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Sample records for coal-fired flow facility

  1. The Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    In this report the primary experimental results are derived from a 263 hour coal-fired proof-of-concept (POC) test conducted during the quarter. For the last 50 hours of the test the K{sub 2}/S ratio was increased to 1.3 to examine the fouling characteristics and the efficiency of the baghouse and electrostatic precipitator in removing this potassium carbonate rich solids. In this particular test, little difficulty was encountered in removing the deposits from the heat transfer tubes to permit continued operation of the flow train. However, difficulty is reported in removal of particulate with the electrostatic precipitator whose efficiency degraded seriously during the high carbonate period. Slag deposit thickness and chemical composition throughout the flow train is reported. The performance of downstream flow train components is discussed along with deposition and corrosion probe performance. A summary is included on the corrosion evaluation of the tubes which were removed after having completed 500 hours of coal fired testing. The performance of the baghouse and electrostatic precipitator throughout the test is discussed. Performance of advanced measurement systems provided by both UTSI and Mississippi State University is summarized. The modifications to the facility including the addition of a storage warehouse and work on providing an automatic ash/seed handling system and capability to process Western coal are reported. A brief study of the desirability of drying Western coal is included. Finally, the status of the environmental program and particulate measurements made during the test are reported. The State of Tennessee compliance testing results are reported.

  2. The Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-11-01

    Progress continued at MHD coal-fired flow facility. UTSI reports on progress in developing the technology for the steam bottoming portion of the MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. No Proof-of-Concept (POC) testing was conducted during the quarter but data analyses are reported from the test conducted during the prior quarter. Major results include corrosion data from the first 500 hours of testing on candidate tube materials in the superheater test module (SHTM). Solids mass balance data, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and baghouse (BH) performance data, diagnostic systems and environmental data results from previous POC tests are included. The major activities this quarter were in facility modifications required to complete the scheduled POC test program. Activities reported include the installation of an automatic ash/seed removal system on the SHTM, the BH, and ESP hoppers. Also, a higher pressure compressor (350 psi) is being installed to provide additional blowing pressure to remove solids deposits on the convective heat transfer tubes in the high temperature zone where the deposits are molten. These activities are scheduled to be completed and ready for the next test, which is scheduled for late May 1990. Also, experiments on drying western coal are reported. The recommended system for modifying the CFFF coal system to permit processing of western coal is described. Finally, a new effort to test portions of the TRW combustor during tests in the CFFF is described. The status of system analyses being conducted under subcontract by the Westinghouse Electric Corporation is also described. 2 refs., 18 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Environmental impact assessment at the Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, J L; Holt, J K

    1992-08-01

    The environmental program for the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) has been established to monitor and evaluate facility operations on a continuing basis in accordance with the purpose and policy of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA). Program objectives include: (1) Compliance with all applicable Federal, State, and local effluent regulations and DOE orders; (2) Compliance with commitments made in the ``Environmental Monitoring Program for the MHD Coal Fired Flow Facility at University of Tennessee Space Institute``; (3) Evaluation of the effectiveness of effluent treatment and control; (4) Assessing the potential impact of CFFF operations on the environment. (VC)

  4. The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    In this quarterly technical Progress report, UTSI reports on continued technical progress in developing the technology for the steam bottoming plant for an MHD Steam combined cycle Power plant. No testing was conducted during the quarter. Major activities were in preparation for the beginning of the 2000 hour POC testing on wester, low sulfur coal scheduled to start in April 1992. The report contains analyses of data from the previous tests in this series that were designed to prepare for the POC test series. Modifications to the flow train that are reported include the rearrangement of the lower temperature heat exchangers in the superheater test module (SHTM) to move the air heater upstream to a higher gas temperature, installation of a gas by-pass to keep the ash seed hopper tap open and installation of the new tubes to be tested in the steam cooled test sections. The major facility modification discussed is the installation of the wet electrostatic precipitator, to replace the venturi scrubber that has been used in previous testing, to take any flow that is not desired through the dry electrostatic precipitator or baghouse. Plans for future testing that are summarized include improvements in test operations, the details of arrangement of high temperature air heater materials for testing and the plans for advanced instrumentation by both UTSI and Mississippi State University.

  5. The magnetohydrodynamics coal-fired flow facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1995-01-01

    In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on the status of a multitask contract to develop the technology for the steam bottoming portion of a MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. The report describes the facility maintenance and environmental work completed, status of completing technical reports and certain key administrative actions occurring during the quarter. With program resources at a minimum to closeout the MHD program, no further testing occurred during the quarter, but the DOE CFFF facility was maintained in a standby status with winterization, preventive maintenance and repairs accomplished as needed. Plans and preparations progressed for environmental actions needed at the site to investigate and characterize the groundwater and for removal/disposal of asbestos in the cooling tower. Work continued to progress on archiving the results of the MHD program.

  6. The magnetohydrodynamics coal-fired flow facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    In this report for the October--December 1989 quarter, UTSI reports on a multitask research and development program directed toward developing the technology for the steam bottoming plant of a combined cycle MHD steam power plant. During this quarter, a 135 hour Proof-of-Concept (POC) test was completed and the results are summarized. Results of more detailed analyses from a 263 hour test conducted the prior quarter are also reported. The primary emphasis was in testing stainless steel tube materials for service in intermediate temperature air heaters and superheaters and in evaluation of particulate removal devices, baghouse and ESP, on the MHD combustion product exhaust. Results of detailed analyses of the test tubes removed after exposure for 500 hours of testing are included. Results of reconfiguration of the superheater test module to achieve the temperatures desired for simulating the retrofit superheater condition are given. Preliminary analysis of results of ESP performance from testing with excess amount of potassium carbonate in the flow are also included. In the environmental program, the results of test conducted to verify compliance with the State operating permit are reported. Data from the remote air quality monitoring stations during the POC test are summarized. Performance of advanced instrumentation devices provided by both UTSI and Mississippi State University is summarized. Materials tests directed toward finding a satisfactory ceramic tube for service in a high temperature air heater are described. 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. MHD coal-fired flow facility. Annual technical progress report, October 1979-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Alstatt, M.C.; Attig, R.C.; Brosnan, D.A.

    1981-03-01

    The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) reports on significant activity, task status, planned research, testing, development, and conclusions for the Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Faclity (CFFF) and the Energy Conversion Facility (ECF).

  8. (Operation of MHD Coal Fired Flow Facility): Quarterly technical progress report, October-December 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-05-01

    In this Progress Report UTSI summarizes the progress on a multitask research and development project encompassing the development of the steam bottoming plant technology for a Coal Fired MHD/Steam power plant. Current emphasis is on testing promising tube materials, removal of particulate from the flue gas by both electrostatic precipitator and baghouse, fouling of heat transfer surfaces, recovery of spent seed material and environmental intrusion. The results of a 65 hour test conducted during the quarter in the DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) are discussed. The application of advanced optical diagnostic measurement equipment by both UTSI and Mississippi State University (MSU) is summarized. Evolutionary changes to test hardware and facility equipment are reported.

  9. Effect of deposits on corrosion of materials exposed in the Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.

    1993-05-01

    Candidate heat exchanger materials tested in the Low Mass Flow train at the Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) at Tullahoma, TN. were analyzed to evaluate their corrosion performance. Tube specimens obtained at each foot of the 14-ft-long Unbend tubes were analyzed for corrosion-scale morphologies, scale thicknesses, and internal penetration depths. Results developed on 1500- and 2000- h exposed specimens were correlated with exposure temperature. In addition, deposit materials collected at several locations in the CFFF were analyzed in detail to characterize the chemical and physical properties of the deposits and their influence on corrosion performance of tube materials.

  10. Technical progress report for the Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility. January 1, 1993--March 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-01

    Progress is reported in developing technology for steam bottoming cycle of the coal-fired MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. During this period, no testing was scheduled in the DOE Coal-Fired Flow Facility. The report covers facilities modification and maintenance in preparation for a 225 hour POC test that is scheduled for early next quarter. The modifications to the dry ESP to replace the electrodes with smaller diameter wires is discussed. Continued work on the rotary vacuum filter, which is designed to separate the more soluble potassium carbonate from the potassium sulfate and fly ash, is reported. Environmental activities for the quarter are summarized.

  11. (The MHD (magnetohydrodynamics) coal fired flow facility): Quarterly technical progress report, April-June 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-01

    In this Quarterly Technical Progress Report, UTSI reports on progress in a multitask program to develop MHD technology, currently oriented toward the steam bottoming plant and environmental considerations. Plans and preparation for resumption of testing in the DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility are summarized. The status of the new aerodynamic duct, nozzle and diffuser is reported. Plans for continued testing of tubes made of candidate materials in the superheater test module are discussed. Progress in preparing the facility for the upcoming tests are included. Plans formulated jointly with Mississippi State University for application of advanced instrumentation in future tests are detailed. Additional analyses of data from previous tests is included in particulate loading and size distribution, seed recovery and trace elements. Progress in the environmental program is reported for the water quality program, the trace element study and process gas analysis.

  12. The low moisture eastern coal processing system at the UTSI-DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, B.R.; Washington, E.S.; Sanders, M.E.

    1993-10-01

    A low moisture, eastern coal processing system was constructed at the Department of Energy`s Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), located at the University of Tennessee Space Institute in Tullahoma, Tennessee, to provide a metered and regulated supply of seeded, pulverized coal to support magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power generation research. The original system configuration is described as well as major modifications made in response to specific operational problems. Notable among these was the in-house development of the Moulder flow control valve which exhibited marked improvement in durability compared to previous valves used with pulverized coal. Coal processing system performance parameters are discussed. A summary of tests conducted and significant events are included.

  13. The Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility. Technical progress report, July 1, 1989--September 30, 1989

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    In this report the primary experimental results are derived from a 263 hour coal-fired proof-of-concept (POC) test conducted during the quarter. For the last 50 hours of the test the K{sub 2}/S ratio was increased to 1.3 to examine the fouling characteristics and the efficiency of the baghouse and electrostatic precipitator in removing this potassium carbonate rich solids. In this particular test, little difficulty was encountered in removing the deposits from the heat transfer tubes to permit continued operation of the flow train. However, difficulty is reported in removal of particulate with the electrostatic precipitator whose efficiency degraded seriously during the high carbonate period. Slag deposit thickness and chemical composition throughout the flow train is reported. The performance of downstream flow train components is discussed along with deposition and corrosion probe performance. A summary is included on the corrosion evaluation of the tubes which were removed after having completed 500 hours of coal fired testing. The performance of the baghouse and electrostatic precipitator throughout the test is discussed. Performance of advanced measurement systems provided by both UTSI and Mississippi State University is summarized. The modifications to the facility including the addition of a storage warehouse and work on providing an automatic ash/seed handling system and capability to process Western coal are reported. A brief study of the desirability of drying Western coal is included. Finally, the status of the environmental program and particulate measurements made during the test are reported. The State of Tennessee compliance testing results are reported.

  14. MHD Coal-Fired Flow Facility. Quarterly technical progress report, January-March 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Altstatt, M. C.; Attig, R.C. Baucum, W.E.

    1980-05-30

    The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI) reports on significant activity, task status, planned research, testing, development, and conclusions for the Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) and the Research and Development Laboratory. Although slowed by incessant rain during several days, work on the CFFF Bid Packages progressed to nearly 100 percent completion, excluding later punchlist items. On the quench system, the cyclone separator was delivered to UTSI, and under Downstream Components, the secondary combustor was received and the radiant slagging furnace was emplaced at the CFFF. Water quality analysis of Woods Reservoir provided the expected favorable results, quite similar to last year's. Generator experiments describing local current distribution are reported along with behavior under conditions of imposed leakage. Also, during the Quarter, the shelter for the cold flow modeling facility was constructed and circuits installation begun. A jet turbine combustor was tested for use as a vitiation burner. Samples taken from the exhaust duct, besides other applications, show that the refractories used are performing well in alleviating heat loss while exhibiting acceptable degredation. A new resistive power take-off network was designed and implemented.

  15. MHD Coal Fired Flow Facility. Quarterly technical progress report, July-September 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Altstatt, M. C.; Attig, R. C.; Brosnan, D. A.

    1980-11-01

    Significant activity, task status, planned research, testing, development, and conclusions for the Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) and the Energy Conversion Facility (ECF) are described. On Task 1, the first phase of the downstream quench system was completed. On Task 2, all three combustor sections were completed, hydrotested, ASME code stamped, and delivered to UTSI. The nozzle was also delivered. Fabrication of support stands and cooling water manifolds for the combustor and vitiation heater were completed, heat transfer and thermal stress analysis, along with design development, were conducted on the generator and radiant furnace and secondary combustor installation progressed as planned. Under Task 3 an Elemental Analyzer and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer/Graphite Furnace were received and installed, sites were prepared for two air monitoring stations, phytoplankton analysis began, and foliage and soil sampling was conducted using all study plots. Some 288 soil samples were combined to make 72 samples which were analyzed. Also, approval was granted to dispose of MHD flyash and slag at the Franklin County landfill. Task 4 effort consisted of completing all component test plans, and establishing the capability of displaying experimental data in graphical format. Under Task 7, a preliminary testing program for critical monitoring of the local current and voltage non-uniformities in the generator electrodes was outlined, electrode metal wear characteristics were documented, boron nitride/refrasil composite interelectrode sealing was improved, and several refractories for downstream MHD applications were evaluated with promising results.

  16. The high moisture western coal processing system at the UTSI-DOE Coal Fired Flow Facility. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, M.E.

    1996-02-01

    The original eastern coal processing system at the Department of Energy`s Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), located at the University of Tennessee Space Institute in Tullahoma, Tennessee, was modified to pulverize and dry Montana Rosebud, a western coal. Significant modifications to the CFFF coal processing system were required and the equipment selection criteria are reviewed. Coal processing system performance parameters are discussed. A summary of tests conducted and significant events are included.

  17. Status of Proof-Of-Concept testing at the Coal-Fired-Flow Facility, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Attig, R.C.; Chapman, J.N.; Johanson, N.R.

    1993-06-01

    Proof-of-concept (POC) testing, and collection and evaluation of data continued at the Coal-Fired-Flow Facility during the past year. Following four preliminary tests firing Rosebud coal in 1991 to establish base conditions for the Rosebud coal POC tests, three POC tests were run in 1992, and a fourth test early in 1993. Major equipment additions or modifications included installation of a wet electrostatic precipitator (ESP), which replaced a badly deteriorated venturi. This component also provides improved capability to meet Tennessee pollution regulations while operating the dry ESP and/or baghouse off design, or if one of these two control devices does not function properly. Improvements were also made to the dry ESP prior to the 1993 test, which appear to have improved the performance of this equipment. This paper will present an overview of the major results obtained during the Rosebud coal POC tests, including the performance of the dry and wet electrostatic precipitators. Differences between the Rosebud and Illinois coals will be described, but it is emphasized that these observations are based on incomplete results for the Rosebud coal.

  18. MHD coal-fired flow facility baseline water-quality study. Woods Reservoir, May 1979-April 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.

    1980-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) Coal-Fired Flow Facility (CFFF) is located on Woods Reservoir at The University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). Part of the role of UTSI, as participants in the DOE program, is to document environmental aspects of coal-fired MHD. In early 1979, prior to operation of the CFFF, a water quality program was initiated to establish baseline conditions for the reservoir. The study was designed to provide an accurate assessment of water quality which could be used as a basis for comparison to evaluate the impact, if any, of the plant operation on the aquatic environment. Results of a one year baseline study of water quality on Woods Reservoir are presented in this report. The key findings are that this reservoir is a eutrophic lake. Its predominant ions are calcium and bicarbonate and its pH is circumneutral.

  19. NO sub x emissions: Recent CFFF (Coal Fired Flow Facility) results and estimates for MHD retrofit scenarios

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, L.W.; Attig, R.C.; Lynch, T.P.; Rasnake, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Subjects related to NO{sub x} formation and decomposition are discussed in this paper. An experimental and theoretical study of NO behavior in the radiant furnace of the Coal Fired Flow Facility is described. Calculations are presented on the necessary size of an MHD Retrofit plant, to ensure current and possible future NO{sub x} emission indices are satisfied. The possibility of using high stoichiometry in the MHD generator, then decreasing the stoichiometry in the radiant furnace to control NO{sub x} emissions, is considered, using the principle of fuel injection at the furnace entrance. 5 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Results of 500-hour superheater/intermediate temperature airheater tube corrosion tests in the MHD coal fired flow facility

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.K.; Li, M.

    1991-05-01

    Corrosion data have been obtained for tubes, (austenitic steels, carbon steels, and intermediate chromium steels), exposed to conditions representative of superheater and intermediate temperature air heater components for 500 hours in a proof-of-concept magnetohydrodynamics MHD coal fired flow facility (MHD CFFF). The tubes, coated with K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}-rich deposits, developed oxide surface scales which were not protective against intergranular sulfur penetration of the subsurface metal. Corrosion rates derived from scale thickness and intergranular corrosion depth measurements are reported, along with scale morphologies and compositions. The implications of the results on commercial MHD utilization of the alloys are discussed, as well as the indicated need for more corrosion resistant alloys or coatings under the most severe exposure conditions. 4 refs., 27 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. The magnetohydrodynamics coal-fired flow facility. Technical progress report, April 1, 1995--June 30, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-07-01

    In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on the status of a multi-task contract to develop the technology for the steam bottoming portion of a MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. The report describes the facility maintenance and environmental work completed, status of completing technical reports and certain key administrative actions occurring during the quarter. With program resources at a minimum due to closeout the MHD program, no further testing occurred during the quarter, but the DOE CFFF facility was maintained in a standby status, preventive maintenance and repairs accomplished as needed. Plans and actions progressed for environmental actions needed at the site to investigate and characterize the groundwater. Data and documentation on results of the MHD program have been identified for archiving and are being maintained for archival storage.

  2. The Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility. Progress report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on the status of a multitask contract to develop the technology for the steam bottoming portion of a MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. The report describes the facility maintenance and environmental work completed, status of completing technical reports and certain key administrative actions occurring during the quarter. With program resources at a minimum to closeout the MHD program, no further testing occurred during the quarter, but the DOE CFFF facility was maintained in a standby status with winterization, preventive maintenance and repairs accomplished as needed. Plans and preparations progressed for environmental actions needed at the site to investigate and characterize the groundwater and for removal/disposal of asbestos in the cooling tower. Work continued to progress on archiving the results of the MHD program.

  3. Superheater/intermediate temperature air heater tube corrosion tests in the MHD coal fired flow facility (Montana Rosebud POC tests)

    SciTech Connect

    White, M.

    1996-01-01

    Nineteen alloys have been exposed for approximately 1000 test hours as candidate superheater and intermediate temperature air heater tubes in a U.S. DOE facility dedicated to demonstrating Proof of Concept for the bottoming or heat and seed recovery portion of coal fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) electrical power generating plants. Corrosion data have been obtained from a test series utilizing a western United States sub-bituminous coal, Montana Rosebud. The test alloys included a broad range of compositions ranging from carbon steel to austenitic stainless steels to high chromium nickel-base alloys. The tubes, coated with K{sub 2}SO-containing deposits, developed principally, oxide scales by an oxidation/sulfidation mechanism. In addition to being generally porous, these scales were frequently spalled and/or non-compact due to a dispersed form of outward growth by oxide precipitation in the adjacent deposit. Austenitic alloys generally had internal penetration as trans Tranular and/or intergranular oxides and sulfides. While only two of the alloys had damage visible without magnification as a result of the relatively short exposure, there was some concern about Iona-term corrosion performance owing to the relatively poor quality scales formed. Comparison of data from these tests to those from a prior series of tests with Illinois No. 6, a high sulfur bituminous coal, showed less corrosion in the present test series with the lower sulfur coal. Although K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}was the principal corrosive agent as the supplier of sulfur, which acted to degrade alloy surface scales, tying up sulfur as K{sub 2}SO{sub 4} prevented the occurrence of complex alkali iron trisulfates responsible for severe or catastrophic corrosion in conventional power plants with certain coals and metal temperatures.

  4. Technical progress report for the Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility: October 1, 1992--December 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-06-01

    Progress is reported on a multitask contract to develop technology for steam bottoming cycle of a Combined Cycle MHD Steam Power Plant. The report describes a 314 hour proof-of-concept (POC) test completed during the quarter. Results include secondary combustion and effect of potassium on the light-off temperature, fouling of heat transfer surfaces, particulate clean-up device performance and advanced diagnostic system performance. Test results on ceramic materials and tubes directed toward the development of a high temperature recuperative air heater are summarized. Results of data analysis of previous tests that are reported include the continuing analysis of tube materials that were exposed to 1500 and 2000 hours of eastern coal fired operation during the previously completed 2000 hour POC test series on eastern, high sulfur coal.

  5. Technical progress report for the Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility, January 1, 1994--March 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on the status of a multi-task contract to develop the technology for the steam bottoming portion of a MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. The report describes the facility maintenance and environmental work completed, status of completing technical reports and certain key administrative actions occurring during the quarter. In view of current year budget reductions and program reductions to closeout the MHD program, downsizing of the UTSI work force took place. No further testing has occurred or is scheduled, and the planned effort for this period was to maintain the DOE CFFF facility in a standby status and to complete test reports.

  6. Technical progress report for the magnetohydrodynamics coal-fired flow facility for the period April 1, 1994--June 30, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on the status of a multitask contract to develop the technology for the steam bottoming portion of a MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. The report describes the facility maintenance and environmental work completed, status of completing technical reports and certain key administrative actions occurring during the quarter. In view of current year budget reductions and program reductions to closeout the MHD program, downsizing of the UTSI work force took place. No further testing occurred or was scheduled during the quarter, but the DOE CFFF facility was maintained in a standby status.

  7. Technical progress report for the Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility, October 1, 1993--December 31, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on progress in developing the technology for the steam bottoming portion of the MHD Steam Combined Cycle power plant. The experimental program was effectively terminated and reoriented to preparation of reports on previous tests and maintaining the DOE facility. In this report, the results of tube corrosion studies for the samples removed after 500 hours of western coal testing are summarized. Plans for evaluating the tube samples after termination of the tests at 1,047 hours are discussed. The status of development of models to predict ash deposition on conductive heat transfer tubes and their validation with experimental data is presented. Modeling and experiments to induce agglomeration of particulate are also discussed. Significant accomplishments, findings and conclusions include: In summary, corrosion measurements on typical, commercial stainless steels and on low and intermediate chromium steels after 639 hours of LMF5 exposure in the SHTM test sections revealed corrosion that was generally acceptable in magnitude if corrosion kinetics are parabolic, but, except for the higher chromium alloys 253MA and 310, not if kinetics are linear. The production of bilayer scales, and the large amount of scale separation and fragmentation make long term parabolic kinetics unlikely, and result in a high likelihood for breakaway corrosion.

  8. Technical progress report for the magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility for the period April 1, 1993--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on progress on a multitask contract to develop the necessary technology for the steam bottoming plant of the MHD Steam Combined Cycle power plant. A Proof-Of-Concept (POC) test was conducted during the quarter and the results are reported. This POC test was terminated after 88 hours of operation due to the failure of the coal pulverizer main shaft. Preparations for the test and post-test activities are summarized. Modifications made to the dry electrostatic precipitator (ESP) are described and measurements of its performance are reported. The baghouse performance is summarized, together with actions being taken to improve bag cleaning using reverse air. Data on the wet ESP performance is included at two operating conditions, including verification that it met State of Tennessee permit conditions for opacity with all the flow through it. The results of experiments to determine the effect of potassium seed on NO{sub x} emissions and secondary combustion are reported. The status of efforts to quantify the detailed mass balance for all POC testing is summarized. The work to develop a predictive ash deposition model is discussed and results compared with deposition actually encountered during the test. Plans to measure the kinetics of potassium and sulfur on flames like the secondary combustor, are included. Advanced diagnostic work by both UTSI and MSU is reported. Efforts to develop the technology for a high temperature air heater using ceramic tubes are summarized.

  9. Proof-of-concept tests of the magnetohydrodynamic steam-bottoming system at the DOE Coal-Fired Flow Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Attig, R.C.

    1996-10-09

    The development of coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power can be viewed as consisting of two parts; the topping cycle and the bottoming cycle. The topping cycle consists of the coal combustor, MHD generator and associated components. The bottoming cycle consists of the heat recovery, steam generation, seed recovery/regeneration, emissions control (gas and particulate), ash handling and deposition, and materials evaluation. The report concentrates on the bottoming cycle, for which much of the technology was developed at the University of Tennessee Space Institute (UTSI). Because of the complexity of the required technology, a number of issues required investigation. Of specific concern regarding the bottoming cycle, was the design of the steam cycle components and emissions control. First, the high combustion temperatures and the use of large quantities of potassium in the MHD combustor results in a difference in the composition of the gases entering the bottoming cycle compared to conventional systems. Secondly, a major goal of the UTSI effort was to use a variety of coals in the MHD system, especially the large reserves of high-sulfur coals available in the United States.

  10. Measurements of priority pollutants in combustion products derived from the Dept. of Energy's (DOE) coal-fired flow facility magnetohydrodynamic (MHD)

    SciTech Connect

    Parks, K.D.; Sheth, A.C. )

    1988-01-01

    Magnetohydrodynamics is a branch of the physical sciences dealing with the electromagnetic fields and electrically conduction gases and liquids. Examples of MHD are everywhere, from stars and nuclear fusion to applications like MHD electrical power generation, i.e. when electrical conductors cut magnetic field lines, an electromotive force (EMF) is induced. If electrodes and external circuits are connected, current will flow. In conventional electric generators, the copper wire conductors are rotated through a magnetic field, and are usually driven by a steam turbine. On the other hand, the conductor in an MHD system is a fluid (gas or liquid) which flows through a magnetic field. There are two basic types of MHD energy conversion systems - open cycle and closed cycle. In closed cycle, the working fluid or conducting medium is recycled, while in the open cycle it is appropriately utilized and discarded. In this paper, the authors discuss the priority pollutants study carried out for an open cycle concept in which the conductor is a high temperature combustion gas, which flows through a magnetic field from a high pressure source and is not recycled.

  11. The magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-01

    In this Quarterly Technical Progress Report, UTSI reports on a continuing proof-of-concept (POC) test program for the steam bottoming plant of an MHD/steam combined cycle power plant. In this report, the first POC test on western, low sulfur coal is reported. Analyses of tube materials from the previously completed 2004 hour POC tests on eastern, high sulfur coal are also included. The first test results with the wet electrostatic precipitator (ESP), which was installed to replace the wet venturi scrubber are reported. Detailed results of testing ceramic tubes and test components under a variety of high temperature conditions, for application to a high temperature air heater are included. Progress in application of advanced diagnostics equipment by both UTSI and Mississippi State University (MSU) is summarized. In addition, the laboratory effort to measure the transmissivity and absorption coefficient of the gas in the temperature range of condensing slag and potassium compounds is described. The current status of the CFFF environmental program is summarized.

  12. EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Withum; S.C. Tseng; J.E. Locke

    2005-11-01

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dryer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the seventh in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 1,300 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing three percent sulfur. The unit was equipped with an ESP and a limestone-based wet FGD to control particulate and SO2 emissions, respectively. At the time of sampling an SCR was not installed on this unit. Four sampling tests were performed in September 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. The results show that the FGD inlet flue gas oxidized:elemental mercury ratio was roughly 2:1, with 66% oxidized mercury and 34% elemental mercury. Mercury removal, on a coal

  13. Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect

    J. A. Withum; S. C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

    2006-01-31

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that these data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the ninth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on Unit 1 at Plant 7, a 566 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 3.6% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO{sub 2} emissions

  14. EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    J. A. Withum; S.C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

    2004-10-31

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) - wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on Hg speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for Hg capture. This document, the second in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 330 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 1.0% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR system for NOx control and a spray dryer absorber for SO{sub 2} control followed by a baghouse unit for particulate emissions control. Four sampling tests were performed in March 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the SCR inlet, air heater outlet (ESP inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. Due to mechanical problems with the boiler feed water pumps, the actual gross output was between 195 and 221 MW during the tests. The results showed that the SCR/air heater combination oxidized nearly 95% of the elemental mercury. Mercury removal, on a

  15. Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect

    J. A. Withum; J. E. Locke

    2006-02-01

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that this data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the tenth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on two 468 MW units burning bituminous coal containing 1.3-1.7% sulfur. Unit 2 is equipped with an SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO{sub 2} emissions, respectively. Unit 1

  16. Organic material emissions from holding ponds at coal-fired power generation facilities. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rosecrance, A.E.; Colby, B.N.

    1980-03-01

    A literature survey of organic chemical emissions from holding or ash ponds which are used by most coal-fired utilities to collect process waste materials has been conducted. Only a small quantity of compound-specific information was available concerning surface runoff and none was available for groundwater seepage or atmospheric emissions. Approximately 140 Kg/day of organic material is predicted to be present in surface runoff of a hypothetical 1000 MW facility of which only 3.5 Kg/day, or 2.6% of the total, is accounted for by specific compounds. Of the compounds identified, only phenol is near a level (97 ..mu..g/l) of potential environmental significance. Due to the lack of information describing holding pond emissions, a survey of known holding pond influents was undertaken to assess which processes were most likely to be associated with the organic chemical content of the pond. Of the process wastes directed into the pond, cooling tower blowdown, water treatment wastes and boiler blowdown are identified as the major contributors of organic material. Organic chemical additives, which are used to control bacterial buildup, scale formation, pitting, corrosion, pH stability, and solid dispersion, account for approximately 96% of the organic pond influents. The majority of these materials do not represent an environmental hazard; however, they may undergo chemical reactions in the pond which increase their environmental significance.

  17. EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Withum

    2006-03-07

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), evaluated the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)-wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber-fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL determined mercury speciation and removal at 10 bituminous coal-fired facilities; at four of these facilities, additional tests were performed on units without SCR, or with the existing SCR bypassed. This project final report summarizes the results and discusses the findings of the body of work as a whole. Eleven Topical Reports were issued (prior to this report) that describe in great detail the sampling results at each of the ten power plants individually. The results showed that the SCR-FGD combination removed a substantial fraction of mercury from flue gas. The coal-to-stack mercury removals ranged from 65% to 97% for the units with SCR and from 53% to 87% for the units without SCR. There was no indication that any type of FGD system was more effective at mercury removal than others. The coal-to-stack mercury removal and the removal in the wet scrubber were both negatively correlated with the elemental mercury content of the flue gas and positively correlated with the scrubber liquid chloride concentration. The coal chlorine content was not a statistically significant factor in either case. Mercury removal in the ESP was positively correlated with the fly ash carbon content and negatively correlated with the flue gas temperature. At most of the units, a substantial fraction (>35%) of the flue gas mercury was in the elemental form at the boiler economizer outlet. After passing through the SCR-air heater combination very little of the total mercury (<10%) remained in the elemental form in

  18. Lewis Research Center's coal-fired, pressurized, fluidized-bed reactor test facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kobak, J. A.; Rollbuhler, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    A 200-kilowatt-thermal, pressurized, fluidized-bed (PFB) reactor, research test facility was designed, constructed, and operated as part of a NASA-funded project to assess and evaluate the effect of PFB hot-gas effluent on aircraft turbine engine materials that might have applications in stationary-power-plant turbogenerators. Some of the techniques and components developed for this PFB system are described. One of the more important items was the development of a two-in-one, gas-solids separator that removed 95+ percent of the solids in 1600 F to 1900 F gases. Another was a coal and sorbent feed and mixing system for injecting the fuel into the pressurized combustor. Also important were the controls and data-acquisition systems that enabled one person to operate the entire facility. The solid, liquid, and gas sub-systems all had problems that were solved over the 2-year operating time of the facility, which culminated in a 400-hour, hot-gas, turbine test.

  19. Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

    1991-08-01

    A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW`s Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

  20. Healy Clean Coal Project: Healy coal firing at TRW Cleveland Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Koyama, T.; Petrill, E.; Sheppard, D.

    1991-08-01

    A test burn of two Alaskan coals was conducted at TRW's Cleveland test facility in support of the Healy Clean Coal Project, as part of Clean Coal Technology III Program in which a new power plant will be constructed using a TRW Coal Combustion System. This system features ash slagging technology combined with NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} control. The tests, funded by the Alaska Industrial Development and Export Authority (AIDEA) and TRW, were conducted to verify that the candidate Healy station coals could be successfully fired in the TRW coal combustor, to provide data required for scale-up to the utility project size requirements, and to produce sufficient flash-calcined material (FCM) for spray dryer tests to be conducted by Joy/NIRO. The tests demonstrated that both coals are viable candidates for the project, provided the data required for scale-up, and produced the FCM material. This report describes the modifications to the test facility which were required for the test burn, the tests run, and the results of the tests.

  1. Magnetohydrodynamics Coal-Fired Flow Facilty. Progress report,January 1, 1995--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    In this quarterly technical progress report, UTSI reports on the status of a multi-task contract to develop the technology for the steam bottoming portion of a MHD Steam Combined Cycle Power Plant. The report describes the facility maintenance and environmental work completed, status of completing technical reports and certain key administrative actions occurring during the quarter. With program resources at a minimum due to closeout the MHD program, no further testing occurred during the quarter, but the DOE CFFF facility was maintained in a standby status, preventive maintenance and repairs accomplished as needed. Plans and actions progressed for environmental actions needed at the site to investigate and characterize the groundwater. The asbestos in the cooling tower was removed and disposed. Work continued on the preparation for archiving the results of the MHD program.

  2. Coal fired powerhouse wastewater pressure filtration

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, H.L.; Diener, G.A.

    1994-05-01

    The Savannah River Site`s permit for construction of an industrial wastewater treatment facility to remove solids from the boiler blow-down and wet ash scrubber effluent of the A-Area coal fired powerhouse was rejected. Conventional clarification technology would not remove arsenic from the combined effluent sufficient to achieve human health criteria in the small receiving surface stream. Treatability studies demonstrated that an existing facility, which will no longer be needed for metal finishing wastewater, can very efficiently process the powerhouse wastewater to less than 35 {mu}g/L arsenic. Use of cationic and anionic polymers to flocculate both the wastewater and filter aid solids formed a ``bridged cake`` with exceptionally low resistance to flow. This will double the capacity of the Oberlin pressure filters with the Tyvek T-980 sub micron filter media. The affects of high sheer agitation and high temperature in the raw wastewater on the filtration process were also studied and adequate controls were demonstrated.

  3. Numerical Modelling by FLAC on Coal Fires in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gusat, D.; Drebenstedt, C.

    2009-04-01

    Coal fires occur in many countries all over the world (e.g. Australia, China, India, Indonesia, USA and Russia) in underground and on surface. In China the most coal fires occur especially in the North. Economical and environmental damages are the negative effects of the coal fires: coal fires induce open fractures and fissures within the seam and neighbouring rocks. So that these are the predominant pathways for oxygen flow and exhaust gases from a coal fire. All over northern China there are a large number of coal fires, which cause and estimated yearly coal loss of between 100 and 200 million tons ([1], [2], [3]). Spontaneous combustion is a very complicated process and is influenced by number of factors. The process is an exothermic reaction in which the heat generated is dissipated by conduction to the surrounding environment, by radiation, by convection to the ventilation flow, and in some cases by evaporation of moisture from the coal [4]. The coal fires are very serious in China, and the dangerous extent of spontaneous combustion is bad which occupies about 72.9% in mining coal seams. During coal mining in China, the coal fires of spontaneous combustion are quite severity. The dangerous of coal spontaneous combustion has been in 56% of state major coalmines [5]. The 2D and 3D-simulation models describing coal fire damages are strong tools to predict fractures and fissures, to estimate the risk of coal fire propagation into neighbouring seams, to test and evaluate coal fire fighting and prevention methods. The numerical simulations of the rock mechanical model were made with the software for geomechanical and geotechnical calculations, the programs FLAC and FLAC3D [6]. To fight again the coal fires, exist several fire fighting techniques. Water, slurries or liquefied nitrogen can be injected to cool down the coal or cut of air supply with the backfill and thereby extinct the fire. Air supply also can be cut of by covering the coal by soil or sealing of the

  4. Coal-fired diesel generator

    SciTech Connect

    1997-05-01

    The objective of the proposed project is to test the technical, environmental, and economic viability of a coal-fired diesel generator for producing electric power in small power generating markets. Coal for the diesel generator would be provided from existing supplies transported for use in the University`s power plant. A cleanup system would be installed for limiting gaseous and particulate emissions. Electricity and steam produced by the diesel generator would be used to supply the needs of the University. The proposed diesel generator and supporting facilities would occupy approximately 2 acres of land adjacent to existing coal- and oil-fired power plant and research laboratory buildings at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks. The environmental analysis identified that the most notable changes to result from the proposed project would occur in the following areas: power plant configuration at the University of Alaska, Fairbanks; air emissions, water use and discharge, and the quantity of solid waste for disposal; noise levels at the power plant site; and transportation of coal to the power plant. No substantive adverse impacts or environmental concerns were identified in analyzing the effects of these changes.

  5. Conceptual design of a coal-fired MHD retrofit. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    1994-06-01

    Coal-fired magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) technology is ready for its next level of development - an integrated demonstration at a commercial scale. The development and testing of MHD has shown its potential to be the most efficient, least costly, and cleanest way to burn coal. Test results have verified a greater than 99% removal of sulphur with a potential for greater than 60% efficiency. This development and testing, primarily funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), has progressed through the completion of its proof-of-concept (POC) phase at the 50 MWt Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) and 28 MWt Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), thereby, providing the basis for demonstration and further commercial development and application of the technology. The conceptual design of a retrofit coal-fired MHD generating plant was originally completed by the MHD Development Corporation (MDC) under this Contract, DE-AC22-87PC79669. Thereafter, this concept was updated and changed to a stand-alone MHD demonstration facility and submitted by MDC to DOE in response to the fifth round of solicitations for Clean Coal Technology. Although not selected, that activity represents the major interest in commercialization by the developing industry and the type of demonstration that would be eventually necessary. This report updates the original executive summary of the conceptual design by incorporating the results of the POC program as well as MDC`s proposed Billings MHD Demonstration Project (BMDP) and outlines the steps necessary for commercialization.

  6. Coal-fired ships reappear

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-09-01

    A situation now exists where, in many countries, coal prices are almost half those of oil, and indications point toward this trend continuing. It is not surprising, therefore, that many shipowners are planning and building the next generation of steamships with coal-fired propulsion units. Six new coal-fired ships, the first for over 25 years, are now being built in Italy, Japan, and Spain. In the forefront in technology and systems for handling coal and ash is the British company Macawber Engineering. It has developed on-board systems responding to the problems created by coal handling on a modern steamship, problems that formed a major reason for the universal changeover to oil firing in the 1950s and 1960s. The traditional method of handling coal uses mechanical systems such as belt and draglink conveyors, and bucket elevators. These methods have disadvantages that make their use on ships far from satisfactory. Pneumatic conveying systems, due to their totally enclosed construction and relative simplicity, overcome these problems. The type of pneumatic system chosen, however, has to accommodate several other constraints imposed by on-board handling of coal. (SC)

  7. Site Characterization for CO{sub 2} Storage from Coal-fired Power Facilities in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Peter; Pashin, Jack; Carlson, Eric; Goodliffe, Andrew; McIntyre-Redden, Marcella; Mann, Steven; Thompson, Mason

    2012-08-31

    Coal-fired power plants produce large quantities of carbon dioxide. In order to mitigate the greenhouse gas emissions from these power plants, it is necessary to separate and store the carbon dioxide. Saline formations provide a potential sink for carbon dioxide and delineating the capacity of the various known saline formations is a key part of building a storage inventory. As part of this effort, a project was undertaken to access the storage capacity of saline reservoirs in the Black Warrior Basin of Alabama. This basin has been a productive oil and gas reservoir that is well characterized to the west of the two major coal-fired power plants that are north of Birmingham. The saline zones were thought to extend as far east as the Sequatchie Anticline which is just east of the power plants. There is no oil or gas production in the area surrounding the power plants so little is known about the formations in that area. A geologic characterization well was drilled on the Gorgas Power Plant site, which is the farthest west of two power plants in the area. The well was planned to be drilled to approximately 8,000 feet, but drilling was halted at approximately 5,000 feet when a prolific freshwater zone was penetrated. During drilling, a complete set of cores through all of the potential injection zones and the seals above these zones were acquired. A complete set of openhole logs were run along with a vertical seismic profile (VSP). Before drilling started two approximately perpendicular seismic lines were run and later correlated with the VSP. While the zones that were expected were found at approximately the predicted depths, the zones that are typically saline through the reservoir were found to be saturated with a light crude oil. Unfortunately, both the porosity and permeability of these zones were small enough that no meaningful hydrocarbon production would be expected even with carbon dioxide flooding. iv While this part of the basin was found to be unsuitable

  8. Conceptual design of a coal-fired MHD retrofit of the J. E. Corette Plant: Design definition

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-02-01

    The design, construction, and operation of a fully integrated coal burning MHD/steam-power system has been identified as a necessary step for commercialization of MHD power gerneation. The addition of an MHD power system to an existing utility's conventional steam power plant is presently considered an efficient and attractive method for realization of this, and the conceptual design of a coal-fired MHD power plant has been initiated as an important item of the National MHD development program. Current activities of the MHD development program comprise proof-of-concepts testing of MHD topping cycle components and bottoming cycle components at the Components Development and Integration Facility (CDIF) and the Coal Fired Flow Facility (CFFF), respectively, at subscale levels. The MHD plant will provide for operation and testing of a fully integrated MHD/steam power system in a utility environment at a larger size consistent with its objectives. Its main objectives are to verify the technical and economic feasibility of commercial MHD power genration including environmental aspects and to provide electric utilities and equipment manufacturers with the necessary information and confidence to proceed with commercialization of MHD. The coal-fired J.E. Corette steam plant unit of the Montana Power Company at Billings, Montana has been selected for this MHD conceptual design activity.

  9. Coal fire extinguishing and prevention

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, J.S.

    1988-02-16

    This patent describes a formulation for use in extinguishing coal fires, without generation of substantial gases toxic to humans, for metering to the fire at about a 6-10 percent dilution rate to water. The formulation consists essentially of a mixture of: a linear alkylbenzolyate sulfonate, non-ionic detergent and lauric superamide detergent mixture comprising about 50 percent by volume of the formulation; vitamin B-6 in the amount of about 0.5-3 percent by weight of the detergent mixture; bicarbonate of soda in the amount of about 3-18 percent by weight of the detergent mixture; and water comprising about 37-47 percent by volume of the total formulation.

  10. Feasibility Study for Bioethanol Co-Location with a Coal Fired Power Plant: 29 November 2001--28 July 2002

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2002-12-01

    This study looks at the feasibility of co-locating 30, 50, and 70 million gallon per year bioethanol facilities with coal fired power plants in Indiana and Nebraska. Corn stover is the feedstock for ethanol production in both cases.

  11. Mercury emission trend influenced by stringent air pollutants regulation for coal-fired power plants in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudasainee, Deepak; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Seo, Yong-Chil

    2009-12-01

    Regulatory control of mercury emission from anthropogenic sources has become a global concern in the recent past. Coal-fired power plants are one of the largest sources of anthropogenic mercury emission into the atmosphere. This paper summarizes the current reducing trend of mercury emission as co-beneficial effect by more stringent regulation changes to control primary air pollutants with introducing test results from the commercial coal-fired facilities and suggesting a guideline for future regulatory development in Korea. On average, mercury emission concentrations ranged 16.3-2.7 μg Sm -3, 2.4-1.1 μg Sm -3, 3.1-0.7 μg Sm -3 from anthracite coal-fired power plants equipped with electrostatic precipitator (ESP), bituminous coal-fired power plants with ESP + flue gas desulphurization (FGD) and bituminous coal-fired power plants with selective catalytic reactor (SCR) + cold side (CS) - ESP + wet FGD, respectively. Among the existing air pollution control devices, the best configuration for mercury removal in coal-fired power plants was SCR + CS - ESP + wet FGD, which were installed due to the stringent regulation changes to control primary air pollutants emission such as SO 2, NOx and dust. It was estimated that uncontrolled and controlled mercury emission from coal-fired power plants as 10.3 ton yr -1 and 3.2 ton yr -1 respectively. After the installation of ESP, FGD and SCR system, following the enforcement of the stringent regulation, 7.1 ton yr -1 of mercury emission has been reduced (nearly 69%) from coal-fired power plants as a co-benefit control. Based on the overall study, a sample guideline including emission limits were suggested which will be applied to develop a countermeasure for controlling mercury emission from coal-fired power plants.

  12. Speciation and mass distribution of mercury in a bituminous coal-fired power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sung Jun; Seo, Yong-Chil; Jang, Ha-Na; Park, Kyu-Shik; Baek, Jeom-In; An, Hi-Soo; Song, Kwang-Chul

    Characterization and mass balance of mercury in a coal-fired power plant were carried out in a 500 MW, bituminous coal consuming electric utility boiler. This facility is equipped with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) in series as air pollution control devices (APCDs). Mercury sampling points were selected at both the up and down streams of the ESP and outlet of the FGD, which is at stack. Two different types of sampling methods were employed, one is the Ontario Hydro (OH) method (ASTM D6784) and the other is US EPA101A. Various samples were collected from the coal-fired power plant such as fuel coals, fly ash in hopper, lime/lime stone, gypsum, and effluent water from FGD. These samples were analyzed by US EPA 7470A and 7471A to understand the behavior and mass balance of mercury in the process of a coal-fired power plant. There are no significant differences between the two sampling methods, but the OH method seems to have more advantages for Hg sampling from a coal-fired power plant because mercury speciation is quite an important factor to estimate the mercury emission and control efficiency from combustion flue gas. Approximate Hg mass balance could be obtained from various samples in the study; however, a series of long-term and comprehensive study is required to evaluate the reliable Hg mass distribution and behavior in a coal-fired power plant.

  13. Full scale calcium bromide injection with subsequent mercury oxidation and removal within wet flue gas desulphurization system: Experience at a 700 MW coal-fired power facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, Mark Simpson

    for existing boilers. The use of calcium bromide injection as an alternative to activated carbon approaches could save millions of dollars. The technology application described herein has the potential to reduce compliance cost by $200M for a 700 MW facility burning PRB coal.

  14. Executive roundtable on coal-fired generation

    SciTech Connect

    2009-09-15

    Power Engineering magazine invited six industry executives from the coal-fired sector to discuss issues affecting current and future prospects of coal-fired generation. The executives are Tim Curran, head of Alstom Power for the USA and Senior Vice President and General Manager of Boilers North America; Ray Kowalik, President and General Manager of Burns and McDonnell Energy Group; Jeff Holmstead, head of Environmental Strategies for the Bracewell Giuliani law firm; Jim Mackey, Vice President, Fluor Power Group's Solid Fuel business line; Tom Shelby, President Kiewit Power Inc., and David Wilks, President of Energy Supply for Excel Energy Group. Steve Blankinship, the magazine's Associate Editor, was the moderator. 6 photos.

  15. Electrode materials for coal-fired MHD generators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, R. A.

    1980-10-01

    Metallic materials are evaluated as electrodes for coal fired MHD generators. A laboratory test that simulates the electrochemical and corrosive environment was developed and used to characterize electrode behavior in a diffuse current flow (nonarcing) mode of operation. High current density requires that an electron transport mechanism of current flow be maintained. With inert, stable electrodes, anode polarization occurs and ionic conduction prevails, limiting current to low values. The nature of this behavior and approaches to overcoming anodic polarization are studied as a function of electrode material, slag composition, and temperature. By operating at high temperatures and with controlled slag chemistries to produce a very fluid slag, depolarization may be achieved by mechanical mixing. Interrupted current flow are required to aid in breaking down anodic polarization.

  16. In-duct removal of mercury from coal-fired power plant flue gas by activated carbon: assessment of entrained flow versus wall surface contributions

    SciTech Connect

    Scala, F.; Chirone, R.; Lancia, A.

    2008-12-15

    In-duct mercury capture efficiency by activated carbon from coal-combustion flue gas was investigated. To this end, elemental mercury capture experiments were conducted at 100 C in a purposely designed 65-mm ID labscale pyrex apparatus operated as an entrained flow reactor. Gas residence times were varied between 0.7 and 2.0 s. Commercial-powdered activated carbon was continuously injected in the reactor and both mercury concentration and carbon elutriation rate were followed at the outlet. Transient mercury concentration profiles at the outlet showed that steady-state conditions were reached in a time interval of 15-20 min, much longer than the gas residence time in the reactor. Results indicate that the influence of the walls is non-negligible in determining the residence time of fine carbon particles in the adsorption zone, because of surface deposition and/or the establishment of a fluid-dynamic boundary layer near the walls. Total mercury capture efficiencies of 20-50% were obtained with carbon injection rates in the range 0.07-0.25 g/min. However, only a fraction of this capture was attributable to free-flowing carbon particles, a significant contribution coming from activated carbon staying near the reactor walls. Entrained bed experiments at lab-scale conditions are probably not properly representative of full-scale conditions, where the influence of wall interactions is lower. Moreover, previously reported entrained flow lab-scale mercury capture data should be reconsidered by taking into account the influence of particle-wall interactions.

  17. Liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic system evaluation. [coal-fired designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, R. R.; Lippert, T. E.

    1976-01-01

    The present study emphasizes a direct coal-fired design using a bubbly two-component flow of sodium and argon in the MHD generator and a Rankine steam-bottoming plant. Two basic cycles were studied, corresponding to argon temperatures of 922 and 1089 K at the duct inlet. The MHD duct system consisted of multiple ducts arranged in clusters and separated by iron magnet pole pieces. The ducts, each with an output of about 100 MW, were parallel to the flow, but were connected in series electrically to provide a higher MHD voltage. With channel efficiencies of 80%, a pump efficiency of 90%, and a 45% efficient steam-bottoming plant, the overall efficiency of the 1089 K liquid-metal MHD power plant was 43%.

  18. Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith

    DOEpatents

    Wagoner, Charles L.; Foote, John P.

    1995-01-01

    A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler, the converted boiler including a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones.

  19. Retrofitted coal-fired firetube boiler and method employed therewith

    DOEpatents

    Wagoner, C.L.; Foote, J.P.

    1995-07-04

    A coal-fired firetube boiler and a method for converting a gas-fired firetube boiler to a coal-fired firetube boiler are disclosed. The converted boiler includes a plurality of combustion zones within the firetube and controlled stoichiometry within the combustion zones. 19 figs.

  20. Emissions from Coal Fires and Their Impact on the Environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolker, Allan; Engle, Mark; Stracher, Glenn; Hower, James; Prakash, Anupma; Radke, Lawrence; ter Schure, Arnout; Heffern, Ed

    2009-01-01

    Self-ignited, naturally occurring coal fires and fires resulting from human activities persist for decades in underground coal mines, coal waste piles, and unmined coal beds. These uncontrolled coal fires occur in all coal-bearing parts of the world (Stracher, 2007) and pose multiple threats to the global environment because they emit greenhouse gases - carbon dioxide (CO2), and methane (CH4) - as well as mercury (Hg), carbon monoxide (CO), and other toxic substances (fig. 1). The contribution of coal fires to the global pool of atmospheric CO2 is little known but potentially significant. For China, the world's largest coal producer, it is estimated that anywhere between 10 million and 200 million metric tons (Mt) of coal reserves (about 0.5 to 10 percent of production) is consumed annually by coal fires or made inaccessible owing to fires that hinder mining operations (Rosema and others, 1999; Voigt and others, 2004). At this proportion of production, coal amounts lost to coal fires worldwide would be two to three times that for China. Assuming this coal has mercury concentrations similar to those in U.S. coals, a preliminary estimate of annual Hg emissions from coal fires worldwide is comparable in magnitude to the 48 tons of annual Hg emissions from all U.S. coal-fired power-generating stations combined (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 2002). In the United States, the combined cost of coal-fire remediation projects, completed, budgeted, or projected by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement (OSM), exceeds $1 billion, with about 90% of that in two States - Pennsylvania and West Virginia (Office of Surface Mining Enforcement and Reclamation, 2008; fig. 2). Altogether, 15 States have combined cumulative OSM coal-fire project costs exceeding $1 million, with the greatest overall expense occurring in States where underground coal fires are predominant over surface fires, reflecting the greater cost of

  1. SNCR experience with coal fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, T.D.; Casper, M.A.

    1995-12-31

    Cogentrix owns and operates a 220 MW coal fired cogeneration power plant that uses selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) for NOx control. The SNCR was required as an air permit condition as specified by the Virginia Department of Environmental Quality (VDEQ). The SNCR system is urea based and was supplied by Nalco FuelTech. The system has been in operation for over 3 years and, although the SNCR system has reduced NOx as expected, it has created operational and maintenance problems with the steam generators and flue gas desulfurization equipment. This paper documents the decision process used by the VDEQ in requiring the SNCR, the air permit conditions restricting the operation of the plant with the SNCR, the operational and maintenance problems associated with the SNCR system and the equipment and operational modifications that have been made to the plant in an effort to mitigate the problems.

  2. ATMOSPHERIC AEROSOL SOURCE-RECEPTOR RELATIONSHIPS: THE ROLE OF COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Allen L. Robinson; Spyros N. Pandis; Cliff I. Davidson

    2004-12-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) during the period of March 2004 through August 2004. Significant progress was made this project period on the analysis of ambient data, source apportionment, and deterministic modeling activities. Results highlighted in this report include evaluation of the performance of PMCAMx+ for an air pollution episode in the Eastern US, an emission profile for a coke production facility, ultrafine particle composition during a nucleation event, and a new hybrid approach for source apportionment. An agreement was reached with a utility to characterize fine particle and mercury emissions from a commercial coal fired power. Research in the next project period will include source testing of a coal fired power plant, source apportionment analysis, emission scenario modeling with PMCAMx+, and writing up results for submission as journal articles.

  3. CONTROLLING MULTIPLE EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents and analyzes nine existing and novel control technologies designed to achieve multipollutant emissions reductions. It provides an evaluation of multipollutant emission control technologies that are potentially available for coal-fired power plants of 25 MW capa...

  4. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase III. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    Based on studies that indicated a large potential for significantly increased coal-firing in the commercial sector, the U.S. Department of Energy`s Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) sponsored a multi-phase development effort for advanced coal combustion systems. This Final Report presents the results of the last phase (Phase III) of a project for the development of an advanced coal-fired system for the commercial sector of the economy. The project performance goals for the system included dual-fuel capability (i.e., coal as primary fuel and natural gas as secondary fuel), combustion efficiency exceeding 99 percent, thermal efficiency greater than 80 percent, turndown of at least 3:1, dust-free and semi-automatic dry ash removal, fully automatic start-up with system purge and ignition verification, emissions performance exceeding New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and approaching those produced by oil-fired, Commercial-sized units, and reliability, safety, operability, maintainability, and service life comparable to oil-fired units. The program also involved a site demonstration at a large facility owned by Striegel Supply Company, a portion of which was leased to MTCI. The site, mostly warehouse space, was completely unheated and the advanced coal-fired combustion system was designed and sized to heat this space. Three different coals were used in the project, one low and one high sulfur pulverized Pittsburgh No. 8 coal, and a micronized low volatile, bituminous coal. The sorbents used were Pfizer dolomitic limestone and an Anvil lime. More than 100 hours of screening test`s were performed to characterize the system. The parameters examined included coal firing rate, excess air level, ash recycle rate, coal type, dolomitic limestone feed rate, and steam injection rate. These tests indicated that some additional modifications for coal burning in the system were required.

  5. Flue gas mercury removal from coal-fired utility scrubbers

    SciTech Connect

    DeVito, M.S.; Rosenhoover, W.A.

    1998-12-31

    CONSOL R and D and the Illinois State Geological Survey are evaluating the mercury control potential of limestone FGD processes at four Illinois-based coal-fired facilities. The objectives are: (1) to determine the mercury and acid gas removal; (2) to quantify the forms of mercury in the flue gas (i.e., particulate, oxidized, elemental); and (3) to correlate mercury removal with coal properties and/or scrubber parameters. The sampling programs were conducted in October 1996 and June 1998 and included flue gas mercury concentration measurements at the ESP inlet, scrubber inlet, and scrubber outlet. Process stream samples including feed coal, bottom ash, fly ash, and FGD sludge were also obtained and analyzed. Three to four days of testing were completed at each site. The mercury removal data and correlation analysis will be reported. This work was sponsored by the Illinois Clean Coal Institute (ICCI) in conjunction with the US Department of Energy`s Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC).

  6. Coal-fired tile stoves -- Efficiency and emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Jaszczur, T.; Lewandowski, M.; Szewczyk, W.; Zaczkowski, A.; Butcher, T.

    1995-08-01

    Coal-fired tile stoves are widely used in Poland for domestic heating. These massive stoves are fired for short periods once or twice each day, and the stored heat is slowly released into the room by natural convection. Low-quality coal is typically used, and these stoves are therefore a major source of air pollution. A facility has been constructed to study the efficiency and emissions characteristics of these stoves. Stove exhaust gas is directed into a dilution tunnel in which pollutant concentrations and emission rates are measured Efficiency is determined using a heat loss method In baseline tests, stove efficiencies were found to be higher than expected--60% to 65%. Emission factors are high for particulates, carbon monoxide (CO), and organics. Low-volatility ``smokeless fuels`` were tested as an alternative to the normal fuels. Using the normal operating procedure, these were found to yield a factor of 10 reduction in particulate emissions but a 50% increase in CO emissions. A new operating procedure was developed with these fuels in which CO levels were lower than with the normal fuel and efficiency increased to 70%. These smokeless fuels are seen as attractive options for improving regional air quality, partly because their use does not require capital investment by residents.

  7. Coal-fired tile stoves: Efficiency and emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Jaszczur, T.; Zaczkowski, A.; Lewandowski, M.; Butcher, T.; Szewczyk, W.

    1995-08-01

    Coal-fired tile stoves are widely used in Poland for domestic heating. These massive stoves,are fired for short periods once or twice each day, and the stored heat is slowly released into the room by natural convection Low-quality coal is typically used, and these stoves are therefore a major source of air pollution. A facility has been constructed to study the efficiency and emissions characteristics of these stoves. Stove exhaust gas is directed into a dilution tunnel in which pollutant concentrations and emission rates are measured. Efficiency is determined using a heat loss method. In baseline tests, stove efficiencies were found to be higher than expected -- 60% to 65%. Emission factors are high for particulates, carbon monoxide (CO), and organics. Low-volatility ``smokeless fuels`` were tested as an alternative to the normal fuels. Using the normal operating procedure, these were found to yield a factor of 10 reduction in particulate emissions but a 50% increase in CO emissions. A new operating procedure was developed with these fuels in which CO levels were lower than with the normal fuel and efficiency increased to 70%. These smokeless fuels are seen as attractive options for improving regional air quality, partly because their use does not require capital investment by residents.

  8. Novel approach for extinguishing large-scale coal fires using gas-liquid foams in open pit mines.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xinxiao; Wang, Deming; Qin, Botao; Tian, Fuchao; Shi, Guangyi; Dong, Shuaijun

    2015-12-01

    Coal fires are a serious threat to the workers' security and safe production in open pit mines. The coal fire source is hidden and innumerable, and the large-area cavity is prevalent in the coal seam after the coal burned, causing the conventional extinguishment technology difficult to work. Foams are considered as an efficient means of fire extinguishment in these large-scale workplaces. A noble foam preparation method is introduced, and an original design of cavitation jet device is proposed to add foaming agent stably. The jet cavitation occurs when the water flow rate and pressure ratio reach specified values. Through self-building foaming system, the high performance foams are produced and then infused into the blast drilling holes at a large flow. Without complicated operation, this system is found to be very suitable for extinguishing large-scale coal fires. Field application shows that foam generation adopting the proposed key technology makes a good fire extinguishment effect. The temperature reduction using foams is 6-7 times higher than water, and CO concentration is reduced from 9.43 to 0.092‰ in the drilling hole. The coal fires are controlled successfully in open pit mines, ensuring the normal production as well as the security of personnel and equipment.

  9. Geology of coal fires: case studies from around the world

    SciTech Connect

    Glenn B. Stracher

    2008-01-15

    Coal fires are preserved globally in the rock record as burnt and volume-reduced coal seams and by pyrometamorphic rocks, explosion breccias, clinker, gas-vent-mineral assemblages, fire-induced faulting, ground fissures, slump blocks, and sinkholes. Coal fires are responsible for coronary and respiratory diseases and fatalities in humans, as well as arsenic and fluorine poisoning. Their heat energy, toxic fumes, and solid by-products of combustion destroy floral and faunal habitats while polluting the air, water, and soil. This volume includes chapters devoted to spontaneous combustion and greenhouse gases, gas-vent mineralogy and petrology, paralavas and combustion metamorphic rocks, geochronology and landforms, magnetic signatures and geophysical modeling, remote-sensing detection and fire-depth estimation of concealed fires, and coal fires and public policy.

  10. Nitrogen oxide emissions from coal fired MHD plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, J.N.

    1996-03-01

    In this topical report, the nitrogen oxide emission issues from a coal fired MHD steam combined cycle power plant are summarized, both from an experimental and theoretical/calculational viewpoint. The concept of staging the coal combustion to minimize NO{sub x} is described. The impact of NO{sub x} control design choices on electrical conductivity and overall plant efficiency are described. The results of the NO{sub x} measurements in over 3,000 hours of coal fired testing are summarized. A chemical kinetics model that was used to model the nooks decomposition is described. Finally, optimum design choices for a low nooks plant are discussed and it is shown that the MHD Steam Coal Fired Combined Cycle Power Plant can be designed to operate with nooks emissions less than 0.05 lbm/MMBTU.

  11. Satellite measurements oversee China’s sulfur dioxide emission reductions from coal-fired power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Siwen; Zhang, Qiang; Martin, Randall V.; Philip, Sajeev; Liu, Fei; Li, Meng; Jiang, Xujia; He, Kebin

    2015-11-01

    To evaluate the real reductions in sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired power plants in China, Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) remote sensing SO2 columns were used to inversely model the SO2 emission burdens surrounding 26 isolated power plants before and after the effective operation of their flue gas desulfurization (FGD) facilities. An improved two-dimensional Gaussian fitting method was developed to estimate SO2 burdens under complex background conditions, by using the accurate local background columns and the customized fitting domains for each target source. The OMI-derived SO2 burdens before effective FGD operation were correlated well with the bottom-up emission estimates (R = 0.92), showing the reliability of the OMI-derived SO2 burdens as a linear indicator of the associated source strength. OMI observations indicated that the average lag time period between installation and effective operation of FGD facilities at these 26 power plants was around 2 years, and no FGD facilities have actually operated before the year 2008. The OMI estimated average SO2 removal equivalence (56.0%) was substantially lower than the official report (74.6%) for these 26 power plants. Therefore, it has been concluded that the real reductions of SO2 emissions in China associated with the FGD facilities at coal-fired power plants were considerably diminished in the context of the current weak supervision measures.

  12. Downstream component corrosion in coal-fired MHD power plants

    SciTech Connect

    White, M. K.

    1980-06-01

    Results are given to date of corrosion probe studies conducted to evaluate the nature and severity of degradation of oiler and superheater materials in coal-fired MHD power generation systems. Tests were conducted with two air or nitrogen cooled probes in Cell III of the UTSI MHD facility. One probe had carbon steel samples subjected to metal temperatures of from 547K to 719K and reducing (SR = 0.85) gas conditions to simulate boiler tube conditions. The exposure time to date on these samples is 240 minutes. The other probe had samples of carbon steel, chromium-molybdenum steels and stainless steels subjected to temperatures ranging from 811K to 914K with oxidizing (SR = 1.15) gas conditions. The total run time on these samples was 70 minutes. The boiler probe samples were found to undergo predominantly pitted type corrosion beneath a deposit of ash/seed material having approximately 34% K/sub 2/SO/sub 4/. Weight loss rates varied from about 1.5 x 10/sup -4/ gm/hr-cm/sup 2/ at the cool end of the probe to about 5.5 x 10/sup -4/ gm/hr-cm/sup 2/ at the hot end. This loss is attributed primarily to sulfidation by hydrogen sulfide. Resistance to scaling of superheater materials increased progressively with the degree of alloying. Attack appeared to be in the form of surface scales containing mixtures of oxides and is attributed to either gaseous oxidation or to the presence of complex potassium trisulfates.

  13. Application of Paste Backfill in Underground Coal Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masniyom, M.; Drebenstedt, C.

