flame geometry and temperatures in the OCRF and make a comparison with the air-fired case. The model predictions were consistent with the experimental data in showing that the MAXON burner fired with oxygen produced lower flame temperatures than the air-fired burner while firing with air.

  15. Managing land application of coal seam water: A field study of land amendment irrigation using saline-sodic and alkaline water on a Red Vertisol.

    PubMed

    Bennett, J McL; Marchuk, A; Raine, S R; Dalzell, S A; Macfarlane, D C

    2016-12-15

    Coal seam (CS) gas operations coproduce water with gas from confined CS aquifers. This CS water represents a potential agricultural resource if the water is able to be chemically amended to comply with management guidelines. Stoichiometric quantities of sulphur and gypsum amendments can be used to neutralise the alkalinity and reduce the sodicity of CS water respectively. These amendments can either be mixed in-line at a water treatment plant or applied directly to land prior to the application of CS water (a practice termed land amendment irrigation - LAI). This study compared the efficacy of LAI with in-line chemical amendment of CS water and irrigation with non-saline, non-sodic and non-alkaline (good quality) water under field conditions in southern Queensland. Soil chemical properties, soluble Ca, Mg, K, Na, electrical conductivity (EC), pH, chloride and alkalinity, as well as saturated hydraulic conductivity were measured to determine the impact of the irrigation treatments on soil chemical and physical conditions. Irrigation of lucerne pasture using solid-set sprinklers applied a total of 6.7 ML/ha of each treatment irrigation water to the experimental plots over a 10-month period. Alkalinity was neutralised using LAI, with no increase in soil alkalinity observed. Soil sodicity did not exceed threshold electrolyte concentration values under either CS water irrigation treatment. Soil chemical and physical properties were comparable for both LAI and in-line chemical amendment of CS water. Soil saturated hydraulic conductivity was maintained under all irrigation treatments. Results showed that the constrained capacity of the irrigation system was unable to meet crop evapotranspiration demand. This resulted in accumulation of salt within the root-zone under the CS water treatments compared to the good quality water treatment. LAI successfully chemically amended Bowen Basin CS water facilitating its beneficial use for agricultural irrigation.

  16. Groundwater methane in relation to oil and gas development and shallow coal seams in the Denver-Julesburg Basin of Colorado

    PubMed Central

    Sherwood, Owen A.; Rogers, Jessica D.; Lackey, Greg; Burke, Troy L.; Osborn, Stephen G.; Ryan, Joseph N.

    2016-01-01

    Unconventional oil and gas development has generated intense public concerns about potential impacts to groundwater quality. Specific pathways of contamination have been identified; however, overall rates of contamination remain ambiguous. We used an archive of geochemical data collected from 1988 to 2014 to determine the sources and occurrence of groundwater methane in the Denver-Julesburg Basin of northeastern Colorado. This 60,000-km2 region has a 60-y-long history of hydraulic fracturing, with horizontal drilling and high-volume hydraulic fracturing beginning in 2010. Of 924 sampled water wells in the basin, dissolved methane was detected in 593 wells at depths of 20–190 m. Based on carbon and hydrogen stable isotopes and gas molecular ratios, most of this methane was microbially generated, likely within shallow coal seams. A total of 42 water wells contained thermogenic stray gas originating from underlying oil and gas producing formations. Inadequate surface casing and leaks in production casing and wellhead seals in older, vertical oil and gas wells were identified as stray gas migration pathways. The rate of oil and gas wellbore failure was estimated as 0.06% of the 54,000 oil and gas wells in the basin (lower estimate) to 0.15% of the 20,700 wells in the area where stray gas contamination occurred (upper estimate) and has remained steady at about two cases per year since 2001. These results show that wellbore barrier failure, not high-volume hydraulic fracturing in horizontal wells, is the main cause of thermogenic stray gas migration in this oil- and gas-producing basin. PMID:27402747

  17. Groundwater methane in relation to oil and gas development and shallow coal seams in the Denver-Julesburg Basin of Colorado.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Owen A; Rogers, Jessica D; Lackey, Greg; Burke, Troy L; Osborn, Stephen G; Ryan, Joseph N

    2016-07-26

    Unconventional oil and gas development has generated intense public concerns about potential impacts to groundwater quality. Specific pathways of contamination have been identified; however, overall rates of contamination remain ambiguous. We used an archive of geochemical data collected from 1988 to 2014 to determine the sources and occurrence of groundwater methane in the Denver-Julesburg Basin of northeastern Colorado. This 60,000-km(2) region has a 60-y-long history of hydraulic fracturing, with horizontal drilling and high-volume hydraulic fracturing beginning in 2010. Of 924 sampled water wells in the basin, dissolved methane was detected in 593 wells at depths of 20-190 m. Based on carbon and hydrogen stable isotopes and gas molecular ratios, most of this methane was microbially generated, likely within shallow coal seams. A total of 42 water wells contained thermogenic stray gas originating from underlying oil and gas producing formations. Inadequate surface casing and leaks in production casing and wellhead seals in older, vertical oil and gas wells were identified as stray gas migration pathways. The rate of oil and gas wellbore failure was estimated as 0.06% of the 54,000 oil and gas wells in the basin (lower estimate) to 0.15% of the 20,700 wells in the area where stray gas contamination occurred (upper estimate) and has remained steady at about two cases per year since 2001. These results show that wellbore barrier failure, not high-volume hydraulic fracturing in horizontal wells, is the main cause of thermogenic stray gas migration in this oil- and gas-producing basin.

  18. Superclean coal-water slurry combustion testing in an oil-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, B.G.; Poe, R.L.; Morrison, J.L.; Xie, Jianyang; Walsh, P.M.; Schobert, H.H.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1992-05-29

    The Pennsylvania State University is conducting a superclean coal-water slurry (SCCWS) program for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania with the objective of determining the capability of effectively firing SCCWS in an industrial boiler designed for oil. Penn State has entered into a cooperative agreement with DOE to determine if SCCWS (a fuel containing coal with less than 3.0 wt.% ash and 0.9 wt.% sulfur) can effectively be burned in an oil-designed industrial boiler without adverse impact on boiler rating, maintainability, reliability, and availability. The project will provide information on the design of new systems specifically configured to fire these clean coal-based fuels.

  19. USA B and W`s IR-CFB coal-fired boiler operating experiences

    SciTech Connect

    Kavidass, S.; Maryamchik, M.; Kanoria, M.; Price, C.S.

    1998-12-31

    This paper updates operating experience of two Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) coal-fired, internal recirculation circulating fluidized-bed (IR-CFB) boilers. The first boiler is located at Southern Illinois University (SIU) in Carbondale, Illinois and is designed for 35 MWt output for cogeneration application, utilizing high sulfur, low ash Illinois coal. The second boiler is located at Kanoria Chemicals and Industries Ltd. (KCIL) in Renukoot, India and is designed for 81 MWt output for captive power requirements, firing high ash, low sulfur coal. This boiler was supplied by Thermax B and W (TBW) Ltd., a joint venture company of B and W and Thermax in India. The CFB technology is selected for these two units based on the fuel and environmental considerations. This paper discusses the various aspects of the two IR-CFB boilers` design features, performance, and operating experience including emissions.

  20. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Temi Linjewile; Connie Senior; Eric Eddings; Kevin Whitty; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-03-31

    This is the fifteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. At AEP's Gavin Plant, data from the corrosion probes showed that corrosion rate increased as boiler load was increased. During an outage at the plant, the drop in boiler load, sensor temperature and corrosion rate could all be seen clearly. Restarting the boiler saw a resumption of corrosion activity. This behavior is consistent with previous observations made at a 600MWe utility boiler. More data are currently being examined for magnitudes of corrosion rates and changes in boiler operating conditions. Considerable progress was made this quarter in BYU's laboratory study of catalyst deactivation. Surface sulfation appears to partially suppress NO adsorption when the catalyst is not exposed to NH3; NH3 displaces surface-adsorbed NO on SCR catalysts and surface sulfation increases the amount of adsorbed NH3, as confirmed by both spectroscopy and TPD experiments. However, there is no indication of changes in catalyst activity despite changes in the amount of adsorbed NH3. A monolith test reactor (MTR), completed this quarter, provided the first comparative data for one of the fresh and field-exposed monolith SCR catalysts yet developed in this project. Measurements of activity on one of the field-exposed commercial monolith catalysts do not show significant changes in catalyst activity (within experimental error) as compared to the fresh catalyst. The exposed surface of the sample contains large amounts of Ca and Na, neither of which is present in the fresh sample, even after removal of visibly obvious fouling deposits. However, these fouling compounds do not

  1. Use of foaming mud cement to terminate underground coal fires and to control subsidence of burn cavities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lucero, R.F.

    1988-09-29

    Foaming Mud Cement (FMC) is a class of materials related to cellular cement studied and developed for the purpose of addressing Abandoned Mine Land problems. During the 2-year program, significant advances were made using a specific methodology that properly employed will enable the successful termination of many surface and underground coal mine fires. Fundamental but key developments attained were: the ability to effectively isolate burning coal from the available air by effectively penetrating burning coal rubble with heat-resistive FMC and encapsulating and isolation of a wide range of coal particle sizes, resulting in permanent coal-fire termination by air exclusion. The materials developed were specifically designed to terminate underground coal fires and preventing further subsidence.

  2. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is actively pursuing the development and testing of coal-fired combustion systems for residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. In response, MTCI initiated the development of a new combustor technology based on the principle of pulse combustion under the sponsorship of PETC (Contract No. AC22-83PC60419). The initial pulse combustor development program was conducted in three phases (MTCI, Development of a Pulsed Coal Combustor Fired with CWM, Phase III Final Report, DOE Contract No. AC22-83PC60419, November 1986). Phase I included a review of the prior art in the area of pulse combustion and the development of pulse combustor design concepts. It led to the conclusion that pulse combustors offer technical and base-of-operation advantages over conventional burners and also indicated favorable economics for replacement of oil- and gas-fired equipment.

  3. [Emission Characteristics of Water-Soluble Ions in Fumes of Coal Fired Boilers in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue-qi; Ma, Zhao-hui; Feng, Ya-jun; Wang, Chen; Chen, Yuan-yuan; He, Ming

    2015-06-01

    Selecting coal fired boilers with typical flue gas desulfurization and dust extraction systems in Beijing as the study objects, the issues and characteristics of the water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers and theirs influence factors were analyzed and evaluated. The maximum mass concentration of total water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers in Beijing was 51.240 mg x m(-3) in the benchmark fume oxygen content, the minimum was 7.186 mg x m(-3), and the issues of the water-soluble ions were uncorrelated with the fume moisture content. SO4(2-) was the primary characteristic water-soluble ion for desulfurization reaction, and the rate of contribution of SO4(2-) in total water-soluble ions ranged from 63.8% to 81.0%. F- was another characteristic water-soluble ion in fumes of thermal power plant, and the rate of contribution of F- in total water-soluble ions ranged from 22.2% to 32.5%. The fume purification technologies significantly influenced the issues and the emission characteristics of water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers. Na+ was a characteristic water-soluble ion for the desulfurizer NaOH, NH4+ and NO3+ were characteristic for the desulfurizer NH4HCO3, and Mg2+ was characteristic for the desulfurizer MgO, but the Ca2+ emission was not increased by addition of the desulfurizer CaO or CaCO3 The concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- in fumes of thermal power plant were lower than those in fumes of industrial or heating coal fired boilers. The form of water-soluble ions was significantly correlated with fume temperature. The most water-soluble ions were in superfine state at higher fume temperature and were not easily captured by the filter membrane.

  4. Control strategies of atmospheric mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hezhong; Wang, Yan; Cheng, Ke; Qu, Yiping; Hao, Jiming; Xue, Zhigang; Chai, Fahe

    2012-05-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) emission from coal is one of the primary sources of anthropogenic discharge and pollution. China is one of the few countries in the world whose coal consumption constitutes about 70% of total primary energy, and over half of coals are burned directly for electricity generation. Atmospheric emissions of Hg and its speciation from coal-fired power plants are of great concern owing to their negative impacts on regional human health and ecosystem risks, as well as long-distance transport. In this paper, recent trends of atmospheric Hg emissions and its species split from coal-fired power plants in China during the period of 2000-2007 are evaluated, by integrating each plant's coal consumption and emission factors, which are classified by different subcategories of boilers, particulate matter (PM) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) control devices. Our results show that the total Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants have begun to decrease from the peak value of 139.19 t in 2005 to 134.55 t in 2007, though coal consumption growing steadily from 1213.8 to 1532.4 Mt, which can be mainly attributed to the co-benefit Hg reduction by electrostatic precipitators/fabric filters (ESPs/FFs) and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD), especially the sharp growth in installation of WFGD both in the new and existing power plants since 2005. In the coming 12th five-year-plan, more and more plants will be mandated to install De-NO(x) (nitrogen oxides) systems (mainly selective catalytic reduction [SCR] and selective noncatalytic reduction [SNCR]) for minimizing NO(x) emission, thus the specific Hg emission rate per ton of coal will decline further owing to the much higher co-benefit removal efficiency by the combination of SCR + ESPs/FFs + WFGD systems. Consequently, SCR + ESPs/FFs + WFGD configuration will be the main path to abate Hg discharge from coal-fired power plants in China in the near future. However advanced specific Hg removal technologies are necessary

  5. Synergistic mercury removal by conventional pollutant control strategies for coal-fired power plants in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Ye; Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhao, Yu; Hao, Jiming

    2010-06-01

    China's 11th 5-yr plan has regulated total sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by installing flue gas desulfurization (FGD) devices and shutting down small thermal power units. These control measures will not only significantly reduce the emission of conventional pollutants but also benefit the reduction of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. This paper uses the emission factor method to estimate the efficiencies of these measures on mercury emission abatement. From 2005 to 2010, coal consumption in power plants will increase by 59%; however, the mercury emission will only rise from 141 to 155 t, with an increase of 10%. The average emission rate of mercury from coal burning will decrease from 126 mg Hg/t of coal to 87 mg Hg/t of coal. The effects of the three desulfurization measures were assessed and show that wet FGD will play an important role in mercury removal. Mercury emissions in 2015 and 2020 are also projected under different policy scenarios. Under the most probable scenario, the total mercury emission in coal-fired power plants in China will decrease to 130 t by 2020, which will benefit from the rapid installation of fabric filters and selective catalytic reduction.

  6. Emissions of air toxics from coal-fired boilers: Arsenic

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.H.; Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1994-08-01

    Concerns over emissions of hazardous air pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue; the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants has been greatly expanded through passage of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Arsenic and arsenic compounds are of concern mainly because of their generally recognized toxicity. Arsenic is also regarded as one of the trace elements in coal subject to significant vaporization. This report summarizes and evaluates available published information on the arsenic content of coals mined in the United States, on arsenic emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Bituminous and lignite coals have the highest mean arsenic concentrations, with subbituminous and anthracite coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in arsenic concentrations. Arsenic emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific arsenic compounds. Variations in emission, rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of arsenic by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with cold electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 50 to 98% have been reported. Limited data for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems show widely varying removals of from 6 to 97%. On the other hand, waste incineration plants report removals in a narrow range of from 95 to 99%. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in arsenic control for existing flue-gas-cleanup technologies and summarizes the status of analytical techniques for measuring arsenic emissions from combustion sources.

  7. Mercury emission trend influenced by stringent air pollutants regulation for coal-fired power plants in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudasainee, Deepak; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Seo, Yong-Chil

    2009-12-01

    Regulatory control of mercury emission from anthropogenic sources has become a global concern in the recent past. Coal-fired power plants are one of the largest sources of anthropogenic mercury emission into the atmosphere. This paper summarizes the current reducing trend of mercury emission as co-beneficial effect by more stringent regulation changes to control primary air pollutants with introducing test results from the commercial coal-fired facilities and suggesting a guideline for future regulatory development in Korea. On average, mercury emission concentrations ranged 16.3-2.7 μg Sm -3, 2.4-1.1 μg Sm -3, 3.1-0.7 μg Sm -3 from anthracite coal-fired power plants equipped with electrostatic precipitator (ESP), bituminous coal-fired power plants with ESP + flue gas desulphurization (FGD) and bituminous coal-fired power plants with selective catalytic reactor (SCR) + cold side (CS) - ESP + wet FGD, respectively. Among the existing air pollution control devices, the best configuration for mercury removal in coal-fired power plants was SCR + CS - ESP + wet FGD, which were installed due to the stringent regulation changes to control primary air pollutants emission such as SO 2, NOx and dust. It was estimated that uncontrolled and controlled mercury emission from coal-fired power plants as 10.3 ton yr -1 and 3.2 ton yr -1 respectively. After the installation of ESP, FGD and SCR system, following the enforcement of the stringent regulation, 7.1 ton yr -1 of mercury emission has been reduced (nearly 69%) from coal-fired power plants as a co-benefit control. Based on the overall study, a sample guideline including emission limits were suggested which will be applied to develop a countermeasure for controlling mercury emission from coal-fired power plants.

  8. [An investigation of the formation of] polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emissions when firing pulverized coal in a bench-scale drop tube reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Pisupati, S.V.; Wasco, R.S.; Scaroni, A.W.

    1998-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 contain provisions which will set standards for the allowable emissions of 188 analytes designated as hazardous air pollutants (HAPs). This list of HAPs was used to establish an initial list of source categories for which EPA would be required to establish technology-based emission standards, which would result in regulated sources sharply reducing routine emissions of toxic air pollutants. Polycyclic organic matter (POM) has also been referred to as polynuclear or polycyclic aromatic compounds (PACs). Nine major categories of POM have been defined by EPA. The study of organic compounds from coal combustion is complex and the results obtained so far are inconclusive with respect to emission factors. The most common organic compounds in the flue gas of coal-fired power plants are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Furthermore, EPA has specified 16 PAH compounds as priority pollutants. These are naphthalene, acenaphthylene, acenaphthene, fluorene, phenanthrene, anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, chrysene, benz[a]anthracene, benzo[b]fluoranthene, benzo[k]fluoranthene, benzo[a]pyrene, indeno[1,2,3-cd]pyrene, benzo[ghi]perylene, and dibenz[ah]anthracene. Penn State`s Combustion Laboratory is equipped to collect and analyze the HAPs in the flue gas from fossil fuels combustion. The overall objective of this study was to examine the effect of unit temperature on PAH emissions. A Modified Method 5 sampling train was used to isokinetically collect samples at desired locations in flue gas streams. The collected sample can be separated into solid, condensed liquid and gaseous phases. The PAHs of interest are extracted from the collected sample, concentrated, then separated and quantified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). This study was conducted using a bench-scale drop-tube reactor (DTR). The fuel selected for this study was a Middle Kittanning seam coal pulverized to 80% passing US Standard 200 mesh (commonly

  9. Radioactivity of coals and ashes from Catalağzi coal-fired power plant in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Aytekin, Hüseyin; Baldik, Ridvan

    2012-04-01

    The Çatalağzı coal-fired power plant (CFPP) is the Turkish CFPP that uses the hard coals produced in Zonguldak, located in the West Black Sea region of the country. Gamma-ray spectrometry was used to determine (226)Ra, (232)Th and (40)K contents in pulverised coal, bottom ash and fly ash samples. The natural radionuclide concentrations in pulverised coal ranged from 29 to 61 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 32 to 55 Bq kg(-1) for (232)Th and from 229 to 414 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. The fly ash fraction gave concentrations ranging from 80 to 98 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 64 to 85 Bq kg(-1) for Th and from 754 to 992 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K, respectively. The enrichment factors from coal to fly ashes are 1.7, 2.24 and 2.6 for (232)Th, (226)Ra and (40)K, respectively. Therefore, it is advisable to monitor the environmental impact of the power plant.

  10. A Coal-Fired Power Plant with Zero Atmospheric Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Frias, J; Aceves, S M; Smith, J R; Brandt, H

    2003-05-27

    This paper presents the thermodynamic analysis of a coal-based zero-atmospheric emissions electric power plant. The approach involves an oxygen-blown coal gasification unit. The resulting synthetic gas (syngas) is combusted with oxygen in a gas generator to produce the working fluid for the turbines. The combustion produces a gas mixture composed almost entirely of steam and carbon dioxide. These gases drive multiple turbines to produce electricity. The turbine discharge gases pass to a condenser where water is captured. A stream of carbon dioxide then results that can be used for enhanced oil recovery, or for sequestration. This analysis is based on a 400 MW electric power generating plant that uses turbines that are currently under development by a U.S. turbine manufacturer. The power plant has a net thermal efficiency of 42.6%. This efficiency is based on the lower heating value of the coal, and includes the energy necessary for coal gasification, air separation and for carbon dioxide separation and sequestration. The paper also presents an analysis of the cost of electricity (COE) and the cost of conditioning carbon dioxide for sequestration for the 400 MW power plant. Electricity cost is compared for three different gasification processes (Texaco, Shell, and Koppers-Totzek) and two types of coals (Illinois No.6 and Wyodak). Cost of electricity ranges from 5.16 {cents}/kWhr to 5.42 {cents}/kWhr, indicating that the cost of electricity varies by 5% for the three gasification processes considered and the two coal types used.

  11. Emissions of airborne toxics from coal-fired boilers: Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.; Zaromb, S.

    1991-09-01

    Concerns over emissions of hazardous air Pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue, and the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants was greatly expanded through the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Mercury has been singled out for particular attention because of concerns over possible effects of emissions on human health. This report evaluates available published information on the mercury content of coals mined in the United States, on mercury emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Anthracite and bituminous coals have the highest mean-mercury concentrations, with subbituminous coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in mercury concentrations. Mercury emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific mercury compounds. Variations in emission rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of mercury by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 20% to over 50% have been reported. Reported removals for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems range between 35 and 95%, while spray-dryer/fabric-filter systems have given removals of 75 to 99% on municipal incinerators. In all cases, better data are needed before any definitive judgments can be made. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in mercury control for existing flue-gas-clean-up technologies and summarizes the status of techniques for measuring mercury emissions from combustion sources.

  12. McHuchuma/Katewaka coal fired power plant feasibility study. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-22

    This study, conducted by Black and Veatch International, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report assesses the feasibility for the development of a new coal fueled power plant in Tanzania at the Mchuchuma/Katewaka coal concession area. Volume 3, the Main Report, is divided into the following sections: (1.0) Introduction; (2.0) Power System Development Studies; (3.0) Conceptual Design Summary of the Mchuchuma Coal Fired Power Plant; (4.0) Fuel Supply Evaluation; (5.0) Transmission System Evaluation; (6.0) Power Plant Site and Infrastructure Evaluation; (7.0) Environmental Impact Assessment; (8.0) Institutional Aspects; (9.0) Financial Evaluation and Benefit Analysis; (10.0) Sources of Finance; Appendix (A) Preliminary Design of Mchuchuma Coal Plant.

  13. Characterization of air toxics from a laboratory coal-fired combustor

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-03

    Emissions of hazardous air pollutants from coal combustion were studied in a laboratory-scale combustion facility, with emphasis on fine particles in three size ranges of less than 7.5 {mu}m diameter. Vapors were also measured. Substances under study included organic compounds, anions, elements, and radionuclides. Fly ash was generated by firing a bituminous coal in a combuster for 40 h at each of two coal feed rates. Flue gas was sampled under two conditions. Results for organic compounds, anions, and elements show a dependence on particle size consistent with published power plant data. Accumulation of material onto surface layers was inferred from differences in chemical composition between the plume simulating dilution sampler and hot flue samples. Extracts of organic particulate material were fractionated into different polarity fractions and analyzed by GC/MS. In Phase II, these laboratory results will be compared to emissions from a full-scale power plant burning the same coal.

  14. Lanthanide, yttrium, and zirconium anomalies in the Fire Clay coal bed, Eastern Kentucky

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Ruppert, L.F.; Eble, C.F.

