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Sample records for coalfields southern north

  1. Geology and potential hydrocarbon play system of Lower Karoo Group in the Maamba Coalfield Basin, southern Zambia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phiri, Cryton; Wang, Pujun; Nyambe, Imasiku Anayawa

    2016-06-01

    This study attempts to augment geology and potential hydrocarbon play system database not only in the Maamba Coalfield basin of southern Zambia but in other similar continental non-marine Karoo rift basins in the region as well. Geological analyses were conducted through extensive outcrops and exposures and subsurface boreholes. Six (6) major lithofacies (diamictites, conglomerates, sandstones, siltstones, coal and mudstones) represents Lower Karoo Group sequence. Four (4) mudstone core samples were prepared for thin section petrography. In addition, six (6) samples of sandstones obtained from outcrops, exposures and cores were impregnated with blue epoxy before thin sectioning in order to facilitate easy recognition of porosity. Quantification of framework grain composition and porosity was achieved by point counting a total of 300 points per thin section. The identification of diagenetic constituents and pore types was made possible by the use of scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Rock-Eval pyrolysis analyses utilised 35 core samples of mudstones and coal. According to results of the analyses, three (3) deposition settings which include; alluvial, fluvial-lacustrine and lacustrine setting are envisaged. . Fluvial-lacustrine deposits are host to mudstones and coal source rocks and sandstone reservoir rocks. Mudstones and coal source rocks gave the total organic carbon (TOC) that is well above the recommended thresholds of 0.5 wt % and 2.5 wt % of gas and oil generation respectively. The hydrogen index (HI) values are mostly below 200 mg HC/g TOC, indicating fair quantities of type III kerogen. The thermal maturity readings measured by temperature Tmax range from 440 to 485 °C in agreement with calculated vitrinite reflectance (Rocalc) range of 0.76-1.57% indicating mature to post mature stages. This maturation is attributed to the burial temperatures and near-surface heat flows by faults. Production Index (PI) values are less than 0.1 suggesting some hydrocarbon

  2. Abandoned mine drainage in the Swatara Creek Basin, southern anthracite coalfield, Pennsylvania, USA: 2. performance of treatment systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    A variety of passive and semi-passive treatment systems were constructed by state and local agencies to neutralize acidic mine drainage (AMD) and reduce the transport of dissolved metals in the upper Swatara Creek Basin in the Southern Anthracite Coalfield in eastern Pennsylvania. To evaluate the effectiveness of selected treatment systems installed during 1995–2001, the US Geological Survey collected water-quality data at upstream and downstream locations relative to each system eight or more times annually for a minimum of 3 years at each site during 1996–2007. Performance was normalized among treatment types by dividing the acid load removed by the size of the treatment system. For the limestone sand, open limestone channel, oxic limestone drain, anoxic limestone drain (ALD), and limestone diversion well treatment systems, the size was indicated by the total mass of limestone; for the aerobic wetland systems, the size was indicated by the total surface area of ponds and wetlands. Additionally, the approximate cost per tonne of acid treated over an assumed service life of 20 years was computed. On the basis of these performance metrics, the limestone sand, ALD, oxic limestone drain, and limestone diversion wells had similar ranges of acid-removal efficiency and cost efficiency. However, the open limestone channel had lower removal efficiency and higher cost per ton of acid treated. The wetlands effectively attenuated metals transport but were relatively expensive considering metrics that evaluated acid removal and cost efficiency. Although the water-quality data indicated that all treatments reduced the acidity load from AMD, the ALD was most effective at producing near-neutral pH and attenuating acidity and dissolved metals. The diversion wells were effective at removing acidity and increasing pH of downstream water and exhibited unique potential to treat moderate to high flows associated with storm flow conditions.

  3. Resource and potential reclamation evaluation of Rattlesnake Butte study area, Dickinson coalfield, North Dakota: summary. Final report 1978-82

    SciTech Connect

    Westman, G.H.; Parish, L.M.

    1982-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to collect baseline data for establishing reclamation objectives and lease stipulations. The report includes data on climate, physiography, geology, coal resources, and overburden. The study area, located in Southwestern North Dakota, lies within the unglaciated portion of the Great Plains Physiographic Province.

  4. Thermal history of the Sabero Coalfield (Southern Cantabrian Zone, NW Spain) as revealed by apatite fission track analyses from tonstein horizons: implications for timing of coalification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botor, Dariusz; Anczkiewicz, Aneta A.

    2015-10-01

    Apatite fission track (AFT) central ages from Carboniferous (Stephanian) tonsteins of the Sabero Coalfield, NW Spain, range from 140.8 ± 7.5 to 65.8 ± 8.1 Ma (Cretaceous), with mean c-axis projected track length values ranging from 12.5 to 13.4 μm. Mean random vitrinite reflectance ( R r) of these samples ranges from 0.91 to 1.20 %, which can be translated into maximum palaeotemperatures of ca. 130 to 180 °C. All analysed samples experienced substantial post-depositional annealing. The considerably younger AFT ages compared to the depositional ages of the samples and R r data indicate the certainty of the occurrence of at least one heating event after the deposition of strata. The unimodal track length distributions, the relatively short mean track length, and the rather low standard deviation (SD) (1.0-1.6 μm) indicate a relatively simple thermal history that could be related to the post-Late Variscan heating event followed by prolonged residence in the apatite partial annealing zone (APAZ). Geological data combined with thermal models of AFT data indicate that Stephanian strata reached the maximum palaeotemperatures in the Permian period, which was therefore the major time of the coalification processes. The Permian magmatic activity was responsible for a high heat flow, which, with the added effect of sedimentary burial, could account for the resetting of the AFT system. It appears that the fault-related hydrothermal activity could have redistributed heat in areas of significant subsidence. Cooling occurred in the Triassic-Cretaceous times after a high heat flow Permian regime. A post-Permian maturation of the Stephanian organic matter is not very likely, since there is no evidence of a high Mesozoic burial that was sufficient to cause a significant increase in the palaeotemperatures. Finally, exhumation and associated erosion rates may possibly have been faster in the Tertiary, causing the present exposure of the studied rocks.

  5. 75 FR 53687 - Southern Montana Electric Generation & Transmission Cooperative, Inc. v. NorthWestern Corporation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-01

    ...] Southern Montana Electric Generation & Transmission Cooperative, Inc. v. NorthWestern Corporation; Notice...) Rules of Practice and Procedure, 18 CFR 385.206, Southern Montana Electric Generation &...

  6. 2. Southern Light Tower and Northern Light Tower, view north, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Southern Light Tower and Northern Light Tower, view north, south sides - Kennebec River Light Station, South side of Doubling Point Road, off State Highway 127, 1.8 miles south of U.S. Route 1, Arrowsic, Sagadahoc County, ME

  7. 13. Looking north, from the southern approach to the bridge. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Looking north, from the southern approach to the bridge. The bridge deck, which is concrete with several patch coats of asphalt (now chiefly gravel and some turf), demonstrates a sharp gradient from the abutment to the bridge center line. - Vigo County Bridge No. 139, Spanning Sugar Creek at Seventy-fourth Place, Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  8. Shallow gas in Cenozoic sediments of the Southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trampe, Anna F.; Lutz, Rüdiger; Franke, Dieter; Thöle, Hauke; Arfai, Jashar

    2013-04-01

    Shallow petroleum systems in the southern North Sea are known for several decades but they were not actively explored for a long time. In recent years these unconventional shallow petroleum systems are studied in greater detail and one shallow gas field (A-12) is in production in the Netherlands. Additionally, oil was encountered in Miocene sandstones in the southern Danish North Sea (Lille John well) just north of the Danish-German border. Seismic amplitude anomalies are an indication for hydrocarbons in sediments. Therefore we have mapped the occurrence of seismic amplitude anomalies in the German North Sea based on more than 25.000 km of 2D seismic data and around 4.000 km2 of 3D seismic data. Amplitude anomalies are ubiquitous phenomena in the study area. These anomalies are not only caused by hydrocarbons but also by changing lithologies e.g. peat or fluid migration. Therefore several classes of seismic anomalies, e.g. bright spots, chimneys, blanking areas and velocity pull-down were mapped. Examples for these classes were studied with AVO (amplitude variation with offset) analyses to verify the existence or non-existence of gas in the sediments. Shallow gas can be produced and transported through the dense pipeline grid of the southern and central North Sea or it could be burned offshore close to wind parks in small power plants and the electric energy then transported through the existing power connections of the wind parks. Thus enabling a continuous energy supply during calm wind periods. This study is carried out within the framework of the project "Geoscientific Potential of the German North Sea (GPDN)" in which the Cenozoic sedimentary system was mapped in great detail. A detailed model of delta evolution (Baltic river system) was developed which serves as a structural framework. The studied interval is time equivalent to the Utsira formation which is used offshore Norway for sequestration of CO2. These different possibilities of using or exploiting

  9. North-Seeking Magnetotactic Gammaproteobacteria in the Southern Hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Leão, Pedro; Teixeira, Lia C. R. S.; Cypriano, Jefferson; Farina, Marcos; Abreu, Fernanda; Bazylinski, Dennis A.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB) comprise a phylogenetically diverse group of prokaryotes capable of orienting and navigating along magnetic field lines. Under oxic conditions, MTB in natural environments in the Northern Hemisphere generally display north-seeking (NS) polarity, swimming parallel to the Earth's magnetic field lines, while those in the Southern Hemisphere generally swim antiparallel to magnetic field lines (south-seeking [SS] polarity). Here, we report a population of an uncultured, monotrichously flagellated, and vibrioid MTB collected from a brackish lagoon in Brazil in the Southern Hemisphere that consistently exhibits NS polarity. Cells of this organism were mainly located below the oxic-anoxic interface (OAI), suggesting it is capable of some type of anaerobic metabolism. Magnetosome crystalline habit and composition were consistent with elongated prismatic magnetite (Fe3O4) particles. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing indicated that this organism belongs to a distinct clade of the Gammaproteobacteria class. The presence of NS MTB in the Southern Hemisphere and the previously reported finding of SS MTB in the Northern Hemisphere reinforce the idea that magnetotaxis is more complex than we currently understand and may be modulated by factors other than O2 concentration and redox gradients in sediments and water columns. IMPORTANCE Magnetotaxis is a navigational mechanism used by magnetotactic bacteria to move along geomagnetic field lines and find an optimal position in chemically stratified sediments. For that, magnetotactic bacteria swim parallel to the geomagnetic field lines under oxic conditions in the Northern Hemisphere, whereas those in the Southern Hemisphere swim antiparallel to magnetic field lines. A population of uncultured vibrioid magnetotactic bacteria was discovered in a brackish lagoon in the Southern Hemisphere that consistently swim northward, i.e., the opposite of the overwhelming majority of other

  10. Predicting North American Scolytinae invasions in the Southern Hemisphere.

    PubMed

    Lantschner, Maria Victoria; Atkinson, Thomas H; Corley, Juan C; Liebhold, Andrew M

    2017-01-01

    Scolytinae species are recognized as one of the most important tree mortality agents in coniferous forests worldwide, and many are known invaders because they are easily transported in wood products. Nonnative trees planted in novel habitats often exhibit exceptional growth, in part because they escape herbivore (such as Scolytinae) pressure from their native range. Increasing accidental introductions of forest pest species as a consequence of international trade, however, is expected to diminish enemy release of nonnative forest trees. In this context, there is need to characterize patterns of forest herbivore species invasion risks at global scales. In this study, we analyze the establishment potential of 64 North American Scolytinae species in the Southern Hemisphere. We use climate-based ecological niche models (MaxEnt) to spatially define the potential distribution of these Scolytinae species in regions of the Southern Hemisphere were pines are planted. Our model predicts that all of the pine-growing regions of the Southern Hemisphere are capable of supporting some species of North American Scolytinae, but there are certain "hotspot" regions, southeastern Argentina, Bolivia, Chile, Peru and southwestern Australia, that appear to be suitable for a particularly large number of species. The species with the highest predicted risk of establishment were Dendroctonus valens, Xyleborus intrusus, Hylastes tenuis, Ips grandicollis, Gnathotrichus sulcatus, and Ips calligraphus. Given that global commerce is anticipated to continue to increase, we can expect that more Scolytinae species will continue to establish outside their range. Our results provide information useful for identifying a global list of potential invasive species in pine plantations, and may assist in the design of comprehensive strategies aimed at reducing pest establishment in Southern Hemisphere forest plantations.

  11. Spatial Organization of Decadal and Bidecadal Rainfall On Southern North America and Southern South America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucero, O. A.; Rodriguez, N. C.

    The spatial organization of decadal and bidecadal components (fluctuations) of annual rainfall is identified in this research for two regions: 1) southern South America, and 2) southern North America (conterminous USA, southeastern Canada and northern and central Mexico). Findings indicate that these decadal and bidecadal components have highly-coherent wave-like spatial organization. Two types of organization of decadal and bidecadal components of annual rainfall were identified: a train of propagating fluctuations, and quasi-standing fluctuations. For decadal components, such patterns alternate in time. A widespread change in the spatial organization of decadal com- ponents of annual rainfall took place simultaneously in both continents in 1932. The bidecadal component is organized as standing fluctuations in southern North Amer- ica, and as travelling fluctuations in southern South America. The spatial pattern of decadal fluctuations of annual rainfall has 12- and 13-year cycle; and the spatial pat- tern of bidecadal fluctuations has predominantly 21- and 22-year cycles. Correspond- ing author's email: omarabellucero@yahoo.com

  12. "The Lady Is Not Returning!": Educational Precarity and a Social Haunting in the UK Coalfields

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, N. Geoffrey

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on research in de-industrialised coal-mining communities in the north of England, this article focuses on how experiences of some young people might be approached through a notion of precarity linked to the idea of a "social haunting" of the coalfields. Concentrating on data gathered in the period after the 2010 change of UK…

  13. Southern borderland of Triassic Laurasia in north-east Iran

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruttner, A. W.

    1993-04-01

    Results obtained by Iranian and European geoscientists in the critical area to the north-east of the North Iran Suture east of Mashhad are desribed and discussed. A slightly metamorphosed ophiolite belt, outcropping as the south easterly continuation of the previously known ophiolites of Mashhad along the north eastern perimeter of the Fariman-Torbat-e-Jam depression, proved to be either the remnant of a Permian ocean floor or more likely the remnant of a narrow ocean trough. There is as yet no proof of a Triassic age for this ophiolitic belt. To the north of this ophiolitic belt an epicontinental Triassic sequence is exposed at the southern edge of Laurasia in the erosional Window of Aghdarband. This is the result of intermittent sedimentation in a pull-apart basin along sinistral strike-slip faults. The Triassic of Aghdarband has much in common with other deposits of the Triassic Tethys; however, it shows a few unique features, e.g. the Early Anisian Nicomedites fauna of a palaeobiogeographic North Tethyan Subprovince, or volcanogenic sedimentation during the late Anisian and the entire Ladinian. Permian ophiolites outcropping at the south-west corner of the Aghdarband erosional Window are transgressively overlain by basal conglomerats of this Triassic sequence. Hence the existence of a Triassic ocean south of Laurasia is very unlikely. This is an agreement with paleomagnetic data which suggest that the Central Iranian microcontinent was in direct contact with Laurasia during Triassic times. These palaeomagnetic data also suggest a clockwise rotation of the Central East Iran microplate during Triassic times (contrary to the anticlockwise rotation of this microplate in post-Triassic times). The sinistral strike-slip faulting and compression from the south-west which controls the structure of the Triassic may be derivative sequels to this clockwise rotation. All Eo-Cimmerian deformations of the Triassic rocks (e.g. folding, thrust faulting, strike-slip faulting

  14. Variation in the chemistry of macerals in coals of the Mist Mountain Formation, Elk Valley coalfield, British Columbia, Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mastalerz, Maria; Bustin, R.M.

    1997-01-01

    Variations in elemental and molecular chemistry of macerals, with vitrinite, semifusinite and sporinite in particular, are discussed for the coal seams of the Mist Mountain Formation in the Elk Valley coalfield, in western Canada. In the south Elk Valley coalfield, carbon content of vitrinite oscillates around 85%, and oxygen content increases gradually up section, from seam A to C. In the north Elk Valley coalfield, carbon content in vitrinite shows marked variations (from 70% to 85%) between the samples and is lower than in the south Elk Valley coalfield, which is consistent with a higher maturation level of south Elk Valley coalfield samples. Sulphur content is below 1% in both coalfields. Semifusinite, in general, has higher carbon and lower oxygen content than vitrinite, whereas cutinite has higher carbon content than vitrinite and slightly higher or comparable to that of semifusinite. Functional group distributions show large variations between the seams and these variations are attributed mainly to differences in a primary depositional environment and only occasionally to later weathering and oxidation processes. The results presented in this paper provide also information on the length and branching of aliphatic chains, which, for liptinite macerals is valuable from the oil generation viewpoint, whereas for semifusinite, it may help to understand reactive versus non-reactive behaviour during coking.

  15. Salt tectonics in the southern North Sea, Netherlands

    SciTech Connect

    Remmelts, G. )

    1993-09-01

    Large parts of the southern North Sea are underlain by Upper Permian Zechstein salt. A vast amount of this sequence, originally more than 1000 m thick, has migrated into salt structures. Many hydrocarbon accumulations are related to these structures. The formation of the salt structures may have created structural traps or (by influencing the sedimentation pattern) stratigraphic traps. Salt generally acts as a seal, but depletion of salt can create migration routes into higher strata for hydrocarbons originating from underlying source rocks. The thermal conductivity of the salt can influence the maturity of source rocks in its direct vicinity. Salt structures are formed almost exclusively by Zechstein salt. Minor movement occurred in Triassic evaporites. The development of salt structures is influenced strongly by regional tectonics. Basement faulting probably triggered the salt movement. The dominant structural grain is reflected in the orientation and location of the salt structures. Periods of increased growth rates coincide with tectonic phases. Long walls of salt formed in the northern area where the Triassic north-south orientated faults (which were rejuvenated in Late Jurassic) predominate. Toward the south, the northwest-southeast direction of the Late Jurassic interferes with the north-south trend and gradually becomes the dominant direction. This is reflected in the shortening of the north-south salt structures and eventually in the change in their orientation. Average vertical growth rates have been calculated to be around 0.005-0.035 mm/yr. When correction for suberosion and erosion processes could be quantified and applied to the growth rates, they were significantly higher.

  16. Diet overlap among flatfish species in the southern North Sea.

    PubMed

    Schückel, S; Sell, A F; Kröncke, I; Reiss, H

    2012-06-01

    The diets of two non-commercial flatfish species (solenette Buglossidium luteum and scaldfish Arnoglossus laterna) and two commercial flatfish species (dab Limanda limanda and plaice Pleuronectes platessa) were compared in a study area in the German Bight (southern North Sea) to investigate prey-resource partitioning between these species. The diets of A. laterna and B. luteum mainly comprised crustaceans (harpacticoids, amphipods, cumaceans and decapods), whereas the diet of L. limanda and P. platessa consisted mainly of polychaetes. The Schoener index, calculated for different fish size classes between these flatfish species, showed a biologically significant diet overlap between small-sized L. limanda and P. platessa and B. luteum and A. laterna, using similar prey resources of smaller prey (e.g. amphipods, harpacticoids and juvenile bivalves). In contrast, with increasing body size, a change in the diet of L. limanda and P. platessa towards larger prey occurred (e.g. polychaetes and decapods), resulting in low diet overlap values with B. luteum and A. laterna. Due to these size-related differences in resource use, it is assumed that there is reduced interspecific competition for prey between larger L. limanda and P. platessa and both non-commercial flatfishes, probably facilitating resource partitioning within the same area. In contrast, smaller L. limanda and P. platessa may compete directly for the same prey resources with B. luteum and A. laterna. Furthermore, prey availability of most important prey items of the studied flatfishes was relatively low in the study area. Therefore, increasing abundances of B. luteum and A. laterna in the southern North Sea since the late 1980s, owing to fishing effects and climate change, might affect the population dynamics of L. limanda and P. platessa.

  17. View of north central Wyoming and southern Montana

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    A view of approximately 3,600 square miles of north central Wyoming and southern Montana as seen in this Skylab 3 Earth Resources Experiments Package S190-B (five-inch earth terrain camera) photograph taken from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. The Big Horn River flowing northward crosses between the northwest trending Big Horn Mountains and the Pryor Mountains. Yellowtail Reservoir, in the center of the picture, is impounded by a dam across the Big Horn River. A sharp contrast is clearly evident between the small rectangular crop areas along the Big Horn River (upper right) and the strip farming (yellow) practiced on the rolling hill along the Big Horn River and its tributaries (upper left corner and right edge). The low sun angle enhances the structural features of the mountains as well as the drainage patterns in the adjacent basins. Rock formations appear in this color photograph as they would to the eye from this altitude. The distinctive redbeds can be traced along the fr

  18. Upper carboniferous gas indications and Zechstein features in southern North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Jenyon, M.K.

    1984-05-14

    Seismograph Service's recent nonproprietary marine survey in the Southern basin of the North Sea indicates the possible presence of gas in the Upper Carboniferous region. At the southern margin of the Northern Salt basin, north of the Mid North Sea High, hydrocarbon accumulations have been found in fractured and vuggy Zechstein carbonates in the Auk and Argyll fields. To date, no hydrocarbon accumulations of any importance have been produced from either shelf Zechstein or Upper Carboniferous to the south of these fields, although gas and condensate shows have been logged in wells in the southern part. Certain structural features seen in the Zechstein interval, which lies unconformably upon the Upper Carboniferous, make this North Sea basin a very promising area for more detailed study. These Zechstein features may include porous carbonate intervals containing gas.

  19. The influence of Southern Ocean winds on the North Atlantic carbon sink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bronselaer, Ben; Zanna, Laure; Munday, David R.; Lowe, Jason

    2016-06-01

    Observed and predicted increases in Southern Ocean winds are thought to upwell deep ocean carbon and increase atmospheric CO2. However, Southern Ocean dynamics affect biogeochemistry and circulation pathways on a global scale. Using idealized Massachusetts Institute of Technology General Circulation Model (MITgcm) simulations, we demonstrate that an increase in Southern Ocean winds reduces the carbon sink in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre. The increase in atmospheric CO2 due to the reduction of the North Atlantic carbon sink is shown to be of the same magnitude as the increase in atmospheric CO2 due to Southern Ocean outgassing. The mechanism can be described as follows: The increase in Southern Ocean winds leads to an increase in upper ocean northward nutrient transport. Biological productivity is therefore enhanced in the tropics, which alters the chemistry of the subthermocline waters that are ultimately upwelled in the subpolar gyre. The results demonstrate the influence of Southern Ocean winds on the North Atlantic carbon sink and show that the effect of Southern Ocean winds on atmospheric CO2 is likely twice as large as previously thought in past, present, and future climates.