    2009-04-01

    Coal fires are known from different coalfields worldwide. China, India, USA, Australia, Indonesia and South Africa are the main countries affected by coal fires. The fires is thermally intensive and cause numerous sinkholes, large-scale subsidence, air pollution, global warming, loss of mining productivity and increasing safety risk. The Wuda Inner Mongolia coalfield has been selected as a possible test area for paste backfill. The traditional methods, executed by fire fighting teams, by covering the coalfire areas with soil, blasting burning coal outcrops and injecting water in the subsurface fire pockets are continuously improved and extended. Initiatives to introduce modern techniques, such as backfill placement at fracture and borehole, to cool down the burning coal and cut off the air supply. This study is to investigate backfill materials and techniques suited for underground coal fires. Laboratory tests were carried out on physical, chemical and mechanical properties of different backfill materials and mixtures thereof. Special attention was paid to materials generated as by-products and other cheaply available materials e.g. fly ash from power plants. There is a good chance that one of the different material mixtures investigated can be used as a technically and economically viable backfill for underground coal fires.

  14. EMISSIONS OF SULFUR TRIOXIDE FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of sulfur trioxide (SO3) are a key component of plume opacity and acid deposition. Consequently, these emissions need to be low enough not to cause opacity violations and acid deposition. Generally, a small fraction of sulfur in coal is converted to SO3 in coal-fired co...

  15. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Steven; Browers, Bruce; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-31

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, a Technical and Economic Feasibility Study was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment developed a process flow diagram, major equipment list, heat balances for the SCPC power plant, capital cost estimate, operating cost estimate, levelized cost of electricity, cost of CO2 capture ($/ton) and three sensitivity cases for the CACHYS™ process.

  16. Evaluation of electricity generation from underground coal fires and waste banks

    SciTech Connect

    Chiasson, A.D.; Yavuzturk, C.; Walrath, D.E.

    2007-06-15

    A temperature response factors model of vertical thermal energy extraction boreholes is presented to evaluate electricity generation from underground coal fires and waste banks. Sensitivity and life-cycle cost analyses are conducted to assess the impact of system parameters on the production of 1 MW of electrical power using a theoretical binary-cycle power plant. Sensitivity analyses indicate that the average underground temperature has the greatest impact on the exiting fluid temperatures from the ground followed by fluid flow rate and ground thermal conductivity. System simulations show that a binary-cycle power plant may be economically feasible at ground temperatures as low as 190 {sup o}C.

  17. Retrofit costs for lime/limestone FGD and lime spray drying at coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Emmel, T.E.; Jones, J.W.

    1990-01-01

    The paper gives results of a research program the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 controls to existing coal-fired utility boilers. The costs of retrofitting conventional lime/limestone wet flue gas desulfurization (L/LS FGD) and lime spray drying (LSD) FGD at 100-200 coal-fired power plants are being estimated under this program. The retrofit capital cost estimating procedures used for L/LS FGD and LSD FGD make two cost adjustments to current procedures used to estimate FGD costs: cost adders (for items not normally included in FGD system costs; e.g., demolition and relocation of existing facilities) and cost multipliers (to adjust capital costs for site access, congestion, and underground obstructions).

  18. Characterization of open-cycle coal-fired MHD generators. 16th quarterly technical progress report, December 16, 1980-March 31, 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Wormhoudt, J.; Yousefian, V.; Weinberg, M.; Kolb, C.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Cheng, W.; Dvore, D.; Freedman, A.; Stanton, A.; Stewart, G.

    1981-05-01

    The successful design of full-scale, open-cycle, coal-fired MHD generators for baseload electrical production requires a detailed understanding of the plasma chemical and plasma dynamic characteristics of anticipated combustor and channel fluids. Progress in efforts to model the efficiency of an open-cycle, coal-fired MHD channel based on the characterization of the channel flow as well as laboratory experiments to validate the modeling effort is reported. In addition, studies related to understanding arcing and corrosion phenomena in the vicinity of an anode are reported.

  19. Characterization of open-cycle coal-fired MHD generators. 14th/15th quarterly technical progress report, February 1-July 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Wormhoudt, J.; Yousefian, V.; Weinberg, M.; Kolb, C.; Martinez-Sanchez, M.; Cheng, W.; Bien, F.; Dvore, D.; Unkel, W.; Stewart, G.

    1980-09-01

    The successful design of full-scale, open-cycle, coal-fired MHD generators for baseload electrical production requires a detailed understanding of the plasma chemical and plasma dynamic characteristics of anticipated combustor and channel fluids. Progress in efforts to model the efficiency of an open-cycle, coal-fired MHD channel based on the characterization of the channel flow as well as laboratory experiments to validate the modeling effort as detailed. In addition, studies related to understanding arcing phenomena in the vicinity of an anode are reported.

  20. Investigating dynamic underground coal fires by means of numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wessling, S.; Kessels, W.; Schmidt, M.; Krause, U.

    2008-01-01

    Uncontrolled burning or smoldering of coal seams, otherwise known as coal fires, represents a worldwide natural hazard. Efficient application of fire-fighting strategies and prevention of mining hazards require that the temporal evolution of fire propagation can be sufficiently precise predicted. A promising approach for the investigation of the temporal evolution is the numerical simulation of involved physical and chemical processes. In the context of the Sino-German Research Initiative `Innovative Technologies for Detection, Extinction and Prevention of Coal Fires in North China,' a numerical model has been developed for simulating underground coal fires at large scales. The objective of such modelling is to investigate observables, like the fire propagation rate, with respect to the thermal and hydraulic parameters of adjacent rock. In the model, hydraulic, thermal and chemical processes are accounted for, with the last process complemented by laboratory experiments. Numerically, one key challenge in modelling coal fires is to circumvent the small time steps resulting from the resolution of fast reaction kinetics at high temperatures. In our model, this problem is solved by means of an `operator-splitting' approach, in which transport and reactive processes of oxygen are independently calculated. At high temperatures, operator-splitting has the decisive advantage of allowing the global time step to be chosen according to oxygen transport, so that time-consuming simulation through the calculation of fast reaction kinetics is avoided. Also in this model, because oxygen distribution within a coal fire has been shown to remain constant over long periods, an additional extrapolation algorithm for the coal concentration has been applied. In this paper, we demonstrate that the operator-splitting approach is particularly suitable for investigating the influence of hydraulic parameters of adjacent rocks on coal fire propagation. A study shows that dynamic propagation

  1. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Bradley; Davis, Kevin; Senior, Constance; Shim, Hong Shim; Otten, Brydger; Fry, Andrew; Wendt, Jost; Eddings, Eric; Paschedag, Alan; Shaddix, Christopher; Cox, William; Tree, Dale

    2013-09-30

    Reaction Engineering International (REI) managed a team of experts from University of Utah, Siemens Energy, Praxair, Vattenfall AB, Sandia National Laboratories, Brigham Young University (BYU) and Corrosion Management Ltd. to perform multi-scale experiments, coupled with mechanism development, process modeling and CFD modeling, for both applied and fundamental investigations. The primary objective of this program was to acquire data and develop tools to characterize and predict impacts of CO{sub 2} flue gas recycle and burner feed design on flame characteristics (burnout, NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, mercury and fine particle emissions, heat transfer) and operational concerns (fouling, slagging and corrosion) inherent in the retrofit of existing coal-fired boilers for oxy-coal combustion. Experimental work was conducted at Sandia National Laboratories’ Entrained Flow Reactor, the University of Utah Industrial Combustion Research Facility, and Brigham Young University. Process modeling and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling was performed at REI. Successful completion of the project objectives resulted in the following key deliverables: 1) Multi-scale test data from 0.1 kW bench-scale, 100 kW and 200 kW laboratory-scale, and 1 MW semi-industrial scale combustors that describe differences in flame characteristics, fouling, slagging and corrosion for coal combustion under air-firing and oxygen-firing conditions, including sensitivity to oxy-burner design and flue gas recycle composition. 2) Validated mechanisms developed from test data that describe fouling, slagging, waterwall corrosion, heat transfer, char burnout and sooting under coal oxy-combustion conditions. The mechanisms were presented in a form suitable for inclusion in CFD models or process models. 3) Principles to guide design of pilot-scale and full-scale coal oxy-firing systems and flue gas recycle configurations, such that boiler operational impacts from oxy-combustion retrofits are minimized. 4

  2. Applications of coatings in coal-fired energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Natesan, K.

    1992-03-01

    Corrosion and erosion of metallic structural materials at elevated temperatures in complex multicomponent gas environments that include particulates are potential problems in many fossil energy systems, especially those using coal as a feedstock. The use of appropriate corrosion-resistant coatings on metallic components offers an avenue to minimize material degradation and extend component life. The purpose of this paper is to review the current status of coating performance in environments typical of pulverized-coal-fired boilers, coal gasification, fluidized-bed combustion, and gas turbines. The paper discusses the complexity of environments in different systems and the coating requirements for acceptable performance. Examples illustrate the morphology and corrosion/erosion performance of coating/structural alloy combinations exposed in some of these systems. La addition, future research and development needs are discussed for coating applications in several coal-fired systems.

  3. Thermal surface characteristics of coal fires 1 results of in-situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianzhong; Kuenzer, Claudia

    2007-12-01

    Natural underground coal fires are fires in coal seams occurring subsurface. The fires are ignited through a process named spontaneous combustion, which occurs based on a natural reaction but is usually triggered through human interaction. Coal mining activities expose coal to the air. This leads to the exothermal oxidation of the carbon in the coal with the air's oxygen to CO 2 and - under certain circumstances - to spontaneous combustion. Coal fires occur in many countries world wide - however, currently the Chinese coal mining industry faces the biggest problems with coal fires. Coal fires destroy the valuable resource coal and furthermore lead to many environmental degradation phenomena such as the deterioration of surrounding vegetation, land subsidence and the emission of toxic gasses (CO, N 2O). They additionally contribute to the emission of green house relevant gasses such as CO 2 and CH 4 to the atmosphere. In this paper we present thermal characteristics of coal fires as measured in-situ during a field campaign to the Wuda coal fire area in south-central Inner Mongolia, China. Thermal characteristics include temperature anomaly measurements at the surface, spatial surface temperature profiles of fire areas and unaffected background areas, diurnal temperature profiles, and temperature measurements inside of coal fire induced cracks in the overlying bedrock. For all the measurements the effects of uneven solar heating through influences of slope and aspect are considered. Our findings show that coal fires result in strong or subtle thermal surface anomalies. Especially the latter can easily be influenced by heating of the surrounding background material through solar influences. Temperature variation of background rocks with different albedo, slope, aspect or vegetation cover can substantially influence the detectability of thermal anomalies. In the worst case coal fire related thermal anomalies can be completely masked by solar patterns during the daytime

  4. Analysis of thermal radiation in coal-fired furnaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Jonathan J.; Hammaker, Robert G.; Madding, Robert P.; Sunderland, J. E.

    1997-04-01

    Many utilities throughout the United States have added infrared scanning to their arsenal of techniques for inspection and predictive maintenance programs. Commercial infrared scanners are not designed, however, to withstand the searing interiors of boilers, which can exceed 2500 degrees Fahrenheit. Two high-temperature lenses designed to withstand the hostile environment inside a boiler for extended periods of time were developed by the EPRI M&D Center, thus permitting real-time measurement of steam tube temperatures and subsequent analysis of tube condition, inspection of burners, and identification of hot spots. A study was conducted by Sunderland Engineering, Inc. and EPRI M&D in order to characterize the radiative interactions that affect infrared measurements made inside a commercial, coal- fired, water-tube boiler. A comprehensive literature search exploring the existing record of results pertaining to analytical and experimental determination of radiative properties of coal-combustion byproducts was performed. An experimental component intended to provide data for characterization of the optical properties of hot combustion byproducts inside a coal-fired furnace was carried out. The results of the study indicate that hot gases, carbon particles, and fly ash, which together compose the medium inside a boiler, affect to varying degrees the transport of infrared radiation across a furnace. Techniques for improved infrared measurement across a coal-fired furnace are under development.

  5. Direct estimation of diffuse gaseous emissions from coal fires: current methods and future directions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engle, Mark A.; Olea, Ricardo A.; O'Keefe, Jennifer M. K.; Hower, James C.; Geboy, Nicholas J.

    2013-01-01

    Coal fires occur in nature spontaneously, contribute to increases in greenhouse gases, and emit atmospheric toxicants. Increasing interest in quantifying coal fire emissions has resulted in the adaptation and development of specialized approaches and adoption of numerical modeling techniques. Overview of these methods for direct estimation of diffuse gas emissions from coal fires is presented in this paper. Here we take advantage of stochastic Gaussian simulation to interpolate CO2 fluxes measured using a dynamic closed chamber at the Ruth Mullins coal fire in Perry County, Kentucky. This approach allows for preparing a map of diffuse gas emissions, one of the two primary ways that gases emanate from coal fires, and establishing the reliability of the study both locally and for the entire fire. Future research directions include continuous and automated sampling to improve quantification of gaseous coal fire emissions.

  6. Corrosion in coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Vausher, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    The corrosive effect of the flue gas and the fly ash from burning coal on combustion and pollution control equipment has led to extensive research efforts aimed at solving this problem. A wide variety of chemical additives are offered by suppliers to perform corrosion reduction functions when added to the solid or liquid fuel. Protection of equipment by the use of corrosion resistant coatings and improved designs to prevent or reduce slag formation are also well known corrosion reduction techniques. However, the problem facing management is to evaluate the many different alternatives and to define the most effective one for their particular facility. Information gained from previous corrosion reduction attempts, and knowledge of factors which increase the SO/sub 3//SO/sub 2/ ratio in the flue gas have resulted in the investigation of methods of controlling the dew point and therefore, reducing the condensation of sulfuric acid. Various methods of avoiding the formation of acid are being evaluated.

  7. Corrosion in coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Vausher, A.L.

    1982-01-01

    The corrosive effect of the flue gas and the fly ash from burning coal on combustion and pollution control equipment has led to extensive research efforts aimed at solving this problem. A wide variety of chemical additives are offered by suppliers to perform corrosion reduction functions when added to the solid or liquid fuel. Protection of equipment by the use of corrosion resistant coatings and improved designs to prevent or reduce slag formation are also well known corrosion reduction techniques. However, the problem facing management is to evaluated the many different alternatives and to define the most effective one for their particular facility. Information gained from previous corrosion reduction attempts, and knowledge of factors which increase the SO/sub 3//SO/sub 2/ ratio in the flue gas have resulted in the investigation of methods of controlling the dew point and therefore, reducing the condensation of sulfuric acid. Various methods of avoiding the formation of acid are being evaluated.

  8. THE SCALE-UP OF LARGE PRESSURIZED FLUIDIZED BEDS FOR ADVANCED COAL FIRED PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    Leon Glicksman; Hesham Younis; Richard Hing-Fung Tan; Michel Louge; Elizabeth Griffith; Vincent Bricout

    1998-04-30

    Pressurized fluidization is a promising new technology for the clean and efficient combustion of coal. Its principle is to operate a coal combustor at high inlet gas velocity to increase the flow of reactants, at an elevated pressure to raise the overall efficiency of the process. Unfortunately, commercialization of large pressurized fluidized beds is inhibited by uncertainties in scaling up units from the current pilot plant levels. In this context, our objective is to conduct a study of the fluid dynamics and solid capture of a large pressurized coal-fired unit. The idea is to employ dimensional similitude to simulate in a cold laboratory model the flow in a Pressurized Circulating Fluid Bed ''Pyrolyzer,'' which is part of a High Performance Power System (HIPPS) developed by Foster Wheeler Development Corporation (FWDC) under the DOE's Combustion 2000 program.

  9. NASA Dryden flow visualization facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delfrate, John H.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the Flow Visualization Facility at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. This water tunnel facility is used primarily for visualizing and analyzing vortical flows on aircraft models and other shapes at high-incidence angles. The tunnel is used extensively as a low-cost, diagnostic tool to help engineers understand complex flows over aircraft and other full-scale vehicles. The facility consists primarily of a closed-circuit water tunnel with a 16- x 24-in. vertical test section. Velocity of the flow through the test section can be varied from 0 to 10 in/sec; however, 3 in/sec provides optimum velocity for the majority of flow visualization applications. This velocity corresponds to a unit Reynolds number of 23,000/ft and a turbulence level over the majority of the test section below 0.5 percent. Flow visualization techniques described here include the dye tracer, laser light sheet, and shadowgraph. Limited correlation to full-scale flight data is shown.

  10. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-31

    As a result of the investigations carried out during Phase 1 of the Engineering Development of Coal-Fired High-Performance Power Generation Systems (Combustion 2000), the UTRC-led Combustion 2000 Team is recommending the development of an advanced high performance power generation system (HIPPS) whose high efficiency and minimal pollutant emissions will enable the US to use its abundant coal resources to satisfy current and future demand for electric power. The high efficiency of the power plant, which is the key to minimizing the environmental impact of coal, can only be achieved using a modern gas turbine system. Minimization of emissions can be achieved by combustor design, and advanced air pollution control devices. The commercial plant design described herein is a combined cycle using either a frame-type gas turbine or an intercooled aeroderivative with clean air as the working fluid. The air is heated by a coal-fired high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF). The best performance from the cycle is achieved by using a modern aeroderivative gas turbine, such as the intercooled FT4000. A simplified schematic is shown. In the UTRC HIPPS, the conversion efficiency for the heavy frame gas turbine version will be 47.4% (HHV) compared to the approximately 35% that is achieved in conventional coal-fired plants. This cycle is based on a gas turbine operating at turbine inlet temperatures approaching 2,500 F. Using an aeroderivative type gas turbine, efficiencies of over 49% could be realized in advanced cycle configuration (Humid Air Turbine, or HAT). Performance of these power plants is given in a table.

  11. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; LIPFERT, F.; SUBRAMANIAM, S.; BLAKE, R.

    2005-09-21

    Mercury is a neurotoxin that accumulates in the food chain and is therefore a health concern. The primary human exposure pathway is through fish consumption. Coal-fired power plants emit mercury and there is uncertainty over whether this creates localized hot spots of mercury leading to substantially higher levels of mercury in water bodies and therefore higher exposure. To obtain direct evidence of local deposition patterns, soil and vegetations samples from around three U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of hot spots and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. At all three sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. It was estimated that less than 2% of the total mercury emissions from these plants deposited within 15 km of these plants. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the literature review findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to hot spots, near the plants. The major objective of the sampling studies was to determine if there was evidence for hot spots of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. From a public health perspective, such a hot spot must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must increase mercury concentrations to a level in which health effects are a concern in a water body large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study suggest that neither of these conditions has been met.

  12. Economic aspects of advanced coal-fired gas turbine locomotives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Houser, B. C.

    1983-01-01

    Increases in the price of such conventional fuels as Diesel No. 2, as well as advancements in turbine technology, have prompted the present economic assessment of coal-fired gas turbine locomotive engines. A regenerative open cycle internal combustion gas turbine engine may be used, given the development of ceramic hot section components. Otherwise, an external combustion gas turbine engine appears attractive, since although its thermal efficiency is lower than that of a Diesel engine, its fuel is far less expensive. Attention is given to such a powerplant which will use a fluidized bed coal combustor. A life cycle cost analysis yields figures that are approximately half those typical of present locomotive engines.

  13. Seed regeneration processes for coal fired MHD power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Krumreich, B.M.

    1985-05-07

    Potassium carbonate seed is used to produce an electrically conducting gas required to generate electrical power in the open cycle coal fired MHD system. The seed can also serve to capture the sulfur released by the coal during combustion. Due to the high cost of the seed material, a large portion of the seed must be recycled for the MHD system to be economically feasible. Compiled information on the following processes for seed regeneration is presented: PERC; Formate; Modified Engel Precht; Econoseed; Aqueous Carbonate; Modified Tampella; and Westinghouse. In addition, a seed recycle system using a scrubber for flue gas desulfurization was studied.

  14. Major remaining technical issues in coal-fired MHD technology

    SciTech Connect

    Doss, E.D.; Johnson, T.R.; Petrick, M.; Redman, W.C.

    1984-01-01

    A recent assessment of the current status of MHD technology has revealed significant progress in recent years toward establishing the technical base required for commercial coal-fired MHD power plants. The review also identified the many major technical issues that remain. Here attention is directed only to these major areas, to provide perspective regarding the diversity of additional development work required, and to indicate those aspects deserving priority. The underlying assumption is that a systematic development of a sound and broad technical base will be more cost-effective than initially building a large-scale integrated system to acquire operating experience.

  15. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    DOEpatents

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The systems include a primary combustion compartment coupled to an impact separator for removing molten slag from hot combustion gases. Quenching means are provided for solidifying the molten slag removed by the impact separator, and processing means are provided forming a slurry from the solidified slag for facilitating removal of the solidified slag from the system. The released hot combustion gases, substantially free of molten slag, are then ducted to a lean combustion compartment and then to an expander section of a gas turbine.

  16. FUEL LEAN BIOMASS REBURNING IN COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey J. Sweterlitsch; Robert C. Brown

    2002-07-01

    This final technical report describes research conducted between July 1, 2000, and June 30, 2002, for the project entitled ''Fuel Lean Biomass Reburning in Coal-Fired Boilers,'' DOE Award No. DE-FG26-00NT40811. Fuel Lean Biomass Reburning is a method of staging fuel within a coal-fired utility boiler to convert nitrogen oxides (NOx) to nitrogen by creating locally fuel-rich eddies, which favor the reduction of NOx, within an overall fuel lean boiler. These eddies are created by injecting a supplemental fuel source, designated as the reburn fuel, downstream of the primary combustion zone. Chopped biomass was the reburn fuel for this project. Four parameters were explored in this research: the initial oxygen concentration ranged between 1%-6%, the amount of biomass used as the reburn fuel ranged between from 0%-23% of the total % energy input, the types of biomass used were low nitrogen switchgrass and high nitrogen alfalfa, and the types of carrier gases used to inject the biomass (nitrogen and steam). Temperature profiles and final flue gas species concentrations are presented in this report. An economic evaluation of a potential full-scale installation of a Fuel-Lean Biomass Reburn system using biomass-water slurry was also performed.

  17. Controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, R.

    2009-07-15

    Increasingly stringent US federal and state limits on mercury emissions form coal-fired power plants demand optimal mercury control technologies. This article summarises the successful removal of mercury emissions achieved with activated carbon injection and boiler bromide addition, technologies nearing commercial readiness, as well as several novel control concepts currently under development. It also discusses some of the issues standing in the way of confident performance and cost predictions. In testing conducted on western coal-fired units with fabric filters or TOXECON to date, ACI has generally achieved mercury removal rates > 90%. At units with ESPs, similar performance requires brominated ACI. Alternatively, units firing western coals can use boiler bromide addition to increase flue gas mercury oxidation and downstream capture in a wet scrubber, or to enhance mercury removal by ACI. At eastern bituminous fired units with ESPs, ACI is not as effective, largely due to SO{sub 3} resulting from the high sulfur content of the coal or the use of SO{sub 3} flue gas conditioning to improve ESP performance. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  18. Bioremediation for coal-fired power stations using macroalgae.

    PubMed

    Roberts, David A; Paul, Nicholas A; Bird, Michael I; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-04-15

    Macroalgae are a productive resource that can be cultured in metal-contaminated waste water for bioremediation but there have been no demonstrations of this biotechnology integrated with industry. Coal-fired power production is a water-limited industry that requires novel approaches to waste water treatment and recycling. In this study, a freshwater macroalga (genus Oedogonium) was cultivated in contaminated ash water amended with flue gas (containing 20% CO₂) at an Australian coal-fired power station. The continuous process of macroalgal growth and intracellular metal sequestration reduced the concentrations of all metals in the treated ash water. Predictive modelling shows that the power station could feasibly achieve zero discharge of most regulated metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) in waste water by using the ash water dam for bioremediation with algal cultivation ponds rather than storage of ash water. Slow pyrolysis of the cultivated algae immobilised the accumulated metals in a recalcitrant C-rich biochar. While the algal biochar had higher total metal concentrations than the algae feedstock, the biochar had very low concentrations of leachable metals and therefore has potential for use as an ameliorant for low-fertility soils. This study demonstrates a bioremediation technology at a large scale for a water-limited industry that could be implemented at new or existing power stations, or during the decommissioning of older power stations.

  19. Emissions of sulfur trioxide from coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, R K; Miller, C A; Erickson, C; Jambhekar, R

    2004-06-01

    Emissions of sulfur trioxide (SO3) are a key component of plume opacity and acid deposition. Consequently, these emissions need to be low enough to not cause opacity violations and acid deposition. Generally, a small fraction of sulfur (S) in coal is converted to SO3 in coal-fired combustion devices such as electric utility boilers. The emissions of SO3 from such a boiler depend on coal S content, combustion conditions, flue gas characteristics, and air pollution devices being used. It is well known that the catalyst used in the selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology for nitrogen oxides control oxidizes a small fraction of sulfur dioxide in the flue gas to SO3. The extent of this oxidation depends on the catalyst formulation and SCR operating conditions. Gas-phase SO3 and sulfuric acid, on being quenched in plant equipment (e.g., air preheater and wet scrubber), result in fine acidic mist, which can cause increased plume opacity and undesirable emissions. Recently, such effects have been observed at plants firing high-S coal and equipped with SCR systems and wet scrubbers. This paper investigates the factors that affect acidic mist production in coal-fired electric utility boilers and discusses approaches for mitigating emission of this mist. PMID:15242154

  20. Development of advanced NO[sub x] control concepts for coal-fired utility boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.; Pont, J.N.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

    1993-02-11

    Hybrid technologies for the reduction of NO[sub x] emissions from coal-fired utility boilers have shown the potential to offer greater levels of NO[sub x] control than the sum of the individual technologies, leading to more cost effective emissions control strategies. Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has developed a hybrid NO[sub x] control strategy involving two proprietary concepts which has the potential to meet the US Department of Energy's NO[sub x] reduction goal at a significant reduction in cost compared to existing technology. The process has been named CombiNO[sub x]. CombiNO[sub x] is an integration of three technologies: modified reburning, promoted selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) and methanol injection. These technologies are combined to achieve high levels of NO[sub x] emission reduction from coal-fired power plants equipped with S0[sub x] scrubbers. The first two steps, modified reburning and promoted SNCR are linked. It has been shown that performance of the SNCR agent is dependent upon local oxidation of CO. Reburning is used to generate the optimum amount of CO to promote the SNCR agent. Approximately 10 percent reburning is required, this represents half of that required for conventional reburning. If the reburn fuel is natural gas, the combination of reburning and SNCR may result in a significant cost savings over conventional reburning. The third step, injection of methanol into the flue gas, is used to oxidize NO to N0[sub 2] which may subsequently be removed in a wet scrubber. Pilot-scale tests performed at EER's 1 MMBtu/hr Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF) have demonstrated NO[sub x] reductions up to 92%. The program's next phase entails process scale-up to a 10 MMBtu/hr furnace also located at EER's Santa Anna test site.

  1. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, D.D.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; ET AL.

    2004-03-30

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. There are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows (Lopez et al. 2003)). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg

  2. Alstom's Chemical Looping Combustion Prototype for CO{sub 2} Capture from Existing Pulverized Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Andrus, Herbert; Chiu, John; Edberg, Carl; Thibeault, Paul; Turek, David

    2012-09-30

    Alstom’s Limestone Chemical Looping (LCL™) process has the potential to capture CO{sub 2} from new and existing coal-fired power plants while maintaining high plant power generation efficiency. This new power plant concept is based on a hybrid combustion- gasification process utilizing high temperature chemical and thermal looping technology. This process could also be potentially configured as a hybrid combustion-gasification process producing a syngas or hydrogen for various applications while also producing a separate stream of CO{sub 2} for use or sequestration. The targets set for this technology is to capture over 90% of the total carbon in the coal at cost of electricity which is less than 20% greater than Conventional PC or CFB units. Previous work with bench scale test and a 65 kWt Process Development Unit Development (PDU) has validated the chemistry required for the chemical looping process and provided for the investigation of the solids transport mechanisms and design requirements. The objective of this project is to continue development of the combustion option of chemical looping (LCL-C™) by designing, building and testing a 3 MWt prototype facility. The prototype includes all of the equipment that is required to operate the chemical looping plant in a fully integrated manner with all major systems in service. Data from the design, construction, and testing will be used to characterize environmental performance, identify and address technical risks, reassess commercial plant economics, and develop design information for a demonstration plant planned to follow the proposed Prototype. A cold flow model of the prototype will be used to predict operating conditions for the prototype and help in operator training. Operation of the prototype will provide operator experience with this new technology and performance data of the LCL-C™ process, which will be applied to the commercial design and economics and plan for a future demonstration plant.

  3. Oxygen-Fired CO{sub 2} Recycle for Application to Direct CO{sub 2} Capture form Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Gale

    2010-09-26

    The Southern Research/Southern Company 1 MWth Pilot-Scale Coal-Fired Test Facility was successfully retrofit to fire in either the traditional air-fired mode or with 100% oxygen and recycled flue gas, with a fully integrated feedback and control system, including oxygen and recycled flue gas modulation during startup, transfer, and shutdown, safety and operational interlocks, and data acquisition. A MAXON Staged Oxygen Burner for Oxy-Coal Applications produced a stable flame over a significant range of firing turn-down, staging, and while firing five different U.S. coal types. The MAXON burner design produces lower flame temperatures than for air firing, which will enable (A) Safe operation, (B) Reduction of recycle flow without concern about furnace flame temperatures, and (C) May likely be affective at reducing slagging and fouling in the boiler and super heater at full-scale Power Plants. A CFD model of the Oxy-fired Combustion Research Facility (OCRF) was used to predict the flame geometry and temperatures in the OCRF and make a comparison with the air-fired case. The model predictions were consistent with the experimental data in showing that the MAXON burner fired with oxygen produced lower flame temperatures than the air-fired burner while firing with air.

  4. The coal-fired gas turbine locomotive - A new look

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liddle, S. G.; Bonzo, B. B.; Purohit, G. P.

    1983-01-01

    Advances in turbomachine technology and novel methods of coal combustion may have made possible the development of a competitive coal fired gas turbine locomotive engine. Of the combustor, thermodynamic cycle, and turbine combinations presently assessed, an external combustion closed cycle regenerative gas turbine with a fluidized bed coal combustor is judged to be the best suited for locomotive requirements. Some merit is also discerned in external combustion open cycle regenerative systems and internal combustion open cycle regenerative gas turbine systems employing a coal gasifier. The choice of an open or closed cycle depends on the selection of a working fluid and the relative advantages of loop pressurization, with air being the most attractive closed cycle working fluid on the basis of cost.

  5. Natural desulfurization in coal-fired units using Greek lignite.

    PubMed

    Konidaris, Dimitrios N

    2010-10-01

    This paper analyzes the natural desulfurization process taking place in coal-fired units using Greek lignite. The dry scrubbing capability of Greek lignite appears to be extremely high under special conditions, which can make it possible for the units to operate within the legislative limits of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. According to this study on several lignite-fired power stations in northern Greece, it was found that sulfur oxide emissions depend on coal rank, sulfur content, and calorific value. On the other hand, SO2 emission is inversely proportional to the parameter gammaCO2(max), which is equal to the maximum carbon dioxide (CO2) content by volume of dry flue gas under stoichiometric combustion. The desulfurization efficiency is positively correlated to the molar ratio of decomposed calcium carbonate to sulfur and negatively correlated to the free calcium oxide content of fly ash. PMID:21090555

  6. Repowering a small coal-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Miell, R.

    2007-11-15

    The Arkansas River Power Authority (ARPA) Lamar Repowering Project is moving forward. The new generator, capable of producing 18 MW of electricity, is scheduled to be online in June 2008 bringing the total generation to 43 MW. New coal handling equipment, with infrared fire detectors, is almost complete. The new 18 MW steam turbine will be cooled by an air-cooled condenser. Coal will be delivered in a railroad spur to an unloading site then be unloaded onto a conveyor under the tracks and conveyed to two storage domes each holding 6000 tons of coal. It will be drawn out of these through an underground conveyor system, brought into a crusher, conveyed through overhead conveyors and fed into the new coal- fired fluidized bed boilers. 1 photo.

  7. Coal-fired boiler costs for industrial applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzius, S.C.; Barnes, R.W.

    1982-04-01

    Several of the current sources of information provide data on coal-fired steam boiler costs. As published, these data give widely varying and possibly inconsistent conclusions. This study was undertaken to determine the extent to which the differences in the various sets of published data bases could be resolved and, if possible, to arrive at more reliable cost correlations to be used in Oak Ridge Energy Demand Models. Our principal finding is that it is indeed possible to restate the costs within each data base on a more consistent basis. When this is done, reasonable engineering correlations of all the cost data versus steam plant capacity can be made over the 10,000 to 5000,000 lb/hr range.

  8. Impacts of TMDLs on coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-04-30

    The Clean Water Act (CWA) includes as one of its goals restoration and maintenance of the chemical, physical, and biological integrity of the Nation's waters. The CWA established various programs to accomplish that goal. Among the programs is a requirement for states to establish water quality standards that will allow protection of the designated uses assigned to each water body. Once those standards are set, state agencies must sample the water bodies to determine if water quality requirements are being met. For those water bodies that are not achieving the desired water quality, the state agencies are expected to develop total maximum daily loads (TMDLs) that outline the maximum amount of each pollutant that can be discharged to the water body and still maintain acceptable water quality. The total load is then allocated to the existing point and nonpoint sources, with some allocation held in reserve as a margin of safety. Many states have already developed and implemented TMDLs for individual water bodies or regional areas. New and revised TMDLs are anticipated, however, as federal and state regulators continue their examination of water quality across the United States and the need for new or revised standards. This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements its overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. One of the program missions of the DOE's NETL is to develop innovative environmental control technologies that will enable full use of the Nation's vast coal reserves, while at the same time allowing the current fleet of coal-fired power plants to comply with existing and emerging environmental regulations. Some of the parameters for which TMDLs are being developed are components in discharges from coal-fired power

  9. Ways to Improve Russian Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Tumanovskii, A. G. Olkhovsky, G. G.

    2015-07-15

    Coal is an important fuel for the electric power industry of Russia, especially in Ural and the eastern part of the country. It is fired in boilers of large (200 – 800 MW) condensing power units and in many cogeneration power plants with units rated at 50 – 180 MW. Many coal-fired power plants have been operated for more than 40 – 50 years. Though serviceable, their equipment is obsolete and does not comply with the current efficiency, environmental, staffing, and availability standards. It is urgent to retrofit and upgrade such power plants using advanced equipment, engineering and business ideas. Russian power-plant engineering companies have designed such advanced power units and their equipment such as boilers, turbines, auxiliaries, process and environmental control systems similar to those produced by the world’s leading manufacturers. Their performance and ways of implementation are discussed.

  10. Coal fired power plant with pollution control and useful byproducts

    SciTech Connect

    Marten, J.H.; Lloyd, G.M.

    1990-04-17

    This patent describes a coal fired power plant. It comprises: coal gasification means for heating coal in the presence of an oxidant-lean atmosphere under partial coal-gasifying conditions; means for separating sulfur-containing compounds from the crude gas stream; means for converting the sulfur compound containing stream into elemental sulfur; energy-conversion means for burning a portion of the combustible gas stream and a portion of the carbonaceous char; flue gas desulfurization means for contacting the SO{sub 2}-containing flue gas with lime and limestone; gypsum desulfurization means for heating the gypsum and the remaining portion of carbonaceous char under reducing conditions utilizing burning of the remaining portion of the combustible gas stream; means for recycling the SO{sub 2}-containing gas stream to the coal gasification means.

  11. Natural desulfurization in coal-fired units using Greek lignite.

    PubMed

    Konidaris, Dimitrios N

    2010-10-01

    This paper analyzes the natural desulfurization process taking place in coal-fired units using Greek lignite. The dry scrubbing capability of Greek lignite appears to be extremely high under special conditions, which can make it possible for the units to operate within the legislative limits of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. According to this study on several lignite-fired power stations in northern Greece, it was found that sulfur oxide emissions depend on coal rank, sulfur content, and calorific value. On the other hand, SO2 emission is inversely proportional to the parameter gammaCO2(max), which is equal to the maximum carbon dioxide (CO2) content by volume of dry flue gas under stoichiometric combustion. The desulfurization efficiency is positively correlated to the molar ratio of decomposed calcium carbonate to sulfur and negatively correlated to the free calcium oxide content of fly ash.

  12. Biomass cofiring in full-sized coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Plasynski, S.I.; Costello, R.; Hughes, E.; Tillman, D.

    1999-07-01

    Biomass cofiring represents one alternative for reducing greenhouse gas emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil sources. Realizing this opportunity, the Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), a field site of the Department of Energy (DOE), along with the EPRI, initiated a Program around two-years ago to research the feasibility of coal-fired boilers in cofiring of biomass and other waste-derived fuels. The cooperative agreement between FETC and EPRI includes cofiring at six different electric utility sites and one steam generation site. Boilers include wall-fired, tangential, cyclone, and stokers ranging in size from 15 to 500 MWe. Biomass consisting of wood (usually) and switchgrass (in two cases) will be the fuel, and pulp and plastics may be used in some waste-derived fuels cofiring tests. This paper will focus only on the biomass cofired tests in electric utility boilers.

  13. Slag processing system for direct coal-fired gas turbines

    DOEpatents

    Pillsbury, Paul W.

    1990-01-01

    Direct coal-fired gas turbine systems and methods for their operation are provided by this invention. The gas turbine system includes a primary zone for burning coal in the presence of compressed air to produce hot combustion gases and debris, such as molten slag. The turbine system further includes a secondary combustion zone for the lean combustion of the hot combustion gases. The operation of the system is improved by the addition of a cyclone separator for removing debris from the hot combustion gases. The cyclone separator is disposed between the primary and secondary combustion zones and is in pressurized communication with these zones. In a novel aspect of the invention, the cyclone separator includes an integrally disposed impact separator for at least separating a portion of the molten slag from the hot combustion gases.

  14. Corrosion probes for fireside monitoring in coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Covino, Bernard S., Jr.; Bullard, Sophie J.; Ziomek-Moroz, M.; Holcomb, Gordon R.

    2005-01-01

    Corrosion probes are being developed and combined with an existing measurement technology to provide a tool for assessing the extent of corrosion of metallic materials on the fireside in coal-fired boilers. The successful development of this technology will provide power plant operators the ability to (1) accurately monitor metal loss in critical regions of the boiler, such as waterwalls, superheaters, and reheaters; and (2) use corrosion rates as process variables. In the former, corrosion data could be used to schedule maintenance periods and in the later, processes can be altered to decrease corrosion rates. The research approach involves laboratory research in simulated environments that will lead to field tests of corrosion probes in coal-fired boilers. Laboratory research has already shown that electrochemically-measured corrosion rates for ash-covered metals are similar to actual mass loss corrosion rates. Electrochemical tests conducted using a potentiostat show the corrosion reaction of ash-covered probes at 500?C to be electrochemical in nature. Corrosion rates measured are similar to those from an automated corrosion monitoring system. Tests of corrosion probes made with mild steel, 304L stainless steel (SS), and 316L SS sensors showed that corrosion of the sensors in a very aggressive incinerator ash was controlled by the ash and not by the alloy content. Corrosion rates in nitrogen atmospheres tended to decrease slowly with time. The addition of oxygen-containing gases, oxygen and carbon dioxide to nitrogen caused a more rapid decrease in corrosion rate, while the addition of water vapor increased the corrosion rate.

  15. COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS: SOLVING ASH DEPOSITION PROBLEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher J. Zygarlicke; Donald P. McCollor; Steven A. Benson; Jay R. Gunderson

    2001-04-01

    The accumulation of slagging and fouling ash deposits in utility boilers has been a source of aggravation for coal-fired boiler operators for over a century. Many new developments in analytical, modeling, and combustion testing methods in the past 20 years have made it possible to identify root causes of ash deposition. A concise and comprehensive guidelines document has been assembled for solving ash deposition as related to coal-fired utility boilers. While this report accurately captures the current state of knowledge in ash deposition, note that substantial research and development is under way to more completely understand and mitigate slagging and fouling. Thus, while comprehensive, this document carries the title ''interim,'' with the idea that future work will provide additional insight. Primary target audiences include utility operators and engineers who face plant inefficiencies and significant operational and maintenance costs that are associated with ash deposition problems. Pulverized and cyclone-fired coal boilers are addressed specifically, although many of the diagnostics and solutions apply to other boiler types. Logic diagrams, ash deposit types, and boiler symptoms of ash deposition are used to aid the user in identifying an ash deposition problem, diagnosing and verifying root causes, determining remedial measures to alleviate or eliminate the problem, and then monitoring the situation to verify that the problem has been solved. In addition to a step-by-step method for identifying and remediating ash deposition problems, this guideline document (Appendix A) provides descriptions of analytical techniques for diagnostic testing and gives extensive fundamental and practical literature references and addresses of organizations that can provide help in alleviating ash deposition problems.

  16. Flow simulation of the Component Development Integration Facility magnetohydrodynamic power train system

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, S.L.; Lottes, S.A.; Bouillard, J.X.; Petrick, M.

    1997-11-01

    This report covers application of Argonne National Laboratory`s (ANL`s) computer codes to simulation and analysis of components of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) power train system at the Component Development and Integration Facility (CDIF). Major components of the system include a 50-MWt coal-fired, two-stage combustor and an MHD channel. The combustor, designed and built by TRW, includes a deswirl section between the first and the second-stage combustor and a converging nozzle following the second-stage combustor, which connects to the MHD channel. ANL used computer codes to simulate and analyze flow characteristics in various components of the MHD system. The first-stage swirl combustor was deemed a mature technology and, therefore, was not included in the computer simulation. Several versions of the ICOMFLO computer code were used for the deswirl section and second-stage combustor. The MGMHD code, upgraded with a slag current leakage submodel, was used for the MHD channel. Whenever possible data from the test facilities were used to aid in calibrating parameters in the computer code, to validate the computer code, or to set base-case operating conditions for computations with the computer code. Extensive sensitivity and parametric studies were done on cold-flow mixing in the second-stage combustor, reacting flow in the second-stage combustor and converging nozzle, and particle-laden flow in the deswirl zone of the first-stage combustor, the second-stage combustor, and the converging nozzle. These simulations with subsequent analysis were able to show clearly in flow patterns and various computable measures of performance a number of sensitive and problematical areas in the design of the power train. The simulations of upstream components also provided inlet parameter profiles for simulation of the MHD power generating channel. 86 figs., 18 tabs.

  17. MINIMIZATION OF NO EMISSIONS FROM MULTI-BURNER COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    E.G. Eddings; A. Molina; D.W. Pershing; A.F. Sarofim; T.H. Fletcher; H. Zhang; K.A. Davis; M. Denison; H. Shim

    2002-01-01

    The focus of this program is to provide insight into the formation and minimization of NO{sub x} in multi-burner arrays, such as those that would be found in a typical utility boiler. Most detailed studies are performed in single-burner test facilities, and may not capture significant burner-to-burner interactions that could influence NO{sub x} emissions. Thus, investigations of such interactions were made by performing a combination of single and multiple burner experiments in a pilot-scale coal-fired test facility at the University of Utah, and by the use of computational combustion simulations to evaluate full-scale utility boilers. In addition, fundamental studies on nitrogen release from coal were performed to develop greater understanding of the physical processes that control NO formation in pulverized coal flames--particularly under low NO{sub x} conditions. A CO/H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} flame was operated under fuel-rich conditions in a flat flame reactor to provide a high temperature, oxygen-free post-flame environment to study secondary reactions of coal volatiles. Effects of temperature, residence time and coal rank on nitrogen evolution and soot formation were examined. Elemental compositions of the char, tar and soot were determined by elemental analysis, gas species distributions were determined using FTIR, and the chemical structure of the tar and soot was analyzed by solid-state {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopy. A laminar flow drop tube furnace was used to study char nitrogen conversion to NO. The experimental evidence and simulation results indicated that some of the nitrogen present in the char is converted to nitric oxide after direct attack of oxygen on the particle, while another portion of the nitrogen, present in more labile functionalities, is released as HCN and further reacts in the bulk gas. The reaction of HCN with NO in the bulk gas has a strong influence on the overall conversion of char-nitrogen to nitric oxide; therefore, any model that

  18. Development and Testing of Industrial Scale Coal Fired Combustion System, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Bert Zauderer

    1998-09-30

    contained in Appendix 'C'. It was implemented between 1994 and 1998 after the entire 20 MMBtu/hr combustor-boiler facility was relocated to Philadelphia, PA in 1994. A new test facility was designed and installed. A substantially longer combustor was fabricated. Although not in the project plan or cost plan, an entire steam turbine-electric power generating plant was designed and the appropriate new and used equipment for continuous operation was specified. Insufficient funds and the lack of a customer for any electric power that the test facility could have generated prevented the installation of the power generating equipment needed for continuous operation. All other task 5 project measures were met and exceeded. 107 days of testing in task 5, which exceeded the 63 days (about 500 hours) in the test plan, were implemented. Compared to the first generation 20 MMBtu/hr combustor in Williamsport, the 2nd generation combustor has a much higher combustion efficiency, the retention of slag inside the combustor doubled to about 75% of the coal ash, and the ash carryover into the boiler, a major problem in the Williamsport combustor was essentially eliminated. In addition, the project goals for coal-fired emissions were exceeded in task 5. SO{sub 2} was reduced by 80% to 0.2 lb/MMBtu in a combination of reagent injection in the combustion and post-combustion zones. NO{sub x} was reduced by 93% to 0.07 lb/MMBtu in a combination of staged combustion in the combustor and post-combustion reagent injection. A baghouse was installed that was rated to 0.03 lb/MMBtu stack particle emissions. The initial particle emission test by EPA Method 5 indicated substantially higher emissions far beyond that indicated by the clear emission plume. These emissions were attributed to steel particles released by wall corrosion in the baghouse, correction of which had no effect of emissions.

  19. MERCURY CONTROL IN MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS AND COAL-FIRED UTILITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Control of mercury (Hg) emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs) and coal-fired utilities has attracted attention due to current and potential regulations. Among several techniques evaluated for Hg control, dry sorbent injection (primarily injection of activated carbon) h...

  20. Quantifying greenhouse gas emissions from coal fires using airborne and ground-based methods

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engle, M.A.; Radke, L.F.; Heffern, E.L.; O'Keefe, J. M. K.; Smeltzer, C.D.; Hower, J.C.; Hower, J.M.; Prakash, A.; Kolker, A.; Eatwell, R.J.; ter, Schure A.; Queen, G.; Aggen, K.L.; Stracher, G.B.; Henke, K.R.; Olea, R.A.; Roman-Colon, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Coal fires occur in all coal-bearing regions of the world and number, conservatively, in the thousands. These fires emit a variety of compounds including greenhouse gases. However, the magnitude of the contribution of combustion gases from coal fires to the environment is highly uncertain, because adequate data and methods for assessing emissions are lacking. This study demonstrates the ability to estimate CO2 and CH4 emissions for the Welch Ranch coal fire, Powder River Basin, Wyoming, USA, using two independent methods: (a) heat flux calculated from aerial thermal infrared imaging (3.7-4.4td-1 of CO2 equivalent emissions) and (b) direct, ground-based measurements (7.3-9.5td-1 of CO2 equivalent emissions). Both approaches offer the potential for conducting inventories of coal fires to assess their gas emissions and to evaluate and prioritize fires for mitigation. ?? 2011.

  1. Tungsten and tungsten-copper for coal-fired MHD power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Farrar, L.C. ); Shields, J.A. Jr. )

    1992-08-01

    This paper reports that magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) can improve the thermal efficiency and reduce levels of SO{sub x} and NO emissions of existing coal-fired power generation plants. Although the thermal and electrochemical environments for a coal-fired MHD channel challenge the materials used, platinum, tungsten, and tungsten-copper have been found to be suitable choices. Evaluations indicate these materials perform adequately as electrodes and other gas-side surfaces in the coal-fired MHD channel. Analysis of test elements has resulted in the identification of wear mechanisms. Testing of a prototypical coal-fired MHD channel incorporating these materials is under way and will be completed in 1993.

  2. COST OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION (SCR) APPLICATION FOR NOX CONTROL ON COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides a methodology for estimating budgetary costs associated with retrofit applications of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology on coal-fired boilers. SCR is a postcombustion nitrogen oxides (NOx) control technology capable of providing NOx reductions >90...

  3. Water vulnerabilities for existing coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.; Kuiper, J.; Environmental Science Division

    2010-08-19

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the Existing Plants Research Program's overall research effort by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. Water consumption by all users in the United States over the 2005-2030 time period is projected to increase by about 7% (from about 108 billion gallons per day [bgd] to about 115 bgd) (Elcock 2010). By contrast, water consumption by coal-fired power plants over this period is projected to increase by about 21% (from about 2.4 to about 2.9 bgd) (NETL 2009b). The high projected demand for water by power plants, which is expected to increase even further as carbon-capture equipment is installed, combined with decreasing freshwater supplies in many areas, suggests that certain coal-fired plants may be particularly vulnerable to potential water demand-supply conflicts. If not addressed, these conflicts could limit power generation and lead to power disruptions or increased consumer costs. The identification of existing coal-fired plants that are vulnerable to water demand and supply concerns, along with an analysis of information about their cooling systems and related characteristics, provides information to help focus future research and development (R&D) efforts to help ensure that coal-fired generation demands are met in a cost-effective manner that supports sustainable water use. This study identified coal-fired power plants that are considered vulnerable to water demand and supply issues by using a geographical information system (GIS) that facilitated the analysis of plant-specific data for more than 500 plants in the NETL's Coal Power Plant Database (CPPDB) (NETL 2007a) simultaneously with 18 indicators of water demand and supply. Two types of demand indicators were evaluated. The first type

  4. Status of NO sub x control for coal-fired power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teixeira, D. P.

    1978-01-01

    The status of technologies for controlling emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) from coal-fired power plants is reviewed. A discussion of current technology as well as future NOx control approaches is presented. Advanced combustion approaches are included as well as post-combustion alternatives such as catalytic and noncatalytic ammonia-bases systems and wet scrubbing. Special emphasis is given to unresolved development issues as they relate to practical applications on coal-fired power plants.

  5. GEOPHYSICAL METHODS FOR COAL FIRE DETECTION AND MONITORING

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, U.; Gundelach, V.; Vasterling, M.; Lambrecht, A.; Rueter, H.; Lindner, H.

    2009-12-01

    Within the framework of the Sino-German research initiative "Innovative technologies for exploration, extinction and monitoring of coal fires in Northern China" a number of different geophysical methods have been applied to determine their use on coal fire detecting, accompanying the extinguishing processes, controlling of the extinction and finally monitoring the extinction success. It is known that the heating of coal resp. coal host rocks changes its electrical resistivity and magnetic susceptibility. Hence the methods of choice are airborne magnetics and frequency electromagnetics (AEM) for surveying large and inaccessible areas and ground based magnetics, transient electromagnetics (TEM), ground penetrating radar (GPR) and temperature measurements to obtain detailed local information. Ground based and airborne magnetics show positive anomalies on coal fire areas. Susceptibility of sandstone, coal and (burnt) clay samples were determined in-situ. The magnetisation was strikingly high for thermally altered clay and slightly increased for thermally influenced sandstone. They get remanently magnetised according to the earth’s recent magnetic field when cooling down below Curie temperature as the fire propagates. Additionally, at a certain temperature non-magnetic minerals like pyrite chemically react to magnetic minerals like magnetite. Thus the observed magnetic anomalies indicate burnt areas. From ground based magnetics the anomalies were more distinct whereas using an airborne system a larger area and also inaccessible terrain can be surveyed. Performing TEM measurements a change in data curves can be observed where the profiles cross the hot burning zone. Heat and fluid transport included in the burning processes presumably change the permittivity of the rock. The electrical resistivity of thermally influenced coal is strongly decreased. Furthermore, the condensed mineralised process water in the rocks above the burning seams forms a layer of low resistivity

  6. ESTIMATION OF NEAR SUBSURFACE COAL FIRE GAS EMISSIONS BASED ON GEOPHYSICAL INVESTIGATIONS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen-Brauchler, D.; Meyer, U.; Schlömer, S.; Kus, J.; Gundelach, V.; Wuttke, M.; Fischer, C.; Rueter, H.

    2009-12-01

    Spontaneous and industrially caused subsurface coal fires are worldwide disasters that destroy coal resources, cause air pollution and emit a large amount of green house gases. Especially in developing countries, such as China, India and Malaysia, this problem has intensified over the last 15 years. In China alone, 10 to 20 million tons of coal are believed to be lost in uncontrolled coal fires. The cooperation of developing countries and industrialized countries is needed to enforce internationally concerted approaches and political attention towards the problem. The Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) under the framework of the Kyoto Protocol may provide an international stage for financial investment needed to fight the disastrous situation. A Sino-German research project for coal fire exploration, monitoring and extinction applied several geophysical approaches in order to estimate the annual baseline especially of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. As a result of this project, we present verifiable methodologies that may be used in the CDM framework to estimate the amount of CO2 emissions from near subsurface coal fires. We developed three possibilities to approach the estimation based on (1) thermal energy release, (2) geological and geometrical determinations as well as (3) direct gas measurement. The studies involve the investigation of the physical property changes of the coal seam and bedrock during different burning stages of a underground coal fire. Various geophysical monitoring methods were applied from near surface to determine the coal volume, fire propagation, temperature anomalies, etc.

  7. SRMAFTE facility checkout model flow field analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dill, Richard A.; Whitesides, Harold R.

    1992-01-01

    The Solid Rocket Motor Air Flow Equipment (SRMAFTE) facility was constructed for the purpose of evaluating the internal propellant, insulation, and nozzle configurations of solid propellant rocket motor designs. This makes the characterization of the facility internal flow field very important in assuring that no facility induced flow field features exist which would corrupt the model related measurements. In order to verify the design and operation of the facility, a three-dimensional computational flow field analysis was performed on the facility checkout model setup. The checkout model measurement data, one-dimensional and three-dimensional estimates were compared, and the design and proper operation of the facility was verified. The proper operation of the metering nozzles, adapter chamber transition, model nozzle, and diffuser were verified. The one-dimensional and three-dimensional flow field estimates along with the available measurement data are compared.

  8. Condensing economizers for small coal-fired equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Litzke, Wai Lin; Butcher, T.A.; Park, N.A.

    1992-05-01

    Condensing economizers can be used to increase the thermal efficiency of boilers and furnaces. This study focuses on evaluating indirect contact economizers as applied to heating equipment burning coal-water mixtures although the results can be extended to other fuels. In addition to dry gas sensible heat, latent heat is recovered from flue gas water vapor, improving system efficiency markedly. In addition to improving thermal efficiency, condensing economizers can also capture particulates. In tests to date up to 89% removal has been measured. The primary objectives of this project are to evaluate the most important mechanisms involved in particle capture and to enhance capture in practical systems. The intent of the work is to contribute to the ongoing program at the Department of Energy/Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center in the development of coal-fired combustion equipment. These results are expected to be most applicable to smaller scale equipment, where the low temperature heat from the economizer can be used. The approach involves determining thermal efficiency improvement and particulate removal efficiency (experimental), and developing models capable of predicting system performance under varied operating conditions (theoretical). Gas temperature and condensation profiles through the economizers have been predicted and overall predicted performance are consistent with test results. Mechanisms for particle removal are discussed in this paper and predicted removal efficiencies as a function of particle diameter are presented. 4 refs.

  9. Testing of a coal-fired diesel power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.P.; Balles, E.N.; Benedek, K.R.; Benson, C.E. , Inc., Cambridge, MA ); Rao, K.; Schaub, F. ); Kimberley, J. ); Itse, D. )

    1993-01-01

    The POC coal-fired power plant consists of a Cooper-Bessemer LSC-6 engine (15.5 inch bore, 22 inch stroke) rated at 400 rev/min and 208 psi bmep producing approximately 1.8 MW of power. The power plant is fueled with 'engine grade' coal slurry which has been physically cleaned to an ash level of approximately 1.5 to 2% (dry basis) and has a mean particle size of approximately 12 micron. CWS is injected directly into the combustion chamber through a fuel injector (one per cylinder) which was designed and developed to be compatible with the fuel. Each injector is fitted with a 19 orifice nozzle tip made with sapphire inserts in each orifice. The combustion chambers are fitted with twin diesel pilot injectors which provide a positive ignition source and substantially shorten the ignition delay period of the CWS fuel. Durable coatings (typically tungsten carbide) are used for the piston rings and cylinder liners to reduce wear rates. The emission control system consists of SCR for NO[sub x] control, sodium sorbent injection for SO[sub x] control, and a cyclone plus baghouse for particulate capture. The cyclone is installed upstream of the engine turbocharger which helps protect the turbine blades.

  10. Testing of a coal-fired diesel power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.P.; Balles, E.N.; Benedek, K.R.; Benson, C.E.; Rao, K.; Schaub, F.; Kimberley, J.; Itse, D.

    1993-01-01

    The POC coal-fired power plant consists of a Cooper-Bessemer LSC-6 engine (15.5 inch bore, 22 inch stroke) rated at 400 rev/min and 208 psi bmep producing approximately 1.8 MW of power. The power plant is fueled with `engine grade` coal slurry which has been physically cleaned to an ash level of approximately 1.5 to 2% (dry basis) and has a mean particle size of approximately 12 micron. CWS is injected directly into the combustion chamber through a fuel injector (one per cylinder) which was designed and developed to be compatible with the fuel. Each injector is fitted with a 19 orifice nozzle tip made with sapphire inserts in each orifice. The combustion chambers are fitted with twin diesel pilot injectors which provide a positive ignition source and substantially shorten the ignition delay period of the CWS fuel. Durable coatings (typically tungsten carbide) are used for the piston rings and cylinder liners to reduce wear rates. The emission control system consists of SCR for NO{sub x} control, sodium sorbent injection for SO{sub x} control, and a cyclone plus baghouse for particulate capture. The cyclone is installed upstream of the engine turbocharger which helps protect the turbine blades.

  11. A Sensor System Based on Semi-Conductor Metal Oxide Technology for In Situ Detection of Coal Fired Combustion Gases

    SciTech Connect

    Brent Marquis

    2007-05-31

    Sensor Research and Development Corporation (SRD) proposed a two-phase program to develop a robust, autonomous prototype analyzer for in situ, real-time detection, identification, and measurement of coal-fired combustion gases and perform field-testing at an approved power generation facility. SRD developed and selected sensor materials showing selective responses to carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, nitric oxide, nitrogen dioxide, ammonia, sulfur dioxide and hydrogen chloride. Sensor support electronics were also developed to enable prototype to function in elevated temperatures without any issues. Field-testing at DOE approved facility showed the ability of the prototype to detect and estimate the concentration of combustion by-products accurately with relatively low false-alarm rates at very fast sampling intervals.

  12. CHALLENGES AND OPPORTUNITIES FOR EMISSION REDUCTIONS FROM THE COAL-FIRED POWER SECTOR IN GROWING ECONOMIES: THE CASE OF COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY PLANTS IN RUSSIA

    EPA Science Inventory

    China, Russia and India together contribute over one-fourth of the total global greenhouse gas emissions from the combustion of fossil-fuels. This paper focuses on the Russian coal-fired power sector, and identifies potential opportunities for reducing emissions. The Russian powe...

  13. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley Adams; Andrew Fry; Constance Senior; Hong Shim; Huafeng Wang; Jost Wendt; Christopher Shaddix

    2009-06-30

    fouling mechanisms in coal-fired power plants to understand key issues influencing these deposition regimes and infer their behavior under oxy-fired conditions. Based on the results of this survey, an algorithm for integrating slagging predictions into CFD models was outlined. This method accounts for ash formation, particle impaction and sticking, deposit growth and physical properties and impact of the deposit on system flow and heat transfer. A model for fouling in the back pass has also been identified which includes vaporization of sodium, deposition of sodium sulfate on fly ash particles and tube surfaces, and deposit growth rate on tubes. In Year 1, REI has also performed a review of the literature describing corrosion in order to understand the behavior of oxidation, sulfidation, chloridation, and carburization mechanisms in air-fired and oxy-combustion systems. REI and Vattenfall have met and exchanged information concerning oxy-coal combustion mechanisms for CFD simulations currently used by Vattenfall. In preparation for Year 2 of this program, two coals (North Antelope PRB, Western bituminous) have been ordered, pulverized and delivered to the University of Utah and Sandia National Labs. Materials for the corrosion experiments have been identified, suppliers located, and a schedule for equipment fabrication and shakedown has been established. Finally, a flue gas recycle system has been designed and is being constructed for the OFC.

  14. Mercury capture within coal-fired power plant electrostatic precipitators: model evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Clack, H.L.

    2009-03-01

    Efforts to reduce anthropogenic mercury emissions worldwide have recently focused on a variety of sources, including mercury emitted during coal combustion. Toward that end, much research has been ongoing seeking to develop new processes for reducing coal combustion mercury emissions. Among air pollution control processes that can be applied to coal-fired boilers, electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) are by far the most common, both on a global scale and among the principal countries of India, China, and the U.S. that burn coal for electric power generation. A previously reported theoretical model of in-flight mercury capture within ESPs is herein evaluated against data from a number of full-scale tests of activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control. By using the established particle size distribution of the activated carbon and actual or estimated values of its equilibrium mercury adsorption capacity, the incremental reduction in mercury concentration across each ESP can be predicted and compared to experimental results. Because the model does not incorporate kinetics associated with gas-phase mercury transformation or surface adsorption, the model predictions represent the mass-transfer-limited performance. Comparing field data to model results reveals many facilities performing at or near the predicted mass-transfer-limited maximum, particularly at low rates of sorbent injection. Where agreement is poor between field data and model predictions, additional chemical or physical phenomena may be responsible for reducing mercury removal efficiencies. 26 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Water Extraction from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce C. Folkedahl; Greg F. Weber; Michael E. Collings

    2006-06-30

    The overall objective of this program was to develop a liquid disiccant-based flue gas dehydration process technology to reduce water consumption in coal-fired power plants. The specific objective of the program was to generate sufficient subscale test data and conceptual commercial power plant evaluations to assess process feasibility and merits for commercialization. Currently, coal-fired power plants require access to water sources outside the power plant for several aspects of their operation in addition to steam cycle condensation and process cooling needs. At the present time, there is no practiced method of extracting the usually abundant water found in the power plant stack gas. This project demonstrated the feasibility and merits of a liquid desiccant-based process that can efficiently and economically remove water vapor from the flue gas of fossil fuel-fired power plants to be recycled for in-plant use or exported for clean water conservation. After an extensive literature review, a survey of the available physical and chemical property information on desiccants in conjunction with a weighting scheme developed for this application, three desiccants were selected and tested in a bench-scale system at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC). System performance at the bench scale aided in determining which desiccant was best suited for further evaluation. The results of the bench-scale tests along with further review of the available property data for each of the desiccants resulted in the selection of calcium chloride as the desiccant for testing at the pilot-scale level. Two weeks of testing utilizing natural gas in Test Series I and coal in Test Series II for production of flue gas was conducted with the liquid desiccant dehumidification system (LDDS) designed and built for this study. In general, it was found that the LDDS operated well and could be placed in an automode in which the process would operate with no operator intervention or

  16. Coal-fired high performance power generating system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of > 47% thermal efficiency; NO[sub x] SO [sub x] and Particulates < 25% NSPS; Cost of electricity 10% lower; coal > 65% of heat input and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW[sub e] combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. Most of this report discusses the details of work on these components, and the R D Plan for future work. The discussion of the combustor designs illustrates how detailed modeling can be an effective tool to estimate NO[sub x] production, minimum burnout lengths, combustion temperatures and even particulate impact on the combustor walls. When our model is applied to the long flame concept it indicates that fuel bound nitrogen will limit the range of coals that can use this approach. For high nitrogen coals a rapid mixing, rich-lean, deep staging combustor will be necessary. The air heater design has evolved into two segments: a convective heat exchanger downstream of the combustion process; a radiant panel heat exchanger, located in the combustor walls; The relative amount of heat transferred either radiatively or convectively will depend on the combustor type and the ash properties.

  17. Nighttime NOx Chemistry in Coal-Fired Power Plant Plumes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fibiger, D. L.; McDuffie, E. E.; Dube, W. P.; Veres, P. R.; Lopez-Hilfiker, F.; Lee, B. H.; Green, J. R.; Fiddler, M. N.; Ebben, C. J.; Sparks, T.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Montzka, D.; Campos, T. L.; Cohen, R. C.; Bililign, S.; Holloway, J. S.; Thornton, J. A.; Brown, S. S.