    1999-01-01

    The Fire Clay coal bed in the Central Appalachian basin region contains a laterally-persistent tonstein that is found in the coal throughout most of its areal extent. The tonstein contains an array of minerals, including sanidine, ??-quartz, anatase and euhedral zircon, thhat constitutes strong evidence for a volcanic origin of the parting. For this study, five samples of the tonstein and four sets of coal samples underlying the tonstein were collected from five sites in eastern Kentucky. Inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS) analysis of the tonstein and underlying coal collected from four sites in eastern Kentucky show that although Zr concentrations are high in the tonstein (570-1820 ppm on a coal-ash basis (cab)), they are highest in the coal directly underlying the tonstein (2870-4540 ppm (cab)). A similar enrichment pattern is observed in the concentration of Y plus the sum of the rare earth elements (Y + ??REE): total Y + ??REE concentrations in the five tonstein samples range from 511 to 565 ppm (cab). However, Y + ??REE contents are highest in the coals directly underlying the tonsteins: values range from 1965 to 4198 ppm (cab). Scanning electron microscopy of samples from coal which directly underlies two of the tonstein samples show that REE-rich phosphate, tentatively identified as monazite, commonly infills cracks in clays and cells in clarain and vitrain. Zircon is rare and commonly subhedral. On the basis of coal chemistry and grain morphology, we suggest that volcanic components in the tonstein were leached by ground water. The leachate, rich in Y and REE precipitated as authigenic mineral phases in the underlying coal.The Fire Clay coal bed in the Central Appalachian basin region contains a laterally-persistent tonstein that is found in the coal throughout most of its areal extent. The tonstein contains an array of minerals, including sanidine, ??-quartz, anatase and euhedral zircon, that constitutes strong evidence for a volcanic

  15. NO{sub x} controls for coal-fired utility boilers in East Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Eskinazi, D.; Tavoulareas, E.S.

    1995-12-01

    Increasing environmental pressures worldwide, including East Central Europe are placing greater emphasis on NO{sub x} emission controls in utility power plants. Western Europe, Japan and the U.S. have significant experience in applying NO{sub x} controls, especially in boilers firing hard coal. Some countries in Europe (i.e., Germany and Austria), have gained experience in applying NO{sub x} controls in boilers firing low-rank coal. This experience can be applied to East Central European countries in providing the basis for planning NO{sub x} control projects, suggesting cost-effective solutions, and providing lessons learned. However, while the experience is generally applicable to East Central European countries, differences in boiler design, operation and coal characteristics also need to be considered. This paper begins with a comparison of the NO{sub x} regulations, identifies the key NO{sub x} control technologies and the worldwide experience with them, and discusses the achievable NO{sub x} reduction, O&M impacts, and retrofit costs for each technology. Emphasis is placed on retrofit applications for existing boilers, because new coal-fired power plants are not expected to be built for the next 5-10 years. This paper also focuses on technologies with relatively low cost and operational simplicity: combustion system tuning/optimization. low-NO{sub x} burners (LNB), overfire air (OFA), selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), and reburning.

  16. MERCURY CONTROL FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are many sources of natural and anthropogenic mercury emissions, but combustion of coal is known to be the major anthropogenic source of mercury (Hg) emissions in the U.S. and world wide. To address this, EPA has recently promulgated the Clean Air Mercury Rule to reduce Hg ...

  17. Performance of 500 MW coal fired steam generators

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Zachariah, J.

    1996-11-01

    Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited in association with ABB-CE, USA has engineered and supplied twelve 500 MW units. The first steam generator is in service from 1984. The design of these 500 MW steam generators was based on the experience of the 200 and 210 MW units. The Indian coals have high ash content, lower calorific value and high moisture experienced during rainy season. Because of this there were a few performance problems in the first few units. The experience of assessing and improving the performance of these steam generators is the main theme of this paper. The combustion characteristics of the Indian coals are good. However, the high ash content and low calorific value associated with high moisture required specific changes in steam generator design. Tests done in different units with different coals helped in analyzing the problem. The analysis of the test data resulted in engineering changes. The modifications done improved the performance of these units. It also helped in updating design standards and methods. The paper gives an outline of the key aspects to look for in steam generator design for high ash Indian coals. The paper also outlines the testing and performance analysis methods used.

  18. Mercury capture by native fly ash carbons in coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Hower, James C; Senior, Constance L; Suuberg, Eric M; Hurt, Robert H; Wilcox, Jennifer L; Olson, Edwin S

    2010-08-01

    The control of mercury in the air emissions from coal-fired power plants is an on-going challenge. The native unburned carbons in fly ash can capture varying amounts of Hg depending upon the temperature and composition of the flue gas at the air pollution control device, with Hg capture increasing with a decrease in temperature; the amount of carbon in the fly ash, with Hg capture increasing with an increase in carbon; and the form of the carbon and the consequent surface area of the carbon, with Hg capture increasing with an increase in surface area. The latter is influenced by the rank of the feed coal, with carbons derived from the combustion of low-rank coals having a greater surface area than carbons from bituminous- and anthracite-rank coals. The chemistry of the feed coal and the resulting composition of the flue gas enhances Hg capture by fly ash carbons. This is particularly evident in the correlation of feed coal Cl content to Hg oxidation to HgCl2, enhancing Hg capture. Acid gases, including HCl and H2SO4 and the combination of HCl and NO2, in the flue gas can enhance the oxidation of Hg. In this presentation, we discuss the transport of Hg through the boiler and pollution control systems, the mechanisms of Hg oxidation, and the parameters controlling Hg capture by coal-derived fly ash carbons.

  19. Mercury capture by native fly ash carbons in coal-fired power plants

    PubMed Central

    Hower, James C.; Senior, Constance L.; Suuberg, Eric M.; Hurt, Robert H.; Wilcox, Jennifer L.; Olson, Edwin S.

    2013-01-01

    The control of mercury in the air emissions from coal-fired power plants is an on-going challenge. The native unburned carbons in fly ash can capture varying amounts of Hg depending upon the temperature and composition of the flue gas at the air pollution control device, with Hg capture increasing with a decrease in temperature; the amount of carbon in the fly ash, with Hg capture increasing with an increase in carbon; and the form of the carbon and the consequent surface area of the carbon, with Hg capture increasing with an increase in surface area. The latter is influenced by the rank of the feed coal, with carbons derived from the combustion of low-rank coals having a greater surface area than carbons from bituminous- and anthracite-rank coals. The chemistry of the feed coal and the resulting composition of the flue gas enhances Hg capture by fly ash carbons. This is particularly evident in the correlation of feed coal Cl content to Hg oxidation to HgCl2, enhancing Hg capture. Acid gases, including HCl and H2SO4 and the combination of HCl and NO2, in the flue gas can enhance the oxidation of Hg. In this presentation, we discuss the transport of Hg through the boiler and pollution control systems, the mechanisms of Hg oxidation, and the parameters controlling Hg capture by coal-derived fly ash carbons. PMID:24223466

  20. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Dr. Kalyan Annamalai; Dr. John Sweeten; Dr. Sayeed Mukhtar

    2001-05-10

    The following are proposed activities for quarter 3 (12/15/00-3/14/01): (1) Conduct TGA and fuel characterization studies - Task 1; (2) Continue to perform re-burn experiments. - Task 2; (3) Design fixed bed combustor. - Task 3; and (4) Modify the PCGC2 code to include moisture evaporation model - Task 4. The following were achieved During Quarter 3 (12/15/0-3/14/01): (1) Conducted TGA and Fuel Characterization studies (Appendix I). A comparison of -fuel properties, TGA traces etc is given in Appendix I. Litter has 3 and 6 times more N compared to coal on mass and heat basis. The P of litter is almost 2 % (Task 1). Both litter biomass (LB) and feedlot biomass (FB) have been pulverized. The size distributions are similar for both litter and FB in that 75 % pass through 150 {micro}m sieve while for coal 75 % pass through 60 {micro}m sieve. Rosin Rammler curve parameters are given. The TGA characteristics of FB and LB are similar and pyrolysis starts at 100 C below that of coal; (2) Reburn experiments with litter and with FB have been performed (Appendix II) -Task 2. Litter is almost twice effective (almost 70--90 % reduction) compared to coal in reducing the NOx possibly due to presence of N in the form of NH{sub 3}; (3) Designed fixed bed gasifier/combustor (Appendix III) - Task 3; and (4) Modified PCGC2 to include moisture evaporation model in coal and biomass particles. (Appendix IV) - Task 4.

  1. Improved method for extinguishing coal-refuse fires. Final research report Jun 89-Feb 91

    SciTech Connect

    Gross, S.S.

    1991-04-01

    Coal refuse fires present environmental and personnel hazards to those living in the vicinity of the fire as well as those engaged in the reclamation efforts. The fire can also increase subsidence problems as well as prevent revegatation and reclamation of the site. Conventional efforts have been excavation and quenching; expensive, dangerous, and very often unsuccessful techniques. Water flooding has also proven unsuccessful due to the poor distribution of the water in the refuse pile. Water quickly drains from the coal refuse pile below its injection point with little or no laterial distribution. As an alternate to excavation and/or quenching, the feasibility of using water based foams to improve the distribution of water injected into a coal refuse fire was examined. Using surfactants to foam the water and gelling agents to reduce its fluidity, tests were conducted in the lab and the field. The foam still tends to follow the larger channels/openings in the pile, although above, as well as below the injection point. While the foam does improve water distribution in the pile, additional work needs to be conducted to prevent preferential channel flow and further improve distribution.

  2. Characteristics of an open-cut coal mine fire pollution event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reisen, Fabienne; Gillett, Rob; Choi, Jason; Fisher, Gavin; Torre, Paul

    2017-02-01

    On 9 February 2014, embers from a nearby grass/shrub fire spotted into an unused part of the Hazelwood open-cut brown coal mine located in the Latrobe Valley of Victoria, Australia and started a fire that spread rapidly and extensively throughout the mine under strong south-westerly winds and burned over a period of 45 days. The close proximity of the town to the coal mine and the low buoyancy of the smoke plume led to the accumulation of dense smoke levels in the township of Morwell (population of 14,000) particularly under south-westerly winds. A maximum daily PM2.5 concentration of 731 μg m-3 and 8-h CO concentration of 33 ppm were measured at Morwell South, the closest residential area located approximately 500 m from the mine. These concentrations were significantly higher than national air quality standards. Air quality monitoring undertaken in the Latrobe Valley showed that smoke from the Hazelwood mine fire affected a wide area, with particle air quality standards also exceeded in Traralgon (population of 25,000) located approximately 13 km from the mine. Pollutant levels were significantly elevated in February, decreased in March once the fire abated and then returned to background levels once the fire was declared safe at the end of March. While the smoke extent was of a similar order of magnitude to other major air pollution events worldwide, a closer look at emissions ratios showed that the open combustion of lignite brown coal in the Hazelwood mine was different to open combustion of biomass, including peat. It suggested that the dominant combustion process was char combustion. While particle and carbon monoxide monitoring started approximately 4 days after the fire commenced when smoke levels were very high, targeted monitoring of air toxics only began on 26 February (17 days after the fire) when smoke levels had subsided. Limited research on emission factors from open-cut coal mine fires make it difficult to assess the likely concentrations of air

  3. COSTEAM expansion and improvements: design of a coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed submodel, an oil-fired submodel and input/output improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Reierson, James D.; Rosenberg, Joseph I.; Murphy, Mary B.; Lethi, Minh- Triet

    1980-10-01

    COSTEAM is an interactive computer model designed to estimate the cost of industrial steam produced by various steam plant technologies. At the end of Phase I development, the COSTEAM model included only one submodel to calculate the capital and operating costs of a conventional coal-fired boiler plant with environmental control systems. This report describes the results of Phase II development. Two new submodels are added which calculate costs for steam produced by coal-fired atmospheric fluidized bed boilers and by oil-fired boilers. COSTEAM input/output capabilities are also improved.

  4. Economic analysis of coal-fired cogeneration plants for Air Force bases

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, R.S.; Griffin, F.P.

    1990-10-01

    The Defense Appropriations Act of 1986 requires the Department of Defense to use an additional 1,600,000 tons/year of coal at their US facilities by 1995 and also states that the most economical fuel should be used at each facility. In a previous study of Air Force heating plants burning gas or oil, Oak Ridge National Laboratory found that only a small fraction of this target 1,600,000 tons/year could be achieved by converting the plants where coal is economically viable. To identify projects that would use greater amounts of coal, the economic benefits of installing coal-fired cogeneration plants at 7 candidate Air Force bases were examined in this study. A life-cycle cost analysis was performed that included two types of financing (Air Force and private) and three levels of energy escalation for a total of six economic scenarios. Hill, McGuire, and Plattsburgh Air Force Bases were identified as the facilities with the best potential for coal-fired cogeneration, but the actual cost savings will depend strongly on how the projects are financed and to a lesser extent on future energy escalation rates. 10 refs., 11 figs., 27 tabs.

  5. [Predicting low NOx combustion property of a coal-fired boiler].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hao; Mao, Jianbo; Chi, Zuohe; Jiang, Xiao; Wang, Zhenhua; Cen, Kefa

    2002-03-01

    More attention was paid to the low NOx combustion property of the high capacity tangential firing boiler, but the NOx emission and unburned carbon content in fly ash of coal burned boiler were complicated, they were affected by many factors, such as coal character, boiler's load, air distribution, boiler style, burner style, furnace temperature, excess air ratio, pulverized coal fineness and the uniformity of the air and coal distribution, etc. In this paper, the NOx emission property and unburned carbon content in fly ash of a 600 MW utility tangentially firing coal burned boiler was experimentally investigated, and taking advantage of the nonlinear dynamics characteristics and self-learning characteristics of artificial neural network, an artificial neural network model on low NOx combustion property of the high capacity boiler was developed and verified. The results illustrated that such a model can predicate the NOx emission concentration and unburned carbon content under various operating conditions, if combined with the optimization algorithm, the operator can find the best operation condition of the low NOx combustion.

  6. Small, modular, low-cost coal-fired power plants for the international market

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.; Frain, B.; Borck, B.; Baldwin, A.L.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents recent operating results of Coal Tech`s second generation, air cooled, slagging coal combustor, and its application to power plants in the 1 to 20 MW range. This 20 MMBtu/hour combustor was installed in a new demonstration plant in Philadelphia, PA in 1995. It contains the combustion components of a 1 MWe coal fired power plant, a 17,500 lb/hour steam boiler, coal storage and feed components, and stack gas cleanup components. The plant`s design incorporates improvements resulting from 2,000 hours of testing between 1987 and 1993 on a first generation, commercial scale, air cooled combustor of equal thermal rating. Since operations began in early 1996, a total of 51 days of testing have been successfully completed. Major results include durability of the combustor`s refractory wall, excellent combustion with high ash concentration in the fuel, removal of 95% to 100% of the slag in the combustor, very little ash deposition in the boiler, major reduction of in-plant parasitic power, and simplified power system control through the use of modular designs of sub-systems and computer control. Rapid fuel switching between oil, gas, and coal and turndown of up to a factor of three was accomplished. All these features have been incorporated in advanced coal fired plant designs in the 1 to 20 MWe range. Incremental capital costs are only $100 to $200/kW higher than comparable rated gas or oil fired steam generating systems. Most of its components and subsystems can be factory assembled for very rapid field installation. The low capital, low operating costs, fuel flexibility, and compatibility with very high ash fuels, make this power system very attractive in regions of the world having domestic supplies of these fuels.

  7. Methods and costs of thin-seam mining. Final report, 25 September 1977-24 January 1979. [Thin seam in association with a thick seam

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, T.E.; Fidler, E.L.

    1981-02-01

    This report defines the state of the art (circa 1978) in removing thin coal seams associated with vastly thicker seams found in the surface coal mines of the western United States. New techniques are evaluated and an innovative method and machine is proposed. Western states resource recovery regulations are addressed and representative mining operations are examined. Thin seam recovery is investigated through its effect on (1) overburden removal, (2) conventional seam extraction methods, and (3) innovative techniques. Equations and graphs are used to accommodate the variable stratigraphic positions in the mining sequence on which thin seams occur. Industrial concern and agency regulations provided the impetus for this study of total resource recovery. The results are a compendium of thin seam removal methods and costs. The work explains how the mining industry recovers thin coal seams in western surface mines where extremely thick seams naturally hold the most attention. It explains what new developments imply and where to look for new improvements and their probable adaptability.

  8. ASSESSMENT OF CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR REDUCING EMISSIONS OF SO2 AND NOX FROM EXISTING COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report reviews information and estimated costs on 15 emissioncontrol technology categories applicable to existing coal-fired electric utility boilers. he categories include passive controls such as least emission dispatching, conventional processes, and emerging technologies ...

  9. The Tiptop coal-mine fire, Kentucky: Preliminary investigation of the measurement of mercury and other hazardous gases from coal-fire gas vents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Henke, K.; O'Keefe, J. M. K.; Engle, M.A.; Blake, D.R.; Stracher, G.B.

    2009-01-01

    The Tiptop underground coal-mine fire in the Skyline coalbed of the Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation was investigated in rural northern Breathitt County, Kentucky, in May 2008 and January 2009, for the purpose of determining the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and mercury (Hg) in the vent and for measuring gas-vent temperatures. At the time of our visits, concentrations of CO2 peaked at 2.0% and > 6.0% (v/v) and CO at 600 ppm and > 700 ppm during field analysis in May 2008 and January 2009, respectively. For comparison, these concentrations exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) eight-hour safe exposure limits (0.5% CO2 and 50 ppm CO), although the site is not currently mined. Mercury, as Hg0, in excess of 500 and 2100 ??g/m3, in May and January, respectively, in the field, also exceeded the OSHA eight-hour exposure limit (50 ??g/m3). Carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and a suite of organic compounds were determined at two vents for the first sampling event. All gases are diluted by air as they exit and migrate away from a gas vent, but temperature inversions and other meteorological conditions could lead to unhealthy concentrations in the nearby towns. Variation in gas temperatures, nearly 300 ??C during the January visit to the fire versus < 50 ??C in May, demonstrates the large temporal variability in fire intensity at the Tiptop mine. These preliminary results suggest that emissions from coal fires may be important, but additional data are required that address the reasons for significant variations in the composition, flow, and temperature of vent gases. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Bradley; Davis, Kevin; Senior, Constance; Shim, Hong Shim; Otten, Brydger Van; Fry, Andrew; Wendt, Jost; Eddings, Eric; Paschedag, Alan; Shaddix, Christopher; Cox, William; Tree, Dale

    2013-09-30

    Reaction Engineering International (REI) managed a team of experts from University of Utah, Siemens Energy, Praxair, Vattenfall AB, Sandia National Laboratories, Brigham Young University (BYU) and Corrosion Management Ltd. to perform multi-scale experiments, coupled with mechanism development, process modeling and CFD modeling, for both applied and fundamental investigations. The primary objective of this program was to acquire data and develop tools to characterize and predict impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner feed design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) inherent in the retrofit of existing coal-fired boilers for oxy-coal combustion. Experimental work was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories’ Entrained Flow Reactor, the University of Utah Industrial Combustion Research Facility, and Brigham Young University. Process modeling and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed at REI. Successful completion of the project objectives resulted in the following key deliverables: 1) Multi-scale test data from 0.1 kW bench-scale, 100 kW and 200 kW laboratory-scale, and 1 MW semi-industrial scale combustors that describe differences in flame characteristics, fouling, slagging and corrosion for coal combustion under air-firing and oxygen-firing conditions, including sensitivity to oxy-burner design and flue gas recycle composition. 2) Validated mechanisms developed from test data that describe fouling, slagging, waterwall corrosion, heat transfer, char burnout and sooting under coal oxy-combustion conditions. The mechanisms were presented in a form suitable for inclusion in CFD models or process models. 3) Principles to guide design of pilot-scale and full-scale coal oxy-firing systems and flue gas recycle configurations, such that boiler operational impacts from oxy-combustion retrofits are minimized. 4

  11. Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Litka, A.F.; Breault, R.W.

    1991-10-01

    Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant fuels used to meet the space-heating needs of schools, office buildings, apartment complexes, and other similar structures. In general, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for this sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS)-fired space heating system will be a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen under contract to the Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS, for Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation. This combustion technology, which has demonstrated high combustion efficiency using CWS fuels at input rates of 100,000 Btu/hr, will be scaled to operate at 2 to 5 millon Btu/hr. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system will include pollution control devices to meet targeted values of NO{sub x}, S0{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. In general, the system will be designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems.

  12. Development and testing of a commercial-scale coal-fired combustion system, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Litka, A.F.; Breault, R.W.

    1991-07-01

    Within the commercial sector, oil and natural gas are the predominant fuels used to meet the space-heating needs of schools, office buildings, apartment complexes, and other similar structures. In general, these buildings require firing rates of 1 to 10 million Btu/hr. The objective of this program is to demonstrate the technical and economic viability of a coal-fired combustion system for this sector. The commercial-scale coal-water slurry (CWS)-fired space heating system will be a scale-up of a CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system developed by Tecogen under contract to the Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center. This system included a patented nonslagging combustor known as IRIS, for Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation. This combustion technology, which has demonstrated high combustion efficiency using CWS fuels at input rates of 100,000 Btu/hr, will be scaled to operate at 2 to 5 millon Btu/hr. Along with the necessary fuel storage and delivery, heat recovery, and control equipment, the system will include pollution control devices to meet targeted values of NO{sub x}, S0{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. In general, the system will be designed to match the reliability, safety, turndown, and ignition performance of gas or oil-fired systems.

  13. Advanced coal-fired glass melting development program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-05-01

    The objective of Phase 1 of the current contract was to verify the technical feasibility and economic benefits of Vortec's advanced combustion/melting technology using coal as the fuel of choice. The objective of the Phase 2 effort was to improve the performance of the primary components and demonstrate the effective operation of a subscale process heater system integrated with a glass separator/reservoir. (VC)

  14. Theoretical basis and application of vertical Z-component in-seam wave exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Wenxin; Ji, Guangzhong; Dong, Shouhua; Li, Gang

    2017-03-01

    Love seam waves are generally applied to the current in-seam wave explorations. Rayleigh seam waves, however, are rarely used. The dispersion and amplitude features of Rayleigh seam waves are investigated using frequency dispersion analysis and numerical simulations in this study. Firstly, we elucidate the advantages of using the vertical Z-component. Secondly, the theoretical basis standing behind its application to in-seam wave explorations is demonstrated. Furthermore, in order to compare the relative performances of Rayleigh and Love seam wave explorations, three-dimensional geological models with anomalies are numerically simulated. Thus, the feasibilities and actual exploration effects of Z-component in-seam waves are demonstrated for both theoretical models and practical applications. Our studies show that normal modes of Rayleigh seam waves always exist. Furthermore, the energy of the fundamental mode in-seam wave is concentrated in its Z-component for the middle of a coal seam. A compressional wave source primarily generates first-order mode Rayleigh seam waves whereas a shear wave source primarily excites fundamental mode Rayleigh seam waves, whose energy is concentrated in the Airy phase with the lowest velocity. The fundamental mode Z-components at the center of a coal seam are ideal for in-seam wave applications. Actually, fundamental and first-order mode in-seam waves can be recorded in most coal seams. The Z-component receivers can be placed at the location between 1/4 and 1/2 of the thickness of coal seam, where both wave modes could be detected.

  15. Capacity mapping for optimum utilization of pulverizers for coal fired boilers - article no. 032201

    SciTech Connect

    Bhattacharya, C.

    2008-09-15

    Capacity mapping is a process of comparison of standard inputs with actual fired inputs to assess the available standard output capacity of a pulverizer. The base capacity is a function of grindability; fineness requirement may vary depending on the volatile matter (VM) content of the coal and the input coal size. The quantity and the inlet will change depending on the quality of raw coal and output requirement. It should be sufficient to dry pulverized coal (PC). Drying capacity is also limited by utmost PA fan power to supply air. The PA temperature is limited by air preheater (APH) inlet flue gas temperature; an increase in this will result in efficiency loss of the boiler. The higher PA inlet temperature can be attained through the economizer gas bypass, the steam coiled APH, and the partial flue gas recirculation. The PS/coal ratioincreases with a decrease in grindability or pulverizer output and decreases with a decrease in VM. The flammability of mixture has to be monitored on explosion limit. Through calibration, the PA flow and efficiency of conveyance can be verified. The velocities of coal/air mixture to prevent fallout or to avoid erosion in the coal carrier pipe are dependent on the PC particle size distribution. Metal loss of grinding elements inversely depends on the YGP index of coal. Variations of dynamic loading and wearing of grinding elements affect the available milling capacity and percentage rejects. Therefore, capacity mapping in necessary to ensure the available pulverizer capacity to avoid overcapacity or undercapacity running of the pulverizing system, optimizing auxiliary power consumption. This will provide a guideline on the distribution of raw coal feeding in different pulverizers of a boiler to maximize system efficiency and control, resulting in a more cost effective heat rate.