  20. Gene flow from North Africa contributes to differential human genetic diversity in southern Europe

    PubMed Central

    Botigué, Laura R.; Henn, Brenna M.; Gravel, Simon; Maples, Brian K.; Gignoux, Christopher R.; Corona, Erik; Atzmon, Gil; Burns, Edward; Ostrer, Harry; Flores, Carlos; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Comas, David; Bustamante, Carlos D.

    2013-01-01

    Human genetic diversity in southern Europe is higher than in other regions of the continent. This difference has been attributed to postglacial expansions, the demic diffusion of agriculture from the Near East, and gene flow from Africa. Using SNP data from 2,099 individuals in 43 populations, we show that estimates of recent shared ancestry between Europe and Africa are substantially increased when gene flow from North Africans, rather than Sub-Saharan Africans, is considered. The gradient of North African ancestry accounts for previous observations of low levels of sharing with Sub-Saharan Africa and is independent of recent gene flow from the Near East. The source of genetic diversity in southern Europe has important biomedical implications; we find that most disease risk alleles from genome-wide association studies follow expected patterns of divergence between Europe and North Africa, with the principal exception of multiple sclerosis. PMID:23733930

  1. Gene flow from North Africa contributes to differential human genetic diversity in southern Europe.

    PubMed

    Botigué, Laura R; Henn, Brenna M; Gravel, Simon; Maples, Brian K; Gignoux, Christopher R; Corona, Erik; Atzmon, Gil; Burns, Edward; Ostrer, Harry; Flores, Carlos; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Comas, David; Bustamante, Carlos D

    2013-07-16

    Human genetic diversity in southern Europe is higher than in other regions of the continent. This difference has been attributed to postglacial expansions, the demic diffusion of agriculture from the Near East, and gene flow from Africa. Using SNP data from 2,099 individuals in 43 populations, we show that estimates of recent shared ancestry between Europe and Africa are substantially increased when gene flow from North Africans, rather than Sub-Saharan Africans, is considered. The gradient of North African ancestry accounts for previous observations of low levels of sharing with Sub-Saharan Africa and is independent of recent gene flow from the Near East. The source of genetic diversity in southern Europe has important biomedical implications; we find that most disease risk alleles from genome-wide association studies follow expected patterns of divergence between Europe and North Africa, with the principal exception of multiple sclerosis.

  2. The Failure of an Interracial Southern Rhetoric: The Southern Tenant Farmers Union in North Carolina.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffin, Keith H.

    When the American Civil War ended, the southern aristocracy turned to sharecropping as a means for continuing its existence and for keeping former slaves in the fields. Tenant families during the economic depression of 1929 were forced to live in squalid conditions, and the natural antagonism between whites and blacks was exacerbated by the…

  3. Accumulation status of persistent organochlorines in albatrosses from the North Pacific and the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Guruge, K S; Watanabe, M; Tanaka, H; Tanabe, S

    2001-01-01

    Current status of contamination by persistent organochlorines (OCs) such as polychlorinated biphenyles (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyl trichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs), isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane (HCHs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB) and chlordane compounds (CHLs) were examined in 61 individuals belonging to eight albatross species collected from the North Pacific and the Southern Ocean. Generally high OC concentrations were found in albatrosses from the North Pacific than those from the Southern Oceans. Black-footed albatrosses had noticeably high PCBs and DDTs concentrations with mean values of 92 and 33 micrograms/g wet weight in subcutaneous fat, respectively. Among the other OCs, concentration of CHLs was higher than that of HCB in North Pacific albatrosses. HCHs accumulation was the lowest among all the OCs analyzed. Species-specific differences were observed for HCB, CHLs and DDTs in some species in the Southern Ocean. No significant difference of gender and age-related accumulation was observed in total OCs. However, PCB concentrations were higher in mature birds than those from immature ones in the Southern Ocean. Species-specific accumulation patterns of OCs in albatrosses were closely related with their feeding, migration, age and geographical ranges.

  4. Biochemical characterization of the eelgrass Zostera marina at its southern distribution limit in the North Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cabello-Pasini, Alejandro; Munoz-Salazar, R.; Ward, D.H.

    2004-01-01

    The eelgrass Zostera marina L. is distributed along the Baja California Peninsula (Mexico) where it is exposed to a wide range of irradiances and temperatures that could promote changes in its biochemical composition. Consequently, the objective of this study was to characterize the variations in the levels of chlorophyll, carbohydrates, proteins, fiber, ash and calories in the shoots of Z. marina from the north (San Quintin) and south (Ojo de Liebre and San Ignacio lagoons) of the peninsula. Temperature in the southern lagoons was 5-6??C higher than in the northern lagoon; likewise, in situ irradiance was two-fold greater in the south than in the north. As a result of the lower irradiance levels, the concentration of chlorophyll in the shoots of Z. marina was twice as high (1.7 mg gWW-1) in the northern lagoon than in the southern ones (0.8 mg gWW-1). Similar to chlorophyll levels, the concentration of soluble carbohydrates in the shoots was greater in the northern lagoon than in the southern ones, suggesting that the high levels of chlorophyll are enough to compensate for the low irradiance levels and to maintain a positive carbon balance at San Quintin. On the other hand, the levels of proteins in the shoots from the north of the peninsula were slightly lower than those from the southern populations. In general, these results suggest that the different environmental conditions to which Z. marina is exposed along the peninsula impact its biochemical composition.

  5. Southern Hemisphere water mass conversion linked with North Atlantic climate variability.

    PubMed

    Pahnke, Katharina; Zahn, Rainer

    2005-03-18

    Intermediate water variability at multicentennial scales is documented by 340,000-year-long isotope time series from bottom-dwelling foraminifers at a mid-depth core site in the southwest Pacific. Periods of sudden increases in intermediate water production are linked with transient Southern Hemisphere warm episodes, which implies direct control of climate warming on intermediate water conversion at high southern latitudes. Coincidence with episodes of climate cooling and minimum or halted deepwater convection in the North Atlantic provides striking evidence for interdependence of water mass conversion in both hemispheres, with implications for interhemispheric forcing of ocean thermohaline circulation and climate instability.

  6. Comparison of survival patterns of northern and southern genotypes of the North American tick Ixodes scapularis (Acari: Ixodidae) under northern and southern conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ginsberg, Howard S.; Rulison, Eric L.; Azevedo, Alexandra; Pang, Genevieve C.; Kuczaj, Isis M.; Tsao, Jean I.; LeBrun, Roger A.

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundSeveral investigators have reported genetic differences between northern and southern populations of Ixodes scapularis in North America, as well as differences in patterns of disease transmission. Ecological and behavioral correlates of these genetic differences, which might have implications for disease transmission, have not been reported. We compared survival of northern with that of southern genotypes under both northern and southern environmental conditions in laboratory trials.MethodsSubadult I. scapularis from laboratory colonies that originated from adults collected from deer from several sites in the northeastern, north central, and southern U.S. were exposed to controlled conditions in environmental chambers. Northern and southern genotypes were exposed to light:dark and temperature conditions of northern and southern sites with controlled relative humidities, and mortality through time was recorded.ResultsTicks from different geographical locations differed in survival patterns, with larvae from Wisconsin surviving longer than larvae from Massachusetts, South Carolina or Georgia, when held under the same conditions. In another experiment, larvae from Florida survived longer than larvae from Michigan. Therefore, survival patterns of regional genotypes did not follow a simple north–south gradient. The most consistent result was that larvae from all locations generally survived longer under northern conditions than under southern conditions.ConclusionsOur results suggest that conditions in southern North America are less hospitable than in the north to populations of I. scapularis. Southern conditions might have resulted in ecological or behavioral adaptations that contribute to the relative rarity of I. scapularis borne diseases, such as Lyme borreliosis, in the southern compared to the northern United States.

  7. Use of DINEOF with high frequency geostationary ocean colour data in the southern North Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvera-Azcárate, Aida; Vanhellemont, Quinten; Ruddick, Kevin; Barth, Alxander; Beckers, Jean-Marie

    2015-04-01

    DINEOF (Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions), a technique to reconstruct missing data, is applied to a series of turbidity data of the southern North Sea in 2008, obtained through the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) sensor on board Meteosat Second Generation 2. These data are characterised by a very high temporal resolution (15 minutes), and long night-time gaps. An outlier detection approach that exploits the high temporal resolution of the SEVIRI dataset is developed. After removal of outliers, the turbidity data are reconstructed with DINEOF, and a series of tidal cycles are examined at various positions over the southern North Sea. The main objective is to demonstrate the capability of DINEOF to reproduce tidal variability in the reconstructed dataset, and to study the high temporal and spatial variability of turbidity in the southern North Sea. An analysis of the main harmonic constituents (annual cycle, daily cycle, M2 and S2 tidal components) is performed to assess the contribution of each of these modes to the total variability of turbidity.

  8. Incursions of southern-sourced water into the deep North Atlantic during late Pliocene glacial intensification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, David C.; Bailey, Ian; Wilson, Paul A.; Chalk, Thomas B.; Foster, Gavin L.; Gutjahr, Marcus

    2016-05-01

    The circulation and internal structure of the oceans exert a strong influence on Earth's climate because they control latitudinal heat transport and the segregation of carbon between the atmosphere and the abyss. Circulation change, particularly in the Atlantic Ocean, is widely suggested to have been instrumental in the intensification of Northern Hemisphere glaciation when large ice sheets first developed on North America and Eurasia during the late Pliocene, approximately 2.7 million years ago. Yet the mechanistic link and cause/effect relationship between ocean circulation and glaciation are debated. Here we present new records of North Atlantic Ocean structure using the carbon and neodymium isotopic composition of marine sediments recording deep water for both the Last Glacial to Holocene (35-5 thousand years ago) and the late Pliocene to earliest Pleistocene (3.3-2.4 million years ago). Our data show no secular change. Instead we document major southern-sourced water incursions into the deep North Atlantic during prominent glacials from 2.7 million years ago. Our results suggest that Atlantic circulation acts as a positive feedback rather than as an underlying cause of late Pliocene Northern Hemisphere glaciation. We propose that, once surface Southern Ocean stratification and/or extensive sea-ice cover was established, cold-stage expansions of southern-sourced water such as those documented here enhanced carbon dioxide storage in the deep ocean, helping to increase the amplitude of glacial cycles.

  9. Man in the North Technical Paper. Education in the Canadian North, Report Three: Southern Teachers for the North.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Girad, Ghislaine

    The purpose of this study is to investigate professional teaching preparation in the North of teachers who received their training in latitudes south of 60 degrees. The procedure involved: (1) 2 formal meetings of task force members; (2) the dispatching of 2 questionnaires to northern teachers; (3) a series of meetings of native parents and native…

  10. North Pecan Island field: a mature trend discovery in Miocene of southern Louisiana

    SciTech Connect

    Bauer, A.G.; McCormick, J.A.

    1985-02-01

    The Exxon 1 M.J. Epley discovery well for North Pecan Island field was completed in early 1982 as a discovery of significant new gas and condensate reserves in the mature Miocene trend of south Louisiana. The field is located in Vermilion Parish within a large megablock between 2 major down-to-the basin growth-fault systems and is on the southern end of a south-plunging structural nose. Traps in 2 fault segments are formed in southeasterly dipping beds upthrown to 2 north dipping, sealing faults. Six separate Robulus chambersi sandstones contain gas and condensate reserves. Major gas and condensate reserves from sandstone reservoirs in the R. chambersi section were discovered in the mid-1960s 3.3 mi. west in the Pecan island field and in the North Freshwater Bayou field, 5 mi northeast of the North Pecan Island field discovery. Several earlier dry holes just north of the discovery were drilled seeking to extend production from the upstructure Fire Island field (3 mi north), which produced a limited amount of gas and condensate from R. chambersi sandstones. Extensive structural and isopach mapping, aided by new high-resolution seismic data, revealed the North Pecan Island prospect to be structural high to production at Pecan Island and that the prospective section was deposited over a growing paleostructure. Four wells have been completed to date in the field, with flow rates as high as 30 MMCFGB. Current estimates place the new field recoverable at approximately 250 bcf of gas and 6 million bbl condensate.

  11. Shoreline responses to storm impacts: North Norfolk coast, southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, Sue; Spencer, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Recent phases of enhanced mid-latitude storminess (e.g. NW European winter of 2013 - 14) have led to a growing awareness of the considerable impacts of storms on coastal landscapes and their communities. Using aerial photography, bi-annual cross-shore profiles, detailed alongshore ground survey, and offshore/inshore wave buoy and regional tide gauge datasets, this paper considers storm impacts on the barrier coastline of North Norfolk, UK. Firstly, at Scolt Head Island, we show that the barrier dune crest has been progressively set back landwards since 2006 in three storm-related phases, with each shoreline translation being of the order of 5-8 m. However, a fourth storm produced no significant shoreline change, demonstrating that the threshold for morphological change is a function of the combined effects of still water level and wave height at the shore, the magnitude and duration of these components, and the timing of their interaction. Secondly, we consider recovery times in the system against periods of quiescence and heightened storm activity on this coast. Thirdly, it has been argued that future changes in extreme water level will be governed by mean sea level rise. Long-term rates of North Norfolk barrier retreat (1.15 m a-1, 1891-2013) have occurred under a regional rate of relative sea level rise over the 20th century of 2.7 ± 0.4 mm a-1 (Lowestoft tide gauge, 1900-2014). If there is a broad correlation between rates of barrier retreat and sea level rise, then recent increases in the rate of regional sea level rise (4.4 ± 1.1 mm a-1, 1993-2011) imply a considerable acceleration in the rate of barrier migration over the remainder of the 21st century.

  12. Comparison of Archean and Phanerozoic granulites: Southern India and North American Appalachians

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcsween, Harry Y., Jr.; Kittleson, Roger C.

    1988-01-01

    Archean granulites at the southern end of the Dharwar craton of India and Phanerozoic granulites in the southern Appalachians of North America share an important characteristic: both show continuous transitions from amphibolite facies rocks to higher grade. This property is highly unusual for granulite terranes, which commonly are bounded by major shears or thrusts. These two terranes thus offer an ideal opportunity to compare petrogenetic models for deep crustal rocks formed in different time periods, which conventional wisdom suggests may have had different thermal profiles. The salient features of the Archean amphibolite-to-granulite transition in southern India have been recently summarized. The observed metamorphic progression reflects increasing temperature and pressure. Conditions for the Phanerozoic amphibolite-to-granulite transition in the southern Appalachians were documented. The following sequence of prograde reactions was observed: kyanite = sillimanite, muscovite = sillimanite + K-feldspar, partial melting of pelites, and hornblende = orthopyroxene + clinopyroxene + garnet. The mineral compositions of low-variance assemblages in mafic and intermediate rocks are almost identical for the two granulite facies assemblages. In light of their different fluid regimes and possible mechanisms for heat flow augmentation, it seems surprising that these Archean and Phanerozoic granulite terranes were apparently metamorphosed under such similar conditions of pressure and temperature. Comparison with other terrains containing continuous amphibolite-to-granulite facies transitions will be necessary before this problem can be addressed.

  13. Developmental defects in pelagic embryos of several flatfish species in the Southern North sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cameron, P.; Berg, J.; Dethlefsen, V.; Von Westernhagen, H.

    In the spring of 1984 through and in the summer of 1987 pelagic flatfish eggs were collected in horizontal subsurface hauls with a 1-m ring net in the southern North Sea between 51°49' to 55°30'N and 2°30' to 8°00'E. The flatfish eggs were observed alive for their developmental stage and aberrations from normal development. Flatfish eggs occurring in the winter ichthyoplankton of the southern North Sea were dab, Limanda limanda; flounder. Platichthys flesus; plaice, Pleuronectes platessa, and long rough dab, Hippoglossoides platessoides. Summer samples contained dab, turbot, Psetta maxima; little sole, Buglossidium luteum; common sole, Solea solea; Norwegian topknot, Phrynorhombus norwegicus, and lemon sole, Microstomus kitt. In winter as well as in summer eggs of dab were the most abundant in the southern North Sea with up to 249 eggs·m -3 surface water in winter and 26 eggs·m -3 in summer. The investigations revealed considerable quantities of abnormally developed flatfish embryos in the plankton samples. Highest malformation rates were recorded for the early stages of dab (44.4%) followed by flounder (41.3%) and plaice (26.0%) in winter; in summer these rates were for dab 18.9%, for turbot 14.1% and for little sole 12.5%. Generally malformation rates decreased with development. Areas of high malformation rates were off the river estuaries and in near-shore areas along the Dutch and German coasts. Malformation rates decreased with the distance from the coast. Causes and effects of the occurrence of malformations during embryonic development are discussed.

  14. Characterization of Phaeocystis globosa (Prymnesiophyceae), the blooming species in the Southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rousseau, Véronique; Lantoine, François; Rodriguez, Francisco; LeGall, Florence; Chrétiennot-Dinet, Marie-Josèphe; Lancelot, Christiane

    2013-02-01

    Despite significant research dedicated to the marine genus Phaeocystis, which forms large blooms in the coastal waters of the Southern North Sea, some aspects of the taxonomy and biology of this species still suffer from a sketchy knowledge. It is currently admitted that P. globosa is the species that blooms in the Southern North Sea. This has however, never been confirmed by SSU rDNA sequencing which constitutes nowadays, together with the morphology of the haploid flagellate, a reliable taxonomic criterion to distinguish between Phaeocystis species. Also, although the fine morphology of the haploid scaly flagellate is well known, there is a lack of comparable and harmonized description of the other cell types, i.e. colonial cells and diploid flagellates, previously identified within the Phaeocystis life cycle. In this study, we used SSU rDNA sequencing, light and electron scanning microscopy and flow cytometry to identify and characterize three cell types produced in controlled and reproducible manner from two strains of Phaeocystis isolated from the Belgian coastal zone. Our morphometry and sequencing data confirm unambiguously that P. globosa is the species that blooms in the Southern North Sea, but suggest in addition that both strains are representative of the original P. globosa Scherffel. Our study compares, for the first time since the species description, the fine morphometry and ploidy features of diploid colonial cells, diploid and haploid flagellates originating from same strains, providing therefore unambiguous identification criteria for distinguishing them from each other. The diploid stage, colonial or flagellated cell, is thus characterized by a naked surface, has a size range nearly twice that of the haploid flagellate and do not produce the chitinous filaments specific of the haploid stage. Colonial cells lack flagella and haptonema but possess on their apical side two appendages, which elongate to form the flagella of the diploid flagellate.

  15. Quantification of tertiary exhumation in the United Kingdom southern North Sea using sonic velocity data

    SciTech Connect

    Hillis, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    Sonic velocities from the Upper and Middle Chalk (Upper Cretaceous), the Bunter Sandstone and the Bunter Shale (both Lower Triassic) were used to independently quantify apparent exhumation (height above maximum burial depth) in the United Kingdom (UK) southern North Sea. Apparent exhumation is the displacement, on the depth axis, of a given velocity/depth trend from the normal (unaffected by exhumation) trend. Apparent exhumation results derived from the Upper and Middle Chalk, the Bunter Sandstone, and the Bunter Shale are statistically similar. The consistency of results from carbonate and clastic units suggests that, at a formational and regional scale, over-compaction (i.e., anomalously high sonic velocity) in all three units analyzed reflects previously greater burial depth, rather than sedimentological and/or diagenetic processes, and validates the use of lithologies other than shale in maximum burial depth studies. The consistency of results from units of Early Triassic to Late Cretaceous age suggests that Tertiary exhumation was of sufficiently great magnitude to mask any earlier Mesozoic periods of exhumation, and the maximum Mesozoic-Cenozoic burial depth in the southern North Sea was attained prior to Tertiary exhumation. The proposed magnitudes of exhumation are generally greater than those previously published for the southern North Sea, but they are consistent with recent estimates from apatite fission track analysis. Cretaceous-Tertiary burial prior to exhumation must have been of great magnitude and more rapid than suggested by the preserved stratigraphy. The effect of this extra burial and subsequent exhumation on sedimentary rock decompaction procedure and thermal maturation modeling is illustrated for the Cleethorpes-1 and 44/7-1 wells, and must also be incorporated in modeling reservoir diagenesis. The regional, Tertiary tectonic uplift associated with exhumation must have had a thick-skinned origin.

  16. Basin-edge diapirism and updip salt flow in Zechstein of southern North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Jenyon, M.K.

    1985-01-01

    Some unusual and interesting structural geometries have been recognized on seismic lines recorded in the United Kingdom sector of the southern Permian basin of the North Sea. They seem to be the result of diapirism at the northern edge of the (Upper Permian) Zechstein salt basin, and involve the preservation of a 75 km (47 mi) long prism of a younger Mesozoic sequence replaced elsewhere by the widespread Jurassic/Cretaceous late Kimmerian unconformity. It is suggested that the diapiric features described are due to the movement of salt toward the basin edge having been dammed by a change in facies from basinal halite to shelf lithologies over a short distance.

  17. Basin-edge diapirism and updip salt flow in Zechstein of southern North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Jenyon, M.K.

    1985-12-01

    Some unusual and interesting structural geometries have been recognized on seismic lines recorded in the United Kingdom sector the southern Permian basin of the North Sea. They seem to be the result of diapirism at the northern edge of the (Upper Permian) Zechstein salt basin, and involve the preservation of a 75 km (47 mi) long prism of a younger Mesozoic sequence replaced elsewhere by the widespread Jurassic/Cretaceous late Kimmerian unconformity. It is suggested that the diapiric features described are due to the movement of salt toward the basin edge having been dammed by a change in facies from basinal halite to shelf lithologies over a short distance. 13 figures.

  18. Pleistocene glaciation in the blue ridge province, southern appalachian mountains, north Carolina.

    PubMed

    Berkland, J O; Raymond, L A

    1973-08-17

    Glacial polish, grooves, and striations discovered at an elevation of 1370 meters in the headwaters of Boone Fork on Grandfather Mountain, North Carolina, indicate the former, existence of alpine glaciation at a latitude of 36 degrees 07'N. The Boone Fork glacier was located 890 kilometers south of the previously recognized southern limit of alpine glaciation in the Appalachian Mountains, and 350 kilometers southeast of the nearest point on the Laurentide ice sheet. This find has significant implications for studies of Pleistocene geomorphology, paleobiology, and paleoclimatology in the eastern United States.

  19. Dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) cell quota of key Southern North Sea spring diatoms and Phaeocystis globosa.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speeckaert, Gaëlle; Gypens, Nathalie; Lancelot, Christiane; Borges, Alberto V.