    2015-12-01

    Nitrogen oxides (NOx = NO + NO2) play a key role in atmospheric chemistry. During the day, they catalyze ozone (O3) production, while at night they can react to form nitric acid (HNO3) and nitryl chloride (ClNO2) and remove O3 from the atmosphere. These processes are well studied in the summer, but winter measurements are more limited. Coal-fired power plants are a major source of NOx to the atmosphere, making up approximately 30% of emissions in the US (epa.gov). NOx emissions can vary seasonally, as well as plant-to-plant, with important impacts on the details of the plume chemistry. In particular, due to inefficient plume dispersion, nighttime NOx emissions from power plants are held in concentrated plumes, where rates of mixing with ambient O3 have a strong influence on plume evolution. We will show results from the aircraft-based WINTER campaign over the northeastern United States, where several nighttime intercepts of power plant plumes were made. Several of these intercepts show complete O3 titration, which can have a large influence on NOx lifetime, and thus O3 production, in the plume. When power plant NO emissions exceed background O3 levels, O3 is completely consumed converting NO to NO2. In the presence of O3, NO2 will be oxidized to NO3, which will then react with NO2 to form N2O5, which can then form HNO3 and/or ClNO2 and, ultimately, remove NOx from the atmosphere or provide next-day oxidant sources. If there is no O3 present, however, no further chemistry can occur and NO and NO2 will be transported until mixing with sufficient O3 for higher oxidation products. Modeling results of plume development and mixing, which can tell us more about this transport, will also be presented.

  18. Novel regenerable sorbent for mercury capture from flue gases of coal-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Liu; David J.A. Kelly; Hongqun Yang; Christopher C.H. Lin; Steve M. Kuznicki; Zhenghe Xu

    2008-08-15

    A natural chabazite-based silver nanocomposite (AgMC) was synthesized to capture mercury from flue gases of coal-fired power plants. Silver nanoparticles were engineered on zeolite through ion-exchange of sodium ions with silver ions, followed by thermal annealing. Mercury sorption test using AgMC was performed at various temperatures by exposing it to either pulse injection of mercury or continuous mercury flow. A complete capture of mercury by AgMC was achieved up to a capture temperature of 250{sup o}C. Nano silver particles were shown to be the main active component for mercury capture by amalgamation mechanism. Compared with activated carbon-based sorbents, the sorbent prepared in this study showed a much higher mercury capture capacity and upper temperature limit for mercury capture. More importantly, the mercury captured by the spent AgMC could be easily released for safe disposal and the sorbent regenerated by simple heating at 400{sup o}C. Mercury capture tests performed in real flue gas environment showed a much higher level of mercury capture by AgMC than by other potential mercury sorbents tested. In our mercury capture tests, the AgMC exposed to real flue gases showed an increased mercury capture efficiency than the fresh AgMC. 38 refs., 6 figs.

  19. Demonstration tests of new burner diagnostic system on a 650 MW coal-fired utility boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Khesin, M.; Quenan, D.; Jesikiewicz, T.; Kenien, D.; Girvan, R.

    1997-09-01

    Forney Corporation, MK Engineering (MKE) and NYSEG jointly conducted extensive testing of a new Burner Diagnostic System (BDS) based on analysis of flame turbulence in the burner ignition zone. Tests were conducted on the 700 MW coal-fired unit at NYSEG Kintigh Station with the objective to evaluate the new system`s capabilities and its potential for improvements in combustion efficiency and NO{sub x} reduction. The overall objectives in creating this new product included the following: develop and test a set of advanced algorithms correlating flame signatures with combustion parameters, such as air-fuel ratio, combustion efficiency, flame stability, CO and NO{sub x} emissions; develop a new generation of flame sensors with improved flame detection and burner management capabilities; develop new advanced combustion optimization strategies and systems, and to equip the operator with an effective new tool to improve combustion performance; and evaluate the new system feasibility and to compare the data with results of the NYSEG`s SMG-10 application (which provides precision measurements of coal and primary air flows to each burner).

  20. Novel regenerable sorbent for mercury capture from flue gases of coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan; Kelly, David J A; Yang, Hongqun; Lin, Christopher C H; Kuznicki, Steve M; Xu, Zhenghe

    2008-08-15

    A natural chabazite-based silver nanocomposite (AgMC) was synthesized to capture mercury from flue gases of coal-fired power plants. Silver nanoparticles were engineered on zeolite through ion-exchange of sodium ions with silver ions, followed by thermal annealing. Mercury sorption test using AgMC was performed at various temperatures by exposing it to either pulse injection of mercury or continuous mercury flow. A complete capture of mercury by AgMC was achieved up to a capture temperature of 250 degrees C. Nano silver particles were shown to be the main active component for mercury capture by amalgamation mechanism. Compared with activated carbon-based sorbents, the sorbent prepared in this study showed a much higher mercury capture capacity and upper temperature limit for mercury capture. More importantly, the mercury captured by the spent AgMC could be easily released for safe disposal and the sorbent regenerated by simple heating at 400 degrees C. Mercury capture tests performed in real flue gas environment showed a much higher level of mercury capture by AgMC than by other potential mercury sorbents tested. In our mercury capture tests, the AgMC exposed to real flue gases showed an increased mercury capture efficiency than the fresh AgMC.

  1. New mineral occurrences and mineralization processes: Wuda coal-fire gas vents of Inner Mongolia

    SciTech Connect

    Stracher, G.B.; Prakash, A.; Schroeder, P.; McCormack, J.; Zhang, X.M.; Van Dijk, P.; Blake, D.

    2005-12-01

    Five unique mineral assemblages that include the sulfates millosevichite, alunogen, anhydrite, tschermigite, coquimbite, voltaite, and godovikovite, as well as the halide salammoniac and an unidentified phase, according to X-ray diffraction and EDS data, were found as encrustations on quartzofeldspathic sand and sandstone adjacent to coal-fire gas vents associated with underground coal fires in the Wuda coalfield of Inner Mongolia. The mineral assemblage of alunogen, coquimbite, voltaite, and the unidentified phase collected front the same gas vent, is documented for the first time. Observations suggest that the sulfates millosevichite, alunogen, coquimbite, voltaite, godovikovite, and the unidentified phase, crystallized in response to a complex sequence of processes that include condensation, hydrothermal alteration, crystallization from solution, fluctuating vent temperatures, boiling, and dehydration reactions, whereas the halide salammoniac crystallized during the sublimation of coal-fire gas. Tschermigite and anhydrite formed by the reaction of coal-fire gas with quartzofelds pathic rock or by hydrothermal alteration of this rock and crystallization from an acid-rich aqueous solution. These minerals have potentially important environmental significance and may be vectors for the transmission of toxins. Coal fires also provide insight for the recognition in the geologic record of preserved mineral assemblages that are diagnostic of ancient fires.

  2. Dust pollution of the atmosphere in the vicinity of coal-fired power plant (Omsk City, Russia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talovskaya, Anna V.; Raputa, Vladimir F.; Litay, Victoriya V.; Yazikov, Egor G.; Yaroslavtseva, Tatyana V.; Mikhailova, Kseniya Y.; Parygina, Irina A.; Lonchakova, Anna D.; Tretykova, Mariya I.

    2015-11-01

    The article shows the results of dust pollution level of air in the vicinity of coal-fired power plant of Omsk city on the base of study snow cover pollution. The samples were collected west-, east- and northeastwards at a distance of 0,75-6 km from the chimney for range-finding of dust emission transfer. The research findings have shown the dust load changes from 53 till 343 mg•(m2·day)-1 in the vicinity of power plant. The ultimate dust load was detected at a distance of 3-3,5 km. On the basis of asymptotics of equation solution for impurity transfer, we have made numerical analysis of dust load rate. With the usage of ground-based facilities and satellites we have determined the wind shifts in the atmospheric boundary layer have a significant impact on the field forming of long-term dustfall.

  3. [Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems]. Technical progress report, October--December 1995

    SciTech Connect

    Wesnor, J.D.; Bakke, E.; Bender, D.J.; Kaminski, R.S.

    1995-12-31

    The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emisssion boiler systems. The primary objectives are: NO{sub x} emissions, lb/million Btu; SO{sub 2} emissions, lb/million Btu; particulate emissions, lb/million Btu; and net plant efficiency, not less than 42%. The secondary objectives are: improved ash disposability; reduced waste generation; and reduced air toxics emissions. Accomplishments to date are summarized for the following tasks: task 1, project planning and management; task 7, component development and optimization; task 8, preliminary POC test facility design; task 9, subsystem test design and plan; task 10, subsystem test unit construction; and task 11, subsystem test operation and evaluation.

  4. Co-firing of asphalt fired dust in pulverized coal fired boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Kiga, Takashi; Watanabe, Shinjl

    1999-07-01

    In order to make clear whether the dust collected at the electrostatic precipitator (EP) of asphalt fired boilers can be co-fired in pulverized coal fired boilers, laboratory-scale and bench-scale tests have been conducted. Test results showed that although dust from asphalt firing had as only a little amount of volatile matter as semi-anthracite or anthracite had, it revealed burn-out properties like bituminous. When it was co-fired with pulverized coal by 2% by that input, a considerable increase in SO{sub 2} emission was noted, while NOx emission was somewhat decreased compared with coal firing. From these verifications, it was confirmed that the co-firing of dust from asphalt firing in pulverized coal fired boiler was applicable to actual plants so far as the De-SOx system permitted.

  5. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-26

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems'' Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis. The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The specified primary objectives are: NO[sub x] emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; SO[sub x] emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; and particulate emissions not greater than one-half NSPS. The specific secondary objectives are: Improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation; reduced air toxics emissions; increased generating efficiency. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives and a preliminary design of a commercial generation unit.

  6. Correlates of mental health in nuclear and coal-fired power plant workers.

    PubMed

    Parkinson, D K; Bromet, E J

    1983-08-01

    The mental health of 104 nuclear workers at the Three Mile Island plant was compared with that of 122 workers from another nuclear plant and 151 workers from two coal-fired generating plants. The coal-fired plant workers were somewhat more symptomatic than the nuclear plant workers. Assessments of work environments showed that the coal-fired plant workers perceived less stress but more problems with workplace exposures than the nuclear plant workers. Negative perceptions of work and marital stress were both strongly and independently related to mental distress. Overall, the results suggest that the Three Mile Island accident did not engender long-term psychological difficulties in workers evaluated 2.5 years after the accident. PMID:6635612

  7. Coal Fires in the United States: A Case Study in Government Inattention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2006-12-01

    Coal fires occur in all coal producing nations. Like most other environmental problems fires are not confined by political boundaries. Important economic coal seams in the United States are found across the Inter-montaine west, the Midwest, and Appalachia. The age of these deposits differs, as does the grade and sulfur content of the coal, the mining techniques utilized for exploitation of this resource, and the markets in which the coal is traded. Coal fires are ordinary occurrences under extraordinary conditions. Every coal bed exposed in an underground or surface mine has the potential to ignite. These fires are spread thinly over the political geography and over time, so that constituencies rarely coalesce to petition government to address the coal fire problem. Coal fires produce serious problems with long term consequences for society. They threaten mine safety, consume a non-renewable resource, and produce toxic gases with serious health effects for local populations. Additionally, as coal production in the developing world intensifies, these problems worsen. The lack of government attention to coal fires is due to the confluence of at least four independent political factors: 1) The separated powers, federated system in which decisions in the United States are made; 2) Low levels of political energy available in Congress to be expended on coal fires, measured by the magnitude of legislative majorities and seniority; 3) The mid-twentieth century model of scientific and technical information moving indirectly to legislators through the bureaucratic agencies; 4) The chronic and diffuse nature of fires across space and time.

  8. Electrical resistivity of coal-bearing rocks under high temperature and the detection of coal fires using electrical resistance tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Zhenlu; Wang, Deming; Wang, Yanming; Zhong, Xiaoxing; Tang, Xiaofei; Xi, Dongdong

    2016-02-01

    Coal fires are severe hazards to environment, health and safety throughout the world. Efficient and economical extinguishing of these fires requires that the extent of the subsurface coal fires should be delineated. Electrical and electromagnetic methods have been used to detect coal fires in recent years. However, the resistivity change of coal-bearing rocks at high temperature is rarely investigated. The resistivity characteristics of coal fires at different temperatures and depths are seldomly researched as well. In this paper, we present the results of measurements of several coal-bearing rocks' resistivity and permeability under high temperature. Two major causes for the change in resistivity with increasing temperature are recognized, there are the increase of charge carriers and thermal fracturing, of which the first one is probably the dominant cause. A set of 2-D simulations is carried out to compare the relation of resolution and efficiency of coal fires detection to temperature and depth when adopting the electrical resistance tomography. The simulation results show that the resolution and efficiency decrease with the decrease of temperature and the increase of depth. Finally, the electrical resistance tomography is used to delineate coal fires in the Anjialing Open Pit Mine. Most low-resistivity regions are verified as coal-fire areas according to the long-term monitoring of borehole temperature. The results indicate that the electrical resistance tomography can be used as a tool for the detection of coal fires.

  9. Prediction of the furnace heat absorption by utilizing thermomechanical analysis for various kinds of coal firing

    SciTech Connect

    Ishinomori, T.; Watanabe, S.; Kiga, T.; Wall, T.F.; Gupta, R.P.; Gupta, S.K.

    1999-07-01

    In order to predict the furnace heat absorption, which is sensitive to coal properties, an attempt to make a model universally applicable for any kind of pulverized coal fired boiler is in progress. First of all, the heat absorption rates on to furnace wall were surveyed for 600MWe pulverized coal fired boiler, and they were ranked into four levels by indicating a furnace heat absorption index (FHAI). Some ash composition is relatively well related to the FHAI, while a new index from thermomechanical analysis (TMA) offers a good prediction of the furnace heat absorption.

  10. Design study of a coal-fired thermionic (THX) topped power plant. Volume IV. Thermionic heat exchanger design and costing

    SciTech Connect

    Dick, R.S.; Britt, E.J.

    1980-10-15

    This volume deals with the details of how thermionic conversion works, and how it is used in a coal-fired furnace to achieve power plant efficiencies of 45%, and overall costs of 36.3 mills/kWh. A review of the fundamental technical aspects of thermionic conversion is given. The overall Thermionic Heat Exchanger (THX) design, the heat pipe design, and the interaction of the heat pipes with the furnace are presented. Also, the operational characteristics of thermionic converters are described. Details on the computer program used to perform the parametric study are given. The overall program flow is reviewed along with the specifics of how the THX subroutine designed the converter to match the conditions imposed. Also, input costs and variables effecting the THX's performance are detailed. The efficiencies of the various power plants studied are given as a function of the air preheat temperature, size of the power plant, and thermionic level of performance.

  11. Enhancement of natural radionuclides in the surroundings of the four largest coal-fired power plants in Spain.

    PubMed

    Baeza, A; Corbacho, J A; Guillén, J; Salas, A; Mora, J C; Robles, B; Cancio, D

    2012-03-01

    The production of electricity in coal-fired power plants (CFPP) is considered a NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) activity because the coals they burn can present relatively high contents of the naturally occurring radionuclides. In this study, the main radiological impact pathways into the surrounding environments of the four largest coal-fired power plants in Spain were analyzed. These pathways are, first, atmospheric evacuations and wind resuspension and, second, effluent evacuations to nearby rivers or directly to the sea. The atmospheric releases of radionuclides were evaluated by the analyses of soil profiles in the vicinities of the CFPPs. No significant enhancement of radionuclides in the surface soil was observed at the points of maximum deposition of combustion gases, located from 4.3 to 13 km away depending on the considered CFPP. However, an increase of (40)K, (226)Ra, and (232)Th in the surface soils was observed in the first kilometre from the chimney for two CFPPs. This suggested that these radionuclides were released in particulate form. There was also a net influence of the climate in which the CFPPs were located. This was observed in the two CFPPs that were in dry environments, while no increase was observed in the other two, located in more humid environments. The liquid effluents released usually presented an enhancement of dissolved chemical species regarding the initial intake water. Enrichments of the (234,238)U and (226)Ra contents in the water used in the plants' routine procedures were observed, and of (210)Po in the wastewater of just one of the plants. In any case, this enhancement was below the parametric value for the Total Indicative Dose for the hypothetical human consumption of the released waters. As a consequence of these releases of radionuclides, local products destined for human consumption produced in the vicinity of the facilities might incorporate natural radionuclides by these pathways, finding no significant

  12. Enhancement of natural radionuclides in the surroundings of the four largest coal-fired power plants in Spain.

    PubMed

    Baeza, A; Corbacho, J A; Guillén, J; Salas, A; Mora, J C; Robles, B; Cancio, D

    2012-03-01

    The production of electricity in coal-fired power plants (CFPP) is considered a NORM (Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials) activity because the coals they burn can present relatively high contents of the naturally occurring radionuclides. In this study, the main radiological impact pathways into the surrounding environments of the four largest coal-fired power plants in Spain were analyzed. These pathways are, first, atmospheric evacuations and wind resuspension and, second, effluent evacuations to nearby rivers or directly to the sea. The atmospheric releases of radionuclides were evaluated by the analyses of soil profiles in the vicinities of the CFPPs. No significant enhancement of radionuclides in the surface soil was observed at the points of maximum deposition of combustion gases, located from 4.3 to 13 km away depending on the considered CFPP. However, an increase of (40)K, (226)Ra, and (232)Th in the surface soils was observed in the first kilometre from the chimney for two CFPPs. This suggested that these radionuclides were released in particulate form. There was also a net influence of the climate in which the CFPPs were located. This was observed in the two CFPPs that were in dry environments, while no increase was observed in the other two, located in more humid environments. The liquid effluents released usually presented an enhancement of dissolved chemical species regarding the initial intake water. Enrichments of the (234,238)U and (226)Ra contents in the water used in the plants' routine procedures were observed, and of (210)Po in the wastewater of just one of the plants. In any case, this enhancement was below the parametric value for the Total Indicative Dose for the hypothetical human consumption of the released waters. As a consequence of these releases of radionuclides, local products destined for human consumption produced in the vicinity of the facilities might incorporate natural radionuclides by these pathways, finding no significant

  13. Optimization of Trona/Limestone Injection for SO2 Control in Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    2005-09-01

    Mobotec USA develops and markets air pollution control systems for utility boilers and other combustion systems. They have a particular interest in technologies that can reduce NOx, SOx, and mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers, and have been investigating the injection of sorbents such as limestone and trona into a boiler to reduce SOx and Hg emissions. WRI proposed to use the Combustion Test Facility (CTF) to enable Mobotec to conduct a thorough evaluation of limestone and trona injection for SO{sub 2} control. The overall goal of the project was to characterize the SO{sub 2} reductions resulting from the injection of limestone and trona into the CTF when fired with a high-sulfur eastern bituminous coal used in one of Mobotec's Midwest installations. Results revealed that when limestone was injected at Ca:S molar ratios of 1.5 to 3.0, the resulting SO{sub 2} reductions were 35-55%. It is believed that further reductions can be attained with improved mixing of the sorbent with the combustion gases. When limestone was added to the coal, at Ca:S molar ratios of 0.5 to 1.5, the SO{sub 2} reductions were 13-21%. The lower reductions were attributed to dead-burning of the sorbent in the high temperature flame zone. In cases where limestone was both injected into the furnace and added to the coal, the total SO{sub 2} reductions for a given Ca:S molar ratio were similar to the reductions for furnace injection only. The injection of trona into the mid-furnace zone, for Na:S molar ratios of 1.4 to 2.4, resulted in SO{sub 2} reductions of 29-43%. Limestone injection did not produce any slag deposits on an ash deposition probe while trona injection resulted in noticeable slag deposition.

  14. NOVEL MERCURY OXIDANT AND SORBENT FOR MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have successfully developed novel efficient and cost-effective sorbent and oxidant for removing mercury from power plant flue gases. These sorbent and oxidant offer great promise for controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants burning a wide range of c...

  15. The emissions of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants from modern coal-fired power stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meij, Ruud; te Winkel, Henk

    Extensive research for establishing the emissions of heavy metals from coal-fired power stations is performed in the Netherlands for the past 25 years. In the Netherlands coal is fired from all over the world. This means that the emissions are established for coal of various origins. In the eighties, the emissions of installations equipped with ESPs (electrostatic precipitators) were measured. In the nineties, the influence of wet FGD (flue gas desulphurisation) on the emissions was studied. The effect of co-combustion of biomass and other secondary fuels is the main item for the last 10 years. Fifty-five elements were measured in the solid state and eight elements in the gaseous phase. It appeared that at low particulate concentration the influence of calcium containing evaporated water droplets downstream the wet FGD on the emissions of heavy metals is bigger than the composition of the coal. Also it appeared that at modern coal-fired power stations the emissions are hardly influenced by co-combustion of biomass. All the results are used for modelling, resulting in the KEMA TRACE MODEL ®, by which the emissions can be predicted. The established emission factors are for most elements in good agreement with literature values for comparable modern installations. Persistence organic pollutants (POPs) that were detected in the flue gases of coal-fired power stations are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and dioxins/furans. Measurements during full coal-firing and during co-firing of biomass have indicated that these emissions are negligible.

  16. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1988-01-01

    This is the first quarterly report of DOE/PETC Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79864, entitled, Modeling of Integrated Environmental Control Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants.'' Refining, creating, and documenting of computer models concerning coal/flue gas cleaning and desulfurization are discussed. (VC)

  17. Evaluation of air toxic emissions from advanced and conventional coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, P.; Epstein, M.; Gould, L.; Botros, P.

    1995-12-31

    This paper evaluates the air toxics measurements at three advanced power systems and a base case conventional fossil fuel power plant. The four plants tested include a pressurized fluidized bed combustor, integrated gasification combined cycle, circulating fluidized bed combustor, and a conventional coal-fired plant.

  18. [Characteristics of water soluble inorganic ions in fine particles emitted from coal-fired power plants].

    PubMed

    Duan, Lei; Ma, Zi-Zhen; Li, Zhen; Jiang, Jing-Kun; Ye, Zhi-Xiang

    2015-03-01

    Currently, China suffers from serious pollution of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Coal-fired power plant is one of the most important sources of PM2.5 in the atmosphere. To achieve the national goals of total emission reductions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NO(x)) during the 11th and 12th Five-Year Plan, most of coal-fired power plants in China have installed or will install flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and flue gas denitrification (DNO(x)) systems. As a result, the secondary PM2.5, generated from gaseous pollutants in the atmosphere, would be decreased. However, the physical and chemical characteristics of PM2.5 in flue gas would be affected, and the emission of primary PM2.5 might be increased. This paper summarized the size distributions of PM2.5 and its water soluble ions emitted from coal-fired power plants, and highlighted the effects of FGD and DNO(x) on PM2.5 emission, especially on water soluble ions (such as SO4(2-), Ca2+ and NH4+) in PM2.5. Under the current condition of serious PM2.5 pollution and wide application of FGD and DNO(x), quantitative study on the effects of FGD and DNO(x) installation on emission characteristics of PM2.5 from coal-fired power plants is of great necessity.

  19. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G.

    1995-11-01

    Under US Department of Energy, Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) support, the development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 at the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment.

  20. Nitrogen oxides emission control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Ravi K. Srivastava; Robert E. Hall; Sikander Khan; Kevin Culligan; Bruce W. Lani

    2005-09-01

    Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increasingly important to implement state-of-the-art NOx control technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NOx control options for these boilers. It discusses the established commercial primary and secondary control technologies and examines what is being done to use them more effectively. Furthermore, the paper discusses recent developments in NOx controls. The popular primary control technologies in use in the United States are low-NOx burners and overfire air. Data reflect that average NOx reductions for specific primary controls have ranged from 35% to 63% from 1995 emissions levels. The secondary NOx control technologies applied on U.S. coal-fired utility boilers include reburning, selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Thirty-six U.S. coal-fired utility boilers have installed SNCR, and reported NOx reductions achieved at these applications ranged from 15% to 66%. Recently, SCR has been installed at 150 U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. Data on the performance of 20 SCR systems operating in the United States with low-NOx emissions reflect that in 2003, these units achieved NOx emission rates between 0.04 and 0.07 lb/106 Btu. 106 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. Nitrogen oxides emission control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Ravi K; Hall, Robert E; Khan, Sikander; Culligan, Kevin; Lani, Bruce W

    2005-09-01

    Recent regulations have required reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from electric utility boilers. To comply with these regulatory requirements, it is increasingly important to implement state-of-the-art NOx control technologies on coal-fired utility boilers. This paper reviews NOx control options for these boilers. It discusses the established commercial primary and secondary control technologies and examines what is being done to use them more effectively. Furthermore, the paper discusses recent developments in NOx controls. The popular primary control technologies in use in the United States are low-NOx burners and overfire air. Data reflect that average NOx reductions for specific primary controls have ranged from 35% to 63% from 1995 emissions levels. The secondary NOx control technologies applied on U.S. coal-fired utility boilers include reburning, selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR), and selective catalytic reduction (SCR). Thirty-six U.S. coal-fired utility boilers have installed SNCR, and reported NOx reductions achieved at these applications ranged from 15% to 66%. Recently, SCR has been installed at >150 U.S. coal-fired utility boilers. Data on the performance of 20 SCR systems operating in the United States with low-NOx emissions reflect that in 2003, these units achieved NOx emission rates between 0.04 and 0.07 lb/10(6) Btu.

  2. FUNDAMENTAL SCIENCE AND ENGINEERING OF MERCURY CONTROL IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the existing knowledge base applicable to mercury (Hg) control in coal-fired boilers and outlines the gaps in knowledge that can be filled by experimentation and data gathering. Mercury can be controlled by existing air pollution control devices or by retrofit...

  3. CHARACTERIZATION AND MANAGEMENT OF RESIDUES FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determined on December 15, 2000, that regulations are needed to control the risks of mercury air emissions from coal-fired power plants. The thrust of these new regulations is to remove mercury from the air stream of fossil-fuel-fire...

  4. PROTOTYPE SCALE TESTING OF LIMB TECHNOLOGY FOR A PULVERIZED-COAL-FIRED BOILER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report summarizes results of an evaluation of furnace sorbent injection (FSI) to control sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired utility boilers. (NOTE: FSI of calcium-based sorbents has shown promise as a moderate SO2 removal technology.) The Electric Power Research I...

  5. EPA Research Highlights: Minimizing SO3 Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    There have been substantial reductions in emissions of particulate matter, nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide through the application of control technologies and strategies. The installation of control technologies has added to the complexity of coal-fired boilers and their ope...

  6. APPLICATION OF REBURNING TO COAL-FIRED INDUSTRIAL BOILERS IN TAIWAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper gives an overview of the characteristics of coal-fired industrial boilers in Taiwan and projections of the cost and performance data for retrofitting several boilers with reburning. The impacts of reburning fuel type on the reburning system design and cost effectivenes...

  7. DOE/NETL's field tests of mercury control technologies for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas Feeley; James Murphy; Lynn Brickett; Andrew O'Palko

    2005-08-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE/NETL) is conducting a comprehensive research and development program directed at advancing the performance and economics of mercury control technologies for coal-fired power plants. This article presents results from ongoing full-scale and slipstream field tests of several mercury control technologies. 15 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Defeat the dragon: coal fires between self ignition and fire fighting

    SciTech Connect

    Manfred W. Wuttke; Stefan Wessling; Winfried Kessels

    2007-01-15

    Spontaneous coal fires in near surface coal seams are a worldwide recognized problem. They are destroying coal resources and emit climate relevant gases both in considerable amounts. While the extinction of such fires is a most desirable goal, the estimation of the actual input of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere is of great interest especially in the context of the Kyoto protocol as such values are needed as baseline for the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) policies. Under the framework of the Sino-German coal-fire research project we are developing numerical models of such coal fires for the operational use in fire fighting campaigns. Based on our understanding of the governing physical and chemical processes that are relevant for the whole combustion process we simulate the coal fire spreading along the seams for typical situations. From these scenario calculations we deduce information needed to support the CDM baseline estimation and to assess the progress of fire extinguishing efforts like water injection and surface covering to dissipate the heat and suffocate the fire. We present case studies using the finite-element-code ROCKFLOW applied to realistic geometries based on field observations in the Shenhua Group Coal Mining Area Wuda (Inner Mongolia, PR China).

  9. Evaluating the fate of metals in air pollution control residues from coal-fired power plants

    EPA Science Inventory

    Changes in air pollution control at coal-fired power plants are shifting mercury (Hg) and other metals from the flue gas at electric utilities to the coal ash. This paper presents data from the characterization of73 coal combustion residues (CCRs) evaluating the composition and c...

  10. CONTROL OF NOX EMISSIONS FROM U.S. COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the control of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from U.S. coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: In general, NOx control technologies are categorized as being either primary or secondary control technologies. Primary technologies reduce the amount of NOx pr...

  11. MENU OF NOX EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews NOx control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, revision of the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for NOx emissions from utility sources, and Ozone Transpor...

  12. Control of mercury emissions from coal fired electric uitlity boilers: An update

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coal-fired power plants in the U.S. are known to be the major anthropogenic source of domestic mercury emissions. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently proposed to reduce emissions of mercury from these plants. In March 2005, EPA plans to promulgate final regulat...

  13. NOVEL ECONOMICAL HG(0) OXIDATION REAGENT FOR MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have developed a novel economical additive for elemental mercury (Hg0) removal from coal-fired boilers. The oxidation reagent was rigorously tested in a lab-scale fixed-bed column with the Norit America's FGD activated carbon (DOE's benchmark sorbent) in a typical PRB...

  14. NOX EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews NOx control options for coal-fired electric utility boilers. (NOTE: Acid Rain NOx regulations, the Ozone Transport Commission's NOx Budget Program, revision of the New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for NOx emissions from utility sources, and Ozone Transpor...

  15. Engineering development of coal-fired high-performance power systems

    SciTech Connect

    1999-05-01

    A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolysis process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2 which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, AL. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. This report addresses the areas of technical progress for this quarter. The char combustion tests in the arch-fired arrangement were completed this quarter. A total of twenty-one setpoints were successfully completed, firing both synthetically-made char

  16. Mass balance of trace elements in Walker branch watershed: relation to coal-fired steam plants.

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, S E; Andren, A W; Raridon, R J; Fulkerson, W

    1975-01-01

    A mass balance study of trace element flows at the TVA Allen Steam Plant at Memphis showed that most of the released Hg, some Se, and probably most Cl and Br are discharged to the atmosphere as gases. The elements As, Cd, Cu, Ga, Mo, Pb, Sb, Se, and Zn were concentrated in fly ash compared to slag and were more concentrated in the ash discharged through the stack than in that collected by the precipitator, while Al, Ba, Ca, Ce, Co, Eu, Fe, Hf, K, La, Mg, Mn, Rb, Sm, Sr, Ta, Th, and Ti showed little preferential partitioning between the slag and the collected or discharged fly ash. The elements Cr, Cs, Na, Ni, U, and V exhibited behavior intermediate between the latter two groups. This information about stack emissions of trace elements from the Allen Plant was used to estimate the likely range of air concentrations and input (dry and wet deposition) to the Walker Branch Watershed. The watershed, which is on the ERDA reservation at Oak Ridge, is within 20 km of three coal-fired steam plants, two in the TVA system and one belonging to ERDA. The estimated input values are compared to measurements of Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn in wet precipitation falling on the watershed during 1973 and 1974. Dry deposition of these elements could not be measured directly but estimates indicated that this could be of the same order of magnitude as the rainwater input. A six-month mass balance indicated that the watershed efficiently retains Pb (97-98% of the atmospheric input,) Cu (82-84%), while Cr (69%), Mn (57%), Zn (73%), and Hg (69%) are less well retained. Images FIGURE 3. PMID:1227866

  17. Quantifying of the Thermal Dynamic Characteristics of the Combustion System for Underground Coal Fire and its Impact on Environment in Xinjiang region, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ZENG, Qiang; Tiyip, Tashpolat; Wuttke, Manfred; NIE, Jing; PU, Yan

    2015-04-01

    Underground Coal fire (UCF) is one disaster associated with coal mining activities around the world. The UCF not only burns up the coal reservoir, but also causes serious environmental problems, such as the pollution to air, the damage to soils, and the contamination to surface and underground water and consequently the health problem to human beings. In the present paper, the authors attempts to quantify the thermal dynamic characteristics of the combustion system for UCF and its impact on environment by modeling, including delineating the physical boundary of UCF zone, modeling of the capacity of the oxygen supply to UCF, modeling the intensity of heat generation from UCF and modeling the process of heat transfer within UCF and its surrounding environment. From this research, results were obtained as follows: First of all, based on the rock control theory, a model was proposed to depict the physical boundary of UCF zone which is important for coal fire research. Secondly, with analyzing the characteristics of air and smoke flow within UCF zone, an air/smoke flow model was proposed and consequently a method was put forward to calculate the capacity of oxygen supply to the UCF. Thirdly, with analyzing the characteristics of coal combustion within UCF zone, a method of calculating the intensity of heat generation from UCF, i.e., the heat source models, was established. Heat transfer with UCF zone includes the heat conductivity within UCF zone, the heat dissipation by radiation from the surface of fire zone, and the heat dissipation by convection as well as the heat loss taken away by mass transport. The authors also made an effort to depict the process of heat transfer by quantitative methods. Finally, an example of Shuixigou coal fire was given to illustrate parts of above models. Further more, UCF's impact on environment, such as the heavy metals contamination to surface soil of fire zone and the characteristics of gaseous pollutants emission from the UCF also was

  18. [Emission Characteristics of Water-Soluble Ions in Fumes of Coal Fired Boilers in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue-qi; Ma, Zhao-hui; Feng, Ya-jun; Wang, Chen; Chen, Yuan-yuan; He, Ming

    2015-06-01

    Selecting coal fired boilers with typical flue gas desulfurization and dust extraction systems in Beijing as the study objects, the issues and characteristics of the water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers and theirs influence factors were analyzed and evaluated. The maximum mass concentration of total water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers in Beijing was 51.240 mg x m(-3) in the benchmark fume oxygen content, the minimum was 7.186 mg x m(-3), and the issues of the water-soluble ions were uncorrelated with the fume moisture content. SO4(2-) was the primary characteristic water-soluble ion for desulfurization reaction, and the rate of contribution of SO4(2-) in total water-soluble ions ranged from 63.8% to 81.0%. F- was another characteristic water-soluble ion in fumes of thermal power plant, and the rate of contribution of F- in total water-soluble ions ranged from 22.2% to 32.5%. The fume purification technologies significantly influenced the issues and the emission characteristics of water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers. Na+ was a characteristic water-soluble ion for the desulfurizer NaOH, NH4+ and NO3+ were characteristic for the desulfurizer NH4HCO3, and Mg2+ was characteristic for the desulfurizer MgO, but the Ca2+ emission was not increased by addition of the desulfurizer CaO or CaCO3 The concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- in fumes of thermal power plant were lower than those in fumes of industrial or heating coal fired boilers. The form of water-soluble ions was significantly correlated with fume temperature. The most water-soluble ions were in superfine state at higher fume temperature and were not easily captured by the filter membrane. PMID:26387296

  19. [Emission Characteristics of Water-Soluble Ions in Fumes of Coal Fired Boilers in Beijing].

    PubMed

    Hu, Yue-qi; Ma, Zhao-hui; Feng, Ya-jun; Wang, Chen; Chen, Yuan-yuan; He, Ming

    2015-06-01

    Selecting coal fired boilers with typical flue gas desulfurization and dust extraction systems in Beijing as the study objects, the issues and characteristics of the water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers and theirs influence factors were analyzed and evaluated. The maximum mass concentration of total water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers in Beijing was 51.240 mg x m(-3) in the benchmark fume oxygen content, the minimum was 7.186 mg x m(-3), and the issues of the water-soluble ions were uncorrelated with the fume moisture content. SO4(2-) was the primary characteristic water-soluble ion for desulfurization reaction, and the rate of contribution of SO4(2-) in total water-soluble ions ranged from 63.8% to 81.0%. F- was another characteristic water-soluble ion in fumes of thermal power plant, and the rate of contribution of F- in total water-soluble ions ranged from 22.2% to 32.5%. The fume purification technologies significantly influenced the issues and the emission characteristics of water-soluble ions in fumes of coal fired boilers. Na+ was a characteristic water-soluble ion for the desulfurizer NaOH, NH4+ and NO3+ were characteristic for the desulfurizer NH4HCO3, and Mg2+ was characteristic for the desulfurizer MgO, but the Ca2+ emission was not increased by addition of the desulfurizer CaO or CaCO3 The concentrations of NH4+ and NO3- in fumes of thermal power plant were lower than those in fumes of industrial or heating coal fired boilers. The form of water-soluble ions was significantly correlated with fume temperature. The most water-soluble ions were in superfine state at higher fume temperature and were not easily captured by the filter membrane.

  20. A Study on Spreading Direction of Coal-fire Based with TIR Remote Sensing in Wuda Coalfield from 2000 to 2006, Northern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huo, H.-Y.; Jiang, X.-G.; Song, X.-F.; Ni, Z.-Y.; Gao, C.-X.; Zhang, Y.-Z.; Liu, L.

    2014-03-01

    Coal fires are a common and serious problem in most coal producing countries. Coal fires could not only lead to a huge loss of non-renewable energy resources, but it also can cause many environmental problems such as GHG emission, land subsidence and increment of surface temperature. So it is very important to monitor the dynamic changes of coal fires. As far as large scale coal field, remote sensing provided researchers with a new and useful technique for coal fire detection. This paper developed a research over coal fire spreading direction using a multi-temporal TIR remote sensing approach. The results successfully showed that the direction of coal fire spreading and predicted the coal fire direction of development on a regional scale or on a whole coal field scale, and a quantitative analysis of coal fires was made in the research. The results showed that the coal fires had an average annual increase of 0.5 million square meters from 1999 to 2006, and the TIR remote sensing proved to be an available tool for coal fire mapping and prediction of coal fire development.

  1. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Technical progress report No. 11, April 1995--June 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-30

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the {open_quotes}Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems{close_quotes} Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis and Phases II and III on a cost-share basis. The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The specified primary objectives are: (1) NO{sub x} emissions not greater than one-third NSPS. (2) SO{sub x} emissions not greater than one-third NSPS. (3) Particulate emissions not greater than one-half NSPS. The specific secondary objectives are: (1) Improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation. (2) Reduced air toxics emissions. (3) Increased generating efficiency. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives and a preliminary design of a Commercial Generation Unit. The work in Phase I covered a 24-month period and included system analysis, RD&T Plan formulation, component definition, and preliminary Commercial Generating Unit (CGU) design. Phase II will cover a 15-month period and will include preliminary Proof-of-Concept Test Facility (POCTF) design and subsystem testing. Phase III will cover a 9-month period and will produce a revised CGU design and a revised POCTF design, cost estimate and a test plan. Phase IV, the final Phase, will cover a 36-month period and will include POCTF detailed design, construction, testing, and evaluation.

  2. A clean air continuous flow propulsion facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krauss, R. H.; Mcdaniel, J. C., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Consideration is given to a contaminant-free, high enthalpy, continuous flow facility designed to obtain detailed code validation measurements of high speed combustion. The facility encompasses uncontaminated air temperature control to within 5 K, fuel temperature control to 2 K, a ceramic flow straightener, drying of inlet air, and steady state continuous operation. The air heating method provides potential for independent control of contaminant level by injection, mixing, and heating upstream. Particular attention is given to extension of current capability of 1250 K total air temperature, which simulates Scramjet enthalpy at Mach 5.

  3. Sultan - forced flow, high field test facility

    SciTech Connect

    Horvath, I.; Vecsey, G.; Weymuth, P.; Zellweger, J.

    1981-09-01

    Three European laboratories: CNEN (Frascati, I) ECN (Petten, NL) and SIN (Villigen, CH) decided to coordinate their development efforts and to install a common high field forced flow test facility at Villigen Switzerland. The test facility SULTAN (Supraleiter Testanlage) is presently under construction. As a first step, an 8T/1m bore solenoid with cryogenic periphery will be ready in 1981. The cryogenic system, data acquisition system and power supplies which are contributed by SIN are described. Experimental feasibilities, including cooling, and instrumentation are reviewed. Progress of components and facility construction is described. Planned extension of the background field up to 12T by insert coils is outlined. 5 refs.

  4. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT OF COAL-FIRED HIGH-PERFORMANCE POWER SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Unknown

    1999-02-01

    A High Performance Power System (HIPPS) is being developed. This system is a coal-fired, combined cycle plant with indirect heating of gas turbine air. Foster Wheeler Development Corporation and a team consisting of Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation, Bechtel Corporation, University of Tennessee Space Institute and Westinghouse Electric Corporation are developing this system. In Phase 1 of the project, a conceptual design of a commercial plant was developed. Technical and economic analyses indicated that the plant would meet the goals of the project which include a 47 percent efficiency (HHV) and a 10 percent lower cost of electricity than an equivalent size PC plant. The concept uses a pyrolysis process to convert coal into fuel gas and char. The char is fired in a High Temperature Advanced Furnace (HITAF). The HITAF is a pulverized fuel-fired boiler/air heater where steam is generated and gas turbine air is indirectly heated. The fuel gas generated in the pyrolyzer is then used to heat the gas turbine air further before it enters the gas turbine. The project is currently in Phase 2 which includes engineering analysis, laboratory testing and pilot plant testing. Research and development is being done on the HIPPS systems that are not commercial or being developed on other projects. Pilot plant testing of the pyrolyzer subsystem and the char combustion subsystem are being done separately, and after each experimental program has been completed, a larger scale pyrolyzer will be tested at the Power Systems Development Facility (PSDF) in Wilsonville, AL. The facility is equipped with a gas turbine and a topping combustor, and as such, will provide an opportunity to evaluate integrated pyrolyzer and turbine operation. This report addresses the areas of technical progress for this quarter. A general arrangement drawing of the char transfer system was forwarded to SCS for their review. Structural steel drawings were used to generate a three-dimensional model of the char

  5. Full scale measurements to validate mathematical models and to monitor the combustion behavior of bituminous and brown coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Maier, J.; Kluger, F.; Heinzel, T.; Spliethoff, H.; Hein, K.R.G.

    1999-07-01

    In recent years, the Institute for Process Engineering and Power Plant Technology (IVD) carried out measurement campaigns on three full-scale-bituminous- and brown-coal-fired boilers between 80 and 500 MW{sub el}. One boiler was designed as a boxer firing system, configured with swirl burner, and the other two were tangentially fired with jet burner. Aim of the measurement campaigns was to evaluate the suitability of bituminous- and brown-coal-fired boilers (500 and 320 MW {sub el}) for alternative coals and their blends. To monitor changes in the combustion and emission behavior, suction probes to measure flue gas concentrations and temperatures along the furnace were inserted. Shifts in heat transfer between the radiative and convective part of the boiler were correlated with the kind of coal, the injected water mass flow in the superheater steam and the flue gas temperature. Also changes with the unburned carbon and of the NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2} and CO emission behavior were measured and correlated with coal types and their variable share. The second objective of the measurement campaigns in the bituminous-coal-fired boilers (500 MW{sub el} and 80 MW{sub el}) was the acquisition of combustion data to validate the mathematical combustion model AIOLOS, which has been successfully developed by the IVD during the last ten years. For this purpose flue-gas-concentration and temperature measurements have been carried out at IVD in the near burner zone and in front of the superheaters. Furthermore, the suitability of 3-color pyrometry, thermocouples and acoustic temperature measurement systems will be compared and discussed in this paper.

  6. CHARACTERIZATION AND MODELING OF THE FORMS OF MERCURY FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis L. Laudal

    2001-08-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) required the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine whether the presence of mercury in the stack emissions from fossil fuel-fired electric utility power plants poses an unacceptable public health risk. EPA's conclusions and recommendations were presented in the Mercury Study Report to Congress (1) and the Utility Air Toxics Report to Congress (1). The first report addressed both the human health and environmental effects of anthropogenic mercury emissions, while the second addressed the risk to public health posed by the emission of mercury and other hazardous air pollutants from steam-electric generating units. Given the current state of the art, these reports did not state that mercury controls on coal-fired electric power stations would be required. However, they did indicate that EPA views mercury as a potential threat to human health. In fact, in December 2000, the EPA issued an intent to regulate for mercury from coal-fired boilers. However, it is clear that additional research needs to be done in order to develop economical and effective mercury control strategies. To accomplish this objective, it is necessary to understand mercury behavior in coal-fired power plants. The markedly different chemical and physical properties of the different mercury forms generated during coal combustion appear to impact the effectiveness of various mercury control strategies. The original Characterization and Modeling of the Forms of Mercury from Coal-Fired Power Plants project had two tasks. The first was to collect enough data such that mercury speciation could be predicted based on relatively simple inputs such as coal analyses and plant configuration. The second was to field-validate the Ontario Hydro mercury speciation method (at the time, it had only been validated at the pilot-scale level). However, after sampling at two power plants (the Ontario Hydro method was validated at one of them), the EPA issued an

  7. ASSESSMENT OF CONTROL TECHNOLOGIES FOR REDUCING EMISSIONS OF SO2 AND NOX FROM EXISTING COAL-FIRED UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report reviews information and estimated costs on 15 emissioncontrol technology categories applicable to existing coal-fired electric utility boilers. he categories include passive controls such as least emission dispatching, conventional processes, and emerging technologies ...

  8. Current and Potential Future Bromide Loads from Coal-Fired Power Plants in the Allegheny River Basin and Their Effects on Downstream Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Good, Kelly D; VanBriesen, Jeanne M

    2016-09-01

    The presence of bromide in rivers does not affect ecosystems or present a human health risk; however, elevated concentrations of bromide in drinking water sources can lead to difficulty meeting drinking water disinfection byproduct (DBP) regulations. Recent attention has focused on oil and gas wastewater and coal-fired power plant wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater bromide discharges. Bromide can be added to coal to enhance mercury removal, and increased use of bromide at some power plants is expected. Evaluation of potential increases in bromide concentrations from bromide addition for mercury control is lacking. The present work utilizes bromide monitoring data in the Allegheny River and a mass-balance approach to elucidate bromide contributions from anthropogenic and natural sources under current and future scenarios. For the Allegheny River, the current bromide is associated approximately 49% with oil- and gas-produced water discharges and 33% with coal-fired power plants operating wet FGD, with 18% derived from natural sources during mean flow conditions in August. Median wet FGD bromide loads could increase 3-fold from 610 to 1900 kg/day if all plants implement bromide addition for mercury control. Median bromide concentrations in the lower Allegheny River in August would rise to 410, 200, and 180 μg/L under low-, mean-, and high-flow conditions, respectively, for the bromide-addition scenario. PMID:27538590

  9. Current and Potential Future Bromide Loads from Coal-Fired Power Plants in the Allegheny River Basin and Their Effects on Downstream Concentrations.

    PubMed

    Good, Kelly D; VanBriesen, Jeanne M

    2016-09-01

    The presence of bromide in rivers does not affect ecosystems or present a human health risk; however, elevated concentrations of bromide in drinking water sources can lead to difficulty meeting drinking water disinfection byproduct (DBP) regulations. Recent attention has focused on oil and gas wastewater and coal-fired power plant wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) wastewater bromide discharges. Bromide can be added to coal to enhance mercury removal, and increased use of bromide at some power plants is expected. Evaluation of potential increases in bromide concentrations from bromide addition for mercury control is lacking. The present work utilizes bromide monitoring data in the Allegheny River and a mass-balance approach to elucidate bromide contributions from anthropogenic and natural sources under current and future scenarios. For the Allegheny River, the current bromide is associated approximately 49% with oil- and gas-produced water discharges and 33% with coal-fired power plants operating wet FGD, with 18% derived from natural sources during mean flow conditions in August. Median wet FGD bromide loads could increase 3-fold from 610 to 1900 kg/day if all plants implement bromide addition for mercury control. Median bromide concentrations in the lower Allegheny River in August would rise to 410, 200, and 180 μg/L under low-, mean-, and high-flow conditions, respectively, for the bromide-addition scenario.

  10. Pollution tolerance and distribution pattern of plants in surrounding area of coal-fired industries.

    PubMed

    Dwivedi, A K; Tripathi, B D

    2007-04-01

    Higher concentration of SO2 and particulate matters was reported in surrounding areas of coal-fired industries which influences the distribution pattern of plants. Sensitive plant species are abolished from such areas, however, only pollution tolerant species survive under stress conditions. The present study was designed to investigate the vegetation composition around coal-fired industries i.e. brick industries. To categorise plants as sensitive or resistant air pollution tolerance index (APTI) value was calculated. Out of 99 plants studied, Ricinus communis with APTI 81.10 was found to be the most resistant wild plant showing uniform distribution at all the polluted sites. On the other hand, Lepidium sativum with APTI 5.27 was recorded as the most sensitive plant and found to be present only at the less polluted sites.

  11. Emissions, Monitoring, and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Allen Kephart; Volker Schmidt; Gerald Butcher

    2008-10-31

    Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with Western Farmers Electric Cooperative (WFEC), has teamed with Clean Air Engineering of Pittsburgh PA to conduct a mercury monitoring program at the WEFC Hugo plant in Oklahoma. Sponsored by US Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-26-98FT40323, the program included the following members of the Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) as co-sponsors: Missouri Basin Power Project; DTE Energy; Entergy; Grand River Dam Authority; and Nebraska Public Power District. This research effort had five objectives: (1) determine the mass balance of mercury for subbituminous coal-fired power plant; (2) assess the distribution of mercury species in the flue gas (3) perform a comparison of three different Hg test methods; (4) investigate the long-term (six months) mercury variability at a subbituminous coal-fired power plant; and (5) assess operation and maintenance of the Method 324 and Horiba CEMS utilizing plant personnel.

  12. [Determination and Emission of Condensable Particulate Matter from Coal-fired Power Plants].

    PubMed

    Pei, Bing

    2015-05-01

    The sampling-analysis method for CPM of stationary source was established and the sampling device was developed. The determination method was compared with EPA method 202 and applied in real-world test in coal-fired power plants. The result showed the average CPM emission concentration in the coal-fired power plant was (21.2 ± 3.5) mg · m(-3) while the FPM was (20.6 ± 10.0) mg · m(-3) during the same sampling period according to the method in the national standard. The high-efficiency dust removal device could efficiently reduce FPM emission but showed insignificant effect on CPM. The mass contribution of CPM to TPM would rise after high-efficiency dust removal rebuilding project, to which more attention should be paid. The condensate contributed 68% to CPM mass while the filter contributed 32%, and the organic component contributed little to CPM, accounting for only 1%. PMID:26314098

  13. [Determination and Emission of Condensable Particulate Matter from Coal-fired Power Plants].

    PubMed

    Pei, Bing

    2015-05-01

    The sampling-analysis method for CPM of stationary source was established and the sampling device was developed. The determination method was compared with EPA method 202 and applied in real-world test in coal-fired power plants. The result showed the average CPM emission concentration in the coal-fired power plant was (21.2 ± 3.5) mg · m(-3) while the FPM was (20.6 ± 10.0) mg · m(-3) during the same sampling period according to the method in the national standard. The high-efficiency dust removal device could efficiently reduce FPM emission but showed insignificant effect on CPM. The mass contribution of CPM to TPM would rise after high-efficiency dust removal rebuilding project, to which more attention should be paid. The condensate contributed 68% to CPM mass while the filter contributed 32%, and the organic component contributed little to CPM, accounting for only 1%.

  14. Potential of hybrid geothermal/coal fired power plants in Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The City of Burbank and the Ralph M. Parsons Company studies showed several advantages for hybrid geothermal/coal fired power plants, as follows: (1) the estimated cost of producing electricity in hybrid plant is about 18.3 mills/kWh, compared to 19.3 mills/kWh in an all-coal fired power plant; (2) the coal requirements for a given plant can be reduced about 12 to 17%; and (3) the geothermal brines can be used for power plant cooling water, and in some cases, as boiler feedwater. The pertinent results of the City of Burbank studies are summarized and applied to the geothermal and coal resources of Arizona for possible future utilization.

  15. A model-based analysis of SO2 and NO2 dynamics from coal-fired power plants under representative synoptic circulation types over the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Víctor; Pay, María T; Baldasano, José M

    2016-01-15

    Emissions of SO2 and NO2 from coal-fired power plants are a significant source of air pollution. In order to typify the power plants' plumes dynamics and quantify their contribution to air quality, a comprehensive characterisation of seven coal-fired power plant plumes has been performed under six representative circulation types (CTs) identified by means of a synoptic classification over the Iberian Peninsula. The emission and the transport of SO2 and NO2 have been simulated with the CALIOPE air quality forecasting system that couples the HERMES emission model for Spain and WRF and CMAQ models. For the facilities located in continental and Atlantic areas (As Pontes, Aboño, and Compostilla) the synoptic advection controls pollutant transport, however for power plants located along the Mediterranean or over complex-terrains (Guardo, Andorra, Carboneras, and Los Barrios), plume dynamics are driven by a combination of synoptic and mesoscale mountain-valley and sea-land breezes. The contribution of power plants to surface concentration occurs mainly close to the source (<20 km) related to a fumigation process when the emission injection takes place within the planetary boundary layer reaching up to 55 μg SO2 m(-3) and 32 μg NO2 m(-3). However, the SO2 and NO2 plumes can reach long distances (>250 km from the sources) especially for CTs characterised by Atlantic advection. PMID:26433330

  16. A model-based analysis of SO2 and NO2 dynamics from coal-fired power plants under representative synoptic circulation types over the Iberian Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Valverde, Víctor; Pay, María T; Baldasano, José M

    2016-01-15

    Emissions of SO2 and NO2 from coal-fired power plants are a significant source of air pollution. In order to typify the power plants' plumes dynamics and quantify their contribution to air quality, a comprehensive characterisation of seven coal-fired power plant plumes has been performed under six representative circulation types (CTs) identified by means of a synoptic classification over the Iberian Peninsula. The emission and the transport of SO2 and NO2 have been simulated with the CALIOPE air quality forecasting system that couples the HERMES emission model for Spain and WRF and CMAQ models. For the facilities located in continental and Atlantic areas (As Pontes, Aboño, and Compostilla) the synoptic advection controls pollutant transport, however for power plants located along the Mediterranean or over complex-terrains (Guardo, Andorra, Carboneras, and Los Barrios), plume dynamics are driven by a combination of synoptic and mesoscale mountain-valley and sea-land breezes. The contribution of power plants to surface concentration occurs mainly close to the source (<20 km) related to a fumigation process when the emission injection takes place within the planetary boundary layer reaching up to 55 μg SO2 m(-3) and 32 μg NO2 m(-3). However, the SO2 and NO2 plumes can reach long distances (>250 km from the sources) especially for CTs characterised by Atlantic advection.

  17. Micronized coal-fired retrofit system for SO{sub x} reduction Krakow clean fossil fuels and energy efficiency program. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1997-04-01

    This report describes results of a technical, financial and environmental assessment study for a project, which would have included a new TCS micronized coal-fired heating plant for the Produkcja I Hodowla Roslin Ogrodniczych (PHRO) Greenhouse Complex; Krzeszowice, Poland. Project site is about 20 miles west of Krakow, Poland. During the project study period, PHRO utilized 14 heavy oil-fired boilers to produce heat for its greenhouse facilities and also home heating to several adjacent apartment housing complexes. The boilers burn a high-sulfur content heavy crude oil, called mazute, The project study was conducted during a period extended from March 1996 through February 1997. For size orientation, the PHRO Greenhouse complex grows a variety of vegetables and flowers for the Southern Poland marketplace. The greenhouse area under glass is very large and equivalent to approximately 50 football fields, The new micronized coal fired boiler would have: (1) provided a significant portion of the heat for PHRO and a portion of the adjacent apartment housing complexes, (2) dramatically reduced sulfur dioxide air pollution emissions, while satisfying new Polish air regulations, and (3) provided attractive savings to PHRO, based on the quantity of displaced oil.

  18. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Technical progress report No. 12, July--September 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-27

    The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The goals for emissions and plant efficiency are: NO{sub x} emissions not greater than 0.1 lb/million Btu; SO{sub x} emissions not greater than 0.1 lb/million Btu; particulate emissions not greater than 0.01 lb/million Btu; and net plant efficiency (HHV basis) not less than 42%. Other goals include: improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation; and reduced air toxics emissions. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives, and a preliminary design of a Commercial Generation Unit. The work in Phase I covered a 24- month period and included system analysis, RD&T Plan formulation, component definition, and preliminary Commercial Generating Unit (CGU) design. Phase II will cover a 15-month period and will include preliminary Proof-of-Concept Test Facility (POCTF) design and subsystem testing. Phase III will cover a 9-month period and will produce a revised CGU design and a revised POCTF design, cost estimate and a test plan. Phase IV, the final Phase, will cover a 36- month period and will include POCTF detailed design, construction, testing, and evaluation.

  19. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1988-10-01

    This is the fourth quarterly report of DOE Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79864, entitled Modeling of Integrated Environmental Control Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants.'' This report summarizes accomplishments during the period July 1, 1988 to September 30, 1988. Our efforts during the last quarter focused primarily on the completion, testing and documentation of the NO{sub x}SO process model. The sections below present the details of these developments.

  20. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-30

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashesand industrial wastes. ne primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order toevaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, three preliminary coal-fired tests were successfully completed. These tests used industrial boiler flyash, sewer sludge ash, and waste glass collet as feedstocks. The coal-fired ash vitrification tests are considered near term potential commercial applications of the CMS technology. The waste glass cullet provided necessary dam on the effect of coal firing with respect to vitrified product oxidation state. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the proof-of-concept tests are continuing. The economic evaluation of commercial scale CMS processes is continuing. Preliminary designs for 15, 25, 100 and 400 ton/day systems are in progress. This dam will serve as input data to the life cycle cost analysis which will be-an integral part of the CMS commercialization plan.

  1. Coal-fired power plant and its emission reduction in Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Kuntjoro, D.

    1994-12-31

    Power generation availability is one important key to the rapid growth of Indonesia`s industrial sector. To secure future national energy needs, coal-fired power generation has been set up as a primary energy source. There are environmental concerns related to the emission of gases, particulates, and ash resulting from coal combustion. This paper discusses emission controls from burning high calorie, low sulfur coal and the national strategy to reduce emissions.

  2. Performance of composite coatings in a coal-fired boiler environment

    SciTech Connect

    Nava, J.C.

    2009-09-15

    Four samples of thermal spray coatings, each made from different core wire consumables by twin wire arc spray, were exposed for 18 months in a coal-fired boiler environment. The tests are described and the performance of each coating is evaluated. Results indicated that the four consumable wire alloys showed remarkable resistance to fly ash erosion and corrosion over the period of the test.

  3. The ADESORB Process for Economical Production of Sorbents for Mercury Removal from Coal Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Robin Stewart

    2008-03-12

    The DOE's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) currently manages the largest research program in the country for controlling coal-based mercury emissions. NETL has shown through various field test programs that the determination of cost-effective mercury control strategies is complex and highly coal- and plant-specific. However, one particular technology has the potential for widespread application: the injection of activated carbon upstream of either an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or a fabric filter baghouse. This technology has potential application to the control of mercury emissions on all coal-fired power plants, even those with wet and dry scrubbers. This is a low capital cost technology in which the largest cost element is the cost of sorbents. Therefore, the obvious solutions for reducing the costs of mercury control must focus on either reducing the amount of sorbent needed or decreasing the cost of sorbent production. NETL has researched the economics and performance of novel sorbents and determined that there are alternatives to the commercial standard (NORIT DARCO{reg_sign} Hg) and that this is an area where significant technical improvements can still be made. In addition, a key barrier to the application of sorbent injection technology to the power industry is the availability of activated carbon production. Currently, about 450 million pounds ($250 million per year) of activated carbon is produced and used in the U.S. each year - primarily for purification of drinking water, food, and beverages. If activated carbon technology were to be applied to all 1,100 power plants, EPA and DOE estimate that it would require an additional $1-$2 billion per year, which would require increasing current capacity by a factor of two to eight. A new facility to produce activated carbon would cost approximately $250 million, would increase current U.S. production by nearly 25%, and could take four to five years to build. This means that there could be

  4. Characteristics of NOx emission from Chinese coal-fired power plants equipped with new technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Zizhen; Deng, Jianguo; Li, Zhen; Li, Qing; Zhao, Ping; Wang, Liguo; Sun, Yezhu; Zheng, Hongxian; Pan, Li; Zhao, Shun; Jiang, Jingkun; Wang, Shuxiao; Duan, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Coal combustion in coal-fired power plants is one of the important anthropogenic NOx sources, especially in China. Many policies and methods aiming at reducing pollutants, such as increasing installed capacity and installing air pollution control devices (APCDs), especially selective catalytic reduction (SCR) units, could alter NOx emission characteristics (NOx concentration, NO2/NOx ratio, and NOx emission factor). This study reported the NOx characteristics of eight new coal-fired power-generating units with different boiler patterns, installed capacities, operating loads, and coal types. The results showed that larger units produced less NOx, and anthracite combustion generated more NOx than bitumite and lignite combustion. During formation, the NOx emission factors varied from 1.81 to 6.14 g/kg, much lower than those of older units at similar scales. This implies that NOx emissions of current and future units could be overestimated if they are based on outdated emission factors. In addition, APCDs, especially SCR, greatly decreased NOx emissions, but increased NO2/NOx ratios. Regardless, the NO2/NOx ratios were lower than 5%, in accordance with the guidelines and supporting the current method for calculating NOx emissions from coal-fired power plants that ignore NO2.

  5. Study on the effect of the operating condition on a pulverized coal-fired furnace using computational fluid dynamics commercial code

    SciTech Connect

    Manish Kumar; Santi Gopal Sahu . man_manna@yahoo.com

    2007-12-15

    Computer models for coal combustion are not sufficiently accurate to enable the design of pulverized coal fired furnaces or the selection of coal based on combustion behavior. Most comprehensive combustion models can predict with reasonable accuracy flow fields and heat transfer but usually with a much lesser degree of accuracy than the combustion of coal particles through char burnout. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling is recognized widely to be a cost-effective, advanced tool for optimizing the design and operating condition of the pulverized coal-fired furnaces for achieving cleaner and efficient power generation. Technologists and researchers are paying remarkable attention to CFD because of its value in the pulverized fuel fired furnace technology and its nonintrusiveness, sophistication, and ability to significantly reduce the time and expense involved in the design, optimization, trouble-shooting, and repair of power generation equipment. An attempt to study the effect of one of the operating conditions, i.e., burner tilts on coal combustion mechanisms, furnace exit gas temperature (FEGT), and heat flux distribution pattern, within the furnace has been made in this paper by modeling a 210 MW boiler using commercial CFD code FLUENT. 5 refs., 8 figs.

  6. Evaluation of technical feasibility of closed-cycle non-equilibrium MHD power generation with direct coal firing. Final report, Task 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-11-01

    Program accomplishments in a continuing effort to demonstrate the feasibility of direct coal fired, closed cycle, magnetohydrodynamic power generation are detailed. These accomplishments relate to all system aspects of a CCMHD power generation system including coal combustion, heat transfer to the MHD working fluid, MHD power generation, heat and cesium seed recovery and overall systems analysis. Direct coal firing of the combined cycle has been under laboratory development in the form of a high slag rejection, regeneratively air cooled cyclone coal combustor concept, originated within this program. A hot bottom ceramic regenerative heat exchanger system was assembled and test fired with coal for the purposes of evaluating the catalytic effect of alumina on NO/sub x/ emission reduction and operability of the refractory dome support system. Design, procurement, fabrication and partial installation of a heat and seed recovery flow apparatus was accomplished and was based on a stream tube model of the full scale system using full scale temperatures, tube sizes, rates of temperature change and tube geometry. Systems analysis capability was substantially upgraded by the incorporation of a revised systems code, with emphasis on ease of operator interaction as well as separability of component subroutines. The updated code was used in the development of a new plant configuration, the Feedwater Cooled (FCB) Brayton Cycle, which is superior to the CCMHD/Steam cycle both in performance and cost. (WHK)

  7. Comprehensive assessment of the specific compounds present in combustion processes. Volume 4. National estimates of emission of specific compounds from coal fired utility boiler plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, R.M.; Kircher, G.W.