  16. Coal-firing sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Technical progress report {number_sign}7, [April--June 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Wei-Ping, Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1996-05-31

    The objectives for this quarter of study on the co-firing of high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels project were two-fold. First, the organic compounds tentatively identified as combustion products in the previous report were confirmed by comparing retention times with pure samples. Secondly, a reduced amount of unburned carbon in the fly ash and an oxygen concentration at about 3--6% in the flue gases were achieved by the addition of removable heat exchange tubes in the AFBC system.

  17. ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL SOURCE-RECEPTOR RELATIONSHIPS: THE ROLE OF COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Allen L. Robinson; Spyros N. Pandis; Cliff I. Davidson

    2004-12-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) during the period of March 2004 through August 2004. Significant progress was made this project period on the analysis of ambient data, source apportionment, and deterministic modeling activities. Results highlighted in this report include evaluation of the performance of PMCAMx+ for an air pollution episode in the Eastern US, an emission profile for a coke production facility, ultrafine particle composition during a nucleation event, and a new hybrid approach for source apportionment. An agreement was reached with a utility to characterize fine particle and mercury emissions from a commercial coal fired power. Research in the next project period will include source testing of a coal fired power plant, source apportionment analysis, emission scenario modeling with PMCAMx+, and writing up results for submission as journal articles.

  18. Aspects of the electrical system design of the colmi 660 mw coal-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Aguilar, J. ); Fernandez, J.H. )

    1992-01-01

    The conceptual design of the electrical systems for Mexico's Commission Federal de Electricidad (CFE) COLMI 660-MW coal-fired power plant builds on Bechtel's experience with nuclear, gas and coal-fired generating plants. The COLMI conceptual design incorporates a combination of new equipment applications and design considerations that make it more economical when compared to traditional alternatives. Also it provides a reliable state-of-the-art distribution system that is flexible enough for any unit in the 400-900 MW range. Alternative approaches were studied for the system design and equipment arrangement. This paper reviews the approach taken to arrive at the conceptual design and describes the equipment selected and the advantages they provide. Exact sizing and determination of characteristics of the equipment are not given because these were not determined during the conceptual design. These will be determined during the detailed design phase of the project.

  19. Emissions, Monitoring, and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Allen Kephart; Volker Schmidt; Gerald Butcher

    2008-10-31

    Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with Western Farmers Electric Cooperative (WFEC), has teamed with Clean Air Engineering of Pittsburgh PA to conduct a mercury monitoring program at the WEFC Hugo plant in Oklahoma. Sponsored by US Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-26-98FT40323, the program included the following members of the Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) as co-sponsors: Missouri Basin Power Project; DTE Energy; Entergy; Grand River Dam Authority; and Nebraska Public Power District. This research effort had five objectives: (1) determine the mass balance of mercury for subbituminous coal-fired power plant; (2) assess the distribution of mercury species in the flue gas (3) perform a comparison of three different Hg test methods; (4) investigate the long-term (six months) mercury variability at a subbituminous coal-fired power plant; and (5) assess operation and maintenance of the Method 324 and Horiba CEMS utilizing plant personnel.

  20. Selection and adaptation of microalgae to growth in 100% unfiltered coal-fired flue gas.

    PubMed

    Aslam, Ambreen; Thomas-Hall, Skye R; Mughal, Tahira Aziz; Schenk, Peer M

    2017-06-01

    Microalgae have been considered for biological carbon capture and sequestration to offset carbon emissions from fossil fuel combustion. This study shows that mixed biodiverse microalgal communities can be selected for and adapted to tolerate growth in 100% flue gas from an unfiltered coal-fired power plant that contained 11% CO2. The high SOx and NOx emissions required slow adaptation of microalgae over many months, with step-wise increases from 10% to 100% flue gas supplementation and phosphate buffering at higher concentrations. After a rapid decline in biodiversity over the first few months, community profiling revealed Desmodesmus spp. as the dominant microalgae. To the authors' knowledge this work is the first to demonstrate that up 100% unfiltered flue gas from coal-fired power generation can be used for algae cultivation. Implementation of serial passages over a range of photobioreactors may contribute towards the development of microalgal-mediated carbon capture and sequestration processes.

  1. High Black Carbon Concentrations and Atmospheric Pollution Around Indian Coal Fired Thermal Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. P.; Singh, A. K.; Kumar, S.; Takemura, T.

    2013-12-01

    Emissions from coal-fired Thermal Power Plants (TPPs) are among major sources of black carbon (BC) aerosols in the atmosphere and air quality degradation. Knowledge of BC emissions from TPPs is important in characterizing regional carbonaceous particulate emissions, associated with regional climate forcing as well as effects on human health. Furthermore, elevated BC concentrations, over the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) and the Himalayan foothills, has emerged as an important subject to estimate effects of deposition and atmospheric warming of BC on the accelerated melting of snow and glaciers in the Himalaya. For the first time, this study reports BC concentrations and aerosol characterization near coal-fired power plants in the IGP. Coal-fired TPPs are also recognized as major point-sources of other atmospheric pollutants such as high NO2 hotspots in the IGP, as evident from the OMI Aura satellite observations. In-situ measurements were carried out in Kanpur (central IGP) and Singrauli (eastern IGP), during January and March 2013. We show detailed spatial variability of BC within ~10 km from TPPs, that indicate BC variations up to 95 μg/m3, with strong diurnal variations associated with BC concentration peaks during early morning and evening hours. BC concentrations were measured to be significantly higher in close proximity to the coal-fired TPPs (as high as 200μg/m3), compared to the outside domain of our study region. Co-located ground-based sunphotometer measurements of aerosols also show significant spatial variability around the TPPs, with aerosol optical depth (AOD) in the range 0.38-0.58, and the largest AOD of 0.7 - 0.95 near the TPPs (similar to the peak BC concentrations). Additionally, the Angstrom Exponent was found to be in the range 0.4 - 1.0 (maximum in the morning time) and highest in the vicinity of TPPs (~1.0) suggesting abundance of fine particulates, whereas lowest recorded over the surrounding coal mining fields. We also inter-compare global

  2. Cloud modification by man-made pollutants: Effects of a coal-fired power plant on cloud drop spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pueschel, R. F.; Barrett, E. W.; Wellman, D. L.; McGuire, J. A.

    1981-03-01

    Pollutants from coal-fired power plants increase the drop modal radii and broaden the drop spectra of stratocumulus clouds. Additional water from the coal combustion leads to a measurable increase of the liquid water content of polluted clouds. Implied consequences are an increase of the coalescence efficiency, and an increase in acidity, of affected clouds.

  3. Burden of Disease from Rising Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions in Southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Koplitz, Shannon N; Jacob, Daniel J; Sulprizio, Melissa P; Myllyvirta, Lauri; Reid, Colleen

    2017-02-07

    Southeast Asia has a very high population density and is on a fast track to economic development, with most of the growth in electricity demand currently projected to be met by coal. From a detailed analysis of coal-fired power plants presently planned or under construction in Southeast Asia, we project in a business-as-usual scenario that emissions from coal in the region will triple to 2.6 Tg a(-1) SO2 and 2.6 Tg a(-1) NOx by 2030, with the largest increases occurring in Indonesia and Vietnam. Simulations with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model show large resulting increases in surface air pollution, up to 11 μg m(-3) for annual mean fine particulate matter (PM2.5) in northern Vietnam and up to 15 ppb for seasonal maximum 1 h ozone in Indonesia. We estimate 19 880 (11 400-28 400) excess deaths per year from Southeast Asian coal emissions at present, increasing to 69 660 (40 080-126 710) by 2030. 9000 of these excess deaths in 2030 are in China. As Chinese emissions from coal decline in coming decades, transboundary pollution influence from rising coal emissions in Southeast Asia may become an increasing issue.

  4. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS (CFB AND CLB) FUELS IN PULVERIZED FUEL AND FIXED BED BURNERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Ben Thein; Gengsheng Wei; Soyuz Priyadarsan; Senthil Arumugam; Kevin Heflin

    2003-08-28

    Intensive animal feeding operations create large amounts of animal waste that must be safely disposed of in order to avoid environmental degradation. Cattle feedlots and chicken houses are two examples. In feedlots, cattle are confined to small pens and fed a high calorie grain-diet diet in preparation for slaughter. In chicken houses, thousands of chickens are kept in close proximity. In both of these operations, millions of tons of manure are produced every year. The manure could be used as a fuel by mixing it with coal in a 90:10 blend and firing it in an existing coal suspension fired combustion systems. This technique is known as co-firing, and the high temperatures produced by the coal will allow the biomass to be completely combusted. Reburn is a process where a small percentage of fuel called reburn fuel is injected above the NO{sub x} producing, conventional coal fired burners in order to reduce NO{sub x}. The manure could also be used as reburn fuel for reducing NO{sub x} in coal fired plants. An alternate approach of using animal waste is to adopt the gasification process using a fixed bed gasifier and then use the gases for firing in gas turbine combustors. In this report, the cattle manure is referred to as feedlot biomass (FB) and chicken manure as litter biomass (LB). The report generates data on FB and LB fuel characteristics. Co-firing, reburn, and gasification tests of coal, FB, LB, coal: FB blends, and coal: LB blends and modeling on cofiring, reburn systems and economics of use of FB and LB have also been conducted. The biomass fuels are higher in ash, lower in heat content, higher in moisture, and higher in nitrogen and sulfur (which can cause air pollution) compared to coal. Small-scale cofiring experiments revealed that the biomass blends can be successfully fired, and NO{sub x} emissions will be similar to or lower than pollutant emissions when firing coal. Further experiments showed that biomass is twice or more effective than coal when

  5. Chemical, aerosol, and optical measurements in the plumes of three midwestern coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Richards, L.W.; Anderson, J.A.; Blumenthal, D.L.; McDonald, J.A.; Macias, E.S.

    1985-01-01

    Airborne measurements were made in and near the plumes of the followiing midwestern coal-fired power plants in 1981: Kincaid in central Illinois in February, LaCygne near Kansas City in March, and Labadie near St. Louis in August and September. One objective of these measurements was to obtain data (reported elsewhere) to be used for the evaluation of plume visibility models. The results of the chemical and aerosol measurements are reported here.

  6. Summary report: Trace substance emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.; Wetherold, B.; Maxwell, D.

    1996-10-16

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), and Louisiana Gasification Technology Inc. (LGTI) sponsored field sampling and analyses to characterize emissions of trace substances from LGTI`s integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant at Plaquemine, Louisiana. The results indicate that emissions from the LGTI facility were quite low, often in the ppb levels, and comparable to a well-controlled pulverized coal-fired power plant.

  7. Adsorbents for capturing mercury in coal-fired boiler flue gas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongqun; Xu, Zhenghe; Fan, Maohong; Bland, Alan E; Judkins, Roddie R

    2007-07-19

    This paper reviews recent advances in the research and development of sorbents used to capture mercury from coal-fired utility boiler flue gas. Mercury emissions are the source of serious health concerns. Worldwide mercury emissions from human activities are estimated to be 1000 to 6000 t/annum. Mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants are believed to be the largest source of anthropogenic mercury emissions. Mercury emissions from coal-fired utility boilers vary in total amount and speciation, depending on coal types, boiler operating conditions, and configurations of air pollution control devices (APCDs). The APCDs, such as fabric filter (FF) bag house, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD), can remove some particulate-bound and oxidized forms of mercury. Elemental mercury often escapes from these devices. Activated carbon injection upstream of a particulate control device has been shown to have the best potential to remove both elemental and oxidized mercury from the flue gas. For this paper, NORIT FGD activated carbon was extensively studied for its mercury adsorption behavior. Results from bench-, pilot- and field-scale studies, mercury adsorption by coal chars, and a case of lignite-burned mercury control were reviewed. Studies of brominated carbon, sulfur-impregnated carbon and chloride-impregnated carbon were also reviewed. Carbon substitutes, such as calcium sorbents, petroleum coke, zeolites and fly ash were analyzed for their mercury-adsorption performance. At this time, brominated activated carbon appears to be the best-performing mercury sorbent. A non-injection regenerable sorbent technology is briefly introduced herein, and the issue of mercury leachability is briefly covered. Future research directions are suggested.

  8. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-07-01

    Proposed activities for quarter 8 (3/15/2001--6/14/2002), Boiler Burner Simulation and Experiments: (1) Continue the parametric study of cofiring of pulverized coal and LB in the boiler burner, and determining the combustor performance and emissions of NO, CO, CO{sub 2}, PO{sub 2} and P{sub 4}O{sub 10}, etc. The air-fuel ratio, swirl number of the secondary air stream and moisture effects will also be investigated (Task 4). Gasification: (Task 3) (2) Measuring the temperature profile for chicken litter biomass under different operating conditions. (3) Product gas species for different operating conditions for different fuels. (4) Determining the bed ash composition for different fuels. (5) Determining the gasification efficiency for different operating conditions. Activities Achieved during quarter 8 (3/15/2001--6/14/2002), Boiler Burner Simulation and Experiments: (1) The evaporation and phosphorus combustion models have been incorporated into the PCGC-2 code. Mr. Wei has successfully defended his Ph.D. proposal on Coal: LB modeling studies (Task 4, Appendix C). (2) Reburn experiments with both low and high phosphorus feedlot biomass has been performed (Task 2, Appendix A). (3) Parametric studies on the effect of air-fuel ratio, swirl number of the secondary air stream and moisture effects have been investigated (Task 2, Appendix A). (4) Three abstracts have been submitted to the American Society of Agricultural Engineers Annual International meeting at Chicago in July 2002. Three part paper dealing with fuel properties, cofiring, large scale testing are still under review in the Journal of Fuel. Gasification: (Task 3, Appendix B) (5) Items No. 2, and 3 are 95% complete, with four more experiments yet to be performed with coal and chicken litter biomass blends. (6) Item No. 4, and 5 shall be performed after completion of all the experiments.

  9. Frequency comparative study of coal-fired fly ash acoustic agglomeration.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jianzhong; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Guangxue; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2011-01-01

    Particulate pollution is main kind of atmospheric pollution. The fine particles are seriously harmful to human health and environment. Acoustic agglomeration is considered as a promising pretreatment technology for fine particle agglomeration. The mechanisms of acoustic agglomeration are very complex and the agglomeration efficiency is affected by many factors. The most important and controversial factor is frequency. Comparative studies between high-frequency and low-frequency sound source to agglomerate coal-fired fly ash were carried out to investigate the influence of frequency on agglomeration efficiency. Acoustic agglomeration theoretical analysis, experimental particle size distributions (PSDs) and orthogonal design were examined. The results showed that the 20 kHz high-frequency sound source was not suitable to agglomerate coal-fired fly ash. Only within the size ranging from 0.2 to 0.25 microm the particles agglomerated to adhere together, and the agglomerated particles were smaller than 2.5 microm. The application of low-frequency (1000-1800 Hz) sound source was proved as an advisable pretreatment with the highest agglomeration efficiency of 75.3%, and all the number concentrations within the measuring range decreased. Orthogonal design L16 (4)3 was introduced to determine the optimum frequency and optimize acoustic agglomeration condition. According to the results of orthogonal analysis, frequency was the dominant factor of coal-fired fly ash acoustic agglomeration and the optimum frequency was 1400 Hz.

  10. Coal fire mapping of East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coalfield using vertical derivative technique of magnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S. K.; Vaish, Jitendra; Kumar, Sahadev; Bharti, Abhay Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The present study deals with the coal fire mapping of East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coalfield, India, using the magnetic method. It is based on the fact that rise in temperature would result significant changes in magnetic susceptibility and thermo-remanent magnetization (TRM) of the overlying rocks. Magnetism increases slowly with the rise of temperature until the Curie temperature. Generally, rock/ overburden loses magnetization and becomes paramagnetic due to heating to Curie temperature, which results with significant reduction in magnetic susceptibility. However, magnetism increases significantly after cooling below the Curie temperature. Several data processing methods such as diurnal correction, reduction to pole (RTP), first and second vertical derivatives have been used for analysis of magnetic data and their interpretation. It is observed that the total magnetic field intensity anomaly of the area varies approximately from 44850 to 47460 nT and the residual magnetic anomaly varies approximately from -1323 to 1253 nT. The range of the magnetic anomaly after RTP is approximately 1050-1450 nT. About 20 low magnetic anomaly zones have been identified associated with active coal fire regions and 11 high magnetic anomaly zones have been identified associated with non-coal fire regions using vertical derivative techniques.

  11. Development of a coal fired pulse combustor for residential space heating. Phase I, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of a program for the development of a coal-fired residential combustion system. This phase consisted of the design, fabrication, testing, and evaluation of an advanced pulse combustor sized for residential space heating requirements. The objective was to develop an advanced pulse coal combustor at the {approximately} 100,000 Btu/hr scale that can be integrated into a packaged space heating system for small residential applications. The strategy for the development effort included the scale down of the feasibility unit from 1-2 MMBtu/hr to 100,000 Btu/hr to establish a baseline for isolating the effect of scale-down and new chamber configurations separately. Initial focus at the residential scale was concentrated on methods of fuel injection and atomization in a bare metal unit. This was followed by incorporating changes to the advanced chamber designs and testing of refractory-lined units. Multi-fuel capability for firing oil or gas as a secondary fuel was also established. Upon completion of the configuration and component testing, an optimum configuration would be selected for integrated testing of the pulse combustor unit. The strategy also defined the use of Dry Ultrafine Coal (DUC) for Phases 1 and 2 of the development program with CWM firing to be a product improvement activity for a later phase of the program.

  12. Determination of trace organic compounds in effluents from a coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed

    Bonfanti, L; Cioni, M; Belli, R; Cappiello, A

    1988-10-01

    Solid and gaseous emissions from a power plant fired with South African coal and maintained at full load (320 MWe) were characterized for their composition in polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and n-alkanes (n-A). 25 n-A (from C12 to C36) and 34 PAH (from naphthalene to coronene) were determined by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Samples were collected in different points of the plant: the bottom hopper of the boiler, the electrostatic precipitator (ESP) hopper and the ductwork system before and after the ESP. The pulverized coal was also analysed by the same procedure in order to find any correlation with the composition of emissions. PAH concentration profiles of the coal and the combustion products, which will be useful for evaluation of environmental impact, were obtained.

  13. The development of Coke Carried-Heat Gasification Coal-Fired Combined Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Li; Xu, Xiangdong

    1999-12-01

    Carried-Heat Partial Gasification Combined cycle is a novel combined cycle which was proposed by Thermal Engineering Department of Tsinghua University in 1992. The idea of the system comes from the situation that the efficiency of the power plants in China is much lower than that of the advanced countries, but the coal consumption is much higher, which brings about the waste of primary energy resources and the pollution of the environment. With the deep study of the gasification technology, Coke Carried-Heat Gasification Coal-Fired Combined Cycle, as the improved system, came into birth in 1996 based on the partial gasification one. At the end of 1997, a new cycle scheme similar to IGCC was created. This paper focuses on several classes combined cycle put forward by Tsinghua University, depending on the plant configuration and carbon conversion, making the solution a viable and attractive option for efficient coal utilization.

  14. [Characterization of arsenic emissions from a coal-fired power plant].

    PubMed

    Guo, Xin; Zheng, Chu-guang; Cheng, Dan

    2006-04-01

    An emissions study for arsenic was conducted at a 300 MW coal-fired plant equipped with an electrostatic precipitator. The input and output streams such as coal, slag, ESP ash, and flue gas containing the post-ESP particulates were collected. Gaseous arsenic was sampled using EPA method 29 and the arsenic concentrations in the samples were measured using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (HG-ICP-AES). The mass balance recovery of arsenic estimated in this study was 87.2%. Arsenic concentration in stack gas was 2.5 microg/m3. Approximately 0.53% of the coal-derived arsenic was incorporated into slag, 84.6% of the arsenic was found on the fly ash collected by electrostatic precipitators, and 2.16% was found in the vapor phase. The relationship between arsenic concentration and ash particle size was also assessed, and arsenic is significantly concentrated in the small sized particles.

  15. Speciation and mass-balance of mercury from pulverized coal fired power plants burning western Canadian subbituminous coals.

    PubMed

    Goodarzi, F

    2004-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of a study carried out on six pulverized coal-fired power plants in western Canada burning subbituminous coal for the mass-balance and speciation of mercury. The main objectives of this study were to: determine the total gaseous mercury (TGM) emitted from stacks of power plants using the Ontario Hydro method; identify the speciation of emitted mercury such as metallic (Hg(0)) and gaseous elemental (GEM) mercury; and perform mass-balance calculations of mercury for milled-coal, bottom ash, electrostatic precipitators (ESP) fly ash and stack-emitted mercury based on three tests. Sampling of mercury was carried out using the Ontario Hydro method and mercury was determined using the USEPA method 7473 by cold vapor atomic absorption (CVAAS). The sample collection efficiencies confirmed that both oxidized and the elemental mercury had been successfully sampled at all power plants. The total gaseous mercury emitted (TGM) is 6.95-15.66 g h(-1) and is mostly in gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, Hg(0)) form. The gaseous elemental mercury is emitted at a rate of 6.59-12.62 g h(-1). Reactive gaseous mercury (RGM, Hg(2+)) is emitted at a rate of 0.34-3.68 g h(-1). The rate of emission of particulate mercury (Hg(p)) is low and is in the range 0.005-0.076 g h(-1). The range of mass-balances for each power plant is more similar to the variability in measured mercury emissions, than to the coal and ash analyses or process data. The mass-balance calculations for the six power plants, performed on results of the three tests at each power plant, are between 86% and 123%, which is acceptable and within the range 70-130%. The variation in mass-balance of mercury for the six power plants is mostly related to the variability of coal feed rate.

  16. Industry perspectives on increasing the efficiency of coal-fired power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Torrens, I.M.; Stenzel, W.C.

    1997-12-31

    Independent power producers will build a substantial fraction of expected new coal-fired power generation in developing countries over the coming decades. To reduce perceived risk and obtain financing for their projects, they are currently building and plan to continue to build subcritical coal-fired plants with generating efficiency below 40%. Up-to-date engineering assessment leads to the conclusion that supercritical generating technology, capable of efficiencies of up to 45%, can produce electricity at a lower total cost than conventional plants. If such plants were built in Asia over the coming decades, the savings in carbon dioxide emissions over their lifetime would be measured in billions of tons. IPPs perceive supercritical technology as riskier and higher cost than conventional technology. The truth needs to be confirmed by discussions with additional experienced power engineering companies. Better communication among the interested parties could help to overcome the IPP perception issue. Governments working together with industry might be able to identify creative financing arrangements which can encourage the use of more efficient pulverized clean coal technologies, while awaiting the commercialization of advanced clean coal technologies like gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

  17. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Quarterly progress report, January 1--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This report covers work carried out under Task 2, Concept Definition and Analysis, and Task 3, Preliminary R and D, under contract DE-AC22-92PC91155, ``Engineering Development of a Coal Fired High Performance Power Generation System`` between DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and United Technologies Research Center. The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of: > 47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and Particulates {le} 25% NSPS; cost {ge} 65% of heat input; and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW{sub e} combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (FHTAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. The cycle optimization effort has brought about several revisions to the system configuration resulting from: (1) the use of Illinois No. 6 coal instead of Utah Blind Canyon; (2) the use of coal rather than methane as a reburn fuel; (3) reducing radiant section outlet temperatures to 1700F (down from 1800F); and (4) the need to use higher performance (higher cost) steam cycles to offset losses introduced as more realistic operating and construction constraints are identified.

  18. [Emission characteristics of PM10 from coal-fired industrial boiler].

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Li, Xing-Hua; Duan, Lei; Zhao, Meng; Duan, Jing-Chun; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2009-03-15

    Through ELPI (electrical low-pressure impactor) based dilution sampling system, the emission characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 was studied experimentally at the inlet and outlet of dust catchers at eight different coal-fired industrial boilers. Results showed that a peak existed at around 0.12-0.20 microm of particle size for both number size distribution and mass size distribution of PM10 emitted from most of the boilers. Chemical composition analysis indicated that PM2.5 was largely composed of organic carbon, elementary carbon, and sulfate, with mass fraction of 3.7%-21.4%, 4.2%-24.6%, and 1.5%-55.2% respectively. Emission factors of PM10 and PM2.5 measured were 0.13-0.65 kg x t(-1) and 0.08-0.49 kg x t(-1) respectively for grate boiler using raw coal, and 0.24 kg x t(-1) and 0.22 kg x t(-1) for chain-grate boiler using briquette. In comparison, the PM2.5 emission factor of fluidized bed boiler is 1.14 kg x t(-1), much her than that of grate boiler. Due to high coal consumption and low efficiency of dust separator, coal-fired industrial boiler may become the most important source of PM10, and should be preferentially controlled in China.