    2015-04-01

    Dimethylsulfide (DMS) in the ocean results of complex transformations of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) produced by phytoplankton under different controls, including microbial transformation pathways. The phytoplankton composition is an important factor of variability due to the species dependence of the DMSP production and conversion to DMS. To better appraise the link between phytoplankton diversity and the DMS(P) cycling in the Southern North Sea we present measurements of the DMSP cell quota of key spring phytoplankton species (Skeletonema costatum, Thalassiosira rotula, Rhizosolenia delicatula, Asterionella glacialis, Nitzschia closterium, Chaetoceros debilis, Chaetoceros socialis and Phaeocystis globosa) isolated from the North Sea and maintained in non-limiting and axenic laboratory culture conditions. Results are discussed with regards to literature data and hypothesis currently used in DMS(P) biogeochemical models.

  20. Benthic macrofauna communities of the submersed Pleistocene Elbe valley in the southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rehm, Peter; Rachor, Eike

    2007-06-01

    Macrozoobenthic community structure was studied in two surveys along a transect of 13 stations following the submersed Pleistocene Elbe valley in the south-eastern North Sea during May to June 2000 and March 2001. Two replicates of bottom samples were taken with a van Veen grab of 0.1 m2 sampling size. In order to analyse the benthic macrofauna communities, the animals obtained were identified and counted, and MDS and cluster analysis were performed. Out of 200 taxa identified, 84 were polychaetes, 46 molluscs, 40 crustaceans, 15 echinoderms, and 15 belonged to other groups. Mean abundance was 4,860 individuals per m2, mean biomass 32.9 g ash free dry mass per m2. Mean diversity was 1.76 and mean evenness 0.54. The macrofauna of the Pleistocene Elbe valley is composed of three associations according to the cluster analysis. Each association is described by a combination of characterizing and discriminating species. An Amphiura-brachiata― Tellimya-ferruginosa-association was found in the south-eastern part of the depression, whereas a transitional association with elements of both assemblages lead to an Amphiura- filiformis― Galathowenia- oculata― Nuculoma- tenuis-association in the north-western part of the valley. In the context of the entire southern North Sea, both associations are small-scale substructures, and as such are contained in the Nucula- nitidosa-community and the Amphiura- filiformis-community, respectively. A north-westward shift of the community of the southern Elbe valley was found and discussed as a possible consequence of warm winters of the last decades.

  1. Comparisons of The Habitat Utilization Of Top Predators In The Southern Ocean And The North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costa, D. P.; Robinson, P.; Huckstadt, L. E.; Crocker, D. E.; Goebel, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    Northern and Southern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris, M. leonina) separated some 4 MYA. While these congeners are physiologically very similar and thus have the potential to forage in similar ways they inhabit very different habitats. While southern elephant seals (SES) are distributed throughout the southern ocean, northern elephant seals (NES) are limited to the Northeast Pacific Ocean and range over lower latitudes than SES. In order to compare and contrast the physiological capability and response to different habitats we compared the foraging behavior of 167 adult female northern elephant seals (Año Nuevo and San Benitos Islands) and 55 southern elephant seals (Livingston Island, Antarctic Peninsula) using satellite telemetry and dive recorders. As expected both species carried out very similar dive depths (NES 509m ± 166 vs SES 345m±79) and dive durations (NES 23.0 min ± 6.7; SES 22.5 min ± 5.0). However, there were significant differences in their foraging pattern that we attribute to differences in the availability of continental shelf and suitable foraging habitat. While 85% of NES females foraged offshore, the dominant strategy for SES was benthic foraging on the continental shelf. Even with the differences in habitat, the fundamental components of their foraging patterns remained the same as when they foraged pelagically they both species relied on persistent large scale oceanographic features where mixing enhances productivity such as the North Pacific Transition zone (NES) and the Southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current Front (SES). Given the very different habitats and prey species consumed by these two species their overall foraging behavior is surprisingly similar suggesting that as a mesopelagic predator the elephant seal design is rather robust.

  2. Source term balance in a severe storm in the Southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Vledder, Gerbrant Ph.; Hulst, Sander Th. C.; McConochie, Jason D.

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents the results of a wave hindcast of a severe storm in the Southern North Sea to verify recently developed deep and shallow water source terms. The work was carried out in the framework of the ONR funded NOPP project (Tolman et al. 2013) in which deep and shallow water source terms were developed for use in third-generation wave prediction models. These deep water source terms for whitecapping, wind input and nonlinear interactions were developed, implemented and tested primarily in the WAVEWATCH III model, whereas shallow water source terms for depth-limited wave breaking and triad interactions were developed, implemented and tested primarily in the SWAN wave model. So far, the new deep-water source terms for whitecapping were not fully tested in shallow environments. Similarly, the shallow water source terms were not yet tested in large inter-mediate depth areas like the North Sea. As a first step in assessing the performance of these newly developed source terms, the source term balance and the effect of different physical settings on the prediction of wave heights and wave periods in the relatively shallow North Sea was analysed. The December 2013 storm was hindcast with a SWAN model implementation for the North Sea. Spectral wave boundary conditions were obtained from an Atlantic Ocean WAVEWATCH III model implementation and the model was driven by hourly CFSR wind fields. In the southern part of the North Sea, current and water level effects were included. The hindcast was performed with five different settings for whitecapping, viz. three Komen type whitecapping formulations, the saturation-based whitecapping by Van der Westhuysen et al. (2007) and the recently developed ST6 whitecapping as described by Zieger et al. (2015). Results of the wave hindcast were compared with buoy measurements at location K13 collected by the Dutch Ministry of Transport and Public Works. An analysis was made of the source term balance at three locations, the deep

  3. Harbour porpoises (Phocoena phocoena) stranded along the southern North Sea: an assessment through metallic contamination.

    PubMed

    Mahfouz, Céline; Henry, Françoise; Courcot, Lucie; Pezeril, Sylvain; Bouveroux, Thibaut; Dabin, Willy; Jauniaux, Thierry; Khalaf, Gaby; Amara, Rachid

    2014-08-01

    Throughout the last few years, the southern North Sea has witnessed an increase in the number of stranded marine mammals, particularly the harbour porpoise (Phocoena phocoena). This species is subject to several potential threats such as exposure to contaminants, changes in food supply, marine traffic and fishery by-catch. The aims of this study were to investigate potential associations between contaminants and health status and to analyze spatial and temporal trends of metal concentrations in harbour porpoises. Selected trace elements (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Se, V and Zn) were measured in kidneys and livers of 105 harbour porpoises stranded along the southern North Sea (French and Belgian coasts from 2006 to 2013) and 27 stranded along the Bay of Biscay (French coast from 2009 to 2012). Porpoises that died from infectious disease displayed significant higher hepatic concentrations of Cd, Hg, Se and Zn compared to healthy porpoises that died from physical trauma. Adult porpoises displayed significant higher concentrations of Cd, Cr, Hg, Se and V in livers compared to juveniles. No spatial or temporal trends in metal concentrations were detected in our study. The results of the present study suggested that chemical contamination may represent one of many threats encountered by harbour porpoises, but it cannot explain alone the increase in the number of stranded individuals.

  4. Offshore Windfarm Impact on Pelagic Primary Production in the Southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slavik, Kaela; Zhang, Wenyan; Lemmen, Carsten; Wirtz, Kai

    2016-04-01

    As society struggles to find solutions to mitigate global warming, the demand for renewable energy technology has increased. Especially investment in offshore wind energy has proliferated in the European Union, with projections over the next 15 years estimating an over 40 fold increase in total offshore wind electricity. Though built with the goal of reducing the environmental impacts associated with traditional energy production, the long-term ecological impacts of offshore windfarm structures is not yet well understood. The consequences are of particular importance in the southern North Sea, where the expansion of offshore windfarms is focused. Our study investigates how the gradual accumulation of epifaunal biomass on submerged substrate at offshore windfarms impacts ecosystem services in the southern North Sea. Biofouling is governed predominately by the filter feeder Mytilus edulis, which, as an ecological engineer, will further alter the surrounding benthic and pelagic environment. We reconstruct the distribution of benthic filter feeders in the SNS and generate scenarios of increased potential distribution based on available information of Mytilus edulis settlement at turbines and of turbine locations. These maps are coupled through the MOSSCO (Modular Coupling System for Shelves and Coasts) to state-of-the-art and high resolution hydrodynamic and ecosystem models. We find a substantial change in pelagic primary production as a result of additional Mytilus edulis growth at offshore windfarms.

  5. Arc-continent collision on the southern Margin of North America: Cuba and Hispaniola

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, G.; Pindell, J.

    2004-12-01

    Comparison of the geology of Cuba and Hispaniola demonstrates how different tectonic styles can be produced in closely adjacent parts of the accretion arc. Cuba is a laterally extensive fold-and-thrust belt that includes a narrow belt of Early Cretaceous to Campanian arc rocks, ocean crust, sub-oceanic mantle and metamorphosed continental crust. Hispaniola represents a broader and more complete (although deformed) Early Cretaceous to Eocene arc structure with a single accreted, metamorphosed continental terrane. We suggest that Cuba's preset arc terrane is essentially a fore-arc that was underplated by continental crust in the Campanian collision of the Greater Antilles arc with southern Yucatan. Following this collision, the proto Caribbean lithosphere detached from the eastern margin of Yucatan resulting in rapid, north directed rollback. This, in turn, developed extension of the over-riding Cuban lithosphere and exhumed the underplated continental crust as extensional metamorphic core complexes. The present Cuban fold belt was formed as a result of collision with the southern margin of North America in the mid-Eocene. In contrast, Hispaniola was to the east of Cuba and was not detectably involved in the Campanian collisional event. At present, it is not clear if the extensional rollback event that affected Cuba had any significant effect on Hispaniola. Hispaniola's collision with North America began in the late Eocene(?) and culminated in the Oligocene and was highly oblique. This event resulted in highly oblique, south-verging thrusting that telescoped the back arc basin. It also produced a pop-up structure that reveals evidence of an earlier, mid-Cretaceous collisional event within the arc. This oblique collision persists until the present.

  6. Rotliegende group event stratigraphy, Quadrants 42 and 47, Southern North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Wrigley, R. ); Philling, D.; Melvin, A. )

    1993-09-01

    The Easington Catchment Area is located in United Kingdom continental shelf Quadrants 42 and 47, 40 km offshore north Humberside, in the Southern North Sea basin. The area is located on the northern margin of the Rotliegende play fairway, where reservoir development, facies and quality is highly variable. Conventional lithostratigraphic nomenclature for the Lower Permian of the United Kingdom continental shelf Southern North Sea basin proposes a twofold subdivision of the Rotliegende Group with the boundary between the Leman Sandstone Formation (LSF) and the Silverpit Claystone Formation (SCF), often portrayed on wireline logs as a sharp contact. Analysis of core and log data from wells in the area demonstrates that the boundary is diachronous. Given the complexity of the depositional environment, the adoption of a sharp boundary is potentially misleading when correlating wells and predicting reservoir trends. This paper describes the development of a tectonic and climatically controlled event stratigraphy for the Rotliegende Group. In the absence of biostratigraphic data, sabkha and lacustrine intercalations have been interpreted as isochronous markers which equate to maximum flooding surfaces in marine sequences. Where sabkha intercalations are absent, laterally equivalent sand sheet packages or fluvial events have been used for correlation. A series of paleogeographic models and well correlations have been produced which are highly predictive in terms of facies distribution. The results of the study also highlight the diachronous nature of the LSF and SCF and the control of Carboniferous paleo-relief on facies and thickness variations in the Rotliegende Group. The results of the study have been used to predict Rotliegende Group facies and reservoir quality on a regional basis, a critical play element for successful exploration in this mature area.

  7. Geophysical Constraints on the Location and Nature of the North Saharan Flexure in Southern Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabtni, Hakim; Jallouli, Chokri; Mickus, Kevin; Zouari, Hédi; Turki, Mohamed Moncef

    2005-11-01

    Gravity data, integrated with seismic refraction/reflection data, well data and geological investigations, were used to determine the location of the paleogeographic boundary between the Precambrian Saharan domain and the younger Tunisian Atlas domain. This boundary (North Saharan Flexure or NSF) has not been as clearly defined as it has been to the west in Algeria and Morocco. The gravity data analysis, which included the construction of complete Bouguer and residual gravity anomaly maps, revealed that the Atlasic domain is characterized by relative negative gravity anomalies and numerous linear gravity trends implying a thick and deformed sediment cover. The Saharan domain is characterized by relatively positive gravity anomalies with few gravity trends implying a thin and relatively undeformed sediment cover. An edge-enhancement analysis of the residual gravity anomalies revealed that the NSF is characterized by a series of discontinuous east- and northwest-trending linear anomalies south of 34°N that are not related to the well-known faults within the Gafsa and Accident de Medenine regions. Based on the continuity of the amplitudes of seismic reflection data and the trends of the residual gravity anomalies, the NSF is not an abrupt discontinuity but a series of step faults dipping toward the Atlasic domain. To obtain a more quantitative representation of the southern edge of Tunisian Atlas, a regional gravity model constrained by two wells and seismic reflection/refraction data was constructed along a north-south trending profile which confirms the presence of thicker sediments north of the NSF. Our analysis shows that the NSF has controlled the depositional environment of the sedimentary rocks within the region since at least Triassic time and has acted as a barrier to Atlasic deformation south of the NSF. The NSF is considered an important tectonic feature that has controlled the paleogeographic evolution of the southern margin of the Tethys Ocean, and it

  8. Concentration and toxic potential of polychlorinated biphenyl congeners in migratory oceanic birds from the North Pacific and the Southern Ocean.

    PubMed

    Guruge, K S; Tanaka, H; Tanabe, S

    2001-09-01

    Concentrations of PCBs and their toxic potential were examined in subcutaneous fat of eight albatross and one petrel species collected from the North Pacific and the Southern Oceans. Among all the species analyzed, high PCB levels were found in adult male blackfooted albatross from the North Pacific with the mean value of 92 microg/g wet weight. No significant gender difference in PCB accumulation was observed (P>0.1). The mean PCB levels in Southern Oceanic birds were 1 or 2 orders of magnitude lower than those from the North Pacific albatrosses. A regional-specific accumulation of non-ortho coplanar congeners were observed, most birds from the Southern Ocean had higher IUPAC 169 levels while IUPAC 126 concentrations were higher in those from the North Pacific. The estimated toxic equivalents for black-footed and Laysan albatrosses from the North Pacific were in the same range of some fish-eating birds, which were highly contaminated by PCBs. The correlation between ratio of IUPAC 169/126 concentration and total PCBs concentration indicated the possibility of induction in cytochrome P450 activities in North Pacific albatrosses (P<0.01). The calculated hazard indices indicated that black-footed and Laysan albatrosses inhabiting in the North Pacific had similar threshold levels which were known to cause toxic effects in some populations of fish-eating birds.

  9. Salt-influenced structures in the mesozoic-tertiary cover of the southern North Sea, U.K.

    SciTech Connect

    Coward, M.; Stewart, S.

    1996-12-31

    A structural model encompassing the southern North Sea Basin west of the Central Graben has been developed that combines gravity gliding of the postsalt cover with basement tectonics. The basin differs from many salt basins in that it forms a closed system. Section construction and balancing through the cover of the North Sea need to take into account thin-skinned and thick-skinned extensions and contractions. The North Sea salt formed in Permian time in two large oval basins separated by the Mid North Sea High. The shape of these basins reflects variable patterns of thermal subsidence. Subsequent salt tectonics was governed by local graben structures and by regional uplift and subsidence. Rifting initiated during the Triassic and allowed reactive and locally passive diapirs to develop in the post-salt cover. In the southern North Sea, the Dowsing graben system in the cover is offset from the Dowsing fault zone below the salt. This offset in extensional structures probably relates to the salt thickness and to the position of the surface hinge line that controlled the onset of gravity gliding in the postsalt section. Gravity gliding of the cover into the Triassic-Jurassic Sole Pit trough and away from zones of rift flank uplift was associated with Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous extension in the Central North Sea; gliding caused asymmetric compressional pillows to develop downslope. Gravity spreading of the cover during the Late Cretaceous-early Tertiary was associated with tilting during thermal subsidence of the southern North Sea Basin, enhanced by pulses of tectonic inversion in the southern North Sea basement. The resultant glide tectonics formed new small grabens upslope and compressional pillows downslope. Where the compressional pillows were eroded sufficiently or faulted later, the salt broke through the thinned cover to produce new active and then passive diapirs, which drained the pillows to produce new rim synclines.

  10. Siting of USArray Seismic Stations in North Carolina and southern Virginia: Experience of NC-1 Team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, P.; Howard, J.; Horne, T.

    2012-12-01

    The USArray component of the EarthScope, a transportable array of 400 seismometers installed in a grid about 70 km apart, is in the next two years entering its final stage with station deployment along the Atlantic coast of the United States. Here, we present the experience of the student-faculty team from North Carolina Central University (NCCU) in finding and documenting the suitable sites for the twenty five USArray stations in North Carolina and southern Virginia. The ideal sites are easily accessible yet far from traffic and other sources of noise, with good cell phone coverage, sun exposure and out of flood-prone areas. Although the initial selection of potential locations was done using geospatial mapping and analysis software provided by EarthScope, finding and finalizing the sites involved driving more then 1,000 miles each week for over two months inspecting possible site locations. Aside from driving, the majority of time was spent talking about the EarthScope project and hosting of USArray stations to mostly reluctant landowners. In addition to facing various challenges in finding appropriate sites due to land use issues, such as suburban sprawl of central North Carolina, or topography factors, such as low lying flood prone coastal areas, by far the major challenge was finding the landowners willing to host the seismic station for the necessary three years. In addition to involving students from an HBCU in seismology related project and increasing the visibility of NCCU geophysics program in the University and local community through publicity releases in local media and on university web site, the project had an important outreach component. As North Carolina is located along the seismically quiet, passive Atlantic margin, most residents are not familiar with earthquakes and seismology and the siting experience provided students an opportunity to practice explaining the earthquake research to the general public. The dialog also highlighted science

  11. A model for tides and currents in the English Channel and southern North Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walters, Roy A.

    1987-01-01

    The amplitude and phase of 11 tidal constituents for the English Channel and southern North Sea are calculated using a frequency domain, finite element model. The governing equations - the shallow water equations - are modifed such that sea level is calculated using an elliptic equation of the Helmholz type followed by a back-calculation of velocity using the primitive momentum equations. Triangular elements with linear basis functions are used. The modified form of the governing equations provides stable solutions with little numerical noise. In this field-scale test problem, the model was able to produce the details of the structure of 11 tidal constituents including O1, K1, M2, S2, N2, K2, M4, MS4, MN4, M6, and 2MS6.

  12. Artificial neural networks for modeling time series of beach litter in the southern North Sea.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Marcus; Matthies, Michael

    2014-07-01

    In European marine waters, existing monitoring programs of beach litter need to be improved concerning litter items used as indicators of pollution levels, efficiency, and effectiveness. In order to ease and focus future monitoring of beach litter on few important litter items, feed-forward neural networks consisting of three layers were developed to relate single litter items to general categories of marine litter. The neural networks developed were applied to seven beaches in the southern North Sea and modeled time series of five general categories of marine litter, such as litter from fishing, shipping, and tourism. Results of regression analyses show that general categories were predicted significantly moderately to well. Measured and modeled data were in the same order of magnitude, and minima and maxima overlapped well. Neural networks were found to be eligible tools to deliver reliable predictions of marine litter with low computational effort and little input of information.

  13. Anisotropy from SKS splitting across the Pacific-North America plate boundary offshore southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramsay, Joseph; Kohler, Monica D.; Davis, Paul M.; Wang, Xinguo; Holt, William; Weeraratne, Dayanthie S.

    2016-10-01

    SKS arrivals from ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) data from an offshore southern California deployment are analysed for shear wave splitting. The project involved 34 OBSs deployed for 12 months in a region extending up to 500 km west of the coastline into the oceanic Pacific plate. The measurement process consisted of removing the effects of anisotropy using a range of values for splitting fast directions and delay times to minimize energy along the transverse seismometer axis. Computed splitting parameters are unexpectedly similar to onland parameters, exhibiting WSW-ENE fast polarization directions and delays between 0.8 and 1.8 s, even for oceanic plate sites. This is the first SKS splitting study to extend across the entire boundary between the North America and Pacific plates, into the oceanic part of the Pacific plate. The splitting results show that the fast direction of anisotropy on the Pacific plate does not align with absolute plate motion (APM), and they extend the trend of anisotropy in southern California an additional 500 km west, well onto the oceanic Pacific plate. We model the finite strain and anisotropy within the asthenosphere associated with density-buoyancy driven mantle flow and the effects of APM. In the absence of plate motion effects, such buoyancy driven mantle flow would be NE-directed beneath the Pacific plate observations. The best-fit patterns of mantle flow are inferred from the tomography-based models that show primary influences from foundering higher-density zones associated with the history of subduction beneath North America. The new offshore SKS measurements, when combined with measurements onshore within the plate boundary zone, indicate that dramatic lateral variations in density-driven upper-mantle flow are required from offshore California into the plate boundary zone in California and western Basin and Range.

  14. Van Horn Sandstone, Trans-Pecos Texas: Evidence for Late Cambrian rifting along southern North America

    SciTech Connect

    Hongshuan, Ye; Soegaard, K. . Programs in Geosciences)

    1993-02-01

    The Van Horn Sandstone in the Trans-Pecos region of west Texas is interpreted as a rift sequence which developed in response to Cambrian breakup along the southern margin of the North American continent. The Van Horn Sandstone consists exclusively of braided alluvial sediments and occupies relatively small isolated basins in the vicinity of the town of Van Horn. The sandstone is in structural unconformable contact above intensely deformed Precambrian sediments which are < 1,123 Ma old. The Van Horn Sandstone is overlain by more than 650 meters of earliest Ordovician to Mississippian shallow-marine shelf sediments. Geohistory analysis of the overlying Paleozoic shelf sediments indicates that subsidence was driven by thermal contraction of the crust and that the shallow-marine sediments represent a drift sequence. Subsidence history curves correspond with theoretical thermal decay curves where [beta] = 1.2 and suggest that thermal subsidence commenced in Late Cambrian time about 510 Ma ago. Increased crustal attenuation, resulting in development of an ocean basin, occurred between Van Horn and the original location of deep water sediments presently exposed in the Marathon uplift to the south. Proposed Late Cambrian breakup south of Van Horn is coeval with rifting in the southern Oklahoma aulachogen and Rome trough in the Appalachian Mountains, but post-dates the main Late Proterozoic rifting event between 625 and 555 Ma along the eastern and western freeboard of North American. The significance of diachronous rifting in Eocambrian-Cambrian time is unclear at present but has consequences for fragmentation of the late Precambrian supercontinent Rodinia'.