    1985-08-01

    Specimens were acquired from influents and effluents from seven coal-fired utility boilers. The specimens were chemically analyzed for toxic compounds in the polycyclic organic matter group. The specific target compounds were polychlorinated dibenzo(p)-dioxins (PCDDs), dibenzofurans (PCDFs), biphenyls (PCBs), selected polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and selected phthalates. Twelve PAH compounds and six phthalate compounds were included among the targetted compounds. Naphthalene was the most prevalent PAH compound detected. It was found in the flue gas emissions from all seven facilities. Other PAHs were also detected in the coal at all seven facilities but were only rarely detected in the other media. No PCDDs or PCDFs were detected in any of the acquired specimens. PCBs were only detected in one other media, the influent combustion air.

  8. Evaluation of BOC'S Lotox Process for the Oxidation of Elemental Mercury in Flue Gas from a Coal-Fired Boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Khalid Omar

    2008-04-30

    Linde's Low Temperature Oxidation (LoTOx{trademark}) process has been demonstrated successfully to remove more than 90% of the NOx emitted from coal-fired boilers. Preliminary findings have shown that the LoTOx{trademark} process can be as effective for mercury emissions control as well. In the LoTOx{trademark} system, ozone is injected into a reaction duct, where NO and NO{sub 2} in the flue gas are selectively oxidized at relatively low temperatures and converted to higher nitrogen oxides, which are highly water soluble. Elemental mercury in the flue gas also reacts with ozone to form oxidized mercury, which unlike elemental mercury is water-soluble. Nitrogen oxides and oxidized mercury in the reaction duct and residual ozone, if any, are effectively removed in a wet scrubber. Thus, LoTOx{trademark} appears to be a viable technology for multi-pollutant emission control. To prove the feasibility of mercury oxidation with ozone in support of marketing LoTOx{trademark} for multi-pollutant emission control, Linde has performed a series of bench-scale tests with simulated flue gas streams. However, in order to enable Linde to evaluate the performance of the process with a flue gas stream that is more representative of a coal-fired boiler; one of Linde's bench-scale LoTOx{trademark} units was installed at WRI's combustion test facility (CTF), where a slipstream of flue gas from the CTF was treated. The degree of mercury and NOx oxidation taking place in the LoTOx{trademark} unit was quantified as a function of ozone injection rates, reactor temperatures, residence time, and ranks of coals. The overall conclusions from these tests are: (1) over 80% reduction in elemental mercury and over 90% reduction of NOx can be achieved with an O{sub 3}/NO{sub X} molar ratio of less than two, (2) in most of the cases, a lower reactor temperature is preferred over a higher temperature due to ozone dissociation, however, the combination of both low residence time and high temperature

  9. Adapting sustainable low-carbon techologies to reduce carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired power plants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Peter Shyr-Jye

    1997-09-01

    The scientific community is deeply concerned about the effect of greenhouse-gases (GHGs) on global climate change. A major climate shift can result in tragic destruction to our world. Carbon dioxide (COsb2) emissions from coal-fired power plants are major anthropogenic sources that contribute to potential global warming. The People's Republic of China, with its rapidly growing economy and heavy dependence on coal-fired power plants for electricity, faces increasingly serious environmental challenges. This research project seeks to develop viable methodologies for reducing the potential global warming effects and serious air pollution arising from excessive coal burning. China serves as a case study for this research project. Major resolution strategies are developed through intensive literature reviews to identify sustainable technologies that can minimize adverse environmental impacts while meeting China's economic needs. The research thereby contributes technological knowledge to the field of Applied Sciences. The research also integrates modern power generation technologies with China's current and future energy requirements. With these objectives in mind, this project examines how China's environmental issues are related to China's power generation methods. This study then makes strategic recommendations that emphasize low-carbon technologies as sustainable energy generating options to be implemented in China. These low-carbon technologies consist of three options: (1) using cleaner fuels converted from China's plentiful domestic coal resources; (2) applying high-efficiency gas turbine systems for power generation; and (3) integrating coal gasification processes with energy saving combined cycle gas turbine systems. Each method can perform independently, but a combined strategy can achieve the greatest COsb2 reductions. To minimize economic impacts caused by technological changes, this study also addresses additional alternatives that can be implemented in

  10. Coal-fired power-plant-capital-cost estimates. Final report. [Mid-1978 price level; 13 different sites

    SciTech Connect

    Holstein, R.A.

    1981-05-01

    Conceptual designs and order-of-magnitude capital cost estimates have been prepared for typical 1000-MW coal-fired power plants. These subcritical plants will provide high efficiency in base load operation without excessive efficiency loss in cycling operation. In addition, an alternative supercritical design and a cost estimate were developed for each of the plants for maximum efficiency at 80 to 100% of design capacity. The power plants will be located in 13 representative regions of the United States and will be fueled by coal typically available in each region. In two locations, alternate coals are available and plants have been designed and estimated for both coals resulting in a total of 15 power plants. The capital cost estimates are at mid-1978 price level with no escalation and are based on the contractor's current construction projects. Conservative estimating parameters have been used to ensure their suitability as planning tools for utility companies. A flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system has been included for each plant to reflect the requirements of the promulgated New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) for sulfur dioxide (SO/sub 2/) emissions. The estimated costs of the FGD facilities range from 74 to 169 $/kW depending on the coal characteristics and the location of the plant. The estimated total capital requirements for twin 500-MW units vary from 8088 $/kW for a southeastern plant burning bituminous Kentucky coal to 990 $/kW for a remote western plant burning subbituminous Wyoming coal.

  11. Development of cost-effective noncarbon sorbents for Hg(0) removal from coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Joo-Youp; Ju, Yuhong; Keener, Tim C; Varma, Rajender S

    2006-04-15

    Noncarbonaceous materials or mineral oxides (silica gel, alumina, molecular sieves, zeolites, and montmorillonite) were modified with various functional groups such as amine, amide, thiol, urea, and active additives such as elemental sulfur, sodium sulfide, and sodium polysulfide to examine their potential as sorbents for the removal of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) vapor at coal-fired utility power plants. A number of sorbent candidates such as amine- silica gel, urea- silica gel, thiol- silica gel, amide-silica gel, sulfur-alumina, sulfur-molecular sieve, sulfur-montmorillonite, sodium sulfide-montmorillonite, and sodium polysulfide-montmorillonite, were synthesized and tested in a lab-scale fixed-bed system under an argon flow for screening purposes at 70 degrees C and/or 140 degrees C. Several functionalized silica materials reported in previous studies to effectively control heavy metals in the aqueous phase showed insignificant adsorption capacities for Hg(0) control in the gas phase, suggesting that mercury removal mechanisms in both phases are different. Among elemental sulfur-, sodium sulfide-, and sodium polysulfide-impregnated inorganic samples, sodium polysulfide-impregnated montmorillonite K 10 showed a moderate adsorption capacity at 70 degrees C, which can be used for sorbent injection prior to the wet FGD system.

  12. Assessment of energy and economic impacts of particulate-control technologies in coal-fired power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    Under contract to Argonne National Laboratory, Midwest Research Institute has derived models to assess the economic and energy impacts of particulate-control systems for coal-fired power plants. The models take into account the major functional variables, including plant size and location, coal type, and applicable particulate-emission standards. The algorithms obtained predict equipment and installation costs, as well as operating costs (including energy usage), for five control devices: (1) cold-side electrostatic precipitators, (2) hot-side electrostatic precipitators, (3) reverse-flow baghouses, (4) shake baghouses, and (5) wet scrubbers. A steam-generator performance model has been developed, and the output from this model has been used as input for the control-device performance models that specify required design and operating parameters for the control systems under study. These parameters then have been used as inputs to the cost models. Suitable guideline values have been provided for independent variables wherever necessary, and three case studies are presented to demonstrate application of the subject models. The control-equipment models aggregate the following cost items: (1) first costs (capital investment), (2) total, first-year annualized costs, and (3) integrated cost of ownership and operation over any selected plant lifetime. Although the models have been programmed for rapid computation, the algorithms can be solved with a hand calculator.

  13. Ambient air total gaseous mercury concentrations in the vicinity of coal-fired power plants in Alberta, Canada.

    PubMed

    Mazur, Maxwell; Mintz, Rachel; Lapalme, Monique; Wiens, Brian

    2009-12-20

    The Lake Wabamun area, in Alberta, is unique within Canada as there are four coal-fired power plants within a 500 km(2) area. Continuous monitoring of ambient total gaseous mercury (TGM) concentrations in the Lake Wabamun area was undertaken at two sites, Genesee and Meadows. The data were analyzed in order to characterise the effect of the coal-fired power plants on the regional TGM. Mean concentrations of 1.57 ng/m(3) for Genesee and 1.50 ng/m(3) for Meadows were comparable to other Canadian sites. Maximum concentrations of 9.50 ng/m(3) and 4.43 ng/m(3) were comparable to maxima recorded at Canadian sites influenced by anthropogenic sources. The Genesee site was directly affected by the coal-fired power plants with the occurrence of northwest winds, and this was evident by episodes of elevated TGM, NO(x) and SO(2) concentrations. NO(x)/TGM and SO(2)/TGM ratios of 21.71 and 19.98 microg/ng, respectively, were characteristic of the episodic events from the northwest wind direction. AERMOD modeling predicted that coal-fired power plant TGM emissions under normal operating conditions can influence hourly ground-level concentrations by 0.46-1.19 ng/m(3)(.) The effect of changes in coal-fired power plant electricity production on the ambient TGM concentrations was also investigated, and was useful in describing some of the episodes.

  14. Flow behavior in the Wright Brothers Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genn, S.

    1984-01-01

    It has become increasingly apparent that a reexamination of the flow characteristics in the low speed Wright Brothers Facility (WBF) is of some importance in view of recent improvements in the precision of the data acquisition system. In particular, the existence of local regions of separation, if any, in back portions of the circuit, and possible related unsteadiness, are of interest. Observations from that initial experiment did indicate some unsteady air flow problems in the cross leg, and thereafter the test region (Section A) was calibrated quantitatively. The intent was to learn something about the effect of upstream intermittent behavior flow on the test section flow, as well as to provide an extensive calibration as a standard for the effects induced by future alteration of the tunnel. Distributions of total pressure coefficients were measured first at one cross-section plane of the test section, namely the model station. Data were obtained for several tunnel speeds. The reduced data yielded an unexpected distribution involving larger pressures along the inside wall.

  15. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM THE MONTICELLO COAL FIRED POWER PLANT.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; SUBRAMANIAN, S.; FEAGIN, L.; WILLIAMS, J.; BOYD, A.

    2006-10-31

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as currently proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots of mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury ''hot spots'', using two types of evidence. First, the world-wide literature was searched for reports of deposition around mercury sources, including coal-fired power plants. Second, soil samples from around two mid-sized U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of ''hot spots'' and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (A) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (B) sediment increments of 18-30%, (C) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (D) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg deposition and fish content

  16. Monitoring airborne dust in a high density coal-fired power station region in North Yorkshire.

    PubMed

    Vallack, H W; Chadwick, M J

    1993-01-01

    Concerns about the levels of dust deposition in the vicinity of coal-fired power stations in North Yorkshire, in particular Drax Power Station, prompted the commissioning of a detailed monitoring study in the area. This paper describes the first two years' work. The first 12-month study concentrated on the village of Barlow close to Drax Power Station, whilst in the second 12-month study, monitoring sites were spread along a transect passing through the power station belt formed by Ferrybridge, Eggborough and Drax Power Stations. Two monitoring sites were common to both 12-month studies, thus giving two years of continuous monitoring. Pairs of wet Frisbee dust deposit gauges (based on inverted Frisbees) were located at each site. Undissolved particulate matter from each gauge was weighed and characterized by microscopic examination of individual particles. The first 12-month study revealed a downward gradient in dust deposition rate and cenosphere content with distance from Drax Power Station. The high cenosphere content at Barlow, especially at the eastern end, suggested that there was a significant contribution from coal-fired power stations. In the second year, the overall pattern of dust deposition rate and cenosphere content across the power station belt suggested that power stations were contributing to higher levels. In particular, relatively high levels were again found at Barlow. Wind direction correlations point to the fly-ash tip next to Drax Power Station as being the source of cenospheres arriving at Barlow. It is concluded that in both years the fly-ash tip Drax Power Station was making a significant contribution to higher than expected dust deposition rates at Barlow, particularly its eastern end. Other villages in the area may also have been affected by dust originating from coal-fired power stations.

  17. Underground Coal-Fires in Xinjiang, China: Assessment of Fire Dynamics from Surface Measurements and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuttke, Manfred W.; Zeng, Qiang; Tanner, David C.; Halisch, Matthias; Cai, Zhong-yong; Wang, Chunli

    2013-04-01

    Spontaneous uncontrolled coal seam fires are a well known phenomenon that causes severe environmental problems and severe impact on natural coal reserves. Coal fires are a worldwide phenomenon, but in particular in Xinjiang, that covers 17.3 % of Chinas area and hosts approx 42 % of its coal resources. The Xinjiang Coalfield Fire Fighting Bureau (XJCFB) has developed technologies and methods to deal with any known fire. Many fires have been extinguished already, but the problem is still there if not even growing. This problem is not only a problem for China due to the loss of valuable energy resources, but it is also a worldwide threat because of the generation of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. In this contribution we describe the latest results from a new conjoint project between China and Germany where on the basis of field investigations and laboratory measurements realistic dynamical models of fire-zones are constructed to increase the understanding of particular coal-fires, to interpret the surface signatures of the coal-fire in terms of location and propagation and to estimate the output of hazardous exhaust products to evaluate the economic benefit of fire extinction. For two exemplary fire-locations, coarse digital terrain models have been produced. These models serve as basis for a detailed surface exploration by terrestrial laser scanning which shall deliver a detailed fracture inventory. Samples of rock and coal have been taken in the field and are characterized in LIAG's petrophysical laboratory in terms of transport properties. All these data serve as input for our detailed numerical fire models. Repeated measurements of the surface changes together with thermal images reveal the dynamics of fire propagation. The numerical models are calibrated by such data and can later be used to quantify the emissions from such a fire zone.

  18. Adsorbents for capturing mercury in coal-fired boiler flue gas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hongqun; Xu, Zhenghe; Fan, Maohong; Bland, Alan E; Judkins, Roddie R

    2007-07-19

    This paper reviews recent advances in the research and development of sorbents used to capture mercury from coal-fired utility boiler flue gas. Mercury emissions are the source of serious health concerns. Worldwide mercury emissions from human activities are estimated to be 1000 to 6000 t/annum. Mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants are believed to be the largest source of anthropogenic mercury emissions. Mercury emissions from coal-fired utility boilers vary in total amount and speciation, depending on coal types, boiler operating conditions, and configurations of air pollution control devices (APCDs). The APCDs, such as fabric filter (FF) bag house, electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD), can remove some particulate-bound and oxidized forms of mercury. Elemental mercury often escapes from these devices. Activated carbon injection upstream of a particulate control device has been shown to have the best potential to remove both elemental and oxidized mercury from the flue gas. For this paper, NORIT FGD activated carbon was extensively studied for its mercury adsorption behavior. Results from bench-, pilot- and field-scale studies, mercury adsorption by coal chars, and a case of lignite-burned mercury control were reviewed. Studies of brominated carbon, sulfur-impregnated carbon and chloride-impregnated carbon were also reviewed. Carbon substitutes, such as calcium sorbents, petroleum coke, zeolites and fly ash were analyzed for their mercury-adsorption performance. At this time, brominated activated carbon appears to be the best-performing mercury sorbent. A non-injection regenerable sorbent technology is briefly introduced herein, and the issue of mercury leachability is briefly covered. Future research directions are suggested.

  19. NOx Control Options and Integration for US Coal Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Darren Shino; Dave Swenson; Larry Baxter; Calvin Bartholomew; William Hecker; Stan Harding

    2004-12-31

    This is the eighteenth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DEFC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for boilers firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing co-funding for this program. Safety equipment for ammonia for the SCR slipstream reactor at Plant Gadsden was installed. The slipstream reactor was started and operated for about 1400 hours during the last performance period. Laboratory analysis of exposed catalyst and investigations of the sulfation of fresh catalyst continued at BYU. Thicker end-caps for the ECN probes were designed and fabricated to prevent the warpage and failure that occurred at Gavin with the previous design. A refurbished ECN probe was successfully tested at the University of Utah combustion laboratory. Improvements were implemented to the software that controls the flow of cooling air to the ECN probes.

  20. Feasibility study for Mindanao coal-fired power plant. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    The report covers the results of a feasibility study conducted for the installation of a 2 x 100 MW coal-fired power plant at the Naga site on Sibuguey Bay. An overview of the powersector in the Philippines and a review of the environmental standards for the plan design are included in the report. The study is divided into the following sections: (1) Introduction; (2) Overview of Electric Power Sector; (3) Environmental Standards Review; (4) Project Description; (5) Plant Design; (6) Project Schedule; (7) Project Cost Estimates; (8) Operations and Maintenance Plan; (9) Economic Analysis. Appendices A-H follows.

  1. CO sub 2 emissions from coal-fired and solar electric power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Keith, F.; Norton, P.; Brown, D.

    1990-05-01

    This report presents estimates of the lifetime carbon dioxide emissions from coal-fired, photovoltaic, and solar thermal electric power plants in the United States. These CO{sub 2} estimates are based on a net energy analysis derived from both operational systems and detailed design studies. It appears that energy conservation measures and shifting from fossil to renewable energy sources have significant long-term potential to reduce carbon dioxide production caused by energy generation and thus mitigate global warming. The implications of these results for a national energy policy are discussed. 40 refs., 8 figs., 23 tabs.

  2. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1988-04-01

    The general goals of this research project is to enhance and transfer to DOE a new computer simulation model for analyzing the performance and cost of integrated environmental control (IEC) systems for coal-fired power plants. A unique capability of this model is the probabilistic representation of uncertainty in model parameters. This capability allows performance and cost to be quantified stochastically in comparing conventional technologies with advanced systems offering improved cost and/or effectiveness for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal. Several pre-combustion and post-combustion processes of interest to DOE have been selected for detailed modeling and analysis as part of this project.

  3. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1988-04-01

    The general goals of this research project is to enhance and transfer to DOE a new computer simulation model for analyzing the performance and cost of integrated environmental control (IEC) systems for coal-fired power plants. A unique capability of this model is the probabilistic representation of uncertainty in model parameters. This capability allows performance and cost to be quantified stochastically in comparing conventional technologies with advanced systems offering improved cost and/or effectiveness for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal. Several pre-combustion and post-combustion processes of interest to DOE have been selected for detailed modeling and analysis as part of this project.

  4. Control strategies of atmospheric mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants in China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hezhong; Wang, Yan; Cheng, Ke; Qu, Yiping; Hao, Jiming; Xue, Zhigang; Chai, Fahe

    2012-05-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) emission from coal is one of the primary sources of anthropogenic discharge and pollution. China is one of the few countries in the world whose coal consumption constitutes about 70% of total primary energy, and over half of coals are burned directly for electricity generation. Atmospheric emissions of Hg and its speciation from coal-fired power plants are of great concern owing to their negative impacts on regional human health and ecosystem risks, as well as long-distance transport. In this paper, recent trends of atmospheric Hg emissions and its species split from coal-fired power plants in China during the period of 2000-2007 are evaluated, by integrating each plant's coal consumption and emission factors, which are classified by different subcategories of boilers, particulate matter (PM) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) control devices. Our results show that the total Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants have begun to decrease from the peak value of 139.19 t in 2005 to 134.55 t in 2007, though coal consumption growing steadily from 1213.8 to 1532.4 Mt, which can be mainly attributed to the co-benefit Hg reduction by electrostatic precipitators/fabric filters (ESPs/FFs) and wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD), especially the sharp growth in installation of WFGD both in the new and existing power plants since 2005. In the coming 12th five-year-plan, more and more plants will be mandated to install De-NO(x) (nitrogen oxides) systems (mainly selective catalytic reduction [SCR] and selective noncatalytic reduction [SNCR]) for minimizing NO(x) emission, thus the specific Hg emission rate per ton of coal will decline further owing to the much higher co-benefit removal efficiency by the combination of SCR + ESPs/FFs + WFGD systems. Consequently, SCR + ESPs/FFs + WFGD configuration will be the main path to abate Hg discharge from coal-fired power plants in China in the near future. However advanced specific Hg removal technologies are necessary

  5. Characterization of Oxy-combustion Impacts in Existing Coal-fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, Bradley R.; Fry, Andrew R.; Senior, Constance L.; Shim, Hong Shig; Otten, Brydger Van; Wendt, Jost; Shaddix, Christopher; Tree, Dale

    2010-06-01

    This report summarizes Year 2 results of a research program designed to use multi-scale experimental studies and fundamental theoretical models to characterize and predict the impacts of retrofit of existing coal-fired utility boilers for oxy-combustion. Year 2 focused extensively on obtaining experimental data from the bench-scale, lab-scale and pilot-scale reactors. These data will be used to refine and validate submodels to be implemented in CFD simulations of full-scale boiler retrofits. Program tasks are on schedule for Year 3 completion. Both Year 2 milestones were completed on schedule and within budget.

  6. Effects of a clean coal-fired power generating station on four common Wisconsin lichen species

    SciTech Connect

    Will-Wolf, S.

    1980-01-01

    Algal plasmolysis percentages and other morphological characteristics of Parmelia bolliana Muell. Arg., P. caperata (L.) Ach., P. rudecta Ach., and Physcia millegrana Degel. were compared for specimens growing near to and far from a rural coal-fired generating station in south central Wisconsin. SO/sup 2/ levels were 389 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, maximum 1 hr level, and 5-9 ..mu..g/m/sup 3/, annual averages. Parmelia bolliana and P. caperata showed evidence of morphological alterations near the station; P. rudecta and Physcia millegrana did not.

  7. ASSESSING THE MERCURY HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS: ISSUES IN ATMOSPHERIC PROCESSES.

    SciTech Connect

    LIPFERT, F.; SULLIVAN, T.; RENNINGER, S.

    2004-03-28

    The rationale for regulating air emissions of mercury from U.S. coal-fired power plants largely depends on mathematical dispersion modeling, including the atmospheric chemistry processes that affect the partitioning of Hg emissions into elemental (Hg{sub 0}) and the reactive (RGM) forms that may deposit more rapidly near sources. This paper considers and evaluates the empirical support for this paradigm. We consider the extant experimental data at three spatial scales: local (< 30 km), regional (< {approx}300 km), and national (multi-state data). An additional issue involves the finding of excess Hg levels in urban areas.

  8. Computational prediction of tube erosion in coal fired power utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, B.E.; Fletcher, C.A.J.; Behnia, M.

    1999-10-01

    Erosion of boiler tubes causes serious operational problems in many pulverized coal-fired utility boilers. A new erosion model has been developed in the present study for the prediction of boiler tube erosion. The Lagrangian approach is employed to predict the behavior of the particulate phase. The results of computational prediction of boiler tube erosion and the various parameters causing erosion are discussed in this paper. Comparison of the numerical predictions for a single tube erosion with experimental data shows very good agreement.

  9. Fuel supply system and method for coal-fired prime mover

    DOEpatents

    Smith, William C.; Paulson, Leland E.

    1995-01-01

    A coal-fired gas turbine engine is provided with an on-site coal preparation and engine feeding arrangement. With this arrangement, relatively large dry particles of coal from an on-site coal supply are micro-pulverized and the resulting dry, micron-sized, coal particulates are conveyed by steam or air into the combustion chamber of the engine. Thermal energy introduced into the coal particulates during the micro-pulverizing step is substantially recovered since the so-heated coal particulates are fed directly from the micro-pulverizer into the combustion chamber.

  10. Dose assessment for various coals in the coal-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Antic, D.; Sokcic-Kostic, M. )

    1993-01-01

    The radiation exposure of the public in the vicinity of a coal-fired power plant has been studied. The experimental data on uranium, thorium, and potassium content in selected coals from Serbia and Bosnia have been used to calculate the release rates of natural radionuclides from the power plant. A generalized model for analysis of radiological impact of an energy source that includes the two-dimensional version of the cloud model simulates the transport of radionuclides released to the atmosphere. The inhalation dose rates are assessed for various meteorological conditions.

  11. NOx CONTROL OPTIONS AND INTEGRATION FOR US COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mike Bockelie; Marc Cremer; Kevin Davis; Connie Senior; Bob Hurt; Eric Eddings; Larry Baxter

    2001-10-10

    This is the fifth Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-00NT40753. The goal of the project is to develop cost effective analysis tools and techniques for demonstrating and evaluating low NOx control strategies and their possible impact on boiler performance for firing US coals. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) is providing cofunding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. Field tests for NOx reduction in a cyclone fired utility boiler due to using Rich Reagent Injection (RRI) have been started. CFD modeling studies have been started to evaluate the use of RRI for NOx reduction in a corner fired utility boiler using pulverized coal. Field tests of a corrosion monitor to measure waterwall wastage in a utility boiler have been completed. Computational studies to evaluate a soot model within a boiler simulation program are continuing. Research to evaluate SCR catalyst performance has started. A literature survey was completed. Experiments have been outlined and two flow reactor systems have been designed and are under construction. Commercial catalyst vendors have been contacted about supplying catalyst samples. Several sets of new experiments have been performed to investigate ammonia removal processes and mechanisms for fly ash. Work has focused on a promising class of processes in which ammonia is destroyed by strong oxidizing agents at ambient temperature during semi-dry processing (the use of moisture amounts less than 5 wt-%). Both ozone and an ozone/peroxide combination have been used to treat both basic and acidic ammonia-laden ashes.

  12. Energy penalty analysis of possible cooling water intake structurerequirements on existing coal-fired power plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Veil, J. A.; Littleton, D. J.; Gross, R. W.; Smith, D. N.; Parsons, E.L., Jr.; Shelton, W. W.; Feeley, T. J.; McGurl, G. V.

    2006-11-27

    from converting plants with once-through cooling to wet towers or indirect-dry towers. Five locations--Delaware River Basin (Philadelphia), Michigan/Great Lakes (Detroit), Ohio River Valley (Indianapolis), South (Atlanta), and Southwest (Yuma)--were modeled using an ASPEN simulator model. The model evaluated the performance and energy penalty for hypothetical 400-MW coal-fired plants that were retrofitted from using once-through cooling systems to wet- and dry-recirculating systems. The modeling was initially done to simulate the hottest time of the year using temperature input values that are exceeded only 1 percent of the time between June through September at each modeled location. These are the same temperature inputs commonly used by cooling tower designers to ensure that towers perform properly under most climatic conditions.

  13. Best practices in environmental monitoring for coal-fired power plants: lessons for developing Asian APEC economies

    SciTech Connect

    Holt, N.; Findsen, J.

    2008-11-15

    The report assesses environmental monitoring and reporting by individual coal-fired power plants, makes recommendations regarding how monitoring should be applied, and evaluates the interrelationship of monitoring and regulation in promoting CCTs. Effective monitoring is needed to ensure that power plants are performing as expected, and to confirm that they are complying with applicable environmental regulations. Older coal-fired power plants in APEC economies often have limited monitoring capabilities, making their environmental performance difficult to measure. 585 refs., 5 figs., 85 tabs.

  14. Evaluation of retrofitted post combustion NO{sub x} control technology on a wet bottom, coal-fired utility boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Huhmann, A.L.; Wallace, A.J.; Jantzen, T.; O`Leary, J.H.

    1996-12-31

    Public Service Electric and Gas Company (PSE&G) evaluated the effectiveness of post-combustion NO{sub x} control technologies on a wet-bottomed, coal-fired utility boiler. The technologies studied were conventional urea-based SNCR, in-duct and air heater SCR, and a combination of SNCR and SCR. While SNCR and, to a limited extent, SCR have been used on coal-fired boilers, these processes had not been demonstrated on a unit with the same configuration as the wet-bottom, continuous stagging, pulverized coal furnaces operated at PSE&G`s Mercer Generating Station.

  15. RETROFITTING CONTROL FACILITIES FOR WET-WEATHER FLOW TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Available technologies were evaluated to demonstrate the technical feasibility and cost effectiveness of retrofitting existing facilities to handle wet-weather flow. Cost/benefit relationships were also compared to construction of new conventional control and treatment facilities...

  16. RETROFITTING CONTROL FACILITIES FOR WET-WEATHER FLOW CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Available technologies were evaluated to demonstrate the feasibility and cost effectiveness of retrofitting existing facilities to handle wet-weather flow (WWF). Cost/benefit relationships were compared to construction of new conventional control and treatment facilities. Desktop...

  17. Synergistic mercury removal by conventional pollutant control strategies for coal-fired power plants in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Wu, Ye; Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhao, Yu; Hao, Jiming

    2010-06-01

    China's 11th 5-yr plan has regulated total sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions by installing flue gas desulfurization (FGD) devices and shutting down small thermal power units. These control measures will not only significantly reduce the emission of conventional pollutants but also benefit the reduction of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. This paper uses the emission factor method to estimate the efficiencies of these measures on mercury emission abatement. From 2005 to 2010, coal consumption in power plants will increase by 59%; however, the mercury emission will only rise from 141 to 155 t, with an increase of 10%. The average emission rate of mercury from coal burning will decrease from 126 mg Hg/t of coal to 87 mg Hg/t of coal. The effects of the three desulfurization measures were assessed and show that wet FGD will play an important role in mercury removal. Mercury emissions in 2015 and 2020 are also projected under different policy scenarios. Under the most probable scenario, the total mercury emission in coal-fired power plants in China will decrease to 130 t by 2020, which will benefit from the rapid installation of fabric filters and selective catalytic reduction.

  18. Industry perspectives on increasing the efficiency of coal-fired power generation

    SciTech Connect

    Torrens, I.M.; Stenzel, W.C.

    1997-12-31

    Independent power producers will build a substantial fraction of expected new coal-fired power generation in developing countries over the coming decades. To reduce perceived risk and obtain financing for their projects, they are currently building and plan to continue to build subcritical coal-fired plants with generating efficiency below 40%. Up-to-date engineering assessment leads to the conclusion that supercritical generating technology, capable of efficiencies of up to 45%, can produce electricity at a lower total cost than conventional plants. If such plants were built in Asia over the coming decades, the savings in carbon dioxide emissions over their lifetime would be measured in billions of tons. IPPs perceive supercritical technology as riskier and higher cost than conventional technology. The truth needs to be confirmed by discussions with additional experienced power engineering companies. Better communication among the interested parties could help to overcome the IPP perception issue. Governments working together with industry might be able to identify creative financing arrangements which can encourage the use of more efficient pulverized clean coal technologies, while awaiting the commercialization of advanced clean coal technologies like gasification combined cycle and pressurized fluidized bed combustion.

  19. Selenium Partitioning and Removal Across a Wet FGD Scrubber at a Coal-Fired Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Senior, Constance L; Tyree, Corey A; Meeks, Noah D; Acharya, Chethan; McCain, Joseph D; Cushing, Kenneth M

    2015-12-15

    Selenium has unique fate and transport through a coal-fired power plant because of high vapor pressures of oxide (SeO2) in flue gas. This study was done at full-scale on a 900 MW coal-fired power plant with electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber. The first objective was to quantify the partitioning of selenium between gas and condensed phases at the scrubber inlet and outlet. The second objective was to determine the effect of scrubber operation conditions (pH, mass transfer, SO2 removal) on Se removal in both particulate and vapor phases. During part of the testing, hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide) was injected upstream of the scrubber. Gas-phase selenium and particulate-bound selenium were measured as a function of particle size at the inlet and outlet of the scrubber. The total (both phases) removal of Se across the scrubber averaged 61%, and was enhanced when hydrated lime sorbent was injected. There was evidence of gas-to-particle conversion of selenium across the scrubber, based on the dependence of selenium concentration on particle diameter downstream of the scrubber and on thermodynamic calculations. PMID:26554426

  20. Life assessment and emissions monitoring of Indian coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    At the request of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the traveler, along with Dr. R. P. Krishnan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee spent three weeks in India planning and performing emissions monitoring at the coal-fired Vijayawada Thermal Power Station (VTPS). The coordination for the Indian participants was provided by BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore. The trip was sponsored by the PETC under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Government of India (GOI)P Alternate Energy Resources Development (AERD) Project. The AERD Project is managed by PETC, and ORNL is providing the technical coordination and support for four coal projects that are being implemented with BHEL, Trichy. The traveler, after briefing the USAID mission in New Delhi visited BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore to coordinate and plan the emissions test program. The site selection was made by BHEL, CPRI, TVA, and PETC. Monitoring was performed for 4 days on one of the 4 existing 210 MW coal-fired boilers at the VTPS, 400 km north of Madras, India.

  1. Life assessment and emissions monitoring of Indian coal-fired power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    At the request of the Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the United States Department of Energy (USDOE), the traveler, along with Dr. R. P. Krishnan, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Oak Ridge, Tennessee spent three weeks in India planning and performing emissions monitoring at the coal-fired Vijayawada Thermal Power Station (VTPS). The coordination for the Indian participants was provided by BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore. The trip was sponsored by the PETC under the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Government of India (GOI)P Alternate Energy Resources Development (AERD) Project. The AERD Project is managed by PETC, and ORNL is providing the technical coordination and support for four coal projects that are being implemented with BHEL, Trichy. The traveler, after briefing the USAID mission in New Delhi visited BHEL, Trichy and CPRI, Bangalore to coordinate and plan the emissions test program. The site selection was made by BHEL, CPRI, TVA, and PETC. Monitoring was performed for 4 days on one of the 4 existing 210 MW coal-fired boilers at the VTPS, 400 km north of Madras, India.

  2. System studies of coal fired-closed cycle MHD for central station power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zauderer, B.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the closed cycle MHD results obtained in a recent study of various advanced energy conversion (ECAS) power systems. The study was part of the first phase of this ECAS study. Since this was the first opportunity to evaluate the coal fired closed cycle MHD system, a number of iterations were required to partially optimize the system. The present paper deals with the latter part of the study in which the direct coal fired, MHD topping-steam bottoming cycle was established as the current choice for central station power generation. The emphasis of the paper is on the background assumptions and the conclusions that can be drawn from the closed cycle MHD analysis. The author concludes that closed cycle MHD has efficiencies comparable to that of open cycle MHD and that both systems are considerably more efficient than the other system studies in Phase 1 of the GE ECAS. Its cost will possibly be slightly higher than that of the open cycle MHD system. Also, with reasonable fuel escalation assumptions, both systems can produce lower cost electricity than conventional steam power plants. Suggestions for further work in closed cycle MHD components and systems is made.

  3. Lichens as biomonitors around a coal-fired power station in Israel.

    PubMed

    Garty, Jacob; Tomer, Sharon; Levin, Tal; Lehr, Haya

    2003-03-01

    In the present study epiphytic lichens were applied as biomonitors of air pollution to determine the environmental impact of a coal-fired power station. Thalli of the lichen Ramalina lacera (With.) J.R. Laund. growing on carob twigs (Ceratonia siliqua L.) were collected with their substrate in July 2000 in a relatively unpolluted forest near HaZorea, Ramoth Menashe, Northeast Israel, and transplanted to 10 biomonitoring sites in the vicinity of the coal-fired power station Oroth Rabin near the town of Hadera. The lichens were retrieved in January 2001. We examined the following parameters of lichen vitality: (a) potential quantum yield of photosynthesis expressed as fluorescence ratio F(v)/F(m), (b) stress-ethylene production, and (c) electric conductivity expressing integrity of cell membranes. Following an exposure of 7 months, the lichens were retrieved and physiological parameters and data of elemental content were analyzed comparatively. Electric conductivity values correlated positively with B, Fe, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, S, Sn, and Ti content. Concentrations of stress-ethylene correlated positively with Al, Ba, Pb, S, and V content and negatively with Cu and Sn. F(v)/F(m) ratios correlated negatively with S content. Some of the heavy metals reached lower levels than those reported in the relevant literature despite a wind regime that should have blown pollutants toward the biomonitoring sites.

  4. Estimation of NO{sub x} emissions from pulverized coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Wildman, D.J.; Smouse, S.M.

    1996-01-01

    The formation of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) during pulverized-coal combustion in utility boilers is governed by many factors, including the boiler`s design characteristics and operating conditions, and coal properties. Presently, no simple, reliable method is publicly available to estimate NO{sub x} emissions from any coal-fired boiler. A neural network back-propagation algorithm was previously developed using a small data set of boiler design characteristics and operating conditions, and coal properties for tangentially fired boilers. This initial effort yielded sufficient confidence in the use of neural network data analysis techniques to expand the data base to other boiler firing modes. A new neural network-based algorithm has been developed for all major pulverized coal-firing modes (wall, opposed-wall, cell, and tangential) that accurately predicts NO{sub x} emissions using eleven readily available data inputs. A sensitivity study was completed for all major input parameters, which yielded results that agree with conventional wisdom and practical experience. This new algorithm is being used by others, including the Electric Power Research Institute who has included it in its new software for making emissions compliance decisions, the Clean Air Technology Workstation.

  5. Automated remote control of fuel supply section for the coal fired power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Chudin, O.V.; Maidan, B.V.; Tsymbal, A.A.

    1996-05-01

    Approximately 6,000 miles east of Moscow, lays the city of Khabarovsk. This city`s coal-fired Power Plant 3 supplies electricity, heat and hot water to approximately 250,000 customers. Plant 3 has three units with a combined turbine capacity of 540 MW, (3 {times} 180) electrical and 780 (3 {times} 260) Gkal an hour thermal capacity with steam productivity of 2010 (3 {times} 670) tons per hour at 540 C. Coal fired thermal electric power plants rely on the equipment of the fuel supply section. The mechanism of the fuel supply section includes: conveyor belts, hammer crushers, guiding devices, dumping devices, systems for dust neutralizing, iron separators, metal detectors and other devices. As a rule, the fuel path in the power plant has three main directions: from the railroad car unloading terminal to the coal warehouse; from the coal warehouse to the acceptance bunkers of the power units, and the railroad car unloading terminal to the acceptance bunkers of power units. The fuel supply section always has a reserve and is capable of uninterruptible fuel supply during routine maintenance and/or repair work. This flexibility requires a large number of fuel traffic routes, some of which operate simultaneously with the feeding of coal from the warehouse to the acceptance bunkers of the power units, or in cases when rapid filling of the bunkers is needed, two fuel supply routes operate at the same time. The remote control of the fuel handling system at Power Plant 3 is described.

  6. Mineral composition of atmospheric particulates around a large coal-fired power station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Lopez-Soler, Angel; Mantilla, Enrique; Plana, Felicia

    The present work is a mineralogical study of atmospheric particulates around a large coal-fired power station in NE Spain. After a mineralogical study of the fly ash sampled in the electrostatic precipitators of the power station, several chemical and mineralogical patterns of the fly ash were employed as tracers of the power station emissions. At the same time, the study focused on the downwind evolution of secondary particulate matter, especially particulate sulphate. The studies on the mineralogy of air borne dust allowed us to distinguish between natural and anthropogenic particles. The major mineral phases identified in the samples studied were: gypsum, calcite, clay minerals (kaolinite, clinochlore and illite), quartz, talc and hematite. In addition to these mineral phases which are frequently present in the atmospheric particulate matter of the studied area, other mineral phases, such as feldspars, mullite, and copper sulphates, were detected in minor proportions. The results show that some mineralogical and morphological characteristics of the atmospheric particulate matter may be used as tracers of the influence of coal-fired power plant emissions. These characteristics include spherical morphologies, aluminosilicate glass, mullite, hematite and sulphate-fly ash associations. The possible buffering effect of atmospheric Ca-bearing minerals to neutralize the sulphate deposition is investigated.

  7. Estimation of NO{sub x} emissions from pulverized coal-fired utility boilers. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Wildman, D.J.; Smouse, S.M.

    1995-05-01

    The formation of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) during pulverized-coal combustion in utility boilers is governed by many factors, including the boiler`s design characteristics and operating conditions, and coal properties. Presently, no simple, reliable method is publicly available to estimate NO{sub x} emissions from any coal-fired boiler. A neural network back-propagation algorithm was previously developed using a small data set of boiler design characteristics and operating conditions, and coal properties for tangentially fired boilers. This initial effort yielded sufficient confidence in the use of neural network data analysis techniques to expand the data base to other boiler firing modes. A new neural network-based algorithm has been developed for all major pulverized coal-firing modes (wall, opposed-wall, cell, and tangential) that accurately predicts NO{sub x} emissions using 11 readily available data inputs. A sensitivity study, which was completed for all major input parameters, yielded results that agree with conventional wisdom and practical experience. This new algorithm is being used by others, including the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). EPRI has included the algorithm in its new software for making emissions compliance decisions, the Clean Air Technology Workstation.

  8. [Emission characteristics of PM10 from coal-fired industrial boiler].

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Li, Xing-Hua; Duan, Lei; Zhao, Meng; Duan, Jing-Chun; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2009-03-15

    Through ELPI (electrical low-pressure impactor) based dilution sampling system, the emission characteristics of PM10 and PM2.5 was studied experimentally at the inlet and outlet of dust catchers at eight different coal-fired industrial boilers. Results showed that a peak existed at around 0.12-0.20 microm of particle size for both number size distribution and mass size distribution of PM10 emitted from most of the boilers. Chemical composition analysis indicated that PM2.5 was largely composed of organic carbon, elementary carbon, and sulfate, with mass fraction of 3.7%-21.4%, 4.2%-24.6%, and 1.5%-55.2% respectively. Emission factors of PM10 and PM2.5 measured were 0.13-0.65 kg x t(-1) and 0.08-0.49 kg x t(-1) respectively for grate boiler using raw coal, and 0.24 kg x t(-1) and 0.22 kg x t(-1) for chain-grate boiler using briquette. In comparison, the PM2.5 emission factor of fluidized bed boiler is 1.14 kg x t(-1), much her than that of grate boiler. Due to high coal consumption and low efficiency of dust separator, coal-fired industrial boiler may become the most important source of PM10, and should be preferentially controlled in China.

  9. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Quarterly progress report, April 1--June 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-11-01

    This report covers work carried out under Task 2, Concept Definition and Analysis, Task 3, Preliminary R&D and Task 4, Commercial Generating Plant Design, under Contract AC22-92PC91155, ``Engineering Development of a Coal Fired High Performance Power Generation System`` between DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and United Technologies Research Center. The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of: >47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and Particulates {le}25% NSPS; cost {ge}65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW{sub e} combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. A survey of currently available high temperature alloys has been completed and some of their high temperature properties are shown for comparison. Several of the most promising candidates will be selected for testing to determine corrosion resistance and high temperature strength. The corrosion resistance testing of candidate refractory coatings is continuing and some of the recent results are presented. This effort will provide important design information that will ultimately establish the operating ranges of the HITAF.

  10. Selenium Partitioning and Removal Across a Wet FGD Scrubber at a Coal-Fired Power Plant.

    PubMed

    Senior, Constance L; Tyree, Corey A; Meeks, Noah D; Acharya, Chethan; McCain, Joseph D; Cushing, Kenneth M

    2015-12-15

    Selenium has unique fate and transport through a coal-fired power plant because of high vapor pressures of oxide (SeO2) in flue gas. This study was done at full-scale on a 900 MW coal-fired power plant with electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber. The first objective was to quantify the partitioning of selenium between gas and condensed phases at the scrubber inlet and outlet. The second objective was to determine the effect of scrubber operation conditions (pH, mass transfer, SO2 removal) on Se removal in both particulate and vapor phases. During part of the testing, hydrated lime (calcium hydroxide) was injected upstream of the scrubber. Gas-phase selenium and particulate-bound selenium were measured as a function of particle size at the inlet and outlet of the scrubber. The total (both phases) removal of Se across the scrubber averaged 61%, and was enhanced when hydrated lime sorbent was injected. There was evidence of gas-to-particle conversion of selenium across the scrubber, based on the dependence of selenium concentration on particle diameter downstream of the scrubber and on thermodynamic calculations.

  11. Applicability of the mixture of bituminous coal and anthracite to conventional pulverized coal firing boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Takano, Shin-Ichi; Kiga, Takashi; Miyamae, Shigehiro

    1994-12-31

    In some future, it is expected for Japanese power stations to be hard to get a high-grade coal like a bituminous coal. We conducted therefore pilot scale tests of pulverized blends of bituminous coal and anthracite using a 1.2MWt tunnel furnace in order to evaluate the applicability of the blends of bituminous coal and anthracite to conventional pulverized coal firing boilers. One kind of bituminous coal and two kinds of anthracite, one was of low ash content and another was of high ash content, were prepared for the test. Previously to pilot scale tests, coal properties and ash properties of the blends of bituminous coal and anthracite were analyzed to estimate the characteristics of combustion, ash deposition, and so on. In the test, we investigated the combustion efficiency, NOx emission, characteristics of ignition stability and grindability changing the blend rate of anthracite. Results of our study indicated that the critical restrictions on the blending rate of anthracite were unburnt carbon in fly ash and NOx emission as for coals tested. The acceptable limitation on blending rate of anthracite was 10 and 20%, respectively for two kinds of conventional pulverized coal fired boiler. Concerning to the grindability, it became worse with increasing the blending rate of anthracite from grindability test using a roller mill, while it became better estimating from HGI.

  12. Radioactivity of coals and ash and slag wastes at coal-fired thermal power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, D. A.; Sidorova, G. P.

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of published data on the content of radioactive nuclides in coals originating from various coal deposits, and in ash and slag wastes produced at coal-fired thermal power plants, as well as in fly ash emitted from thermal power plants into the atmosphere. Problems related to the use of coals with an elevated content of natural radionuclides (NRNs) and methods of their solution implemented at the Urtuyskoe coalfield are dealt with. Data on the analysis of Transbaikal coals for the NRN content, as well as weighted mean content of uranium and thorium in coals from the Siberian Region, are given. In order to reduce irradiation of plant personnel and the population of the areas where coal producers and coal-fired thermal power plants are located, it is necessary to organize very careful control of the NRN content in both coals and products of their combustion that are released into the environment. To solve the problem related to the control of radioactivity, the centralized approach and creation of a proper normative base are needed. Experience gained in developing the Urtuyskoe coalfield shows that it is possible to create an efficient system of coal quality control with respect to the radiation hygiene factor and provide protection of the environment and health of the population.

  13. Effect of occupation on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in coal-fired thermal plant workers

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Sandeep; Gill, Manmeet Singh; Gupta, Kapil; Manchanda, KC

    2013-01-01

    Background: Air pollution from coal-fired power units is large and varied, and contributes to a significant number of negative environmental and health effects. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) have been implicated in the pathogenesis of coal dust-induced toxicity in coal-fired power plants. Aim: The aim of the study was to measure free radical damage and the antioxidant activity in workers exposed to varying levels of coal dust. Material and Methods: The study population consisted of workers in coal handling unit, turbine unit, and boiler unit (n = 50 each), working in thermal power plant; and electricians (n = 50) from same department were taken as controls. Lipid peroxidation was measured by malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and antioxidant activity was determined by superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels. Statistical analysis was carried out by Student's unpaired t-test. Result: MDA levels showed significant increase (P > 0.001) in the thermal power plant workers than the electricians working in the city. The levels of SOD and GPx were significantly higher (P > 0.001) in electricians as compared to subjects working in thermal plant. Among the thermal plant workers, the coal handling unit workers showed significant increase (P > 0.001) in MDA and significant decrease in SOD and GPx than the workers of boiler and turbine unit workers. Conclusion: Oxidative stress due to increase in lipid peroxidation and decrease in antioxidant activity results from exposure to coal dust and coal combustion products during thermal plant activities. PMID:24083143

  14. CO2 post-combustion capture in coal-fired power plants integrated with solar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carapellucci, R.; Giordano, L.; Vaccarelli, M.

    2015-11-01

    The majority of the World's primary energy consumption is still based on fossil fuels, representing the largest source of global CO2 emissions. According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), such emissions must be significantly reduced in order to avoid the dramatic consequences of global warming. A potential way to achieve this ambitious goal is represented by the implementation of CCS (Carbon Capture and Storage) technologies. However, the significant amount of energy required by the CCS systems still represents one the major barriers for their deployment. Focusing on post-combustion capture based on amine absorption, several interesting options have been investigated to compensate the energy losses due to solvent regeneration, also using renewable energy sources. One of the most promising is based on the use of concentrating solar power (CSP), providing a part of the energy requirement of the capture island. In this study the integration of a CSP system into a coal-fired power plant with CO2 postcombustion capture is investigated. Basically, a CSP system is used to support the heat requirement for amine regeneration, by producing saturated steam at low temperature. This allows to reduce or even eliminate the conventional steam extraction from the main power plant, affecting positively net power production and efficiency. The energy analysis of the whole system is carried out using the GateCycle software to simulate the coal-fired power plant and ChemCad platform for the CO2 capture process based on amine absorption.

  15. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Quarterly progress report, January 1--March 31, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-31

    This report covers work carried out under Task 2, Concept Definition and Analysis, and Task 3, Preliminary R and D, under contract DE-AC22-92PC91155, ``Engineering Development of a Coal Fired High Performance Power Generation System`` between DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and United Technologies Research Center. The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of: > 47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and Particulates {le} 25% NSPS; cost {ge} 65% of heat input; and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW{sub e} combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (FHTAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. The cycle optimization effort has brought about several revisions to the system configuration resulting from: (1) the use of Illinois No. 6 coal instead of Utah Blind Canyon; (2) the use of coal rather than methane as a reburn fuel; (3) reducing radiant section outlet temperatures to 1700F (down from 1800F); and (4) the need to use higher performance (higher cost) steam cycles to offset losses introduced as more realistic operating and construction constraints are identified.

  16. Trace elements emission from coal-fired power stations in Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Altamirano-Bedolla, J.A.; Wong-Moreno, A.; Romo-Millares, C.A.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents partial results of work currently in progress to determine trace elements emissions associated with the coal combustion from coal-fired power stations in Mexico. It shows the progress of the first year of a five-year project, supported by the Mexican Ministry of Energy with the aim of developing methods to obtain representative samples, perform reliable analysis and produce accurate quantification and classification of these emissions. A description of the sampling procedures and analysis performed to the coal, bottom ash, fly ash and total suspended particles in flue gas are given. Some results are provided and discussed as an example of the large amount of information that will be analyzed in the future to produce conclusions regarding trace elements from coal fired stations in Mexico. Elements such as Mercury, Arsenic, Lead, Nickel, Chromium, Cadmium, Copper, Zinc, Manganese, Cobalt, Selenium, Atimony, Vanadium, Barium, Strontium, Boron and Molybdenum were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) using Flame AAS, Hydride Generation AAS and Cold Vapor AAS. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron Probe Microanalysis (SEM-EDX) was also used to identify some of the elements.

  17. Emissions, Monitoring and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Bland; Kumar Sellakumar; Craig Cormylo

    2007-08-01

    The Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) identified a need to re-test stack gas emissions from power plants that burn subbituminous coal relative to compliance with the EPA mercury control regulations for coal-fired plants. In addition, the SEC has also identified the specialized monitoring needs associated with mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEM). The overall objectives of the program were to develop and demonstrate solutions for the unique emission characteristics found when burning subbituminous coals. The program was executed in two phases; Phase I of the project covered mercury emission testing programs at ten subbituminous coal-fired plants. Phase II compared the performance of continuous emission monitors for mercury at subbituminous coal-fired power plants and is reported separately. Western Research Institute and a number of SEC members have partnered with Eta Energy and Air Pollution Testing to assess the Phase I objective. Results of the mercury (Hg) source sampling at ten power plants burning subbituminous coal concluded Hg emissions measurements from Powder River Basin (PBR) coal-fired units showed large variations during both ICR and SEC testing. Mercury captures across the Air Pollution Control Devices (APCDs) present much more reliable numbers (i.e., the mercury captures across the APCDs are positive numbers as one would expect compared to negative removal across the APCDs for the ICR data). Three of the seven units tested in the SEC study had previously shown negative removals in the ICR testing. The average emission rate is 6.08 lb/TBtu for seven ICR units compared to 5.18 lb/TBtu for ten units in the SEC testing. Out of the ten (10) SEC units, Nelson Dewey Unit 1, burned a subbituminous coal and petcoke blend thus lowering the total emission rate by generating less elemental mercury. The major difference between the ICR and SEC data is in the APCD performance and the mercury closure around the APCD. The average mercury removal values

  18. Potential nanotechnology applications for reducing freshwater consumption at coal fired power plants : an early view.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    2010-09-17

    This report was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Existing Plants Research Program, which has an energy-water research effort that focuses on water use at power plants. This study complements the overall research effort of the Existing Plants Research Program by evaluating water issues that could impact power plants. A growing challenge to the economic production of electricity from coal-fired power plants is the demand for freshwater, particularly in light of the projected trends for increasing demands and decreasing supplies of freshwater. Nanotechnology uses the unique chemical, physical, and biological properties that are associated with materials at the nanoscale to create and use materials, devices, and systems with new functions and properties. It is possible that nanotechnology may open the door to a variety of potentially interesting ways to reduce freshwater consumption at power plants. This report provides an overview of how applications of nanotechnology could potentially help reduce freshwater use at coal-fired power plants. It was developed by (1) identifying areas within a coal-fired power plant's operations where freshwater use occurs and could possibly be reduced, (2) conducting a literature review to identify potential applications of nanotechnology for facilitating such reductions, and (3) collecting additional information on potential applications from researchers and companies to clarify or expand on information obtained from the literature. Opportunities, areas, and processes for reducing freshwater use in coal-fired power plants considered in this report include the use of nontraditional waters in process and cooling water systems, carbon capture alternatives, more efficient processes for removing sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, coolants that have higher thermal conductivities than water alone, energy storage options, and a variety of plant inefficiencies, which, if improved

  19. Local Impacts of Mercury Emissions from the Three Pennsylvania Coal Fired Power Plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan,T.; Adams,J.; Bender, M.; Bu, C.; Piccolo, N.; Campbell, C.

    2008-02-01

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots of mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury 'hot spots'. Soil and oak leaf samples from around three large U.S. coal-fired power plants in Western Pennsylvania were collected and analyzed for evidence of 'hot spots'. These three plants (Conemaugh, Homer City, and Keystone) are separated by a total distance of approximately 30 miles. Each emits over 500 pounds of mercury per year which is well above average for mercury emissions from coal plants in the U.S. Soil and oak leaf sampling programs were performed around each power plant. Sampling rings one-mile apart were used with eight or nine locations on each ring. The prevailing winds in the region are from the west. For this reason, sampling was conducted out to 10 miles from the Conemaugh plant which is southeast of the others. The other plants were sampled to a distance of five miles. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with wind patterns. The study found the following

  20. ECONOMICS AND FEASIBILITY OF RANKINE CYCLE IMPROVEMENTS FOR COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Richard E. Waryasz; Gregory N. Liljedahl

    2004-09-08

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories (ALSTOM) has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL), American Electric Company (AEP) and Parsons Energy and Chemical Group to conduct a comprehensive study evaluating coal fired steam power plants, known as Rankine Cycles, equipped with three different combustion systems: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}). Five steam cycles utilizing a wide range of steam conditions were used with these combustion systems. The motivation for this study was to establish through engineering analysis, the most cost-effective performance potential available through improvement in the Rankine Cycle steam conditions and combustion systems while at the same time ensuring that the most stringent emission performance based on CURC (Coal Utilization Research Council) 2010 targets are met: > 98% sulfur removal; < 0.05 lbm/MM-Btu NO{sub x}; < 0.01 lbm/MM-Btu Particulate Matter; and > 90% Hg removal. The final report discusses the results of a coal fired steam power plant project, which is comprised of two parts. The main part of the study is the analysis of ten (10) Greenfield steam power plants employing three different coal combustion technologies: Pulverized Coal (PC), Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB), and Circulating Moving Bed (CMB{trademark}) integrated with five different steam cycles. The study explores the technical feasibility, thermal performance, environmental performance, and economic viability of ten power plants that could be deployed currently, in the near, intermediate, and long-term time frame. For the five steam cycles, main steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,292 F and pressures from 2,400 psi to 5,075 psi. Reheat steam temperatures vary from 1,000 F to 1,328 F. The number of feedwater heaters varies from 7 to 9 and the associated feedwater temperature varies from 500 F to 626 F. The main part of the study

  1. Development of advanced NO{sub x} control concepts for coal-fired utility boiler. Quarterly technical progress report No. 7, April 1, 1992--June 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.; Pont, J.N.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

    1993-02-11

    Hybrid technologies for the reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from coal-fired utility boilers have shown the potential to offer greater levels of NO{sub x} control than the sum of the individual technologies, leading to more cost effective emissions control strategies. Energy and Environmental Research Corporation (EER) has developed a hybrid NO{sub x} control strategy involving two proprietary concepts which has the potential to meet the US Department of Energy`s NO{sub x} reduction goal at a significant reduction in cost compared to existing technology. The process has been named CombiNO{sub x}. CombiNO{sub x} is an integration of three technologies: modified reburning, promoted selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) and methanol injection. These technologies are combined to achieve high levels of NO{sub x} emission reduction from coal-fired power plants equipped with S0{sub x} scrubbers. The first two steps, modified reburning and promoted SNCR are linked. It has been shown that performance of the SNCR agent is dependent upon local oxidation of CO. Reburning is used to generate the optimum amount of CO to promote the SNCR agent. Approximately 10 percent reburning is required, this represents half of that required for conventional reburning. If the reburn fuel is natural gas, the combination of reburning and SNCR may result in a significant cost savings over conventional reburning. The third step, injection of methanol into the flue gas, is used to oxidize NO to N0{sub 2} which may subsequently be removed in a wet scrubber. Pilot-scale tests performed at EER`s 1 MMBtu/hr Boiler Simulation Facility (BSF) have demonstrated NO{sub x} reductions up to 92%. The program`s next phase entails process scale-up to a 10 MMBtu/hr furnace also located at EER`s Santa Anna test site.

  2. Now you see it, now you don't: impact of temporary closures of a coal-fired power plant on air quality in the Columbia River Gorge National Scenic Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, D. A.; Reidmiller, D. R.

    2009-06-01

    We have analyzed 14 years of aerosol data spanning 1993-2006 from the IMPROVE site at Wishram, Washington (45.66° N, 121.00° W; 178 m above sea level) in the Columbia River Gorge (CRG) National Scenic Area (http://www.fs.fed.us/r6/columbia/) of the Pacific Northwest of the US. Two types of analyses were conducted. First, we examined the transport for days with the highest fine mass concentrations (particulate matter with diameter <2.5μm or, PM2.5) using HYSPLIT back-trajectories. We found that the highest PM2.5 concentrations occurred during autumn and were associated with easterly flow, down the CRG. Such flow transports emissions from a large coal power plant and a large agricultural facility into the CRG. This transport was found on 20 out of the 50 worst PM2.5 days and resulted in an average daily concentration of 20.1 μg/m3, compared with an average of 18.8 μg/m3 for the 50 highest days and 5.9 μg/m3 for all days. These airmasses contain not only high PM2.5 concentrations but also elevated aerosol NO3- concentrations. These results suggest that emissions from large industrial and agricultural sources on the east end of the CRG, including the coal-fired power plant at Boardman, Oregon, have a significant impact on air quality in the region. In the second analysis, we examined PM2.5 concentrations in the CRG during periods when the Boardman power plant was shut down due to repairs and compared these values with concentrations when the facility was operating at near full capacity. We also examined this relationship on the days when trajectories suggested the greatest influence from the power plant on air quality in the CRG. From this analysis, we found significantly higher PM concentrations when the power plant was operating at or near full capacity. We use these data to calculate that the contribution to PM2.5 mass in the CRG from the Boardman plant was 0.90 μg/m3 averaged over the entire

  3. MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS LOCAL IMPACTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISK.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, F.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; PENA, R.; BLAKE, R.

    2005-12-01

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. However, there are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg{sub 0} in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg

  4. Estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in coal-fired boiler furnaces by a portable image processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Wenhao; Lou, Chun; Sun, Yipeng; Zhou, Huaichun

    2011-02-15

    This paper presented an experimental investigation on the estimation of radiative properties and temperature distributions in a 670 t/h coal-fired boiler furnace by a portable imaging processing system. The portable system has been calibrated by a blackbody furnace. Flame temperatures and emissivities were measured by the portable system and equivalent blackbody temperatures were deduced. Comparing the equivalent blackbody temperatures measured by the portable system and the infrared pyrometer, the relative difference is less than 4%. The reconstructed pseudo-instantaneous 2-D temperature distributions in two cross-sections can disclose the combustion status inside the furnace. The measured radiative properties of particles in the furnace proved there is significant scattering in coal-fired boiler furnaces and it can provide useful information for the calculation of radiative heat transfer and numerical simulation of combustion in coal-fired boiler furnaces. The preliminary experimental results show this technology will be helpful for the combustion diagnosis in coal-fired boiler furnaces. (author)

  5. RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME I - INTRODUCTION AND METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

  6. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Technical progress report, [period ending December 31, 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1988-01-01

    This is the first quarterly report of DOE/PETC Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79864, entitled, ``Modeling of Integrated Environmental Control Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants.`` Refining, creating, and documenting of computer models concerning coal/flue gas cleaning and desulfurization are discussed. (VC)

  7. LOW CONCENTRATION MERCURY SORPTION MECHANISMS AND CONTROL BY CALCIUM-BASED SORBENTS; APPLICATION IN COAL-FIRED PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The capture of elemental mercury (Hgo) and mercuric chloride (HgCl2) by three types of calcium (Ca)-based sorbents was examined in this bench-scale study under conditions prevalent in coal fired utilities. Ca-based sorbent performances were compared to that of an activated carbon...

  8. DEVELOPMENT OF COST-EFFECTIVE NONCARBON SORBENTS FOR HG0 REMOVAL FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Noncarbon materials or mineral oxides (silica gel, alumina, molecular sieves, zeolites, and montmorillonite) were modified with various functional groups such as amine, amide, thiol, urea and active additives such as elemental mercury (Hg0) vapor at coal-fired utility ...

  9. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler systems. Quarterly report, April 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-31

    This progress report is on the project by Babcock and Wilcox Company to develop an advanced coal-fired low-emissions boiler system. The topics of the report include project management, the NO{sub x} subsystem, the SO{sub 2}/particulate/air toxics/solid by-product subsystem, boiler subsystem, balance of plant subsystem, and controls and sensors subsystems.

  10. ULTRA LOW NOx INTEGRATED SYSTEM FOR NOx EMISSION CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Galen H. Richards; Charles Q. Maney; Richard W. Borio; Robert D. Lewis

    2002-12-30

    ALSTOM Power Inc.'s Power Plant Laboratories, working in concert with ALSTOM Power's Performance Projects Group, has teamed with the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) to conduct a comprehensive study to develop/evaluate low-cost, efficient NOx control technologies for retrofit to pulverized coal fired utility boilers. The objective of this project was to develop retrofit NOx control technology to achieve less than 0.15 lb/MMBtu NOx (for bituminous coals) and 0.10 lb/MMBtu NOx (for subbituminous coals) from existing pulverized coal fired utility boilers at a cost which is at least 25% less than SCR technology. Efficient control of NOx is seen as an important, enabling step in keeping coal as a viable part of the national energy mix in this century, and beyond. Presently 57% of U.S. electrical generation is coal based, and the Energy Information Agency projects that coal will maintain a lead in U.S. power generation over all other fuel sources for decades (EIA 1998 Energy Forecast). Yet, coal-based power is being strongly challenged by society's ever-increasing desire for an improved environment and the resultant improvement in health and safety. The needs of the electric-utility industry are to improve environmental performance, while simultaneously improving overall plant economics. This means that emissions control technology is needed with very low capital and operating costs. This project has responded to the industry's need for low NOx emissions by evaluating ideas that can be adapted to present pulverized coal fired systems, be they conventional or low NOx firing systems. The TFS 2000{trademark} firing system has been the ALSTOM Power Inc. commercial offering producing the lowest NOx emission levels. In this project, the TFS 2000{trademark} firing system served as a basis for comparison to other low NOx systems evaluated and was the foundation upon which refinements were made to further improve NOx emissions and

  11. Development of advanced NO sub x control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Newhall, J.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

    1992-01-16

    Hybrid technologies for reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from coal fired utility boilers may offer greater levels of NO{sub x} control than the sum of the individual technologies, leading to more cost effective emissions control strategies. CombiNO{sub x} is an integration of modified reburning, promoted selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) and methanol injection to reduce NO{sub x} emissions from coal fired flue gas. The first two steps, modified reburning and promoted SNCR are linked. It was shown previously that oxidation of CO in the presence of a SNCR agent enhances the NO reduction performance. Less reburning than is typically done is required to generate the optimum amount of CO to promote the SNCR agent. If the reburn fuel is natural gas this may result in a significant cost savings over typical reburning. Injection of methanol into the flue gas has been shown at laboratory scale to convert NO to NO{sub 2} which may subsequently be removed in a wet scrubber. The overall objective of this program is to demonstrate the effectiveness of the CombiNOx process at a large enough scale and over a sufficiently broad range of conditions to provide all of the information needed to conduct a full-scale demonstration in a coal fired utility boiler. The specific technical goals of this program are: 70% NO{sub x} reduction at 20% of the cost of selective catalytic reduction; NO{sub x} levels at the stack of 60 ppm for ozone non-attainment areas; demonstrate coal reburning; identify all undesirable by-products of the process and their controlling parameters; demonstrate 95% NO{sub 2} removal in a wet scrubber. During this reporting period, experimental work was initiated at both the laboratory and pilot scale in the Fundamental Studies phase of the program. The laboratory scale work focused on determining whether or not the NO{sub 2} formed by the methanol injection step can be removed in an SO{sub 2} scrubber.