  19. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy application for ash characterisation for a coal fired power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ctvrtnickova, T.; Mateo, M. P.; Yañez, A.; Nicolas, G.

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this work was to apply the LIBS technique for the analysis of fly ash and bottom ash resulting from the coal combustion in a coal fired power plant. The steps of presented LIBS analysis were pelletizing of powdered samples, firing with laser and spectroscopic detection. The analysis "on tape" was presented as an alternative fast sampling approach. This procedure was compared with the usual steps of normalized chemical analysis methods for coal which are coal calcination, fluxing in high temperature plasma, dilution in strong acids and analyzing by means of ICP-OES and/or AAS. First, the single pulse LIBS approach was used for determination and quantification of elemental content in fly ash and bottom ash on the exit of the boiler. For pellet preparation, ash has to be mixed with proper binder to assure the sample resistance. Preparation of the samples (binder selection and pressing/pelletizing conditions) was determined and LIBS experimental conditions optimized. No preparation is necessary in "on tape" sampling. Moreover, double-pulse approach in orthogonal reheating configuration was applied to enhance the repeatability and precision of the LIBS results and to surpass the matrix effect influencing the calibration curves in case of some elements. Obtained results showed that LIBS responses are comparable to the normalized analytical methods. Once optimized the experimental conditions and features, application of LIBS may be a promising technique for combustion process control even in on-line mode.

  20. Ultra-Low Carbon Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants through Bio-Oil Co-Firing and Biochar Sequestration.

    PubMed

    Dang, Qi; Mba Wright, Mark; Brown, Robert C

    2015-12-15

    This study investigates a novel strategy of reducing carbon emissions from coal-fired power plants through co-firing bio-oil and sequestering biochar in agricultural lands. The heavy end fraction of bio-oil recovered from corn stover fast pyrolysis is blended and co-fired with bituminous coal to form a bio-oil co-firing fuel (BCF). Life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per kWh electricity produced vary from 1.02 to 0.26 kg CO2-eq among different cases, with BCF heavy end fractions ranging from 10% to 60%, which corresponds to a GHG emissions reduction of 2.9% to 74.9% compared with that from traditional bituminous coal power plants. We found a heavy end fraction between 34.8% and 37.3% is required to meet the Clean Power Plan's emission regulation for new coal-fired power plants. The minimum electricity selling prices are predicted to increase from 8.8 to 14.9 cents/kWh, with heavy end fractions ranging from 30% to 60%. A minimum carbon price of $67.4 ± 13 per metric ton of CO2-eq was estimated to make BCF power commercially viable for the base case. These results suggest that BCF co-firing is an attractive pathway for clean power generation in existing power plants with a potential for significant reductions in carbon emissions.

  1. Elemental composition of saltcedar (Tamarix chinensis) impacted by efflents from a coal-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Dreesen, D.R.; Wangen, L.E.

    1981-09-01

    The riparian shrub, saltcedar (Tamarix chinensis), was sampled in channels receiving effluents from a coal-fired power plant. Sources of these effluents included decant from coal ash/scrubber sludge disposal ponds, seepage from these ponds, and blowdown from the cooling lake. In addition, saltcedar was collected from an ephemeral stream channel both upstream and downstream from the input of these effluents. Green-leaf and branch material was analyzed for B, Cu, K, Mg, Na, Li, Sr, Ti, Al, Si, Fe, Mn, P, V, Mo, and Zn in both washed and unwashed samples. The goals of this study were to determine if elevated concentrations of trace, minor, and major elements were present in this species growing adjacent to effluent streams and whether these elements were present in this species growing adjacent to effluent streams and whether these elements were present as surficial contaminants. Washed saltcedar samples were enriched in Mo, B, Cu, K, Mg, Li, Mn, P, and Zn for one or more effluent channel locations. Unwashed saltcedar samples were enriched in soil or coal ash matrix elements (Si, Al, Ti, Ba, and Fe). These elements appeared to be present in coal ash particles deposited on the plant surfaces. More than 80% of these surficial contaminants were removed by washing. In addition to these elements, unwashed saltcedar samples from effluent channels were enriched in Mo, B, Cu, K, Mg, Li, Mn, P, and Zn compared with upstream values. The elements Ca, Na, and Sr were depleted in this species growing in some effluent channels. The results of this study indicated that B is the coal ash contaminant most likely to be absorbed and translocated by plants exposed to such coal-fired power plant effluents.

  2. First North American longwall in pitching seams proven feasible. [Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.F.

    1983-12-01

    There are 1.4 Gt (1.5 billion st) of recoverable coal under less than 914 m (3,000 ft) of cover in Colorado in pitching seams. Snowmass Coal Co., in cooperation with the US Department of Energy, introduced the longwall mining method in pitching seams to North America. This venture is a coal mining research program directed toward the profitable production of coal under difficult mining conditions as found in pitching seams of the western US. Snowmass Coal classifies pitching seams into the following categories for longwall on the strike in seams 3 m (10 ft) or less thick: Flat = 0 to 10/sup 0/: Normal continuous mines and shuttle cars work efficiently. Slight = 10/sup 0/ to 22/sup 0/: The maximum pitch that rubber tired equipment will function. Moderate = 22/sup 0/ to 40/sup 0/: The angle of repose of mined coal. Steep = 40/sup 0/ to 60/sup 0/: The limit of safe use of this roof support. Vertical = over 60/sup 0/. The longwall roof support covered here will work in all pitches except vertical. The shearer and conveyor will work in flat through moderate conditions. Longwalling across strike with this equipment in seam pitch over 60/sup 0/ could be accomplished with an inclined face. Development of the first longwall panel began in 1979 and was completed in 1981. The longwall equipment was installed and mining began on Aug. 11, 1981. Snowmass' performance shows that the capacity of a longwall operating on moderate pitch, up to 45/sup 0/, should be the same as a flat seam longwall. With equipment now available, pitching seam longwall is not only feasible, but cost competitive. The actual roof support method of troika concept has excellent maneuverability, good support, and low maintenance. The shearer has proven power to operate on moderate pitching seams.

  3. High fire resistance in blocks containing coal combustion fly ashes and bottom ash.

    PubMed

    García Arenas, Celia; Marrero, Madelyn; Leiva, Carlos; Solís-Guzmán, Jaime; Vilches Arenas, Luis F

    2011-08-01

    Fire resistance recycled blocks, containing fly ash and bottom ash from coal combustion power plants with a high fire resistance, are studied in this paper by testing different compositions using Portland cement type II, sand, coarse aggregate and fly ash (up to 50% of total weight) and bottom ash (up to 30% of total weight). The fire resistance, physical-chemical (density, pH, humidity, and water absorption capacity), mechanical (compressive and flexural strength), and leaching properties are measured on blocks made with different proportions of fly ash and bottom ash. The standard fire resistance test is reproduced on 28cm-high, 18cm-wide and 3cm-thick units, and is measured as the time needed to reach a temperature of 180°C on the non-exposed surface of the blocks for the different compositions. The results show that the replacement of fine aggregate with fly ash and of coarse aggregate with bottom ash have a remarkable influence on fire resistance and cause no detriment to the mechanical properties of the product. Additionally, according to the leaching tests, no environmental problems have been detected in the product. These results lead to an analysis of the recycling possibilities of these by-products in useful construction applications for the passive protection against fire.

  4. Comparison of the solid waste management practices of coal-fired electric utility participants in the Clean Coal Technology Program of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center

    SciTech Connect

    Ruppel, T.C.

    1994-12-31

    The Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program is at a stage where meaningful comparisons can be drawn regarding the practices of the utility participants in the handling of the solid waste and by-products produced by the combustion of coal. The waste management practices of American industry have come under intense scrutiny in recent years, mainly through the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) of 1976 and its amendments. The waste management practices of the coal-fired electric utility industry are no exception, having been the subject of a major report and recent decision by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Coal-fired utilities in the United States are becoming veritable chemicals plants in an attempt to operate clearly. The present review examines the solid waste management practices of the coal-fired electric utility industrial participants in the US Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) CCT Program. No clean coal technologies have been commercialized yet, so no information concerning commercialized waste disposal practices is available. This review is limited to a discussion of clean coal demonstration projects; but it is also an attempt to realistically project what may be expected in the way of waste management from commercialized CCT technologies.

  5. Distribution and Fate of Mercury in Pulverized Bituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants in Coal Energy-Dominant Huainan City, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bingyu; Liu, Guijian; Sun, Ruoyu

    2016-05-01

    A better understanding on the partitioning behavior of mercury (Hg) during coal combustion in large-scale coal-fired power plants is fundamental for drafting Hg-emission control regulations. Two large coal-fired utility boilers, equipped with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) and a wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) system, respectively, in coal energy-dominant Huainan City, China, were selected to investigate the distribution and fate of Hg during coal combustion. In three sampling campaigns, we found that Hg in bottom ash was severely depleted with a relative enrichment (RE) index <7 %, whereas the RE index for fly ash (9-54%) was comparatively higher and variable. Extremely high Hg was concentrated in gypsum (≤4500 ng/g), which is produced in the WFGD system. Mass balance calculation shows that the shares of Hg in bottom ash, fly ash, WFGD products (gypsum, effluents, sludge), and stack emissions were <2, 17-32, 7-22, and 54-82%, respectively. The Hg-removal efficiencies of ESPs, WFGD, and ESPs + WFGD were 17-32, 10-29, and 36-46%, respectively. The Hg-emission factor of studied boilers was in a high range of 0.24-0.29 g Hg/t coal. We estimated that Hg emissions in all Huainan coal-fired power plants varied from 1.8 Mg in 2003 to 7.3 Mg in 2010.

  6. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    2002-03-31

    Proposed activities for quarter 7 (12/15/01-3/14/2002): (1) Incorporation of moisture model into PCGC2 code. Parametric study of moisture effects on flame structure and pollutants emissions in cofiring of coal and Liter Biomass (LB) (Task 4); (2) Use the ash tracer method to determine the combustion efficiency and comparison it to results from gas analysis (Task 2); (3) Effect of swirl on combustion performance (Task 2); (4) Completion of the proposed modifications to the gasifier setup (Task 3); (5) Calibration of the Gas Chromatograph (GC) used for measuring the product gas species (Task 3); and (6) To obtain temperature profiles for different fuels under different operating conditions in the fixed bed gasifier (Task 3).

  7. Application of hybrid coal reburning/SNCR processes for NOx reduction in a coal-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, W.J.; Zhou, Z.J.; Zhou, J.H.; Hongkun, L.V.; Liu, J.Z.; Cen, K.F.

    2009-07-01

    Boilers in Beijing Thermal Power Plant of Zhongdian Guohua Co. in China are coal-fired with natural circulation and tangential fired method, and the economical continuous rate is 410 ton per hour of steam. Hybrid coal reburning/SNCR technology was applied and it successfully reduced NOx to about 170 mg/Nm{sup 3} from about 540 mg/Nm{sup 3}, meanwhile ammonia slip was lower than 10 ppm at 450-210 t/h load and the total reduction efficiency was about 70%. Normal fineness pulverized coal from the bin was chosen as the reburning fuel and the nozzles of the upper primary air were retrofitted to be used as the reburning fuel nozzles. The reducing agent of SNCR was an urea solution, and it was injected by the four layer injectors after online dilution. At 410 t/h load, NOx emission was about 300 mg/Nm{sup 3} when the ratio of reburning fuel to the total fuel was 25.9%-33.4%. Controlling the oxygen content of the gas in the reversal chamber to less than 3.4% resulted in not only low NOx emission but also high combustion efficiency. Ammonia slip distribution in the down gas pass was uneven and ammonia slip was higher in the front of the down gas pass than in the rear of the down gas pass. NSR and NOx reduction were proportional to each other and usually resulted in more ammonia slip with reduction in NOx. About 100 mg/Nm{sup 3} NOx emission could be achieved with about 40 ppm NH{sub 3} slip at 300-450 t/h, and ammonia slip from the SNCR reactions could be used as reducing agent of SCR, which was favorable for the future SCR retrofit.

  8. Utilization of coal-water fuels in fire-tube boilers. Final report, October 1990--August 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Sommer, T.; Melick, T.; Morrison, D.

    1994-12-31

    The objective of this DOE sponsored project was to successfully fire coal-water slurry in a fire-tube boiler that was designed for oil/gas firing and establish a data base that will be relevant to a large number of existing installations. Firing slurry in a fire-tube configuration is a very demanding application because of the extremely high heat release rates and the correspondingly low furnace volume where combustion can be completed. Recognizing that combustion efficiency is the major obstacle when firing slurry in a fire-tube boiler, the program was focused on innovative approaches for improving carbon burnout without major modifications to the boiler. The boiler system was successfully designed and operated to fire coal-water slurry for extended periods of time with few slurry related operational problems. The host facility was a 3.8 million Btu/hr Cleaver-Brooks fire-tube boiler located on the University of Alabama Campus. A slurry atomizer was designed that provided outstanding atomization and was not susceptible to pluggage. The boiler was operated for over 1000 hours and 12 shipments of slurry were delivered. The new equipment engineered for the coal-water slurry system consisted of the following: combustion air and slurry heaters; cyclone; baghouse; fly ash reinjection system; new control system; air compressor; CWS/gas burner and gas valve train; and storage tank and slurry handling system.

  9. Atmospheric emissions of F, As, Se, Hg, and Sb from coal-fired power and heat generation in China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jian; Liu, Guijian; Kang, Yu; Wu, Bin; Sun, Ruoyu; Zhou, Chuncai; Wu, Dun

    2013-02-01

    Coal is one of the major energy resources in China, with nearly half of produced Chinese coal used for power and heat generation. The large use of coal for power and heat generation in China may result in significant atmospheric emissions of toxic volatile trace elements (i.e. F, As, Se, Hg, and Sb). For the purpose of estimating the atmospheric emissions from coal-fired power and heat generation in China, a simple method based on coal consumption, concentration and emission factor of trace element was adopted to calculate the gaseous emissions of elements F, As, Se, Hg, and Sb. Results indicate that about 162161, 236, 637, 172, and 33 t F, As, Se, Hg, and Sb, respectively, were introduced into atmosphere from coal combustion by power and heat generation in China in 2009. The atmospheric emissions of F, As, Se, Hg, and Sb by power and heat generation increased from 2005 to 2009 with increasing coal consumptions.

  10. ECONOMICS AND FEASIBILITY OF RANKINE CYCLE IMPROVEMENTS FOR COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Richard E. Waryasz; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2004-09-08

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM) has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL), American Electric Company (AEP) and Parsons Energy and Chemical Group to conduct a comprehensive study evaluating coal fired steam power plants, known as Rankine Cycles, equipped with three different combustion systems: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}). Five steam cycles utilizing a wide range of steam conditions were used with these combustion systems. The motivation for this study was to establish through engineering analysis, the most cost-effective performance potential available through improvement in the Rankine Cycle steam conditions and combustion systems while at the same time ensuring that the most stringent emission performance based on CURC (Coal Utilization Research Council) 2010 targets are met: > 98% sulfur removal; < 0.05 lbm/MM-Btu NO{sub x}; < 0.01 lbm/MM-Btu Particulate Matter; and > 90% Hg removal. The final report discusses the results of a coal fired steam power plant project, which is comprised of two parts. The main part of the study is the analysis of ten (10) Greenfield steam power plants employing three different coal combustion technologies: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}) integrated with five different steam cycles. The study explores the technical feasibility, thermal performance, environmental performance, and economic viability of ten power plants that could be deployed currently, in the near, intermediate, and long-term time frame. For the five steam cycles, main steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,292 F and pressures from 2,400 psi to 5,075 psi. Reheat steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,328 F. The number of feedwater heaters varies from 7 to 9 and the associated feedwater temperature varies from 500 F to 626 F. The main part of the study

  11. Emissions, Monitoring and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Bland; Kumar Sellakumar; Craig Cormylo

    2007-08-01

    The Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) identified a need to re-test stack gas emissions from power plants that burn subbituminous coal relative to compliance with the EPA mercury control regulations for coal-fired plants. In addition, the SEC has also identified the specialized monitoring needs associated with mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEM). The overall objectives of the program were to develop and demonstrate solutions for the unique emission characteristics found when burning subbituminous coals. The program was executed in two phases; Phase I of the project covered mercury emission testing programs at ten subbituminous coal-fired plants. Phase II compared the performance of continuous emission monitors for mercury at subbituminous coal-fired power plants and is reported separately. Western Research Institute and a number of SEC members have partnered with Eta Energy and Air Pollution Testing to assess the Phase I objective. Results of the mercury (Hg) source sampling at ten power plants burning subbituminous coal concluded Hg emissions measurements from Powder River Basin (PBR) coal-fired units showed large variations during both ICR and SEC testing. Mercury captures across the Air Pollution Control Devices (APCDs) present much more reliable numbers (i.e., the mercury captures across the APCDs are positive numbers as one would expect compared to negative removal across the APCDs for the ICR data). Three of the seven units tested in the SEC study had previously shown negative removals in the ICR testing. The average emission rate is 6.08 lb/TBtu for seven ICR units compared to 5.18 lb/TBtu for ten units in the SEC testing. Out of the ten (10) SEC units, Nelson Dewey Unit 1, burned a subbituminous coal and petcoke blend thus lowering the total emission rate by generating less elemental mercury. The major difference between the ICR and SEC data is in the APCD performance and the mercury closure around the APCD. The average mercury removal values

  12. Trace element partitioning behavior of coal gangue-fired CFB plant: experimental and equilibrium calculation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yingyi; Nakano, Jinichiro; Liu, Lili; Wang, Xidong; Zhang, Zuotai

    2015-10-01

    Energy recovery is a promising method for coal gangue utilization, during which the prevention of secondary pollution, especially toxic metal emission, is a significant issue in the development of coal gangue utilization. In the present study, investigation into trace element partitioning behavior from a coal gangue-fired power plant in Shanxi province, China, has been conducted. Besides the experimental analysis, thermodynamic equilibrium calculation was also conducted to help the further understanding on the effect of different parameters. Results showed that Hg, As, Be, and Cd were highly volatile elements in the combustion of coal gangue, which were notably enriched in fly ash and may be emitted into the environment via the gas phase. Cr and Mn were mostly non-volatile and were enriched in the bottom ash. Pb, Co, Zn, Cu, and Ni were semi-volatile elements and were enriched in the fly ash to varying degrees. Equilibrium calculations show that the air/fuel ratio and the presence of Cl highly affect the element volatility. The presence of mineral phases, such as aluminosilicates, depresses the volatility of elements by chemical immobilization and competition in Cl. The coal gangue, fly ash, and bottom ash all passed the toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP), and their alkalinity buffers the acidity of the solution and contributes to the low solubility of the trace elements.

  13. Temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of primary air pollutants emissions from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yifeng; Tian, Hezhong; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhen; Wang, Junling; Nie, Lei; Pan, Tao; Zhou, Junrui; Hua, Shenbing; Wang, Yong; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2016-06-01

    Coal-fired combustion is recognized as a significant anthropogenic source of atmospheric compounds in Beijing, causing heavy air pollution events and associated deterioration in visibility. Obtaining an accurate understanding of the temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of emissions from coal-fired industrial combustion is essential for predicting air quality changes and evaluating the effectiveness of current control measures. In this study, an integrated emission inventory of primary air pollutants emitted from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing is developed for the period of 2007-2013 using a technology-based approach. Future emission trends are projected through 2030 based on current energy-related and emission control policies. Our analysis shows that there is a general downward trend in primary air pollutants emissions because of the implementation of stricter local emission standards and the promotion by the Beijing municipal government of converting from coal-fired industrial boilers to gas-fired boilers. However, the ratio of coal consumed by industrial boilers to total coal consumption has been increasing, raising concerns about the further improvement of air quality in Beijing. Our estimates indicate that the total emissions of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOx, CO and VOCs from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing in 2013 are approximately 19,242 t, 13,345 t, 26,615 t, 22,965 t, 63,779 t and 1406 t, respectively. Under the current environmental policies and relevant energy savings and emission control plans, it may be possible to reduce NOx and other air pollutant emissions by 94% and 90% by 2030, respectively, if advanced flue gas purification technologies are implemented and coal is replaced with natural gas in the majority of existing boilers.

  14. Chemical and biological characterization of emissions from coal- and oil-fired power plants.

    PubMed Central

    Ahlberg, M; Berghem, L; Nordberg, G; Persson, S A; Rudling, L; Steen, B

    1983-01-01

    Emission samples were obtained from two medium-sized power plants, one fired with oil and the other with pulverized coal. Particles obtained by a miniscale plume stack gas sampler (MIPSGAS), simulating the dilution process in the plume, were subjected to detailed physical, chemical and biological characterization. Studies by scanning electron microscopy and by Coulter counter demonstrated that the particles from the oil-fired boiler were considerably larger than the particles from the coal-fired boiler. Chemical analyses revealed more organic substances and more S, Ni, V, in the oil than in the coal particles. The latter contained a larger proportion of Al, Si, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, Se, Rb, Y, Zr, Ba and Pb. Biological testing revealed a greater acute and subacute toxicity by the intratracheal route in the hamster, a greater toxicity to alveolar macrophages and a greater lung retention of BaP coated on the particles from oil combustion than on those from coal combustion. In another sampling line, employed simultaneously with the MIPSGAS-particulate sampler, the total emissions were collected, i.e., both particle and gas phase. These samples were used for chemical analyses and Ames mutagenicity test. Analyses of specific PAHs in emissions from both plants demonstrated that concentrations were below the detection limit (less than 4 ng/m3 of benzo(a)pyrene), which is in accord with an efficient combustion of the fuel. The mutagenicity of the samples were below the detection limit of the mutagenicity assay. Images FIGURE 4. FIGURE 5. PMID:6825622

  15. Investigation of subsidence event over multiple seam mining area

    SciTech Connect

    Kohli, K.K.

    1999-07-01

    An investigation was performed to determine the sequence of events which caused the 1987 surface subsidence and related damage to several homes in Walker County, Alabama, USA. Surface affects compared to mine maps indicated the subsidence to be mine related. However, two coal seams had been worked under this area. The upper seam, the American seam, ranged from 250 to 280 feet beneath the surface in the area in question. It was mined-out before 1955 by room-and-pillar method leaving in place narrow-long pillars to support the overburden strata, and abandoned in 1955. The lower seam, the Mary Lee seam, ranged from 650 to 700 feet beneath the surface. The Mary Lee seam had been abandoned in 1966 and subsequently became flooded. The dewatering of the Mary Lee seam workings in 1985 caused the submerged pillars to be exposed to the atmosphere. Due to multiple seam mining and the fact that workings had been inundated then dewatered, a subsurface investigation ensued to determine the sequence and ultimate cause of surface subsidence. Core sample tests with fracture analysis in conjunction with down-the-hole TV camera inspections provided necessary information to determine that the subsidence started in the lower seam and progressed through the upper coal seam to the surface. Evidence from the investigation program established that dewatering of the lower seam workings caused the marginally stable support pillars and the roof to collapse. This failure triggered additional subsidence in the upper seam which broadened the area of influence at the surface.

  16. Transformations and affinities for sulfur of Chinese Shenmu coal ash in a pulverized coal-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, J.; Zhou, J.H.; Liu, J.Z.; Cao, X.Y.; Cen, K.F.