  15. Orthogonal fracture formation in the South Wales coalfield: implications from a field study and fluid overpressure of quartz veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukunari, Tetsuzo; Gudmundsson, Agust

    2014-05-01

    Orthogonal fractures can easily make networks in geological formations and are of great importance for permeability and fluid transport in subsurface reservoirs. Despite many studies focusing on the formation of orthogonal fractures, no clear and generally accepted model has been established as yet although their formation is widely believed to occur during crustal uplift or exhumation. Here we provide new insights into their mechanism of formation based on the results of a fieldwork and analytical study of orthogonal fractures and quartz veins in alternating sand-shale layers in the South Wales coalfield, which is one of foreland basins developed in relation with north-south compression of the Variscan Orogeny. More than 3,000 fractures were measured at various localities extending from southern end to northern end of the basin. Most of the fractures in the sandstone layers, are extension fractures (mode I cracks), and become arrested at contacts with shale layers. The fractures strike north-south and east-west. Some fractures are filled with shale, probably supplied from adjacent shale layers, suggesting the shale behaved as semi-ductile material at the time of fracture formation. A remarkable observation is that most of the fractures are perpendicular to bedding planes throughout the basin. This is despite the fact that the beds are strongly folded as a result of the Variscan Orogeny. The perpendicular attitude suggests that the fracture formation somewhat predates or coincides with that of folding. This implies that the orthogonal fractures in this area did not form during crustal uplift/exhumation but rather during basin growth at the time of regional north-south convergence and associated compression of the Variscan Orogeny. By using aspect (length/thickness) ratios of quartz veins of the same geometry as the orthogonal fractures, fluid overpressure (driving pressure) at the time of fracture formation is estimated at around 33 MPa for fractures striking north

  16. Participatory Research in North America; A Perspective on Participatory Research in Latin America; Participatory Research in Southern Europe.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaventa, John; And Others

    1988-01-01

    The authors present perspectives on the employment of participatory research techniques in three areas: (1) North America (Gaventa); (2) Latin America (de Souza); and (3) Southern Europe (Orefice). Discussion focuses on participatory research strategies for popular groups, purposes and considerations regarding participatory research, and the role…

  17. "Narrow and Filthy Alleys of the City?": The Residential Settlement Patterns of Black Southern Migrants to the North.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tolnay, Stewart E.; Crowder, Kyle D.; Adelman, Robert M.

    2000-01-01

    Analysis of the 1970 Neighborhood Characteristics Public Use Microdata Sample indicates that recent (1965-70) southern Black migrants to the North resided in the "best" neighborhoods (less poverty, segregation, and family instability), while earlier Black migrants lived in the worst neighborhoods. Recent migrants also received the…

  18. Integrated pest management of the southern green stinkbug, Nezara viridula (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae) on tomato in North Florida

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Southern Green Stinkbug, Nezara viridula is a serious insect pest of tomatoes in north Florida. We evaluated three trap crops and three refuge crops to investigate their potential for IPM of N. viridula. The experimental trap crops and refuge crops were, striped sunflower, WGF sorghum and brown ...

  19. 50 CFR 226.219 - Critical habitat for the Southern Distinct Population Segment of North American Green Sturgeon...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Critical habitat for the Southern Distinct Population Segment of North American Green Sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris). 226.219 Section 226.219 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND...

  20. 50 CFR 226.219 - Critical habitat for the Southern Distinct Population Segment of North American Green Sturgeon...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Critical habitat for the Southern Distinct Population Segment of North American Green Sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris). 226.219 Section 226.219 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC...

  1. Are the birch trees in Southern England a source of Betula pollen for North London?

    PubMed

    Skjøth, C A; Smith, M; Brandt, J; Emberlin, J

    2009-01-01

    Birch pollen is highly allergenic. Knowledge of daily variations, atmospheric transport and source areas of birch pollen is important for exposure studies and for warnings to the public, especially for large cities such as London. Our results show that broad-leaved forests with high birch tree densities are located to the south and west of London. Bi-hourly Betula pollen concentrations for all the days included in the study, and for all available days with high birch pollen counts (daily average birch pollen counts>80 grains/m3), show that, on average, there is a peak between 1400 hours and 1600 hours. Back-trajectory analysis showed that, on days with high birch pollen counts (n=60), 80% of air masses arriving at the time of peak diurnal birch pollen count approached North London from the south in a 180 degree arc from due east to due west. Detailed investigations of three Betula pollen episodes, with distinctly different diurnal patterns compared to the mean daily cycle, were used to illustrate how night-time maxima (2200-0400 hours) in Betula pollen counts could be the result of transport from distant sources or long transport times caused by slow moving air masses. We conclude that the Betula pollen recorded in North London could originate from sources found to the west and south of the city and not just trees within London itself. Possible sources outside the city include Continental Europe and the Betula trees within the broad-leaved forests of Southern England.

  2. Newly discovered eclogite in the southern Appalachian orogen, northwestern North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willard, R. A.; Adams, Mark G.

    1994-05-01

    Recent detailed geologic mapping in the Blue Ridge belt of northwestern North Carolina has revealed the first reported eclogite ( sensu stricto) in the southern Appalachian orogen. The eclogite occurs at the base of the Ashe Metamorphic Suite within a shear zone that separates the Spruce Pine thrust sheet from the underlying Grenville-age basement rocks. This contact juxtaposes rocks of apparent oceanic affinities (predominantly metapelite, metabasite, and meta-ultramafic rocks) with rocks of the ancient North American craton. The primary metamorphic assemblage in the eclogite is garnet + omphacite + quartz + rutile. Hornblende and plagioclase occur only as retrograde amphibolite facies phases in the eclogite. Pressure-temperature estimates for the primary eclogite assemblage are consistent with minimum pressures of 13-17 kbar at 625-790°C, while the retrograde amphibolite facies assemblage suggests conditions of 8.5-12 kbar and 650-730°C. Ultramafic blocks also occur within the shear zone containing the eclogite. The presence of high-pressure metamorphic rocks associated with ultramafic rocks and pelitic schists within a shear zone separating continental rocks from oceanic rocks is strong evidence for an ancient subduction event and indicates that at least part of the Ashe Metamorphic Suite is a subduction-related, accretionary mélange.

  3. Advection of North Atlantic Deep Water from the Labrador Sea to the southern hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhein, Monika; Kieke, Dagmar; Steinfeldt, Reiner

    2015-04-01

    Recently formed Labrador Seawater (LSW) and overflow water from Denmark Strait (DSOW) are main components of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Both exhibit a distinct chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) maximum. Here we use 25 years of CFC observations in the Atlantic to study the main features of the circulation of LSW and DSOW. From the CFC data, the age and fraction of young deep water are inferred. Due to the superior spatial data resolution compared to former attempts, regional differences in the spreading velocity and pathways of young deep water become evident, dependent on the regional circulation. The observed distributions of young LSW and DSOW showed that the DWBC is the fastest pathway to reach the southern hemisphere. The downstream decrease of the fractions of young LSW in the DWBC is slower compared to model studies. From 47°N to 42°N, DWBC transports of young LSW and DSOW decrease by 44% and 49%, respectively. At 26°N, the DWBC transport of young water is still 39% of the LSW formation rate and 44% of the DSOW overflow transport. Interior pathways also exist, especially in the subpolar North Atlantic and in the transition zone between the subpolar and subtropical gyre. Compared to DSOW, the distributions indicate a higher tendency for LSW to follow additional interior pathways. North of 45°N the major part of LSW is younger than 20 years. The general weakening of new LSW formation since the 1990s worked toward a homogenization between the LSW in the western and the eastern subpolar North Atlantic.

  4. Pliocene palaeotemperature reconstruction for the southern North Sea Based on Ostracoda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, A. M.; Whatley, R. C.; Cronin, T. M.; Holtz, T.

    The development of a large northeastern Atlantic shelf ostracod database has confirmed that an intrinsic relationship exists between watermass temperature and the spatial (latitudinal) distribution of benthonic shelf Ostracoda. A second Pliocene ostracod database, using assemblages from four boreholes in The Netherlands and a number of localities from the East Anglian Neogene succession has also been constructed. A quantitative method of modern analogues and the Squared Chord Distance dissimilarity coefficient has been employed as a means of calculating the level of similarity between Recent and Neogene assemblages and, therefore, to aid in the reconstruction of palaeotemperatures in the southern North Sea Basin during the Pliocene. The results, in the form of contoured dissimilarity values, indicate the presence of at least seven palaeoceanographical climatic phases between ca. 5.2 and 1.6 Ma BP. An early Pliocene cooling phase (ecozone A), in which the fauna is dominated by the cryophilic species; Palmenella limicola (Norman), Elofsonella concinna (Jones), Robertsonites tuberculatus (Sars), Neomonoceratina tsurugasakensis (Tabuki) and Acanthocythereis dunelmensis (Norman), supervenes a period of stable subtropical conditions in the Miocene. A 'mid' Pliocene warming phase (ecozone B), which has been documented throughout the North Atlantic, can be recognized in the faunal composition of the sublittoral ostracod assemblages of both The Netherlands and East Anglia. A hiatus between the Coralline and Waltonian crags is thought to be associated with a deterioration in climatic conditions. Recent analogues to The Netherlands faunas of ecozone C (first phase late Pliocene cooling, ca. 2.9 Ma BP) indicate a decrease of approximately 5-6°C in mean summer surface temperatures. A return to elevated temperatures, of a Mauritanian aspect, can be seen in the fauna of the FA2 zone and Waltonian Crag. This amelioration of climate occurred prior to the Praetiglian cold phase

  5. Pliocene palaeotemperature reconstruction for the southern North Sea Based on Ostracoda

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wood, A.M.; Whatley, R.C.; Cronin, T. M.; Holtz, T.

    1993-01-01

    The development of a large northeastern Atlantic shelf ostracod database has confirmed that an intrinsic relationship exists between watermass temperature and the spatial (latitudinal) distribution of benthonic shelf Ostracoda. A second Pliocene ostracod database, using assemblages from four boreholes in The Netherlands and a number of localities from the East Anglian Neogene succession has also been constructed. A quantitative method of modern analogues and the Squared Chord Distance dissimilarity coefficient has been employed as a means of calculating the level of similarity between Recent and Neogene assemblages and, therefore, to aid in the reconstruction of palaeotemperatures in the southern North Sea Basin during the Pliocene. The results, in the form of contoured dissimilarity values, indicate the presence of at least seven palaeoceanographical climatic phases between ca. 5.2 and 1.6 Ma BP. An early Pliocene cooling phase (ecozone A), in which the fauna is dominated by the cryophilic species; Palmenella limicola (Norman), Elofsonella concinna (Jones), Robertsonites tuberculatus (Sars), Neomonoceratina tsurugasakensis (Tabuki) and Acanthocythereis dunelmensis (Norman), supervenes a period of stable subtropical conditions in the Miocene. A 'mid' Pliocene warming phase (ecozone B), which has been documented throughout the North Atlantic, can be recognized in the faunal composition of the sublittoral ostracod assemblages of both The Netherlands and East Anglia. A hiatus between the Coralline and Waltonian crags is thought to be associated with a deterioration in climatic conditions. Recent analogues to The Netherlands faunas of ecozone C (first phase late Pliocene cooling, ca. 2.9 Ma BP) indicate a decrease of approximately 5-6??C in mean summer surface temperatures. A return to elevated temperatures, of a Mauritanian aspect, can be seen in the fauna of the FA2 zone and Waltonian Crag. This amelioration of climate occurred prior to the Praetiglian cold phase

  6. Interannual sedimentary effluxes of alkalinity in the southern North Sea: Model results compared with summer observations.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paetsch, Johannes; Kuehn, Wilfried; Six, Katharina

    2016-04-01

    Alkalinity generation in the sediment of the southern North Sea is the focus of several recent studies. One motivation for these efforts is the potentially enhanced buffering capacity of anthropogenic CO2 invasion into the corresponding pelagic system. An adaptation of a global multilayer sediment model (Heinze et al., 1999) in combination with a pelagic ecosystem model for shelf sea dynamics was used to study the benthic reactions on very different annual cycles (2001 - 2009) including the River Elbe summer flooding in 2002. The focus of this study is the efflux of alkalinity, their different contributors (aerobic respiration, denitrification, net sulfate reduction, calcite dissolution, nitrification) and their seasonal and interannual cycles. Similar to the observations covering the southern North Sea (Brenner et al., 2015) the model results show large horizontal gradients from the near-shore high productive areas with benthic remineralization up to Rmin = 10.6 mol C m-2 yr-1 and TA generation RTA = 2 mol C m-2 yr-1 to off-shore moderate productive areas with mean Rmin = 2.5 mol C m-2 yr-1 and mean TA generation RTA = 0.4 mol C m-2 yr-1. Beside calcite dissolution, aerobic respiration (producing ammonium) and denitrification are the largest contributors to alkalinity generation. Nitrification is reducing alkalinity in the sediment. Due to low regenerated primary production in summer, the year 2001 exhibits the lowest input of particulate organic matter into the sediment (POCexp=2.3 mol C m-2 yr-1), while the year 2003 exhibits the highest export production (POCexp=2.6 mol C m-2 yr-1). The biogeochemical reactions and the effluxes from the sediment follow these pelagic amplitudes with a time lag of about one year with damped amplitudes. References Brenner, H., Braeckman, U., Le Guitton, M., Meysman, F.J.R., 2015. The impact of sedimentary alkalinity release on the water column CO2 system in the North Sea. Biogeosiences Discussion, 12(15): 12395-12453. Heinze, C

  7. Energy generation potential from coals of the Charqueadas Coalfield, RS, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correa da Silva, Z. C.; Heemann, R.; Castro, L.; Ketzer, J. M.

    2009-04-01

    Three coal seams, I2B (Inferior 2), I1F (Inferior 1) and MB, from the Charqueadas Coalfield located in the central-east region of the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil were studied on the basis of geological, petrographic, chemical and geochemical techniques and correlated to the SR1, SR2 and SR3 coal seams from the Santa Rita Coalfield. The Charqueadas Coalfield reserves reach 2,993x106 metric tons of coal distributed in six coal seams. The study of sedimentary and organic facies is made on the subsurface data from five boreholes drilled in the area. There show a well marked lateral facies change from sub aquatic to sub aerial environment, conditioned by both the water level variations and the irregular palaeotopography of the basement. The coals change from limnic to forest-terrestrial moor types characterized by variations of composition in terms of macerals, microlithotypes and mineral matter. The coals are rich in mineral matter (28 to 40%); the vitrinite content reaches 50 %, inertinite 44 % and liptinite varies from 10 to 30 %, in mineral matter free basis. Among the microlithotypes carbominerite and vitrite are predominant. Rank studies carried out by different methods (vitrinite reflectance, max and red-green quotient among others) gave conflicting results, which are explained by the strong bituminization of the vitrinite. However, agreement between fluorescence measurements and organic geochemical parameters (e.g. CPI values) confirm that the coals are of a High Volatile Bituminous B/C (ASTM) or Gasflammkohle (DIN) rank. Based on these characteristics, the Charqueadas coal seams show great potential for use in Underground Coal Gasification (UCG) and Enhanced Coalbed Methane (ECBM) projects. Nowadays the state of Rio Grande do Sul is rapidly growing and needs to increase the energy efficiency to attend the industrial demands, filling the gap between supply and energy generation. As with conventional IGCC, UCG gas can be used to generate

  8. Abandoned mine shafts and levels in the British coalfields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Christopher S.

    1988-07-01

    Industrial dereliction is a concern to all societies. In the United Kingdom the British government is trying to make its abandoned coalfields more attractive to new industry through a combination of land reclamation and job incentive programs. The most ambitious of these projects occurs in the South Wales Coalfield, which records 200 years of land defilement and the highest unemployment amplitudes in mainland Britain. In returning this area to a semblance of its previous state, problems arise over how best to fill and cap the many derelict pit shafts and abandoned shallow mines that riddle this region. This analysis reports on the methods of treatment used to achieve this end, along with the procedures used to minimize ground subsidence, water pollution, noxious gas emission, and the potential for physical injury. These environmental controls have application to the United States and Western Europe, where pockets of industrial blight are also symptomatic of a troubled local economy.

  9. On the formation, ventilation, and erosion of mode waters in the North Atlantic and Southern Oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trossman, D. S.; Thompson, L.; Mecking, S.; Warner, M. J.

    2012-09-01

    The mean residence times, subduction rates, and formation rates of Subtropical Mode Water (STMW) and Subpolar Mode Water (SPMW) in the North Atlantic and Subantarctic Mode Water (SAMW) in the Southern Ocean are estimated by combining a model and observations of chlorofluorocarbon-11 (CFC-11) via Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA), a statistical technique that weights model estimates according to how close they agree with observations. Subduction rates are estimated in two different ways to investigate the non-advective contribution to thermocline ventilation, which in turn are compared to formation rate estimates. One subduction rate estimate is based on entrainment/detrainment velocities and the other subduction rate estimate allows ventilation to be both an advective and diffusive process instead of a purely advective one by using transit-time distributions (TTDs). It is found that the subduction of all three mode waters is mostly an advective process, but up to about one-third of STMW subduction likely owes to non-advective processes. Also, while the formation of STMW is mostly due to subduction, the formation of SPMW is mostly due to other processes. About half of the formation of SAMW is due to subduction and half is due to other processes. A combination of air-sea flux, acting on relatively short timescales, and turbulent mixing, acting on a wide range of timescales, is likely the dominant SPMW erosion mechanism. Air-sea flux is likely responsible for most STMW erosion, and turbulent mixing is likely responsible for most SAMW erosion.

  10. Grassland vegetation and bird communities in the southern Great Plains of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, R.N.; Engle, David M.; Masters, R.E.; Leslie, David M.

    2004-01-01

    Structure and composition of vegetation and abundance of breeding birds in grasslands seeded to Old World bluestem (Bothriochloa ischmaeum) were compared to native mixed prairie in the southern Great Plains of North America. Abundance of birds was determined using fixed-radius point counts. Detrended correspondence analysis was used to compare plant community composition and canonical correspondence analysis was used to examine the relationships between plant species composition and vegetation structure with the bird community. Plant species composition differed distinctly between seeded grassland and native mixed prairie, but the differences were not reflected in habitat structure, bird community composition, or abundance of bird species. Seeded grassland was inferior to native mixed prairie in terms of diversity of plant species, but that difference did not translate into meaningful differences in structure that drove habitat selection by breeding birds. Conservation programs that promote establishment of seeded grassland and do not allow for suitable disturbance regimes will selectively benefit a narrow suite of birds regardless of plant species composition. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Late Holocene saltmarsh accretion among sand ridges, West Bay, southern Pamlico Sound, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barber, D. C.; Woodson, A. L.; Newbern, E. H.

    2011-12-01

    The ongoing Late Holocene sea-level rise has inundated a series of low (< 2m above sea level) relict sand ridges on Cedar Island, in southern Pamlico Sound on the central North Carolina coast (35.00°N, 76.34°W). The ridges likely represent shorelines formed during a previous (Pleistocene) sea-level highstand by a combination of longshore transport and eolian dune processes. Saltmarsh peat comprising primarily the remains of the high marsh plant Juncus gerardii has accumulated between the ridges, yielding a continuous record of transgression over at least the last 2,000 years. The protected depositional setting between the ridges, the small tidal amplitude (< 25 cm) in southern Pamlico Sound, and the smoothly varying topography of the underlying sand surface provide the opportunity to acquire basal saltmarsh peat samples from a range of elevations for sea-level reconstruction. We obtained cores of the marsh peat and sand deposits using various techniques (hand auger, Russian and dutch peat corers, vibracore) to generate an overview of the stratigraphy in the study area. We visually logged the cores and analyzed samples for organic carbon content, particle size and magnetic susceptibility. In the marsh peat, plant macrofossils were identified and agglutinated foraminiferal assemblages were counted. Saltmarsh foraminifera species identified in the cores include Trochammina inflata, Ammoastuta inepta, Jadammina macrescens, Tiphotroca comprimata and Milliamina fusca. Radiocarbon dates on plant material provide chronological control. Marsh core elevations were referenced to NAVD88 by total station surveys to the NGS benchmark on Cedar Island. We have acquired marsh cores as deep as 3.25 m below local mean sea level (MSL), but thus far the deepest saltmarsh peat sample found to contain saltmarsh foraminifera is from 2.16 m below MSL. The marsh deposits are laterally consistent in the upper 1.5 m of core transects, but minor downcore variations in organic content

  12. Remotely sensed seasonality in the spatial distribution of sea-surface suspended particulate matter in the southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eleveld, Marieke A.; Pasterkamp, Reinold; van der Woerd, Hendrik J.; Pietrzak, Julie D.

    2008-10-01

    An algorithm is presented for estimating near-surface SPM concentrations in the turbid Case 2 waters of the southern North Sea. The single band algorithm, named POWERS, was derived by parameterising Gordon's approximation of the radiative transfer model with measurements of Belgian and Dutch inherent optical properties. The algorithm was used to calculate near-surface SPM concentration from 491 SeaWiFS datasets for 2001. It was shown to be a robust algorithm for estimating SPM in the southern North Sea. Regression of annual geometric mean SPM concentration derived from remote sensing (SPM rs), against in situ (SPM is) data from 19 Dutch monitoring stations was highly significant with an r2 of 0.87. Further comparison and statistical testing against independent datasets for 2000 confirmed the consistency of this relationship. Moreover, time series of SPM rs concentrations derived from the POWERS algorithm, were shown to follow the same temporal trends as individual SPM is data recorded during 2001. Composites of annual, winter and summer SPM rs for 2001 highlight the three dominant water masses in the southern North Sea, as well as their winter-fall and spring-summer variability. The results indicate that wind induced wave action and mixing cause high surface SPM signals in winter in regions where the water column becomes well mixed, whereas in summer stratification leads to a lower SPM surface signal. The presented algorithm gives accurate near-surface SPM concentrations and could easily be adapted for other water masses and seas.