  12. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1993--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-30

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase 3 research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase 3 project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the past quarter, the major effort was completing some of the system modification installation designs, completing industry funded testing, developing a surrogate TSCA ash composition, and completing the TSCA ash Test Plan. The installation designs will be used for the equipment modifications planned for the end of CY 93. The industry funded testing consisted of vitrifying Spent Aluminum Potliner (SPL) which is a listed hazardous waste. This testing has verified that SPL can be vitrified into a safe, recyclable glass product. Some results from this testing are provided in Section 2.2.1. The surrogate TSCA ash composition was developed with input from various DOE laboratories and subcontractors. The surrogate ash consists of a mixture of MSW fly ash and bottom ash spiked with heavy metal contaminants. The levels of metal additives are sufficient to ascertain the partitioning of the contaminants between the glass and effluent flow streams. Details of the surrogate composition and the planned testing is provided in Section 4.2.2.

  13. Current status and prediction of major atmospheric emissions from coal-fired power plants in Shandong Province, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Tianqi; Jiang, Wei; Gao, Weidong

    2016-01-01

    Shandong is considered to be the top provincial emitter of air pollutants in China due to its large consumption of coal in the power sector and its dense distribution of coal-fired plants. To explore the atmospheric emissions of the coal-fired power sector in Shandong, an updated emission inventory of coal-fired power plants for the year 2012 in Shandong was developed. The inventory is based on the following parameters: coal quality, unit capacity and unit starting year, plant location, boiler type and control technologies. The total SO2, NOx, fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and mercury (Hg) emissions are estimated at 705.93 kt, 754.30 kt, 63.99 kt and 10.19 kt, respectively. Larger units have cleaner emissions than smaller ones. The coal-fired units (≥300 MW) are estimated to account for 35.87% of SO2, 43.24% of NOx, 47.74% of PM2.5 and 49.83% of Hg emissions, which is attributed primarily to the improved penetration of desulfurization, LNBs, denitration and dust-removing devices in larger units. The major regional contributors are southwestern cities, such as Jining, Liaocheng, Zibo and Linyi, and eastern cities, such as Yantai and Qindao. Under the high-efficiency control technology (HECT) scenario analysis, emission reductions of approximately 58.61% SO2, 80.63% NOx, 34.20% PM2.5 and 50.08% Hg could be achieved by 2030 compared with a 2012 baseline. This inventory demonstrates why it is important for policymakers and researchers to assess control measure effectiveness and to supply necessary input for regional policymaking and the management of the coal-fired power sector in Shandong.

  14. An approach of surface coal fire detection from ASTER and Landsat-8 thermal data: Jharia coal field, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Priyom; Guha, Arindam; Kumar, K. Vinod

    2015-07-01

    Radiant temperature images from thermal remote sensing sensors are used to delineate surface coal fires, by deriving a cut-off temperature to separate coal-fire from non-fire pixels. Temperature contrast of coal fire and background elements (rocks and vegetation etc.) controls this cut-off temperature. This contrast varies across the coal field, as it is influenced by variability of associated rock types, proportion of vegetation cover and intensity of coal fires etc. We have delineated coal fires from background, based on separation in data clusters in maximum v/s mean radiant temperature (13th band of ASTER and 10th band of Landsat-8) scatter-plot, derived using randomly distributed homogeneous pixel-blocks (9 × 9 pixels for ASTER and 27 × 27 pixels for Landsat-8), covering the entire coal bearing geological formation. It is seen that, for both the datasets, overall temperature variability of background and fires can be addressed using this regional cut-off. However, the summer time ASTER data could not delineate fire pixels for one specific mine (Bhulanbararee) as opposed to the winter time Landsat-8 data. The contrast of radiant temperature of fire and background terrain elements, specific to this mine, is different from the regional contrast of fire and background, during summer. This is due to the higher solar heating of background rocky outcrops, thus, reducing their temperature contrast with fire. The specific cut-off temperature determined for this mine, to extract this fire, differs from the regional cut-off. This is derived by reducing the pixel-block size of the temperature data. It is seen that, summer-time ASTER image is useful for fire detection but required additional processing to determine a local threshold, along with the regional threshold to capture all the fires. However, the winter Landsat-8 data was better for fire detection with a regional threshold.

  15. Temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of primary air pollutants emissions from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yifeng; Tian, Hezhong; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhen; Wang, Junling; Nie, Lei; Pan, Tao; Zhou, Junrui; Hua, Shenbing; Wang, Yong; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2016-06-01

    Coal-fired combustion is recognized as a significant anthropogenic source of atmospheric compounds in Beijing, causing heavy air pollution events and associated deterioration in visibility. Obtaining an accurate understanding of the temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of emissions from coal-fired industrial combustion is essential for predicting air quality changes and evaluating the effectiveness of current control measures. In this study, an integrated emission inventory of primary air pollutants emitted from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing is developed for the period of 2007-2013 using a technology-based approach. Future emission trends are projected through 2030 based on current energy-related and emission control policies. Our analysis shows that there is a general downward trend in primary air pollutants emissions because of the implementation of stricter local emission standards and the promotion by the Beijing municipal government of converting from coal-fired industrial boilers to gas-fired boilers. However, the ratio of coal consumed by industrial boilers to total coal consumption has been increasing, raising concerns about the further improvement of air quality in Beijing. Our estimates indicate that the total emissions of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOx, CO and VOCs from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing in 2013 are approximately 19,242 t, 13,345 t, 26,615 t, 22,965 t, 63,779 t and 1406 t, respectively. Under the current environmental policies and relevant energy savings and emission control plans, it may be possible to reduce NOx and other air pollutant emissions by 94% and 90% by 2030, respectively, if advanced flue gas purification technologies are implemented and coal is replaced with natural gas in the majority of existing boilers.

  16. Temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of primary air pollutants emissions from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yifeng; Tian, Hezhong; Yan, Jing; Zhou, Zhen; Wang, Junling; Nie, Lei; Pan, Tao; Zhou, Junrui; Hua, Shenbing; Wang, Yong; Wu, Xiaoqing

    2016-06-01

    Coal-fired combustion is recognized as a significant anthropogenic source of atmospheric compounds in Beijing, causing heavy air pollution events and associated deterioration in visibility. Obtaining an accurate understanding of the temporal trends and spatial variation characteristics of emissions from coal-fired industrial combustion is essential for predicting air quality changes and evaluating the effectiveness of current control measures. In this study, an integrated emission inventory of primary air pollutants emitted from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing is developed for the period of 2007-2013 using a technology-based approach. Future emission trends are projected through 2030 based on current energy-related and emission control policies. Our analysis shows that there is a general downward trend in primary air pollutants emissions because of the implementation of stricter local emission standards and the promotion by the Beijing municipal government of converting from coal-fired industrial boilers to gas-fired boilers. However, the ratio of coal consumed by industrial boilers to total coal consumption has been increasing, raising concerns about the further improvement of air quality in Beijing. Our estimates indicate that the total emissions of PM10, PM2.5, SO2, NOx, CO and VOCs from coal-fired industrial boilers in Beijing in 2013 are approximately 19,242 t, 13,345 t, 26,615 t, 22,965 t, 63,779 t and 1406 t, respectively. Under the current environmental policies and relevant energy savings and emission control plans, it may be possible to reduce NOx and other air pollutant emissions by 94% and 90% by 2030, respectively, if advanced flue gas purification technologies are implemented and coal is replaced with natural gas in the majority of existing boilers. PMID:27023281

  17. EVALUATION OF CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM EXISTING COAL FIRED PLANTS BY HYBRID SORPTION USING SOLID SORBENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Steven; Palo, Daniel; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel

    2014-12-01

    Under contract DE-FE0007603, the University of North Dakota conducted the project Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture from Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents. As an important element of this effort, an Environmental Health and Safety (EH&S) Assessment was conducted by Barr Engineering Co. (Barr) in association with the University of North Dakota. The assessment addressed air and particulate emissions as well as solid and liquid waste streams. The magnitude of the emissions and waste streams was estimated for evaluation purposes. EH&S characteristics of materials used in the system are also described. This document contains data based on the mass balances from both the 40 kJ/mol CO2 and 80 kJ/mol CO2 desorption energy cases evaluated in the Final Technical and Economic Feasibility study also conducted by Barr Engineering.

  18. Comprehensive assessment of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, T D; Schmidt, C E; Radziwon, A S

    1991-01-01

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has two current investigations, initiated before passage of the Clean Air Act Amendment (CAAA), that will determine the air toxic emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. DOE has contracted with Battelle Memorial Institute and Radian corporation to conduct studies focusing on the potential air toxics, both organic and inorganic, associated with different size fractions of fine particulate matter emitted from power plant stacks. Table 2 indicates the selected analytes to be investigated during these studies. PETC is also developing guidance on the monitoring of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPS) to be incorporated in the Environmental Monitoring plans for the demonstration projects in its Clean Coal Technology Program.

  19. Plume washout around a major coal-fired power plant: results of a single storm event

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, N. C.J.; Lindberg, S. E.; Saylor, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    Statistical analysis of precipitation chemistry from a 0.67-cm rain event in areas upwind and downwind of a 3160 MW coal-fired power plant indicated significantly higher sulfate and nitrate deposition rates in the target area, but no significant differences in H/sup +/, NH/sub 4//sup +/, or trace metal deposition rates or in concentrations of any components between target and control areas. Plume washout of sulfate in the target area exhibited a maximum deposition rate approx. 45% above the mean deposition rate of the control area at a site 12 km from the stack and for a plume residence time of approx. 1 to 2 h. Aerosol washout calculations suggested that approx. 70% of the observed excess deposition rate of sulfate could be attributed to sulfate aerosol; however, the variability in rainfall intensity makes it impossible to ascribe all of the difference in sulfate deposition to plume washout alone.

  20. Partitioning of natural radionuclides in the waste streams of coal-fired utilities.

    PubMed

    Roeck, D R; Reavey, T C; Hardin, J M

    1987-03-01

    Five coal-fired electric utility plants were sampled to determine radionuclide concentrations in all major process streams. The results, together with plant operating data, were used to track the following six naturally occurring radionuclides: 238U, 226Ra, 210Po, 210Pb, 230Th and 232Th. For each plant, radionuclide balances were computed and the amount and extent of volatilization and enrichment of any radionuclides in the stack effluent were determined. In general, most of the radioactivity was found in boiler bottom ash or particulate control equipment hopper ash; atmospheric emissions were quite small in comparison. Radionuclides in the stack effluent were not detected in the gaseous state and some (especially 210Po and 210Pb) were preferentially associated with the smallest fly-ash particles.

  1. Comprehensive assessment of toxic emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) have two primary goals: pollution prevention and a market-based least-cost approach to emission control. To address air quality issues as well as permitting and enforcement, the 1990 CAAA contain 11 sections or titles. The individual amendment titles are as follows: Title I - National Ambient Air Quality Standards Title II - Mobile Sources Title III - Hazardous Air Pollutants Title IV - Acid Deposition Control Title V - Permits Title VI - Stratospheric Ozone Protection Chemicals Title VII - Enforcement Title VIII - Miscellaneous Provisions Title IX - Clean Air Research Title X - Disadvantaged Business Concerns Title XI - Clean Air Employment Transition Assistance Titles I, III, IV, and V will change or have the potential to change how operators of coal-fired utility boilers control, monitor, and report emissions. For the purpose of this discussion, Title III is the primary focus.

  2. McHuchuma/Katewaka coal fired power plant feasibility study. Final report. Export trade information

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-22

    This study, conducted by Black and Veatch International, was funded by the U.S. Trade and Development Agency. The report assesses the feasibility for the development of a new coal fueled power plant in Tanzania at the Mchuchuma/Katewaka coal concession area. Volume 3, the Main Report, is divided into the following sections: (1.0) Introduction; (2.0) Power System Development Studies; (3.0) Conceptual Design Summary of the Mchuchuma Coal Fired Power Plant; (4.0) Fuel Supply Evaluation; (5.0) Transmission System Evaluation; (6.0) Power Plant Site and Infrastructure Evaluation; (7.0) Environmental Impact Assessment; (8.0) Institutional Aspects; (9.0) Financial Evaluation and Benefit Analysis; (10.0) Sources of Finance; Appendix (A) Preliminary Design of Mchuchuma Coal Plant.

  3. ASSESSMENT OF LOW COST NOVEL SORBENTS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT MERCURY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Trevor Ley

    2003-07-01

    This is a Technical Report under a program funded by the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to obtain the necessary information to assess the viability of lower cost alternatives to commercially available activated carbon for mercury control in coal-fired utilities. During this reporting period, ongoing tests and analysis on samples from Powerton and Valley to yield waste characterization results for the COHPAC long-term tests were conducted. A draft final report for the sorbent evaluations at Powerton was submitted. Sorbent evaluations at Valley Power Plant were completed on April 24, 2003. Data analysis and reporting for the Valley evaluations are continuing. A statement of work for sorbent evaluations at We Energies' Pleasant Prairie Power Plant was submitted and approved. Work will begin late August 2003. A no cost time extension was granted by DOE/NETL.

  4. ASSESSMENT OF LOW COST NOVEL SORBENTS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT MERCURY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2002-02-22

    This is a Technical Report under a program funded by the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to obtain the necessary information to assess the viability of lower cost alternatives to commercially available activated carbon for mercury control in coal-fired utilities. During this reporting period, several sorbent samples have been tested by URS in their laboratory fixed-bed system. The sorbents were evaluated under conditions simulating flue gas from power plants burning Powder River Basin (PRB) and low sulfur eastern bituminous coals. The equilibrium adsorption capacities of the sorbents for both elemental and oxidized mercury are presented. A team meeting discussing the overall program and meetings with Midwest Generation and Wisconsin Electric Power Company (WEPCO) concerning field testing occurred during this reporting period.

  5. System studies of coal fired-closed cycle MHD for central station power plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zauderer, B.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the closed-cycle MHD results obtained in a recent study of various advanced energy-conversion power systems. The direct coal-fired MHD topping-steam bottoming cycle was established as the current choice for central station power generation. Emphasis is placed on the background assumptions and the conclusions that can be drawn from the closed-cycle MHD analysis. It is concluded that closed-cycle MHD has efficiencies comparable to that of open-cycle MHD. Its cost will possibly be slightly higher than that of the open-cycle MHD system. Also, with reasonable fuel escalation assumptions, both systems can produce lower-cost electricity than conventional steam power plants. Suggestions for further work in closed-cycle MHD components and systems are made.

  6. [Hazard evaluation modeling of particulate matters emitted by coal-fired boilers and case analysis].

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan-Ting; Du, Qian; Gao, Jian-Min; Bian, Xin; Wang, Zhi-Pu; Dong, He-Ming; Han, Qiang; Cao, Yang

    2014-02-01

    In order to evaluate the hazard of PM2.5 emitted by various boilers, in this paper, segmentation of particulate matters with sizes of below 2. 5 microm was performed based on their formation mechanisms and hazard level to human beings and environment. Meanwhile, taking into account the mass concentration, number concentration, enrichment factor of Hg, and content of Hg element in different coal ashes, a comprehensive model aimed at evaluating hazard of PM2.5 emitted by coal-fired boilers was established in this paper. Finally, through utilizing filed experimental data of previous literatures, a case analysis of the evaluation model was conducted, and the concept of hazard reduction coefficient was proposed, which can be used to evaluate the performance of dust removers.

  7. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, A.; Behrens, G.

    1995-11-01

    Toxic emissions were measured in the gaseous, solid and aqueous effluent streams in a coal-fired gasification plant. Several internal process streams were also characterized to assess pollution control device effectiveness. The program, consisted of three major phases. Phase I was the toxics emission characterization program described above. phase II included the design, construction and shakedown testing of a high-temperature, high-pressure probe for collecting representative trace composition analysis of hot (1200{degrees}F) syngas. Phase III consisted of the collection of hot syngas samples utilizing the high-temperature probe. Preliminary results are presented which show the emission factors and removal efficiencies for several metals that are on the list of compounds defined by the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990.

  8. Development of advanced NO sub x control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.; Newhall, J.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

    1992-05-27

    CombiNO{sub x} is an integration of three technologies: modified reburning, promoted selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) and methanol injection. These technologies are combined to achieve high levels of NO{sub x}, emission reduction from coal fired power plants equipped with SO{sub 2} scrubbers. The first two steps, modified reburning and promoted SNCR are linked. It has been shown that, performance of the SNCR agent is dependent upon local oxidation of CO. Reburning is used to generate the optimum amount of CO to promote the SNCR agent, although lower levels of reburning are needed than are traditionally applied in the reburning process. If the reburn fuel is natural gas, the combination of reburning and SNCR may result in a significant cost savings over conventional reburning. The third step, injection of methanol into the flue gas, is used to convert NO to NO{sub 2} which may subsequently be removed in a wet scrubber.

  9. Novel Nanocrystalline Intermetallic Coatings for Metal Alloys in Coal-fired Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Z. Zak Fang; H. Y. Sohn

    2009-08-31

    Intermetallic coatings (iron aluminide and nickel aluminide) were prepared by a novel reaction process. In the process, the aluminide coating is formed by an in-situ reaction between the aluminum powder fed through a plasma transferred arc (PTA) torch and the metal substrate (steel or Ni-base alloy). Subjected to the high temperature within an argon plasma zone, aluminum powder and the surface of the substrate melt and react to form the aluminide coatings. The prepared coatings were found to be aluminide phases that are porosity-free and metallurgically bonded to the substrate. The coatings also exhibit excellent high-temperature corrosion resistance under the conditions which simulate the steam-side and fire-side environments in coal-fired boilers. It is expected that the principle demonstrated in this process can be applied to the preparation of other intermetallic and alloy coatings.

  10. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems, Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is actively pursuing the development and testing of coal-fired combustion systems for residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. In response, MTCI initiated the development of a new combustor technology based on the principle of pulse combustion under the sponsorship of PETC (Contract No. AC22-83PC60419). The initial pulse combustor development program was conducted in three phases (MTCI, Development of a Pulsed Coal Combustor Fired with CWM, Phase III Final Report, DOE Contract No. AC22-83PC60419, November 1986). Phase I included a review of the prior art in the area of pulse combustion and the development of pulse combustor design concepts. It led to the conclusion that pulse combustors offer technical and base-of-operation advantages over conventional burners and also indicated favorable economics for replacement of oil- and gas-fired equipment.

  11. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to ``conventional`` technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  12. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.; Salmento, J.S.; Frey, H.C.; Abu-Baker, A.; Berkenpas, M.

    1991-05-01

    The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was designed to permit the systematic evaluation of environmental control options for pulverized coal-fired (PC) power plants. Of special interest was the ability to compare the performance and cost of advanced pollution control systems to conventional'' technologies for the control of particulate, SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x}. Of importance also was the ability to consider pre-combustion, combustion and post-combustion control methods employed alone or in combination to meet tough air pollution emission standards. Finally, the ability to conduct probabilistic analyses is a unique capability of the IECM. Key results are characterized as distribution functions rather than as single deterministic values. (VC)

  13. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1988-06-01

    This is the third quarterly report of DOE Contract No. DE-AC22- 87PC79864, entitled Modeling of Integrated Environmental Control Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants.'' This report summarizes accomplishments during the period April 1, 1988 to June 30, 1988. Our efforts during the last quarter focused on, (1) completion of a sulfuric acid plant model (used in conjunction with by-product recovery processes for SO{sub 2}/NO{sub x} removal) and, (2) an update the NOXSO process model. Other accomplishments involved revision and expansion of the enthalpy data algorithms used for process energy balances. The sections below present the details of these developments. References are included at the end of each section.

  14. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1989-10-01

    The general goal of this research project is to enhance, and transfer to DOE, a new computer simulation model for analyzing the performance and cost of environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants. Systems utilizing pre-combustion, combustion, or post-combustion control methods, individually or in combination, may be considered. A unique capability of this model is the probabilistic representation of uncertainty in model input parameters. This stochastic simulation capability allows the performance and cost of environmental control systems to be quantified probabilistically, accounting for the interactions among all uncertain process and economic parameters. This method facilitates more rigorous comparisons between conventional and advanced clean coal technologies promising improved cost and/or effectiveness for SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} removal. Detailed modeling of several pre-combustion and post-combustion processes of interest to DOE/PETC have been selected for analysis as part of this project.

  15. Analysis of mercury in rock varnish samples in areas impacted by coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Nowinski, Piotr; Hodge, Vernon F; Gerstenberger, Shawn; Cizdziel, James V

    2013-08-01

    Rock varnish is a manganese-iron rich coating that forms on rocks, most often in arid climates. To assess its utility as an environmental monitor of mercury contamination, cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS) was used for analysis. Samples were collected in the fallout patterns of two coal-fired power plants in southern Nevada: the defunct Mohave Power Plant (MPP) and the operating Reid Gardner Power Plant (RGPP). The resultant Hg concentrations in rock varnishes were plotted as a function of the distance from each power plant. The highest concentrations of Hg occurred at locations that suggest the power plants are the main source of pollutants. In addition, past tracer plume studies carried out at MPP show that the highest tracer concentrations coincide with the highest rock varnish Hg concentrations. However, additional samples are required to further demonstrate that power plants are indeed the sources of mercury in varnishes.

  16. Development and testing of commercial-scale, coal-fired combustion systems: Phase 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The US Department of Energy's Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) is actively pursuing the development and testing of coal-fired combustion systems for residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. In response, MTCI initiated the development of a new combustor technology based on the principle of pulse combustion under the sponsorship of PETC (Contract No. AC22-83PC60419). The initial pulse combustor development program was conducted in three phases (MTCI, Development of a Pulsed Coal Combustor Fired with CWM, Phase III Final Report, DOE Contract No. AC22-83PC60419, November 1986). Phase I included a review of the prior art in the area of pulse combustion and the development of pulse combustor design concepts. It led to the conclusion that pulse combustors offer technical and base-of-operation advantages over conventional burners and also indicated favorable economics for replacement of oil- and gas-fired equipment.

  17. Economic analysis of atmospheric mercury emission control for coal-fired power plants in China.

    PubMed

    Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Schreifels, Jeremy; Hao, Jiming

    2015-07-01

    Coal combustion and mercury pollution are closely linked, and this relationship is particularly relevant in China, the world's largest coal consumer. This paper begins with a summary of recent China-specific studies on mercury removal by air pollution control technologies and then provides an economic analysis of mercury abatement from these emission control technologies at coal-fired power plants in China. This includes a cost-effectiveness analysis at the enterprise and sector level in China using 2010 as a baseline and projecting out to 2020 and 2030. Of the control technologies evaluated, the most cost-effective is a fabric filter installed upstream of the wet flue gas desulfurization system (FF+WFGD). Halogen injection (HI) is also a cost-effective mercury-specific control strategy, although it has not yet reached commercial maturity. The sector-level analysis shows that 193 tons of mercury was removed in 2010 in China's coal-fired power sector, with annualized mercury emission control costs of 2.7 billion Chinese Yuan. Under a projected 2030 Emission Control (EC) scenario with stringent mercury limits compared to Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the increase of selective catalytic reduction systems (SCR) and the use of HI could contribute to 39 tons of mercury removal at a cost of 3.8 billion CNY. The economic analysis presented in this paper offers insights on air pollution control technologies and practices for enhancing atmospheric mercury control that can aid decision-making in policy design and private-sector investments.

  18. Measurement of slurry droplets in coal-fired flue gas after WFGD.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xue-Cheng; Zhao, Hua-Feng; Zhang, Yong-Xin; Zheng, Cheng-Hang; Gao, Xiang

    2015-10-01

    China owns the world's largest capacity of coal-fired power units. By the end of 2012, the capacity of installed national thermal power has been 819.68 million kilowatts. The latest standard requires that newly built power plants emit SO2 in no more than 100 mg/m(3) and the emission of old ones be lower than 200 mg/m(3) while in some key areas the emission should be controlled under 50 mg/m(3). So by the end of 2012, 90% of the active coal-fired units have been equipped with flue gas desulfurization devices. Among the desulfurization methods adopted, limestone-gypsum wet flue gas desulphurization accounts for 92%, causing the problem of fine droplets in the exhaust gas after defogger, which may even form "gypsum rain." At present, sampling methods are widely used at home and abroad, such as magnesium ion tracer method, modified magnesium ion tracer method and chemical analysis. In addition, some scholars use aerodynamic methods, such as ELPI, to measure the diameter distribution and concentration. The methods mentioned above all have their own demerits, such as the inability to on-line, continuous measurements and the need of prolonged measuring time. Thus, in this paper some potential optical on-line methods are presented, such as Fraunhofer diffraction pattern analysis and wavelength-multiplexed laser extinction. Also brought up are their measuring scope and merits. These methods have already been utilized to measure small liquid droplets and their demonstrations and evaluations are as well stated. Finally, a 3D imaging method based on digital holographic microscope is proposed for in-line measurement of size and concentration of slurry droplets. The feasibility of this method is demonstrated by preliminary experimental investigation.

  19. Small, modular, low-cost coal-fired power plants for the international market

    SciTech Connect

    Zauderer, B.; Frain, B.; Borck, B.; Baldwin, A.L.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents recent operating results of Coal Tech`s second generation, air cooled, slagging coal combustor, and its application to power plants in the 1 to 20 MW range. This 20 MMBtu/hour combustor was installed in a new demonstration plant in Philadelphia, PA in 1995. It contains the combustion components of a 1 MWe coal fired power plant, a 17,500 lb/hour steam boiler, coal storage and feed components, and stack gas cleanup components. The plant`s design incorporates improvements resulting from 2,000 hours of testing between 1987 and 1993 on a first generation, commercial scale, air cooled combustor of equal thermal rating. Since operations began in early 1996, a total of 51 days of testing have been successfully completed. Major results include durability of the combustor`s refractory wall, excellent combustion with high ash concentration in the fuel, removal of 95% to 100% of the slag in the combustor, very little ash deposition in the boiler, major reduction of in-plant parasitic power, and simplified power system control through the use of modular designs of sub-systems and computer control. Rapid fuel switching between oil, gas, and coal and turndown of up to a factor of three was accomplished. All these features have been incorporated in advanced coal fired plant designs in the 1 to 20 MWe range. Incremental capital costs are only $100 to $200/kW higher than comparable rated gas or oil fired steam generating systems. Most of its components and subsystems can be factory assembled for very rapid field installation. The low capital, low operating costs, fuel flexibility, and compatibility with very high ash fuels, make this power system very attractive in regions of the world having domestic supplies of these fuels.

  20. Life Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Coal-Fired Electricity Generation: Systematic Review and Harmonization

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, M.; Heath, G. A.; O'Donoughue, P.; Vorum, M.

    2012-04-01

    This systematic review and harmonization of life cycle assessments (LCAs) of utility-scale coal-fired electricity generation systems focuses on reducing variability and clarifying central tendencies in estimates of life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Screening 270 references for quality LCA methods, transparency, and completeness yielded 53 that reported 164 estimates of life cycle GHG emissions. These estimates for subcritical pulverized, integrated gasification combined cycle, fluidized bed, and supercritical pulverized coal combustion technologies vary from 675 to 1,689 grams CO{sub 2}-equivalent per kilowatt-hour (g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh) (interquartile range [IQR]= 890-1,130 g CO{sub 2}-eq/kWh; median = 1,001) leading to confusion over reasonable estimates of life cycle GHG emissions from coal-fired electricity generation. By adjusting published estimates to common gross system boundaries and consistent values for key operational input parameters (most importantly, combustion carbon dioxide emission factor [CEF]), the meta-analytical process called harmonization clarifies the existing literature in ways useful for decision makers and analysts by significantly reducing the variability of estimates ({approx}53% in IQR magnitude) while maintaining a nearly constant central tendency ({approx}2.2% in median). Life cycle GHG emissions of a specific power plant depend on many factors and can differ from the generic estimates generated by the harmonization approach, but the tightness of distribution of harmonized estimates across several key coal combustion technologies implies, for some purposes, first-order estimates of life cycle GHG emissions could be based on knowledge of the technology type, coal mine emissions, thermal efficiency, and CEF alone without requiring full LCAs. Areas where new research is necessary to ensure accuracy are also discussed.

  1. Economic analysis of atmospheric mercury emission control for coal-fired power plants in China.

    PubMed

    Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Schreifels, Jeremy; Hao, Jiming

    2015-07-01

    Coal combustion and mercury pollution are closely linked, and this relationship is particularly relevant in China, the world's largest coal consumer. This paper begins with a summary of recent China-specific studies on mercury removal by air pollution control technologies and then provides an economic analysis of mercury abatement from these emission control technologies at coal-fired power plants in China. This includes a cost-effectiveness analysis at the enterprise and sector level in China using 2010 as a baseline and projecting out to 2020 and 2030. Of the control technologies evaluated, the most cost-effective is a fabric filter installed upstream of the wet flue gas desulfurization system (FF+WFGD). Halogen injection (HI) is also a cost-effective mercury-specific control strategy, although it has not yet reached commercial maturity. The sector-level analysis shows that 193 tons of mercury was removed in 2010 in China's coal-fired power sector, with annualized mercury emission control costs of 2.7 billion Chinese Yuan. Under a projected 2030 Emission Control (EC) scenario with stringent mercury limits compared to Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the increase of selective catalytic reduction systems (SCR) and the use of HI could contribute to 39 tons of mercury removal at a cost of 3.8 billion CNY. The economic analysis presented in this paper offers insights on air pollution control technologies and practices for enhancing atmospheric mercury control that can aid decision-making in policy design and private-sector investments. PMID:26141885

  2. ASSESSMENT OF LOW COST NOVEL SORBENTS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT MERCURY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Sharon Sjostrom

    2004-03-01

    The injection of sorbents upstream of a particulate control device is one of the most promising methods for controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired utility boilers with electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters. Studies carried out at the bench-, pilot-, and full-scale have shown that a wide variety of factors may influence sorbent mercury removal effectiveness. These factors include mercury species, flue gas composition, process conditions, existing pollution control equipment design, and sorbent characteristics. The objective of the program is to obtain the necessary information to assess the viability of lower cost alternatives to commercially available activated carbon for mercury control in coal-fired utilities. Prior to injection testing, a number of sorbents were tested in a slipstream fixed-bed device both in the laboratory and at two field sites. Based upon the performance of the sorbents in a fixed-bed device and the estimated cost of mercury control using each sorbent, seventeen sorbents were chosen for screening in a slipstream injection system at a site burning a Western bituminous coal/petcoke blend, five were chosen for screening at a site burning a subbituminous Powder River Basin (PRB) coal, and nineteen sorbents were evaluated at a third site burning a PRB coal. Sorbents evaluated during the program were of various materials, including: activated carbons, treated carbons, other non-activated carbons, and non-carbon material. The economics and performance of the novel sorbents evaluated demonstrate that there are alternatives to the commercial standard. Smaller enterprises may have the opportunity to provide lower price mercury sorbents to power generation customers under the right set of circumstances.

  3. The Net Climate Impact of Coal-Fired Power Plant Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shindell, D.; Faluvegi, G.

    2010-01-01

    Coal-fired power plants influence climate via both the emission of long-lived carbon dioxide (CO2) and short-lived ozone and aerosol precursors. Using a climate model, we perform the first study of the spatial and temporal pattern of radiative forcing specifically for coal plant emissions. Without substantial pollution controls, we find that near-term net global mean climate forcing is negative due to the well-known aerosol masking of the effects of CO2. Imposition of pollution controls on sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides leads to a rapid realization of the full positive forcing from CO2, however. Long-term global mean forcing from stable (constant) emissions is positive regardless of pollution controls. Emissions from coal-fired power plants until 1970, including roughly 1/3 of total anthropogenic CO2 emissions, likely contributed little net global mean climate forcing during that period though they may have induce weak Northern Hemisphere mid-latitude (NHml) cooling. After that time many areas imposed pollution controls or switched to low sulfur coal. Hence forcing due to emissions from 1970 to 2000 and CO2 emitted previously was strongly positive and contributed to rapid global and especially NHml warming. Most recently, new construction in China and India has increased rapidly with minimal application of pollution controls. Continuation of this trend would add negative near-term global mean climate forcing but severely degrade air quality. Conversely, following the Western and Japanese pattern of imposing air quality pollution controls at a later time could accelerate future warming rates, especially at NHmls. More broadly, our results indicate that due to spatial and temporal inhomogeneities in forcing, climate impacts of multi-pollutant emissions can vary strongly from region to region and can include substantial effects on maximum rate-of-change, neither of which are captured by commonly used global metrics. The method we introduce here to estimate

  4. Rock magnetic finger-printing of soil from a coal-fired thermal power plant.

    PubMed

    Gune, Minal; Harshavardhana, B G; Balakrishna, K; Udayashankar, H N; Shankar, R; Manjunatha, B R

    2016-05-01

    We present seasonal rock magnetic data for 48 surficial soil samples collected seasonally around a coal-fired thermal power plant on the southwest coast of India to demonstrate how fly ash from the power plant is transported both spatially and seasonally. Sampling was carried out during pre-monsoon (March), early-monsoon (June), monsoon (September) and post-monsoon (December) seasons. Low- and high-frequency magnetic susceptibility (χlf and χhf), frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility (χfd), χfd %, isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM), "hard" IRM (HIRM), saturation IRM (SIRM) and inter-parametric ratios were determined for the samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used on limited number of samples. NOAA HYSPLIT MODEL backward trajectory analysis and principal component analysis were carried out on the data. Fly ash samples exhibit an average HIRM value (400.07 × 10(-5) Am(2) kg(-1)) that is comparable to that of soil samples. The pre- and post-monsoon samples show a consistent reduction in the concentration of magnetically "hard" minerals with increasing distance from the power plant. These data suggest that fly ash has indeed been transported from the power plant to the sampling locations. Hence, HIRM may perhaps be used as a proxy for tracking fly ash from coal-fired thermal power plants. Seasonal data show that the distribution of fly ash to the surrounding areas is minimum during monsoons. They also point to the dominance of SP magnetite in early-monsoon season, whereas magnetic depletion is documented in the monsoon season. This seasonal difference is attributable to both pedogenesis and anthropogenic activity i.e. operation of the thermal power plant. PMID:27056477

  5. An intelligent emissions controller for fuel lean gas reburn in coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Reifman, J; Feldman, E E; Wei, T Y; Glickert, R W

    2000-02-01

    The application of artificial intelligence techniques for performance optimization of the fuel lean gas reburn (FLGR) system is investigated. A multilayer, feedforward artificial neural network is applied to model static nonlinear relationships between the distribution of injected natural gas into the upper region of the furnace of a coal-fired boiler and the corresponding oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions exiting the furnace. Based on this model, optimal distributions of injected gas are determined such that the largest NOx reduction is achieved for each value of total injected gas. This optimization is accomplished through the development of a new optimization method based on neural networks. This new optimal control algorithm, which can be used as an alternative generic tool for solving multidimensional nonlinear constrained optimization problems, is described and its results are successfully validated against an off-the-shelf tool for solving mathematical programming problems. Encouraging results obtained using plant data from one of Commonwealth Edison's coal-fired electric power plants demonstrate the feasibility of the overall approach. Preliminary results show that the use of this intelligent controller will also enable the determination of the most cost-effective operating conditions of the FLGR system by considering, along with the optimal distribution of the injected gas, the cost differential between natural gas and coal and the open-market price of NOx emission credits. Further study, however, is necessary, including the construction of a more comprehensive database, needed to develop high-fidelity process models and to add carbon monoxide (CO) emissions to the model of the gas reburn system.

  6. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-03

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation's Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications'' is project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelling and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, approval of Vortec's Environmental Assessment (EA) required under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was approved. The EA approval cycle took approximately 9 months. The preliminary test program which was being held in abeyance pending approval of the EA was initiated. Six preliminary test runs were successfully competed during the period. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the preliminary tests were completed.

  7. The development of a coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-16

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation's Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications has been selected for Phase III development under contract DE-AC22-91PC91161. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting, recycling, and refining processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase HI research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing glass frits and wool fiber from boiler and incinerator ashes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. The economic evaluation of commercial scale CMS processes has begun. In order to accurately estimate the cost of the primary process vessels, preliminary designs for 25, 50, and 100 ton/day systems have been started under Task 1. This data will serve as input data for life cycle cost analysis performed as part of techno-economic evaluations. The economic evaluations of commercial CMS systems will be an integral part of the commercialization plan.

  8. Microfine coal firing results from a retrofit gas/oil-designed industrial boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Patel, R.; Borio, R.W.; Liljedahl, G.; Miller, B.G.; Scaroni, A.W.; McGowan, J.G.

    1995-12-31

    The development of a High Efficiency Advanced Coal Combustor (HEACC) has been in progress since 1987 and the ABB Power Plant Laboratories. The initial work on this concept produced an advanced coal firing system that was capable of firing both water-based and dry pulverized coal in an industrial boiler environment. Economics may one day dictate that it makes sense to replace oil or natural gas with coal in boilers that were originally designed to burn these fuels. The objective of the current program is to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a gas/oil designed boiler to burn micronized coal. In support of this overall objective, the following specific areas were targeted: A coal handling/preparation system that can meet the technical requirements for retrofitting microfine coal on a boiler designed for burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining boiler thermal performance in accordance with specifications when burning oil or natural gas; Maintaining NOx emissions at or below 0.6 lb/MBtu; Achieving combustion efficiencies of 98% or higher; and Calculating economic payback periods as a function of key variables. The overall program has consisted of five major tasks: (1) A review of current state-of-the-art coal firing system components; (2) Design and experimental testing of a prototype HEACC burner; (3) Installation and testing of a HEACC system in a commercial retrofit application; (4) Economic evaluation of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications; and (5) Long term demonstration under commercial user demand conditions. This paper will summarize the latest key experimental results (Task 3) and the economic evaluation (Task 4) of the HEACC concept for retrofit applications. 28 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Rock magnetic finger-printing of soil from a coal-fired thermal power plant.

    PubMed

    Gune, Minal; Harshavardhana, B G; Balakrishna, K; Udayashankar, H N; Shankar, R; Manjunatha, B R

    2016-05-01

    We present seasonal rock magnetic data for 48 surficial soil samples collected seasonally around a coal-fired thermal power plant on the southwest coast of India to demonstrate how fly ash from the power plant is transported both spatially and seasonally. Sampling was carried out during pre-monsoon (March), early-monsoon (June), monsoon (September) and post-monsoon (December) seasons. Low- and high-frequency magnetic susceptibility (χlf and χhf), frequency-dependent magnetic susceptibility (χfd), χfd %, isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM), "hard" IRM (HIRM), saturation IRM (SIRM) and inter-parametric ratios were determined for the samples. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used on limited number of samples. NOAA HYSPLIT MODEL backward trajectory analysis and principal component analysis were carried out on the data. Fly ash samples exhibit an average HIRM value (400.07 × 10(-5) Am(2) kg(-1)) that is comparable to that of soil samples. The pre- and post-monsoon samples show a consistent reduction in the concentration of magnetically "hard" minerals with increasing distance from the power plant. These data suggest that fly ash has indeed been transported from the power plant to the sampling locations. Hence, HIRM may perhaps be used as a proxy for tracking fly ash from coal-fired thermal power plants. Seasonal data show that the distribution of fly ash to the surrounding areas is minimum during monsoons. They also point to the dominance of SP magnetite in early-monsoon season, whereas magnetic depletion is documented in the monsoon season. This seasonal difference is attributable to both pedogenesis and anthropogenic activity i.e. operation of the thermal power plant.

  10. An intelligent emissions controller for fuel lean gas reburn in coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Reifman, J; Feldman, E E; Wei, T Y; Glickert, R W

    2000-02-01

    The application of artificial intelligence techniques for performance optimization of the fuel lean gas reburn (FLGR) system is investigated. A multilayer, feedforward artificial neural network is applied to model static nonlinear relationships between the distribution of injected natural gas into the upper region of the furnace of a coal-fired boiler and the corresponding oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions exiting the furnace. Based on this model, optimal distributions of injected gas are determined such that the largest NOx reduction is achieved for each value of total injected gas. This optimization is accomplished through the development of a new optimization method based on neural networks. This new optimal control algorithm, which can be used as an alternative generic tool for solving multidimensional nonlinear constrained optimization problems, is described and its results are successfully validated against an off-the-shelf tool for solving mathematical programming problems. Encouraging results obtained using plant data from one of Commonwealth Edison's coal-fired electric power plants demonstrate the feasibility of the overall approach. Preliminary results show that the use of this intelligent controller will also enable the determination of the most cost-effective operating conditions of the FLGR system by considering, along with the optimal distribution of the injected gas, the cost differential between natural gas and coal and the open-market price of NOx emission credits. Further study, however, is necessary, including the construction of a more comprehensive database, needed to develop high-fidelity process models and to add carbon monoxide (CO) emissions to the model of the gas reburn system. PMID:10680354

  11. Cost analysis of a coal-fired power plant using the NPV method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Ravinder; Sharma, Avdhesh Kr.; Tewari, P. C.

    2015-06-01

    The present study investigates the impact of various factors affecting coal-fired power plant economics of 210 MW subcritical unit situated in north India for electricity generation. In this paper, the cost data of various units of thermal power plant in terms of power output capacity have been fitted using power law with the help of the data collected from a literature search. To have a realistic estimate of primary components or equipment, it is necessary to include the latest cost of these components. The cost analysis of the plant was carried out on the basis of total capital investment, operating cost and revenue. The total capital investment includes the total direct plant cost and total indirect plant cost. Total direct plant cost involves the cost of equipment (i.e. boiler, steam turbine, condenser, generator and auxiliary equipment including condensate extraction pump, feed water pump, etc.) and other costs associated with piping, electrical, civil works, direct installation cost, auxiliary services, instrumentation and controls, and site preparation. The total indirect plant cost includes the cost of engineering and set-up. The net present value method was adopted for the present study. The work presented in this paper is an endeavour to study the influence of some of the important parameters on the lifetime costs of a coal-fired power plant. For this purpose, parametric study with and without escalation rates for a period of 35 years plant life was evaluated. The results predicted that plant life, interest rate and the escalation rate were observed to be very sensitive on plant economics in comparison to other factors under study.

  12. Mercury emissions and coal-fired power plants: Understanding the problems and identifying solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.E.

    1997-12-31

    Electric utility emissions contribute to an array of air quality concerns, most notably ground-level ozone, acid deposition, global warming, and fine particulate pollution. More recently, electric utility emissions of air toxics such as mercury have been linked to serious ecological health effects, especially in fish-eating birds. Another issue that is gaining attention is that of eutrophication in marine waters from nitrogen oxide emissions. Coal-fired power plants warrant special consideration, particularly in regards to mercury. Coal-fired power plants currently represent over 30% of controllable anthropogenic emissions in the US and are expected to emit nearly half of all anthropogenic emissions in the US by 2010. However, because the human health threshold for mercury is not known with certainty and mercury control technologies such as activated carbon injection are extremely expensive, mercury emissions from electric utilities have not been addressed in the US through either regulation or voluntary initiatives. The Center is beginning to evaluate the viability of no- or low-regrets measures that may be more consistent with the current state of the science on human and ecological health effects. The Center is also looking at options to reduce eutophication. Specifically, the Center has: hosted a workshop to assess the viability of low-cost mercury control options for electric utilities, developed a proposal to undertake a mercury banking initiative, worked to reduce compliance costs associated with multiple and conflicting regulations, and investigated the potential benefits and workability of NOx trading between air and water sources These activities are described in greater detail in the Center`s paper.

  13. Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT). Demonstration of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) technology for the control of nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions from high-sulfur coal-fired boilers: Volume 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-10-01

    The objective of this project is to demonstrate and evaluate commercially available Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) catalysts from U.S., Japanese and European catalyst suppliers on a high-sulfur U.S. coal-fired boiler. SCR is a post-combustion nitrogen oxide (NO.) control technology that involves injecting ammonia into the flue gas generated from coal combustion in an electric utility boiler. The flue gas containing ammonia is then passed through a reactor that contains a specialized catalyst. In the presence of the catalyst, the ammonia reacts with NO. to convert it to nitrogen and water vapor. Although SCR is widely practiced in Japan and Europe on gas-, oil-, and low-sulfur coal- fired boilers, there are several technical uncertainties associated with applying SCR to U.S. coals. These uncertainties include: 1) potential catalyst deactivation due to poisoning by trace metal species present in U.S. coals that are not present in other fuels. 2) performance of the technology and effects on the balance-of- plant equipment in the presence of high amounts of SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3}. 3) performance of a wide variety of SCR catalyst compositions, geometries and methods of manufacturer under typical high-sulfur coal-fired utility operating conditions. These uncertainties were explored by operating nine small-scale SCR reactors and simultaneously exposing different SCR catalysts to flue gas derived from the combustion of high sulfur U.S. coal. In addition, the test facility operating experience provided a basis for an economic study investigating the implementation of SCR technology.

  14. Reducing water freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants : approaches used outside the United States.

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.

    2011-05-09

    Coal-fired power plants consume huge quantities of water, and in some water-stressed areas, power plants compete with other users for limited supplies. Extensive use of coal to generate electricity is projected to continue for many years. Faced with increasing power demands and questionable future supplies, industries and governments are seeking ways to reduce freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants. As the United States investigates various freshwater savings approaches (e.g., the use of alternative water sources), other countries are also researching and implementing approaches to address similar - and in many cases, more challenging - water supply and demand issues. Information about these non-U.S. approaches can be used to help direct near- and mid-term water-consumption research and development (R&D) activities in the United States. This report summarizes the research, development, and deployment (RD&D) status of several approaches used for reducing freshwater consumption by coal-fired power plants in other countries, many of which could be applied, or applied more aggressively, at coal-fired power plants in the United States. Information contained in this report is derived from literature and Internet searches, in some cases supplemented by communication with the researchers, authors, or equipment providers. Because there are few technical, peer-reviewed articles on this topic, much of the information in this report comes from the trade press and other non-peer-reviewed references. Reducing freshwater consumption at coal-fired power plants can occur directly or indirectly. Direct approaches are aimed specifically at reducing water consumption, and they include dry cooling, dry bottom ash handling, low-water-consuming emissions-control technologies, water metering and monitoring, reclaiming water from in-plant operations (e.g., recovery of cooling tower water for boiler makeup water, reclaiming water from flue gas desulfurization [FGD] systems), and

  15. Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

    2012-03-31

    This final report describes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) on development of an efficient membrane process to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from power plant flue gas (award number DE-NT0005312). The primary goal of this research program was to demonstrate, in a field test, the ability of a membrane process to capture up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in coal-fired flue gas, and to evaluate the potential of a full-scale version of the process to perform this separation with less than a 35% increase in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Arizona Public Services (APS), who hosted a membrane field test at their Cholla coal-fired power plant, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and WorleyParsons (WP), who performed a comparative cost analysis of the proposed membrane CO{sub 2} capture process. The work conducted for this project included membrane and module development, slipstream testing of commercial-sized modules with natural gas and coal-fired flue gas, process design optimization, and a detailed systems and cost analysis of a membrane retrofit to a commercial power plant. The Polaris? membrane developed over a number of years by MTR represents a step-change improvement in CO{sub 2} permeance compared to previous commercial CO{sub 2}-selective membranes. During this project, membrane optimization work resulted in a further doubling of the CO{sub 2} permeance of Polaris membrane while maintaining the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. This is an important accomplishment because increased CO{sub 2} permeance directly impacts the membrane skid cost and footprint: a doubling of CO{sub 2} permeance halves the skid cost and footprint. In addition to providing high CO{sub 2} permeance, flue gas CO{sub 2} capture membranes must be stable in the presence of contaminants including SO{sub 2}. Laboratory tests showed no

  16. Fire in the hole - Paging in mines from Pennsylvania to China, coal fires threaten towns, poison air and water, and add to global warming

    SciTech Connect

    Krajick, K.

    2005-05-01

    China has the most coal fires, but India has the largest concentration of them. The effect of coal fires on the once thriving town of Centralia, Pennsylvania is described. There have been eight attempts to put the fire out using different methods (it has been burning for 43 years), but has now been left to burn. It could burn for another 205 years. The population of the town have mostly been relocated.

  17. RETROFITTING CONTROL FACILITIES FOR WET WEATHER FLOW TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Available technologies were evaluated to demonstrate the technical feasibility and cost-effectiveness of retrofitting existing facilities to handle wet-weather flow. Cost/benefit relationships were also compared to construction of new conventional control and treatment facilitie...

  18. TOXECON RETROFIT FOR MERCURY AND MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL ON THREE 90 MW COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Richard E. Johnson

    2004-07-30

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is supporting projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by a particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. WE Energies has over 3,700 MW of coal-fired generating capacity and supports an integrated multi-emission control strategy for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and mercury emissions while maintaining a varied fuel mix for electric supply. The primary goal of this project is to reduce mercury emissions from three 90 MW units that burn Powder River Basin coal at the WE Energies Presque Isle Power Plant. Additional goals are to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and particulate matter (PM) emissions, allow for reuse and sale of fly ash, demonstrate a reliable mercury continuous emission monitor (CEM) suitable for use in the power plant environment, and demonstrate a process to recover mercury captured in the sorbent. To achieve these goals, WE Energies (the Participant) will design, install, and operate a TOXECON{trademark} (TOXECON) system designed to clean the combined flue gases of units 7, 8, and 9 at the Presque Isle Power Plant. TOXECON is a patented process in which a fabric filter system (baghouse) installed down stream of an existing particle control device is used in conjunction with sorbent injection for removal of pollutants from combustion flue gas. For this project, the flue gas emissions will be controlled from the three units using a single

  19. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1993--September 30, 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-31

    This report covers work carried out under Task 3, Preliminary Research and Development, and Task 4, Commercial Generating Plant Design, under contract DE-AC22-92PC91155, {open_quotes}Engineering Development of a Coal Fired High Performance Power Generation System{close_quotes} between DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and United Technologies Research Center. The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of >47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x}, SO{sub x}, and particulates {le} 25% NSPS; cost {ge} 65% of heat input; and all solid wastes benign. The report discusses progress in cycle analysis, chemical reactor modeling, ash deposition rate calculations for HITAF (high temperature advanced furnace) convective air heater, air heater materials, and deposit initiation and growth on ceramic substrates.

  20. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Draft quarterly progress report, January 1--March 31, 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    This report covers work carried out under Task 3, Preliminary R and D, under contract DE-AC22-92PC91155, ``Engineering Development of a Coal-Fired High Performance Power Generation System`` between DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and United Technologies Research Center. The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of >47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and particulates {le} 25% NSPS; cost {ge}65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign. A crucial aspect of the authors design is the integration of the gas turbine requirements with the HITAF output and steam cycle requirements. In order to take full advantage of modern highly efficient aeroderivative gas turbines they have carried out a large number of cycle calculations to optimize their commercial plant designs for both greenfield and repowering applications.

  1. Biological carbon fixation: A study of Isochrysis sp. growth under actual coal-fired power plant's flue gas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    >Liyana Yahya, Muhammad Nazry Chik, Mohd Asyraf Mohd Azmir Pang,

    2013-06-01

    Preliminary study on the growth of marine microalgae Isochrysis sp. was carried out using actual flue gas from a coal-fired power station. The species was cultured using a 2×10-L customized bubble column photobioreactor skid under specified culture conditions. With an initial culture density of 0.459 Abs (optical density at 560 nm wavelength), the species was found able to survive - observed by increases in optical densities, number of cells and weights - in the presence of actual coal-fired flue gas containing on average 4.08 % O2, 200.21 mg/m3 SO2, 212.29 mg/m3 NOx, 4.73 % CO2 and 50.72 mg/m3 CO. Results thus add value to the potential and capability of microalgae, especially for Isochrysis sp., to be the biological carbon fixer in neutralizing carbon emissions from power plants.

  2. Mercury and other trace elements in Ohio River fish collected near coal-fired power plants: Interspecific patterns and consideration of consumption risks.

    PubMed

    Reash, Robin J; Brown, Lauren; Merritt, Karen

    2015-07-01

    Many coal-fired electric generating facilities in the United States are discharging higher loads of Hg, Se, and other chemicals to receiving streams due to the installation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) air pollution control units. There are regulatory concerns about the potential increased uptake of these bioaccumulative trace elements into food webs. We evaluated the concentrations of As, total Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and Se in Ohio River fish collected proximal to coal-fired power plants, of which 75% operate FGD systems. Fillet samples (n = 50) from 6 fish species representing 3 trophic levels were analyzed. Geometric mean fillet concentrations of THg (wet wt), MeHg (wet wt), and Se (dry wt) in 3 species were 0.136, 0.1181, and 3.19 mg/kg (sauger); 0.123, 0.1013, and 1.56 mg/kg (channel catfish); and 0.127, 0.0914, and 3.30 mg/kg (hybrid striped bass). For all species analyzed, only 3 fillet samples (6% of total) had MeHg concentrations that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) human health criterion (0.3 mg/kg wet wt); all of these were freshwater drum aged ≥ 19 y. None of the samples analyzed exceeded the USEPA proposed muscle and whole body Se thresholds for protection against reproductive effects in freshwater fish. All but 8 fillet samples had a total As concentration less than 1.0 mg/kg dry wt. Mean Se health benefit values (HBVSe ) for all species were ≥ 4, indicating that potential Hg-related health risks associated with consumption of Ohio River fish are likely to be offset by adequate Se concentrations. Overall, we observed no measurable evidence of enhanced trace element bioaccumulation associated with proximity to power plant FGD facilities, however, some enhanced bioaccumulation could have occurred in the wastewater mixing zones. Furthermore, available evidence indicates that, due to hydraulic and physical factors, the main stem Ohio River appears to have low net Hg methylation potential. PMID:25586716

  3. Mercury and other trace elements in Ohio River fish collected near coal-fired power plants: Interspecific patterns and consideration of consumption risks.

    PubMed

    Reash, Robin J; Brown, Lauren; Merritt, Karen

    2015-07-01

    Many coal-fired electric generating facilities in the United States are discharging higher loads of Hg, Se, and other chemicals to receiving streams due to the installation of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) air pollution control units. There are regulatory concerns about the potential increased uptake of these bioaccumulative trace elements into food webs. We evaluated the concentrations of As, total Hg (THg), methylmercury (MeHg), and Se in Ohio River fish collected proximal to coal-fired power plants, of which 75% operate FGD systems. Fillet samples (n = 50) from 6 fish species representing 3 trophic levels were analyzed. Geometric mean fillet concentrations of THg (wet wt), MeHg (wet wt), and Se (dry wt) in 3 species were 0.136, 0.1181, and 3.19 mg/kg (sauger); 0.123, 0.1013, and 1.56 mg/kg (channel catfish); and 0.127, 0.0914, and 3.30 mg/kg (hybrid striped bass). For all species analyzed, only 3 fillet samples (6% of total) had MeHg concentrations that exceeded the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) human health criterion (0.3 mg/kg wet wt); all of these were freshwater drum aged ≥ 19 y. None of the samples analyzed exceeded the USEPA proposed muscle and whole body Se thresholds for protection against reproductive effects in freshwater fish. All but 8 fillet samples had a total As concentration less than 1.0 mg/kg dry wt. Mean Se health benefit values (HBVSe ) for all species were ≥ 4, indicating that potential Hg-related health risks associated with consumption of Ohio River fish are likely to be offset by adequate Se concentrations. Overall, we observed no measurable evidence of enhanced trace element bioaccumulation associated with proximity to power plant FGD facilities, however, some enhanced bioaccumulation could have occurred in the wastewater mixing zones. Furthermore, available evidence indicates that, due to hydraulic and physical factors, the main stem Ohio River appears to have low net Hg methylation potential.

  4. Micronized coal-fired retrofit system for SO{sub x} reduction: Krakow Clean Fossil Fuels and Energy Efficiency Program. Technical progress report No. 3, October 1996--December 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    The PROJECT proposes to install a new TCS micronized coal-fired heating plant for the Produkcja I Hodowla Roslin Ogrodniczych (PHRO) Greenhouse Complex; Krzeszowice, Poland (about 20 miles west of Krakow). PHRO currently utilizes 14 heavy oil-fired boilers to produce heat for its greenhouse facilities and also home heating to several adjacent apartment housing complexes. The boilers currently burn a high-sulfur content heavy crude oil, called Mazute. For size orientation, the PHRO Greenhouse complex grows a variety of vegetables and flowers for the Southern Poland marketplace. The greenhouse area under glass is very large and equivalent to approximately 50 football fields. The new micronized coal fired boiler would: (1) provide a significant portion of the heat for PHRO and a portion of the adjacent apartment housing complexes, (2) dramatically reduce sulfur dioxide air pollution emissions, while satisfying new Polish air regulations, and (3) provide attractive savings to PHRO, based on the quantity of displaced oil. Currently, the Town of Krzeszowice is considering a district heating program that would replace some, or all, of the 40 existing small in-town heating boilers that presently burn high-sulfur content coal. Potentially the district heating system can be expanded and connected into the PHRO boiler network; so that, PHRO boilers can supply all, or a portion of, the Town`s heating demand. The new TCS micronized coal system could provide a portion of this demand.

  5. Aerothermodynamic Facilities And Measurement: Flow Characterization in Shock Tunnels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cavolowsky, John A.; Edwards, Thomas A. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    This presentation will examine the key performance aspects of shock tunnels as they relate to their use as aerothermodynamic flow simulation facilities. Assessment of shock tube reservoir conditions and flow contaminants generated in the shock tube will be presented along with their limiting impact on viable test envelopes, Facility nozzle performance as it pertains to test time assessment and nozzle exit flow quality (survey of pressure, temperature, and species) will be addressed. Also included will be a discussion of free stream flow diagnostics, both intrusive and nonintrusive, for measurement of critical flow properties not directly inferred from surface mounted transducers. The use of computational fluid dynamics for purposes of validating experimental measurements as well as predicting performance in regimes where measurements are not feasible or possible will be discussed. The use of CFD for facility research and design will also be presented.

  6. The fate and behavior of mercury in coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Meij, Ruud; Vredenbregt, Leo H J; te Winkel, Henk

    2002-08-01

    For the past 22 years in the Netherlands, the behavior of Hg in coal-fired power plants has been studied extensively. Coal from all over the world is fired in Dutch power stations. First, the Hg concentrations in these coals were measured. Second, the fate of the Hg during combustion was established by performing mass balance studies. On average, 43 +/- 30% of the Hg was present in the flue gases downstream of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP; dust collector). In individual cases, this figure can vary between 1 and 100%. Important parameters are the Cl content of the fuel and the flue gas temperature in the ESP. On average, 54 +/- 24% of the gaseous Hg was removed in the wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, which are present at all Dutch coal-power stations. In individual cases, this removal can vary between 8% (outlier) and 72%. On average, the fate of Hg entering the power station in the coal was as follows: <1% in the bottom ash, 49% in the pulverized fuel ash (ash collected in the ESP), 16.6% in the FGD gypsum, 9% in the sludge of the wastewater treatment plant, 0.04% in the effluent of the wastewater treatment plant, 0.07% in fly dust (leaving the stack), and 25% as gaseous Hg in the flue gases and emitted into the air. The distribution of Hg over the streams leaving the FGD depends strongly on the installation. On average, 75% of the Hg was removed, and the final concentration of Hg in the emitted flue gases of the Dutch power stations was only -3 microg/m3(STP) at 6% O2. During co-combustion with biomass, the removal of Hg was similar to that during 100% coal firing. Speciation of Hg is a very important factor. An oxidized form (HgCl2) favors a high degree of removal. The conversion from Hg0 to HgCl2 is positively correlated with the Cl content of the fuel. A catalytic DENOX (SCR) favors the formation of oxidized Hg, and, in combination with a wet FGD, the total removal can be as high as 90%.

  7. ASSESING THE IMPACTS OF LOCAL DEPOSITION OF MERCURY ASSOCIATED WITH COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; OGEKA, C.; LIPFERT, F.; RENNINGER, S.

    2004-03-28

    Mercury emissions from coal fired plants will be limited by regulations enforced by the Environmental Protection Agency. However, there is still debate over whether the limits should be on a plant specific basis or a nationwide basis. The nationwide basis allows a Cap and Trade program similar to that for other air pollutants. Therefore, a major issue is the magnitude and extent of local deposition. Computer modeling suggests that increased local deposition will occur on a local (2 to 10 Km) to regional scale (20 to 50 Km) with the increase being a small percentage of background deposition on the regional scale. The amount of deposition depends upon many factors including emission rate, chemical form of mercury emitted (with reactive gaseous mercury depositing more readily than elemental mercury), other emission characteristics (stack height, exhaust temperature, etc), and meteorological conditions. Modeling suggests that wet deposition will lead to the highest deposition rates and that these will occur locally. Dry deposition is also predicted to deposit approximately the same amount of mass as wet deposition, but over a much greater area. Therefore, dry deposition rates will contribute a fraction of total deposition on the regional scale. The models have a number of assumptions pertaining to deposition parameters and there is uncertainty in the predicted deposition rates. A key assumption in the models is that the mixture of reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) to elemental mercury Hg(0) is constant in the exhaust plume. Recent work suggests that RGM converts to Hg(0) quickly. Deposition measurements around coal-fired power plants would help reduce the uncertainties in the models. A few studies have been performed to examine the deposition of mercury around point sources. Measurement of soil mercury downwind from chlor-alkali plants has shown increased deposition within a few Km. Studies of soils, sediments, and wet deposition around coal plants typically find some

  8. The fate and behavior of mercury in coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Meij, Ruud; Vredenbregt, Leo H J; te Winkel, Henk

    2002-08-01

    For the past 22 years in the Netherlands, the behavior of Hg in coal-fired power plants has been studied extensively. Coal from all over the world is fired in Dutch power stations. First, the Hg concentrations in these coals were measured. Second, the fate of the Hg during combustion was established by performing mass balance studies. On average, 43 +/- 30% of the Hg was present in the flue gases downstream of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP; dust collector). In individual cases, this figure can vary between 1 and 100%. Important parameters are the Cl content of the fuel and the flue gas temperature in the ESP. On average, 54 +/- 24% of the gaseous Hg was removed in the wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems, which are present at all Dutch coal-power stations. In individual cases, this removal can vary between 8% (outlier) and 72%. On average, the fate of Hg entering the power station in the coal was as follows: <1% in the bottom ash, 49% in the pulverized fuel ash (ash collected in the ESP), 16.6% in the FGD gypsum, 9% in the sludge of the wastewater treatment plant, 0.04% in the effluent of the wastewater treatment plant, 0.07% in fly dust (leaving the stack), and 25% as gaseous Hg in the flue gases and emitted into the air. The distribution of Hg over the streams leaving the FGD depends strongly on the installation. On average, 75% of the Hg was removed, and the final concentration of Hg in the emitted flue gases of the Dutch power stations was only -3 microg/m3(STP) at 6% O2. During co-combustion with biomass, the removal of Hg was similar to that during 100% coal firing. Speciation of Hg is a very important factor. An oxidized form (HgCl2) favors a high degree of removal. The conversion from Hg0 to HgCl2 is positively correlated with the Cl content of the fuel. A catalytic DENOX (SCR) favors the formation of oxidized Hg, and, in combination with a wet FGD, the total removal can be as high as 90%. PMID:12184689

  9. Isotopic Variations of Mercury Emitted by Coal Fired Power Plant Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khawaja, S. N.; Odom, L.; Landing, W.