    2009-07-01

    The self-desulfurization efficiency of Shenmu coal with a high initial Ca/S molar ratio of 2.02 was measured in a 1,025 t/h pulverized coal-fired boiler. It increases from 29% to 32% when the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%. About 60% of the mineral matter and calcium element fed into the furnace is retained in the fly ash, while less than 10% is retained in the bottom ash. About 70% of the sulfur element fed into the furnace is emitted as SO{sub 2} in the flue gas, while less than 10% is retained in the fly ash and less than 1% is retained in the bottom ash. The mineralogical compositions of feed coal, fly ash, and bottom ash were obtained by X-ray diffraction analysis. It is found that the initial amorphous phase content is 91.17% and the initial CaCO{sub 3} phase content is 2.07% in Shenmu coal. The vitreous phase and sulfation product CaSO{sub 4} contents are, respectively, 70.47% and 3.36% in the fly ash obtained at full capacity, while the retained CaCO{sub 3} and CaO contents are, respectively, 4.73% and 2.15%. However, the vitreous phase content is only 25.68% and no CaSO{sub 4} is detected in the bottom ash obtained at full capacity. When the power capacity decreases from 100% to 70%, the vitreous phase content in fly ash decreases from 70.47% to 67.41% and that in bottom ash increases from 25.68% to 28.10%.

  17. Mercury emissions from a coal-fired power plant in Japan

    PubMed

    Yokoyama; Asakura; Matsuda; Ito; Noda

    2000-10-02

    The emissions study for mercury was conducted at a 700 MW coal-fired plant for the combustion of three types of coal with mercury concentrations of 0.0063, 0.0367 and 0.065 mg/kg. The power plant is equipped with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator and wet type flue gas desulfurization system. During full load operation of the boilers, samples of the input and output streams such as coal, coal ash, ESP ash and post-ESP particulates and flue gas were collected. The Hg concentrations in solid were measured by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) after appropriate preparation and acid digestion. Gaseous Hg was collected using a mixed solution of potassium permanganate and sulfuric acid and the Hg concentrations in the samples were measured using cold-vapor AAS. The results were used to examine: (1) overall mass balances; (2) relative distribution in the power plant; (3) equilibrium of Hg species using MALT-2 calculation program; and (4) Hg concentrations in stack emissions. The mass balances estimated in this study were 100, 138 and 89%, respectively, for the coals. Total Hg concentrations in stack gas were 1.113, 0.422 and 0.712 microg(m3N), respectively, for the coals. More than 99.5% of the Hg in the stack emissions were in gaseous form and the proportion in particulate form was extremely low. The relative distribution of Hg in ESP, FGD and Stack ranged from 8.3 to 55.2%, 13.3 to 69.2% and 12.2% to 44.4%, respectively. The results indicated that factors other than the Hg concentration of coals and efficiency of pollution control devices might affect Hg emissions from coal-fired plant. The calculated equilibrium of the distribution of Hg species using the MALT2 program suggest that it is necessary to consider condensation mechanism to interpret the affect of Hg species on the variations of the removal efficiencies of Hg in the ESP.

  18. ASSESSMENT OF LOW COST NOVEL SORBENTS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT MERCURY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2004-03-01

    The injection of sorbents upstream of a particulate control device is one of the most promising methods for controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired utility boilers with electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters. Studies carried out at the bench-, pilot-, and full-scale have shown that a wide variety of factors may influence sorbent mercury removal effectiveness. These factors include mercury species, flue gas composition, process conditions, existing pollution control equipment design, and sorbent characteristics. The objective of the program is to obtain the necessary information to assess the viability of lower cost alternatives to commercially available activated carbon for mercury control in coal-fired utilities. Prior to injection testing, a number of sorbents were tested in a slipstream fixed-bed device both in the laboratory and at two field sites. Based upon the performance of the sorbents in a fixed-bed device and the estimated cost of mercury control using each sorbent, seventeen sorbents were chosen for screening in a slipstream injection system at a site burning a Western bituminous coal/petcoke blend, five were chosen for screening at a site burning a subbituminous Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, and nineteen sorbents were evaluated at a third site burning a PRB coal. Sorbents evaluated during the program were of various materials, including: activated carbons, treated carbons, other non-activated carbons, and non-carbon material. The economics and performance of the novel sorbents evaluated demonstrate that there are alternatives to the commercial standard. Smaller enterprises may have the opportunity to provide lower price mercury sorbents to power generation customers under the right set of circumstances.

  19. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G. A.; O'Donoughue, P.; Vorum, M.

    2012-04-01

    This systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessments (LCAs) of utility-scale coal-fired electricity generation systems focuses on reducing variability and clarifying central tendencies in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening 270 references for quality LCA methods, transparency, and completeness yielded 53 that reported 164 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. These estimates for subcritical pulverized, integrated gasification combined cycle, fluidized bed, and supercritical pulverized coal combustion technologies vary from 675 to 1,689 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh) (interquartile range [IQR]= 890-1,130 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh; median = 1,001) leading to confusion over reasonable estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from coal-fired electricity generation. By adjusting published estimates to common gross system boundaries and consistent values for key operational input parameters (most importantly, combustion carbon dioxide emission factor [CEF]), the meta-analytical process called harmonization clarifies the existing literature in ways useful for decision makers and analysts by significantly reducing the variability of estimates ({approx}53% in IQR magnitude) while maintaining a nearly constant central tendency ({approx}2.2% in median). Life cycle GHG emissions of a specific power plant depend on many factors and can differ from the generic estimates generated by the harmonization approach, but the tightness of distribution of harmonized estimates across several key coal combustion technologies implies, for some purposes, first-order estimates of life cycle GHG emissions could be based on knowledge of the technology type, coal mine emissions, thermal efficiency, and CEF alone without requiring full LCAs. Areas where new research is necessary to ensure accuracy are also discussed.

  20. Deposit growth and property development in coal-fired furnaces

    SciTech Connect

    Baxter, L.

    1995-11-01

    The objectives of this research project are: (1) to provide a self-consistent database of simultaneously measured, time-resolved ash deposit properties in well-controlled and well-defined environments and (2) to provide analytical expressions that relate deposit composition and structure to deposit properties of immediate relevance to PETC`s Combustion 2000 program. This project is distinguished from related work being done elsewhere by: (1) the development and deployment of in-situ diagnostics to monitor deposit properties, including heat transfer coefficients, porosity, emissivity, tenacity, strength, density, and viscosity; (2) the time resolution of such properties during deposit growth; (3) simultaneous measurement of structural and composition properties; (4) development of algorithms from a self-consistent, simultaneously measured database that includes the interdependence of properties; and (5) application of the results to technologically relevant environments such as those being planned under Combustion 2000 program. Work completed during FY94 emphasized diagnostic development. During FY95, this development work will be completed and we will emphasize application of the diagnostics to meet the other project objectives. Included in this work are the development and application of two in-situ, real-time diagnostic systems for monitoring the properties of inorganic materials on Heat transfer surfaces and in the gas-phase during controlled combustion of selected coal samples in Sandia`s Multifuel Combustor (MFC). Also, several diagnostics are being incorporated into the MFC that will eventually be used to characterize ash deposit properties.

  1. Metallurgical Analysis of Cracks Formed on Coal Fired Boiler Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishor, Rajat; Kyada, Tushal; Goyal, Rajesh K.; Kathayat, T. S.

    2015-02-01

    Metallurgical failure analysis was carried out for cracks observed on the outer surface of a boiler tube made of ASME SA 210 GR A1 grade steel. The cracks on the surface of the tube were observed after 6 months from the installation in service. A careful visual inspection, chemical analysis, hardness measurement, detailed microstructural analysis using optical and scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy were carried out to ascertain the cause for failure. Visual inspection of the failed tube revealed the presence of oxide scales and ash deposits on the surface of the tube exposed to fire. Many cracks extending longitudinally were observed on the surface of the tube. Bulging of the tube was also observed. The results of chemical analysis, hardness values and optical micrographs did not exhibit any abnormality at the region of failure. However, detailed SEM with EDS analysis confirmed the presence of various oxide scales. These scales initiated corrosion at both the inner and outer surfaces of the tube. In addition, excessive hoop stress also developed at the region of failure. It is concluded that the failure of the boiler tube took place owing to the combined effect of the corrosion caused by the oxide scales as well as the excessive hoop stress.

  2. The fate and behavior of mercury in coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Meij, Ruud; Vredenbregt, Leo H J; te Winkel, Henk

    2002-08-01

    For the past 22 years in the Netherlands, the behavior of Hg in coal-fired power plants has been studied extensively. Coal from all over the world is fired in Dutch power stations. First, the Hg concentrations in these coals were measured. Second, the fate of the Hg during combustion was established by performing mass balance studies. On average, 43 +/- 30% of the Hg was present in the flue gases downstream of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP; dust collector). In individual cases, this figure can vary between 1 and 100%. Important parameters are the Cl content of the fuel and the flue gas temperature in the ESP. On average, 54 +/- 24% of the gaseous Hg was removed in the wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, which are present at all Dutch coal-power stations. In individual cases, this removal can vary between 8% (outlier) and 72%. On average, the fate of Hg entering the power station in the coal was as follows: <1% in the bottom ash, 49% in the pulverized fuel ash (ash collected in the ESP), 16.6% in the FGD gypsum, 9% in the sludge of the wastewater treatment plant, 0.04% in the effluent of the wastewater treatment plant, 0.07% in fly dust (leaving the stack), and 25% as gaseous Hg in the flue gases and emitted into the air. The distribution of Hg over the streams leaving the FGD depends strongly on the installation. On average, 75% of the Hg was removed, and the final concentration of Hg in the emitted flue gases of the Dutch power stations was only -3 microg/m3(STP) at 6% O2. During co-combustion with biomass, the removal of Hg was similar to that during 100% coal firing. Speciation of Hg is a very important factor. An oxidized form (HgCl2) favors a high degree of removal. The conversion from Hg0 to HgCl2 is positively correlated with the Cl content of the fuel. A catalytic DENOX (SCR) favors the formation of oxidized Hg, and, in combination with a wet FGD, the total removal can be as high as 90%.

  3. Producing fired bricks using coal slag from a gasification plant in indiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, L.-M.; Chou, I.-Ming; Chou, S.-F.J.; Stucki, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) is a promising power generation technology which increases the efficiency of coal-to-power conversion and enhances carbon dioxide concentration in exhaust emissions for better greenhouse gas capture. Two major byproducts from IGCC plants are bottom slag and sulfur. The sulfur can be processed into commercially viable products, but high value applications need to be developed for the slag material in order to improve economics of the process. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the technical feasibility of incorporating coal slag generated by the Wabash River IGCC plant in Indiana as a raw material for the production of fired bricks. Full-size bricks containing up to 20 wt% of the coal slag were successfully produced at a bench-scale facility. These bricks have color and texture similar to those of regular fired bricks and their water absorption properties met the ASTM specifications for a severe weathering grade. Other engineering properties tests, including compressive strength tests, are in progress.

  4. Update of operating experience of B and W IR-CFB coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Belin, F.; Kavidass, S.; Maryamchik, M.; Walker, D.J.; Mandal, A.K.; Price, C.E.

    1999-07-01

    This paper updates the operating experience of two Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) coal-fired, internal recirculation circulating fluidized-bed (IR-CFB) boilers. The first boiler is located at Southern Illinois University (SIU) in Carbondale, Illinois, USA, and is designed for 35 MW{sub th} output for cogeneration application, utilizing high sulfur, low ash Illinois coal. The second boiler is located at Kanoria Chemicals and Industries in Renukoot, India, and is designed for 81 MW{sub th} output for captive power requirement, firing high ash, low sulfur coal. This boiler was supplied by Thermax B and W Ltd., a joint venture company of B and W and Thermax of India. The choice of CFB technology was based on its fuel flexibility, cost effectiveness and environmental benefits for solid fuels. Based on the broad experience in designing utility and industrial boilers for operation worldwide, B and W has developed a cost effective and compact atmospheric pressure IR-CFB boiler. The B and W IR-CFB boiler design is distinctive in its use of U-beam particle separators. Worldwide, B and W offers IF-CFB boilers up to 175 MW{sub th}, both reheat and non-reheat, and is pursuing units up to 350 MW{sub th}. This paper reviews the general description of each IR-CFB boiler, design and performance aspects, as well as overall operating experiences. The boiler availabilities including maintenance aspects and emissions data will be presented.

  5. Pulverized coal firing of aluminum melting furnaces. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1-September 30, 1979

    SciTech Connect

    West, C E

    1980-09-01

    The ultimate objective of this program is the commercial demonstration of an efficient, environmentally acceptable coal firing process suitable for implementation on melting furnaces throughout the aluminum industry. To achieve this goal, the program has been divided into two phases. Phase I has begun with the design and construction of a 350 pound (coal) per hour staged slagging cyclone combustor (SSCC) attached to a 7-ft diameter aluminum melting ladle furnace. Process development will culminate with a 1000 pph prototype SSCC firing a 40,000 pound capacity open hearth melting furnace at the Alcoa Laboratories. Phase II implementation is currently planned for Alcoa's Lafayette, IN, Works, where two of the ingot plant's five open hearth melting furnaces will be converted to utilize coal. In addition to confirmation of data gathered in Phase I, the effect of extended production schedule operation on equipment and efficiencies will be determined. This work would begin in 1982 pursuant to technical and economic evaluation of the process development at that time.

  6. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Bert Zauderer

    1998-09-30

    Coal Tech Corp's mission is to develop, license & sell innovative, lowest cost, solid fuel fired power systems & total emission control processes using proprietary and patented technology for domestic and international markets. The present project 'DEVELOPMENT & TESTING OF INDUSTRIAL SCALE, COAL FIRED COMBUSTION SYSTEM, PHASE 3' on DOE Contract DE-AC22-91PC91162 was a key element in achieving this objective. The project consisted of five tasks that were divided into three phases. The first phase, 'Optimization of First Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor', consisted of three tasks, which are detailed in Appendix 'A' of this report. They were implemented in 1992 and 1993 at the first generation, 20 MMBtu/hour, combustor-boiler test site in Williamsport, PA. It consisted of substantial combustor modifications and coal-fired tests designed to improve the combustor's wall cooling, slag and ash management, automating of its operation, and correcting severe deficiencies in the coal feeding to the combustor. The need for these changes was indicated during the prior 900-hour test effort on this combustor that was conducted as part of the DOE Clean Coal Program. A combination of combustor changes, auxiliary equipment changes, sophisticated multi-dimensional combustion analysis, computer controlled automation, and series of single and double day shift tests totaling about 300 hours, either resolved these operational issues or indicated that further corrective changes were needed in the combustor design. The key result from both analyses and tests was that the combustor must be substantially lengthened to maximize combustion efficiency and sharply increase slag retention in the combustor. A measure of the success of these modifications was realized in the third phase of this project, consisting of task 5 entitled: 'Site Demonstration with the Second Generation 20 MMBtu/hr Air-Cooled Slagging Coal Tech Combustor'. The details of the task 5 effort are

  7. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  8. CO-FIRING COAL: FEEDLOT AND LITTER BIOMASS FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Kalyan Annamalai; John Sweeten; Saqib Mukhtar; Soyuz Priyadarsan

    2003-06-01

    Reburn with animal waste yield NO{sub x} reduction of the order of 70-80%, which is much higher than those previously reported in the literature for natural gas, coal and agricultural biomass as reburn fuels. Further, the NO{sub x} reduction is almost independent of stoichiometry from stoichiometric to upto 10% deficient air in reburn zone. As a first step towards understanding the reburn process in a boiler burner, a simplified zero-dimensional model has been developed for estimating the NO{sub x} reduction in the reburn process using simulated animal waste based biomass volatiles. However the first model does not include the gradual heat up of reburn fuel particle, pyrolysis and char combustion. Hence there is a need for more rigorous treatment of the model with animal waste as reburn fuel. To address this issue, an improved zero-dimensional model is being developed which can handle any solid reburn fuel, along with more detailed heterogeneous char reactions and homogeneous global reactions. The model on ''NO{sub x} Reduction for Reburn Process using Feedlot Biomass,'' incorporates; (a) mixing between reburn fuel and main-burner gases, (b) gradual heat-up of reburn fuel accompanied by pyrolysis, oxidation of volatiles and char oxidation, (c) fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN) pyrolysis, and FBN including both forward and backward reactions, (d) prediction of NO{sub x} as a function of time in the reburn zone, and (e) gas phase and solid phase temperature as a function of time. The fuel bound nitrogen is assumed to be released to the gas phase by two processes, (a) FBN evolution to N{sub 2}, HCN, and NH{sub 3}, and (b) FBN oxidation to NO at the char surface. The formulation has been completed, code has been developed, and preliminary runs have been made to test the code. Note that, the current model does not incorporate the overfire air. The results of the simulation will be compared with the experimental results. During this quarter, three journal and four conference

  9. Mercury emission and speciation of coal-fired power plants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. X.; Zhang, L.; Li, G. H.; Wu, Y.; Hao, J. M.; Pirrone, N.; Sprovieri, F.; Ancora, M. P.

    2010-02-01

    Comprehensive field measurements are needed to understand the mercury emissions from Chinese power plants and to improve the accuracy of emission inventories. Characterization of mercury emissions and their behavior were measured in six typical coal-fired power plants in China. During the tests, the flue gas was sampled simultaneously at inlet and outlet of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), electrostatic precipitators (ESP), and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM). The pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash and gypsum were also sampled in the field. Mercury concentrations in coal burned in the measured power plants ranged from 17 to 385 μg/kg. The mercury mass balances for the six power plants varied from 87 to 116% of the input coal mercury for the whole system. The total mercury concentrations in the flue gas from boilers were at the range of 1.92-27.15 μg/m3, which were significantly related to the mercury contents in burned coal. The mercury speciation in flue gas right after the boiler is influenced by the contents of halogen, mercury, and ash in the burned coal. The average mercury removal efficiencies of ESP, ESP plus wet FGD, and ESP plus dry FGD-FF systems were 24%, 73% and 66%, respectively, which were similar to the average removal efficiencies of pollution control device systems in other countries such as US, Japan and South Korea. The SCR system oxidized 16% elemental mercury and reduced about 32% of total mercury. Elemental mercury, accounting for 66-94% of total mercury, was the dominant species emitted to the atmosphere. The mercury emission factor was also calculated for each power plant.

  10. Mercury emission and speciation of coal-fired power plants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Zhang, L.; Li, G.; Wu, Y.; Hao, J.; Pirrone, N.; Sprovieri, F.; Ancora, M. P.

    2009-11-01

    Comprehensive field measurements are needed to understand the mercury emissions from Chinese power plants and to improve the accuracy of emission inventories. Characterization of mercury emissions and their behavior were measured in six typical coal-fired power plants in China. During the tests, the flue gas was sampled simultaneously at inlet and outlet of selective catalyst reduction (SCR), electrostatic precipitators (ESP), and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM). The pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash and gypsum were also sampled in the field. Mercury concentrations in coal burned in the measured power plants ranged from 17 to 385 μg/kg. The mercury mass balances for the six power plants varied from 87 to 116% of the input coal mercury for the whole system. The total mercury concentrations in the flue gas from boilers were at the range of 1.92-27.15 μg/m3, which were significantly related to the mercury contents in burned coal. The mercury speciation in flue gas right after the boiler is influenced by the contents of halogen, mercury, and ash in the burned coal. The average mercury removal efficiencies of ESP, ESP plus wet FGD, and ESP plus dry FGD-FF systems were 24%, 73% and 66%, respectively, which were similar to the average removal efficiencies of pollution control device systems in other countries such as US, Japan and South Korea. The SCR system oxidized 16% elemental mercury and reduced about 32% of total mercury. Elemental mercury, accounting for 66-94% of total mercury, was the dominant species emitted to the atmosphere. The mercury emission factor was also calculated for each power plant.

  11. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM THE MONTICELLO COAL FIRED POWER PLANT.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; SUBRAMANIAN, S.; FEAGIN, L.; WILLIAMS, J.; BOYD, A.

    2006-10-31

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as currently proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots of mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury ''hot spots'', using two types of evidence. First, the world-wide literature was searched for reports of deposition around mercury sources, including coal-fired power plants. Second, soil samples from around two mid-sized U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of ''hot spots'' and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (A) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (B) sediment increments of 18-30%, (C) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (D) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg deposition and fish content

  12. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1989-10-01

    The general goal of this research project is to enhance, and transfer to DOE, a new computer simulation model for analyzing the performance and cost of environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Systems utilizing pre-combustion, combustion, or post-combustion control methods, individually or in combination, may be considered. A unique capability of this model is the probabilistic representation of uncertainty in model input parameters. This stochastic simulation capability allows the performance and cost of environmental control systems to be quantified probabilistically, accounting for the interactions among all uncertain process and economic parameters. This method facilitates more rigorous comparisons between conventional and advanced clean coal technologies promising improved cost and/or effectiveness for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal. Detailed modeling of several pre-combustion and post-combustion processes of interest to DOE/PETC have been selected for analysis as part of this project.

  13. Polychlorinated biphenyls in fly ashes collected from five coal-fired power plants in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhiyong; Li, Xu; Ma, Huiqiao; Fan, Lin

    2017-01-01

    The 5 coal fly ash samples (CFA) were systematically collected from 5 coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) in North China for analysis of 86 PCB congeners. The predominant PCB congeners were PCB-6, -4/10, -28, -18, -19 and -16/32, which belonged to lighter molecular weight (LMW) congeners. The Σ86PCBs for 5 CFPPs ranged from 10.93 to 32.06 ng/g with the mean value as 16.01 ng/g. The PCBs in CFA were dominated by LMW-PCBs with 2-, 3- and 4-Cl PCBs contributed 34.80%, 39.18% and 9.21% to the Σ86PCBs. The TEQ concentrations for 5 CFPPs was 42.54 pg/g higher than 4 pg/g designed by Canada for soil quality, indicated the using of CFA as soil amendment should be cautioned.

  14. [Hazard evaluation modeling of particulate matters emitted by coal-fired boilers and case analysis].

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan-Ting; Du, Qian; Gao, Jian-Min; Bian, Xin; Wang, Zhi-Pu; Dong, He-Ming; Han, Qiang; Cao, Yang

    2014-02-01

    In order to evaluate the hazard of PM2.5 emitted by various boilers, in this paper, segmentation of particulate matters with sizes of below 2. 5 microm was performed based on their formation mechanisms and hazard level to human beings and environment. Meanwhile, taking into account the mass concentration, number concentration, enrichment factor of Hg, and content of Hg element in different coal ashes, a comprehensive model aimed at evaluating hazard of PM2.5 emitted by coal-fired boilers was established in this paper. Finally, through utilizing filed experimental data of previous literatures, a case analysis of the evaluation model was conducted, and the concept of hazard reduction coefficient was proposed, which can be used to evaluate the performance of dust removers.

  15. Co-firing high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels. Quarterly report, October - December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, W.-P.; Riley, J.T.; Lloyd, W.G.

    1996-12-01

    The objectives of this quarter of study on the co-firing of high sulfur coal with refuse derived fuels project were two-fold. First, the effect of S0{sub 2} on the formation of chlorine during combustion processes was examined. To simulate the conditions used in the AFBC system, experiments were conducted in a quartz tube in an electrically heated furnace. The principle analytical technique used for identification of the products from this study was GC/MS. The evolved gas was trapped by an absorbent and analyzed with a GC/MS system. The preliminary results indicate an inhibiting effect of S0{sub 2} on the Deacon Reaction. Secondly, information on the evolution of chlorine, sulfur and organic compounds from coals 95031 and 95011 were studied with the AFBC system. 2 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Comprehensive assessment of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T D; Schmidt, C E; Radziwon, A S

    1991-01-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has two current investigations, initiated before passage of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA), that will determine the air toxic emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. DOE has contracted with Battelle Memorial Institute and Radian corporation to conduct studies focusing on the potential air toxics, both organic and inorganic, associated with different size fractions of fine particulate matter emitted from power plant stacks. Table 2 indicates the selected analytes to be investigated during these studies. PETC is also developing guidance on the monitoring of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPS) to be incorporated in the Environmental Monitoring plans for the demonstration projects in its Clean Coal Technology Program.