  13. PCDDs, PCDFs, and coplanar PCBs in albatross from the North Pacific and Southern Oceans: levels, patterns, and toxicological implications.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Shinsuke; Watanabe, Mafumi; Minh, Tu Binh; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Nakanishi, Shigeyuki; Ono, Hitoshi; Tanaka, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-15

    Concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), and coplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (coplanar PCBs) were determined in five albatross species collected from the North Pacific and Southern Oceans to assess the north-south differences in residue levels, accumulation patterns, and toxic potential. Black-footed and Laysan albatrosses from the North Pacific Ocean contained higher levels of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs than albatrosses from the Southern Ocean, indicating that emission sources of these contaminants were predominant in the northern hemisphere. Residue levels in albatrosses from the remote North Pacific Ocean far from the point source of pollution were comparable to or higher than those in terrestrial and coastal birds from contaminated areas in developed nations, suggesting the specific exposure and accumulation of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in albatross. The long life span and ingestion of plastic resin pellets by albatrosses could be the plausible explanations for the elevated accumulation of persistent and lipophilic contaminants including PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs in these birds. Relative proportions of PCDFs and coplanar PCBs in albatross were higher than those observed in birds inhabiting terrestrial and coastal areas, suggesting that these toxic chemicals may have higher transportability by air and water than PCDDs. Congener patterns of PCDD/Fs in albatross showed less variability as compared to those in terrestrial species, indicating that contamination patterns of PCDD/Fs were similar within the open ocean environment. Contributions of PCDD/Fs to total TEQs in albatrosses from the open ocean were generally lower than those in terrestrial birds, suggesting different toxic potency of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs on animals inhabiting open ocean and terrestrial environment. Whereas albatrosses from southern oceans retained lower TEQ concentrations, possible adverse effects of PCDD/Fs and coplanar PCBs

  14. Storm impacts and shoreline recovery: Mechanisms and controls in the southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, S. M.; Spencer, T.; Christie, E. K.

    2017-04-01

    Storm impacts play a significant role in shoreline dynamics on barrier coastlines. Furthermore, inter-storm recovery is a key parameter determining long-term coastal resilience to climate change, storminess variability and sea level rise. Over the last decade, four extreme storms, with strong energetic waves and high still water levels resulting from high spring tides and large skew surge residuals, have impacted the shoreline of the southern North Sea. The 5th December 2013 storm, with the highest run-up levels recorded in the last 60 years, resulted in large sections of the frontline of the North Norfolk coast being translated inland by over 10 m. Storms in March and November 2007 also generated barrier scarping and shoreline retreat, although not on the scale of 2013. Between 2008 and 2013, a calm period, recovery dominated barrier position and elevation but was spatially differentiated alongshore. For one study area, Scolt Head Island, no recovery was seen; this section of the coast is being reset episodically landwards during storms. By contrast, the study area at Holkham Bay showed considerable recovery between 2008 and 2013, with barrier sections developing seaward through foredune recovery. The third study area, Brancaster Bay, showed partial recovery in barrier location and elevation. Results suggest that recovery is promoted by high sediment supply and onshore intertidal bar migration, at rates of 40 m a- 1. These processes bring sand to elevations where substrate drying enables aeolian processes to entrain and transport sand from upper foreshores to foredunes. We identify three potential sediment transport pathways that create a region of positive diffusivity at Holkham Bay. During calm periods, a general westward movement of sediment from the drift divide at Sheringham sources the intertidal bar and foredune development at Holkham Bay. However, during and following storms the drift switches to eastward, not only on the beach itself but also below the

  15. Avalonian crustal controls on basin evolution: implications for the Mesozoic basins of the southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2015-04-01

    Little is known of the Southern North Sea Basin's (SNSB) Pre-Permian basement due to a lack of outcrop and cores. The nature and structure of the East Avalonian crust and lithosphere remain even less constrained in the absence of deep seismic (refraction) lines. However, various studies have hinted at the importance of the Reactivation of the Early Carboniferous fault network during each consecutive Mesozoic and Cenozoic tectonic phase, demonstrating the key role of weak zones from the Early Carboniferous structural grain in partitioning of structural deformation and vertical basin motions at various scales. Although the older basin history and the basement attract increasing attention, the Pre-Permian tectonics of the SNSB remains little studied with most attention focused on the Permian and younger history. The strong dispersal of existing constraints requires a comprehensive study from Denmark to the UK, i.e. the East Avalonian microplate, bordered by the Variscan Rheïc suture, the Atlantic and Baltica. Based on an extensive literature study and the reinterpretation of publicly available data, linking constraints from the crust and mantle to stratigraphic-sedimentological information, we complement the map of Early Carboniferous rifting of East Avalonia and propose a new tectonic scenario. From the reinterpretation of the boundary between Avalonia and Baltica we propose a new outline for the Avalonian microplate with implications for the tectonics of the North German Basin. Furthermore, we highlight the nature and extent of the major crustal/lithospheric domains with contrasting structural behaviour and the major boundaries that separate them. Results shed light on the effects of long lived differences in crustal fabric that are responsible for spatial heterogeneity in stress and strain magnitudes and zonations of fracturing, burial history and temperature history. The geomechanical control of large crustal-scale fault structures will provide the constraints

  16. Drug-resistant Trypanosoma congolense in naturally infected donkeys in north Omo Zone, southern Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Assefa, E; Abebe, G

    2001-08-31

    A three-part study was conducted to determine the efficacy of isometamidium chloride in donkey populations naturally infected with trypanosomes in north Omo Zone, southern Ethiopia. In the first, 373 randomly selected donkeys from four villages were examined for trypanosome infections by the dark ground/phase contrast buffy coat technique (BCT) in November 1999. The trypanosome prevalence was 18.2% (95% confidence interval (CI): 14.4, 22.5) and Trypanosoma congolense was the most common species accounting for 66.2% of the overall infections. In the second part, 40 infected donkeys were selected and treated with a prophylactic dose of 1.0mg/kg of isometamidium chloride and thereafter monitored every 14 days for 90 days. Trypanosomes were detected in eight donkeys within 1 month and in 20 donkeys within 2 months of treatment. About 16% (5/32) of donkeys infected with T. congolense were detected parasitemic 1 month after treatment. In addition, the result also revealed that all relapse/breakthrough infections were due to T. congolense. In the third part of this study mice were infected with two T. congolense field isolates from donkeys that were found to be parasitemic within 1 or 2 months after isometamidium treatment. The mice were treated with ranges of doses of isometamidium chloride or diminazene aceturate and thereafter followed for relapse infection. Isometamidium chloride at doses 0.5-4 mg/kg body weight and diminazene aceturate at doses of 3.5-28 mg/kg body weight failed completely to cure T. congolense infections in any of the mice.

  17. A hydrographic time series station in the Wadden Sea (southern North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reuter, Rainer; Badewien, Thomas H.; Bartholomä, Alexander; Braun, Axel; Lübben, Andrea; Rullkötter, Jürgen

    2009-04-01

    In the tidal inlet between the East Frisian islands of Langeoog and Spiekeroog, southern North Sea, a time-series station was set up in autumn 2002 as part of the research programme BioGeoChemistry of Tidal Flats run by the University of Oldenburg. The purpose of the station is to provide continuous data on physical, biological and chemical parameters. In addition to instruments recording basic hydrographic and meteorological parameters, the time-series station is equipped with acoustic Doppler profilers for measuring surface waves and current profiles. Compact optical spectrometers are being used for spectral measurements of seawater transmission and for daylight reflectance. Additional sensors were installed for measuring oxygen, nutrients and methane in the seawater. The data shall help to quantify the flux of dissolved and suspended matter between the backbarrier tidal flat and the open sea and to characterise the material transformation in the tidal flat area by biogeochemical processes over the tidal cycle. Due to its novel design, operation of the station is also possible during winter and under extreme weather conditions (gales, storm surges, and sea ice) when data sampling with conventional platforms such as research vessels, buoys, or smaller poles could not be performed in the past. In this way, time series of data are obtained, which include events that are most relevant to the evolution of this coastal area. The performance of the station and its equipment are presented with data covering 6 years of operation. Time series of air and water temperature as well as seawater salinity demonstrate the multiyear dynamics of these parameters in the East Frisian Wadden Sea. Hydrographic data collected under specific meteorological conditions such as gales and storm surges exemplify the all-weather capabilities of the station and its value for studying hydrographic processes in the Wadden Sea.

  18. Chemostratigraphic Constraints on Late Jurassic Paleoceanography of the East Texas Basin, Southern Margin of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainali, P.; Rowe, H. D.

    2010-12-01

    Late Jurassic deposition of organic-rich muds occurred in the East Texas Basin of modern-day Texas and Louisiana in a ramp-style marine setting during the early formation of the Gulf of Mexico. These mudrocks are regional known as the Haynesville and Bossier Formations. The goals of the current project are to 1) develop a better understanding of the paleoceanographic conditions and the depositional environment, and 2) develop linkages between the record from the southern margin of North America and other well-documented paleoceanographic records of Kimmeridgian age. Ten drill cores from the study area have been studied for their geochemistry. Each core was scanned at a 1-foot interval using a handheld x-ray fluorescence instrument, providing rapid, quantitative analysis of the following elemental concentrations: Mg, Al, S, Si, P, K, Ti, Ca, Mn, Fe, Mo, Cr, Ni, Cu, Zn, Th, Rb, U, Sr, Zr, and V. In addition, preliminary interpretations for total inorganic carbon (TIC), total organic carbon (TOC), total nitrogen (%N), and bulk rock TOC and N isotopic composition of core samples reveal distinct differences between the Bossier and Haynesville formations. Results from previous geochemical studies suggest that the siliciclastic-dominated Bossier formation has less TOC than the underlying Haynesville formation. Furthermore, the Haynesville is much more carbonate-rich (calcite) than the overlying Bossier. An upwardly increasing trend in Si/Al in some cores suggests increasing detrital quartz influx. A linear relationship between Fe and Al suggest that iron is primarily in clay mineral phases in the Haynesville. Enrichments in Mo concentrations and Cr/V ratios reveal periods of anoxic conditions.

  19. Participatory planning in river catchments, an innovative toolkit tested in Southern Africa and North West England.

    PubMed

    Tippett, J

    2005-01-01

    The European Union Water Framework Directive (WFD) offers an unparalleled opportunity for improving river basin management. Active participation is essential for its delivery. "End-of-pipe" solutions will not deliver the improvements needed to achieve its ambitious goals. This research tested DesignWays, a toolkit for participatory planning, as a mechanism for maximizing the long-term social and environmental benefits of such stakeholder and community participation. It examined the emerging role of "planning for sustainability" in the context of river catchments. Sustainable management of water requires integration, and recognition of interconnections between systems at different levels of scale. This is an endeavour in which systems thinking provides useful tools. The development of DesignWays was a conscious attempt to embed 'new paradigm' living systems metaphors into a practical planning tool. This paper begins with a description of DesignWays and its development in Southern Africa. An outline of the context of the action research in North-West England is followed by a description of the stages of the process, with highlights of the outcomes. This research had two major outcomes: a contribution to theory through an in-depth exploration of the theoretical basis of participatory, ecologically informed design; and a contribution to practice through investigating DesignWays' potential to meet key challenges of the WFD. This research points to the importance of understanding participatory planning as a societal process, aiming to make the process engaging and meaningful. It has pointed to the need to see participatory planning and education for sustainability as an integrated process. It demonstrated the benefits of an iterative process in which planning at the landscape level of scale informs, and is informed by, work at the site level. It has shown that an approach consistent with a living systems paradigm can contribute to the development of more integrated

  20. Wave-current interactions in the southern North Sea: The impact on salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schloen, Julia; Stanev, Emil V.; Grashorn, Sebastian

    2017-03-01

    The interplay between wind waves and currents in the coastal zone of the southern North Sea along with the resulting changes in the salinity distribution are quantified using simulations with the unstructured-grid ocean model SCHISM coupled with the wind wave model WWM III. Several sensitivity runs, which are carried out to estimate the individual contributions of different physical mechanisms and forcing, demonstrated that the density gradients in the coastal zone reduce tidal current by 18%, whereas the wind waves enhance the circulation in some cases. The latter happens when along-shore wind speed approaches ∼10 m s-1 resulting in long-shore currents following the western Dutch coast and the German Wadden Sea islands. The wave-induced transport of salt leads to changes in the horizontal salinity distribution. These are most pronounced in front of barrier islands where coherent patterns caused by the coupling between tides, surface drift, and wind waves reveal salinity changes up to 0.5. The weak stratification of salinity in the coastal zone is mostly destroyed by wind waves. Thus, effects created by wind waves tend to substantially modify the estuarine circulation. An explanation of these important processes in the coastal zone has been given based on an analysis of the ratio between significant wave height and tidal range. This control-parameter, which is relatively small under mild weather conditions, can exceed unity under strong wind conditions in the coastal zone, thus mixing due to waves becomes dominant. The effect of fresh water fluxes from subterranean estuaries is relatively small and confined only in the vicinity of corresponding sources.

  1. Making a World of Difference. Dimension: Language '91. Selected Papers from the Joint Meeting of the Southern Conference on Language Teaching and the Foreign Language Association of North Carolina (Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, 1991).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terry, Robert M., Ed.

    Papers from the 1991 joint Southern Conference on Language Teaching (SCOLT)/ Foreign Language Association of North Carolina (FLANC) conference are presented. Because the state of North Carolina is in the forefront of state-mandated foreign language education in the elementary schools (FLES), 4 of the 10 articles in this volume address FLES…

  2. A recovery of harbour porpoises ( Phocoena phocoena) in the southern North Sea? A case study off Eastern Frisia, Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomsen, Frank; Laczny, Martin; Piper, Werner

    2006-09-01

    Detailed information on year-round distribution, seasonal abundance and inter-annual trends of a given species is essential for any conservation effort. However, for most odontocetes this knowledge is rather limited. Therefore, area-specific management or conservation plans are often difficult to argue for. This is also true for the harbour porpoise ( Phocoena phocoena), although it is the most common cetacean species in the North Sea. Knowledge of the current status of local stocks as well as fine scale information on the temporal use of certain areas by the species is incomplete. One area of concern is the southern North Sea where the abundance of harbour porpoises has declined in the twentieth century. Recent studies using stranding data and observations from seabird surveys indicate a comeback of the species along the Dutch and Belgian coast. However, data on other regions of the southern North Sea is sparse. Between 2002 and 2004, we undertook 25 aerial line transect surveys (11,000 km on effort; altitude = 250 and 600 ft) in a 2,500 km2 coastal area off Eastern Frisia, Germany including a small portion of Dutch coastal waters. The data were g(0) corrected using a double platform approach and analysed with distance sampling software. A total of 426 harbour porpoises were sighted, including eight calves. Densities ranged between <0.1 and 1.62 individuals/km2 with peaks in February and July 2003 as well as February and May 2004. The results of our study show that harbour porpoises are present in the coastal part of the southern North Sea even during their reproductive period. However, they seem to appear in lower numbers and much more irregular than in other areas, for example off Northern Frisia. The results of this study support the recent findings that despite a decline in the mid-twentieth century, harbour porpoises are now at times quite abundant in the southern North Sea. The underlying factors of this ‘return’ should be investigated using a

  3. The influence of chilling requirement on the southern distribution limit of exotic Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) in western North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guilbault, Kimberly R.; Brown, C.S.; Friedman, J.M.; Shafroth, P.B.

    2012-01-01

    Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia L.), a Eurasian tree now abundant along rivers in western North America, has an apparent southern distribution limit running through southern California, Arizona, New Mexico and Texas. We used field observations to precisely define this limit in relation to temperature variables. We then investigated whether lack of cold temperatures south of the limit may prevent the accumulation of sufficient chilling, inhibiting dormancy loss of seeds and buds. We found that Russian olive occurrence was more strongly associated with low winter temperatures than with high summer temperatures, and results of controlled seed germination and vegetative bud-break experiments suggest that the chilling requirements for germination and bud-break are partly responsible for the southern range limit. Both seed germination proportion and germination time decreased under conditions simulating those south of the range limit. Similarly, percentage bud break decreased when chilling dropped below values typical of the range limit. In 17–65% of the years from 1980 to 2000, the chilling accumulated at a site near the range limit (El Paso, TX) would lead to a 10% or more decrease in bud-break. The potential decline in growth could have large fitness consequences for Russian olive. If climate change exhibits a warming trend, our results suggest the chilling requirement for bud-break of Russian olive trees will not be met in some years and its southern range limit may retreat northward.

  4. Evidence for early Pennsylvanian faulting in eastern Kentucky coalfield

    SciTech Connect

    Greb, S.F.; Chesnut, D.R. Jr.; Davidson, O.B.; Rodriguez, R. )

    1989-08-01

    A series of sedimentary features including a mass-flow deposit and contorted pseudo-nodule layers at approximately the same stratigraphic horizon on the eastern, downthrown block of a normal fault system along the Rockcastle River in the Eastern Kentucky coalfield indicate that the fault was active during deposition of the Lee sandstone. The rarity of mass flows in this part of the section, a change in paleocurrents compared with surrounding units, the abundant shale clasts indicating short transport distance, and the detrital siderite clasts within the flow that are abundant on the upthrown block of the fault and not in underlying sandstones on the downthrown block of the fault indicate that movement along the fault provided an upthrown source of sideritic shales and may have triggered the mass flow. Several areas of slumping and contorted bedding also occur on the downthrown side of the fault. Of particular interest are two shaly units containing isolated and contorted sandstone pseudonodules or pillows. The sandstones are tightly folded but exhibit no apparent preferred orientation of folding or horizontal translation. These deposits are also unique to this area in the coalfield and coupled with their location near the fault may indicate that liquefaction of sand and shale layers was the result of seismic energy from the nearby fault.

  5. Investigation of the Jharia coalfield mine fires - India

    SciTech Connect

    Michalski, S.R.; Custer, E.S. Jr.; Munshi, P.L.

    1997-12-31

    In 1971, the Indian coal industry was nationalized and Bharat Coking Coal Limited was formed. The new company inherited about 600 poorly operated collieries, many on fire. Efforts to extinguish the fires have been partially successful. About sixty-five fires continue to burn in the 450-sq.km. coalfield. This is the largest complex of above and underground coal fires in the world. The fires have spread and grown to affect coal production, the environment and the health, safety, and well being of one million people living in the region. A 21-month long, two-part study, funded by the World Bank, began in 1994 and was completed in 1996. Part one was an analysis of the fires which included, their location, size, impact on the community, physical environment and coal reserves and possible remediation measures and their cost. Part two included an environmental and socioeconomic survey of the coalfield and environs and the impact of implementing remediation measures. The investigations included the use of satellite and airborne remote sensing platforms, a Global Positioning System for surveying, drilling, software for mine planning and development, a field reconnaissance, laboratory testing, review of colliery records and data analysis. A counterpart staff of Indian professionals worked with the expatriates to acquire the training, procedures and methodologies required to continue the work. Technologies for extinguishing, containing and preventing fires and their cost were identified. Recommendations were made to extinguish or contain the fires.

  6. A discovery of extremely-enriched boehmite from coal in the Junger Coalfield, the northeastern Ordos Basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dai, S.; Ren, D.; Li, S.; Chou, C.

    2006-01-01

    The authors found an extremely-enriched boehmite and its associated minerals for the first time in the super-thick No. 6 coal seam from the Junger Coalfield in the northeastern Ordos Basin by using technologies including the X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and optical microscope. The content of boehmite is as high as 13.1%, and the associated minerals are goyazite, zircon, rutile, goethite, galena, clausthalite, and selenio-galena. The heavy minerals assemblage is similar to that in the bauxite of the Benxi Formation from North China. The high boehmite in coal is mainly from weathering crust bauxite of the Benxi Formation from the northeastern coal-accumulation basin. The gibbsite colloidstone solution was removed from bauxite to the peat mire, and boehmite was formed via compaction and dehydration of gibbsite colloidstone solution in the period of peat accumulation and early period of diagenesis.

  7. Assessing surface sediment dynamics along the north-west coast of Marsa Dhouiba (Tunisia, southern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khiari, Nouha; Atoui, Abdelfattah; Brahim, Mouldi; Sammari, Chérif; Charef, Abdelkrim; Aleya, Lotfi

    2016-04-01

    An investigation was conducted from summer 2012 to winter 2013 at 25 stations along the Tunisian coast near Kef Abbed at Marsa Dhouiba (north-east Mediterranean Sea) to analyse grain size, sediment mineralogy and currents. Particle-size analysis shows that sand deposits at shallow depths are characterised by S-shaped curves, indicating a degree of agitation and possible transport by rip currents near the bottom. At greater depths (between 10 and 30 m), the bottom is covered by coarse sand and gravel. A current was observed transporting sediment eastward along the coast; another seaward current was also noted. Generated by wind, swell and especially waves from west to north-west, the two currents transport clay and silt-sized sediment seaward. An Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler showed Marsa Dhouiba's coastal current to follow a direction 175° East, with its main axis running north/north-west parallel to the coast and its minor axis also running north/north-west. Analysis of current components indicates that the velocities u and v are oriented north to south. Sediment evolution in shallow waters is dependent on detrital inputs from streams and winds. The coarse fraction of surface sediments in Marsa Dhouiba presents 87% of total sediments and is located at depths of 10-30 m. Sediment dynamics in the Marsa Dhouiba region are closely related to the west/north-west swell.

  8. Geology of the fushun coalfield, Liaoning Province, People's Republic of China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Fushun coalfield is located in Liaoning Province 45 km east of Shenyang in a relatively small east-west-trending exposure of Mesozoic and Cenozoic rocks surrounded by Precambrian terrane. The coal is included in a sequence of early Tertiary rocks consisting of Paleocene basalt and tuff, and Eocene coal, oil shale and mudstone. These units have been folded into a syncline that plunges gently to the east. The overturned north limb of this fold has been partly removed by a thrust fault. The principal coal beds are low-sulfur subbituminous and bituminous in rank, are of limnic origin, and are contained in the 55-m-thick Eocene Guchengzi Formation. The field, which has been active since the turn of the century, has both open pit and underground mines. The largest operation is the West Open Pit mine, which measures 2.0 km wide, 6.6 km long, and 300 m deep. Coal is mined by means of power shovels, trucks, and an electric rail system. Oil shale from the Eocene Jijuntun Formation is also mined. ?? 1990.