    2010-12-01

    Emission of mercury from the burning of coal is considered one of the important anthropogenic sources of atmospheric mercury. Along with current measurements of the isotopic composition of atmospheric mercury being conducted in our laboratory, we have analyzed mercury emitted from a coal fired power plant. Previously Biswas and others (2008) had reported variations in the isotopic composition of mercury in a number of samples of coal deposits. Since the combustion of coal is expected to release virtually all of its mercury, we anticipated comparable isotopc patterns in coal and total emmited mercury. The emitted mercury exists in various physical and chemical forms, each possessing distinct properties that affect atmospheric transport, and sampling methods. Flue gas has been sampled in the stack of a coal fired electric power plant. The Ontario Hydro method was used to trap mercury in flue gases. The method uses oxidant solutions (KCl, H2O2-HNO3 and KMnO4-H2SO4) in its sampling train. This method is the modification of EPA method 29 with the use of KCl in the sampling train. Hg (II) is captured in the KCl impingers, while Hg (0) is captured in H2O2-HNO3 and KMnO4-H2SO4 impingers that oxidize elemental to Hg (ll) (EPA Draft, 1999). In addition gaseous reactive mercury was sampled downwind in large volume rain samples. Mercury (Hg+2) in sample solutions was reduced with SnCl2, and the generated Hg(0) vapor carried by Ar gas into the source of a NEPTUNE ICPMS-MC. Isotope ratios were measured by standard-sample bracketing and reported as permil deviations from the SRM NIST-3133 values. The measurement shows a small range of values of odd isotopes for mass independent fractionation which is negligible, However it displays the wide range of mass dependent fractionation (δ198 Hg -1.239 to 2.294). We found that samples in KCl impingers are light isotope enriched and depleted in heavy isotopes, while in KMnO4 impingers these are reverse.

  10. Escaping radioactivity from coal-fired power plants (CPPs) due to coal burning and the associated hazards: a review.

    PubMed

    Papastefanou, Constantin

    2010-03-01

    Coal, like most materials found in nature, contains trace quantities of the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, i.e. of (40)K and of (238)U, (232)Th and their decay products. Therefore, the combustion of coal results in the released into the environment of some natural radioactivity (1.48 TBq y(-1)), the major part of which (99%) escapes as very fine particles, while the rest in fly ash. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides measured in coals originated from coal mines in Greece varied from 117 to 435 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, from 44 to 255 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 59 to 205 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb, from 9 to 41 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Ra ((232)Th) and from 59 to 227 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. Fly ash escapes from the stacks of coal-fired power plants in a percentage of 3-1% of the total fly ash, in the better case. The natural radionuclide concentrations measured in fly ash produced and retained or escaped from coal-fired power plants in Greece varied from 263 to 950 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, from 142 to 605 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 133 to 428 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb, from 27 to 68 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Ra ((232)Th) and from 204 to 382 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. About 5% of the total ash produced in the coal-fired power plants is used as substitute of cement in concrete for the construction of dwellings, and may affect indoor radiation doses from external irradiation and the inhalation of radon decay products (internal irradiation) is the most significant. The resulting normalized collective effective doses were 6 and 0.5man-Sv(GWa)(-1) for typical old and modern coal-fired power plants, respectively. PMID:20005612

  11. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial processing heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1995--March 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-04-01

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a {open_quotes}Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications{close_quotes} is a project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. The test program consisted of one test run, with a duration of 100 hours at a nominal feed rate of 1000 lbs/hr. Throughout the test, the CMS was fired with coal and a coal by-product (i.e. coal-fired boiler fly ash) as the primary fuels. Natural gas was used as an auxiliary fuel as necessary to provide process trim. The feedstock consisted of a coal-fired utility boiler fly ash and dolomite and produced a stable, fully-reacted vitrified product. The fly ash, supplied by PENELEC, contained between 6 and 12% by weight of carbon because of the low NOx burners on the PENELEC boilers. Therefore, a substantial portion of the required thermal input came from the fly ash.

  12. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1992--September 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-30

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashesand industrial wastes. ne primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order toevaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, three preliminary coal-fired tests were successfully completed. These tests used industrial boiler flyash, sewer sludge ash, and waste glass collet as feedstocks. The coal-fired ash vitrification tests are considered near term potential commercial applications of the CMS technology. The waste glass cullet provided necessary dam on the effect of coal firing with respect to vitrified product oxidation state. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the proof-of-concept tests are continuing. The economic evaluation of commercial scale CMS processes is continuing. Preliminary designs for 15, 25, 100 and 400 ton/day systems are in progress. This dam will serve as input data to the life cycle cost analysis which will be-an integral part of the CMS commercialization plan.

  13. Escaping radioactivity from coal-fired power plants (CPPs) due to coal burning and the associated hazards: a review.

    PubMed

    Papastefanou, Constantin

    2010-03-01

    Coal, like most materials found in nature, contains trace quantities of the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides, i.e. of (40)K and of (238)U, (232)Th and their decay products. Therefore, the combustion of coal results in the released into the environment of some natural radioactivity (1.48 TBq y(-1)), the major part of which (99%) escapes as very fine particles, while the rest in fly ash. The activity concentrations of natural radionuclides measured in coals originated from coal mines in Greece varied from 117 to 435 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, from 44 to 255 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 59 to 205 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb, from 9 to 41 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Ra ((232)Th) and from 59 to 227 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. Fly ash escapes from the stacks of coal-fired power plants in a percentage of 3-1% of the total fly ash, in the better case. The natural radionuclide concentrations measured in fly ash produced and retained or escaped from coal-fired power plants in Greece varied from 263 to 950 Bq kg(-1) for (238)U, from 142 to 605 Bq kg(-1) for (226)Ra, from 133 to 428 Bq kg(-1) for (210)Pb, from 27 to 68 Bq kg(-1) for (228)Ra ((232)Th) and from 204 to 382 Bq kg(-1) for (40)K. About 5% of the total ash produced in the coal-fired power plants is used as substitute of cement in concrete for the construction of dwellings, and may affect indoor radiation doses from external irradiation and the inhalation of radon decay products (internal irradiation) is the most significant. The resulting normalized collective effective doses were 6 and 0.5man-Sv(GWa)(-1) for typical old and modern coal-fired power plants, respectively.

  14. Primary air pollutant emissions of coal-fired power plants in China: Current status and future prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Yu; Wang, Shuxiao; Duan, Lei; Lei, Yu; Cao, Pengfei; Hao, Jiming

    To explore the atmospheric emissions of coal-fired power sector in China, a unit-based method was developed based on detailed information of unit type, fuel quality, emission control technology, and geographical location. During 2000-2005, the period when power sector developed fastest in the past 20 years, SO 2, NO x and PM emissions of coal-fired power plants increased by 1.5, 1.7 and 1.2 times, respectively. The SO 2, emission of coal-fired power sector was estimated to be 16 097 kt in 2005, and would decrease to 11 801 kt in 2010, attributed mainly to the wide application of the flue gas desulfurization (FGD) technology. The NO x emission, however, would increase from 6965 kt in 2005 to 9680 kt in 2010, since few NO x control measures would be taken during the five years. The TSP, PM 10, and PM 2.5 emissions in 2005 were estimated to be 2774, 1842 and 994 kt, and the values would be 2540, 1824 and 1090 kt in 2010 respectively. The wet FGD would play an important role on dust emission removal. Through faithful implementation of closing small units and emission control policies in the acid rain and sulfur dioxide control zones, approximately 33%, 6% and 25% of SO 2, NO x, and TSP emissions respectively could be further reduced in 2010. Emissions in 2015 and 2020 of coal-fired power plants were predicted applying scenario analysis. For SO 2 and TSP, optimistic situation can be achieved through reasonable control policies; in contrast, NO x would probably be a more serious issue in future.

  15. Aeroacoustic Characteristics of Model Jet Test Facility Flow Conditioners

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinzie, Kevin W.; Henderson, Brenda S.; Haskin, Harry H.

    2005-01-01

    An experimental investigation of flow conditioning devices used to suppress internal rig noise in high speed, high temperature experimental jet facilities is discussed. The aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics of a number of devices including pressure loss and extraneous noise generation are measured. Both aerodynamic and acoustic characteristics are strongly dependent on the porosity of the flow conditioner and the closure ratio of the duct system. For unchoked flow conditioners, the pressure loss follows conventional incompressible flow models. However, for choked flow conditioners, a compressible flow model where the duct and flow conditioner system is modeled as a convergent-divergent nozzle can be used to estimate pressure loss. Choked flow conditioners generate significantly more noise than unchoked conditioners. In addition, flow conditioners with small hole diameters or sintered metal felt material generate less self-noise noise compared to flow conditioners with larger holes.

  16. Opportunities for Decarbonizing Existing U.S. Coal-Fired Power Plants via CO2 Capture, Utilization and Storage.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Haibo; Ou, Yang; Rubin, Edward S

    2015-07-01

    This study employs a power plant modeling tool to explore the feasibility of reducing unit-level emission rates of CO2 by 30% by retrofitting carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) to existing U.S. coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs). Our goal is to identify feasible EGUs and their key attributes. The results indicate that for about 60 gigawatts of the existing coal-fired capacity, the implementation of partial CO2 capture appears feasible, though its cost is highly dependent on the unit characteristics and fuel prices. Auxiliary gas-fired boilers can be employed to power a carbon capture process without significant increases in the cost of electricity generation. A complementary CO2 emission trading program can provide additional economic incentives for the deployment of CCS with 90% CO2 capture. Selling and utilizing the captured CO2 product for enhanced oil recovery can further accelerate CCUS deployment and also help reinforce a CO2 emission trading market. These efforts would allow existing coal-fired EGUs to continue to provide a significant share of the U.S. electricity demand.

  17. Combining support vector regression and ant colony optimization to reduce NOx emissions in coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Ligang Zheng; Hao Zhou; Chunlin Wang; Kefa Cen

    2008-03-15

    Combustion optimization has recently demonstrated its potential to reduce NOx emissions in high capacity coal-fired utility boilers. In the present study, support vector regression (SVR), as well as artificial neural networks (ANN), was proposed to model the relationship between NOx emissions and operating parameters of a 300 MW coal-fired utility boiler. The predicted NOx emissions from the SVR model, by comparing with that of the ANN-based model, showed better agreement with the values obtained in the experimental tests on this boiler operated at different loads and various other operating parameters. The mean modeling error and the correlation factor were 1.58% and 0.94, respectively. Then, the combination of the SVR model with ant colony optimization (ACO) to reduce NOx emissions was presented in detail. The experimental results showed that the proposed approach can effectively reduce NOx emissions from the coal-fired utility boiler by about 18.69% (65 ppm). A time period of less than 6 min was required for NOx emissions modeling, and 2 min was required for a run of optimization under a PC system. The computing times are suitable for the online application of the proposed method to actual power plants. 37 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 1

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume I contains papers presented at the following sessions: opening commentaries; changes in the market and technology drivers; advanced IGCC systems; advanced PFBC systems; advanced filter systems; desulfurization system; turbine systems; and poster session. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  19. Mercury emissions from coal-fired power stations: The current state of the art in the Netherlands.

    PubMed

    Meij, Ruud; te Winkel, Henk

    2006-09-01

    About 30% of the electricity produced in the Netherlands is generated by coal, all of which is imported. At the same time, the co-combustion of biomass is becoming increasingly important. For the last 25 years, the fate of the elements/trace elements in general and of mercury in particular has been studied in great detail. It appears that on average 50% of the mercury is removed in the ESP (particulate control) and 50% of the remainder is removed in the flue gas desulphurization (FGD), resulting in a total mercury removal of 75%. If a high dust selective catalytic reduction (SCR for NO(x) reduction) is present, the total removal can be up to 90%. The results indicate that on average the removal of mercury during the co-combustion of biomass is similar to that found for full coal-firing. The conclusion is that a modern coal-fired power station with the above-mentioned flue gas cleaning equipment also removes mercury up to 90%. These cleaning devices are being installed to reduce the emission of particulates, sulphur dioxide and nitrogen oxides. This means that mercury abatement can be increased while meeting the EU regulation for SO(2) and NO(x). The application of Best Available Technique (BAT) for coal-fired installations by 1-1-2008 will lead to a further increase in the construction and operation of FGD and DeNO(x) installations. PMID:16289297

  20. Opportunities for Decarbonizing Existing U.S. Coal-Fired Power Plants via CO2 Capture, Utilization and Storage.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Haibo; Ou, Yang; Rubin, Edward S

    2015-07-01

    This study employs a power plant modeling tool to explore the feasibility of reducing unit-level emission rates of CO2 by 30% by retrofitting carbon capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) to existing U.S. coal-fired electric generating units (EGUs). Our goal is to identify feasible EGUs and their key attributes. The results indicate that for about 60 gigawatts of the existing coal-fired capacity, the implementation of partial CO2 capture appears feasible, though its cost is highly dependent on the unit characteristics and fuel prices. Auxiliary gas-fired boilers can be employed to power a carbon capture process without significant increases in the cost of electricity generation. A complementary CO2 emission trading program can provide additional economic incentives for the deployment of CCS with 90% CO2 capture. Selling and utilizing the captured CO2 product for enhanced oil recovery can further accelerate CCUS deployment and also help reinforce a CO2 emission trading market. These efforts would allow existing coal-fired EGUs to continue to provide a significant share of the U.S. electricity demand. PMID:26023722

  1. Conference on alternatives for pollution control from coal-fired low emission sources, Plzen, Czech Republic. Plzen Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Conference on Alternatives for Pollution Control from Coal-Fired Emission Sources presented cost-effective approaches for pollution control of low emission sources (LES). It also identified policies and strategies for implementation of pollution control measures at the local level. Plzen, Czech Republic, was chosen as the conference site to show participants first hand the LES problems facing Eastern Europe today. Collectively, these Proceedings contain clear reports on: (a) methods for evaluating the cost effectiveness of alternative approaches to control pollution from small coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (b) cost-effective technologies for controlling pollution from coal-fired boilers and furnaces; (c) case studies of assessment of cost effective pollution control measures for selected cities in eastern Europe; and (d) approaches for actually implementing pollution control measures in cities in Eastern Europe. It is intended that the eastern/central European reader will find in these Proceedings useful measures that can be applied to control emissions and clean the air in his city or region. The conference was sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development (AID), the United States Department of Energy (DOE), and the Czech Ministry of Industry and Trade. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  2. Proceedings of the coal-fired power systems 94: Advances in IGCC and PFBC review meeting. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, H.M.; Staubly, R.K.; Venkataraman, V.K.

    1994-06-01

    The Coal-Fired Power Systems 94 -- Advances in IGCC and PFBC Review Meeting was held June 21--23, 1994, at the Morgantown Energy Center (METC) in Morgantown, West Virginia. This Meeting was sponsored and hosted by METC, the Office of Fossil Energy, and the US Department of Energy (DOE). METC annually sponsors this conference for energy executives, engineers, scientists, and other interested parties to review the results of research and development projects; to discuss the status of advanced coal-fired power systems and future plans with the industrial contractors; and to discuss cooperative industrial-government research opportunities with METC`s in-house engineers and scientists. Presentations included industrial contractor and METC in-house technology developments related to the production of power via coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) systems, the summary status of clean coal technologies, and developments and advancements in advanced technology subsystems, such as hot gas cleanup. A keynote speaker and other representatives from the electric power industry also gave their assessment of advanced power systems. This meeting contained 11 formal sessions and one poster session, and included 52 presentations and 24 poster presentations. Volume II contains papers presented at the following sessions: filter technology issues; hazardous air pollutants; sorbents and solid wastes; and membranes. Selected papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  3. Matched Index of Refraction Flow Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Mcllroy, Hugh

    2010-01-01

    What's 27 feet long, 10 feet tall and full of mineral oil (3000 gallons' worth)? If you said INL's Matched Index of Refraction facility, give yourself a gold star. Scientists use computers to model the inner workings of nuclear reactors, and MIR helps validate those models. INL's Hugh McIlroy explains in this video. You can learn more about INL energy research at the lab's facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  4. Matched Index of Refraction Flow Facility

    ScienceCinema

    Mcllroy, Hugh

    2016-07-12

    What's 27 feet long, 10 feet tall and full of mineral oil (3000 gallons' worth)? If you said INL's Matched Index of Refraction facility, give yourself a gold star. Scientists use computers to model the inner workings of nuclear reactors, and MIR helps validate those models. INL's Hugh McIlroy explains in this video. You can learn more about INL energy research at the lab's facebook site http://www.facebook.com/idahonationallaboratory.

  5. Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Anbo; Pickrell, Gary

    2012-03-31

    This report summarizes technical progress on the program Multiplexed Optical Fiber Sensors for Coal Fired Advanced Fossil Energy Systems funded by the National Energy Technology Laboratory of the U.S. Department of Energy, and performed jointly by the Center for Photonics Technology of the Bradley Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering and the Department of Materials Science and Engineering at Virginia Tech. This three-year project started on October 1, 2008. In the project, a fiber optical sensing system based on intrinsic Fabry-Perot Interferometer (IFPI) was developed for strain and temperature measurements for Ultra Supercritical boiler condition assessment. Investigations were focused on sensor design, fabrication, attachment techniques and novel materials for high temperature and strain measurements. At the start of the project, the technical requirements for the sensing technology were determined together with our industrial partner Alstom Power. As is demonstrated in Chapter 4, all the technical requirements are successfully met. The success of the technology extended beyond laboratory test; its capability was further validated through the field test at DOE NETL, in which the sensors yielded distributed temperature mapping of a testing coupon installed in the turbine test rig. The measurement results agreed well with prior results generated with thermocouples. In this project, significant improvements were made to the IFPI sensor technology by splicing condition optimization, transmission loss reduction, sensor signal demodulation and sensor system design.

  6. Mercury Speciation in Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas-Experimental Studies and Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Radisav Vidic; Joseph Flora; Eric Borguet

    2008-12-31

    The overall goal of the project was to obtain a fundamental understanding of the catalytic reactions that are promoted by solid surfaces present in coal combustion systems and develop a mathematical model that described key phenomena responsible for the fate of mercury in coal-combustion systems. This objective was achieved by carefully combining laboratory studies under realistic process conditions using simulated flue gas with mathematical modeling efforts. Laboratory-scale studies were performed to understand the fundamental aspects of chemical reactions between flue gas constituents and solid surfaces present in the fly ash and their impact on mercury speciation. Process models were developed to account for heterogeneous reactions because of the presence of fly ash as well as the deliberate addition of particles to promote Hg oxidation and adsorption. Quantum modeling was used to obtain estimates of the kinetics of heterogeneous reactions. Based on the initial findings of this study, additional work was performed to ascertain the potential of using inexpensive inorganic sorbents to control mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants without adverse impact on the salability fly ash, which is one of the major drawbacks of current control technologies based on activated carbon.

  7. Modeling of integrated environmental control systems for coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Rubin, E.S.

    1989-04-01

    This is the sixth quarterly report of DOE Contract No. DE-AC22- 87PC79863, entitled Modeling of Integrated Environmental Control Systems for Coal-Fired Power Plants.'' This report summarizes accomplishments during the period January 1, 1989 to March 31, 1989. Efforts this past quarter focused primarily on the preparation of a computer User's Guide for the Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM). Drafts of the first two chapters are now complete. These chapters constitute the bulk of this quarterly report. Drafts of the remaining chapters are in preparation, and will appear in a future report this year. We also have been working closely with DOE/PETC to define the computer configuration to be transferred to PETC as a contract deliverable. That process is now complete and the equipment is on order. Delivery of the IECM to PETC is expected during the next calendar quarter. Finally, we are continuing our efforts to develop and refine a number of clean coal technology process models. These efforts will be summarized and reported at a future date.

  8. An assessment of mercury emissions and health risks from a coal-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Lipfert, F.; Moskowitz, P.

    1994-12-01

    Title 3 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) mandated that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) evaluate the need to regulate mercury emissions from electric utilities. In support of this forthcoming regulatory analysis the U.S. DOE, sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven (BNL) to evaluate methylmercury (MeHg) hazards independently. In the US MeHg is the predominant way of exposure to mercury originated in the atmosphere. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical 1,000 MW coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. This study showed that the effects of emissions of a single power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized area near the power plant. Even at these more elevated exposure levels, the attributable incidence in mild neurological symptoms was estimated to be quite small, especially when compared with the estimated background incidence in the population. The current paper summarizes the basic conclusions of this assessment and highlights issues dealing with emissions control and environmental transport.

  9. Plume washout from a major coal-fired power plant: a case study

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, N.C.J.; Saylor, R.E.

    1980-11-01

    A precipitation chemistry network (approx. 300 km/sup 2/) consisting of 19 automatic collectors was installed around a 3200-MW coal-fired power plant located in northwest Georgia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the local plume washout from two 300-m smokestacks. Rain samples and plume directions for a single storm (December 13, 1979) were analyzed. The maximum target area deposition rates for sulfate and nitrate were found to be approx. 45% above the mean deposition rate of the control area (SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, 1.23 +- 0.14; NO/sub 3//sup -/, 0.65 +- 0.09 nmol cm/sup -2/ h/sup -1/). The maximum deposition rates for sulfate and nitrate were reached for a plume residence time of approx. 1 h at a site approx. 12 km SE of the power plant. Aerosol washout modeling suggested that approx. 70% of the observed excess deposition rate could be attributed to sulfate aerosol derived from the plume. However, nitrate aerosol modeling could account for only 36% of the observed excess nitrate deposition rate. The variability in rainfall intensity makes it impossible to ascribe all of the differences in sulfate and nitrate deposition to plume washout alone.

  10. [Experimental study on emission characteristics of PM10 in coal-fired boilers].

    PubMed

    Guo, Xin; Chen, Dan; Zheng, Chu-Guang; Sui, Jian-Cai; Xu, Ming-Hou

    2008-03-01

    Fly ash was sampled at the inlet and outlet of ash collectors in four different coal-fired utility boilers using 13-stage low pressure impactor (LPI). The mass distribution, emission characteristics and the composition at different size particle of PM10 were studied. The results show that PM10 of the four boilers have a similar himodal distribution, with two peaks formed around 0.1 microm and 2.36 - 3.95 microm, respectively. The lowest efficiency of ash collectors was between 50% - 65% when the particle sizes were around 0.1 - 1 microm, no matter Venturi water membrane dust collector or ESP was used. Ash collectors show different removal efficiencies to various particle sizes PM. The removal efficiency of ash collectors was about 96% around 10 microm, while under 1 microm it was between 62% - 83%. The chemical composition of the size-segregated ash showed that the element S and Na were obvious enrichment in finer ash, which is possibly formed via vaporization and subsequent condensation of inorganic matter. While the refractory oxides were the major composition in bigger size ash, which may be formed via char fragmentation, excluded mineral fragmentation and included mineral coalescence.

  11. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and III

    SciTech Connect

    1999-04-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%, NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input, all solid wastes benign, and cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAC Combustors; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  12. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and III

    SciTech Connect

    1998-07-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%, NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard), coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input, all solid wastes benign cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAF Combustor; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  13. Cost-effectiveness Analysis on Measures to Improve China's Coal-fired Industrial Boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Manzhi; Shen, Bo; Han, Yafeng; Price, Lynn; Xu, Mingchao

    2015-08-01

    Tackling coal-burning industrial boiler is becoming one of the key programs to solve the environmental problem in China. Assessing the economics of various options to address coal-fired boiler is essential to identify cost-effective solutions. This paper discusses our work in conducting a cost-effectiveness analysis on various types of improvement measures ranging from energy efficiency retrofits to switch from coal to other fuels in China. Sensitivity analysis was also performed in order to understand the impacts of some economic factors such as discount rate and energy price on the economics of boiler improvement options. The results show that nine out of 14 solutions are cost-effective, and a lower discount rate and higher energy price will result in more energy efficiency measures being cost-effective. Both monetary and non-monetary barriers to energy-efficiency improvement are discussed and policies to tackle these barriers are recommended. Our research aims at providing a methodology to assess cost-effective solutions to boiler problems.

  14. Cost-effectiveness Analysis on Measures to Improve China's Coal-fired Industrial Boiler

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Liu, Manzhi; Shen, Bo; Han, Yafeng; Price, Lynn; Xu, Mingchao

    2015-08-01

    Tackling coal-burning industrial boiler is becoming one of the key programs to solve the environmental problem in China. Assessing the economics of various options to address coal-fired boiler is essential to identify cost-effective solutions. This paper discusses our work in conducting a cost-effectiveness analysis on various types of improvement measures ranging from energy efficiency retrofits to switch from coal to other fuels in China. Sensitivity analysis was also performed in order to understand the impacts of some economic factors such as discount rate and energy price on the economics of boiler improvement options. The results show that nine out ofmore » 14 solutions are cost-effective, and a lower discount rate and higher energy price will result in more energy efficiency measures being cost-effective. Both monetary and non-monetary barriers to energy-efficiency improvement are discussed and policies to tackle these barriers are recommended. Our research aims at providing a methodology to assess cost-effective solutions to boiler problems.« less

  15. [Major Air Pollutant Emissions of Coal-Fired Power Plant in Yangtze River Delta].

    PubMed

    Ding, Qing-qing; Wei, Wei; Shen, Qun; Sun, Yu-han

    2015-07-01

    The emission factor method was used to estimate major air pollutant emissions of coal-fired power plant in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region of the year 2012. Results showed that emissions of SO2, NOx, dust, PM10, PM2.5 were respectively 473 238, 1 566 195, 587 713, 348 773 and 179 820 t. For SO2 and NOx, 300 MW and above class units made contributions of 85% and 82% in emission; while in the respect of dust, PM10 and PM2.5 contribution rates of 100 MW and below class units were respectively 81%, 53% and 40%. Considering the regional distribution, Jiangsu discharged the most, followed by Zhejiang, Shanghai. According to discharge data of several local power plants, we also calculated and made a comparative analysis of emission factors in different unit levels in Shanghai, which indicated a lower emission level. Assuming an equal level was reached in whole YRD, SO2 emission would cut down 55. 8% - 65. 3%; for NOx and dust emissions were 50. 5% - 64. 1% and 3. 4% - 11. 3%, respectively. If technologies and pollution control of lower class units were improved, the emission cuts would improve. However, according to the pollution realities of YRD, we suggested to make a multiple-cuts plan, which could effectively improve the reaional atmospheric environment. PMID:26489303

  16. Isotopic Tracing of Thallium Contamination in Soils Affected by Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants.

    PubMed

    Vaněk, Aleš; Grösslová, Zuzana; Mihaljevič, Martin; Trubač, Jakub; Ettler, Vojtěch; Teper, Leslaw; Cabala, Jerzy; Rohovec, Jan; Zádorová, Tereza; Penížek, Vít; Pavlů, Lenka; Holubík, Ondřej; Němeček, Karel; Houška, Jakub; Drábek, Ondřej; Ash, Christopher

    2016-09-20

    Here, for the first time, we report the thallium (Tl) isotope record in moderately contaminated soils with contrasting land management (forest and meadow soils), which have been affected by emissions from coal-fired power plants. Our findings clearly demonstrate that Tl of anthropogenic (high-temperature) origin with light isotope composition was deposited onto the studied soils, where heavier Tl (ε(205)Tl ∼ -1) naturally occurs. The results show a positive linear relationship (R(2) = 0.71) between 1/Tl and the isotope record, as determined for all the soils and bedrocks, also indicative of binary Tl mixing between two dominant reservoirs. We also identified significant Tl isotope variations within the products from coal combustion and thermo-desorption experiments with local Tl-rich coal pyrite. Bottom ash exhibited the heaviest Tl isotope composition (ε(205)Tl ∼ 0), followed by fly ash (ε(205)Tl between -2.5 and -2.8) and volatile Tl fractions (ε(205)Tl between -6.2 and -10.3), suggesting partial Tl isotope fractionations. Despite the evident role of soil processes in the isotope redistributions, we demonstrate that Tl contamination can be traced in soils and propose that the isotope data represent a possible tool to aid our understanding of postdepositional Tl dynamics in surface environments for the future.

  17. ASSESSMENT OF LOW COST NOVEL SORBENTS FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANT MERCURY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Trevor Ley

    2004-01-01

    This is a Technical Report under a program funded by the Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to obtain the necessary information to assess the viability of lower cost alternatives to commercially available activated carbon for mercury control in coal-fired utilities. Novel sorbent evaluations at We Energies' Pleasant Prairie Power Plant (P4) Unit 1 (no SCR in place) have been completed. Nineteen sorbents were evaluated for mercury control. A batch injection rate of 1 lb/Mmacf for 1 hour was conducted for screening purposes at a temperature of 300 F. Four sorbents were further evaluated at three injection rates and two temperatures. The multi-pollutant control test system (PoCT) was installed on P4's Unit 2 (with an SCR) and sorbent evaluations are continuing. Evaluations will continue through the end of January 2004. Tests and analysis on samples from Powerton and Valley to yield waste characterization results for the COHPAC long-term tests are continuing. A no-cost time extension for work to be completed by March 31, 2004 was granted by DOE/NETL.

  18. Should a coal-fired power plant be replaced or retrofitted?

    PubMed

    Patiño-Echeverri, Dalia; Morel, Benoit; Apt, Jay; Chen, Chao

    2007-12-01

    In a cap-and-trade system, a power plant operator can choose to operate while paying for the necessary emissions allowances, retrofit emissions controls to the plant, or replace the unit with a new plant. Allowance prices are uncertain, as are the timing and stringency of requirements for control of mercury and carbon emissions. We model the evolution of allowance prices for SO2, NOx, Hg, and CO2 using geometric Brownian motion with drift, volatility, and jumps, and use an options-based analysis to find the value of the alternatives. In the absence of a carbon price, only if the owners have a planning horizon longer than 30 years would they replace a conventional coal-fired plant with a high-performance unit such as a supercritical plant; otherwise, they would install SO2 and NOx, controls on the existing unit. An expectation that the CO2 price will reach $50/t in 2020 makes the installation of an IGCC with carbon capture and sequestration attractive today, even for planning horizons as short as 20 years. A carbon price below $40/t is unlikely to produce investments in carbon capture for electric power. PMID:18186326

  19. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired gasification plant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    Under the Fine Particulate Control/Air Toxics Program, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has been performing comprehensive assessments of toxic substance emissions from coal-fired electric utility units. An objective of this program is to provide information to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for use in evaluating hazardous air pollutant emissions as required by the Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has also performed comprehensive assessments of emissions from many power plants and provided the information to the EPA. The DOE program was implemented in two. Phase 1 involved the characterization of eight utility units, with options to sample additional units in Phase 2. Radian was one of five contractors selected to perform these toxic emission assessments.Radian`s Phase 1 test site was at southern Company Service`s Plant Yates, Unit 1, which, as part of the DOE`s Clean Coal Technology Program, was demonstrating the CT-121 flue gas desulfurization technology. A commercial-scale prototype integrated gasification-combined cycle (IGCC) power plant was selected by DOE for Phase 2 testing. Funding for the Phase 2 effort was provided by DOE, with assistance from EPRI and the host site, the Louisiana Gasification Technology, Inc. (LGTI) project This document presents the results of that effort.

  20. Pulverized coal firing of aluminum melting furnances. Quarterly technical report, January 1, 1980-March 31, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    West, C E

    1980-10-01

    The ultimate objective of this program is the commercial demonstration of an efficient, environmentally acceptable coal firing process suitable for implementation on melting furnaces throughout the aluminum industry. To achieve this goal, the program has been divided into two phases. Phase I has begun with the design and construction of a 350 pound (coal) per hour staged slagging cyclone combustor (SSCC) attached to a 7-ft diameter aluminum melting ladle furnace. Process development will culminate with a 1000 pph prototype SSCC firing a 40,000 pound capacity open hearth melting furnace at the Alcoa Laboratories. Phase II implementation is currently planned for Alcoa's Lafayette, IN, Works, where two of the ingot plant's five open hearth melting furnaces will be converted to utilize coal. In addition to confirmation of data gathered in Phase I, the effect of extended production schedule operation on equipment and efficiencies will be determined. This work would begin in 1982 pursuant to technical and economic evaluation of the process development at that time.

  1. [Major Air Pollutant Emissions of Coal-Fired Power Plant in Yangtze River Delta].

    PubMed

    Ding, Qing-qing; Wei, Wei; Shen, Qun; Sun, Yu-han

    2015-07-01

    The emission factor method was used to estimate major air pollutant emissions of coal-fired power plant in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region of the year 2012. Results showed that emissions of SO2, NOx, dust, PM10, PM2.5 were respectively 473 238, 1 566 195, 587 713, 348 773 and 179 820 t. For SO2 and NOx, 300 MW and above class units made contributions of 85% and 82% in emission; while in the respect of dust, PM10 and PM2.5 contribution rates of 100 MW and below class units were respectively 81%, 53% and 40%. Considering the regional distribution, Jiangsu discharged the most, followed by Zhejiang, Shanghai. According to discharge data of several local power plants, we also calculated and made a comparative analysis of emission factors in different unit levels in Shanghai, which indicated a lower emission level. Assuming an equal level was reached in whole YRD, SO2 emission would cut down 55. 8% - 65. 3%; for NOx and dust emissions were 50. 5% - 64. 1% and 3. 4% - 11. 3%, respectively. If technologies and pollution control of lower class units were improved, the emission cuts would improve. However, according to the pollution realities of YRD, we suggested to make a multiple-cuts plan, which could effectively improve the reaional atmospheric environment.

  2. Characterizing mercury emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing a venturi wet FGD system

    SciTech Connect

    Vann Bush, P.; Dismukes, E.B.; Fowler, W.K.

    1995-11-01

    Southern Research Institute (SRI) conducted a test program at a coal-fired utility plant from October 24 to October 29, 1994. The test schedule was chosen to permit us to collect samples during a period of consecutive days with a constant coal source. SRI collected the samples required to measured concentrations of anions and trace elements around two scrubber modules and in the stack. Anions of interest were CI{sup -}, F{sup -}, and SO{sub 4}{sup =}. We analyzed samples for five major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Ti) and 16 trace elements (As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and V). SRI made measurements across two scrubber modules, each treating nominally 20% of the total effluent from the boiler. Across one module we examined the effects of changes in the liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) on the efficiency with which the scrubber removes trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Across another module we examined the effects of slurry pH on the removal of trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Measurements in the stack quantified emissions rates of anions and trace elements.

  3. Evaluation of activated carbon for control of mercury from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.; Laudal, D.; Dunham, G.

    1995-11-01

    The ability to remove mercury from power plant flue gas may become important because of the Clean Air Act amendments` requirement that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) assess the health risks associated with these emissions. One approach for mercury removal, which may be relatively simple to retrofit, is the injection of sorbents, such as activated carbon, upstream of existing particulate control devices. Activated carbon has been reported to capture mercury when injected into flue gas upstream of a spray dryer baghouse system applied to waste incinerators or coal-fired boilers. However, the mercury capture ability of activated carbon injected upstream of an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) or baghouse operated at temperatures between 200{degrees} and 400{degrees}F is not well known. A study sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy and the Electric power Research Institute is being conducted at the University of North Dakota Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to evaluate whether mercury control with sorbents can be a cost-effective approach for large power plants. Initial results from the study were reported last year. This paper presents some of the recent project results. Variables of interest include coal type, sorbent type, sorbent addition rate, collection media, and temperature.

  4. Detecting coal fires in China using Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, J.; Roth, A.; Voigt, S.

    2004-06-01

    We investigate the feasibility of detecting fires in subsurface coal deposits through InSAR observations of accompa- nying surface displacements. Uncontrolled burning of subsurface coal seams have been reported from many locations around the world. In northern China alone, more than 10 Million tons (Mt) of coal are estimated to burn every year. This has massive implications for the regional economy and ecology. In fighting these fires and controlling burning coal seams the timely and reliable detection and mapping of the affected regions is critical. However, this has proven to be ex- tremely difficult in the often remote regions of northern China, where many of the fires have been caused by uncontrolled, small-scale mining operations. Both volume change of the burning coal and thermal effects in the adjacent rock mass are expected to cause measurable surface displacements and numerous reports of collapses of the earth's surface exist. Unfortunately, reliable data on surface deformation accompanying the fires are not available. Nevertheless, theoretical considerations and individual reports suggest that subsidence mapping using differential InSAR may be a suitable tool to detect burning regions and map the spatial extent of the affected areas. Though topography, temporal decorrelation, and poor data coverage complicate the analysis we have identified several localized areas of subsidence in the region. Here we discuss the potential and limitations of using InSAR for coal-fire detection in northern China.

  5. [Comprehensive fuzzy evaluation of nitrogen oxide control technologies for coal-fired power plants].

    PubMed

    Yu, Chao; Wang, Shu-xiao; Hao, Ji-ming

    2010-07-01

    A multi-level assessment index system was established to quantitatively and comprehensively evaluate the performance of typical nitrogen oxide control technologies for coal-fired power plants. Comprehensive fuzzy evaluation was conducted to assess six NO, control technologies, including low NO, burner (LNB), over the fire (OFA), flue gas reburning (Reburning), selective catalyst reduction (SCR), selective non-catalyst reduction (SNCR) and hybrid SCR/SNCR. Case studies indicated that combination of SCR and LNB are the optimal choice for wall-fired boilers combusting anthracite coal which requires NO, removal efficiency to be over 70%, however, for W-flame or tangential boilers combusting bituminous and sub-bituminous coal which requires 30% NO, removal, LNB and reburning are better choices. Therefore, we recommend that in the developed and ecological frangible regions, large units burning anthracite or meager coal should install LNB and SCR and other units should install LNB and SNCR. In the regions with environmental capacity, units burning anthracite or meager coal shall install LNB and SNCR, and other units shall apply LNB to reduce NO, emissions.

  6. Health and environmental effects of coal-fired electric power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, S.C.; Hamilton, L.D.

    1984-05-01

    This paper describes health and environmental impacts of coal-fired electric power plants. Effects on man, agriculture, and natural ecosystems are considered. These effects may result from direct impacts or exposures via air, water, and food chains. The paper is organized by geographical extent of effect. Occupational health impacts and local environmental effects such as noise and solid waste leachate are treated first. Then, regional effects of air pollution, including acid rain, are analyzed. Finally, potential global impacts are examined. Occupational health concerns considered include exposure to noise, dust, asbestos, mercury, and combustion products, and resulting injury and disease. Local effects considered include noise; air and water emissions of coal storage piles, solid waste operations, and cooling systems. Air pollution, once an acute local problem, is now a regional concern. Acute and chronic direct health effects are considered. Special attention is given to potential effects of radionuclides in coal and of acid rain. Finally, potential global impacts associated with carbon dioxide emissions are considered. 88 references, 9 tables.

  7. Isotopic Tracing of Thallium Contamination in Soils Affected by Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants.

    PubMed

    Vaněk, Aleš; Grösslová, Zuzana; Mihaljevič, Martin; Trubač, Jakub; Ettler, Vojtěch; Teper, Leslaw; Cabala, Jerzy; Rohovec, Jan; Zádorová, Tereza; Penížek, Vít; Pavlů, Lenka; Holubík, Ondřej; Němeček, Karel; Houška, Jakub; Drábek, Ondřej; Ash, Christopher

    2016-09-20

    Here, for the first time, we report the thallium (Tl) isotope record in moderately contaminated soils with contrasting land management (forest and meadow soils), which have been affected by emissions from coal-fired power plants. Our findings clearly demonstrate that Tl of anthropogenic (high-temperature) origin with light isotope composition was deposited onto the studied soils, where heavier Tl (ε(205)Tl ∼ -1) naturally occurs. The results show a positive linear relationship (R(2) = 0.71) between 1/Tl and the isotope record, as determined for all the soils and bedrocks, also indicative of binary Tl mixing between two dominant reservoirs. We also identified significant Tl isotope variations within the products from coal combustion and thermo-desorption experiments with local Tl-rich coal pyrite. Bottom ash exhibited the heaviest Tl isotope composition (ε(205)Tl ∼ 0), followed by fly ash (ε(205)Tl between -2.5 and -2.8) and volatile Tl fractions (ε(205)Tl between -6.2 and -10.3), suggesting partial Tl isotope fractionations. Despite the evident role of soil processes in the isotope redistributions, we demonstrate that Tl contamination can be traced in soils and propose that the isotope data represent a possible tool to aid our understanding of postdepositional Tl dynamics in surface environments for the future. PMID:27536872

  8. Pulverized coal firing of aluminum melting furnaces. Second annual technical progress report, July 1979-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    West, C E; Stewart, D L

    1980-08-01

    The ultimate objective of this program is the commercial demonstration of an efficient, environmentally acceptable coal firing process suitable for implementation on melting furnaces throughout the aluminum industry. To achieve this goal, the program has been divided into two phases. Phase I has proceeded through design and construction of a 350 pound (coal) per hour staged slagging cyclone combustor (SSCC) attached to a 7-ft diameter aluminum melting ladle furnace. Process development will culminate with a 1000 pph prototype SSCC firing a 40,000 pound capacity open hearth melting furnace at the Alcoa Laboratories. Phase II implementation is currently planned for Alcoa's Lafayette, IN, Works, where two of the ingot plant's five open hearth melting furnaces will be converted to utilize coal. In addition to confirmation of data gathered in Phase I, the effect of extended production schedule operation on equipment and efficiencies will be determined. This work would begin in 1982 pursuant to technical and economic evaluation of the process development at that time.

  9. Mercury capture by native fly ash carbons in coal-fired power plants

    PubMed Central

    Hower, James C.; Senior, Constance L.; Suuberg, Eric M.; Hurt, Robert H.; Wilcox, Jennifer L.; Olson, Edwin S.

    2013-01-01

    The control of mercury in the air emissions from coal-fired power plants is an on-going challenge. The native unburned carbons in fly ash can capture varying amounts of Hg depending upon the temperature and composition of the flue gas at the air pollution control device, with Hg capture increasing with a decrease in temperature; the amount of carbon in the fly ash, with Hg capture increasing with an increase in carbon; and the form of the carbon and the consequent surface area of the carbon, with Hg capture increasing with an increase in surface area. The latter is influenced by the rank of the feed coal, with carbons derived from the combustion of low-rank coals having a greater surface area than carbons from bituminous- and anthracite-rank coals. The chemistry of the feed coal and the resulting composition of the flue gas enhances Hg capture by fly ash carbons. This is particularly evident in the correlation of feed coal Cl content to Hg oxidation to HgCl2, enhancing Hg capture. Acid gases, including HCl and H2SO4 and the combination of HCl and NO2, in the flue gas can enhance the oxidation of Hg. In this presentation, we discuss the transport of Hg through the boiler and pollution control systems, the mechanisms of Hg oxidation, and the parameters controlling Hg capture by coal-derived fly ash carbons. PMID:24223466

  10. Chemical, aerosol and optical measurements in the plumes of three midwestern coal-fired power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richards, L. W.; Anderson, J. A.; Blumenthal, D. L.; Mcdonald, J. A.; Macias, E. S.; Hering, S. V.; Wilson, W. E.

    Airborne measurements were made in and near the plumes of the following mid western coal-fired power plants in 1981: Kincaid in central Illinois in February, La Cygne near Kansas City in March and Labadie near St. Louis in August and September. One objective of these measurements was to obtain data (reported elsewhere) to be used for the evaluation of plume visibility models. The results of the chemical and aerosol measurements are reported here. Good agreement was obtained from different measurement methods for SO 2 and sulfate, but not for two different nitrate measurement methods. No more than a few per cent of the NO x emitted by these plants was NO 2, and NO 2 formation in the plumes could be accounted for by the ozone loss at the observed distances (up to 100 km in winter and 40 km in summer). Sulfate formation rates were in agreement with prior data, and there was no evidence of increased sulfate formation rates in a scrubbed plume (La Cygne). Both aerosol size distributions and sulfur particle size distributions were measured and showed reasonable agreement. The amount of light scattering by particles in the plume was quite variable, in pan because of variations in their mean particle size. The summer measurements were conducted during a rainy and hazy period when the Labadie plume typically could be seen from the ground only within a few km of the source. During this time, the visual impact of the plume was minimal.

  11. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and III

    SciTech Connect

    1999-01-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) that is capable of: thermal efficiency (HHV) {ge} 47%; NOx, SOx, and particulates {le} 10% NSPS (New Source Performance Standard) coal providing {ge} 65% of heat input; all solid wastes benign; cost of electricity {le} 90% of present plants. Phase 1, which began in 1992, focused on the analysis of various configurations of indirectly fired cycles and on technical assessments of alternative plant subsystems and components, including performance requirements, developmental status, design options, complexity and reliability, and capital and operating costs. Phase 1 also included preliminary R and D and the preparation of designs for HIPPS commercial plants approximately 300 MWe in size. This phase, Phase 2, involves the development and testing of plant subsystems, refinement and updating of the HIPPS commercial plant design, and the site selection and engineering design of a HIPPS prototype plant. Work reported herein is from: Task 2.1 HITAC Combustors; Task 2.2 HITAF Air Heaters; Task 6 HIPPS Commercial Plant Design Update.

  12. Value of forestation in absorbing carbon dioxide surrounding a coal fired power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Dang, V.D.; Steinberg, M.

    1980-08-01

    The dispersion of carbon dioxide emitted from 1000 MW(e) coal fired power plant is investigated. Calculated ground level carbon dioxide concentrations as a function of distance from the power plant stack is validated by the results derived from sulfur dioxide dispersion measurements. Forestation is examined as a means for removal and control of atmospheric carbon dioxide at a distance of 5 to 10 km away from the power plant stack. An equilibrium and a dynamic approach are considered. For an average temperate zone forest growth rate (7.42 mg/dm/sup 2/ h), the overall reduction in forested land area required to remove the equivalent of all of the CO/sub 2/ from a 1000 MW(e) power plant would be less than 3.3% compared to removing the equivalent amount of CO/sub 2/ by planting forests remotely from the plant. If faster growing tropical plants or trees having up to 4 times the temperate plant growth rate were used, there would be a maximum savings of 15% in forested land area compared to a remote planting. This magnitude of reduction in cultivated forest area is insufficient to recommend planting forested areas adjacent to central power stations as a means of controlling CO/sub 2/ emission. Rather it is suggested to provide sufficient increased regional forested areas on a global scale for the purposes of absorbing the equivalent increase in CO/sub 2/ emission due to increased fossil fuel use.

  13. Wasteless combined aggregate-coal-fired steam-generator/melting-converter.

    PubMed

    Pioro, L S; Pioro, I L

    2003-01-01

    A method of reprocessing coal sludge and ash into granulate for the building industry in a combined wasteless aggregate-steam-generator/melting-converter was developed and tested. The method involves melting sludge and ash from coal-fired steam-generators of power plants in a melting-converter installed under the steam-generator, with direct sludge drain from the steam generator combustion chamber. The direct drain of sludge into converter allows burnup of coal with high ash levels in the steam-generator without an additional source of ignition (natural gas, heating oil, etc.). Specific to the melting process is the use of a gas-air mixture with direct combustion inside a melt. This feature provides melt bubbling and helps to achieve maximum heat transfer from combustion products to the melt, to improve mixing, to increase rate of chemical reactions and to improve the conditions for burning the carbon residue from the sludge and ash. The "gross" thermal efficiency of the combined aggregate is about 93% and the converter capacity is about 18 t of melt in 100 min. The experimental data for different aspects of the proposed method are presented. The effective ash/charging materials feeding system is also discussed. The reprocessed coal ash and sludge in the form of granules can be used as fillers for concrete and as additives in the production of cement, bricks and other building materials. PMID:12781221

  14. Recent progress in experiment and performance evalution of Chinese 25MWt coal-fired MHD generators

    SciTech Connect

    Jianzhong Tong; Qiuya Ni

    1995-12-31

    Recent experimental results of Chinese 25 MWt coal-fired MHD generator are presented here. The peak power output has reached up to 119.7 kW and the continuous generating duration has been one hour. It is shown that a better performance is resulted by the improvements of the generator channel structure to a great extent, in particular, the utilization of the ceramic-capped elements. The discrepancy between the experiment and the design calculation in gasdynamics is indicated and its possible reasons are discussed. The plasma conductivity deduced based on experimental data is still lower than the predicted one, and so is the total Hall voltage across the channel longitudinally. The low conductivity could be caused by the excess slag carryover through the channel and the incompleteness of the combustion. And, the low longitudinal Hall voltage could be considered due to the unsatisfactory axial insulation. No effects of axial leakage of the cathode wall has been observed yet. Also, though the reliable operation of the hardware has been proved, a further investigation and relevant approaches for getting a steady power generation should be needed, which would depend upon the stability of the coal feeding as well as the combustion mainly. In summary, the further enhancement of the performance of this generator channel seems to be possible if the described problems above could be resolved.

  15. Fate of chlorine-containing species in coal-fired MHD system

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.H.; Holt, J.K.; Sheth, A.C.

    1992-10-01

    From pilot plant test measurements, equilibrium calculations and bench scale experiments, the fate of various chlorin-containing species in a coal-fired MHD system has been determined. Chlorine generally occurs in fuel in a form that is easily decomposed or vaporized during combustion. According to a CONOCO bulletin, some Illinois coals contain chlorine concentrations up to 0.65% and many US coals exhibit chlorine contents varying from 0.01% to about 0.5%. Depending upon the grade of the seed material,its chlorine content as KC1 or NaCl can vary from 0.05% to 1.5%. Potassium salts used as seed material in the MHD system are recovered and recycled for economic and environmental reasons. However, multiple recycling results in a potential problem of coal-derived chloride build-up in the MHD system. If such build-up of chlorine-containing species is not controlled below an acceptable level, potentially serious problems may be faced in the entire MHD system. - Also under the new Clean Air Act, emission of HCl (hydrochloric acid) gas/aerosol from a continuous source will have to be brought down from 17 to less than 10 tons/year.

  16. Fate of chlorine-containing species in coal-fired MHD system

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, S.H.; Holt, J.K.; Sheth, A.C.

    1992-01-01

    From pilot plant test measurements, equilibrium calculations and bench scale experiments, the fate of various chlorin-containing species in a coal-fired MHD system has been determined. Chlorine generally occurs in fuel in a form that is easily decomposed or vaporized during combustion. According to a CONOCO bulletin, some Illinois coals contain chlorine concentrations up to 0.65% and many US coals exhibit chlorine contents varying from 0.01% to about 0.5%. Depending upon the grade of the seed material,its chlorine content as KC1 or NaCl can vary from 0.05% to 1.5%. Potassium salts used as seed material in the MHD system are recovered and recycled for economic and environmental reasons. However, multiple recycling results in a potential problem of coal-derived chloride build-up in the MHD system. If such build-up of chlorine-containing species is not controlled below an acceptable level, potentially serious problems may be faced in the entire MHD system. - Also under the new Clean Air Act, emission of HCl (hydrochloric acid) gas/aerosol from a continuous source will have to be brought down from 17 to less than 10 tons/year.

  17. NO{sub x} controls for coal-fired utility boilers in East Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Eskinazi, D.; Tavoulareas, E.S.

    1995-12-01

    Increasing environmental pressures worldwide, including East Central Europe are placing greater emphasis on NO{sub x} emission controls in utility power plants. Western Europe, Japan and the U.S. have significant experience in applying NO{sub x} controls, especially in boilers firing hard coal. Some countries in Europe (i.e., Germany and Austria), have gained experience in applying NO{sub x} controls in boilers firing low-rank coal. This experience can be applied to East Central European countries in providing the basis for planning NO{sub x} control projects, suggesting cost-effective solutions, and providing lessons learned. However, while the experience is generally applicable to East Central European countries, differences in boiler design, operation and coal characteristics also need to be considered. This paper begins with a comparison of the NO{sub x} regulations, identifies the key NO{sub x} control technologies and the worldwide experience with them, and discusses the achievable NO{sub x} reduction, O&M impacts, and retrofit costs for each technology. Emphasis is placed on retrofit applications for existing boilers, because new coal-fired power plants are not expected to be built for the next 5-10 years. This paper also focuses on technologies with relatively low cost and operational simplicity: combustion system tuning/optimization. low-NO{sub x} burners (LNB), overfire air (OFA), selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), and reburning.

  18. Development of advanced NO[sub x] control concepts for coal-fired utility boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, A.; Pont, J.N.; England, G.; Seeker, W.R.

    1993-03-04

    The complete CombiNO[sub x], process has now been demonstrated at a level that is believed to be representative of a full-scale boiler in terms of mixing capabilities. A summary of the results is displayedin Figure 5-1. While firing Illinois Coal on the Reburn Tower, Advanced Reburning was capable of reducing NO[sub x], by 83 percent. The injection of methanol oxidized 50--58 percent of the existing NO to N0[sub 2]. Assuming that 85 percent of the newly formed N0[sub 2] can be scrubbed in a liquor modified wet-limestone scrubber, the CombiNO[sub x], process has been shown capable of reducing NO[sub 2], by 90--91 percent in a large pilot-scale coal-fired furnace. There is still uncertainty regarding the fate of the N0[sub 2] formed with methanol injection. Tests should be conducted to determine whether the reconversion is thermodynamic or catalytic, and what steps can be taken (such as quench rate) to prevent it from happening.

  19. Iron aluminide weld overlay coatings for boiler tube protection in coal-fired low NOx boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Banovic, S.W.; DuPont, J.N.; Marder, A.R.

    1997-12-01

    Iron aluminide weld overlay coatings are currently being considered for enhanced sulfidation resistance in coal-fired low NO{sub x} boilers. The use of these materials is currently limited due to hydrogen cracking susceptibility, which generally increases with an increase in aluminum concentration of the deposit. The overall objective of this program is to attain an optimum aluminum content with good weldability and improved sulfidation resistance with respect to conventional materials presently in use. Research has been initiated using Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) in order to achieve this end. Under different sets of GTAW parameters (wire feed speed, current), both single and multiple pass overlays were produced. Characterization of all weldments was conducted using light optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electron probe microanalysis. Resultant deposits exhibited a wide range of aluminum contents (5--43 wt%). It was found that the GTAW overlays with aluminum contents above {approximately}10 wt% resulted in cracked coatings. Preliminary corrosion experiments of 5 to 10 wt% Al cast alloys in relatively simple H{sub 2}/H{sub 2}S gas mixtures exhibited corrosion rates lower than 304 stainless steel.

  20. Human exposure risks for metals in soil near a coal-fired power-generating plant.

    PubMed

    George, Joshy; Masto, Reginald E; Ram, Lal C; Das, Tarit B; Rout, Tofan K; Mohan, Mahesh

    2015-04-01

    Coal-fired thermal power stations (TPSs) may contaminate the surrounding soil and could lead to pollution levels that can affect human health. Soil samples collected from the immediate vicinity of a TPS were analysed for heavy metals. TPS soils were enriched with arsenic (As), strontium (Sr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), barium (Ba), vanadium (V), beryllium (Be), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), and nickel (Ni). Enrichment factor, principal component, and cluster analyses suggest that As, Cd, Co, Cr, and Hg in TPS soils originated from the TPS, whereas Pb and Zn were from vehicular/traffic-related emissions. The human exposure risk assessment based on different exposure pathways showed that the hazard index (HI) was <1.0 for all of the elements. The relative exposure risk was greater for toddlers. Although the overall risk was within the acceptable limit of 1.00, the HIs of Co (0.15) and Cr (0.082) were close to the threshold limits, which over the long-term may pose a health risk.

  1. Novel catalytic process for flue gas conditioning in electrostatic precipitators of coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Zagoruiko, Andrey; Balzhinimaev, Bair; Vanag, Sergey; Goncharov, Vladimir; Lopatin, Sergey; Zykov, Alexander; Anichkov, Sergey; Zhukov, Yurii; Yankilevich, Vassily; Proskokov, Nikolay; Hutson, Nick

    2010-08-01

    One of the most important environmental protection problems for coal-fired power plants is prevention of atmospheric pollution of flying ash. The ash particles are typically removed from flue gases by means of electrostatic precipitators, for which the efficiency may be significantly increased by lowering the resistance of fly ash, which may be achieved by controlled addition of microamounts of sulfur trioxide (SO3) into the flue gases. This paper describes the novel technology for production of SO3 by sulfur dioxide (SO2) oxidation using the combined catalytic system consisting of conventional vanadium catalyst and novel platinum catalyst on the base of silicazirconia glass-fiber supports. This combination provides highly efficient SO, oxidation in a wide temperature range with achievement of high SO, conversion. The performed pilot tests have demonstrated reliable and stable operation, excellent resistance of the novel catalytic system to deactivation, and high overall efficiency of the proposed process. The scale of the plant was equivalent to the commercial prototype; therefore, no further scale-up of the oxidation process is required. PMID:20842940

  2. Comparative analysis of optimisation methods applied to thermal cycle of a coal fired power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kowalczyk, Łukasz; Elsner, Witold

    2013-12-01

    The paper presents a thermodynamic optimization of 900MW power unit for ultra-supercritical parameters, modified according to AD700 concept. The aim of the study was to verify two optimisation methods, i.e., the finding the minimum of a constrained nonlinear multivariable function (fmincon) and the Nelder-Mead method with their own constrain functions. The analysis was carried out using IPSEpro software combined with MATLAB, where gross power generation efficiency was chosen as the objective function. In comparison with the Nelder-Mead method it was shown that using fmincon function gives reasonable results and a significant reduction of computational time. Unfortunately, with the increased number of decision parameters, the benefit measured by the increase in efficiency is becoming smaller. An important drawback of fmincon method is also a lack of repeatability by using different starting points. The obtained results led to the conclusion, that the Nelder-Mead method is a better tool for optimisation of thermal cycles with a high degree of complexity like the coal-fired power unit.

  3. Coal-fired power generaion, new air quality regulations, and future U.S. coal production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Root, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Tighter new regulation of stack gas emissions and competition in power generation are driving electrical utilities to demand cleaner, lower sulfur coal. Historical data on sulfur content of produced coals shows little variability in coal quality for individual mines and individual coal-producing counties over relatively long periods of time. If coal-using power generators follow the compliance patterns established in Phase I of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, then the industry's response to the tighter Phase II emissions standards will result in large amounts of coal production shifting from higher sulfur areas to areas with lower cost low sulfur coal. One reason this shift will likely occur is that currently only 30% of U.S. coal-fired electrical generating capacity is equipped with flue-gas scrubbers. In 1995, coal mines in the higher sulfur areas of the Illinois Basin and Northern and Central Appalachia employed 78% of all coal miners (>70,000 miners). A substantial geographical redistribution of the nation's coal supplies will likely lead to economic dislocations that will reach beyond local coal-producing areas.

  4. Characterization of Fly Ash from Coal-Fired Power Plant and Their Properties of Mercury Retention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ping; Jiang, Xiumin; Wu, Jiang; Pan, Weiguo; Ren, Jianxing

    2015-12-01

    Recent research has shown that fly ash may catalyze the oxidation of elemental mercury and facilitate its removal. However, the nature of mercury-fly ash interaction is still unknown, and the mechanism of mercury retention in fly ash needs to be investigated more thoroughly. In this work, a fly ash from a coal-fired power plant is used to characterize the inorganic and organic constituents and then evaluate its mercury retention capacities. The as-received fly ash sample is mechanically sieved to obtain five size fractions. Their characteristics are examined by loss on ignition (LOI), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray detector (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Raman spectra. The results show that the unburned carbon (UBC) content and UBC structural ordering decrease with a decreasing particle size for the five ashes. The morphologies of different size fractions of as-received fly ash change from the glass microspheres to irregular shapes as the particle size increases, but there is no correlation between particle size and mineralogical compositions in each size fraction. The adsorption experimental studies show that the mercury-retention capacity of fly ash depends on the particle size, UBC, and the type of inorganic constituents. Mercury retention of the types of sp2 carbon is similar to that of sp3 carbon.

  5. Mercury Emission Ratios from Coal-Fired Power Plants in the Southeastern United States during NOMADSS.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Jesse L; Gratz, Lynne E; Jaffe, Daniel A; Campos, Teresa; Flocke, Frank M; Knapp, David J; Stechman, Daniel M; Stell, Meghan; Weinheimer, Andrew J; Cantrell, Christopher A; Mauldin, Roy L

    2015-09-01

    We use measurements made onboard the National Science Foundation's C-130 research aircraft during the 2013 Nitrogen, Oxidants, Mercury, and Aerosol Distributions, Sources, and Sinks (NOMADSS) experiment to examine total Hg (THg) emission ratios (EmRs) for six coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) in the southeastern U.S. We compare observed enhancement ratios (ERs) with EmRs calculated using Hg emissions data from two inventories: the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) and the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI). For four CFPPs, our measured ERs are strongly correlated with EmRs based on the 2011 NEI (r(2) = 0.97), although the inventory data exhibit a -39% low bias. Our measurements agree best (to within ±32%) with the NEI Hg data when the latter were derived from on-site emissions measurements. Conversely, the NEI underestimates by approximately 1 order of magnitude the ERs we measured for one previously untested CFPP. Measured ERs are uncorrelated with values based on the 2013 TRI, which also tends to be biased low. Our results suggest that the Hg inventories can be improved by targeting CFPPs for which the NEI- and TRI-based EmRs have significant disagreements. We recommend that future versions of the Hg inventories should provide greater traceability and uncertainty estimates. PMID:26161912

  6. Mercury Emission Ratios from Coal-Fired Power Plants in the Southeastern United States during NOMADSS.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Jesse L; Gratz, Lynne E; Jaffe, Daniel A; Campos, Teresa; Flocke, Frank M; Knapp, David J; Stechman, Daniel M; Stell, Meghan; Weinheimer, Andrew J; Cantrell, Christopher A; Mauldin, Roy L

    2015-09-01

    We use measurements made onboard the National Science Foundation's C-130 research aircraft during the 2013 Nitrogen, Oxidants, Mercury, and Aerosol Distributions, Sources, and Sinks (NOMADSS) experiment to examine total Hg (THg) emission ratios (EmRs) for six coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) in the southeastern U.S. We compare observed enhancement ratios (ERs) with EmRs calculated using Hg emissions data from two inventories: the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) and the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI). For four CFPPs, our measured ERs are strongly correlated with EmRs based on the 2011 NEI (r(2) = 0.97), although the inventory data exhibit a -39% low bias. Our measurements agree best (to within ±32%) with the NEI Hg data when the latter were derived from on-site emissions measurements. Conversely, the NEI underestimates by approximately 1 order of magnitude the ERs we measured for one previously untested CFPP. Measured ERs are uncorrelated with values based on the 2013 TRI, which also tends to be biased low. Our results suggest that the Hg inventories can be improved by targeting CFPPs for which the NEI- and TRI-based EmRs have significant disagreements. We recommend that future versions of the Hg inventories should provide greater traceability and uncertainty estimates.

  7. Thermal Imaging of Subsurface Coal Fires by means of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) in the Autonomous Province Xinjiang, PRC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasterling, Margarete; Schloemer, Stefan; Fischer, Christian; Ehrler, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    Spontaneous combustion of coal and resulting coal fires lead to very high temperatures in the subsurface. To a large amount the heat is transferred to the surface by convective and conductive transport inducing a more or less pronounced thermal anomaly. During the past decade satellite-based infrared-imaging (ASTER, MODIS) was the method of choice for coal fire detection on a local and regional scale. However, the resolution is by far too low for a detailed analysis of single coal fires which is essential prerequisite for corrective measures (i.e. fire fighting) and calculation of carbon dioxide emission based on a complex correlation between energy release and CO2 generation. Consequently, within the framework of the Sino-German research project "Innovative Technologies for Exploration, Extinction and Monitoring of Coal Fires in Northern China", a new concept was developed and successfully tested. An unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) was equipped with a lightweight camera for thermografic (resolution 160 by 120 pixel, dynamic range -20 to 250°C) and for visual imaging. The UAV designed as an octocopter is able to hover at GPS controlled waypoints during predefined flight missions. The application of a UAV has several advantages. Compared to point measurements on the ground the thermal imagery quickly provides the spatial distribution of the temperature anomaly with a much better resolution. Areas otherwise not accessible (due to topography, fire induced cracks, etc.) can easily be investigated. The results of areal surveys on two coal fires in Xinjiang are presented. Georeferenced thermal and visual images were mosaicked together and analyzed. UAV-born data do well compared to temperatures measured directly on the ground and cover large areas in detail. However, measuring surface temperature alone is not sufficient. Simultaneous measurements made at the surface and in roughly 15cm depth proved substantial temperature gradients in the upper soil. Thus the temperature

  8. Flow Disturbance Measurements in the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Rudolph A.; Andino, Marlyn Y.; Melton, Latunia; Eppink, Jenna; Kegerise, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Recent flow measurements have been acquired in the National Transonic Facility to assess the test-section unsteady flow environment. The primary purpose of the test is to determine the feasibility of the facility to conduct laminar-flow-control testing and boundary-layer transition-sensitive testing at flight-relevant operating conditions throughout the transonic Mach number range. The facility can operate in two modes, warm and cryogenic test conditions for testing full and semispan-scaled models. Data were acquired for Mach and unit Reynolds numbers ranging from 0.2 less than or equal to M less than or equal to 0.95 and 3.3 × 10(exp 6) less than Re/m less than 220×10(exp 6) collectively at air and cryogenic conditions. Measurements were made in the test section using a survey rake that was populated with 19 probes. Roll polar data at selected conditions were obtained to look at the uniformity of the flow disturbance field in the test section. Data acquired included mean total temperatures, mean and fluctuating static/total pressures, and mean and fluctuating hot-wire measurements. This paper focuses primarily on the unsteady pressure and hot-wire results. Based on the current measurements and previous data, an assessment was made that the facility may be a suitable facility for ground-based demonstrations of laminar-flow technologies at flight-relevant conditions in the cryogenic mode.