  17. Development of a high-performance coal-fired power generating system with pyrolysis gas and char-fired high temperature furnace (HITAF). Volume 1, Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    A major objective of the coal-fired high performance power systems (HIPPS) program is to achieve significant increases in the thermodynamic efficiency of coal use for electric power generation. Through increased efficiency, all airborne emissions can be decreased, including emissions of carbon dioxide. High Performance power systems as defined for this program are coal-fired, high efficiency systems where the combustion products from coal do not contact the gas turbine. Typically, this type of a system will involve some indirect heating of gas turbine inlet air and then topping combustion with a cleaner fuel. The topping combustion fuel can be natural gas or another relatively clean fuel. Fuel gas derived from coal is an acceptable fuel for the topping combustion. The ultimate goal for HIPPS is to, have a system that has 95 percent of its heat input from coal. Interim systems that have at least 65 percent heat input from coal are acceptable, but these systems are required to have a clear development path to a system that is 95 percent coal-fired. A three phase program has been planned for the development of HIPPS. Phase 1, reported herein, includes the development of a conceptual design for a commercial plant. Technical and economic feasibility have been analysed for this plant. Preliminary R&D on some aspects of the system were also done in Phase 1, and a Research, Development and Test plan was developed for Phase 2. Work in Phase 2 include s the testing and analysis that is required to develop the technology base for a prototype plant. This work includes pilot plant testing at a scale of around 50 MMBtu/hr heat input. The culmination of the Phase 2 effort will be a site-specific design and test plan for a prototype plant. Phase 3 is the construction and testing of this plant.

  18. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang; K.A. Davis; M. Denison; H. Shim

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this program is to provide insight into the formation and minimization of NO{sub x} in multi-burner arrays, such as those that would be found in a typical utility boiler. Most detailed studies are performed in single-burner test facilities, and may not capture significant burner-to-burner interactions that could influence NO{sub x} emissions. Thus, investigations of such interactions were made by performing a combination of single and multiple burner experiments in a pilot-scale coal-fired test facility at the University of Utah, and by the use of computational combustion simulations to evaluate full-scale utility boilers. In addition, fundamental studies on nitrogen release from coal were performed to develop greater understanding of the physical processes that control NO formation in pulverized coal flames--particularly under low NO{sub x} conditions. A CO/H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} flame was operated under fuel-rich conditions in a flat flame reactor to provide a high temperature, oxygen-free post-flame environment to study secondary reactions of coal volatiles. Effects of temperature, residence time and coal rank on nitrogen evolution and soot formation were examined. Elemental compositions of the char, tar and soot were determined by elemental analysis, gas species distributions were determined using FTIR, and the chemical structure of the tar and soot was analyzed by solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. A laminar flow drop tube furnace was used to study char nitrogen conversion to NO. The experimental evidence and simulation results indicated that some of the nitrogen present in the char is converted to nitric oxide after direct attack of oxygen on the particle, while another portion of the nitrogen, present in more labile functionalities, is released as HCN and further reacts in the bulk gas. The reaction of HCN with NO in the bulk gas has a strong influence on the overall conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide; therefore, any model that

  19. Optimization of Trona/Limestone Injection for SO2 Control in Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-01

    Mobotec USA develops and markets air pollution control systems for utility boilers and other combustion systems. They have a particular interest in technologies that can reduce NOx, SOx, and mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers, and have been investigating the injection of sorbents such as limestone and trona into a boiler to reduce SOx and Hg emissions. WRI proposed to use the Combustion Test Facility (CTF) to enable Mobotec to conduct a thorough evaluation of limestone and trona injection for SO{sub 2} control. The overall goal of the project was to characterize the SO{sub 2} reductions resulting from the injection of limestone and trona into the CTF when fired with a high-sulfur eastern bituminous coal used in one of Mobotec's Midwest installations. Results revealed that when limestone was injected at Ca:S molar ratios of 1.5 to 3.0, the resulting SO{sub 2} reductions were 35-55%. It is believed that further reductions can be attained with improved mixing of the sorbent with the combustion gases. When limestone was added to the coal, at Ca:S molar ratios of 0.5 to 1.5, the SO{sub 2} reductions were 13-21%. The lower reductions were attributed to dead-burning of the sorbent in the high temperature flame zone. In cases where limestone was both injected into the furnace and added to the coal, the total SO{sub 2} reductions for a given Ca:S molar ratio were similar to the reductions for furnace injection only. The injection of trona into the mid-furnace zone, for Na:S molar ratios of 1.4 to 2.4, resulted in SO{sub 2} reductions of 29-43%. Limestone injection did not produce any slag deposits on an ash deposition probe while trona injection resulted in noticeable slag deposition.

  20. The net climate impact of coal-fired power plant emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shindell, D.; Faluvegi, G.

    2010-04-01

    Coal-fired power plants influence climate via both the emission of long-lived carbon dioxide (CO2) and short-lived ozone and aerosol precursors. Using a climate model, we perform the first study of the spatial and temporal pattern of radiative forcing specifically for coal plant emissions. Without substantial pollution controls, we find that near-term net global mean climate forcing is negative due to the well-known aerosol masking of the effects of CO2. Imposition of pollution controls on sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides leads to a rapid realization of the full positive forcing from CO2, however. Long-term global mean forcing from stable (constant) emissions is positive regardless of pollution controls. Emissions from coal-fired power plants until ~1970, including roughly 1/3 of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions, likely contributed little net global mean climate forcing during that period though they may have induce weak Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude (NHml) cooling. After that time many areas imposed pollution controls or switched to low-sulfur coal. Hence forcing due to emissions from 1970 to 2000 and CO2 emitted previously was strongly positive and contributed to rapid global and especially NHml warming. Most recently, new construction in China and India has increased rapidly with minimal application of pollution controls. Continuation of this trend would add negative near-term global mean climate forcing but severely degrade air quality. Conversely, following the Western and Japanese pattern of imposing air quality pollution controls at a later time could accelerate future warming rates, especially at NHmls. More broadly, our results indicate that due to spatial and temporal inhomogenaities in forcing, climate impacts of multi-pollutant emissions can vary strongly from region to region and can include substantial effects on maximum rate-of-change, neither of which are captured by commonly used global metrics. The method we introduce here to estimate

  1. The Net Climate Impact of Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, D.; Faluvegi, G.

    2010-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants influence climate via both the emission of long-lived carbon dioxide (CO2) and short-lived ozone and aerosol precursors. Using a climate model, we perform the first study of the spatial and temporal pattern of radiative forcing specifically for coal plant emissions. Without substantial pollution controls, we find that near-term net global mean climate forcing is negative due to the well-known aerosol masking of the effects of CO2. Imposition of pollution controls on sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides leads to a rapid realization of the full positive forcing from CO2, however. Long-term global mean forcing from stable (constant) emissions is positive regardless of pollution controls. Emissions from coal-fired power plants until 1970, including roughly 1/3 of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions, likely contributed little net global mean climate forcing during that period though they may have induce weak Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude (NHml) cooling. After that time many areas imposed pollution controls or switched to low sulfur coal. Hence forcing due to emissions from 1970 to 2000 and CO2 emitted previously was strongly positive and contributed to rapid global and especially NHml warming. Most recently, new construction in China and India has increased rapidly with minimal application of pollution controls. Continuation of this trend would add negative near-term global mean climate forcing but severely degrade air quality. Conversely, following the Western and Japanese pattern of imposing air quality pollution controls at a later time could accelerate future warming rates, especially at NHmls. More broadly, our results indicate that due to spatial and temporal inhomogeneities in forcing, climate impacts of multi-pollutant emissions can vary strongly from region to region and can include substantial effects on maximum rate-of-change, neither of which are captured by commonly used global metrics. The method we introduce here to estimate

  2. Economic analysis of atmospheric mercury emission control for coal-fired power plants in China.

    PubMed

    Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Schreifels, Jeremy; Hao, Jiming

    2015-07-01

    Coal combustion and mercury pollution are closely linked, and this relationship is particularly relevant in China, the world's largest coal consumer. This paper begins with a summary of recent China-specific studies on mercury removal by air pollution control technologies and then provides an economic analysis of mercury abatement from these emission control technologies at coal-fired power plants in China. This includes a cost-effectiveness analysis at the enterprise and sector level in China using 2010 as a baseline and projecting out to 2020 and 2030. Of the control technologies evaluated, the most cost-effective is a fabric filter installed upstream of the wet flue gas desulfurization system (FF+WFGD). Halogen injection (HI) is also a cost-effective mercury-specific control strategy, although it has not yet reached commercial maturity. The sector-level analysis shows that 193 tons of mercury was removed in 2010 in China's coal-fired power sector, with annualized mercury emission control costs of 2.7 billion Chinese Yuan. Under a projected 2030 Emission Control (EC) scenario with stringent mercury limits compared to Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the increase of selective catalytic reduction systems (SCR) and the use of HI could contribute to 39 tons of mercury removal at a cost of 3.8 billion CNY. The economic analysis presented in this paper offers insights on air pollution control technologies and practices for enhancing atmospheric mercury control that can aid decision-making in policy design and private-sector investments.

  3. The leaching behavior of cadmium, arsenic, zinc, and chlorine in coal and its ash from coal-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, F.H.; Peng, S.P.; Zheng, B.S.; Tang, Y.G.; Cong, Z.Y.; Ren, D.Y.

    2006-01-15

    The leaching experiment of feed coal (c) and its laboratory high-temperature ash (HA), fly ash (FA), and bottom ash (BA) from a Chinese coal-fired power plant were carried out using column leaching under different pH conditions (pH = 2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 7.5, respectively) and different leaching durations (up to 80 h). The leaching behaviors of As, Cd, Zn, and Cl were investigated. The results showed that the elements occurring in water-soluble, ion-exchangeable, and Fe-Mn oxide phases are potentially leachable, whereas those in association with organic matter and silicate are less likely to be leached. The cumulative percent of Zn, As, Cl, and Cd leached from C and ash samples increase with decrease in pH. The leaching rate of As and Cl in C and ash samples are higher in comparison with Zn and Cd. However, the maximum concentrations of Cd in the leachate from C, HA, FA, and BA are in excess of or very close to the maximum standard concentrations permitted in the Chinese Standards for Drinking Water and Surface Water. The ultimate concentrations of As, Cd, and Cl in the leachates did not attain equilibrium after the leaching of 80 h; therefore, longer leaching experiments are necessary to evaluate the impact of these hazardous trace elements on aqueous environment.

  4. Computational prediction of tube erosion in coal fired power utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.E.; Fletcher, C.A.J.; Behnia, M.

    1999-10-01

    Erosion of boiler tubes causes serious operational problems in many pulverized coal-fired utility boilers. A new erosion model has been developed in the present study for the prediction of boiler tube erosion. The Lagrangian approach is employed to predict the behavior of the particulate phase. The results of computational prediction of boiler tube erosion and the various parameters causing erosion are discussed in this paper. Comparison of the numerical predictions for a single tube erosion with experimental data shows very good agreement.

  5. Design and performance of a circulating fluidized bed boiler firing stone coal

    SciTech Connect

    Luo Zhongyang; Li Xuantian; Fang Mengxiang; Luo Chuanqui; Cen Kefa; Ni Mingjiang; Cheng Leming

    1995-12-31

    The design and performance of a demonstrating 35 T/H circulating fluidized bed boiler firing stone coal are reported. The boiler features low recycle rate, unique downward gas exit cyclones in the medium temperature region between the superheater and the economizer to reduce the size of the cyclone separators, and to allow a more compact reversed U general arrangement. Based on computer-aided testing, some different anti-erosion components are employed to maintain acceptable lifetime of the heating surfaces. The boiler demonstrates high combustion efficiency and low emissions with staged combustion.

  6. Effect of deposits on corrosion of materials exposed in the Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.

    1993-05-01

    Candidate heat exchanger materials tested in the Low Mass Flow train at the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) at Tullahoma, TN. were analyzed to evaluate their corrosion performance. Tube specimens obtained at each foot of the 14-ft-long Unbend tubes were analyzed for corrosion-scale morphologies, scale thicknesses, and internal penetration depths. Results developed on 1500- and 2000- h exposed specimens were correlated with exposure temperature. In addition, deposit materials collected at several locations in the CFFF were analyzed in detail to characterize the chemical and physical properties of the deposits and their influence on corrosion performance of tube materials.

  7. Evaluation of electricity generation from underground coal fires and waste banks

    SciTech Connect

    Chiasson, A.D.; Yavuzturk, C.; Walrath, D.E.

    2007-06-15

    A temperature response factors model of vertical thermal energy extraction boreholes is presented to evaluate electricity generation from underground coal fires and waste banks. Sensitivity and life-cycle cost analyses are conducted to assess the impact of system parameters on the production of 1 MW of electrical power using a theoretical binary-cycle power plant. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the average underground temperature has the greatest impact on the exiting fluid temperatures from the ground followed by fluid flow rate and ground thermal conductivity. System simulations show that a binary-cycle power plant may be economically feasible at ground temperatures as low as 190 {sup o}C.

  8. Study of N2 CARS spectra of a coal-fired flow facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Jagdish P.; Yueh, Fang-Yu

    1993-07-01

    A comparative study of N2 CARS spectra was performed at a coal-fired flow facility diffuser and aerodynamic duct. Spectra recorded at the diffuser have atypical feature near V = 1-2 N2 CARS vibrational transition. Atypical feature intensity decreases in the aerodynamic duct spectra. N2 CARS spectra at the aerodynamic duct show the laser-produced C2 absorption around the fundamental band. The CARS inferred temperature at the diffuser is estimated to be +/- 100 K where as at the aerodynamic duct it is +/- 250 K. The error in the inferred temperature with different interference in the CARS spectrum was also studied.

  9. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Steven; Browers, Bruce; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-31

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, a Technical and Economic Feasibility Study was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment developed a process flow diagram, major equipment list, heat balances for the SCPC power plant, capital cost estimate, operating cost estimate, levelized cost of electricity, cost of CO2 capture ($/ton) and three sensitivity cases for the CACHYS™ process.

  10. CO sub 2 emissions from coal-fired and solar electric power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, F.; Norton, P.; Brown, D.

    1990-05-01

    This report presents estimates of the lifetime carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired, photovoltaic, and solar thermal electric power plants in the United States. These CO{sub 2} estimates are based on a net energy analysis derived from both operational systems and detailed design studies. It appears that energy conservation measures and shifting from fossil to renewable energy sources have significant long-term potential to reduce carbon dioxide production caused by energy generation and thus mitigate global warming. The implications of these results for a national energy policy are discussed. 40 refs., 8 figs., 23 tabs.

  11. Effect of coal-fired power generation on visibility in a nearby national park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terhorst, Jonathan; Berkman, Mark

    2010-07-01

    The Mohave coal-fired power plant has long been considered a major contributor to visibility impairment in Grand Canyon National Park. The permanent closure of the plant in 2005 provides the opportunity to test this assertion. Although this analysis, based on data from the Interagency Monitoring of Protected Environments (IMPROVE) Aerosol Network, shows that fine sulfate levels in the park dropped following the closure, no statistically significant improvement in visibility resulted. Difference-in-differences estimation was used to control for other influences. This finding has important implications for the methods generally employed to attribute visibility reductions to air pollution sources.

  12. ASSESSING THE MERCURY HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS: ISSUES IN ATMOSPHERIC PROCESSES.

    SciTech Connect

    LIPFERT, F.; SULLIVAN, T.; RENNINGER, S.

    2004-03-28

    The rationale for regulating air emissions of mercury from U.S. coal-fired power plants largely depends on mathematical dispersion modeling, including the atmospheric chemistry processes that affect the partitioning of Hg emissions into elemental (Hg{sub 0}) and the reactive (RGM) forms that may deposit more rapidly near sources. This paper considers and evaluates the empirical support for this paradigm. We consider the extant experimental data at three spatial scales: local (< 30 km), regional (< {approx}300 km), and national (multi-state data). An additional issue involves the finding of excess Hg levels in urban areas.

  13. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Bradley R.; Fry, Andrew R.; Senior, Constance L.; Shim, Hong Shig; Otten, Brydger Van; Wendt, Jost; Shaddix, Christopher; Tree, Dale

    2010-06-01

    This report summarizes Year 2 results of a research program designed to use multi-scale experimental studies and fundamental theoretical models to characterize and predict the impacts of retrofit of existing coal-fired utility boilers for oxy-combustion. Year 2 focused extensively on obtaining experimental data from the bench-scale, lab-scale and pilot-scale reactors. These data will be used to refine and validate submodels to be implemented in CFD simulations of full-scale boiler retrofits. Program tasks are on schedule for Year 3 completion. Both Year 2 milestones were completed on schedule and within budget.

  14. Numerical thermodynamic optimization of supercritical coal fired power plant with support of IPSEpro software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elsner, Witold; Kowalczyk, Łukasz; Marek, Maciej

    2012-09-01

    The paper presents a thermodynamic optimization of supercritical coal fired power plant. The aim of the study was to optimize part of the thermal cycle consisted of high-pressure turbine and two chosen highpressure feed water heaters. Calculations were carried out using IPSEpro software combined with MATLAB, where thermal efficiency and gross power generation efficiency were chosen as objective functions. It was shown that the optimization with newly developed framework is sufficiently precise and its main advantage is the reduction of computation time on comparison to the classical method. The calculations have shown the tendency of the increase in efficiency, with the rise of a number of function variables.

  15. Novel Nanocrystalline Intermetallic Coatings for Metal Alloys in Coal-fired Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Z. Zak Fang; H. Y. Sohn

    2009-08-31

    Intermetallic coatings (iron aluminide and nickel aluminide) were prepared by a novel reaction process. In the process, the aluminide coating is formed by an in-situ reaction between the aluminum powder fed through a plasma transferred arc (PTA) torch and the metal substrate (steel or Ni-base alloy). Subjected to the high temperature within an argon plasma zone, aluminum powder and the surface of the substrate melt and react to form the aluminide coatings. The prepared coatings were found to be aluminide phases that are porosity-free and metallurgically bonded to the substrate. The coatings also exhibit excellent high-temperature corrosion resistance under the conditions which simulate the steam-side and fire-side environments in coal-fired boilers. It is expected that the principle demonstrated in this process can be applied to the preparation of other intermetallic and alloy coatings.

  16. Analysis and discussion on formation and control of primary particulate matter generated from coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianyi; Ren, Xudan

    2014-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) has been becoming the principal urban pollutant in many major cities in China, and even all over the world. It is reported that the coal combustion process is one of the main sources of PM in the atmosphere. Therefore, an investigation of formation and emission of fine primary PM in coal combustion was conducted. First, the sources and classification of coal-fired primary PM were discussed; then their formation pathways during the coal combustion process were analyzed in detail. Accordingly, the emission control methods for fine particles generated from coal-fired power plants were put forward, and were classified as precombustion control, in-combustion control, and postcombustion control. Precombustion control refers to the processes for improving the coal quality before combustion, such as coal type selection and coal preparation. In-combustion control means to take measures for adjusting the combustion conditions and injection of additives during the combustion process to abate the formation of PM. Postcombustion control is the way that the fine PM are aggregated into larger ones by some agglomeration approaches and subsequently are removed by dust removal devices, or some high-performance modifications of conventional particle emission control devices (PECDs) can be taken for capturing fine particles. Finally, some general management suggestions are given for reducing fine PM emission in coal-fired power plants. Implications: The analysis and discussions of coal properties and its combustion process are critical to recognizing the formation and emission of the fine primary PM in combustion. The measures of precombustion, in-combustion, and postcombustion control based on the analysis and discussions are favorable for abating the PM emission. Practically, some measures of implementation do need the support of national policies, even needing to sacrifice economy to gain environmental profit, but this is the very time to execute these, and

  17. CONDENSING ECONOMIZERS FOR SMALL COAL-FIRED BOILERS AND FURNACES PROJECT REPORT - JANUARY 1994

    SciTech Connect

    BUTCHER,T.A.

    1994-01-04

    Condensing economizers increase the thermal efficiency of boilers by recovering sensible and latent heat from exhaust gas. These economizers are currently being used commercially for this purpose in a wide range of applications. Performance is dependent upon application-specific factors affecting the utility of recovered heat. With the addition of a condensing economizer boiler efficiency improvements up to 10% are possible. Condensing economizers can also capture flue gas particulates. In this work, the potential use of condensing economizers for both efficiency improvement and control of particulate emissions from small, coal water slurry-fired boilers was evaluated. Analysis was done to predict heat transfer and particulate capture by mechanisms including: inertial impaction, interception, diffusion, thermophoretic forces, and condensation growth. Shell-and-tube geometries were considered with flue gas on the outside of Teflon-covered tubes. Experimental studies were done with both air- and water-cooled economizers refit to a small boiler. Two experimental arrangements were used including oil-firing with injection of flyash upstream of the economizer and direct coal water slurry firing. Firing rates ranged from 27 to 82 kW (92,000 to 280,000 Btu/hr). Inertial impaction was found to be the most important particulate capture mechanism and removal efficiencies to 95% were achieved. With the addition of water sprays directly on the first row of tubes, removal efficiencies increased to 98%. Use of these sprays adversely affects heat recovery. Primary benefits of the sprays are seen to be the addition of small impaction sites and future design improvements are suggested in which such small impacts are permanently added to the highest velocity regions of the economizer. Predicted effects of these added impactors on particulate removal and pressure drop are presented.

  18. Identifying/Quantifying Environmental Trade-offs Inherent in GHG Reduction Strategies for Coal-Fired Power. Environmental Science and Technology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Improvements to coal power plant technology and the co-fired combustion of biomass promise direct greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions for existing coal-fired power plants. Questions remain as to what the reduction potentials are from a life cycle perspective and if it will result in ...

  19. Experimental characterization of an industrial pulverized coal-fired furnace under deep staging conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, M.; Azevedo, J.L.T.

    2007-07-01

    Measurements have been performed in a 300 MWe, front-wall-fired, pulverized-coal, utility boiler. This boiler was retrofitted with boosted over fire air injectors that allowed the operation of the furnace under deeper staging conditions. New data are reported for local mean gas species concentration of O{sub 2}, CO, CO{sub 2}, NOx, gas temperatures and char burnout measured at several ports in the boiler including those in the main combustion and staged air regions. Comparisons of the present data with our previous measurements in this boiler, prior to the retrofitting with the new over fire system, show lower O{sub 2} and higher CO concentrations for the new situation as a consequence of the lower stoichiometry in the main combustion zone associated with the present boiler operating condition. Consistently, the measured mean NOx concentrations in the main combustion zone are now lower than those obtained previously, yielding emissions below 500 mg/Nm{sup 3}at 6% O{sub 2}. Finally, the measured values of particle burnout at the furnace exit are acceptable being those measured in the main combustion zone comparable with those obtained with the conventional over fire system.

  20. Current status and prediction of major atmospheric emissions from coal-fired power plants in Shandong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Tianqi; Jiang, Wei; Gao, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Shandong is considered to be the top provincial emitter of air pollutants in China due to its large consumption of coal in the power sector and its dense distribution of coal-fired plants. To explore the atmospheric emissions of the coal-fired power sector in Shandong, an updated emission inventory of coal-fired power plants for the year 2012 in Shandong was developed. The inventory is based on the following parameters: coal quality, unit capacity and unit starting year, plant location, boiler type and control technologies. The total SO2, NOx, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mercury (Hg) emissions are estimated at 705.93 kt, 754.30 kt, 63.99 kt and 10.19 kt, respectively. Larger units have cleaner emissions than smaller ones. The coal-fired units (≥300 MW) are estimated to account for 35.87% of SO2, 43.24% of NOx, 47.74% of PM2.5 and 49.83% of Hg emissions, which is attributed primarily to the improved penetration of desulfurization, LNBs, denitration and dust-removing devices in larger units. The major regional contributors are southwestern cities, such as Jining, Liaocheng, Zibo and Linyi, and eastern cities, such as Yantai and Qindao. Under the high-efficiency control technology (HECT) scenario analysis, emission reductions of approximately 58.61% SO2, 80.63% NOx, 34.20% PM2.5 and 50.08% Hg could be achieved by 2030 compared with a 2012 baseline. This inventory demonstrates why it is important for policymakers and researchers to assess control measure effectiveness and to supply necessary input for regional policymaking and the management of the coal-fired power sector in Shandong.

  1. Local Impacts of Mercury Emissions from the Three Pennsylvania Coal Fired Power Plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan,T.; Adams,J.; Bender, M.; Bu, C.; Piccolo, N.; Campbell, C.