  9. Fishing mortality in North Carolina's southern flounder fishery: direct estimates of instantaneous fishing mortality from a tag return experiment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Smith, William E.; Scharf, Frederick S.; Hightower, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    Estimation of harvest rates is often a critical component of fishery stock assessment and management. These assessments are often based on catch-at-age data sets generated over many years, but estimates of instantaneous fishing mortality (F) can also be obtained from a shorter-term tag return study. We conducted a 2-year tag return experiment to generate direct estimates of F for southern flounder Paralichthys lethostigma in a North Carolina estuary. The southern flounder supports lucrative commercial and recreational fisheries within the state and has experienced heavy fishing pressure for more than a decade. During 2005 and 2006, fish were captured and tagged with the assistance of commercial harvesters in the New River estuary. Tag returns were used to generate monthly estimates of F, which demonstrated a clear seasonal pattern that was consistent between years. Several important assumptions of the tag return model were accounted for through the use of double-tagged individuals, the distribution of both high- and standard-reward tags, and the completion of an independent controlled experiment to evaluate mortality related to tagging. Annual estimates of F exceeded the short-term management target in both years. Residual patterns suggest that the estimates may actually have been biased low, possibly due to delayed mixing of tagged fish. Thus, despite recently amended fishery regulations, F in the North Carolina southern flounder gill-net fishery still has the potential to greatly exceed targeted levels, which may delay stock recovery. Tag return studies can provide reliable (and nearly real-time) information about F and natural mortality as long as the experimental design addresses specific assumptions related to tagging-induced mortality, tag shedding, and nonreporting of tags.

  10. Evaluation of numerical models by FerryBox and Fixed Platform in-situ data in the southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haller, M.; Janssen, F.; Siddorn, J.; Petersen, W.; Dick, S.

    2015-02-01

    FerryBoxes installed on ships of opportunity (SoO) provide high-frequency surface biogeochemical measurements along selected tracks on a regular basis. Within the European FerryBox Community, several FerryBoxes are operated by different institutions. Here we present a comparison of model simulations applied to the North Sea with FerryBox temperature and salinity data from a transect along the southern North Sea and a more detailed analysis at three different positions located off the English East coast, at the Oyster Ground and in the German Bight. In addition to the FerryBox data, data from a Fixed Platform of the MARNET network are applied. Two operational hydrodynamic models have been evaluated for different time periods: results of BSHcmod v4 are analysed for 2009-2012, while simulations of FOAM AMM7 NEMO have been available from MyOcean data base for 2011 and 2012. The simulation of water temperatures is satisfying; however, limitations of the models exist, especially near the coast in the southern North Sea, where both models are underestimating salinity. Statistical errors differ between the models and the measured parameters, as the root mean square error (rmse) accounts for BSHcmod v4 to 0.92 K, for AMM7 only to 0.44 K. For salinity, BSHcmod is slightly better than AMM7 (0.98 and 1.1 psu, respectively). The study results reveal weaknesses of both models, in terms of variability, absolute levels and limited spatial resolution. In coastal areas, where the simulation of the transition zone between the coasts and the open ocean is still a demanding task for operational modelling, FerryBox data, combined with other observations with differing temporal and spatial scales serve as an invaluable tool for model evaluation and optimization. The optimization of hydrodynamical models with high frequency regional datasets, like the FerryBox data, is beneficial for their subsequent integration in ecosystem modelling.

  11. Influence of Large Syncline on In Situ Stress Field: A Case Study of the Kaiping Coalfield, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Jun; Zhang, Hongwei; Liang, Bin; Rong, Hai; Lan, Tianwei; Liu, Yuanzheng; Ren, Ting

    2016-11-01

    Kaiping coalfield is located in Tangshan, northern China, and the area has been mined for 130 years. The main structure is the Kaiping syncline with an axis that generally strikes north-east to east-west. Since 1998, we have measured the in situ stress using overcoring and obtained 30 sets of data in eight coal mines with depths from -260 to -1238 m. Based on the measured data, we established the trends in maximum horizontal stress, vertical stress, minimum horizontal stress, and their ratios, and the ratio of mean horizontal stress to vertical stress and depth. The relationship between magnitude and orientation of maximum horizontal stress and their relationships to the Kaiping syncline are discussed. The results show that (1) the stress field of the Kaiping coalfield is complex and non-uniform. The orientation and magnitude of principal stress from stress measurement diverge widely from the regional stress field and the stress regime, with 77 % strike-slip faulting and the remainder thrust faulting. (2) Both maximum ( σ H) and minimum ( σ h) horizontal stresses have significant differences at a similar depth; however, vertical stress σ v increases linearly with depth with a gradient of 0.025 MPa/m. The ratio ( k) of the mean horizontal stress to vertical stress is 160/ h + 1.04 < k < 300/ h + 1.14. This is higher at shallow depth and gradually decreases as depth increases. Up to 90 % of σ H/ σ h falls between 1.17 and 2.39 with an average of 1.96, and it is not closely related to depth. The σ H /σ v ranges from 1.06 to 2.43 with a bandwidth of 1 and decreases gradually with increasing depth. (3) The in situ stress field in the Kaiping coalfield is the result of the synthetic action of different levels of geological structures where both the orientation and magnitude of in situ stress are influenced by the Kaiping syncline. The σ H near the axis of the Kaiping syncline is remarkably high and decreases 8 km from the axis. The orientation of σ H near the

  12. Map showing structural control of breccia pipes on the southern Marble Plateau, north-central Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Sutphin, H.B.; Wenrich, K.J.

    1988-01-01

    Solution collapse breccia pipes, concentrated throughout the southwestern corner of the Colorado Plateau in Arizona, have been mapped in detail on the southern Marble Plateau. Within the study area, 77 of the 90 (86%) collapse structures fall within northwest-trending and northeast-trending zones that cover only 23% of the total surface area.

  13. Southern Cordilleran Basaltic Andesite suite, southern Chihuahua, Mexico: A link between Tertiary continental arc and flood basalt magmatism in the North America

    SciTech Connect

    Cameron, K. L.; Nimz, G. J.; Kuentz, D.; Niemeyer, S.; Gunn, S.

    1989-06-10

    Mid-Cenozoic orogenic andesites and ignimbrites of western Mexico, southwestern New Mexico, and Arizona are commonly capped by basaltic andesites, most from 29--20 Ma. We refer to these mafic lavas as the Southern Cordilleran Basaltic Andesite (SCORBA) suite, and they may constitute the most extensive Cenozoic basaltic suite in North America. The SCORBA suite has trace element and isotopic characteristics of orogenic (arc) rocks (i.g., Ba/Nb/gt/40), and silica content (53--56% SiO/sub 2/) like the Grande Ronde Basalt, which represents about 80% of the volume of the Columbia River Group. Geochemical and isotopic data are presented on SCORBA lavas and rare mafic lavas (PRE-SCORBA) interlayered with older ignimbrites from a 700-km-long NE-SW transect of southern Chihuahua, Mexico. SCORBA and PRE-SCORBA lavas with relatively low K/P (/lt/7) and differing Ba/Nd (50 versus 18) have similar isotopic compositions, arguing against their isotopic signatures being controlled by crustal assimilation. Along the entire length of the transect, the basaltic rocks have /var epsilon//sub Nd/ and /sup 87/Sr//sup 86/Sr near bulk Earth and /sup 206/Pb//sup 204/Pb and /sup 207/Pb//sup 204/Pb ratios that lie along a 1.7 Ga pseudoisochron. The Pb isotopic variation is geographically controlled, becoming more radiogenic from east to west, reflecting mixing in mantle source regions. The eastern mantle source has low/sup 206/Pb//sup 204/Pb and is a mixture of an enriched, enriched-mantle-like (EMI) component with one or more depleted components, which could include an intraplate component with relatively high Nb/Y (/gt/0.8).

  14. First field identification of the Cuonadong dome in southern Tibet: implications for EW extension of the North Himalayan gneiss dome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jiangang; Li, Guangming; Wang, Genhou; Huang, Yong; Zhang, Linkui; Dong, Suiliang; Liang, Wei

    2016-07-01

    The Cuonadong dome exposes in east-southern margin of the North Himalayan gneiss domes (NHGD), which is reported first time in this study. The Cuonadong dome is located at the southern part of the Zhaxikang ore concentration area, which is divided into three tectono-lithostratigraphic units by two curved faults around the dome geometry from upper to lower (or from outer to inner): the upper unit, middle unit and lower unit, and the outer fault is Nading fault, while the inner fault is Jisong fault. The Cuonadong dome is a magmatic orthogneiss and leucogranite mantled by orthogneiss and metasedimentary rocks, which in turn are overlain by Jurassic metasedimentary and sedimentary rocks. The grades of metamorphism and structural deformation increase towards the core, which is correspondence with the Ridang Formation low-metamorphic schist, tourmaline granitic-biotite gneiss, garnet-mica gneiss and mylonitic quartz-mica gneiss. The Cuonadong dome preserves evidences for four major deformational events: firstly top-to-S thrust (D1), early approximately N-S extensional deformation (D2), main approximately E-W extensional deformation (D3), and late collapse structural deformation (D4) around the core of the Cuonadong dome, which are consistent to three groups lineation: approximately N-S-trending lineation including L1 and L2, E-W trending L3, and L4 with plunging towards outside of the dome, respectively. The formation of the Cuonadong dome was probably resulted from the main E-W extensional deformation which is a result of eastward flow of middle or lower crust from beneath Tibet accommodated by northward oblique underthrusting of Indian crust beneath Tibet. The establishment of the Cuonadong dome enhanced the E-W extension of the NHGD, which is further divided into two structural dome zones according to the different extensional directions: approximately N-S extensional North Himalayan gneiss domes (NS-NHGD) and E-W extensional North Himalayan gneiss domes (EW

  15. Paleomagnetic studies of Carboniferous and Permian in the U. K. Southern North Sea: Core orientation, paleocurrent analysis, and diagenetic application

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, P. ); Hartley, A.J. )

    1991-03-01

    The U.K. southern North Sea is a major gas province with production from Carboniferous and Permian reservoirs. It was a foreland basin in Carboniferous times uplifted to form a Lower Permian desert basin and subsequently deeply buried during the Mesozoic. Paleomagnetic methods have been used for burial analysis, core orientation, and paleocurrent studies. VRM is shown to be of only limited value for core orientation; problems relating to drilling effects and deflection by ChRM will be discussed. Detailed thermal demagnetization studies are most valuable. Blocking temperature spectra can be related to burial history curves, and ChRM directions isolated and compared with Carboniferous and Permian reference directions. ChRM is a valuable parameter for core orientation and thus paleocurrent studies. Examples will be shown from the Carboniferous and Lower Permian.

  16. Microplastic contamination in brown shrimp (Crangon crangon, Linnaeus 1758) from coastal waters of the Southern North Sea and Channel area.

    PubMed

    Devriese, Lisa I; van der Meulen, Myra D; Maes, Thomas; Bekaert, Karen; Paul-Pont, Ika; Frère, Laura; Robbens, Johan; Vethaak, A Dick

    2015-09-15

    This study assessed the capability of Crangon crangon (L.), an ecologically and commercially important crustacean, of consuming plastics as an opportunistic feeder. We therefore determined the microplastic content of shrimp in shallow water habitats of the Channel area and Southern part of the North Sea. Synthetic fibers ranging from 200μm up to 1000μm size were detected in 63% of the assessed shrimp and an average value of 0.68±0.55microplastics/g w. w. (1.23±0.99microplastics/shrimp) was obtained for shrimp in the sampled area. The assessment revealed no spatial patterns in plastic ingestion, but temporal differences were reported. The microplastic uptake was significantly higher in October compared to March. The results suggest that microplastics >20μm are not able to translocate into the tissues.

  17. Evaluation of numerical models by FerryBox and fixed platform in situ data in the southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haller, M.; Janssen, F.; Siddorn, J.; Petersen, W.; Dick, S.

    2015-11-01

    For understanding and forecasting of hydrodynamics in coastal regions, numerical models have served as an important tool for many years. In order to assess the model performance, we compared simulations to observational data of water temperature and salinity. Observations were available from FerryBox transects in the southern North Sea and, additionally, from a fixed platform of the MARNET network. More detailed analyses have been made at three different stations, located off the English eastern coast, at the Oyster Ground and in the German Bight. FerryBoxes installed on ships of opportunity (SoO) provide high-frequency surface measurements along selected tracks on a regular basis. The results of two operational hydrodynamic models have been evaluated for two different time periods: BSHcmod v4 (January 2009 to April 2012) and FOAM AMM7 NEMO (April 2011 to April 2012). While they adequately simulate temperature, both models underestimate salinity, especially near the coast in the southern North Sea. Statistical errors differ between the two models and between the measured parameters. The root mean square error (RMSE) of water temperatures amounts to 0.72 °C (BSHcmod v4) and 0.44 °C (AMM7), while for salinity the performance of BSHcmod is slightly better (0.68 compared to 1.1). The study results reveal weaknesses in both models, in terms of variability, absolute levels and limited spatial resolution. Simulation of the transition zone between the coasts and the open sea is still a demanding task for operational modelling. Thus, FerryBox data, combined with other observations with differing temporal and spatial scales, can serve as an invaluable tool not only for model evaluation, but also for model optimization by assimilation of such high-frequency observations.

  18. Mapping total suspended matter from geostationary satellites: a feasibility study with SEVIRI in the Southern North Sea.

    PubMed

    Neukermans, Griet; Ruddick, Kevin; Bernard, Emilien; Ramon, Didier; Nechad, Bouchra; Deschamps, Pierre-Yves

    2009-08-03

    Geostationary ocean colour sensors have not yet been launched into space, but are under consideration by a number of space agencies. This study provides a proof of concept for mapping of Total Suspended Matter (TSM) in turbid coastal waters from geostationary platforms with the existing SEVIRI (Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager) meteorological sensor on the METEOSAT Second Generation platform. Data are available in near real time every 15 minutes. SEVIRI lacks sufficient bands for chlorophyll remote sensing but its spectral resolution is sufficient for quantification of Total Suspended Matter (TSM) in turbid waters, using a single broad red band, combined with a suitable near infrared band. A test data set for mapping of TSM in the Southern North Sea was obtained covering 35 consecutive days from June 28 until July 31 2006. Atmospheric correction of SEVIRI images includes corrections for Rayleigh and aerosol scattering, absorption by atmospheric gases and atmospheric transmittances. The aerosol correction uses assumptions on the ratio of marine reflectances and aerosol reflectances in the red and near-infrared bands. A single band TSM retrieval algorithm, calibrated by non-linear regression of seaborne measurements of TSM and marine reflectance was applied. The effect of the above assumptions on the uncertainty of the marine reflectance and TSM products was analysed. Results show that (1) mapping of TSM in the Southern North Sea is feasible with SEVIRI for turbid waters, though with considerable uncertainties in clearer waters, (2) TSM maps are well correlated with TSM maps obtained from MODIS AQUA and (3) during cloud-free days, high frequency dynamics of TSM are detected.

  19. Seismic structure of the southern Cascadia subduction zone and accretionary prism north of the Mendocino triple junction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gulick, S.P.S.; Meltzer, A.M.; Clarke, S.H.

    1998-01-01

    Four multichannel-seismic reflection profiles, collected as part of the Mendocino triple junction seismic experiment, image the toe of the southern Cascadia accretionary prism. Today, 250-600 m of sediment is subducting with the Gorda plate, and 1500-3200 m is accreting to the northern California margin. Faults imaged west and east of the deformation front show mixed structural vergence. A north-south trending, 20 km long portion of the central margin is landward vergent for the outer 6-8 km of the toe of the prism. This region of landward vergence exhibits no frontal thrust, is unusually steep and narrow, and is likely caused by a seaward-dipping backstop close to the deformation front. The lack of margin-wide preferred seaward vergence and wedge-taper analysis suggests the prism has low basal shear stress. The three southern lines image wedge-shaped fragments of oceanic crust 1.1-7.3 km in width and 250-700 m thick near the deformation front. These wedges suggest shortening and thickening of the upper oceanic crust. Discontinuities in the seafloor west of the prism provide evidence for mass wasting in the form of slump blocks and debris fans. The southernmost profile extends 75 km west of the prism imaging numerous faults that offset both the Gorda basin oceanic crust and overlying sediments. These high-angle faults, bounding basement highs, are interpreted as strike-slip faults reactivating structures originally formed at the spreading ridge. Northeast or northwest trending strike-slip faults within the basin are consistent with published focal mechanism solutions and are likely caused by north-south Gorda-Pacific plate convergence. Copyright 1998 by the American Geophysical Union.

  20. Flows of Antarctic bottom water through fractures in the southern part of the North Mid-Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, E. G.; Tarakanov, R. Yu.; Makarenko, N. I.

    2015-11-01

    We study the flows of bottom waters of the Antarctic origin in deep fracture zones of the southern part of the North Mid-Atlantic Ridge. In the autumn of 2014, an expedition onboard the RV Akademik Sergey Vavilov carried out measurements of current velocities and thermohaline properties of bottom water in several quasi-zonal fractures in the southern part of the Northern Mid-Atlantic Ridge, which connect the deep basins of the West and East Atlantic, the Vema Fracture Zone (FZ) (10°50' N) and a group of sub-equatorial fractures: Doldrums (8°15' N), Vernadsky (7°40' N), and a nameless fracture at 7°30' N. The estimates of bottom water (θ < 2.0°C) transport through this group based on measurements from 2014 are approximately 0.28 Sv (1 Sv = 106 m3/s), which is close to 25% of the transport estimate through the Vema FZ (1.20 Sv) obtained in the same expedition. The coldest bottom water temperatures among the investigated fractures were recorded in the Vema FZ.

  1. Velocity-depth model estimation for a subsalt target from the Southern Gas Basin of the North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, O.; Rutledge, J.; Sandvin, O.; Godfrey, B. )

    1996-01-01

    The Southern Gas Basin of the North Sea has been subjected to extensional tectonics, primarily in the east-west direction. Subsequent occurrence of the salt diapirism gave rise to the presence of complex structures. By doing a depth-domain analysis of a 3-D seismic survey data from an area in the Southern Gas Basin, we delineated the structural geometry of the top Rotliegendes formation beneath the complex Zechstein diapiric formation. This required an accurate estimate of the velocity-depth model above the Zechstein diapiric formation and removal of its deleterious effect on the underlying Permian sands of Rotliegendes and deeper targets. We conducted a layer-by-layer depth-domain analysis, and used coherency inversion to estimate layer velocities and 3-D poststack depth migration to delineate reflector geometries down to top Zechstein. We verified the accuracy of the velocity-depth model for the overburden above Zechstein by analyzing image gathers from prestack depth migration. We then analyzed constant-half-space image-gather stacks to estimate velocities for the substratum including Zechstein and the underlying Carboniferous sequence. Finally, we performed 3-D prestack depth migration to delineate the base Zechstein - top Rotliegendes geometry. This study demonstrates the need for depth-domain analysis of seismic data to derive accurate structure maps for targets beneath complex structures associated with salt and overthrust tectonics. The final output from depth-domain analysis -- a velocity-depth model, can then be used as a canvas for a reservoir model.

  2. Velocity-depth model estimation for a subsalt target from the Southern Gas Basin of the North Sea

    SciTech Connect

    Yilmaz, O.; Rutledge, J.; Sandvin, O.; Godfrey, B.

    1996-12-31

    The Southern Gas Basin of the North Sea has been subjected to extensional tectonics, primarily in the east-west direction. Subsequent occurrence of the salt diapirism gave rise to the presence of complex structures. By doing a depth-domain analysis of a 3-D seismic survey data from an area in the Southern Gas Basin, we delineated the structural geometry of the top Rotliegendes formation beneath the complex Zechstein diapiric formation. This required an accurate estimate of the velocity-depth model above the Zechstein diapiric formation and removal of its deleterious effect on the underlying Permian sands of Rotliegendes and deeper targets. We conducted a layer-by-layer depth-domain analysis, and used coherency inversion to estimate layer velocities and 3-D poststack depth migration to delineate reflector geometries down to top Zechstein. We verified the accuracy of the velocity-depth model for the overburden above Zechstein by analyzing image gathers from prestack depth migration. We then analyzed constant-half-space image-gather stacks to estimate velocities for the substratum including Zechstein and the underlying Carboniferous sequence. Finally, we performed 3-D prestack depth migration to delineate the base Zechstein - top Rotliegendes geometry. This study demonstrates the need for depth-domain analysis of seismic data to derive accurate structure maps for targets beneath complex structures associated with salt and overthrust tectonics. The final output from depth-domain analysis -- a velocity-depth model, can then be used as a canvas for a reservoir model.

  3. Air temperature change in the northern and southern tropical Andes linked to North-Atlantic stadials and Greenland interstadials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urrego, Dunia H.; Hooghiemstra, Henry

    2016-04-01

    We use eight pollen records reflecting climatic and environmental change from northern and southern sites in the tropical Andes. Our analysis focuses on the signature of millennial-scale climate variability during the last 30,000 years, in particular the Younger Dryas (YD), Heinrich stadials (HS) and Greenland interstadials (GI). We identify rapid responses of the vegetation to millennial-scale climate variability in the tropical Andes. The signature of HS and the YD are generally recorded as downslope migrations of the upper forest line (UFL), and are likely linked to air temperature cooling. The GI1 signal is overall comparable between northern and southern records and indicates upslope UFL migrations and warming in the tropical Andes. Our marker for lake level changes indicates a north to south difference that could be related to moisture availability. The direction of air temperature change recorded by the Andean vegetation is consistent with millennial-scale cryosphere and sea surface temperature records from the American tropics, but suggests a potential difference between the magnitude of temperature change in the ocean and the atmosphere.

  4. Institutional Research in Emerging Countries of Southern Africa, Latin America, and the Middle East and North Africa: Global Frameworks and Local Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange, Lis; Saavedra, F. Mauricio; Romano, Jeanine

    2013-01-01

    This chapter presents a synthesis of the conceptualization and practice of institutional research (IR) in higher education (HE) in emerging countries across Southern Africa, Latin America and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) regions. The chapter contextualizes the growing need for IR in these regions, identifies problems and challenges…

  5. The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian Coalfields (2011 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report assesses the state of the science on the environmental impacts of mountaintop mines and valley fills (MTM-VF) on streams in the central Appalachian coalfields. These coalfields cover about 48,000 square kilometers (122 million acres) in West Virginia, Kentucky, Virgi...

  6. The Practice of Institutional Research. Proceedings of a Joint Conference of the Southern Association for Institutional Research and the North Carolina Association for Institutional Research (Charlotte, North Carolina, October 29-30, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Mary P., Ed.; Staman, E. Michael, Ed.