  9. Assessment of the National Transonic Facility for Laminar Flow Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crouch, Jeffrey D.; Sutanto, Mary I.; Witkowski, David P.; Watkins, A. Neal; Rivers, Melissa B.; Campbell, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    A transonic wing, designed to accentuate key transition physics, is tested at cryogenic conditions at the National Transonic Facility at NASA Langley. The collaborative test between Boeing and NASA is aimed at assessing the facility for high-Reynolds number testing of configurations with significant regions of laminar flow. The test shows a unit Reynolds number upper limit of 26 M/ft for achieving natural transition. At higher Reynolds numbers turbulent wedges emanating from the leading edge bypass the natural transition process and destroy the laminar flow. At lower Reynolds numbers, the transition location is well correlated with the Tollmien-Schlichting-wave N-factor. The low-Reynolds number results suggest that the flow quality is acceptable for laminar flow testing if the loss of laminar flow due to bypass transition can be avoided.

  10. Facility for cold flow testing of solid rocket motor models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacchus, D. L.; Hill, O. E.; Whitesides, R. Harold

    1992-02-01

    A new cold flow test facility was designed and constructed at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center for the purpose of characterizing the flow field in the port and nozzle of solid propellant rocket motors (SRM's). A National Advisory Committee was established to include representatives from industry, government agencies, and universities to guide the establishment of design and instrumentation requirements for the new facility. This facility design includes the basic components of air storage tanks, heater, submicron filter, quiet control valve, venturi, model inlet plenum chamber, solid rocket motor (SRM) model, exhaust diffuser, and exhaust silencer. The facility was designed to accommodate a wide range of motor types and sizes from small tactical motors to large space launch boosters. This facility has the unique capability of testing ten percent scale models of large boosters such as the new Advanced Solid Rocket Motor (ASRM), at full scale motor Reynolds numbers. Previous investigators have established the validity of studying basic features of solid rocket motor development programs include the acquisition of data to (1) directly evaluate and optimize the design configuration of the propellant grain, insulation, and nozzle; and (2) provide data for validation of the computational fluid dynamics, (CFD), analysis codes and the performance analysis codes. A facility checkout model was designed, constructed, and utilized to evaluate the performance characteristics of the new facility. This model consists of a cylindrical chamber and converging/diverging nozzle with appropriate manifolding to connect it to the facility air supply. It was designed using chamber and nozzle dimensions to simulate the flow in a 10 percent scale model of the ASRM. The checkout model was recently tested over the entire range of facility flow conditions which include flow rates from 9.07 to 145 kg/sec (20 to 320 Ibm/sec) and supply pressure from 5.17 x 10 exp 5 to 8.27 x 10 exp 6 Pa. The

  11. Hanford Site Treated Effluent Disposal Facility process flow sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Bendixsen, R.B.

    1993-04-01

    This report presents a novel method of using precipitation, destruction and recycle factors to prepare a process flow sheet. The 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility (TEDF) will treat process sewer waste water from the 300 Area of the Hanford Site, located near Richland, Washington, and discharge a permittable effluent flow into the Columbia River. When completed and operating, the TEDF effluent water flow will meet or exceed water quality standards for the 300 Area process sewer effluents. A preliminary safety analysis document (PSAD), a preconstruction requirement, needed a process flow sheet detailing the concentrations of radionuclides, inorganics and organics throughout the process, including the effluents, and providing estimates of stream flow quantities, activities, composition, and properties (i.e. temperature, pressure, specific gravity, pH and heat transfer rates). As the facility begins to operate, data from process samples can be used to provide better estimates of the factors, the factors can be entered into the flow sheet and the flow sheet will estimate more accurate steady state concentrations for the components. This report shows how the factors were developed and how they were used in developing a flow sheet to estimate component concentrations for the process flows. The report concludes with how TEDF sample data can improve the ability of the flow sheet to accurately predict concentrations of components in the process.

  12. A NOVEL SENSOR AND MEASUREMENT SYSTEM FOR FIRESIDE CORROSION MONITORING IN COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Heng Ban; Zuoping Li

    2003-03-01

    Fireside corrosion in coal-fired power plants is a major obstacle to increase the overall efficiency for power producers. The increased use of opportunity fuels and low emission combustion modes have aggravated the corrosion on boiler tube walls in power plants. Corrosion-induced equipment failure could lead to catastrophic damage and inflict significant loss of production and cost for repair. Monitoring fireside corrosion in a reliable and timely manner can provide significant benefits to the plant operation. Current corrosion inspection and measurement are typically performed during scheduled maintenance outages, which is often after the damage is done. In the past, there have been many attempts to develop real time continuous corrosion monitoring technologies. However, there is still no short-term, online corrosion monitoring system commercially available for fireside corrosion to date due to the extremely harsh combustion environment. This report describes the results of a laboratory feasibility study on the development effort of a novel sensor for on-line fireside corrosion monitoring. A novel sensor principle and thin-film technologies were employed in the corrosion sensor design and fabrication. The sensor and the measurement system were experimentally studied using laboratory muffle furnaces. The results indicated that an accurate measure of corrosion rate could be made with high sensitivity using the new sensor. The investigation proved the feasibility of the concept and demonstrated the sensor design, sensor fabrication, and measurement instrumentation at the laboratory scale. An uncertainty analysis of the measurement system was also performed to provide a basis for further improvement of the system for future pilot or full scale testing.

  13. Soil as an archive of coal-fired power plant mercury deposition.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos

    2016-05-01

    Mercury pollution is a global environmental problem that has serious implications for human health. One of the most important sources of anthropogenic mercury emissions are coal-burning power plants. Hg accumulations in soil are associated with their atmospheric deposition. Our study provides the first assessment of soil Hg on the entire Spanish surface obtained from one sampling protocol. Hg spatial distribution was analysed with topsoil samples taken from 4000 locations in a regular sampling grid. The other aim was to use geostatistical techniques to verify the extent of soil contamination by Hg and to evaluate presumed Hg enrichment near the seven Spanish power plants with installed capacity above 1000 MW. The Hg concentration in Spanish soil fell within the range of 1-7564 μg kg(-1) (mean 67.2) and 50% of the samples had a concentration below 37 μg kg(-1). Evidence for human activity was found near all the coal-fired power plants, which reflects that metals have accumulated in the basin over many years. Values over 1000 μg kg(-1) have been found in soils in the vicinity of the Aboño, Soto de Ribera and Castellon power plants. However, soil Hg enrichment was detectable only close to the emission source, within an approximate range of only 15 km from the power plants. We associated this effect with airborne emissions and subsequent depositions as the potential distance through fly ash deposition. Hg associated with particles of ash tends to be deposited near coal combustion sources. PMID:26808251

  14. Aged particles derived from emissions of coal-fired power plants: The TERESA field results

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Choong-Min; Gupta, Tarun; Ruiz, Pablo A.; Wolfson, Jack M.; Ferguson, Stephen T.; Lawrence, Joy E.; Rohr, Annette C.; Godleski, John; Koutrakis, Petros

    2013-01-01

    The Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions Source Aerosols (TERESA) study was carried out at three US coal-fired power plants to investigate the potential toxicological effects of primary and photochemically aged (secondary) particles using in situ stack emissions. The exposure system designed successfully simulated chemical reactions that power plant emissions undergo in a plume during transport from the stack to receptor areas (e.g., urban areas). Test atmospheres developed for toxicological experiments included scenarios to simulate a sequence of atmospheric reactions that can occur in a plume: (1) primary emissions only; (2) H2SO4 aerosol from oxidation of SO2; (3) H2SO4 aerosol neutralized by gas-phase NH3; (4) neutralized H2SO4 with secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed by the reaction of α-pinene with O3; and (5) three control scenarios excluding primary particles. The aged particle mass concentrations varied significantly from 43.8 to 257.1 μg/m3 with respect to scenario and power plant. The highest was found when oxidized aerosols were neutralized by gas-phase NH3 with added SOA. The mass concentration depended primarily on the ratio of SO2 to NOx (particularly NO) emissions, which was determined mainly by coal composition and emissions controls. Particulate sulfate (H2SO4 + neutralized sulfate) and organic carbon (OC) were major components of the aged particles with added SOA, whereas trace elements were present at very low concentrations. Physical and chemical properties of aged particles appear to be influenced by coal type, emissions controls and the particular atmospheric scenarios employed. PMID:20462390

  15. Atmospheric behavior of trace elements on particles emitted from a coal-fired power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ondov, J. M.; Choquette, C. E.; Zoller, W. H.; Gordon, G. E.; Biermann, A. H.; Heft, R. E.

    Filter and cascade impactor samples of suspended particles were collected in-stack and at distances up to 64 km downwind in the plume of a large western coal-fired power plant equipped with both electrostatic precipitators (ESP) and venturi wet particulate scrubbers (VWS) to investigate modifications of the particulate signatures of minor and trace elements during transport. Samples were analyzed for 40 elements by instrumental neutron activation analysis. Precipitator malfunction during the experiment caused greater than normal emission of large particles, and concentrations of As, Zn, Sb, Mo, Ga, W, U, V and Ba in near-plume particles collected on filters were enriched relative to their concentrations in stack particles by factors of 1.4 to 2.5, presumably because of sedimentation of very large particles. Selenium was enriched by up to 6-fold (plume:stack). However, enrichment of elements in the plume relative to more typical in-stack particles were insignificant for all elements except Se, which was enriched 2.3-fold. Concentrations of Se on particles in the stack and plume suggest that most of the Se vapor in stack gases became associated with aerosol particles soon after emission. Thus although significant post-emission modifications of elemental signatures of particles may occur for poorly controlled plants, little change is expected for well-controlled plants equipped with ESPs except for Se. Source signatures measured for Se must account for vapor deposition. Impactor data showed a preferential decrease in the concentrations of the above elements in submicrometer particles; suggesting that either intermodal coagulation or size selective sampling losses were important. The impactor data further suggest that enrichment-particle-size profiles for VWS emissions were not conservative during transport.

  16. Aged particles derived from emissions of coal-fired power plants: the TERESA field results.

    PubMed

    Kang, Choong-Min; Gupta, Tarun; Ruiz, Pablo A; Wolfson, Jack M; Ferguson, Stephen T; Lawrence, Joy E; Rohr, Annette C; Godleski, John; Koutrakis, Petros

    2011-08-01

    The Toxicological Evaluation of Realistic Emissions Source Aerosols (TERESA) study was carried out at three US coal-fired power plants to investigate the potential toxicological effects of primary and photochemically aged (secondary) particles using in situ stack emissions. The exposure system designed successfully simulated chemical reactions that power plant emissions undergo in a plume during transport from the stack to receptor areas (e.g., urban areas). Test atmospheres developed for toxicological experiments included scenarios to simulate a sequence of atmospheric reactions that can occur in a plume: (1) primary emissions only; (2) H(2)SO(4) aerosol from oxidation of SO(2); (3) H(2)SO(4) aerosol neutralized by gas-phase NH(3); (4) neutralized H(2)SO(4) with secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed by the reaction of α-pinene with O(3); and (5) three control scenarios excluding primary particles. The aged particle mass concentrations varied significantly from 43.8 to 257.1 µg/m(3) with respect to scenario and power plant. The highest was found when oxidized aerosols were neutralized by gas-phase NH(3) with added SOA. The mass concentration depended primarily on the ratio of SO(2) to NO(x) (particularly NO) emissions, which was determined mainly by coal composition and emissions controls. Particulate sulfate (H(2)SO(4) + neutralized sulfate) and organic carbon (OC) were major components of the aged particles with added SOA, whereas trace elements were present at very low concentrations. Physical and chemical properties of aged particles appear to be influenced by coal type, emissions controls and the particular atmospheric scenarios employed.

  17. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Constance Senior; Temi Linjewile

    2003-07-25

    This is the first Quarterly Technical Report for DOE Cooperative Agreement No: DE-FC26-03NT41728. The objective of this program is to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Ceramics GmbH are providing co-funding for this program. This program contains multiple tasks and good progress is being made on all fronts. During this quarter, analysis of the coal, ash and mercury speciation data from the first test series was completed. Good agreement was shown between different methods of measuring mercury in the flue gas: Ontario Hydro, semi-continuous emission monitor (SCEM) and coal composition. There was a loss of total mercury across the commercial catalysts, but not across the blank monolith. The blank monolith showed no oxidation. The data from the first test series show the same trend in mercury oxidation as a function of space velocity that has been seen elsewhere. At space velocities in the range of 6,000-7,000 hr{sup -1} the blank monolith did not show any mercury oxidation, with or without ammonia present. Two of the commercial catalysts clearly showed an effect of ammonia. Two other commercial catalysts showed an effect of ammonia, although the error bars for the no-ammonia case are large. A test plan was written for the second test series and is being reviewed.

  18. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-29

    This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashesand industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, a majority of the effort was spent relining the separator/reservoir and the cyclone melter. The relinings were completed, the cyclonemelter was reinstalled, and the test system was returned to operational status. The wet ESP was delivered and placed on its foundation. The focus during the upcoming months will be completing the integration ofthe wet ESP and conducting the first industrial proof-of-concept test. The other system modifications are well underway with the designs of the recuperator installation and the batch/coal feed system progressing smoothly. The program is still slightly behind the original schedule but it is anticipated that it will be back on schedule by the end of the year. The commercialization planning is continuing with the identification of seven potential near-term commercial demonstration opportunities.

  19. Atmospheric emissions and pollution from the coal-fired thermal power plants in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Jawahar, Puja

    2014-08-01

    In India, of the 210 GW electricity generation capacity, 66% is derived from coal, with planned additions of 76 GW and 93 GW during the 12th and the 13th five year plans, respectively. Atmospheric emissions from the coal-fired power plants are responsible for a large burden on human health. In 2010-11, 111 plants with an installed capacity of 121 GW, consumed 503 million tons of coal, and generated an estimated 580 ktons of particulates with diameter less than 2.5 μm (PM2.5), 2100 ktons of sulfur dioxides, 2000 ktons of nitrogen oxides, 1100 ktons of carbon monoxide, 100 ktons of volatile organic compounds, and 665 million tons of carbon dioxide. These emissions resulted in an estimated 80,000 to 115,000 premature deaths and 20.0 million asthma cases from exposure to PM2.5 pollution, which cost the public and the government an estimated INR 16,000 to 23,000 crores (USD 3.2 to 4.6 billion). The emissions were estimated for the individual plants and the atmospheric modeling was conducted using CAMx chemical transport model, coupled with plume rise functions and hourly meteorology. The analysis shows that aggressive pollution control regulations such as mandating flue gas desulfurization, introduction and tightening of emission standards for all criteria pollutants, and updating procedures for environment impact assessments, are imperative for regional clean air and to reduce health impacts. For example, a mandate for installation of flue gas desulfurization systems for the operational 111 plants could reduce the PM2.5 concentrations by 30-40% by eliminating the formation of the secondary sulfates and nitrates.

  20. Effects of coal-fired thermal power plant discharges on agricultural soil and crop plants

    SciTech Connect

    Ajmal, M.; Khan, M.A.

    1986-04-01

    The physicochemical properties of the upstream and downstream waters from the Upper Ganga canal, discharged cooling tower water, machine washings, and scrubber and bottom ash effluents of a 530 MW Kasimpur coal-fired thermal power plant have been determined, and their effects directly on fertile soil and indirectly on pea (Pisum sativam) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) crops have also been studied. The effluents were alkaline in nature. The scrubber and bottom ash effluent contained large amounts of solids and had high biochemical and chemical oxygen demands. The soils irrigated with the different effluents exhibited an increase in pH, organic matter, calcium carbonate, water-soluble salts, cation exchange capacity, electrical conductivity, and nitrogen and phosphorus contents while potassium content decreased. The effects of 100, 50, and 0% (tap water control) dilutions of cooling tower, machine washings, and scrubber and bottom ash effluents on the germination and growth of pea and wheat crops were also monitored. Using the undiluted effluents, there was 100% germination for both crops when irrigation was done with cooling tower effluent. Germination was restricted to 90% for the two crops when irrigated with machine washings effluent, and to 80 and 70% for pea and wheat, respectively, when irrigated with scrubber and bottom ash effluent. Samples of upstream and downstream canal water were also used for irrigating soils with and without crop plants in order to ascertain the impact of effluents on canal water and its subsequent effect on crops. The soils irrigated with downstream canal water were found to contain slightly more calcium carbonate, phosphorus, and ammonia-nitrogen than those receiving upstream canal water. Though 100% germination was obtained in both cases, the growth of plants irrigated with the downstream canal water was slightly reduced.

  1. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Quarterly progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of > 47% thermal efficiency; NO{sub x} SO {sub x} and Particulates < 25% NSPS; Cost of electricity 10% lower; coal > 65% of heat input and all solid wastes benign. In order to achieve these goals our team has outlined a research plan based on an optimized analysis of a 250 MW{sub e} combined cycle system applicable to both frame type and aeroderivative gas turbines. Under the constraints of the cycle analysis we have designed a high temperature advanced furnace (HITAF) which integrates several combustor and air heater designs with appropriate ash management procedures. Most of this report discusses the details of work on these components, and the R&D Plan for future work. The discussion of the combustor designs illustrates how detailed modeling can be an effective tool to estimate NO{sub x} production, minimum burnout lengths, combustion temperatures and even particulate impact on the combustor walls. When our model is applied to the long flame concept it indicates that fuel bound nitrogen will limit the range of coals that can use this approach. For high nitrogen coals a rapid mixing, rich-lean, deep staging combustor will be necessary. The air heater design has evolved into two segments: a convective heat exchanger downstream of the combustion process; a radiant panel heat exchanger, located in the combustor walls; The relative amount of heat transferred either radiatively or convectively will depend on the combustor type and the ash properties.

  2. Biological processes for the treatment of waste water from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Vredenbregt, L.H.J.; Potma, A.A.; Enoch, G.D.

    1998-07-01

    In The Netherlands, all coal-fired power stations are equipped with a wet lime(stone)-gypsum flue gas desulfurization (FGD) installation, in order to meet the SO{sub 2} emission requirements. During wet desulfurization a waste water stream is produced containing among others suspended solids, heavy metals, nitrate and in some cases ammonia. Besides, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) of the waste water is increased if the FGD process is optimized by application of organic buffers. The traditional waste water treatment plant (WWTP) does not remove nitrate, ammonia and COD, and only poorly removes the anions of oxygenated metals such as selenium. In a previous research it was demonstrated that nitrate and ammonia can be removed biologically, even at the relatively extreme conditions of FGD waste water, which is characterized by a high chloride concentration (5 and 40 g/l) and relatively high temperatures (typically 35--50 C). However, the removal is no longer solely focused on nitrogen components, but also on COD removal and for the anions of some oxygenated metals target values are expected in the near future. In this paper attention is focused on two biological processes. One process is the combined removal of nitrate and COD in a fluid-bed reactor which can be applied upstream of the traditional WWTP. The application of this process was successfully demonstrated at a bench-scale fluid bed reactor. The optimal process conditions were determined in activated-sludge reactors on a laboratory scale. The second biological process is the combined removal of COD and metals from FGD waste water. An upflow sludge blanket reactor was successfully tested on laboratory scale at a wide range of process conditions with actual waste water. The possible advantages and disadvantages of the biological removal processes are discussed and compared with the well known chemical precipitation process.

  3. Modeling of ash deposition in the convective pass of a coal-fired boiler

    SciTech Connect

    Allan, S.E.; Erickson, T.A.; McCollor, D.P.

    1996-12-31

    The Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) has developed a personal computer (PC)-based model, FOULER, to predict convective pass fouling deposit formation in coal-fired boilers. This program is used to evaluate the effects of coal quality and operational changes on both high- and low-temperature fouling. In addition, the effects of coal cleaning, blending, and switching options can be evaluated. FOULER will be incorporated in the Coal Quality Expert (CQE) software project. CQE is a comprehensive, PC-based program that can be used to evaluate various potential coal cleaning, blending, and switching options to reduce power plant emissions while minimizing generation costs. The model is based on theory and a combination of laboratory-, pilot-, and field-scale test data. The code encompasses the hanging pendant, superheater, reheater, and economizer regions of the convective pass. The code predicts growth and removal of ash deposition through the interaction of several submodels: (1) Deposit Growth, (2) Deposit Strength Development, (3) Thermal Properties, (4) Deposit Removal, and (5) Sootblower Effectiveness. The deposit removal mechanisms included are thermal shock, gravity shedding, and sootblowing. The required inputs for the code include ash size and composition, boiler parameters, and operation conditions. Input parameters can be entered into the code directly or they can be predicted by other codes such as MMT (mineral matter transformation code) and CQE heat-transfer module. The submodels interact to produce outputs, based on a time basis, of the deposit mass, strength, resistivity, and removal rates. This report describes the fouling submodels, the rationale used in these submodels, and a description of how the experimental data were utilized to validate the algorithms.

  4. Mercury removals by existing pollutants control devices of four coal-fired power plants in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Wenhua; Xu, Wei; Wang, Xiaohao; Zhao, Song

    2011-01-01

    The mercury removals by existing pollution control devices and the mass balances of mercury in four coal-fired power plants of China were carried out based on a measurement method with the aluminum matrix sorbent. All the plants are equipped with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) in series. During the course of coal stream, the samples, such as coal, bottom ash, fly ash, gypsum and flue gas, were collected. The Hg concentrations in coals were measured by CVAAS after appropriate preparation and acid digestion. Other solid samples were measured by the RA-915+ Zeeman Mercury Spectrometer. The vapor phase Hg was collected by a sorbent trap from flue gas and then measured using CVAAS followed by acid leaching. The mercury mass balances were estimated in this study were 91.6%, 77.1%, 118% and 85.8% for the four power plants, respectively. The total Hg concentrations in the stack gas were ranged from 1.56-5.95 microg/m3. The relative distribution of Hg in bottom ash, ESP, WFGD and stack discharged were ranged between 0.110%-2.50%, 2.17%-23.4%, 2.21%-87.1%, and 21.8%-72.7%, respectively. The distribution profiles were varied with the coal type and the operation conditions. The Hg in flue gas could be removed by ESP and FGD systems with an average removal efficiency of 51.8%. The calculated average emission factor was 0.066 g/ton and much lower than the results obtained ten years ago.

  5. Mercury removals by existing pollutants control devices of four coal-fired power plants in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Juan; Wang, Wenhua; Xu, Wei; Wang, Xiaohao; Zhao, Song

    2011-01-01

    The mercury removals by existing pollution control devices and the mass balances of mercury in four coal-fired power plants of China were carried out based on a measurement method with the aluminum matrix sorbent. All the plants are equipped with a cold-side electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and a wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) in series. During the course of coal stream, the samples, such as coal, bottom ash, fly ash, gypsum and flue gas, were collected. The Hg concentrations in coals were measured by CVAAS after appropriate preparation and acid digestion. Other solid samples were measured by the RA-915+ Zeeman Mercury Spectrometer. The vapor phase Hg was collected by a sorbent trap from flue gas and then measured using CVAAS followed by acid leaching. The mercury mass balances were estimated in this study were 91.6%, 77.1%, 118% and 85.8% for the four power plants, respectively. The total Hg concentrations in the stack gas were ranged from 1.56-5.95 microg/m3. The relative distribution of Hg in bottom ash, ESP, WFGD and stack discharged were ranged between 0.110%-2.50%, 2.17%-23.4%, 2.21%-87.1%, and 21.8%-72.7%, respectively. The distribution profiles were varied with the coal type and the operation conditions. The Hg in flue gas could be removed by ESP and FGD systems with an average removal efficiency of 51.8%. The calculated average emission factor was 0.066 g/ton and much lower than the results obtained ten years ago. PMID:22432308

  6. Mercury emission and speciation of coal-fired power plants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. X.; Zhang, L.; Li, G. H.; Wu, Y.; Hao, J. M.; Pirrone, N.; Sprovieri, F.; Ancora, M. P.

    2010-02-01

    Comprehensive field measurements are needed to understand the mercury emissions from Chinese power plants and to improve the accuracy of emission inventories. Characterization of mercury emissions and their behavior were measured in six typical coal-fired power plants in China. During the tests, the flue gas was sampled simultaneously at inlet and outlet of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), electrostatic precipitators (ESP), and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM). The pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash and gypsum were also sampled in the field. Mercury concentrations in coal burned in the measured power plants ranged from 17 to 385 μg/kg. The mercury mass balances for the six power plants varied from 87 to 116% of the input coal mercury for the whole system. The total mercury concentrations in the flue gas from boilers were at the range of 1.92-27.15 μg/m3, which were significantly related to the mercury contents in burned coal. The mercury speciation in flue gas right after the boiler is influenced by the contents of halogen, mercury, and ash in the burned coal. The average mercury removal efficiencies of ESP, ESP plus wet FGD, and ESP plus dry FGD-FF systems were 24%, 73% and 66%, respectively, which were similar to the average removal efficiencies of pollution control device systems in other countries such as US, Japan and South Korea. The SCR system oxidized 16% elemental mercury and reduced about 32% of total mercury. Elemental mercury, accounting for 66-94% of total mercury, was the dominant species emitted to the atmosphere. The mercury emission factor was also calculated for each power plant.

  7. Mercury emission and speciation of coal-fired power plants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Zhang, L.; Li, G.; Wu, Y.; Hao, J.; Pirrone, N.; Sprovieri, F.; Ancora, M. P.

    2009-11-01

    Comprehensive field measurements are needed to understand the mercury emissions from Chinese power plants and to improve the accuracy of emission inventories. Characterization of mercury emissions and their behavior were measured in six typical coal-fired power plants in China. During the tests, the flue gas was sampled simultaneously at inlet and outlet of selective catalyst reduction (SCR), electrostatic precipitators (ESP), and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM). The pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash and gypsum were also sampled in the field. Mercury concentrations in coal burned in the measured power plants ranged from 17 to 385 μg/kg. The mercury mass balances for the six power plants varied from 87 to 116% of the input coal mercury for the whole system. The total mercury concentrations in the flue gas from boilers were at the range of 1.92-27.15 μg/m3, which were significantly related to the mercury contents in burned coal. The mercury speciation in flue gas right after the boiler is influenced by the contents of halogen, mercury, and ash in the burned coal. The average mercury removal efficiencies of ESP, ESP plus wet FGD, and ESP plus dry FGD-FF systems were 24%, 73% and 66%, respectively, which were similar to the average removal efficiencies of pollution control device systems in other countries such as US, Japan and South Korea. The SCR system oxidized 16% elemental mercury and reduced about 32% of total mercury. Elemental mercury, accounting for 66-94% of total mercury, was the dominant species emitted to the atmosphere. The mercury emission factor was also calculated for each power plant.

  8. Impacts of the Minamata Convention for Mercury Emissions from Coal-fired Power Generation in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giang, A.; Stokes, L. C.; Streets, D. G.; Corbitt, E. S.; Selin, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    We explore the potential implications of the recently signed United Nations Minamata Convention on Mercury for emissions from coal-fired power generation in Asia, and the impacts of these emissions changes on deposition of mercury worldwide by 2050. We use qualitative interviews, document analysis, and engineering analysis to create plausible technology scenarios consistent with the Convention, taking into account both technological and political factors. We translate these scenarios into possible emissions inventories for 2050, based on IPCC development scenarios, and then use the GEOS-Chem global transport model to evaluate the effect of these different technology choices on mercury deposition over geographic regions and oceans. We find that China is most likely to address mercury control through co-benefits from technologies for SO2, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) capture that will be required to attain its existing air quality goals. In contrast, India is likely to focus on improvements to plant efficiency such as upgrading boilers, and coal washing. Compared to current technologies, we project that these changes will result in emissions decreases of approximately 140 and 190 Mg/yr for China and India respectively in 2050, under an A1B development scenario. With these emissions reductions, simulated average gross deposition over India and China are reduced by approximately 10 and 3 μg/m2/yr respectively, and the global average concentration of total gaseous mercury (TGM) is reduced by approximately 10% in the Northern hemisphere. Stricter, but technologically feasible, requirements for mercury control in both countries could lead to an additional 200 Mg/yr of emissions reductions. Modeled differences in concentration and deposition patterns between technology suites are due to differences in both the mercury removal efficiency of technologies and their resulting stack speciation.

  9. Evolution of particulate emissions from a coal-fired power plant. [Ph. D. Thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Buckholtz, H.T.Y.

    1980-08-15

    A numerical model has been developed for the dispersal of aerosols downwind from a coal-fired power plant. The main goals were to evaluate with a mathematical simulation the evolution of the spatial extent and particle size distribution of the aerosol material and to predict settling rates affecting the surface environment in the downwind path. The hot air plume coming out of the power plant stack includes a large quantity of aerosol particles. The plume rises with initial upward emission speed until it reaches thermal and kinetic equilibria with the ambient air, then it is transported by the wind current. The plume disperses vertically and horizontally by wind turbulence. In the model particulate coagulation is mathematically described by Timiskii's equation. The relevant semi-empirical work of Smirnov is incorporated to provide the coagulation constant. Because of coagulation, the concentrations of different sizes of aerosol particles in the plume are changed. The numerical simulation studies the importance of particulate coagulation and turbulent dispersion on the downwind plume profile. The downwind transport of the aerosol particles is described by Fick's diffusion equation with the Brownian diffusion coefficient replaced by the turbulent diffusion coefficient. Particle sedimentation is incorporated into the diffusion equation as a first-order differential term. The transport equation is solved by an unconditionally stable finite difference method. At 20 miles downwind, most of the particles with diameter larger than 10 ..mu..m have settled to the ground. The size distribution is still bimodal. The distribution of larger particles remains almost unchanged, except for the departure of the super-micronic particles, because coagulation losses are approximately balanced by coagulation gains.

  10. Low level measurements of natural radionuclides in soil samples around a coal-fired power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosner, G.; Bunzl, K.; Hötzl, H.; Winkler, R.

    1984-06-01

    To detect a possible contribution of airborne radioactivity from stack effluents to the soil radioactivity, several radionuclides in the soil around a coal-fired power plant have been determined. A plant situated in a rural region of Bavaria was selected to minimize contributions from other civilisatory sources. The soil sampling network consisted of 5 concentric circles with diameters between 0.4 and 5.2 km around the plant, 16 sampling points being distributed regularly on each circle. Radiochemical analysis techniques for 210Pb and 210Po in soil samples of several grams had to be developed. They include a wet dissolution procedure, simultaneous precipitation of lead and polonium as the sulfides, purification via lead sulfate, counting of the lead as the chromate in a low-level beta counter and alpha spectrometric determination of the 210Po in a gridded ionization chamber. The 238U, 226Ra, 232Th and 40K were counted by low level gamma spectrometry. Specific activities found were in the range of 0.7 to 2.0 pCi g -1 for 210Pb and 0.3 to 1.6 pCi g -1 for 226Ra. The distribution patterns of 210Po and 210Pb around the plant were found to be similar. They were different, however, from that of 226Ra. The highest 210Pb/ 226Ra activity ratio was 3.9 at a distance of 0.76 km SSE from the plant. Nevertheless, the evidence is not considered to be sufficient to attribute these observations unambiguously to plant releases.

  11. Atmospheric Aerosol Source-Receptor Relationships: The Role of Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Allen L. Robinson; Spyros N. Pandis; Cliff I. Davidson

    2005-12-01

    This report describes the technical progress made on the Pittsburgh Air Quality Study (PAQS) during the period of March 2005 through August 2005. Significant progress was made this project period on the source characterization, source apportionment, and deterministic modeling activities. This report highlights new data on road dust, vegetative detritus and motor vehicle emissions. For example, the results show significant differences in the composition in urban and rural road dust. A comparison of the organic of the fine particulate matter in the tunnel with the ambient provides clear evidence of the significant contribution of vehicle emissions to ambient PM. The source profiles developed from this work are being used by the source-receptor modeling activities. The report presents results on the spatial distribution of PMF-factors. The results can be grouped into three different categories: regional sources, local sources, or potentially both regional and local sources. Examples of the regional sources are the sulfate and selenium PMF-factors which most likely-represent coal fired power plants. Examples of local sources are the specialty steel and lead factors. There is reasonable correspondence between these apportionments and data from the EPA TRI and AIRS emission inventories. Detailed comparisons between PMCAMx predictions and measurements by the STN and IMPROVE measurements in the Eastern US are presented. Comparisons were made for the major aerosol components and PM{sub 2.5} mass in July 2001, October 2001, January 2002, and April 2002. The results are encouraging with average fraction biases for most species less than 0.25. The improvement of the model performance during the last two years was mainly due to the comparison of the model predictions with the continuous measurements in the Pittsburgh Supersite. Major improvements have included the descriptions: of ammonia emissions (CMU inventory), night time nitrate chemistry, EC emissions and their diurnal

  12. The level of air pollution in the impact zone of coal-fired power plant (Karaganda City) using the data of geochemical snow survey (Republic of Kazakhstan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adil'bayeva, T. E.; Talovskaya, A. V.; Yazikov, Ye G.; Matveenko, I. A.

    2016-09-01

    Coal-fired power plants emissions impact the air quality and human health. Of great significance is assessment of solid airborne particles emissions from those plants and distance of their transportation. The article presents the results of air pollution assessment in the zone of coal-fired power plant (Karaganda City) using snow survey. Based on the mass of solid airborne particles deposited in snow, time of their deposition on snow at the distance from 0.5 to 4.5 km a value of dust load has been determined. It is stated that very high level of pollution is observed at the distance from 0.5 to 1 km. there is a trend in decrease of dust burden value with the distance from the stacks of coal-fired power plant that may be conditioned by the particle size and washing out smaller ash particles by ice pellets forming at freezing water vapour in stacks of the coal-fired power plant. Study in composition of solid airborne particles deposited in snow has shown that they mainly contain particulates of underburnt coal, Al-Si- rich spheres, Fe-rich spheres, and coal dust. The content of the particles in samples decreases with the distance from the stacks of the coal-fired power plant.

  13. An evaluation of micronized coal reburning for nitrogen oxide emissions reduction in pulverized coal-fired electric utility boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Angelo, Joseph Gerard

    Recent increases in the prices of imported fuels and increases in the cost of natural gas have underscored the need to consider other sources of energy for electric production in the United States. Our most abundant fuel source is coal, however the use of coal brings with it a set of environmental problems. This dissertation presents an investigation into the use of micronized coal reburning. This technology may provide a cost-effective solution to the requirements to reduce NOx emissions from pulverized coal-fired electric generating stations. This research effort evaluated the use of micronized coal as a reburning fuel to lower nitrogen oxide emissions from coal-fired boilers. The research effort included: (1) an investigation of all available literature on the subject, (2) planning and supervision of a number of baseline and parametric tests on a full-scale coal fired utility boiler. The testing was carried out on the former NYSEG generating unit, Milliken 1. Milliken Unit 1 is a 150 MW coal-fired electric utility boiler located in Lansing, NY on the eastern shore of Cayuga Lake, (3) development of a model to predict NOx emissions from a coal-fired boiler, and (4) completion of a conceptual design for a micronized coal reburning system. The original plan of the research effort was to include a full-scale micronized coal reburn installation and subsequent modeling and testing. However, in 1998 the deregulation of the electric utility industry in New York caused the focus of the dissertation to be narrowed. The test site, Milliken Station was sold to another entity, and the installation of the micronized coal reburn system was cancelled. The following conclusions were drawn from the research: (1) Testing showed that nitrogen oxide production was significantly influenced by changes in controllable boiler operating parameters. (2) The predictive model for baseline nitrogen oxide production was fairly accurate in estimating NOx emissions. The model had an average

  14. Laboratory evaluation of high-temperature sulfur removal sorbents for direct coal-fired turbines: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Newby, R.A.; DeZubay, E.A.; Chamberlin, R.M.

    1987-06-01

    Direct coal-fired turbine concepts currently being developed require substantial levels of sulfur removal from high-temperature gas streams. Calcium-based sorbents, limestones, dolomites, limes and lime hydrates, are capable of sulfur removal in direct coal-fired turbine combustor environments at temperature up to 1200/degree/C. Two types of desulfurizer processes are considered in this report using calcium- based sorbents: fluidized bed desulfurizer using coarse sorbent particles (300-1000 ..mu..m), and entrained desulfurizer using fine sorbent particles (1-40 ..mu..m). Small-scale laboratory tests were performed on a variety of calcium-based sorbents to determine the kinetics of sulfation and sulfidation over ranges of conditions applicable to both types of desulfurizer processes. Correlations are developed in the report for the effect of pressure; temperature, and particle size. Engineering models are also developed for both desulfurizer types that incorporate the laboratory reaction kinetics and predict potential commercial performance and performance trends. It is concluded that both desulfurizer concepts can be effective in direct coal-fired turbines, with calcium-to-sulfur molar feed ratios ranging from 1.5 to 3.0, if the correct calcium-based sorbent is selected, and if applicable design and operating conditions are identified. Both desulfurizer concepts have limitations and key development requirements, and site and fuel specific engineering assessment is required to select the best concept for a given combustor system. The influence of the desulfurizer concepts on turbine protection, through their influence on particle loading and alkali release must also be assessed. 51 refs., 73 figs., 9 tabs.

  15. Analysis and discussion on formation and control of primary particulate matter generated from coal-fired power plants.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jianyi; Ren, Xudan

    2014-12-01

    Particulate matter (PM) has been becoming the principal urban pollutant in many major cities in China, and even all over the world. It is reported that the coal combustion process is one of the main sources of PM in the atmosphere. Therefore, an investigation of formation and emission of fine primary PM in coal combustion was conducted. First, the sources and classification of coal-fired primary PM were discussed; then their formation pathways during the coal combustion process were analyzed in detail. Accordingly, the emission control methods for fine particles generated from coal-fired power plants were put forward, and were classified as precombustion control, in-combustion control, and postcombustion control. Precombustion control refers to the processes for improving the coal quality before combustion, such as coal type selection and coal preparation. In-combustion control means to take measures for adjusting the combustion conditions and injection of additives during the combustion process to abate the formation of PM. Postcombustion control is the way that the fine PM are aggregated into larger ones by some agglomeration approaches and subsequently are removed by dust removal devices, or some high-performance modifications of conventional particle emission control devices (PECDs) can be taken for capturing fine particles. Finally, some general management suggestions are given for reducing fine PM emission in coal-fired power plants. Implications: The analysis and discussions of coal properties and its combustion process are critical to recognizing the formation and emission of the fine primary PM in combustion. The measures of precombustion, in-combustion, and postcombustion control based on the analysis and discussions are favorable for abating the PM emission. Practically, some measures of implementation do need the support of national policies, even needing to sacrifice economy to gain environmental profit, but this is the very time to execute these, and

  16. Power Systems Development Facility: Design, Construction, and Commissioning Status

    SciTech Connect

    Powell, C.A.; Vimalchand; Hendrix, H.L.; Honeycut, P.M.

    1996-12-31

    This paper will provide an introduction to the Power Systems Development Facility, a Department of Energy sponsored, engineering scale demonstration of two advanced coal-fired power technologies; and discuss current status of design, construction and commissioning of this facility. 28 viewgraphs, including 2 figs.

  17. Investigations on fly-ash and soil samples in the environment of a coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed

    Glöbel, B; Andres, C

    1985-10-01

    In the main wind direction of a coal-fired power plant dust and soil samples have been collected to analyse the content of fly-ash coming from the power plant. The fly-ash particles are spherical and contain the natural radionuclides mainly Ra-226, Pb-210, Po-210 and K-40 in a higher concentration when compared with the original coal. The investigation of soil samples results in increased Pb-210 and Po-210 concentrations when compared with the natural environment. By presence of spherical particles in dust and soil samples the power plant can be identified as the emitter.

  18. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1994--December 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a {open_quotes}Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications{close_quotes} is a project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the past quarter, the major effort was concentrated on conducting the 100 hour demonstration test. The test was successfully conducted from September 12th through the 16th. The test program consisted of one test run, with a duration of 100 hours at a nominal feed rate of 1000 lbs/hr. Throughout the test, the CMS was fired with coal and a coal by-product (i.e. coal-fired boiler flyash) as the primary fuels. Natural gas was used as an auxiliary fuel as necessary to provide process trim. The feedstock consisted of a coal-fired utility boiler flyash and dolomite and produced a stable, fully-reacted vitrified product. The fly ash, supplied by PENELEC, contained between 6 and 12% by weight of carbon because of the low NO{sub x} burners on the PENELEC boilers.

  19. Economic comparison of fabric filters and electrostatic precipitators for particulate control on coal-fired utility boilers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cukor, P. M.; Chapman, R. A.

    1978-01-01

    The uncertainties and associated costs involved in selecting and designing a particulate control device to meet California's air emission regulations are considered. The basic operating principles of electrostatic precipitators and fabric filters are discussed, and design parameters are identified. The size and resulting cost of the control device as a function of design parameters is illustrated by a case study for an 800 MW coal-fired fired utility boiler burning a typical southwestern subbituminous coal. The cost of selecting an undersized particulate control device is compared with the cost of selecting an oversized device.

  20. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler system. Technical progress report No. 1, August--December 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-02-26

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy (DOE) has contracted with Combustion Engineering, Inc. (ABB CE) to perform work on the ``Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems`` Project and has authorized ABB CE to complete Phase I on a cost-reimbursable basis. The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The specified primary objectives are: NO{sub x} emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; SO{sub x} emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; and particulate emissions not greater than one-half NSPS. The specific secondary objectives are: Improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation; reduced air toxics emissions; increased generating efficiency. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives and a preliminary design of a commercial generation unit.

  1. Low Reynolds number Couette flow facility for drag measurements.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Tyler J; Lang, Amy W; Wheelus, Jennifer N; Westcott, Matthew

    2010-09-01

    For this study a new low Reynolds number Couette facility was constructed to investigate surface drag. In this facility, mineral oil was used as the working fluid to increase the shear stress across the surface of the experimental models. A mounted conveyor inside a tank creates a flow above which an experimental model of a flat plate was suspended. The experimental plate was attached to linear bearings on a slide system that connects to a force gauge used to measure the drag. Within the gap between the model and moving belt a Couette flow with a linear velocity profile was created. Digital particle image velocimetry was used to confirm the velocity profile. The drag measurements agreed within 5% of the theoretically predicted Couette flow value. PMID:20887004

  2. Low Reynolds number Couette flow facility for drag measurements.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Tyler J; Lang, Amy W; Wheelus, Jennifer N; Westcott, Matthew

    2010-09-01

    For this study a new low Reynolds number Couette facility was constructed to investigate surface drag. In this facility, mineral oil was used as the working fluid to increase the shear stress across the surface of the experimental models. A mounted conveyor inside a tank creates a flow above which an experimental model of a flat plate was suspended. The experimental plate was attached to linear bearings on a slide system that connects to a force gauge used to measure the drag. Within the gap between the model and moving belt a Couette flow with a linear velocity profile was created. Digital particle image velocimetry was used to confirm the velocity profile. The drag measurements agreed within 5% of the theoretically predicted Couette flow value.

  3. Novel polymer membrane process for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture from coal-fired syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Merkel, Tim

    2011-09-14

    This final report describes work conducted for the Department of Energy (DOE NETL) on development of a novel polymer membrane process for pre-combustion CO{sub 2} capture from coalfired syngas (award number DE-FE0001124). The work was conducted by Membrane Technology and Research, Inc. (MTR) from September 15, 2009, through December 14, 2011. Tetramer Technologies, LLC (Tetramer) was our subcontract partner on this project. The National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC) at Wilsonville, AL, provided access to syngas gasifier test facilities. The main objective of this project was to develop a cost-effective membrane process that could be used in the relatively near-term to capture CO{sub 2} from shifted syngas generated by a coal-fired Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant. In this project, novel polymeric membranes (designated as Proteus™ membranes) with separation properties superior to conventional polymeric membranes were developed. Hydrogen permeance of up to 800 gpu and H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity of >12 was achieved using a simulated syngas mixture at 150°C and 50 psig, which exceeds the original project targets of 200 gpu for hydrogen permeance and 10 for H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity. Lab-scale Proteus membrane modules (with a membrane area of 0.13 m{sup 2}) were also developed using scaled-up Proteus membranes and high temperature stable module components identified during this project. A mixed-gas hydrogen permeance of about 160 gpu and H{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} selectivity of >12 was achieved using a simulated syngas mixture at 150°C and 100 psig. We believe that a significant improvement in the membrane and module performance is likely with additional development work. Both Proteus membranes and lab-scale Proteus membrane modules were further evaluated using coal-derived syngas streams at the National Carbon Capture Center (NCCC). The results indicate that all module components, including the Proteus membrane, were stable under the field

  4. Feasibility of epidemiological monitoring for a proposed coal-fired power plant, Ivanpah, California.

    PubMed

    Goldsmith, J R; Spivey, G H; Coulson, A H

    1984-01-27

    The authors were asked to determine the feasibility of conducting epidemiologic monitoring for adverse health impact of emissions from the proposed Ivanpah Coal-Fired Power Plant. The study was required by the licensing agency, and specifically concerned health effects on the surrounding community. No potential occupational effects were considered. The area of concern was limited by the licensing agency to a circle of 50 mile radius around the Ivanpah site. The proposed power plant will be capable of generating 1500 megawatts of electricity utilizing low sulfur western coal. It is designed with stack heights of 500 feet for good dispersion and is planned to be outfitted with the best available stack emission control equipment. To establish whether an epidemiologic study is feasible, one must determine: (1) the size of the population which potentially would be exposed; (2) the pollutants to which that population might be exposed and the expected level of exposure and (3) the known or expected health effects of these pollutants and the frequency of such health outcomes. In addition, as in any epidemiologic study, the choice of a proper comparison group, the acceptability of a study to the population to be monitored and costs of the study in relation to available resources must also be taken into account. The population residing within 20 miles of the site consists of approximately 1,500 people at the present time. This population is not expected to increase significantly, although there is the possibility of growth of a "company town" surrounding the plant. Such an event would clearly alter the feasibility of conducting an epidemiologic study. Air quality modeling was used to predict the exposures to the population from various emissions from the proposed generating station. It was based on worst-case assumptions of wind speed, direction, atmospheric stability and percent sulfur-content coal. While a great many pollutants may result from coal burning, the levels of

  5. A summary of SNCR applications to two coal-fired wet bottom boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Himes, R.; Hubbard, D.; West, Z.

    1996-01-01

    In response to NO{sub x} reductions mandated under Title I of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA), Public Service Electric & Gas and Atlantic Electric of New Jersey evaluated Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) for NO{sub x} control under separate programs at Mercer Station and B.L. England Station, respectively. Mercer Station is comprised of twin 321 MW Foster Wheeler coal-fired wet bottom boilers, with natural gas capability up to 100% load. B.L. England Station has three units, two of which are cyclone boilers of 136 MW and 163 MW. These furnace designs are of particular interest in that nominally 23,000 MW of cyclone boiler capacity and 6,900 MW of wall- or turbo-fired wet bottom boiler capacity will be faced with NO{sub x} reductions to be mandated under Title IV - Phase II for Group II boilers. Both stations evaluated Nalco Fuel Tech`s SNCR system using a portable test skid, with urea as the reducing chemical. The Mercer Unit 2 demonstration was performed with a low sulfur coal (nominally 0.8%), while the B.L. England Unit 1 demonstration utilized a medium sulfur coal (nominally 2.4%), and also re-injects fly ash back into the cyclones for ultimate collection and removal as slag. To address concerns over potential Ljungstrom air heater fouling, due to reactions between ammonia and SO{sub 3} in the air heater, and fly ash salability at Mercer Station, both sites targeted no greater than 5-10 ppmv ammonia emissions at the economizer exit. At Mercer Unit 2, air heater fouling was only experienced during system start-up when the ammonia emissions at the economizer exit were estimated at levels approaching 60 ppmv. B.L. England Unit 1, however, experienced frequent fouling of the air heater. NO{sub x} reductions achieved at both sites ranged between 30%-40% from nominal baseline NO{sub x} levels of 1.1-1.6 lb/MMBtu. Each site is currently undergoing installation of commercial SNCR systems.

  6. Health risk assessment of toxic VOCs species for the coal fire well drillers.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yulong; Peng, Lin; Cheng, Na; Bai, Huiling; Mu, Ling

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the health risk of toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) species for well drillers, working at an exposure site around a well of underground coal fire site, was presented in a case of Shanxi province. The samples were collected by Teflon sampling bags and measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that isopropyl alcohol was the most abundant compound of VOCs, with the geometric mean concentrations of 1700.38 μg/m(3). The geometric mean concentrations of individual BTEX compounds obtained in all of the sampling campaign were 131.64, 10.15, 15.53, and 25.38 μg/m(3) for benzene, toluene, ethyl-benzene, and xylenes, respectively. Relative proportion of BTEX averaged as 8.5:0.7:1:1.6. High B/T ratio (13.0) and low T/E ratio (0.7) was observed in this study. For non-cancer risk in this study, the hazardous quotient (HQ) of 1,2-dibromoethane, 1,3-butadiene, and benzene was 17.91, 1.71, and 43.88, respectively, mean their non-cancer risk was at the level of definite concern. The HQ sum of 20 VOCs was 64.94, much higher than 1. The cancer risk values of benzene (7.01E-04), 1,2-dibromoethane (1.91E-04), carbon tetrachloride (1.55E-04), and 1,3-butadiene (1.09E-04) were greater than 10(-4), indicating that they were all definite risk. The total cancer risk of all VOCs species was 1.39E-03, almost 14 times more than the level of definite risk. The stochastic exposure assessment of all VOCs species total cancer risk using the Monte Carlo simulation analysis shows that 5 and 95 % cancer risks were predicted to be 7.60E-04 and 2.75E-03, respectively. The cancer risk for all VOCs species is unacceptable. The results of sensitivity analysis show that benzene, carbon tetrachloride, and 1,3-butadiene exposure account for more than 98 % contributions to the estimated risk for drillers, indicating that those VOCs species exposure has greater impact than other species on risk assessment. Both combined effects and independent effects

  7. OXIDATION OF MERCURY ACROSS SCR CATALYSTS IN COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS BURNING LOW RANK FUELS

    SciTech Connect

    Constance Senior

    2004-12-31

    The objectives of this program were to measure the oxidation of mercury in flue gas across SCR catalyst in a coal-fired power plant burning low rank fuels using a slipstream reactor containing multiple commercial catalysts in parallel and to develop a greater understanding of mercury oxidation across SCR catalysts in the form of a simple model. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Argillon GmbH provided co-funding for this program. REI used a multicatalyst slipstream reactor to determine oxidation of mercury across five commercial SCR catalysts at a power plant that burned a blend of 87% subbituminous coal and 13% bituminous coal. The chlorine content of the blend was 100 to 240 {micro}g/g on a dry basis. Mercury measurements were carried out when the catalysts were relatively new, corresponding to about 300 hours of operation and again after 2,200 hours of operation. NO{sub x}, O{sub 2} and gaseous mercury speciation at the inlet and at the outlet of each catalyst chamber were measured. In general, the catalysts all appeared capable of achieving about 90% NO{sub x} reduction at a space velocity of 3,000 hr{sup -1} when new, which is typical of full-scale installations; after 2,200 hours exposure to flue gas, some of the catalysts appeared to lose NO{sub x} activity. For the fresh commercial catalysts, oxidation of mercury was in the range of 25% to 65% at typical full-scale space velocities. A blank monolith showed no oxidation of mercury under any conditions. All catalysts showed higher mercury oxidation without ammonia, consistent with full-scale measurements. After exposure to flue gas for 2,200 hours, some of the catalysts showed reduced levels of mercury oxidation relative to the initial levels of oxidation. A model of Hg oxidation across SCRs was formulated based on full-scale data. The model took into account the effects of temperature, space velocity, catalyst type and HCl concentration in the flue gas.

  8. Efficient air pollution regulation of coal-fired power in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Therese

    This dissertation evaluates monetary external costs of electricity generation in the People's Republic of China and implications for efficient pollution control policy. It presents an integrated assessment of environmental damages of air emissions of a representative new coal-fired plant in urban areas of north and south China. The simulation evaluates the nature and magnitude of damages in China, transboundary effects in Japan and Korea, and global greenhouse gas warming impacts. The valuation is used to identify efficient abatement policy for Chinese plants over time; evaluate benefits of differentiated policies; and consider the importance of dynamic policy. Potential annual damages of operating a 600-MW power plant without controls in China today would be 43-45 million (U.S. 1995). Annual local damages of 37-40 million far exceed transboundary or greenhouse gas damages (1.4 million and $4.6 million respectively). The largest component of damages is the risk of human mortality and chronic morbidity from long-term exposure to fine particles. Efficient pollution control minimizes the sum of abatement costs and residual unabated damages. Because monetary damages reflect sufferers' willingness to pay to avoid environmental risks, the choice of efficient controls is fundamentally tied to societal values and preferences. The optimal path for Chinese abatement moves from modest dispersion measures at present to combined dispersion and emission controls approaching those of current-day United States, by 2050. The inclusion of transboundary and greenhouse damages does not substantively alter local policies. Welfare benefits are gained by differentiating abatement policy by pollutant, meteorological parameters, and by population density. An analysis of optimal one-time investment in abatement for a plant in a growing economy suggests that some investment is optimal at all incomes but no single level of abatement is suitable for all economies. Forward-looking policy

  9. Effects of coal-fired thermal power plant discharges on agricultural soil and crop plants.

    PubMed

    Ajmal, M; Khan, M A

    1986-04-01

    The physicochemical properties of the upstream and downstream waters from the Upper Ganga canal, discharged cooling tower water, machine washings, and scrubber and bottom ash effluents of a 530 MW Kasimpur coal-fired thermal power plant have been determined, and their effects directly on fertile soil and indirectly on pea (Pisum sativam) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) crops have also been studied. The effluents were found to be alkaline in nature. The scrubber and bottom ash effluent was found to contain large amounts of solids and had high biochemical and chemical oxygen demands. All the effluents were found to be responsible for altering the chemical composition of the soil. The soils irrigated with the different effluents exhibited an increase in pH, organic matter, calcium carbonate, water-soluble salts, cation exchange capacity, electrical conductivity, and nitrogen and phosphorus contents while potassium content decreased, probably due to being leached to the lower layers of the soil. The effects of 100, 50, and 0% (tap water control) dilutions of cooling tower, machine washings, and scrubber and bottom ash effluents on the germination and growth of pea and wheat crops were also monitored. Using the undiluted effluents, there was 100% germination for both the crops when the irrigation was done with cooling tower effluent. The germination was restricted to 90% for the two crops when irrigated with machine washings effluent, and to 80 and 70% for pea and wheat, respectively, when irrigated with scrubber and bottom ash effluent. The samples of upstream and downstream canal water were also used for irrigating soils with and without crop plants in order to ascertain the impact of the effluents on the canal water and its subsequent effect on the crops. The soils irrigated with downstream canal water were found to contain slightly more calcium carbonate, phosphorus, and ammonia-nitrogen than those receiving upstream canal water. Though 100% germination was obtained

  10. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Technical progress report No. 4, July--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-29

    The overall objective of the Project is the expedited commercialization of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. The specified primary objectives are: NOx emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; SOx emissions not greater than one-third NSPS; and particulate emissions not greater than one-half NSPS. The specific secondary objectives are: improved ash disposability and reduced waste generation; reduced air toxics emissions; and increased generating efficiency. The final deliverables are a design data base that will allow future coal-fired power plants to meet the stated objectives and a preliminary design of a commercial generation unit.

  11. 500 MW demonstration of advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions from coal-fired boilers. Public design report (preliminary and final)

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    This Public Design Report presents the design criteria of a DOE Innovative Clean Coal Technology (ICCT) project demonstrating advanced wall-fired combustion techniques for the reduction of NO{sub x} emissions from coal-fired boilers. The project is being conducted at Georgia Power Company`s Plant Hammond Unit 4 (500 MW) near Rome, Georgia. The technologies being demonstrated at this site include Foster Wheeler Energy Corporation`s advanced overfire air system and Controlled Flow/Split Flame low NO{sub x} burner. This report provides documentation on the design criteria used in the performance of this project as it pertains to the scope involved with the low NO{sub x} burners, advanced overfire systems, and digital control system.

  12. Flow Disturbance Characterization Measurements in the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Rudolph A.; Andino, Marlyn Y.; Melton, Latunia; Eppink, Jenna; Kegerise, Michael A.; Tsoi, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Recent flow measurements have been acquired in the National Transonic Facility (NTF) to assess the unsteady flow environment in the test section. The primary purpose of the test is to determine the feasibility of the NTF to conduct laminar-flow-control testing and boundary-layer transition sensitive testing. The NTF can operate in two modes, warm (air) and cold/cryogenic (nitrogen) test conditions for testing full and semispan scaled models. The warm-air mode enables low to moderately high Reynolds numbers through the use of high tunnel pressure, and the nitrogen mode enables high Reynolds numbers up to flight conditions, depending on aircraft type and size, utilizing high tunnel pressure and cryogenic temperatures. NASA's Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project is interested in demonstrating different laminar-flow technologies at flight-relevant operating conditions throughout the transonic Mach number range and the NTF is well suited for the initial ground-based demonstrations. Roll polar data at selected test conditions were obtained to look at the uniformity of the flow disturbance field in the test section. Data acquired from the rake probes included mean total temperatures, mean and fluctuating static/total pressures, and mean and fluctuating hot-wire measurements. . Based on the current measurements and previous data, an assessment was made that the NTF is a suitable facility for ground-based demonstrations of laminar-flow technologies at flight-relevant conditions in the cryogenic mode.

  13. The relationship between chemical elements in soil and whole blood, and fluorosis induced by coal-fired pollution.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Mu, Lihong; Jiang, Miao; Wang, Yingxiong; Yan, Wei; Jiao, Yongzhuo

    2014-04-01

    To study the relationship between chemical elements in soil and whole blood, and fluorosis induced by coal-fired pollution, ecological and case-control studies were carried out. We determined the concentrations of 11 chemical elements and pH values in soil in two fluorosis-affected counties in Chongqing, China, and analyzed the correlation between these values and prevalence of dental fluorosis. Ni, I, F, Hg, and pH values positively correlated with fluorosis prevalence (P < 0.05); these soil parameters may be related to coal-fired pollution fluorosis. Cu, Zn, Ca, Mg, and Fe concentrations in whole blood, and fluoride levels in urine of residents in epidemic and non-epidemic areas were determined. Cu, Zn, Mg, and Fe levels of the children in the case group were lower than those of the children in the external control group; urine fluoride level in the children in the case group was higher than that of the children in the internal and external control groups (P < 0.05). The levels of Mg, Fe, and urine fluoride were higher in the case adult group than in the internal adult control group (P < 0.05). Anti-fluoride elements were deficient in endemic areas.

  14. Atmospheric emissions estimation of Hg, As, and Se from coal-fired power plants in China, 2007.

    PubMed

    Tian, Hezhong; Wang, Yan; Xue, Zhigang; Qu, Yiping; Chai, Fahe; Hao, Jiming

    2011-07-15

    Over half of coal in China is burned directly by power plants, becoming an important source of hazardous trace element emissions, such as mercury (Hg), arsenic (As), and selenium (Se), etc. Based on coal consumption by each power plant, emission factors classified by different boiler patterns and air pollution control devices configuration, atmospheric emissions of Hg, As, and Se from coal-fired power plants in China are evaluated. The national total emissions of Hg, As, and Se from coal-fired power plants in 2007 are calculated at 132 t, 550 t, and 787 t, respectively. Furthermore, according to the percentage of coal consumed by units equipped with different types of PM devices and FGD systems, speciation of mercury is estimated as follows: 80.48 t of Hg, 49.98 t of Hg(2+), and 1.89 t of Hg(P), representing 60.81%, 37.76%, and 1.43% of the totals, respectively. The emissions of Hg, As, and Se in China's eastern and central provinces are much higher than those in the west, except for provinces involved in the program of electricity transmission from west to east China, such as Sichuan, Guizhou, Yunnan, Shaanxi, etc.

  15. Acidity of vapor plume from cooling tower mixed with flue gases emitted from coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed

    Hlawiczka, Stanislaw; Korszun, Katarzyna; Fudala, Janina

    2016-06-01

    Acidity of products resulting from the reaction of flue gas components emitted from a coal-fired power plant with water contained in a vapor plume from a wet cooling tower was analyzed in a close vicinity of a power plant (710 m from the stack and 315 m from the cooling tower). Samples of this mixture were collected using a precipitation funnel where components of the mixed plumes were discharged from the atmosphere with the rainfall. To identify situations when the precipitation occurred at the same time as the wind directed the mixed vapor and flue gas plumes above the precipitation funnel, an ultrasound anemometer designed for 3D measurements of the wind field located near the funnel was used. Precipitation samples of extremely high acidity were identified - about 5% of samples collected during 12 months showed the acidity below pH=3 and the lowest recorded pH was 1.4. During the measurement period the value of pH characterizing the background acidity of the precipitation was about 6. The main outcome of this study was to demonstrate a very high, and so far completely underestimated, potential of occurrence of episodes of extremely acid depositions in the immediate vicinity of a coal-fired power plant. PMID:26950639

  16. Conceptual design of a coal-fired MHD retrofit plant. Topical report, Seed Regeneration System Study 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    Westinghouse Advanced Energy Systems (WAES), through Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79668 funded by US DOE/PETC, is conducting a conceptual design study to evaluate a coal-fired magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) retrofit of a utility plant of sufficient size to demonstrate the technical and future economic viability of an MHD system operating within an electric utility environment. The objective of this topical report is to document continuing seed regeneration system application studies and the definition of will system integration requirements for the Scholz MHD retrofit plant design. MHD power plants require the addition of a seeding material in the form of potassium to enhance the ionization of the high temperature combustion gas in the MHD channel. This process has an added environmental advantage compared to other types of coal-fired power plants in that the potassium combines with the naturally occurring sulfur in the coal to form a potassium sulfate flyash (K{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) which can be removed from the process by appropriate particulate control equipment. Up to 100% of the Sulfur in the coal can be removed by this process thereby providing environmentally clean power plant operation that is better than required by present and anticipated future New Source Performance Standards (NSPS).

  17. Near-term implications of a ban on new coal-fired power plants in the United States.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, Adam; Apt, Jay

    2009-06-01

    Large numbers of proposed new coal power generators in the United States have been canceled, and some states have prohibited new coal power generators. We examine the effects on the U.S. electric power system of banning the construction of coal-fired electricity generators, which has been proposed as a means to reduce U.S. CO2 emissions. The model simulates load growth, resource planning, and economic dispatch of the Midwest Independent Transmission System Operator (ISO), Inc., Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT), and PJM under a ban on new coal generation and uses an economic dispatch model to calculate the resulting changes in dispatch order, CO2 emissions, and fuel use under three near-term (until 2030) future electric power sector scenarios. A national ban on new coal-fired power plants does not lead to CO2 reductions of the scale required under proposed federal legislation such as Lieberman-Warner but would greatly increase the fraction of time when natural gas sets the price of electricity, even with aggressive wind and demand response policies.

  18. Development of a Novel Activated Carbon Based Adsorbents for control of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Vidic, R.D.