    2008-02-01

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots of mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury 'hot spots'. Soil and oak leaf samples from around three large U.S. coal-fired power plants in Western Pennsylvania were collected and analyzed for evidence of 'hot spots'. These three plants (Conemaugh, Homer City, and Keystone) are separated by a total distance of approximately 30 miles. Each emits over 500 pounds of mercury per year which is well above average for mercury emissions from coal plants in the U.S. Soil and oak leaf sampling programs were performed around each power plant. Sampling rings one-mile apart were used with eight or nine locations on each ring. The prevailing winds in the region are from the west. For this reason, sampling was conducted out to 10 miles from the Conemaugh plant which is southeast of the others. The other plants were sampled to a distance of five miles. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with wind patterns. The study found the following

  2. Isotopic Variations of Mercury Emitted by Coal Fired Power Plant Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khawaja, S. N.; Odom, L.; Landing, W.

    2010-12-01

    Emission of mercury from the burning of coal is considered one of the important anthropogenic sources of atmospheric mercury. Along with current measurements of the isotopic composition of atmospheric mercury being conducted in our laboratory, we have analyzed mercury emitted from a coal fired power plant. Previously Biswas and others (2008) had reported variations in the isotopic composition of mercury in a number of samples of coal deposits. Since the combustion of coal is expected to release virtually all of its mercury, we anticipated comparable isotopc patterns in coal and total emmited mercury. The emitted mercury exists in various physical and chemical forms, each possessing distinct properties that affect atmospheric transport, and sampling methods. Flue gas has been sampled in the stack of a coal fired electric power plant. The Ontario Hydro method was used to trap mercury in flue gases. The method uses oxidant solutions (KCl, H2O2-HNO3 and KMnO4-H2SO4) in its sampling train. This method is the modification of EPA method 29 with the use of KCl in the sampling train. Hg (II) is captured in the KCl impingers, while Hg (0) is captured in H2O2-HNO3 and KMnO4-H2SO4 impingers that oxidize elemental to Hg (ll) (EPA Draft, 1999). In addition gaseous reactive mercury was sampled downwind in large volume rain samples. Mercury (Hg+2) in sample solutions was reduced with SnCl2, and the generated Hg(0) vapor carried by Ar gas into the source of a NEPTUNE ICPMS-MC. Isotope ratios were measured by standard-sample bracketing and reported as permil deviations from the SRM NIST-3133 values. The measurement shows a small range of values of odd isotopes for mass independent fractionation which is negligible, However it displays the wide range of mass dependent fractionation (δ198 Hg -1.239 to 2.294). We found that samples in KCl impingers are light isotope enriched and depleted in heavy isotopes, while in KMnO4 impingers these are reverse.

  3. Economic comparison of fabric filters and electrostatic precipitators for particulate control on coal-fired utility boilers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cukor, P. M.; Chapman, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The uncertainties and associated costs involved in selecting and designing a particulate control device to meet California's air emission regulations are considered. The basic operating principles of electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters are discussed, and design parameters are identified. The size and resulting cost of the control device as a function of design parameters is illustrated by a case study for an 800 MW coal-fired fired utility boiler burning a typical southwestern subbituminous coal. The cost of selecting an undersized particulate control device is compared with the cost of selecting an oversized device.

  4. Best practices in environmental monitoring for coal-fired power plants: lessons for developing Asian APEC economies

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, N.; Findsen, J.

    2008-11-15

    The report assesses environmental monitoring and reporting by individual coal-fired power plants, makes recommendations regarding how monitoring should be applied, and evaluates the interrelationship of monitoring and regulation in promoting CCTs. Effective monitoring is needed to ensure that power plants are performing as expected, and to confirm that they are complying with applicable environmental regulations. Older coal-fired power plants in APEC economies often have limited monitoring capabilities, making their environmental performance difficult to measure. 585 refs., 5 figs., 85 tabs.

  5. Technical progress report for the Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility. January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    Progress is reported in developing technology for steam bottoming cycle of the coal-fired MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. During this period, no testing was scheduled in the DOE Coal-Fired Flow Facility. The report covers facilities modification and maintenance in preparation for a 225 hour POC test that is scheduled for early next quarter. The modifications to the dry ESP to replace the electrodes with smaller diameter wires is discussed. Continued work on the rotary vacuum filter, which is designed to separate the more soluble potassium carbonate from the potassium sulfate and fly ash, is reported. Environmental activities for the quarter are summarized.

  6. Modeling of ash deposition in the convective pass of a coal-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, S.E.; Erickson, T.A.; McCollor, D.P.

    1996-12-31

    The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has developed a personal computer (PC)-based model, FOULER, to predict convective pass fouling deposit formation in coal-fired boilers. This program is used to evaluate the effects of coal quality and operational changes on both high- and low-temperature fouling. In addition, the effects of coal cleaning, blending, and switching options can be evaluated. FOULER will be incorporated in the Coal Quality Expert (CQE) software project. CQE is a comprehensive, PC-based program that can be used to evaluate various potential coal cleaning, blending, and switching options to reduce power plant emissions while minimizing generation costs. The model is based on theory and a combination of laboratory-, pilot-, and field-scale test data. The code encompasses the hanging pendant, superheater, reheater, and economizer regions of the convective pass. The code predicts growth and removal of ash deposition through the interaction of several submodels: (1) Deposit Growth, (2) Deposit Strength Development, (3) Thermal Properties, (4) Deposit Removal, and (5) Sootblower Effectiveness. The deposit removal mechanisms included are thermal shock, gravity shedding, and sootblowing. The required inputs for the code include ash size and composition, boiler parameters, and operation conditions. Input parameters can be entered into the code directly or they can be predicted by other codes such as MMT (mineral matter transformation code) and CQE heat-transfer module. The submodels interact to produce outputs, based on a time basis, of the deposit mass, strength, resistivity, and removal rates. This report describes the fouling submodels, the rationale used in these submodels, and a description of how the experimental data were utilized to validate the algorithms.

  7. Externally-fired combined cycle: An effective coal fueled technology for repowering and new generation

    SciTech Connect

    Stoddard, L.E.; Bary, M.R.; Gray, K.M.; LaHaye, P.G.

    1995-06-01

    The Externally-Fired Combined Cycle (EFCC) is an attractive emerging technology for powering high efficiency combined gas and steam turbine cycles with coal or other ash bearing fuels. In the EFCC, the heat input to a gas turbine is supplied indirectly through a ceramic air heater. The air heater, along with an atmospheric coal combustor and ancillary equipment, replaces the conventional gas turbine combustor. A steam generator located downstream from the ceramic air heater and steam turbine cycle, along with an exhaust cleanup system, completes the combined cycle. A key element of the EFCC Development Program, the 25 MMBtu/h heat-input Kennebunk Test Facility (KTF), has recently begun operation. The KTF has been operating with natural gas and will begin operating with coal in early 1995. The US Department of Energy selected an EFCC repowering of the Pennsylvania Electric Company`s Warren Station for funding under the Clean Coal Technology Program Round V. The project focuses on repowering an existing 48 MW (gross) steam turbine with an EFCC power island incorporating a 30 MW gas turbine, for a gross power output of 78 MW and a net output of 72 MW. The net plant heat rate will be decreased by approximately 30% to below 9,700 Btu/kWh. Use of a dry scrubber and fabric filter will reduce sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and particulate emissions to levels under those required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. Nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) emissions are controlled by the use of staged combustion. The demonstration project is currently in the engineering phase, with startup scheduled for 1997. This paper discusses the background of the EFCC, the KTF, the Warren Station EFCC Clean Coal Technology Demonstration Project, the commercial plant concept, and the market potential for the EFCC.

  8. Mercury removals by existing pollutants control devices of four coal-fired power plants in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Wenhua; Xu, Wei; Wang, Xiaohao; Zhao, Song

    2011-01-01

    The mercury removals by existing pollution control devices and the mass balances of mercury in four coal-fired power plants of China were carried out based on a measurement method with the aluminum matrix sorbent. All the plants are equipped with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) in series. During the course of coal stream, the samples, such as coal, bottom ash, fly ash, gypsum and flue gas, were collected. The Hg concentrations in coals were measured by CVAAS after appropriate preparation and acid digestion. Other solid samples were measured by the RA-915+ Zeeman Mercury Spectrometer. The vapor phase Hg was collected by a sorbent trap from flue gas and then measured using CVAAS followed by acid leaching. The mercury mass balances were estimated in this study were 91.6%, 77.1%, 118% and 85.8% for the four power plants, respectively. The total Hg concentrations in the stack gas were ranged from 1.56-5.95 microg/m3. The relative distribution of Hg in bottom ash, ESP, WFGD and stack discharged were ranged between 0.110%-2.50%, 2.17%-23.4%, 2.21%-87.1%, and 21.8%-72.7%, respectively. The distribution profiles were varied with the coal type and the operation conditions. The Hg in flue gas could be removed by ESP and FGD systems with an average removal efficiency of 51.8%. The calculated average emission factor was 0.066 g/ton and much lower than the results obtained ten years ago.

  9. Coal-fired MHD combustor development project: Phase IIIB. First quarterly technical progress report, 13 January-30 April 1982

    SciTech Connect

    1982-05-20

    The first quarterly technical progress report of the Coal-Fired MHD Combustor Development Project (Phase IIIB) presents the accomplishments during the period 13 January to 30 April, 1982. The scope of work covered by this quarterly report relates to those tasks associated with preparing the TRW 20 MW/sub t/ MHD coal combustor for delivery to AERL for integrated power tests and the work associated with the preliminary design of a 50 MW/sub t/ coal-fired combustor. Progress during this reporting period is described. All new 20 MW/sub t/ hardware was designed and fabricated. Interface coordination meetings were conducted with AERL and DOE. Interface control drawings were completed and a 20 MW/sub t/ coal combustion User's manual was delivered to AERL. The User's manual contained a shipping plan, a crew training plan, an assembly manual, interface documentation and recommended operating procedures. Facility/combustor set-up was completed and the pre-delivery 20 MW/sub t/ coal combustor qualification test series was completed. The 50 MW/sub t/ coal-fired MHD combustor preliminary designs were finalized and the DOE preliminary design review (PDR) was successfully completed.

  10. 76 FR 24975 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants From Coal- and Oil-Fired Electric...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-03

    ...The United States (U.S.) Environmental Protection Agency (EPA or Agency) is proposing national emission standards for hazardous air pollutants (NESHAP) from coal- and oil-fired electric utility steam generating units (EGUs) under Clean Air Act (CAA or the Act) section 112(d) and proposing revised new source performance standards (NSPS) for fossil fuel-fired EGUs under CAA section 111(b). The......

  11. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Quarterly progress report, April 1--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This report covers work carried out under Task 2, Concept Definition and Analysis, Task 3, Preliminary R&D and Task 4, Commercial Generating Plant Design, under Contract AC22-92PC91155, ``Engineering Development of a Coal Fired High Performance Power Generation System`` between DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and United Technologies Research Center. The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of: >47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and Particulates {le}25% NSPS; cost {ge}65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW{sub e} combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. A survey of currently available high temperature alloys has been completed and some of their high temperature properties are shown for comparison. Several of the most promising candidates will be selected for testing to determine corrosion resistance and high temperature strength. The corrosion resistance testing of candidate refractory coatings is continuing and some of the recent results are presented. This effort will provide important design information that will ultimately establish the operating ranges of the HITAF.

  12. Lichens as biomonitors around a coal-fired power station in Israel.

    PubMed

    Garty, Jacob; Tomer, Sharon; Levin, Tal; Lehr, Haya

    2003-03-01

    In the present study epiphytic lichens were applied as biomonitors of air pollution to determine the environmental impact of a coal-fired power station. Thalli of the lichen Ramalina lacera (With.) J.R. Laund. growing on carob twigs (Ceratonia siliqua L.) were collected with their substrate in July 2000 in a relatively unpolluted forest near HaZorea, Ramoth Menashe, Northeast Israel, and transplanted to 10 biomonitoring sites in the vicinity of the coal-fired power station Oroth Rabin near the town of Hadera. The lichens were retrieved in January 2001. We examined the following parameters of lichen vitality: (a) potential quantum yield of photosynthesis expressed as fluorescence ratio F(v)/F(m), (b) stress-ethylene production, and (c) electric conductivity expressing integrity of cell membranes. Following an exposure of 7 months, the lichens were retrieved and physiological parameters and data of elemental content were analyzed comparatively. Electric conductivity values correlated positively with B, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Sn, and Ti content. Concentrations of stress-ethylene correlated positively with Al, Ba, Pb, S, and V content and negatively with Cu and Sn. F(v)/F(m) ratios correlated negatively with S content. Some of the heavy metals reached lower levels than those reported in the relevant literature despite a wind regime that should have blown pollutants toward the biomonitoring sites.

  13. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems phase 2 and 3

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-08-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%; NOx, SOx, and particulates {le}10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard); coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign; and cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; and Task 2.4 Duct Heater and Gas Turbine Integration.

  14. Selenium Partitioning and Removal Across a Wet FGD Scrubber at a Coal-Fired Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Senior, Constance L; Tyree, Corey A; Meeks, Noah D; Acharya, Chethan; McCain, Joseph D; Cushing, Kenneth M

    2015-12-15

    Selenium has unique fate and transport through a coal-fired power plant because of high vapor pressures of oxide (SeO2) in flue gas. This study was done at full-scale on a 900 MW coal-fired power plant with electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber. The first objective was to quantify the partitioning of selenium between gas and condensed phases at the scrubber inlet and outlet. The second objective was to determine the effect of scrubber operation conditions (pH, mass transfer, SO2 removal) on Se removal in both particulate and vapor phases. During part of the testing, hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide) was injected upstream of the scrubber. Gas-phase selenium and particulate-bound selenium were measured as a function of particle size at the inlet and outlet of the scrubber. The total (both phases) removal of Se across the scrubber averaged 61%, and was enhanced when hydrated lime sorbent was injected. There was evidence of gas-to-particle conversion of selenium across the scrubber, based on the dependence of selenium concentration on particle diameter downstream of the scrubber and on thermodynamic calculations.

  15. Plume wash-out near a coal-fired power plant: Measurements and model calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ten Brink, H. M.; Janssen, A. J.; Slanina, J.

    The contribution of plume wash-out to the wet deposition of pollutants in the vicinity of a 1000 MWe coal-fired power plant in The Netherlands has been investigated. Whereas the extra wet deposition of heavy metals, emitted in the form of fly-ash, is not of importance as compared to the background deposition, drastically increased wet deposition of Cl -, F - and especially B-compounds was observed. Little extra deposition of S compounds was found, due to the fact that increased acidity in precipitation, associated with wash-out of HCl and (to a lesser extent) HF, limits the uptake of SO 2. The results of the experiments near the 1000 MWe installation were used to test and validate a wash-out model developed to study and predict wet removal of the major pollutants from a plume. Annual wet deposition patterns of these constituents due to plume wash-out have been calculated for a more characteristic 600 MWe coal-fired power plant. Very locally, at short distances from the stack, plume washout may nearly double local acid deposition under conditions prevalent in The Netherlands. This is mainly the result of wash-out of HCl, whereas the contribution of SO 2 is negligible. Significant plume contributions to the deposition of HF, B-compounds, Al, Ti and Br may be expected. Application of desulfurization units ('scrubbers') will reduce the emission and deposition of acids.

  16. CO2 post-combustion capture in coal-fired power plants integrated with solar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carapellucci, R.; Giordano, L.; Vaccarelli, M.

    2015-11-01

    The majority of the World's primary energy consumption is still based on fossil fuels, representing the largest source of global CO2 emissions. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), such emissions must be significantly reduced in order to avoid the dramatic consequences of global warming. A potential way to achieve this ambitious goal is represented by the implementation of CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) technologies. However, the significant amount of energy required by the CCS systems still represents one the major barriers for their deployment. Focusing on post-combustion capture based on amine absorption, several interesting options have been investigated to compensate the energy losses due to solvent regeneration, also using renewable energy sources. One of the most promising is based on the use of concentrating solar power (CSP), providing a part of the energy requirement of the capture island. In this study the integration of a CSP system into a coal-fired power plant with CO2 postcombustion capture is investigated. Basically, a CSP system is used to support the heat requirement for amine regeneration, by producing saturated steam at low temperature. This allows to reduce or even eliminate the conventional steam extraction from the main power plant, affecting positively net power production and efficiency. The energy analysis of the whole system is carried out using the GateCycle software to simulate the coal-fired power plant and ChemCad platform for the CO2 capture process based on amine absorption.

  17. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and III

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%, NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard), coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input, all solid wastes benign cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAF Combustor; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  18. Development of advanced NO[sub x] control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.; Pont, J.N.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

    1993-03-04

    The complete CombiNO[sub x], process has now been demonstrated at a level that is believed to be representative of a full-scale boiler in terms of mixing capabilities. A summary of the results is displayedin Figure 5-1. While firing Illinois Coal on the Reburn Tower, Advanced Reburning was capable of reducing NO[sub x], by 83 percent. The injection of methanol oxidized 50--58 percent of the existing NO to N0[sub 2]. Assuming that 85 percent of the newly formed N0[sub 2] can be scrubbed in a liquor modified wet-limestone scrubber, the CombiNO[sub x], process has been shown capable of reducing NO[sub 2], by 90--91 percent in a large pilot-scale coal-fired furnace. There is still uncertainty regarding the fate of the N0[sub 2] formed with methanol injection. Tests should be conducted to determine whether the reconversion is thermodynamic or catalytic, and what steps can be taken (such as quench rate) to prevent it from happening.

  19. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and III

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%; NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign; cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAC Combustors; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  20. System studies of coal fired-closed cycle MHD for central station power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zauderer, B.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the closed cycle MHD results obtained in a recent study of various advanced energy conversion (ECAS) power systems. The study was part of the first phase of this ECAS study. Since this was the first opportunity to evaluate the coal fired closed cycle MHD system, a number of iterations were required to partially optimize the system. The present paper deals with the latter part of the study in which the direct coal fired, MHD topping-steam bottoming cycle was established as the current choice for central station power generation. The emphasis of the paper is on the background assumptions and the conclusions that can be drawn from the closed cycle MHD analysis. The author concludes that closed cycle MHD has efficiencies comparable to that of open cycle MHD and that both systems are considerably more efficient than the other system studies in Phase 1 of the GE ECAS. Its cost will possibly be slightly higher than that of the open cycle MHD system. Also, with reasonable fuel escalation assumptions, both systems can produce lower cost electricity than conventional steam power plants. Suggestions for further work in closed cycle MHD components and systems is made.

  1. Development of advanced NO sub x control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Newhall, J.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

    1992-01-16

    Hybrid technologies for reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from coal fired utility boilers may offer greater levels of NO{sub x} control than the sum of the individual technologies, leading to more cost effective emissions control strategies. CombiNO{sub x} is an integration of modified reburning, promoted selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and methanol injection to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from coal fired flue gas. The first two steps, modified reburning and promoted SNCR are linked. It was shown previously that oxidation of CO in the presence of a SNCR agent enhances the NO reduction performance. Less reburning than is typically done is required to generate the optimum amount of CO to promote the SNCR agent. If the reburn fuel is natural gas this may result in a significant cost savings over typical reburning. Injection of methanol into the flue gas has been shown at laboratory scale to convert NO to NO{sub 2} which may subsequently be removed in a wet scrubber. The overall objective of this program is to demonstrate the effectiveness of the CombiNOx process at a large enough scale and over a sufficiently broad range of conditions to provide all of the information needed to conduct a full-scale demonstration in a coal fired utility boiler. The specific technical goals of this program are: 70% NO{sub x} reduction at 20% of the cost of selective catalytic reduction; NO{sub x} levels at the stack of 60 ppm for ozone non-attainment areas; demonstrate coal reburning; identify all undesirable by-products of the process and their controlling parameters; demonstrate 95% NO{sub 2} removal in a wet scrubber. During this reporting period, experimental work was initiated at both the laboratory and pilot scale in the Fundamental Studies phase of the program. The laboratory scale work focused on determining whether or not the NO{sub 2} formed by the methanol injection step can be removed in an SO{sub 2} scrubber.

  2. EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Withum

    2006-03-07

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), evaluated the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)-wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber-fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL determined mercury speciation and removal at 10 bituminous coal-fired facilities; at four of these facilities, additional tests were performed on units without SCR, or with the existing SCR bypassed. This project final report summarizes the results and discusses the findings of the body of work as a whole. Eleven Topical Reports were issued (prior to this report) that describe in great detail the sampling results at each of the ten power plants individually. The results showed that the SCR-FGD combination removed a substantial fraction of mercury from flue gas. The coal-to-stack mercury removals ranged from 65% to 97% for the units with SCR and from 53% to 87% for the units without SCR. There was no indication that any type of FGD system was more effective at mercury removal than others. The coal-to-stack mercury removal and the removal in the wet scrubber were both negatively correlated with the elemental mercury content of the flue gas and positively correlated with the scrubber liquid chloride concentration. The coal chlorine content was not a statistically significant factor in either case. Mercury removal in the ESP was positively correlated with the fly ash carbon content and negatively correlated with the flue gas temperature. At most of the units, a substantial fraction (>35%) of the flue gas mercury was in the elemental form at the boiler economizer outlet. After passing through the SCR-air heater combination very little of the total mercury (<10%) remained in the elemental form in

  3. Chemical characteristics of Victorian brown coal

    SciTech Connect

    Perry, G.J.; Allardice, D.J.; Kiss, L.T.

    1983-08-01

    Extensive deposits of soft brown coal exist in Tertiary age sediments in a number of areas in Victoria and the largest single deposit occurs in the Latrobe Valley, about 150 kilometers east of Melbourne. In this region the coal seams often exceed 150 metres in thickness, with an overburden to coal ratio usually better than 1:2 making the coal ideally suited for large-scale open-cut mining. A recent study (1) has estimated the State's brown coal resources to be almost 200,000 million tonnes with approximately 52,000 million tonnes defined as usable reserves. About 85% of this coal is located in the Latrobe Valley. Since 1920 Latrobe Valley brown coal has been developed for power generation. The State Electricity Commission of Victoria (SECV) wins coal from two major open cuts at Yallourn and Morwell and operates coal fired power stations which presently consume approximately 35 million tonnes per annum. In addition to power generation, small quantities of brown coal are used for briquette manufacture and char production. Brown coal accounts for about 95% of Victoria's non-renewable energy reserves and it is now recognized that with suitable up-grading, primarily drying, it has the potential to become the basis of the supply of energy in a variety of forms.

  4. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley Adams; Andrew Fry; Constance Senior; Hong Shim; Huafeng Wang; Jost Wendt; Christopher Shaddix

    2009-06-30

    This report summarizes Year 1 results of a research program designed to use multi-scale experimental studies and fundamental theoretical models to characterize and predict the impacts of retrofit of existing coal-fired utility boilers for oxy-combustion. Through the course of Year 1 activities, great progress was made toward understanding the issues associated with oxy-combustion retrofit of coal-fired boilers. All four Year 1 milestones and objectives have been, or will be, completed on schedule and within budget. Progress in the four milestone areas may be summarized as follows: • University of Utah has performed size segregated ash composition measurements in the Oxy-Fuel Combustor (OFC). These experiments indicate that oxy-combustion retrofit may impact ash aerosol mineral matter composition. Both flame temperature and flue gas composition have been observed to influence the concentration of calcium, magnesium and iron in the fine particulate. This could in turn impact boiler fouling and slagging. • Sandia National Labs has shown that char oxidation rate is dependent on particle size (for sizes between 60 and 100 microns) by performing fundamental simulations of reacting char particles. These predictions will be verified by making time-resolved optical measurements of char particle temperature, velocity and size in bench-scale experiments before the end of Year 1. • REI and Siemens have completed the design of an oxy-research burner that will be mounted on University of Utah’s pilot-scale furnace, the L1500. This burner will accommodate a wide range of O2, FGR and mixing strategies under conditions relevant for utility boiler operation. Through CFD modeling of the different burner designs, it was determined that the key factor influencing flame stabilization location is particle heat-up rate. The new oxy-research burner and associated equipment is scheduled for delivery before the end of Year 1. • REI has completed a literature survey of slagging and

  5. Potential nanotechnology applications for reducing freshwater consumption at coal fired power plants : an early view.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    2010-09-17

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the overall research effort of the Existing Plants Research Program by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. A growing challenge to the economic production of electricity from coal-fired power plants is the demand for freshwater, particularly in light of the projected trends for increasing demands and decreasing supplies of freshwater. Nanotechnology uses the unique chemical, physical, and biological properties that are associated with materials at the nanoscale to create and use materials, devices, and systems with new functions and properties. It is possible that nanotechnology may open the door to a variety of potentially interesting ways to reduce freshwater consumption at power plants. This report provides an overview of how applications of nanotechnology could potentially help reduce freshwater use at coal-fired power plants. It was developed by (1) identifying areas within a coal-fired power plant's operations where freshwater use occurs and could possibly be reduced, (2) conducting a literature review to identify potential applications of nanotechnology for facilitating such reductions, and (3) collecting additional information on potential applications from researchers and companies to clarify or expand on information obtained from the literature. Opportunities, areas, and processes for reducing freshwater use in coal-fired power plants considered in this report include the use of nontraditional waters in process and cooling water systems, carbon capture alternatives, more efficient processes for removing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, coolants that have higher thermal conductivities than water alone, energy storage options, and a variety of plant inefficiencies, which, if improved

  6. Tri-State Synfuels Project Commercial Scale Coal Test: Volume 2B. Collection and shipment analytical testwork. [Proposed Henderson, Kentucky coal to gasoline plant; West Kentucky No. 9 seam coal characterization and testing

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-06-01

    This report covers the detailed analytical testwork conducted for control purposes during the collection and shipment phase as well as the results obtained by Lurgi and other parties on the composite barge sample. These tests were conducted to ensure quality control at every step during the shipment, obtain fines generation data during rehandling and establish a chemical and physical characterization of the coal for testing and design purposes. Lurgi concluded from the laboratory results that the Camp 1 coal is suitable feedstock for the Lurgi pressure gasification process. This confirms their early statements during the selection phase as reported in Volume 1. Lurgi reported that the ash melting characteristics under oxidizing conditions indicated a short ash which means that the steam/oxygen ratio will have to be controlled carefully. The chlorine content is significantly higher than most coals and the gasifier, but not the downstream equipment, must be fited with protective cladding. The Kentucky Department of Energy coal shipment examination report provides a confirmation of the ASTM standard data; in addition, analyses for macerals, microlithotypes, reflectances and anisotropy are given. The crushed, run-of-mine, oversize material which required more operating attention at Sasolburg was investigated as to source and characteristics. Specimens collected at Sasolburg and from the Kentucky stockpile were examined as reported in Section 7.2.