    Proceedings of a 1981 joint conference sponsored by the Southern Association for Institutional Research (SAIR) and the North Carolina Association for Institutional Research are presented. The conference theme was the practice of institutional research. Contents include preconference workshop reports, speeches, abstracts of papers, and reports of…

  7. Kinematic analysis of a possible suture in the southern Appalachians, northwestern North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Mallard, L.D.; Adams, M.G.; Stewart, K.G. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    The contact between Grenville-age basement and the Ashe Metamorphic Suite juxtaposes rocks of the Laurentian continent with rocks of apparent oceanic affinities. The occurrence of ultramafic rocks and recently discovered eclogite along the base of the Ashe Metamorphic Suite suggests the possibility that this contact is a suture. Previous workers have demonstrated that the basement/Ashe Metamorphic suite contact is a northwest-directed thrust fault north of the Grandfather Mountain window. Recent maps published by the North Carolina Geological survey show the contact as a folded thrust fault south of the Grandfather Mountain window. The authors detailed kinematic analyses show that the basement/Ashe Metamorphic Suite contact is not a folded thrust surface; instead, they have identified two distinct northeast-striking fault contacts, one showing strike-slip and the other showing dip-slip motion. Kinematic indicators (asymmetric porphyroclasts, shear bands, mica fish, and S-C fabrics) from mylonites along a portion of the basement/Ashe Metamorphic suite contact from Bakersville to Barnardsville, NC demonstrate dextral strike-slip movement on the eastern fault. Preliminary structural analyses of mylonites on the western fault indicate top-to-the-southeast dip-slip movement. The minerals in these mylonites are partially to totally annealed unlike mylonites from the greenschist facies shear zones along the basement/Ashe Metamorphic Suite contact north of the Grandfather Mountain window.

  8. Abrupt changes in the southern extent of North Atlantic Deep Water during Dansgaard-Oeschger events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gottschalk, Julia; Skinner, Luke C.; Misra, Sambuddha; Waelbroeck, Claire; Menviel, Laurie; Timmermann, Axel

    2015-12-01

    The glacial climate system transitioned rapidly between cold (stadial) and warm (interstadial) conditions in the Northern Hemisphere. This variability, referred to as Dansgaard-Oeschger variability, is widely believed to arise from perturbations of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation. Evidence for such changes during the longer Heinrich stadials has been identified, but direct evidence for overturning circulation changes during Dansgaard-Oeschger events has proven elusive. Here we reconstruct bottom water [CO32-] variability from B/Ca ratios of benthic foraminifera and indicators of sedimentary dissolution, and use these reconstructions to infer the flow of northern-sourced deep water to the deep central sub-Antarctic Atlantic Ocean. We find that nearly every Dansgaard-Oeschger interstadial is accompanied by a rapid incursion of North Atlantic Deep Water into the deep South Atlantic. Based on these results and transient climate model simulations, we conclude that North Atlantic stadial-interstadial climate variability was associated with significant Atlantic overturning circulation changes that were rapidly transmitted across the Atlantic. However, by demonstrating the persistent role of Atlantic overturning circulation changes in past abrupt climate variability, our reconstructions of carbonate chemistry further indicate that the carbon cycle response to abrupt climate change was not a simple function of North Atlantic overturning.

  9. Miners wives: Gender, culture, and society in the south Wales coalfields, 1919-1939

    SciTech Connect

    Gier, J.J.

    1993-01-01

    This study addresses the absence of historical research on the role of women in Welsh coalfield society through the use of oral history testimony, folk culture sources, literature, newspapers, union records and comparative data from other British and Australian coalfield regions. The thesis identifies the ways in which the domestic ideology and the vernacular culture of coalfield society influenced gender roles and relations in Welsh mining communities during the interwar period. Since the myth of the Miner and the Mining Mam signified the pervasive influence of both the domestic ideology and the vernacular culture, the aim of the study was to dismantle these ideals in order to reconstruct a history of miners' wives. To further this goal a life-cycle approach was used; the thesis examined courtship an marriage practices, domestic culture in the mining household, women's customary role in ritual surrounding birth and death, and their role in mining strikes and other forms of collective action. The study concludes that while the traditions of rural Wales tended to support a broader role for women in coalfield society, the domestic ideology denied the miner's wife her identity as a worker, and thus limited her participation in class struggle and obscured her role in the history of coalfield society.

  10. Aminostratigraphy of Middle and Late Pleistocene deposits in The Netherlands and the southern part of the North Sea Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijer, T.; Cleveringa, P.

    2009-09-01

    A review of all available amino acid racemization D (alloisoleucine)/L (isoleucine) data from the whole shell of four molluscan species from Late and late Middle Pleistocene deposits of the Netherlands is presented. The data allow the distinction of 5 aminostratigraphical units, NAZ (Netherlands Amino Zone) A-E, each representing a temperate stage. The zones are correlated with marine isotope stages 1, 5e, 7, 9, and 11 respectively. Apart from NAZ-D (MIS 9), in all aminozones the marine transgression reached the present-day onshore area of the Netherlands. The transgression during NAZ-C (Oostermeer Interglacial: MIS 7) seems to be at least as widespread as its counterpart during NAZ-B (Eemian: MIS 5e) in the southern bight of the North Sea Basin. The stratigraphic position of the Oostermeer Interglacial is just below deposits of the Drente phase of the Saalian and because of this position the interglacial marine deposits have formerly erroneously considered to be of Holsteinian age. Neede, the 'classic' Dutch Holsteinian site, is dated in NAZ-E (MIS 11), like Noordbergum. Although the validity of these zones has been checked with independent data, some overlap between succeeding zones may occur. The relation between amino acid data from elsewhere in the North Sea Basin and the Netherlands amino zonation is discussed. The deposits at the Holsteinian stratotype Hummelsbüttel in North West Germany are dated in NAZ-D. This interglacial correlates with MIS 9. The Belvédère Interglacial, which is of importance for its archaeology, is in NAZ-D (MIS 9) and therefore of Holsteinian age as well. The lacustroglacial 'pottery clays' in the Noordbergum area are deposits from two glacial stages, which can be correlated with MIS 8 and 10 (the Elsterian). The pottery clay that is considered equivalent to the German 'Lauenburger Ton' correlates with MIS 10.

  11. Investigating crustal deformation associated with the North America-Pacific plate boundary in southern California with GPS geodesy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spinler, Joshua C.

    The three largest earthquakes in the last 25 years in southern California occurred on faults located adjacent to the southern San Andreas fault, with the M7.3 1992 Landers and M7.1 1999 Hector Mine earthquakes occurring in the eastern California shear zone (ECSZ) in the Mojave Desert, and the M7.2 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake occurring along the Laguna Salada fault in northern Baja California, Mexico. The locations of these events near to but not along the southern San Andreas fault (SSAF) is unusual in that the last major event on the SSAF occurred more than 300 years ago, with an estimated recurrence interval of 215 +/- 25 years. The focus of this dissertation is to address the present-day deformation field along the North America-Pacific plate boundary in southern California and northern Baja California, through the analysis of GPS data, and elastic block and viscoelastic earthquake models to determine fault slip rates and rheological properties of the lithosphere in the plate boundary zone. We accomplish this in three separate studies. The first study looks at how strain is partitioned northwards along-strike from the southern San Andreas fault near the Salton Sea. We find that estimates for slip-rates on the southern San Andreas decrease from ~23 mm/yr in the south to ~8 mm/yr as the fault passes through San Gorgonio Pass to the northwest, while ~13-18 mm/yr of slip is partitioned onto NW-SE trending faults of the ECSZ where the Landers and Hector Mine earthquakes occurred. This speaks directly to San Andreas earthquake hazards, as a reduction in the slip rate would require greater time between events to build up enough slip deficit in order to generate a large magnitude earthquake. The second study focuses on inferring the rheological structure beneath the Salton Trough region. This is accomplished through analysis of postseismic deformation observed using a set of the GPS data collected before and after the 2010 El Mayor-Cucapah earthquake. By

  12. Interpretation of fluorometric chlorophyll registrations with Algal pigment analysis along a ferry transect in the Southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Althuis, Ij. A.; Gieskes, W. W. C.; Villerius, L.; Colijn, F.

    In 1991 chlorophyll a was measured continously by fluorometry on the ferry 'Norstar', between Zeebrugge and Hull. In order to assess the usefulness of this platform for monitoring of long-term changes in phytoplankton distribution in the southern North Sea, calibration cruises were carried out in January, April, June and August with RV 'Holland' to relate algal pigment fingerprints to the fluorescence record. Chlorophyll a concentrations, determined after HPLC separation, allowed a quantification of the continuous fluorescence signal. The relation between fluorescence and chlorophyll a content was found to be rather constant in June and August and allowed a prediction of the chlorophyll a concentration from fluorescence measurements within 21%. In Janaury and April, however, this relation was different for separate hydrographic regions. In April, a major chlorophyll derivative, an allomer indicative of degradation of algal matter, was abundant near the Belgian coast. During the decay of the Phaeocystis bloom, this high concentration of allomerized chlorophyll a increased the 'background' fluorescence signal. In January, enhancement of fluorescence caused by light scattering of non-algal suspended matter could be observed most clearly near the English coast, where the algal concentration was low (0.5 μg·dm -3) while suspended (inorganic) matter concentration was high (30 mg·dm -3). By applying linear relations, calculated for every hydrographic region, prediction of the chlorophyll a concentration could be improved to an accuracy of 38%. An analysis of taxon-specific chlorophylls and carotenoids reveals that the distribution of individual pigments and of pigment ratios was indicative of taxonomic composition of the phytoplankton. Patterns in pigment concentrations along the section suggest the same phytoplankton abundance gradients and patchiness as revealed by the continuous fluorescence measurement. A succession in the phytoplankton population was apparent

  13. Changing sedimentation in tidal flat sediments of the southern North Sea from the Holocene to the present: a geochemical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dellwig, O.; Hinrichs, J.; Hild, A.; Brumsack, H.-J.

    2000-12-01

    This study presents geochemical evidence for a change in depositional energy conditions of tidal flat sediments (southern North Sea) from the Holocene, i.e. human unaffected, to present-day conditions. We investigated Holocene and present tidal flat sediments and suspended particulate matter (SPM) from the NW German coastal area (Spiekeroog Island back-barrier area and Jade Bay), as well as sediments from the Helgoland Island mud hole area. Samples were analysed for bulk parameters (TC, TIC), major (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, K, P, Si, Ti), and trace elements (Ba, Pb, Rb, Sr, V, Zn, Zr). Enrichment factors versus average shale reveal four groups of elements for the investigated Holocene and present sediments. Fe, Mg, K, Ba, Rb, and V show a shale-like behaviour and enrichments of Ca and Sr reflect the occurrence of carbonate, whereas higher levels of P, Pb, and Zn in the present samples are due to pollution. The fourth group consists of Si, Ti, and Zr, which may be used as indicators of depositional energy because these elements are concentrated by particle sorting effects. The most pronounced geochemical difference between the Holocene and present tidal flat sediments is an enrichment of Zr in the present samples. As Zr is commonly associated with heavy minerals, this enrichment indicates a higher depositional energy environment in the present sediments, which can be traced to modern dike building. The same effect, i.e. increasing current velocities, is responsible for a general depletion of fine-grained, Al-rich, material in the present sediments. The examination of SPM shows that large amounts of this fine-grained material are present in the water column and may be transported from the intertidal system into the open North Sea. The comparison of a calculated Holocene clay accumulation rate with modern estimates of SPM deposition in the German Bight reveals about a two-fold higher deposition of fine material in the Holocene tidal flats. As the sediments from the Helgoland

  14. Modelling the seasonal occurrence and distribution of humanpathogenic bacteria within the German Bight, southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schakau, Vanessa; Lettmann, Karsten A.; Wolff, Jörg-Olaf

    2015-04-01

    In recent years, the occurrence of human-pathogenic bacteria of the genus Vibrio in the North Sea and the Baltic Sea has come into the focus of many marine research activities, as different Vibrio strains caused harmful infections, especially in summers 2003, 2006, 2010 and 2014. Furthermore, it is anticipated that under global warming conditions, the risk of the occurrence of human-pathogenic in summer season will increase very likely. To present knowledge temperature and salinity are the most powerful predictors of the occurrence of Vibrio spp. in coastal waters. However, studies support the interaction of human-pathogenic Vibrio spp. with different host and vector organisms like chitinous zooplankton or with predator organisms such as Vibrio-specific bacteriophages. A modeling system has been developed to understand and predict the occurrence and distribution of harmful Vibrio spp. within the North Sea with a special focus on the German Bight including the shallower Wadden Sea areas and the estuaries of Ems, Weser and Elbe. On the one hand, this modeling system is based on the unstructured-mesh hydrodynamic model FVCOM, which can predict the oceanic circulation and distributions of temperature and salinity within the German Bight for appropriate present and future climate conditions. On the other hand, a biological module has been attached, which can simulate the distribution and abundances of Vibrio spp.. In detail, apart from specific Vibrio strains, this biological module incorporates functional groups of phyto- and zooplankton and bacteriophages as potential host- and predator-organisms. In a first study, this modeling system has been applied to a hot summer season in 2006. It has been demonstrated that this system can reproduce the valid hydrodynamic conditions within the North Sea region of interest including temperature and salinity distribution patterns. In addition, reasonable temporal and spatial patterns of Vibrio abundances have been obtained.

  15. Towards an integrated view of benthic and pelagic processes in the southern North Sea (German Bight)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Jana; van Beusekom, Justus; Neumann, Andreas; Naderipour, Celine

    2015-04-01

    The North Sea can be classified as a semi-enclosed shelf on the western-European continent. Atlantic influences are mainly through the Fair Isle current Channel in the North, and through the Strait of Dover in the South. An anti-clockwise circulation prevails, driven by mainly semi-diurnal tides and winds. The German Bight is located in the south-eastern part of the North Sea, and is strongly influenced by continental rivers. The outflow from the rivers Scheldt, Maas and Rhine is carried towards the German Bight with the residual currents. The German rivers Ems, Weser and Elbe directly debouche into the German Bight. On the shallow shelf, the water column is completely mixed by tidal forces and wind, largely preventing downward flux of particles and instead fostering temporary deposition and resuspension, which influences benthic mineralization. Hence, complex interactions between pelagic and benthic processes occur. Previous budget calculations indicate that the nutrient inventory has to be processed several times to support observed primary production, and, depending on water depth; only 10-20% remineralisation occurs in sediments of the German Bight whereas about 50% of organic matter is remineralised in the sediments of the shallow Wadden Sea. In this presentation, we use in-situ and ex-situ field data on pelagic and benthic oxygen respiration and benthic nutrient fluxes to assess the intense mineralization activity in the German Bight, the partitioning of benthic and pelagic processes and the factors influencing organic matter mineralization. Measurements of pelagic oxygen respiration based on Winkler titration, in-situ benthic oxygen uptake measurements based on flux-chamber landers and ex-situ incubations of intact sediment cores revealed that benthic remineralisation rates are about an order of magnitude smaller than pelagic rates, in agreement with previous budget estimates. Both benthic and pelagic oxygen respiration show a strong seasonality; with higher

  16. Sedimentary response to tectonism in the extensional Chihuahua trough, Cretaceous of Southern North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budhathoki, P.; Langford, R. P.; Pavlis, T. L.

    2009-12-01

    During the Jurassic and Cretaceous, the Chihuahua Trough formed an extensional basin, extending from the Gulf of Mexico to Southern Arizona, along the Present Border of the United States and Mexico. West of the Big Bend of Texas, Jurassic and Cretaceous sediments are less than 150 m thick, and in many areas are absent. The sedimentary package thickens to over 3km within the trough. The Albian Cox Sandstone is one of the most areally extensive formations and consists of interbedded fluvial coastal and shallow marine sandstones and shales. In this study area, shales (10-70 m) are thicker more than sandstone beds (2-10 m). This unit is overlain by Finlay formation, a fine crystalline gray limestone and underlain by Bluff Mesa formation, a fossiliferous shallow marine limestone. Cross-bedded, brown, fine to medium grained sandstone, interbedded with siltstone, shale and limestone are characteristic lithology of the Cox. The Indio Mountains of Trans-Pecos Texas offer an ideal location to study how this package accommodates the deformation associated with the subsiding Chihuahua trough. A continuous outcrop extends over 30 km oblique to the basin margin and thickens from approximately 375 m on the northern side to 437 m on the southern side of the 10 km section studied so far. One important mechanism is rotation of the strata into the basin, followed by truncation along sequence boundaries. The lower two sequence in the southern Indio mountains are rotated down to the basin relative to Finlay. The lowest sequences thicken from an erosional pinch out towards the South. Shale beds thicken within the rotated strata and accommodate some of the tilting. For example, Thickness of the shale bed varies from 18 m to 70 m within a 2 km distance. However, erosional truncation of the tilted strata accounts for most of the increases in thickness within sequences. The base of the formation has been rotated about 6 degrees south relative to the top of the formation. Another observed

  17. Conservation status of North American freshwater crayfish (Decapoda: Cambaridae) from the southern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loughman, Zachary J.; Welsh, Stuart; Fetzner, James W.; Thoma, Roger F.

    2015-01-01

    A list is provided of all crayfishes (family Cambaridae) in the southern United States, which includes common names, global conservation status, an alternative review of the conservation status based on the IUCN red list criteria, and state distribution. This list includes 357 native crayfishes, of which 12 (3.4%) are critically endangered, 37 (10.4%) are endangered, 126 (35.3%) are vulnerable, 181 (50.7%) are lower risk, and 1 (0.3%) is not evaluated. The leading factors causing imperilment are restricted ranges caused by anthropogenic impacts from changes in land use, contaminants, invasion by non-indigenous species, and habitat fragmentation. In order to conserve and manage diversity of native crayfish, consistency is needed in determining conservation status and more complete distribution and life history information are needed for about 60% of species.

  18. Post-Clovis survival of American Mastodon in the southern Great Lakes Region of North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.; Beavan, Athfield N.

    2009-01-01

    The end of the Pleistocene in North America was marked by a wave of extinctions of large mammals, with the last known appearances of many species falling between ca. 11,000-10,000??14C yr BP. Temporally, this period overlaps with the Clovis Paleoindian cultural complex (11,190-10,530??14C yr BP) and with sudden climatic changes that define the beginning of the Younger Dryas chronozone (ca. 11,000-10,000??14C yr BP), both of which have been considered as potential proximal causes of this extinction event. Radiocarbon dating of enamel and filtered bone collagen from an extinct American Mastodon (Mammut americanum) from northern Indiana, USA, by accelerator mass spectrometer yielded direct dates of 10,055 ?? 40??14C yr BP and 10,032 ?? 40??14C yr BP, indicating that the animal survived beyond the Clovis time period and into the late Younger Dryas. Although the late survival of this species in mid-continental North America does not remove either humans or climatic change as contributing causes for the late Pleistocene extinctions, neither Clovis hunters nor the climatic perturbations initiating the Younger Dryas chronozone were immediately responsible for driving mastodons to extinction. ?? 2009 University of Washington.

  19. Post-Clovis survival of American Mastodon in the southern Great Lakes Region of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woodman, Neal; Beavan Athfield, Nancy

    2009-11-01

    The end of the Pleistocene in North America was marked by a wave of extinctions of large mammals, with the last known appearances of many species falling between ca. 11,000-10,000 14C yr BP. Temporally, this period overlaps with the Clovis Paleoindian cultural complex (11,190-10,530 14C yr BP) and with sudden climatic changes that define the beginning of the Younger Dryas chronozone (ca. 11,000-10,000 14C yr BP), both of which have been considered as potential proximal causes of this extinction event. Radiocarbon dating of enamel and filtered bone collagen from an extinct American Mastodon ( Mammut americanum) from northern Indiana, USA, by accelerator mass spectrometer yielded direct dates of 10,055 ± 40 14C yr BP and 10,032 ± 40 14C yr BP, indicating that the animal survived beyond the Clovis time period and into the late Younger Dryas. Although the late survival of this species in mid-continental North America does not remove either humans or climatic change as contributing causes for the late Pleistocene extinctions, neither Clovis hunters nor the climatic perturbations initiating the Younger Dryas chronozone were immediately responsible for driving mastodons to extinction.

  20. Reconnaissance of the Black River, a cold-water river in the north-central part of Michigan's southern peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hendrickson, G.E.; Doonan, C.J.

    1971-01-01

    The cold-water streams of the northern states provide unique recreational values to the American people (wilderness or semi-wilderness atmosphere, fast-water canoeing, trout fishing) but the expanding recreational needs must be balanced against the growing demand of water for public and industrial supplies, for irrigation, and for the dilution of sewage and other wastes. In order to make intelligent decisions regarding use and management of the water resource for recreation and other demands, an analysis of the hydrologic factors related to recreational values is essential.The Black River north of Johannesburg in Otsego County has been rated by many fisherman as the number one brook-trout stream in the north-central part of the southern peninsula of Michigan. Headwaters are a few miles north of Johannesburg, and the Black flows northward to join the Cheboygan river a few miles south of Cheyboygan. Only the part of the Black upstream from the impoundment at Tower is included in this report.The headwaters of the Black can be reached by driving east and north from Gaylord, or east from Vanderbilt. The lower reaches included in this study can be reached from Tower or Onaway.The recreational value of a river depends on the characteristics of streamflow, water-quality, and its bed and banks. The purpose of this atlas is to describe these characteristics and to show how they relate to recreational uses.Some of the information presented here was derived from basic records of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water-Resources Division. Additional information was obtained in field reconnaissance surveys in 1966 and 1968. The study was made in cooperation with the Michigan Geological Survey, Gerald E. Eddy, Chief. Advice and assistance were also obtained from other sections of the Michigan Conservation Department.Sheet 1 of this atlas presents information on streamflow characteristics and water quality. Sheet 2 describes the physical character of the stream channel, bed and banks

  1. High-resolution and Deep Crustal Imaging Across The North Sicily Continental Margin (southern Tyrrhenian Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agate, M.; Bertotti, G.; Catalano, R.; Pepe, F.; Sulli, A.

    Three multichannel seismic reflection profiles across the North Sicily continental mar- gin have been reprocessed and interpreted. Data consist of an unpublished high pene- tration seismic profile (deep crust Italian CROP Project) and a high-resolution seismic line. These lines run in the NNE-SSW direction, from the Sicilian continental shelf to the Tyrrhenian abyssal plain (Marsili area), and are tied by a third, high penetration seismic line MS104 crossing the Sisifo High. The North Sicily continental margin represents the inner sector of the Sicilian-Maghrebian chain that is collapsed as con- sequence of extensional tectonics. The chain is formed by a tectonic wedge (12-15 km thick. It includes basinal Meso-Cenozoic carbonate units overthrusting carbonate platform rock units (Catalano et al., 2000). Presently, main culmination (e.g. Monte Solunto) and a number of tectonic depressions (e.g. Cefalù basin), filled by >1000 m thick Plio-Pleistocene sedimentary wedge, are observed along the investigated tran- sect. Seismic attributes and reflector pattern depicts a complex crustal structure. Be- tween the coast and the M. Solunto high, a transparent to diffractive band (assigned to the upper crust) is recognised above low frequency reflective layers (occurring be- tween 9 and 11 s/TWT) that dips towards the North. Their bottom can be correlated to the seismological (African?) Moho discontinuity which is (26 km deep in the Sicilian shelf (Scarascia et al., 1994). Beneath the Monte Solunto ridge, strongly deformed re- flectors occurring between 8 to 9.5 s/TWT (European lower crust?) overly the African (?) lower crust. The resulting geometry suggests underplating of the African crust respect to the European crust (?). The already deformed crustal edifice is dissected by a number of N-dipping normal faults that open extensional basins and are associ- ated with crustal thinning. The Plio-Pleistocene fill of the Cefalù basin can be subdi- vided into three subunits by

  2. Genetic sequence relationships of Winnipegosis platform carbonates, southern Elk Point basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Shanley, K.W.; Cross, T.A.