    1997-03-17

    The overall objective of this study is to evaluate pertinent design and operational parameters that would enable successful application of activated carbon adsorption for the reduction of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. The study will evaluate the most suitable impregnate such as sulfur, chloride and other chelating agents for its ability to enhance the adsorptive capacity of activated carbon for mercury vapor under various process conditions. The main process variables to be evaluated include temperature, mercury concentration and speciation, relative humidity, oxygen content, and presence of S0{sub 2} and NO{sub x} in the flue gas. The optimal amount of impregnate for each of these carbons will be determined based on the exhibited performance. Another important parameter which governs the applicability of adsorption technology for the flue gas clean up is the rate at which vapor phase mercury is being removed from the flue gas by activated carbon. Therefore, the second part of this study will evaluate the adsorption kinetics using the impregnated activated carbons listed above. The rate of mercury uptake will also be evaluated under the process conditions that are representative of coal-fired power plants. Concerned with the ability of the adsorbed mercury to migrate back into the environment once saturated adsorbent is removed from the system, the study will also focus on the mercury desorption rate as a function of the type of impregnate, loading conditions, and the time of contact prior to disposal.

  19. After the Clean Air Mercury Eule: prospects for reducing mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jana B. Milford; Alison Pienciak

    2009-04-15

    Recent court decisions have affected the EPA's regulation of mercury emissions from coal burning, but some state laws are helping to clear the air. In 2005, the US EPA issued the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR), setting performance standards for new coal-fired power plants and nominally capping mercury emissions form new and existing plants at 38 tons per year from 2010 to 2017 and 15 tpy in 2018 and thereafter; these down from 48.5 tpy in 1999. To implement the CAMR, 21 states with non-zero emissions adopted EPA's new source performance standards and cap and trade program with little or no modification. By December 2007, 23 other states had proposed or adopted more stringent requirements; 16 states prohibited or restricted interstate trading of mercury emissions. On February 2008, the US Court of Appeal for the District of Columbia Circuit unanimously vacated the CAMR. This article assesses the status of mercury emission control requirements for coal-fired power plants in the US in light of this decision, focusing on state actions and prospects for a new federal rule. 34 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Estimating the effect of air pollution from a coal-fired power station on the development of children's pulmonary function

    SciTech Connect

    Dubnov, J.; Barchana, M.; Rishpon, S.; Leventhal, A.; Segal, I.; Carel, R.; Portnov, B.A.

    2007-01-15

    Using geographical information systems (GIS) tools, the present study analyzed the association between children's lung function development and their long-term exposure to air pollution. The study covered the cohort of 1492 schoolchildren living in the vicinity of a major coal-fired power station in the Hadera sub-district of Israel. In 1996 and 1999, the children underwent subsequent pulmonary function tests (PFT) (forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume during the first second (FEV1)), and the children's parents completed a detailed questionnaire on their health status and household characteristics. A negative association was found between changes in the results of PFT and the estimated individual levels of air pollution. A sensitivity test revealed a FEV1 decline from -4.3% for the average pollution level to -10.2% for the high air pollution level. The results of a sensitivity test for FVC were found to be similar. Association with the reported health status was found to be insignificant. As we conclude, air pollution from a coal-fired power station, although not exceeding local pollution standards, had a negative effect on children's lung function development. As argued, previous studies carried out in the region failed to show the above association because they were based on zone approaches that assign average concentration levels of air pollutants to all individuals in each zone, leading to a misclassification bias of individual exposure.

  1. Nitrogen isotopic composition of coal-fired power plant NOx: influence of emission controls and implications for global emission inventories.

    PubMed

    Felix, J David; Elliott, Emily M; Shaw, Stephanie L

    2012-03-20

    Despite the potential use of δ(15)N as a tracer of NO(x) source contributions, prior documentation of δ(15)N of various NO(x) emission sources is exceedingly limited. This manuscript presents the first measurements of the nitrogen isotopic composition of NO(x) (δ(15)N-NO(x)) emitted from coal-fired power plants in the U.S. at typical operating conditions with and without the presence of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) and selective noncatalytic reduction (SNCR) technology. To accomplish this, a novel method for collection and isotopic analysis of coal-fired stack NO(x) emission samples was developed based on modifications of a historic U.S. EPA stack sampling method. At the power plants included in this study, large differences exist in the isotopic composition of NO(x) emitted with and without SCRs and SNCRs; further the isotopic composition of power plant NO(x) is higher than that of other measured NO(x) emission sources confirming its use as an environmental tracer. These findings indicate that gradual implementation of SCRs at power plants will result in an industry-wide increase in δ(15)N values of NO(x) and NO(y) oxidation products from this emission source.

  2. Acidity of vapor plume from cooling tower mixed with flue gases emitted from coal-fired power plant.

    PubMed

    Hlawiczka, Stanislaw; Korszun, Katarzyna; Fudala, Janina

    2016-06-01

    Acidity of products resulting from the reaction of flue gas components emitted from a coal-fired power plant with water contained in a vapor plume from a wet cooling tower was analyzed in a close vicinity of a power plant (710 m from the stack and 315 m from the cooling tower). Samples of this mixture were collected using a precipitation funnel where components of the mixed plumes were discharged from the atmosphere with the rainfall. To identify situations when the precipitation occurred at the same time as the wind directed the mixed vapor and flue gas plumes above the precipitation funnel, an ultrasound anemometer designed for 3D measurements of the wind field located near the funnel was used. Precipitation samples of extremely high acidity were identified - about 5% of samples collected during 12 months showed the acidity below pH=3 and the lowest recorded pH was 1.4. During the measurement period the value of pH characterizing the background acidity of the precipitation was about 6. The main outcome of this study was to demonstrate a very high, and so far completely underestimated, potential of occurrence of episodes of extremely acid depositions in the immediate vicinity of a coal-fired power plant.

  3. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1994--September 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1994-12-01

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a {open_quotes}Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications{close_quotes} is a project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability.

  4. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1993--June 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-07-30

    Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a ``Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications`` is project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the past quarter, the designs of the remaining major components of the integrated system were completed and the equipment was ordered. DOE has elected to modify the scope of the existing R&D program being conducted under this contract to include testing of a simulated TSCA incinerator ash. The modification will be in the form of an additional Task (Task 8 -- TSCA Ash Testing) to the original Statement of Work.

  5. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, July 1993--September 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-30

    The Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center (PETC) of the US Department of Energy awarded Vortec Corporation this Phase III contract (No. DE-AC22-91PC91161) for the development of {open_quotes}A Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications{close_quotes}. The effective contrast start date was September 3, 1991. The contract period of performance is 36 months. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. Final detailed installation designs for the integrated test system configuration are being completed. The equipment is being fabricated and deliveries have begun. The industry funded testing consisted of vitrifying Spent Aluminum Potliner (SPL) which is a listed hazardous waste. This testing has verified that SPL can be vitrified into a safe recyclable glass product.

  6. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1993--December 1993

    SciTech Connect

    1994-01-30

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a {open_quotes}Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications{close_quotes} is a project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelting and waste vitrification processes. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the past quarter, the major effort was completing the system modification installation designs, completing the TSCA ash testing, and conducting additional industry funded testing. Final detailed installation designs for the integrated test system configuration are being completed.

  7. Assessment of pulverized-coal-fired combustion performance: Final report for the period September 1980--September 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Richter, W.F.; Clark, W.; Pohl, J.H.; Payne, R.

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of this program was to evaluate an engineering analysis procedure which could be used to assess the impact on thermal performance of converting gas and oil fired equipment to coal. The program consisted of four major tasks: (1) Engineering Analysis. The objective was to evaluate currently available models which could be used to predict combustor performance and to define a procedure which could be used to assess the impact of a coal firing in a boiler or furnace; (2) Reactor Studies. The purpose was to evaluate, under controlled conditions, the radiative properties of fly ash clouds; (3) Pilot Scale Experiments. This involved a combustion trial with gas and coals which were burned at 0.7 /times/ 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr in a pilot-scale combustor. The purpose was to verify and supplement the results of the small-scale reactor studies on the radiant properties of coal flames at larger scale; (4) Reporting. Engineering analysis procedures were used to identify those fuels related properties which had a major impact on the thermal performance of furnaces. The major result of the study is that thermal performance of coal-fired furnaces is dominated by the formation of fly ash deposits on the heat transfer surfaces. The key parameters which influence thermal performance are: thickness, thermal conductivity, and surface emissivity or absorptivity. 105 refs., 170 figs., 29 tabs.

  8. Performance Characterization of the Production Facility Prototype Helium Flow System

    SciTech Connect

    Woloshun, Keith Albert; Dale, Gregory E.; Dalmas, Dale Allen; Romero, Frank Patrick

    2015-12-16

    The roots blower in use at ANL for in-beam experiments and also at LANL for flow tests was sized for 12 mm diameter disks and significantly less beam heating. Currently, the disks are 29 mm in diameter, with a 12 mm FWHM Gaussian beam spot at 42 MeV and 2.86 μA on each side of the target, 5.72 μA total. The target design itself is reported elsewhere. With the increased beam heating, the helium flow requirement increased so that a larger blower was need for a mass flow rate of 400 g/s at 2.76 MPa (400 psig). An Aerzen GM 12.4 blower was selected, and is currently being installed at the LANL facility for target and component flow testing. This report describes this blower/motor/pressure vessel package and the status of the facility preparations. Blower performance (mass flow rate as a function of loop pressure drop) was measured at 4 blower speeds. Results are reported below.

  9. Real-time tracking of CO₂ injected into a subsurface coal fire through high-frequency measurements of the ¹³CO₂ signature.

    PubMed

    Krevor, Samuel C M; Ide, Taku; Benson, Sally M; Orr, Franklin M

    2011-05-01

    CO₂ was injected into a coal fire burning at a depth of 15 m in the subsurface in southwestern Colorado, USA. Measurements were made of the ¹³CO₂ isotopic signature of gas exhaust from an observation well and two surface fissures. The goal of the test was to determine (1) whether CO₂ with a distinct isotopic signature could be used as a tracer to identify flow pathways and travel times in a combustion setting where CO₂ was present in significant quantities in the gases being emitted from the coalbed fire, and (2) to confirm the existence of a self-propagating system of air-intake and combustion gas exhaust that has been previously proposed. CO₂ was injected in three separate periods. The ¹³CO₂ isotopic signature was measured at high frequency (0.5 Hz) before, during, and after the injection periods for gas flowing from fissures over the fire and from gas entering an observation well drilled into the formation just above the fire but near the combustion zone. In two cases, a shift in the isotopic signature of outgassing CO₂ provided clear evidence that injected CO₂ had traveled from the injection well to the observation point, while in a third case, no response was seen and the fissure could not be assumed to have a flowpath connected with the injection well. High-frequency measurements of the ¹³CO₂ signature of gas in observation wells is identified as a viable technique for tracking CO₂ injected into subsurface formations in real-time. In addition, a chimney-like coupled air-intake and exhaust outlet system feeding the combustion of the coal seam was confirmed. This can be used to further develop strategies for extinguishing the fire. PMID:21466184

  10. Flow Structures in a Healthy and Plaqued Artificial Artery using Fully Index Matched Vascular Flow Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdi, Faraz; Jain, Akash; Sheng, Jian

    2014-11-01

    Particle Image Velocimetry measurements are made in a closed loop fully index matched flow facility to study the flow structures and flow wall interactions in healthy and diseased model arteries. The test section is 0.63 m long and the facility is capable of emulating both steady and pulsatile flows under physiologically relevant conditions. The model arteries are in-house developed compliant polymer (PDMS) tubes with 1 cm diameter and 1 mm wall thickness. The Reynolds numbers of flows vary up to 20,000. The plaque is simulated by introducing a radially asymmetric bump that can be varied in shape, size and compliancy. The overall compliancy of the model can be also controlled by varying ratio between the elastomer and the curing agent. The tubes are doped with particles allowing the simultaneous measurements of wall deformation and flows over it. The working fluid in the facility is NaI and is refractive index matched to the PDMS model. This allows flow measurement very close to the wall and measurement of wall shear stress. The aim of this study is to characterize the changes in flow as the compliancy and geometry of blood vessels change due to age or disease. These differences can be used to develop a diagnostic tool to detect early onset of vascular diseases.

  11. Sustainability Assessment of Coal-Fired Power Plants with Carbon Capture and Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Widder, Sarah H.; Butner, R. Scott; Elliott, Michael L.; Freeman, Charles J.

    2011-11-30

    Carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) has the ability to dramatically reduce carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from power production. Most studies find the potential for 70 to 80 percent reductions in CO2 emissions on a life-cycle basis, depending on the technology. Because of this potential, utilities and policymakers are considering the wide-spread implementation of CCS technology on new and existing coal plants to dramatically curb greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the power generation sector. However, the implementation of CCS systems will have many other social, economic, and environmental impacts beyond curbing GHG emissions that must be considered to achieve sustainable energy generation. For example, emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), and particulate matter (PM) are also important environmental concerns for coal-fired power plants. For example, several studies have shown that eutrophication is expected to double and acidification would increase due to increases in NOx emissions for a coal plant with CCS provided by monoethanolamine (MEA) scrubbing. Potential for human health risks is also expected to increase due to increased heavy metals in water from increased coal mining and MEA hazardous waste, although there is currently not enough information to relate this potential to actual realized health impacts. In addition to environmental and human health impacts, supply chain impacts and other social, economic, or strategic impacts will be important to consider. A thorough review of the literature for life-cycle analyses of power generation processes using CCS technology via the MEA absorption process, and other energy generation technologies as applicable, yielded large variability in methods and core metrics. Nonetheless, a few key areas of impact for CCS were developed from the studies that we reviewed. These are: the impact of MEA generation on increased eutrophication and acidification from ammonia emissions and increased toxicity

  12. POTENTIAL HEALTH RISK REDUCTION ARISING FROM REDUCED MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T. M.; Lipfert, F. W.; Morris, S. C.; Moskowitz, P. D.

    2001-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced plans to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPA has not prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. To address this issue, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in human health risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. The primary pathway for Hg exposure is through consumption of fish. The most susceptible population to Hg exposure is the fetus. Therefore the risk assessment focused on consumption of fish by women of child-bearing age. Dose response factors were generated from studies on loss of cognitive abilities (language skills, motor skills, etc.) by young children whose mothers consumed large amounts of fish with high Hg levels. Population risks were estimated for the general population in three regions of the country, (the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast) that were identified by EPA as being heavily impacted by coal emissions. Three scenarios for reducing Hg emissions from coal plants were considered: (1) A base case using current conditions; (2) A 50% reduction; and, (3) A 90% reduction. These reductions in emissions were assumed to translate linearly into a reduction in fish Hg levels of 8.6% and 15.5%, respectively. Population risk estimates were also calculated for two subsistence fisher populations. These groups of people consume substantially more fish than the general public and, depending on location, the fish may contain higher Hg levels than average. Risk estimates for these groups were calculated for the three Hg levels used for the general population analyses. Analysis shows that the general population risks for exposure of the fetus to Hg are small. Estimated risks under current conditions (i.e., no

  13. Engineering development of coal-fired high performance power systems, Phase II and Phase III. Quarter progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    Work is presented on the development of a coal-fired high performance power generation system by the year 2000. This report describes the design of the air heater, duct heater, system controls, slag viscosity, and design of a quench zone.

  14. Ozone monitoring instrument observations of interannual increases in SO2 emissions from Indian coal-fired power plants during 2005-2012.

    PubMed

    Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David G; de Foy, Benjamin; Krotkov, Nickolay A

    2013-12-17

    Due to the rapid growth of electricity demand and the absence of regulations, sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired power plants in India have increased notably in the past decade. In this study, we present the first interannual comparison of SO2 emissions and the satellite SO2 observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for Indian coal-fired power plants during the OMI era of 2005-2012. A detailed unit-based inventory is developed for the Indian coal-fired power sector, and results show that its SO2 emissions increased dramatically by 71% during 2005-2012. Using the oversampling technique, yearly high-resolution OMI maps for the whole domain of India are created, and they reveal a continuous increase in SO2 columns over India. Power plant regions with annual SO2 emissions greater than 50 Gg year(-1) produce statistically significant OMI signals, and a high correlation (R = 0.93) is found between SO2 emissions and OMI-observed SO2 burdens. Contrary to the decreasing trend of national mean SO2 concentrations reported by the Indian Government, both the total OMI-observed SO2 and annual average SO2 concentrations in coal-fired power plant regions increased by >60% during 2005-2012, implying the air quality monitoring network needs to be optimized to reflect the true SO2 situation in India.

  15. RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME IV - SITE SPECIFIC STUDIES FOR MO, MS, NC, NH, NJ, NY, OH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

  16. RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME III - SITE SPECIFIC STUDIES FOR IN, KY, MA, MD, MI, MN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

  17. RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME V - SITE SPECIFIC STUDIES FOR PA, SC, TN, VA, WI, WV

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

  18. RETROFIT COSTS FOR SO2 AND NOX CONTROL OPTIONS AT 200 COAL-FIRED PLANTS, VOLUME II - SITE SPECIFIC STUDIES FOR AL, DE. FL, GA, IL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a study, the objective of which was to significantly improve engineering cost estimates currently being used to evaluate the economic effects of applying SO2 and NOx controls at 200 large SO2-emitting coal-fired utility plants. To accomplish the object...

  19. Identifying/Quantifying Environmental Trade-offs Inherent in GHG Reduction Strategies for Coal-Fired Power. Environmental Science and Technology

    EPA Science Inventory

    Improvements to coal power plant technology and the co-fired combustion of biomass promise direct greenhouse gas (GHG) reductions for existing coal-fired power plants. Questions remain as to what the reduction potentials are from a life cycle perspective and if it will result in ...

  20. Behavior of Mercury Emissions from a Commercial Coal-Fired Utility Boiler: TheRelationship Between Stack Speciation and Near-Field Plume Measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reduction of divalent gaseous mercury (HgII) to elemental gaseous mercury (Hg0) in a commercial coal-fired power plant (CFPP)exhaust plume was investigated by simultaneous measurement in-stack and in-plume as part of a collaborative study among the U.S....

  1. A study of toxic emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing an ESP/wet FGD system. Final report, Volume 2 of 2 - appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This volume contains the appendices for a coal-fired power plant toxic emissions study. Included are Process data log sheets from Coal Creek, Auditing information, Sampling protocol, Field sampling data sheets, Quality assurance/quality control, Analytical protocol, and Uncertainty analyses.

  2. Proceedings of the joint contractors meeting: FE/EE Advanced Turbine Systems conference FE fuel cells and coal-fired heat engines conference

    SciTech Connect

    Geiling, D.W.

    1993-08-01

    The joint contractors meeting: FE/EE Advanced Turbine Systems conference FEE fuel cells and coal-fired heat engines conference; was sponsored by the US Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy and held at the Morgantown Energy Technology Center, P.O. Box 880, Morgantown, West Virginia 26507-0880, August 3--5, 1993. Individual papers have been entered separately.

  3. Ozone Monitoring Instrument Observations of Interannual Increases in SO2 Emissions from Indian Coal-fired Power Plants During 2005-2012

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lu, Zifeng; Streets, David D.; de Foy, Benjamin; Krotkov, Nickolay A.

    2014-01-01

    Due to the rapid growth of electricity demand and the absence of regulations, sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions from coal-fired power plants in India have increased notably in the past decade. In this study, we present the first interannual comparison of SO2 emissions and the satellite SO2 observations from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) for Indian coal-fired power plants during the OMI era of 2005-2012. A detailed unit-based inventory is developed for the Indian coal-fired power sector, and results show that its SO2 emissions increased dramatically by 71 percent during 2005-2012. Using the oversampling technique, yearly high-resolution OMI maps for the whole domain of India are created, and they reveal a continuous increase in SO2 columns over India. Power plant regions with annual SO2 emissions greater than 50 Gg year-1 produce statistically significant OMI signals, and a high correlation (R equals 0.93) is found between SO2 emissions and OMI-observed SO2 burdens. Contrary to the decreasing trend of national mean SO2 concentrations reported by the Indian Government, both the total OMI-observed SO2 and average SO2 concentrations in coal-fired power plant regions increased by greater than 60 percent during 2005-2012, implying the air quality monitoring network needs to be optimized to reflect the true SO2 situation in India.

  4. Portable Fluorescence Imaging System for Hypersonic Flow Facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, J. A.; Alderfer, D. W.; Jones, S. B.; Danehy, P. M.

    2003-01-01

    A portable fluorescence imaging system has been developed for use in NASA Langley s hypersonic wind tunnels. The system has been applied to a small-scale free jet flow. Two-dimensional images were taken of the flow out of a nozzle into a low-pressure test section using the portable planar laser-induced fluorescence system. Images were taken from the center of the jet at various test section pressures, showing the formation of a barrel shock at low pressures, transitioning to a turbulent jet at high pressures. A spanwise scan through the jet at constant pressure reveals the three-dimensional structure of the flow. Future capabilities of the system for making measurements in large-scale hypersonic wind tunnel facilities are discussed.

  5. Understanding selected trace elements behavior in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia for assessment of abatement technologies.

    PubMed

    Mokhtar, Mutahharah M; Taib, Rozainee M; Hassim, Mimi H

    2014-08-01

    The Proposed New Environmental Quality (Clean Air) Regulation 201X (Draft), which replaces the Malaysia Environmental Quality (Clean Air) 1978, specifies limits to additional pollutants from power generation using fossil fuel. The new pollutants include Hg, HCl, and HF with limits of 0.03, 100, and 15 mg/N-m3 at 6% O2, respectively. These pollutants are normally present in very small concentrations (known as trace elements [TEs]), and hence are often neglected in environmental air quality monitoring in Malaysia. Following the enactment of the new regulation, it is now imperative to understand the TEs behavior and to assess the capability of the existing abatement technologies to comply with the new emission limits. This paper presents the comparison of TEs behavior of the most volatile (Hg, Cl, F) and less volatile (As, Be, Cd, Cr, Ni, Se, Pb) elements in subbituminous and bituminous coal and coal combustion products (CCP) (i.e., fly ash and bottom ash) from separate firing of subbituminous and bituminous coal in a coal-fired power plant in Malaysia. The effect of air pollution control devices configuration in removal of TEs was also investigated to evaluate the effectiveness of abatement technologies used in the plant. This study showed that subbituminous and bituminous coals and their CCPs have different TEs behavior. It is speculated that ash content could be a factor for such diverse behavior In addition, the type of coal and the concentrations of TEs in feed coal were to some extent influenced by the emission of TEs in flue gas. The electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and seawater flue gas desulfurization (FGD) used in the studied coal-fired power plant were found effective in removing TEs in particulate and vapor form, respectively, as well as complying with the new specified emission limits. Implications: Coals used by power plants in Peninsular Malaysia come from the same supplier (Tenaga Nasional Berhad Fuel Services), which is a subsidiary of the Malaysia

  6. Underground Coal-Fires in Xinjiang, China: A Continued Effort in Applying Geophysics to Solve a Local Problem and to Mitigate a Global Hazard

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wuttke, M. W.; Halisch, M.; Tanner, D. C.; Cai, Z. Y.; Zeng, Q.; Wang, C.

    2012-04-01

    Spontaneous uncontrolled coal seam fires are a well known phenomenon that causes severe environmental problems and severe impact on natural coal reserves. Coal fires are a worldwide phenomenon, but in particular in Xinjiang, that covers 17.3 % of Chinas area and hosts approx 42 % of its coal resources. In Xinjiang since more than 50 years a rigorous strategy for fire fighting on local and regional scale is persued. The Xinjiang Coalfield Fire Fighting Bureau (FFB) has developed technologies and methods to deal with any known fire. Many fires have been extinguished already, but the problem is still there if not even growing. This problem is not only a problem for China due to the loss of valuable energy resources, but it is also a worldwide threat because of the generation of substantial amounts of greenhouse gases. Through the FFB, China is struggling to overcome this, but the activities could be much enhanced by the continuation of the already successful conjoint operations. The last ten years have seen two successful cooperative projects between China and Germany on the field of coal-fire fighting, namely the German Technical Cooperation Project on Coal Fire in Xinjiang and the Sino-German Coal Fire Research Initiative funded by the corresponding ministeries of both countries. A persistent task in the fire fighting is the identification and supervision of areas with higher risks for the ignition of coal fires, the exploration of already ignited fire zones to extinguish the fires and the monitoring of extinguished fires to detect as early as possible process that may foster re-ignition. This can be achieved by modeling both the structures and the processes that are involved. This has also been a promising part of the past cooperation projects, yet to be transformed into a standard application of fire fighting procedures. In this contribution we describe the plans for a new conjoint project between China and Germany where on the basis of field investigations and

  7. The Tiptop coal-mine fire, Kentucky: Preliminary investigation of the measurement of mercury and other hazardous gases from coal-fire gas vents

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Henke, K.; O'Keefe, J. M. K.; Engle, M.A.; Blake, D.R.; Stracher, G.B.

    2009-01-01

    The Tiptop underground coal-mine fire in the Skyline coalbed of the Middle Pennsylvanian Breathitt Formation was investigated in rural northern Breathitt County, Kentucky, in May 2008 and January 2009, for the purpose of determining the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), and mercury (Hg) in the vent and for measuring gas-vent temperatures. At the time of our visits, concentrations of CO2 peaked at 2.0% and > 6.0% (v/v) and CO at 600 ppm and > 700 ppm during field analysis in May 2008 and January 2009, respectively. For comparison, these concentrations exceed the U.S. Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) eight-hour safe exposure limits (0.5% CO2 and 50 ppm CO), although the site is not currently mined. Mercury, as Hg0, in excess of 500 and 2100 ??g/m3, in May and January, respectively, in the field, also exceeded the OSHA eight-hour exposure limit (50 ??g/m3). Carbonyl sulfide, dimethyl sulfide, carbon disulfide, and a suite of organic compounds were determined at two vents for the first sampling event. All gases are diluted by air as they exit and migrate away from a gas vent, but temperature inversions and other meteorological conditions could lead to unhealthy concentrations in the nearby towns. Variation in gas temperatures, nearly 300 ??C during the January visit to the fire versus < 50 ??C in May, demonstrates the large temporal variability in fire intensity at the Tiptop mine. These preliminary results suggest that emissions from coal fires may be important, but additional data are required that address the reasons for significant variations in the composition, flow, and temperature of vent gases. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Modelling and assessment of advanced processes for integrated environmental control of coal-fired power plants. Technical progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Barrett, J.G.; Bloyd, C.N.; McMichael, F.C.; Rubin, E.S.

    1984-07-01

    The key objective of this research is the development of a computer based model for the assessment of integrated environmental control (IEC) systems for conventional and advanced coal fired power plant designs. Efforts during the period April 1-June 30, 1984 focused on, (1) testing of a preliminary integrated model linking pre-combustion and post-combustion control options for conventional plants; (2) documentation of the analytical models of existing control technology options; (3) development and preliminary testing of a second model design for the propagation and analysis of uncertainty; and (4) development of new analytical models needed for IEC assessments. Activities and accomplishments in each of these areas are described. 4 references, 13 figures, 4 tables.

  9. Proof of concept for integrating oxy-fuel combustion and the removal of all pollutants from a coal fired flame

    SciTech Connect

    Ochs, Thomas L.; Patrick, Brian; Oryshchyn, Danylo B.; Gross, Alex; Summers, Cathy A.; Simmons, William; Schoenfield, Mark; Turner, Paul C.

    2005-01-01

    The USDOE/Albany Research Center and Jupiter Oxygen Corporation, working together under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement, have demonstrated proof-of-concept for the integration of Jupiter’s oxy-fuel combustion and an integrated system for the removal of all stack pollutants, including CO2, from a coal-fired flame. The components were developed using existing process technology with the addition of a new oxy-coal combustion nozzle. The results of the test showed that the system can capture SOx, NOx, particulates, and even mercury as a part of the process of producing liquefied CO2 for sequestration. This is part of an ongoing research project to explore alternative methods for CO2 capture that will be applicable to both retrofit and new plant construction.

  10. Effects of a coal-fired power plant on the rock lichen Rhizoplaca melanophthalma: chlorophyll degradation and electrolyte leakage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belnap, Jayne; Harper, Kimball T.

    1990-01-01

    Chlorophyll degradation and electrolyte leakage were measured for the umbilicate desert lichen Rhizoplaca melanophthalma (Ram.) Leuck. & Poelt in the vicinity of a coal-fired power plant near Page, Arizona. Patterns of lichen damage indicated by chlorophyll degradation were similar to those indicated by electrolyte leakage. Regression analyses of chlorophyll degradation as well as electrolyte leakage on distance from the power plant were significant (p < 0.001), suggesting that lichen damage decreased with increasing distance from the power plant. Mean values for both variables at the two sites closest to the power plant (7 and 12 km) differed significantly from values for the two sites farthest from the plant (21 and 42 km; p < 0.001). Mean values within each group (7 and 12 km; 21 and 42 km) do not differ significantly for either parameter. It is suggested that effluents from the power plant combine with local weather factors to produce the observed levels of damage.

  11. Evaluation of the behavior of shrouded plasma spray coatings in the platen superheater of coal-fired boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidhu, Buta Singh; Prakash, S.

    2006-06-01

    Nickel- and cobalt-based coatings were formulated by a shrouded plasma spray process on boiler tube steels, namely, ASTM-SA210-grade A1 (GrA1), ASTM-SA213-T-11 (T11), and ASTM-SA213-T-22 (T22). The Ni-22Cr-10Al-1Y alloy powder was sprayed as a bond in each case before the final coating. The degradation behavior of the bared and coated steels was studied in the platen superheater of the coal-fired boiler. The samples were inserted through the soot blower dummy points with the help of stainless steel wires. The coatings were found to be effective in increasing resistance to degradation in the given boiler environment. The maximum protection was observed in the case of Stellite-6 (St-6) coating.

  12. Evaluation of the behavior of shrouded plasma spray coatings in the platen superheater of coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Sidhu, B.S.; Prakash, S.

    2006-06-15

    Nickel- and cobalt-based coatings were formulated by a shrouded plasma spray process on boiler tube steels, namely, ASTM-SA210-grade A1 (GrA1), ASTM-SA213-T-11 (T11), and ASTM-SA213-T-22 (T22). The Ni-22Cr-10A1-1Y alloy powder was sprayed as a bond in each case before the final coating. The degradation behavior of the bared and coated steels was studied in the platen superheater of the coal-fired boiler. The samples were inserted through the soot blower dummy points with the help of stainless steel wires. The coatings were found to be effective in increasing resistance to degradation in the given boiler environment. The maximum protection was observed in the case of Stellite-6 (St-6) coating.

  13. A supply chain network design model for biomass co-firing in coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Md. S. Roni; Sandra D. Eksioglu; Erin Searcy; Krishna Jha

    2014-01-01

    We propose a framework for designing the supply chain network for biomass co-firing in coal-fired power plants. This framework is inspired by existing practices with products with similar physical characteristics to biomass. We present a hub-and-spoke supply chain network design model for long-haul delivery of biomass. This model is a mixed integer linear program solved using benders decomposition algorithm. Numerical analysis indicates that 100 million tons of biomass are located within 75 miles from a coal plant and could be delivered at $8.53/dry-ton; 60 million tons of biomass are located beyond 75 miles and could be delivered at $36/dry-ton.

  14. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2003-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, installation of a liquid flue gas conditioning system was completed at the American Electric Power Conesville Plant, Unit 3. This plant fires a bituminous coal and has opacity and particulate emissions performance issues related to fly ash re-entrainment. Two cohesivity-specific additive formulations, ADA-44C and ADA-51, will be evaluated. In addition, ammonia conditioning will also be compared.

  15. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    C. Jean Bustard; Kenneth E. Baldrey; Richard Schlager

    2000-04-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. Preliminary testing has identified a class of common deliquescent salts that effectively control flyash resistivity on a variety of coals. A method to evaluate cohesive properties of flyash in the laboratory has been selected and construction of an electrostatic tensiometer test fixture is underway. Preliminary selection of a variety of chemicals that will be screened for effect on flyash cohesion has been completed.

  16. Development of Erosion-Corrosion-Resistant Cold-Spray Nanostructured Ni-20Cr Coating for Coal-Fired Boiler Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, M.; Singh, H.; Singh, N.; Chavan, N. M.; Kumar, S.; Joshi, S. V.

    2015-12-01

    The erosion-corrosion (E-C) behavior of a cold-spray nanostructured Ni-20Cr coating was studied under cyclic conditions in a coal-fired boiler. This study was done for 15 cycles (1500 h), in which each cycle comprised 100 h of heating in the boiler environment, followed by 1 h of cooling under ambient air conditions. The E-C extent was evaluated in terms of thickness loss data of the samples. The eroded-corroded samples were characterized using XRD, SEM/EDS, and x-ray mapping analyses. The nanostructured coating offered excellent E-C protection to boiler tube material (SA 516 steel) under harsh live conditions of the boiler. This E-C resistance offered by investigated coating may be attributed to the presence of protective NiO and Cr2O3 phases in its oxide scale and its superior as-sprayed microhardness.

  17. Least Square Fast Learning Network for modeling the combustion efficiency of a 300WM coal-fired boiler.

    PubMed

    Li, Guoqiang; Niu, Peifeng; Wang, Huaibao; Liu, Yongchao

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents a novel artificial neural network with a very fast learning speed, all of whose weights and biases are determined by the twice Least Square method, so it is called Least Square Fast Learning Network (LSFLN). In addition, there is another difference from conventional neural networks, which is that the output neurons of LSFLN not only receive the information from the hidden layer neurons, but also receive the external information itself directly from the input neurons. In order to test the validity of LSFLN, it is applied to 6 classical regression applications, and also employed to build the functional relation between the combustion efficiency and operating parameters of a 300WM coal-fired boiler. Experimental results show that, compared with other methods, LSFLN with very less hidden neurons could achieve much better regression precision and generalization ability at a much faster learning speed.

  18. ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kenneth E. Baldrey

    2001-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions are engaged in a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the fly ash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, progress was made in obtaining an industry partner for a long-term demonstration and in technology transfer activities. Engineering and equipment procurement activities related to the long-term demonstration were also completed.

  19. Research on thermophoretic and inertial aspects of ash particle deposition on heat exchanger surfaces in coal-fired equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Rosner, D.E.

    1990-05-01

    The overall goal of this research in the area of ash transport was to advance the capability of making reliable engineering predictions of the dynamics and consequences of net deposit growth for surfaces exposed to the products of coal combustion. To accomplish this for a wide variety of combustor types, coal types, and operating conditions, this capability must be based on a quantitative understanding of each of the important mechanisms of mineral matter transport, as well as the nature of the interactions between these substances and the prevailing fireside'' surface of the deposit. This level of understanding and predictive capability could ultimately be translated into very significant cost reductions for coal-fired equipment design, development and operation.

  20. High Temperature Behavior of Cr3C2-NiCr Coatings in the Actual Coal-Fired Boiler Environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhatia, Rakesh; Sidhu, Hazoor Singh; Sidhu, Buta Singh

    2015-03-01

    Erosion-corrosion is a serious problem observed in steam-powered electricity generation plants, and industrial waste incinerators. In the present study, four compositions of Cr3C2-(Ni-20Cr) alloy coating powder were deposited by high-velocity oxy-fuel spray technique on T-91 boiler tube steel. The cyclic studies were performed in a coal-fired boiler at 1123 K ± 10 K (850 °C ± 10 °C). X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray analysis and elemental mapping analysis techniques were used to analyze the corrosion products. All the coatings deposited on T-91 boiler tube steel imparted hot corrosion resistance. The 65 pctCr3C2 -35 pct (Ni-20Cr)-coated T-91 steel sample performed better than all other coated samples in the given environment.

  1. Time-series model for predicting ambient TSP concentrations at monitors located near coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Warren-Hicks, W.; Siple, G.

    1984-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to develop a time-series model applicable to a number of data sets containing total suspended particulate (TSP) data. The authors wanted the mathematical form of the model to be as simple as possible while maintaining a good fit to all the TSP data sets involved. To this end, data from three TSP monitoring sites, which are located near coal-fired power plants operated by Carolina Power and Light Company in North Carolina, were chosen for analysis. The data consisted of every-sixth-day, 24-hour TSP concentrations collected using a high-volume sampler and measured gravimetrically. An autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) time-series, model was fit to each data set. The model was then used to fill in missing concentrations and forecast future values. Forecasted values were compared against measured maximum and averaged values.

  2. [Characteristics of Water-Soluble Inorganic Ions in PM2.5 Emitted from Coal-Fired Power Plants].

    PubMed

    Ma, Zi-zhen; Li, Zhen; Jiang, Jing-kun; Ye, Zhi-xiang; Deng, Jian-guo; Duan, Lei

    2015-07-01

    To characterize the primary PM2.5 emission from coal-fired power plants in China, and to quantitatively evaluate the effects of flue gas denitrification and desulfurization on PM2.5 emission, a pulverized coal fired (PC) power plant and a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) plant were selected for measuring the mass concentration and water-soluble ion composition of PM2.5 in flue gas. The results showed that the mass concentration of PM2.5 generated from the CFB was much higher than that from the PC, while the mass concentrations of PM2.5 emitted from these two plants were very similar, because the CFB was equipped with an electrostatic-bag precipitator (EBP) with higher PM2.5 removal efficiency than the common electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Although the total concentration of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 generated from the PC was lower than that from the CFB, the total concentration of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 emitted from the PC was much higher than that from the CFB, which implied that PM2.5 emission from the PC was greatly affected by the flue gas treatment installations. For example, the flue gas denitrification system produced H2SO4 mist, part of which reacted with the excessive NH3 in the flue gas to form NH4HSO4 in PM2.5 and to increase the acidity of PM2.5. In addition, the escaping of desulfurization solution during the flue gas desulfurization process could also introduce NH4+ and SO2- into PM2.5. Therefore, although the main water-soluble ions in PM2.5 generated from both of the plants were Ca2+ and SO(4)2-, the major cation was changed to NH4+ when emitted from PC. PMID:26489299

  3. Distribution and potential sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils around coal-fired power plants in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Okedeyi, Olumuyiwa O; Nindi, Mathew M; Dube, Simiso; Awofolu, O R

    2013-03-01

    The distribution and potential sources of 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soils in the vicinity of three South African coal-fired power plants were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. PAH compound ratios such as phenanthrene/phenanthrene + anthracene (Phen/Phen + Anth) were used to provide reliable estimation of emission sources. The total PAH concentration in the soils around three power plants ranged from 9.73 to 61.24 μg g(-1), a range above the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry levels of 1.0 μg g(-1) for significantly contaminated site. Calculated values of Phen/Phen + Anth ratio were 0.48 ± 0.08, 0.44 ± 0.05, and 0.38 + 0.04 for Matla, Lethabo, and Rooiwal, respectively. Flouranthene/fluoranthene + pyrene (Flan/Flan + Pyr) were found to be 0.49 ± 0.03 for Matla, 0.44 ± 0.05 for Lethabo, and 0.53 ± 0.08 for Rooiwal. Such values indicate a pyrolytic source of PAHs. Higher molecular weight PAHs (five to six rings) were predominant, suggesting coal combustion sources. A good correlation existed between most of the PAHs implying that these compounds were emitted from similar sources. The carcinogenic potency B[a]P equivalent concentration (B[a] Peq) at the three power plants ranged from 3.61 to 25.25 indicating a high carcinogenic burden. The highest (B[a] Peq) was found in samples collected around Matla power station. It can therefore be concluded that the soils were contaminated with PAHs originating from coal-fired power stations. PMID:22661359

  4. Radiological Impact Associated to Technologically Enhanced Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (TENORM) from Coal-Fired Power Plants Emissions - 13436

    SciTech Connect

    Dinis, Maria de Lurdes; Fiuza, Antonio; Soeiro de Carvalho, Jose; Gois, Joaquim; Meira Castro, Ana Cristina

    2013-07-01

    Certain materials used and produced in a wide range of non-nuclear industries contain enhanced activity concentrations of natural radionuclides. In particular, electricity production from coal is one of the major sources of increased human exposure to naturally occurring radioactive materials. A methodology was developed to assess the radiological impact due to natural radiation background. The developed research was applied to a specific case study, the Sines coal-fired power plant, located in the southwest coastline of Portugal. Gamma radiation measurements were carried out with two different instruments: a sodium iodide scintillation detector counter (SPP2 NF, Saphymo) and a gamma ray spectrometer with energy discrimination (Falcon 5000, Canberra). Two circular survey areas were defined within 20 km of the power plant. Forty relevant measurements points were established within the sampling area: 15 urban and 25 suburban locations. Additionally, ten more measurements points were defined, mostly at the 20-km area. The registered gamma radiation varies from 20 to 98.33 counts per seconds (c.p.s.) corresponding to an external gamma exposure rate variable between 87.70 and 431.19 nGy/h. The highest values were measured at locations near the power plant and those located in an area within the 6 and 20 km from the stacks. In situ gamma radiation measurements with energy discrimination identified natural emitting nuclides as well as their decay products (Pb-212, Pb-2142, Ra-226, Th-232, Ac-228, Th-234, Pa-234, U- 235, etc.). According to the results, an influence from the stacks emissions has been identified both qualitatively and quantitatively. The developed methodology accomplished the lack of data in what concerns to radiation rate in the vicinity of Sines coal-fired power plant and consequently the resulting exposure to the nearby population. (authors)

  5. Impairment of soil health due to fly ash-fugitive dust deposition from coal-fired thermal power plants.

    PubMed

    Raja, R; Nayak, A K; Shukla, A K; Rao, K S; Gautam, Priyanka; Lal, B; Tripathi, R; Shahid, M; Panda, B B; Kumar, A; Bhattacharyya, P; Bardhan, G; Gupta, S; Patra, D K

    2015-11-01

    Thermal power stations apart from being source of energy supply are causing soil pollution leading to its degradation in fertility and contamination. Fine particle and trace element emissions from energy production in coal-fired thermal power plants are associated with significant adverse effects on human, animal, and soil health. Contamination of soil with cadmium, nickel, copper, lead, arsenic, chromium, and zinc can be a primary route of human exposure to these potentially toxic elements. The environmental evaluation of surrounding soil of thermal power plants in Odisha may serve a model study to get the insight into hazards they are causing. The study investigates the impact of fly ash-fugitive dust (FAFD) deposition from coal-fired thermal power plant emissions on soil properties including trace element concentration, pH, and soil enzymatic activities. Higher FAFD deposition was found in the close proximity of power plants, which led to high pH and greater accumulation of heavy metals. Among the three power plants, in the vicinity of NALCO, higher concentrations of soil organic carbon and nitrogen was observed whereas, higher phosphorus content was recorded in the proximity of NTPC. Multivariate statistical analysis of different variables and their association indicated that FAFD deposition and soil properties were influenced by the source of emissions and distance from source of emission. Pollution in soil profiles and high risk areas were detected and visualized using surface maps based on Kriging interpolation. The concentrations of chromium and arsenic were higher in the soil where FAFD deposition was more. Observance of relatively high concentration of heavy metals like cadmium, lead, nickel, and arsenic and a low concentration of enzymatic activity in proximity to the emission source indicated a possible link with anthropogenic emissions. PMID:26450689

  6. A coal-fired combustion system for industrial process heating applications. Quarterly technical progress report, April 1992--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-03

    PETC has implemented a number of advanced combustion research projects that will lead to the establishment of a broad, commercially acceptable engineering data base for the advancement of coal as the fuel of choice for boilers, furnaces, and process heaters. Vortec Corporation`s Phase III development contract DE-AC22-91PC91161 for a ``Coal-Fired Combustion System for Industrial Process Heating Applications`` is project funded under the DOE/PETC advanced combustion program. This advanced combustion system research program is for the development of innovative coal-fired process heaters which can be used for high temperature melting, smelling and waste vitrification processes. The process heater concepts to be developed are based on advanced glass melting and ore smelting furnaces developed and patented by Vortec Corporation. The process heater systems to be developed have multiple use applications; however, the Phase III research effort is being focused on the development of a process heater system to be used for producing value added vitrified glass products from boiler/incinerator ashes and industrial wastes. The primary objective of the Phase III project is to develop and integrate all the system components, from fuel through total system controls, and then test the complete system in order to evaluate its potential marketability. During the current reporting period, approval of Vortec`s Environmental Assessment (EA) required under the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was approved. The EA approval cycle took approximately 9 months. The preliminary test program which was being held in abeyance pending approval of the EA was initiated. Six preliminary test runs were successfully competed during the period. Engineering and design activities in support of the Phase III proof of concept are continuing, and modifications to the existing test system configuration to allow performance of the preliminary tests were completed.

  7. Impairment of soil health due to fly ash-fugitive dust deposition from coal-fired thermal power plants.

    PubMed

    Raja, R; Nayak, A K; Shukla, A K; Rao, K S; Gautam, Priyanka; Lal, B; Tripathi, R; Shahid, M; Panda, B B; Kumar, A; Bhattacharyya, P; Bardhan, G; Gupta, S; Patra, D K

    2015-11-01

    Thermal power stations apart from being source of energy supply are causing soil pollution leading to its degradation in fertility and contamination. Fine particle and trace element emissions from energy production in coal-fired thermal power plants are associated with significant adverse effects on human, animal, and soil health. Contamination of soil with cadmium, nickel, copper, lead, arsenic, chromium, and zinc can be a primary route of human exposure to these potentially toxic elements. The environmental evaluation of surrounding soil of thermal power plants in Odisha may serve a model study to get the insight into hazards they are causing. The study investigates the impact of fly ash-fugitive dust (FAFD) deposition from coal-fired thermal power plant emissions on soil properties including trace element concentration, pH, and soil enzymatic activities. Higher FAFD deposition was found in the close proximity of power plants, which led to high pH and greater accumulation of heavy metals. Among the three power plants, in the vicinity of NALCO, higher concentrations of soil organic carbon and nitrogen was observed whereas, higher phosphorus content was recorded in the proximity of NTPC. Multivariate statistical analysis of different variables and their association indicated that FAFD deposition and soil properties were influenced by the source of emissions and distance from source of emission. Pollution in soil profiles and high risk areas were detected and visualized using surface maps based on Kriging interpolation. The concentrations of chromium and arsenic were higher in the soil where FAFD deposition was more. Observance of relatively high concentration of heavy metals like cadmium, lead, nickel, and arsenic and a low concentration of enzymatic activity in proximity to the emission source indicated a possible link with anthropogenic emissions.

  8. A high-resolution emission inventory for coal-fired power plants in China, 1990-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, F.; He, K.; Zhang, Q.; Lei, Y.

    2012-12-01

    A new emission inventory of China's coal-fired power plants with high spatial and temporal resolution is developed for the period of 1990-2010, based on detailed unit-level information, including capacity, technology, fuel consumption, location, and the time it came into operation and shut down. The high-resolution emission inventory allows a close examination of temporal and spatial variations of power plant emissions in China and their driving forces during last two decades, and contributes to improvement of chemical transport model simulations and satellite retrieval. Emissions from China's coal-fired power plants in 2010 were estimated as follows: 8.00 Tg SO2, 9.00 Tg NOx, 3091 Tg CO2, 0.89 Tg PM2.5 and 1.39 Tg PM10, representing a growth of 92%, 306% and 484%, and a decline of 18% and 16% from 1990, respectively, compared to 558% growth of power generation during the same period. SO2 emissions were peaked in 2005 at 16.62 Tg, and then decreased by 52% between 2005 and 2010, as the subsequence of installation of flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) equipment. Although low-NOx burners (LNB) have been widely installed in power plants after 2006, it failed to curb the increase trend of NOx emissions. CO2 emissions kept increasing, but carbon emission intensity declined induced by the optimization of unit size structure. PM emissions fluctuated during the past 20 years, as a result of the interaction between emission control equipment and increased coal usage. An anomaly of monthly variations in emissions was detected during 2008-2010, reflecting the abnormity of economy and energy activity, such as financial crisis.

  9. [Characteristics of Water-Soluble Inorganic Ions in PM2.5 Emitted from Coal-Fired Power Plants].

    PubMed

    Ma, Zi-zhen; Li, Zhen; Jiang, Jing-kun; Ye, Zhi-xiang; Deng, Jian-guo; Duan, Lei

    2015-07-01

    To characterize the primary PM2.5 emission from coal-fired power plants in China, and to quantitatively evaluate the effects of flue gas denitrification and desulfurization on PM2.5 emission, a pulverized coal fired (PC) power plant and a circulating fluidized bed (CFB) plant were selected for measuring the mass concentration and water-soluble ion composition of PM2.5 in flue gas. The results showed that the mass concentration of PM2.5 generated from the CFB was much higher than that from the PC, while the mass concentrations of PM2.5 emitted from these two plants were very similar, because the CFB was equipped with an electrostatic-bag precipitator (EBP) with higher PM2.5 removal efficiency than the common electrostatic precipitator (ESP). Although the total concentration of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 generated from the PC was lower than that from the CFB, the total concentration of water-soluble ions in PM2.5 emitted from the PC was much higher than that from the CFB, which implied that PM2.5 emission from the PC was greatly affected by the flue gas treatment installations. For example, the flue gas denitrification system produced H2SO4 mist, part of which reacted with the excessive NH3 in the flue gas to form NH4HSO4 in PM2.5 and to increase the acidity of PM2.5. In addition, the escaping of desulfurization solution during the flue gas desulfurization process could also introduce NH4+ and SO2- into PM2.5. Therefore, although the main water-soluble ions in PM2.5 generated from both of the plants were Ca2+ and SO(4)2-, the major cation was changed to NH4+ when emitted from PC.

  10. Advances of flue gas desulfurization technology for coal-fired boilers and strategies for sulfur dioxide pollution prevention in China

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C.; Zeng, G.; Li, G.; Qiu, J.

    1999-07-01

    Coal is one of the most important kinds of energy resources at the present time and in the immediate future in China. Sulfur dioxide resulting from combustion of coal is one of the principle pollutants in the air. Control of SO{sub 2} discharge is still a major challenge for environmental protection in developing China. In this paper, research, development and application of technology of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) for coal-fired boilers in China will be reviewed with emphasis on cost-effective technology, and the development trends of FGD technology, as well as the strategy for SO{sub 2} discharge control in China, will be analyzed. A practical technology for middle-small-sized boilers developed by the primary author and the field investigation results will also be presented. At present, there are four major kinds of FGD technologies that are practical to be applied in China for their cost-effectiveness and efficiency to middle-small-sized boilers. An important development trend of the FGD technology for middle-small-sized boilers for the next decade is improvement of the existing cost-effective wet-type FGD technology, and in the future it will be the development of dry-type FGD technology. For middle-sized generating boilers, the development direction of the FGD technology is the spraying and drying process. For large-sized generating boilers, the wet-type limestone-plaster process will still be applied in the immediate future, and dry-type FGD technologies, such as ammonia with electron beam irradiation, will be developed in the future. State strategies for the control of SO{sub 2} discharge will involve the development and popularization of efficient coal-fired devices, extension of gas coal and liquefied coal, spreading coal washing, and centralized heating systems.

  11. Coal-fired high performance power generating system. Quarterly progress report, October 1, 1994--December 31, 1994

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    This report covers work carried out under Task 3, Preliminary R and D, under contract DE-AC22-92PC91155, {open_quotes}Engineering Development of a Coal-Fired High Performance Power Generation System{close_quotes} between DOE Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center and United Technologies Research Center. The goals of the program are to develop a coal-fired high performance power generation system (HIPPS) by the year 2000 that is capable of (1) > 47% thermal efficiency; (2) NO{sub x}, SO{sub x} and particulates {<=}25% NSPS; (3) cost {>=}65% of heat input; (4) all solid wastes benign. In our design consideration, we have tried to render all waste streams benign and if possible convert them to a commercial product. It appears that vitrified slag has commercial values. If the flyash is reinjected through the furnace, along with the dry bottom ash, then the amount of the less valuable solid waste stream (ash) can be minimized. A limitation on this procedure arises if it results in the buildup of toxic metal concentrations in either the slag, the flyash or other APCD components. We have assembled analytical tools to describe the progress of specific toxic metals in our system. The outline of the analytical procedure is presented in the first section of this report. The strengths and corrosion resistance of five candidate refractories have been studied in this quarter. Some of the results are presented and compared for selected preparation conditions (mixing, drying time and drying temperatures). A 100 hour pilot-scale stagging combustor test of the prototype radiant panel is being planned. Several potential refractory brick materials are under review and five will be selected for the first 100 hour test. The design of the prototype panel is presented along with some of the test requirements.

  12. Uninstrumented assembly airflow testing in the Annular Flow Distribution facility

    SciTech Connect

    Kielpinski, A.L.

    1992-02-01

    During the Emergency Cooling System phase of a postulated large-break loss of coolant accident (ECS-LOCA), air enters the primary loop and is pumped down the reactor assemblies. One of the experiments performed to support the analysis of this accident was the Annular Flow Distribution (AFD) experiment, conducted in a facility built for this purpose at Babcock and Wilcox Alliance Research Center in Alliance, Ohio. As part of this experiment, a large body of airflow data were acquired in a prototypical mockup of the Mark 22 reactor assembly. This assembly was known as the AFD (or the I-AFD here) reference assembly. The I-AFD assembly was fully prototypical, having been manufactured in SRS`s production fabrication facility. Similar Mark 22 mockup assemblies were tested in several test facilities in the SRS Heat Transfer Laboratory (HTL). Discrepancies were found. The present report documents further work done to address the discrepancy in airflow measurements between the AFD facility and HTL facilities. The primary purpose of this report is to disseminate the data from the U-AFD test, and to compare these test results to the I-AFD data and the U-AT data. A summary table of the test data and the B&W data transmittal letter are included as an attachment to this report. The full data transmittal volume from B&W (including time plots of the various instruments) is included as an appendix to this report. These data are further analyzed by comparing them to two other HTL tests, namely, SPRIHTE 1 and the Single Assembly Test Stand (SATS).

  13. Evaluation of Carbon Dioxide Capture From Existing Coal Fired Plants by Hybrid Sorption Using Solid Sorbents

    SciTech Connect

    Benson, Steven; Srinivasachar, Srivats; Laudal, Daniel; Browers, Bruce

    2014-12-31

    A novel hybrid solid sorbent technology for CO₂ capture and separation from coal combustion-derived flue gas was evaluated. The technology – Capture of CO₂ by Hybrid Sorption (CACHYS™) – is a solid sorbent technology based on the following ideas: 1) reduction of energy for sorbent regeneration, 2) utilization of novel process chemistry, 3) contactor conditions that minimize sorbent-CO₂ heat of reaction and promote fast CO₂ capture, and 4) low-cost method of heat management. This report provides key information developed during the course of the project that includes sorbent performance, energy for sorbent regeneration, physical properties of the sorbent, the integration of process components, sizing of equipment, and overall capital and operational cost of the integrated CACHYS™ system. Seven sorbent formulations were prepared and evaluated at the lab-scale for energy requirements and CO₂ capture performance. Sorbent heat of regeneration ranged from 30-80 kJ/mol CO₂ and was found to be dependent on process conditions. Two sorbent formulations (designated HCK-4 & HCK-7) were down-selected for additional fixed-bed testing. Additional testing involved subjecting the sorbents to 100 continuous cycles in the fixed-bed reactor to determine performance as a function of time. The working capacity achieved for HCK-4 sorbent ranged from 5.5-8.0 g CO₂/100 g sorbent, while the HCK-7 typically ranged from 8.0-10.0 g CO₂/100 g sorbent. Overall, there was no deterioration in capacity with continuous cycling for either sorbent. The CACHYS™ bench-scale testing system designed and fabricated under this award consists of a dual circulating fluidized-bed adsorber and a moving-bed regenerator. The system takes a flue gas slipstream from the University of North Dakota’s coal-fired steam plant. Prior to being sent to the adsorber, the flue gas is scrubbed to remove SO₂ and particulate. During parametric testing of the adsorber, CO₂ capture achieved using

  14. Measurements of flow structure interaction in a plaqued artificial artery using an index matched flow facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Akash; Brock, Larry; Sheng, Jian

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the experiment is to study the flow structure interaction in an arterial model with a simulated plaque inside a closed loop index matched pulsatile flow facility. The test section is 24.5 inches long 6 inches wide. The experimental models are compliant polymer (PDMS) tubes having an outer diameter of 9 mm and a wall thickness of 1 mm. The plaque on the models are simulated by means of a radially asymmetric bump. Both flow and polymeric structures are doped with different particles and imaged with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) method. To minimize the optical distortion near liquid solid interface, the facility is fully index matched with NaI at 40% by weight. A suite of analysis procedures quantifying complex interactions including solid-fluid phase separation, near wall flow analysis, and wall shear stress approximation as well as wall deformation quantification, have been developed and applied to study the healthy and plaqued artificial arteries in steady and pulsatile flow conditions. 3D ensemble velocity fields, wall shear stress distributions and corresponding strain deformations will be presented.

  15. TOXECON RETROFIT FOR MERCURY AND MULTI-POLLUTANT CONTROL-ON THREE 90 MW COAL FIRED BOILERS

    SciTech Connect

    Richard E. Johnson

    2004-10-26

    With the Nation's coal-burning utilities facing tighter controls on mercury pollutants, the U.S. Department of Energy is supporting projects that could offer power plant operators better ways to reduce these emissions at much lower costs. Sorbent injection technology represents one of the simplest and most mature approaches to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers. It involves injecting a solid material such as powdered activated carbon into the flue gas. The gas-phase mercury in the flue gas contacts the sorbent and attaches to its surface. The sorbent with the mercury attached is then collected by a particle control device along with the other solid material, primarily fly ash. We Energies has over 3,200 MW of coal-fired generating capacity and supports an integrated multi-emission control strategy for SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and mercury emissions while maintaining a varied fuel mix for electric supply. The primary goal of this project is to reduce mercury emissions from three 90 MW units that burn Powder River Basin coal at the We Energies Presque Isle Power Plant. Additional goals are to reduce nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}), sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), and particulate matter (PM) emissions, allow for reuse and sale of fly ash, demonstrate a reliable mercury continuous emission monitor (CEM) suitable for use in the power plant environment, and demonstrate a process to recover mercury captured in the sorbent. To achieve these goals, We Energies (the Participant) will design, install, and operate a TOXECON{trademark} (TOXECON) system designed to clean the combined flue gases of units 7, 8, and 9 at the Presque Isle Power Plant. TOXECON is a patented process in which a fabric filter system (baghouse) installed down stream of an existing particle control device is used in conjunction with sorbent injection for removal of pollutants from combustion flue gas. For this project, the flue gas emissions will be controlled from the three units using a single

  16. Acute respiratory symptoms in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in other subjects living near a coal-fired plant

    SciTech Connect

    Pershagen, G.

    1984-01-01

    Daily symptom rates in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and in other subjects with presumed high sensitivity to air pollution who lived near a coal-fired power plant were compared with 24 h ambient air concentrations of NO/SUB/2, SO/SUB/2, soot and suspended particles, as well as with emissions from the plant. The mean concentrations of each of the pollutants during the 4-month study period were below 30GAMMA/m/SUP/3, and no single 24h concentration exceeded 100GAMMA/m/SUP/3. There were no consistent associations between plant emissions and pollutant levels, or between these two variables and daily symptom rates. The results indicate that the coal-fired plant was not of major importance for the occurrence of acute respiratory symptoms in the surrounding population.

  17. The impact of flue gas cleaning technologies in coal-fired power plants on the CCN distribution and cloud properties in Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bangert, M.; Vogel, B.; Junkermann, W.; Brachert, L.; Schaber, K.

    2013-05-01

    Gas-cleaning technologies used in modern coal-fired power plants cause an unintended nucleation of H2SO4 aerosol droplets during the cleaning process. As a result, high concentrations of ultra-fine aerosol droplets are emitted into the atmosphere. In this study, the impact of these emissions on the atmospheric aerosol distribution, on the cloud condensation nuclei number concentration, and consequently on cloud properties is investigated. Therefore, a sophisticated modeling framework is used combining regional simulations of the atmospheric aerosol distribution and its impact on cloud properties with detailed process simulations of the nucleation during the cleaning process inside the power plant. Furthermore, the simulated aerosol size distributions downwind of the coal-fired power plants are compared with airborne aerosol measurements performed inside the plumes.

  18. Engineering development of advanced coal-fired low-emission boiler systems. Quarterly technical progress report No. 17, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Regan, J.W.; Bender, D.J.; Clark, J.P.; Wesnor, J.D.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the work performed between October 1 and December 31, 1996 by the ABB team on U.S. Department of Energy project ``Engineering Development of Advanced Coal-Fired Low-Emission Boiler Systems`` (LEBS), which is part of the DOE`s Combustion 2000 Program. The overall objective of the LEBS Project is to dramatically improve environmental performance of future coal-fired power plants without adversely impacting efficiency or the cost of electricity. Near-term technologies, i.e., advanced technologies that are partially developed, will be used to reduce NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emission to one-sixth current NSPS limits and particulates to one- third current NSPS limits.

  19. Thermal Integration of CO{sub 2} Compression Processes with Coal-Fired Power Plants Equipped with Carbon Capture

    SciTech Connect

    Edward Levy

    2012-06-29

    Coal-fired power plants, equipped either with oxycombustion or post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture, will require a CO{sub 2} compression system to increase the pressure of the CO{sub 2} to the level needed for sequestration. Most analyses show that CO{sub 2} compression will have a significant effect on parasitic load, will be a major capital cost, and will contribute significantly to reduced unit efficiency. This project used first principle engineering analyses and computer simulations to determine the effects of utilizing compressor waste heat to improve power plant efficiency and increase net power output of coal-fired power plants with carbon capture. This was done for units with post combustion solvent-based CO{sub 2} capture systems and for oxyfired power plants, firing bituminous, PRB and lignite coals. The thermal integration opportunities analyzed for oxycombustion capture are use of compressor waste heat to reheat recirculated flue gas, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals prior to pulverizing the coal. Among the thermal integration opportunities analyzed for post combustion capture systems are use of compressor waste heat and heat recovered from the stripper condenser to regenerate post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture solvent, preheat boiler feedwater and predry high-moisture coals. The overall conclusion from the oxyfuel simulations is that thermal integration of compressor heat has the potential to improve net unit heat rate by up to 8.4 percent, but the actual magnitude of the improvement will depend on the type of heat sink used and to a lesser extent, compressor design and coal rank. The simulations of a unit with a MEA post combustion capture system showed that thermal integration of either compressor heat or stripper condenser heat to preheat boiler feedwater would result in heat rate improvements from 1.20 percent to 4.19 percent. The MEA capture simulations further showed that partial drying of low rank coals, done in combination

  20. The adsorption behavior of mercury on the hematite (1-102) surface from coal-fired power plant emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, J. E.; Jew, A. D.; Rupp, E.; Aboud, S.; Brown, G. E.; Wilcox, J.

    2014-12-01

    One of the biggest environmental concerns caused by coal-fired power plants is the emission of mercury (Hg). Worldwide, 475 tons of Hg are released from coal-burning processes annually, comprising 24% of total anthropogenic Hg emissions. Because of the high toxicity of Hg species, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed a standard on Hg and air toxic pollutants (Mercury and Air Toxics Standards, MATS) for new and existing coal-fired power plants in order to eliminate Hg in flue gas prior to release through the stack. To control the emission of Hg from coal-derived flue gas, it is important to understand the behavior, speciation of Hg as well as the interaction between Hg and solid materials, such as fly ash or metal oxides, in the flue gas stream. In this study, theoretical investigations using density functional theory (DFT) were carried out in conjunction with experiments to investigate the adsorption behavior of oxidized Hg on hematite (α-Fe2O3), an important mineral component of fly ash which readily sorbes Hg from flue gas. For DFT calculation, the two α-Fe2O3 (1-102) surfaces modeled consisted of two different surface terminations: (1) M2-clean, which corresponds to the oxygen-terminated surface with the first layer of cations removed and with no hydroxyl groups and (2) M2-OH2-OH, which has bihydroxylated top oxygen atoms and a second layer of hydroxylated oxygen atoms. These surface terminations were selected because both surfaces are highly stable in the temperature range of flue gases. The most probable adsorption sites of Hg, Cl and HgCl on the two α-Fe2O3 surface terminations were suggested based on calculated adsorption energies. Additionally, Bader charge and projected density of states (PDOS) analyses were conducted to characterize the oxidation state of adsorbates and their bonding interactions with the surfaces. Results indicate that oxidized Hg physically adsorbs on the M2-clean surface with a binding energy of -0.103 eV and that