  7. URBAN WOOD/COAL CO-FIRING IN THE BELLEFIELD BOILERPLANT

    SciTech Connect

    James T. Cobb, Jr.; Gene E. Geiger; William W. Elder III

    2001-03-07

    During the second quarter, important preparatory work was continued so that the experimental activities can begin toward the end of the third quarter or early in the fourth quarter. The Environmental Questionnaire was submitted to the U.S. DOE National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL), after thorough review by the Bellefield Boiler Plant (BBP). Letters were submitted to the Allegheny County Health Department (ACHD) and the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PADEP) to seek R and D variances for permits at the BBP, the J. A. Rutter Company (JARC), and Emery Tree Service (ETS) for their portion of the project. Memoranda of understanding were executed by the University of Pittsburgh (University) with the BBP, JARC and ETS. Construction wood was collected from Thompson Properties. Discussions were held with the BBP and Energy Systems Associates (ESA), the BBP's engineering consultant. Presentations describing the University of Pittsburgh Wood/Coal Co-Firing Program were provided to the American Chemical Society (ACS), the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Upgraded Coal Interest Group (UCIG) of the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the Engineering Center for Environment and Energy (ECEE) of the University of Pittsburgh, the Pittsburgh Coal Conference (PCC), the Pennsylvania Ethanol Workshop, BioEnergy 2000 and the Kick-Off Meeting of the Biomass Cofiring Opportunities Solicitation Projects.

  8. Evaluation of AFBC co-firing of coal and hospital wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-02-01

    The purpose of this program is to expand the use of coal by utilizing CFB (circulating fluidized bed) technology to provide an environmentally safe method for disposing of waste materials. Hospitals are currently experiencing a waste management crisis. In many instances, they are no longer permitted to burn pathological and infectious wastes in incinerators. Older hospital incinerators are not capable of maintaining the stable temperatures and residence times necessary in order to completely destroy toxic substances before release into the atmosphere. In addition, the number of available landfills which can safely handle these substances is decreasing each year. The purpose of this project is to conduct necessary research investigating whether the combustion of the hospital wastes in a coal-fired circulating fluidized bed boiler will effectively destroy dioxins and other hazardous substances before release into the atmosphere. If this is proven feasible, in light of the quantity of hospital wastes generated each year, it would create a new market for coal -- possibly 50 million tons/year.

  9. Multiplex CARS temperature measurements in a coal-fired MHD environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beiting, E. J.

    1986-01-01

    Multiplex CARS spectra of nitrogen were recorded in an environment that simulates the post-magnet gas stream of a coal-fired MHD generator. The presence of coal fly ash and potassium seed created a weakly ionized, highly luminous medium with a high number density of relatively large (1-50 microns) diameter particles. Maximum temperatures of 2500 K were measured with a spatial resolution of 5 mm. The precision optical alignment necessary for folded BOXCARS phasematching was maintained for the long distances (greater than 10 m) necessary to route the laser beams from the CARS instrument to the combustion facility. The increased luminosity caused by the injection of potassium seed did not impede the recovery of good quality spectra. The coal fly ash particles precipitated laser induced breakdown which, in turn, led to the generation of a coherent interference with N2 spectra. Techniques to overcome this problem are discussed. The accuracy of the temperature measurements are estimated to be + or - 3 percent.

  10. Cost-effectiveness Analysis on Measures to Improve China's Coal-fired Industrial Boiler

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, Manzhi; Shen, Bo; Han, Yafeng; ...

    2015-08-01

    Tackling coal-burning industrial boiler is becoming one of the key programs to solve the environmental problem in China. Assessing the economics of various options to address coal-fired boiler is essential to identify cost-effective solutions. This paper discusses our work in conducting a cost-effectiveness analysis on various types of improvement measures ranging from energy efficiency retrofits to switch from coal to other fuels in China. Sensitivity analysis was also performed in order to understand the impacts of some economic factors such as discount rate and energy price on the economics of boiler improvement options. The results show that nine out ofmore » 14 solutions are cost-effective, and a lower discount rate and higher energy price will result in more energy efficiency measures being cost-effective. Both monetary and non-monetary barriers to energy-efficiency improvement are discussed and policies to tackle these barriers are recommended. Our research aims at providing a methodology to assess cost-effective solutions to boiler problems.« less

  11. Health and environmental effects of coal-fired electric power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, S.C.; Hamilton, L.D.

    1984-05-01

    This paper describes health and environmental impacts of coal-fired electric power plants. Effects on man, agriculture, and natural ecosystems are considered. These effects may result from direct impacts or exposures via air, water, and food chains. The paper is organized by geographical extent of effect. Occupational health impacts and local environmental effects such as noise and solid waste leachate are treated first. Then, regional effects of air pollution, including acid rain, are analyzed. Finally, potential global impacts are examined. Occupational health concerns considered include exposure to noise, dust, asbestos, mercury, and combustion products, and resulting injury and disease. Local effects considered include noise; air and water emissions of coal storage piles, solid waste operations, and cooling systems. Air pollution, once an acute local problem, is now a regional concern. Acute and chronic direct health effects are considered. Special attention is given to potential effects of radionuclides in coal and of acid rain. Finally, potential global impacts associated with carbon dioxide emissions are considered. 88 references, 9 tables.

  12. Cost-effectiveness Analysis on Measures to Improve China's Coal-fired Industrial Boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Manzhi; Shen, Bo; Han, Yafeng; Price, Lynn; Xu, Mingchao

    2015-08-01

    Tackling coal-burning industrial boiler is becoming one of the key programs to solve the environmental problem in China. Assessing the economics of various options to address coal-fired boiler is essential to identify cost-effective solutions. This paper discusses our work in conducting a cost-effectiveness analysis on various types of improvement measures ranging from energy efficiency retrofits to switch from coal to other fuels in China. Sensitivity analysis was also performed in order to understand the impacts of some economic factors such as discount rate and energy price on the economics of boiler improvement options. The results show that nine out of 14 solutions are cost-effective, and a lower discount rate and higher energy price will result in more energy efficiency measures being cost-effective. Both monetary and non-monetary barriers to energy-efficiency improvement are discussed and policies to tackle these barriers are recommended. Our research aims at providing a methodology to assess cost-effective solutions to boiler problems.

  13. A pilot study of mercury liberation and capture from coal-fired power plant fly ash.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Gao, Xiaobing; Goeckner, Bryna; Kollakowsky, Dave; Ramme, Bruce

    2005-03-01

    The coal-fired electric utility generation industry has been identified as the largest anthropogenic source of mercury (Hg) emissions in the United States. One of the promising techniques for Hg removal from flue gas is activated carbon injection (ACI). The aim of this project was to liberate Hg bound to fly ash and activated carbon after ACI and provide high-quality coal combustion products for use in construction materials. Both bench- and pilot-scale tests were conducted to liberate Hg using a thermal desorption process. The results indicated that up to 90% of the Hg could be liberated from the fly ash or fly-ash-and-activated-carbon mixture using a pilot-scale apparatus (air slide) at 538 degrees C with a very short retention time (less than 1 min). Scanning electron microscope (SEM) evaluation indicated no significant change in fly ash carbon particle morphology following the thermal treatment. Fly ash particles collected in the baghouse of the pilot-scale apparatus were smaller in size than those collected at the exit of the air slide. A similar trend was observed in carbon particles separated from the fly ash using froth flotation. The results of this study suggest a means for power plants to reduce the level of Hg in coal-combustion products and potentially recycle activated carbon while maintaining the resale value of fly ash. This technology is in the process of being patented.

  14. Mercury Speciation in Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas-Experimental Studies and Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Radisav Vidic; Joseph Flora; Eric Borguet

    2008-12-31

    The overall goal of the project was to obtain a fundamental understanding of the catalytic reactions that are promoted by solid surfaces present in coal combustion systems and develop a mathematical model that described key phenomena responsible for the fate of mercury in coal-combustion systems. This objective was achieved by carefully combining laboratory studies under realistic process conditions using simulated flue gas with mathematical modeling efforts. Laboratory-scale studies were performed to understand the fundamental aspects of chemical reactions between flue gas constituents and solid surfaces present in the fly ash and their impact on mercury speciation. Process models were developed to account for heterogeneous reactions because of the presence of fly ash as well as the deliberate addition of particles to promote Hg oxidation and adsorption. Quantum modeling was used to obtain estimates of the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions. Based on the initial findings of this study, additional work was performed to ascertain the potential of using inexpensive inorganic sorbents to control mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants without adverse impact on the salability fly ash, which is one of the major drawbacks of current control technologies based on activated carbon.

  15. An intelligent emissions controller for fuel lean gas reburn in coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Reifman, J; Feldman, E E; Wei, T Y; Glickert, R W

    2000-02-01

    The application of artificial intelligence techniques for performance optimization of the fuel lean gas reburn (FLGR) system is investigated. A multilayer, feedforward artificial neural network is applied to model static nonlinear relationships between the distribution of injected natural gas into the upper region of the furnace of a coal-fired boiler and the corresponding oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions exiting the furnace. Based on this model, optimal distributions of injected gas are determined such that the largest NOx reduction is achieved for each value of total injected gas. This optimization is accomplished through the development of a new optimization method based on neural networks. This new optimal control algorithm, which can be used as an alternative generic tool for solving multidimensional nonlinear constrained optimization problems, is described and its results are successfully validated against an off-the-shelf tool for solving mathematical programming problems. Encouraging results obtained using plant data from one of Commonwealth Edison's coal-fired electric power plants demonstrate the feasibility of the overall approach. Preliminary results show that the use of this intelligent controller will also enable the determination of the most cost-effective operating conditions of the FLGR system by considering, along with the optimal distribution of the injected gas, the cost differential between natural gas and coal and the open-market price of NOx emission credits. Further study, however, is necessary, including the construction of a more comprehensive database, needed to develop high-fidelity process models and to add carbon monoxide (CO) emissions to the model of the gas reburn system.

  16. Vibratory machines can provide handling flexibility in coal fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Dumbaugh, G.D.

    1993-12-31

    In an electric utility type coal fired power plant, there are many different types of bulk solids that must be handled other than the needed fuel. In addition to the coal, which can be of high or low sulfur content, the firing of the combustor of the boilers may be supplemented with one or more of the various {open_quotes}waste type fuels{close_quotes}. The latter could include coal culm, gob, or silt; wood wastes such as bark, chips, shavings, or sawdust, and other plant type organics like sugar can stalks, rice hulls, or something similar. Whole and shredded rubber tires or shredded municipal solid waste (MSW), which is better known as {open_quotes}refuse derived fuel{close_quotes} (RDF), can also be burned. These {open_quotes}waste type fuels{close_quotes} are attractive because their cost is very nominal as compared to {open_quotes}highly specified{close_quotes} top grade fossil fuels. Quite often, the utility will actually be paid an added revenue to receive them. To accomplish the current {open_quotes}clean air{close_quotes} standards, lime, limestone, and so-called FGD gypsum must be successfully moved. Regardless of the type of fuel, the aftermath of its burning will always take the form of either the dust collected {open_quotes}fly ash{close_quotes} or the residue {open_quotes}bottom ash{close_quotes} that drops down to discharge from the combustor. This presentation will show the {open_quotes}Induced Vertical Flow and Conveying{close_quotes} principles can be selectively applied to achieve more flexibility in the handling of these needed materials. The primary advantage is their ability to successfully contend with continually changing physical properties and, when needed, the quantity of heat content of the bulk solid being handled.

  17. The development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-16

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation's Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications has been selected for Phase III development under contract DE-AC22-91PC91161. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting, recycling, and refining processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase HI research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing glass frits and wool fiber from boiler and incinerator ashes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. The economic evaluation of commercial scale CMS processes has begun. In order to accurately estimate the cost of the primary process vessels, preliminary designs for 25, 50, and 100 ton/day systems have been started under Task 1. This data will serve as input data for life cycle cost analysis performed as part of techno-economic evaluations. The economic evaluations of commercial CMS systems will be an integral part of the commercialization plan.

  18. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-03

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation's Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications'' is project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelling and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, approval of Vortec's Environmental Assessment (EA) required under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was approved. The EA approval cycle took approximately 9 months. The preliminary test program which was being held in abeyance pending approval of the EA was initiated. Six preliminary test runs were successfully competed during the period. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the preliminary tests were completed.

  19. Formulation, Pretreatment, and Densification Options to Improve Biomass Specifications for Co-Firing High Percentages with Coal

    SciTech Connect

    Jaya Shankar Tumuluru; J Richard Hess; Richard D. Boardman; Shahab Sokhansanj; Christopher T. Wright; Tyler L. Westover

    2012-06-01

    There is a growing interest internationally to use more biomass for power generation, given the potential for significant environmental benefits and long-term fuel sustainability. However, the use of biomass alone for power generation is subject to serious challenges, such as feedstock supply reliability, quality, and stability, as well as comparative cost, except in situations in which biomass is locally sourced. In most countries, only a limited biomass supply infrastructure exists. Alternatively, co-firing biomass alongwith coal offers several advantages; these include reducing challenges related to biomass quality, buffering the system against insufficient feedstock quantity, and mitigating the costs of adapting existing coal power plants to feed biomass exclusively. There are some technical constraints, such as low heating values, low bulk density, and grindability or size-reduction challenges, as well as higher moisture, volatiles, and ash content, which limit the co-firing ratios in direct and indirect co-firing. To achieve successful co-firing of biomass with coal, biomass feedstock specifications must be established to direct pretreatment options in order to modify biomass materials into a format that is more compatible with coal co-firing. The impacts on particle transport systems, flame stability, pollutant formation, and boiler-tube fouling/corrosion must also be minimized by setting feedstock specifications, which may include developing new feedstock composition by formulation or blending. Some of the issues, like feeding, co-milling, and fouling, can be overcome by pretreatment methods including washing/leaching, steam explosion, hydrothermal carbonization, and torrefaction, and densification methods such as pelletizing and briquetting. Integrating formulation, pretreatment, and densification will help to overcome issues related to physical and chemical composition, storage, and logistics to successfully co-fire higher percentages of biomass ( > 40

  20. Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    York Tsuo

    2000-12-31

    A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolysis process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2 which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately. This report addresses the areas of technical progress for this quarter. The detail of syngas cooler design is given in this report. The final construction work of the CFB pyrolyzer pilot plant has started during this quarter. No experimental testing was performed during this quarter. The proposed test matrix for the future CFB pyrolyzer tests is given in this report. Besides testing various fuels, bed temperature will be the primary test parameter.

  1. Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal. Final quarterly technical progress report No. 6, October 1, 1991--December 31, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Conkle, H.N.

    1992-03-17

    The objective of this study is to develop technology that permits the practical and economic preparation, storage, handling, and transportation of coal pellets, which can be reslurried into Coal water fuels (CWF) suitable for firing in small- and medium-size commercial and industrial boilers, furnaces, and engines. The project includes preparing coal pellets and capsules from wet filter cake that can be economically stored, handled, transported, and reslurried into a CWF that can be suitably atomized and fired at the user site. The wet cakes studied were prepared from ultra-fine (95% -325 mesh) coal beneficiated by advanced froth-flotation techniques. The coals studied included two eastern bituminous coals, one from Virginia (Elkhorn) and one from Illinois (Illinois No. 6) and one western bituminous coal from Utah (Sky Line coal).

  2. Pelletizing/reslurrying as a means of distributing and firing clean coal. Final quarterly technical progress report No. 5, July 1, 1991--September 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Conkle, H.N.; Raghavan, J.K.; Smit, F.J.; Jha, M.C.

    1991-11-21

    The objective of this study is to develop technology that permits the practical and economic preparation, storage, handling, and transportation of coal pellets, which can be reslurried into Coal water fuels (CWF) suitable for firing in small- and medium-size commercial and industrial boilers, furnaces, and engines. The project includes preparing coal pellets and capsules from wet filter cake that can be economically stored, handled, transported, and reslurried into a CWF that can be suitably atomized and fired at the user site. The wet cakes studied were prepared from ultra-fine (95% -325 mesh) coal beneficiated by advanced froth-flotation techniques. The coals studied included two eastern bituminous coals, one from Virginia (Elkhorn) and one from Illinois (Illinois No. 6) and one western bituminous coal from Utah (Sky Line coal).

  3. Understanding selected trace elements behavior in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia for assessment of abatement technologies.

    PubMed

    Mokhtar, Mutahharah M; Taib, Rozainee M; Hassim, Mimi H

    2014-08-01

    The Proposed New Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulation 201X (Draft), which replaces the Malaysia Environmental Quality (Clean Air) 1978, specifies limits to additional pollutants from power generation using fossil fuel. The new pollutants include Hg, HCl, and HF with limits of 0.03, 100, and 15 mg/N-m3 at 6% O2, respectively. These pollutants are normally present in very small concentrations (known as trace elements [TEs]), and hence are often neglected in environmental air quality monitoring in Malaysia. Following the enactment of the new regulation, it is now imperative to understand the TEs behavior and to assess the capability of the existing abatement technologies to comply with the new emission limits. This paper presents the comparison of TEs behavior of the most volatile (Hg, Cl, F) and less volatile (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Ni, Se, Pb) elements in subbituminous and bituminous coal and coal combustion products (CCP) (i.e., fly ash and bottom ash) from separate firing of subbituminous and bituminous coal in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia. The effect of air pollution control devices configuration in removal of TEs was also investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of abatement technologies used in the plant. This study showed that subbituminous and bituminous coals and their CCPs have different TEs behavior. It is speculated that ash content could be a factor for such diverse behavior In addition, the type of coal and the concentrations of TEs in feed coal were to some extent influenced by the emission of TEs in flue gas. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and seawater flue gas desulfurization (FGD) used in the studied coal-fired power plant were found effective in removing TEs in particulate and vapor form, respectively, as well as complying with the new specified emission limits. Implications: Coals used by power plants in Peninsular Malaysia come from the same supplier (Tenaga Nasional Berhad Fuel Services), which is a subsidiary of the Malaysia

  4. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Quarterly progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of > 47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x} SO {sub x} and Particulates < 25% NSPS; Cost of electricity 10% lower; coal > 65% of heat input and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW{sub e} combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. Most of this report discusses the details of work on these components, and the R&D Plan for future work. The discussion of the combustor designs illustrates how detailed modeling can be an effective tool to estimate NO{sub x} production, minimum burnout lengths, combustion temperatures and even particulate impact on the combustor walls. When our model is applied to the long flame concept it indicates that fuel bound nitrogen will limit the range of coals that can use this approach. For high nitrogen coals a rapid mixing, rich-lean, deep staging combustor will be necessary. The air heater design has evolved into two segments: a convective heat exchanger downstream of the combustion process; a radiant panel heat exchanger, located in the combustor walls; The relative amount of heat transferred either radiatively or convectively will depend on the combustor type and the ash properties.

  5. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT): 180 MW demonstration of advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Topical report, LNCFS Levels 1 and 3 test results

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-17

    This report presents results from the third phase of an Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICC-1) project demonstrating advanced tangentially-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from a coal-fired boiler. The purpose of this project was to study the NO{sub x} emissions characteristics of ABB Combustion Engineering`s (ABB CE) Low NO{sub x} Concentric Firing System (LNCFS) Levels I, II, and III. These technologies were installed and tested in a stepwise fashion at Gulf Power Company`s Plant Lansing Smith Unit 2. The objective of this report is to provide the results from Phase III. During that phase, Levels I and III of the ABB C-E Services Low NO{sub x} Concentric Firing System were tested. The LNCFS Level III technology includes separated overfire air, close coupled overfire air, clustered coal nozzles, flame attachment coal nozzle tips, and concentric firing. The LNCFS Level I was simulated by closing the separated overfire air nozzles of the LNCFS Level III system. Based upon long-term data, LNCFS Level HI reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 45 percent at full load. LOI levels with LNCFS Level III increased slightly, however, tests showed that LOI levels with LNCFS Level III were highly dependent upon coal fineness. After correcting for leakage air through the separated overfire air system, the simulated LNCFS Level I reduced NO{sub x} emissions by 37 percent. There was no increase in LOI with LNCFS Level I.

  6. RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME I - INTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

  7. LOW CONCENTRATION MERCURY SORPTION MECHANISMS AND CONTROL BY CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS; APPLICATION IN COAL-FIRED PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The capture of elemental mercury (Hgo) and mercuric chloride (HgCl2) by three types of calcium (Ca)-based sorbents was examined in this bench-scale study under conditions prevalent in coal fired utilities. Ca-based sorbent performances were compared to that of an activated carbon...

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF COST-EFFECTIVE NONCARBON SORBENTS FOR HG0 REMOVAL FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Noncarbon materials or mineral oxides (silica gel, alumina, molecular sieves, zeolites, and montmorillonite) were modified with various functional groups such as amine, amide, thiol, urea and active additives such as elemental mercury (Hg0) vapor at coal-fired utility ...

  9. Estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in coal-fired boiler furnaces by a portable image processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wenhao; Lou, Chun; Sun, Yipeng; Zhou, Huaichun

    2011-02-15

    This paper presented an experimental investigation on the estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in a 670 t/h coal-fired boiler furnace by a portable imaging processing system. The portable system has been calibrated by a blackbody furnace. Flame temperatures and emissivities were measured by the portable system and equivalent blackbody temperatures were deduced. Comparing the equivalent blackbody temperatures measured by the portable system and the infrared pyrometer, the relative difference is less than 4%. The reconstructed pseudo-instantaneous 2-D temperature distributions in two cross-sections can disclose the combustion status inside the furnace. The measured radiative properties of particles in the furnace proved there is significant scattering in coal-fired boiler furnaces and it can provide useful information for the calculation of radiative heat transfer and numerical simulation of combustion in coal-fired boiler furnaces. The preliminary experimental results show this technology will be helpful for the combustion diagnosis in coal-fired boiler furnaces. (author)

  10. MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS LOCAL IMPACTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISK.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, F.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; PENA, R.; BLAKE, R.

    2005-12-01

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. However, there are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg{sub 0} in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg

  11. A new method to assess mercury emissions: a study of three coal-fired electric-generating power station configurations.

    PubMed

    Boylan, Helen M; Cain, Randy D; Kingston, H M

    2003-11-01

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 7473 for the analysis of mercury (Hg) by thermal decomposition, ama