    1988-02-01

    Examination of cores and well log data from the Winnipegosis Formation (Givetian) within a study area of approximately 11,500 mi/sup 2/ (30,000 km/sup 2/) in northern North Dakota allows recognition of seven time-stratigraphic progradational units within the Winnipegosis Formation. Together with the underlying Ashern Formation, these units are arranged in landward-stepping, vertical stacking, and seaward-stepping geometric patterns, which reflect changes in relative sea level. Abrupt juxtaposition of shallow over deeper water lithologies, evidence for subaerial exposure, and onlap geometries further suggest that these progradational units form two larger, Vail-type sequences separated by regionally persistent unconformities or their correlative conformities.

  3. The tectonic crustal stress field and style of faulting along the Pacific North America Plate boundary in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Wenzheng; Hauksson, Egill

    2013-07-01

    We invert for the state of stress in the southern California crust using a catalogue of high quality earthquake focal mechanisms (1981-2010). The stress field is best resolved where seismicity rates are high and sufficient data are available to constrain the stress field across most of the region. From the stress field, we determine the maximum horizontal compressive stress (SHmax) orientations and the style of faulting across southern California. The trend of SHmax exhibits significant regional and local spatial heterogeneities. The regional trend of SHmax varies from north along the San Andreas system to NNE to the east in the Eastern California Shear Zone as well as to the west, within the Continental Borderland and the Western Transverse Ranges. The transition zones from one state of stress to the other occur over a distance of only a few kilometres, following a trend from Yucca Valley to Imperial Valley to the east, and the western edge of the Peninsular Ranges to the west. The local scale heterogeneities in the SHmax trend include NNW trends along the San Andreas Fault near Cajon Pass, Tejon Pass and the Cucapah Range, as well as NNE trends near the northern San Jacinto Fault and the Wheeler Ridge area. The style of faulting exhibits similar complexity, ranging from predominantly normal faulting in the high Sierra Nevada, to strike-slip faulting along the San Andreas system, to three consecutive bands of thrust faulting in the Wheeler Ridge area and the Western Transverse Ranges. The local variations in the style of faulting include normal faulting at the north end of the San Jacinto Fault and scattered areas of thrust faulting. The regional variations in the SHmax trends are very similar to the pattern of the GPS-measured maximum shortening axes of the surface strain rate tensor field although the strain field tends to be smoother and appears to capture some of the upper-mantle deformation field. The mean trend of SHmax departs about approximately 14° to

  4. Bottom water changes in the subtropical North Atlantic and the Southern Ocean associated to the Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moebius, I.; Friedrich, O.; Edgar, K. M.; Scher, H. D.; Sexton, P.

    2013-12-01

    The Middle Eocene Climatic Optimum (MECO) is a ~650 kyr interval of pronounced global warmth from which the climate system recovered in less than 50 kyr. Despite the valuable insights that the deep-sea sedimentary record could provide on the benthic ecosystem response to this protracted global warming event, and the mechanisms responsible for its relatively rapid recovery, we have little understanding of either. Here we present new data on bottom-water characteristics from ODP Sites 1051 (subtropical North Atlantic) and 738 (Southern Ocean), spanning the MECO and post-MECO interval (41.1 to 39.5 Ma). At Site 1051 we used benthic foraminiferal assemblages and benthic foraminifera accumulation rates (BFAR). We find little change in the species composition, but we identify two transient intervals of BFARs increasing by one order of magnitude associated with peak warming: High Productivity Intervals HPI-1 (40.07 - 39.98 Ma) and HPI-2 (39.70 - 39.62 Ma). We correlate these HPIs to intervals of increased organic carbon burial found in the Tethys and suggest that they represent periods of strengthened productivity in the subtropical North Atlantic and the Tethys. At Southern Ocean Site 738 we used benthic foraminiferal assemblages in combination with Cerium-anomaly data. In contrast to Site 1051, we notice a turnover of the benthic foraminiferal communities during the MECO (40.60 and 39.95 Ma) towards an assemblage dominated by infaunal taxa indicative of eutrophication. Additionally, we observe a drop in benthic foraminiferal abundances during the peak warming (40.10 - 39.97 Ma), synchronous to a low Cerium-anomaly and small excursion in ɛNd values. This indicates a decrease in bottom-water oxygenation during MECO peak warming, potentially caused by the transient influence of an older, oxygen-depleted water mass. Overall, our data suggest that the extent and rate of environmental change associated with the MECO vary greatly in different ocean basins and that the

  5. Genetic sequence relationships of Winnipegosis platform carbonates, southern Elk Point basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Shanley, K.W.; Cross, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    Examination of cores and well log data from the Winnipegosis Formation (Givetian) within a study area of approximately 11,500 mi/sup 2/ (30,000 km/sup 2/) in northern North Dakota allows recognition of seven time-stratigraphic progradational units within the Winnipegosis Formation. Together with the underlying Ashern Formation, these units are arranged in landward-stepping, vertical stacking, and seaward-stepping geometric patterns, which reflect changes in relative sea level. Abrupt juxtaposition of shallow over deeper water lithologies, evidence for subaerial exposure, and onlap geometries further suggest that these progradational units form two larger, Vail-type sequences separated by regionally persistent unconformities or their correlative conformities. Sea level rise during the early Eifelian caused southeastward onlap of the Ashern Formation onto Middle Silurian carbonates of the Interlake Formation. Maximum flooding, expressed by deepest marine facies and a hardground surface, suggests the existence of a condensed section at the top of the Ashern Formation. This was developed during the maximum rate of sea level rise. A decrease in the rate of sea level rise resulted in aggradation of lower Winnipegosis units on a gently dipping ramp. These are represented by nodular and burrowed open marine limestones with scattered stromatoporoid patch reefs and grainstone shoals. During the subsequent sea level fall, represented by Temple units, a shelf margin with pronounced depositional topography and adjacent starved basin were developed. Temple strata include coral-brachiopod-stromatoporoid reefs and productive fore-reef talus deposits along the shelf margin rim.

  6. Reconnaissance of the Sturgeon River, a cold-water river in the north-central part of Michigan's southern peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hendrickson, G.E.; Doonan, C.J.

    1971-01-01

    The cold-water streams of the northern states provide unique recreational values to the American people (wilderness or semi-wilderness atmosphere, fast-water canoeing, trout fishing), but the expanding recreational needs must be balanced against the growing demand of water for public and industrial supplies, for irrigation, and for the dilution of sewage and other wastes. In order to make intelligent decisions regarding use and management of the water resources for recreation and other demands, analysis of the hydrologic factors related to recreational values is essential.The Sturgeon River north of Gaylord, one of the best brown trout streams in Michigan, is located in the north-central part of the southern peninsula of Michigan with headwaters just north of Gaylord. The Sturgeon flows northward, generally paralleling Interstate Highway 75. The West Branch of the Sturgeon, which joins the main stem at Wolverine, was not included in this study. Exits from Interstate 75 at Gaylord, Vanderbilt, Wolverine, and Indian River provide easy access to the Sturgeon. The recreational value of a river depends on the hydrologic characteristics of the river-the streamflow, water quality, and character of bed and banks. The purpose of this atlas is to describe these characteristics and to show how they relate to recreational uses. Much of the information presented here was derived from basic records of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Resources Division. Additional information was obtained in a reconnaissance survey in May and June, 1966. The area of field study is limited to the channel, bed, and banks of the main stem from source to mouth. The study was made in cooperation with the Michigan Geological Survey, Gerald E. Eddy, Chief. Advice and assistance were also obtained from other sections of the Michigan Conservation Department. Sheet 1 of this atlas presents information on streamflow characteristics and water quality. Sheet 2 describes the physical characteristics of the

  7. Impact factors identification of spatial heterogeneity of herbaceous plant diversity on five southern islands of Miaodao Archipelago in North China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Yuan; Shi, Honghua; Wang, Xiaoli; Qin, Xuebo; Zheng, Wei; Peng, Shitao

    2016-09-01

    Herbaceous plants are widely distributed on islands and where they exhibit spatial heterogeneity. Accurately identifying the impact factors that drive spatial heterogeneity can reveal typical island biodiversity patterns. Five southern islands in the Miaodao Archipelago, North China were studied herein. The spatial distribution of herbaceous plant diversity on these islands was analyzed, and the impact factors and their degree of impact on spatial heterogeneity were identified using CCA ordination and ANOVA. The results reveal 114 herbaceous plant species, belonging to 94 genera from 34 families in the 50 plots sampled. The total species numbers on different islands were significantly positively correlated with island area, and the average α diversity was correlated with human activities, while the β diversity among islands was more affected by island area than mutual distances. Spatial heterogeneity within islands indicated that the diversities were generally high in areas with higher altitude, slope, total nitrogen, total carbon, and canopy density, and lower moisture content, pH, total phosphorus, total potassium, and aspect. Among the environmental factors, pH, canopy density, total K, total P, moisture content, altitude, and slope had significant gross effects, but only canopy density exhibited a significant net effect. Terrain affected diversity by restricting plantation, plantation in turn influenced soil properties and the two together affected diversity. Therefore, plantation was ultimately the fundamental driving factor for spatial heterogeneity in herbaceous plant diversity on the five islands.

  8. Impact of coastal defence structures (tetrapods) on a demersal hard-bottom fish community in the southern North Sea.

    PubMed

    Wehkamp, Stephanie; Fischer, Philipp

    2013-02-01

    In the coming decades, artificial defence structures will increase in importance worldwide for the protection of coasts against the impacts of global warming. However, the ecological effects of such structures on the natural surroundings remain unclear. We investigated the impact of experimentally introduced tetrapod fields on the demersal fish community in a hard-bottom area in the southern North Sea. The results indicated a significant decrease in fish abundance in the surrounding area caused by migration effects towards the artificial structures. Diversity (HB) and evenness (E) values exhibited greater variation after the introduction of the tetrapods. Additionally, a distinct increase in young-of-the-year (YOY) fish was observed near the structures within the second year after introduction. We suggest that the availability of adequate refuges in combination with additional food resources provided by the artificial structures has a highly species-specific attraction effect. However, these findings also demonstrate that our knowledge regarding the impact of artificial structures on temperate fish communities is still too limited to truly understand the ecological processes that are initiated by the introduction of artificial structures. Long-term investigations and additional experimental in situ work worldwide will be indispensable for a full understanding of the mechanisms by which coastal defence structures interact with the coastal environment.

  9. Distribution of total mercury in surface sediments of the western Jade Bay, Lower Saxonian Wadden Sea, southern North Sea.

    PubMed

    Jin, Huafang; Liebezeit, Gerd; Ziehe, Daniel

    2012-04-01

    A total of 114 surface sediment samples was equidistantly collected in the western part of the Jade Bay, southern North Sea, to analyse total mercury contents as well as grain size distribution and total organic carbon (TOC) contents. Total mercury was determined by oxygen combustion-gold amalgamation. Validation, precision and accuracy of the method were evaluated and controlled with two certified reference materials (HISS-1 and MESS-3). Total mercury contents varied between 8 and 243 ng/g dry sediment with a mean value of 103 ng/g dw. The mercury levels in surface sediments showed an inhomogeneous spatial distribution with higher contents in near-dike areas. The values are mostly in the range of natural background values (50–100 ng/g dw) and positively related to TOC and clay/silt contents (<63 μm). The present total mercury contents are compared to those of previous studies, in order to estimate possible temporal trends of mercury contents in the study area over the last decades. Moreover, the comparison to sediment quality guidelines indicated that the surface sediments of the Jade Bay are not mercury contaminated. These results also suggested that the current mercury contents of Jade Bay surficial sediments are mostly affected by atmospheric deposition and re-emission.

  10. Relationships between ground and airborne gamma-ray spectrometric survey data, North Ras Millan, Southern Sinai Peninsula, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Youssef, Mohamed A S

    2016-02-01

    In the last decades of years, there was considerable growth in the use of airborne gamma-ray spectrometry. With this growth, there was an increasing need to standardize airborne measurements, so that they can be independent of survey parameters. Acceptable procedures were developed for converting airborne to ground gamma-ray spectrometric measurements of total-count intensity as well as, potassium, equivalent uranium and equivalent thorium concentrations, due to natural sources of radiation. The present study aims mainly to establish relationships between ground and airborne gamma-ray spectrometric data, North Ras Millan, Southern Sinai Peninsula, Egypt. The relationships between airborne and ground gamma-ray spectrometric data were deduced for the original and separated rock units in the study area. Various rocks in the study area, represented by Quaternary Wadi sediments, Cambro-Ordovician sandstones, basic dykes and granites, are shown on the detailed geologic map. The structures are displayed, which located on the detailed geologic map, are compiled from the integration of previous geophysical and surface geological studies.

  11. A 3-D shear velocity model of the southern North American and Caribbean plates from ambient noise and earthquake tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaite, B.; Villaseñor, A.; Iglesias, A.; Herraiz, M.; Jiménez-Munt, I.

    2015-02-01

    We use group velocities from earthquake tomography together with group and phase velocities from ambient noise tomography (ANT) of Rayleigh waves to invert for the 3-D shear-wave velocity structure (5-70 km) of the Caribbean (CAR) and southern North American (NAM) plates. The lithospheric model proposed offers a complete image of the crust and uppermost-mantle with imprints of the tectonic evolution. One of the most striking features inferred is the main role of the Ouachita-Marathon-Sonora orogeny front on the crustal seismic structure of the NAM plate. A new imaged feature is the low crustal velocities along the USA-Mexico border. The model also shows a break of the east-west mantle velocity dichotomy of the NAM and CAR plates beneath the Isthmus of the Tehuantepec and the Yucatan Block. High upper-mantle velocities along the Mesoamerican Subduction Zone coincide with inactive volcanic areas while the lowest velocities correspond to active volcanic arcs and thin lithospheric mantle regions.

  12. GPS tracking data of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls breeding at the southern North Sea coast

    PubMed Central

    Stienen, Eric W.M.; Desmet, Peter; Aelterman, Bart; Courtens, Wouter; Feys, Simon; Vanermen, Nicolas; Verstraete, Hilbran; de Walle, Marc Van; Deneudt, Klaas; Hernandez, Francisco; Houthoofdt, Robin; Vanhoorne, Bart; Bouten, Willem; Buijs, Roland-Jan; Kavelaars, Marwa M.; Müller, Wendt; Herman, David; Matheve, Hans; Sotillo, Alejandro; Lens, Luc

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this data paper, Bird tracking - GPS tracking of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls breeding at the southern North Sea coast is described, a species occurrence dataset published by the Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO). The dataset (version 5.5) contains close to 2.5 million occurrences, recorded by 101 GPS trackers mounted on 75 Lesser Black-backed Gulls and 26 Herring Gulls breeding at the Belgian and Dutch coast. The trackers were developed by the University of Amsterdam Bird Tracking System (UvA-BiTS, http://www.uva-bits.nl). These automatically record and transmit bird movements, which allows us and others to study their habitat use and migration behaviour in great detail. Our bird tracking network is operational since 2013. It is funded for LifeWatch by the Hercules Foundation and maintained in collaboration with UvA-BiTS and the Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ). The recorded data are periodically released in bulk as open data (http://dataset.inbo.be/bird-tracking-gull-occurrences), and are also accessible through CartoDB and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF). PMID:26877689

  13. A geophysical overview of the southern continental margin of North America in the Late Precambrian/Cambrian

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, G.R. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-02-01

    Recent geophysical studies have shed considerable light on the nature and extent of the southern Continental margin of North America which formed during the Late Precambrian/Cambrian. To the east between Arkansas and Alabama, the PASSCAL/Ouachita seismic experiment and older results in Mississippi indicate that this margin is largely preserved beneath allochthonous rocks emplaced during the Ouachita orogeny. Here the margin is fairly abrupt suggesting transtension was important in this origin. The Wiggins and Sabine blocks appear to be continental fragments which may have formed along this margin. In Texas, the margin extends around the Llano uplift in a sinuous fashion. In this area, Mesozoic extension clouds the picture considerably. However, structural complexities along this portion of he margin can be inferred form gravity data. In West Texas, the margin bends westward and then southward. A very deep oil exploration test which was recently drilled in this area provides valuable constraints for geophysical models of this portion of the margin. Recent results in Mexico allows the authors to trace this margin further south into the state of Chihuahua than previously possible.

  14. GPS tracking data of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls breeding at the southern North Sea coast.

    PubMed

    Stienen, Eric W M; Desmet, Peter; Aelterman, Bart; Courtens, Wouter; Feys, Simon; Vanermen, Nicolas; Verstraete, Hilbran; de Walle, Marc Van; Deneudt, Klaas; Hernandez, Francisco; Houthoofdt, Robin; Vanhoorne, Bart; Bouten, Willem; Buijs, Roland-Jan; Kavelaars, Marwa M; Müller, Wendt; Herman, David; Matheve, Hans; Sotillo, Alejandro; Lens, Luc

    2016-01-01

    In this data paper, Bird tracking - GPS tracking of Lesser Black-backed Gulls and Herring Gulls breeding at the southern North Sea coast is described, a species occurrence dataset published by the Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO). The dataset (version 5.5) contains close to 2.5 million occurrences, recorded by 101 GPS trackers mounted on 75 Lesser Black-backed Gulls and 26 Herring Gulls breeding at the Belgian and Dutch coast. The trackers were developed by the University of Amsterdam Bird Tracking System (UvA-BiTS, http://www.uva-bits.nl). These automatically record and transmit bird movements, which allows us and others to study their habitat use and migration behaviour in great detail. Our bird tracking network is operational since 2013. It is funded for LifeWatch by the Hercules Foundation and maintained in collaboration with UvA-BiTS and the Flanders Marine Institute (VLIZ). The recorded data are periodically released in bulk as open data (http://dataset.inbo.be/bird-tracking-gull-occurrences), and are also accessible through CartoDB and the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF).

  15. Hydro-meteorological influences and multimodal suspended particle size distributions in the Belgian nearshore area (southern North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fettweis, Michael; Baeye, Matthias; Lee, Byung Joon; Chen, Peihung; Yu, Jason C. S.

    2012-04-01

    Suspended particulate matter (SPM) concentration and particle size distribution (PSD) were assessed in a coastal turbidity maximum area (southern North Sea) during a composite period of 37 days in January-April 2008. PSDs were measured with a LISST 100X and classified using entropy analysis in terms of subtidal alongshore flow. The PSDs during tide-dominated conditions showed distinct multimodal behaviour due to flocculation, revealing that the building blocks of flocs consist of primary particles (<3 μm) and flocculi (15 μm). Flocculi comprise clusters of clay minerals, whereas primary particles have various compositions (calcite, clays). The PSDs during storms with a NE-directed alongshore subtidal current (NE storms) are typically unimodal and characterised by mainly granular material (silt, sand) resuspended from the seabed. During storms with a SW-directed alongshore subtidal current (SW storms), by contrast, mainly flocculated material can be identified in the PSDs. The findings emphasise the importance of wind-induced advection, alongshore subtidal flow and highly concentrated mud suspensions (HCMSs) as regulating mechanisms of SPM concentration, as well as other SPM characteristics (cohesiveness or composition of mixed sediment particles) and size distribution in a high-turbidity area. The direction of subtidal alongshore flow during SW storm events results in an increase in cohesive SPM concentration, HCMS formation, and the armouring of sand; by contrast, there is a decrease in cohesive SPM concentration, no HCMS formation, and an increase in sand and silt in suspension during NE storms.

  16. Chronic Diseases in North-West Tanzania and Southern Uganda. Public Perceptions of Terminologies, Aetiologies, Symptoms and Preferred Management

    PubMed Central

    Nnko, Soori; Bukenya, Dominic; Kavishe, Bazil Balthazar; Biraro, Samuel; Peck, Robert; Kapiga, Saidi; Grosskurth, Heiner; Seeley, Janet

    2015-01-01

    Background Research has shown that health system utilization is low for chronic diseases (CDs) other than HIV. We describe the knowledge and perceptions of CDs identified from rural and urban communities in north-west Tanzania and southern Uganda. Methods Data were collected through a quantitative population survey, a quantitative health facility survey and focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs) in subgroups of population survey participants. The main focus of this paper is the findings from the FGDs and IDIs. Results We conducted 24 FGDs, involving approximately 180 adult participants and IDIs with 116 participants (≥18 years). CDs studied included: asthma/chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD), diabetes, epilepsy, hypertension, cardiac failure and HIV- related disease. The understanding of most chronic conditions involved a combination of biomedical information, gleaned from health facility visits, local people who had suffered from a complaint or knew others who had and beliefs drawn from information shared in the community. The biomedical contribution shows some understanding of the aetiology of a condition and the management of that condition. However, local beliefs for certain conditions (such as epilepsy) suggest that biomedical treatment may be futile and therefore work counter to biomedical prescriptions for management. Conclusion Current perceptions of selected CDs may represent a barrier that prevents people from adopting efficacious health and treatment seeking behaviours. Interventions to improve this situation must include efforts to improve the quality of existing health services, so that people can access relevant, reliable and trustworthy services. PMID:26555896

  17. Historical changes in carbon dioxide (CO2) and dimethyl sulphide (DMS) emissions in the eutrophied Southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gypens, N.; Borges, A. V.; Lancelot, C.

    2012-04-01

    Anthropogenic activities after the Second World War have severely increased river nutrient [nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P)] loads to European coastal areas. The resulting N: P: Si imbalance (compared to phytoplankton requirements) stimulated in the Southern North Sea the growth of Phaeocystis colonies modifying the functioning of the ecosystem and, therefore, the carbon but also the biogenic sulphur cycles. Phaeocystis is a significant producer of DMSP (dimethylsulphide propionate), the precursor of DMS. When emitted to the atmosphere the DMS has a cooling effect on the climate contrarily to the CO2 greenhouse gas. Since the late 1990's specific nutrient reduction policies have however considerably reduced P loads while N is maintained. In this application we explore, with a mathematical tool, the effects of changing N and P loads on air-sea CO2 exchanges and DMS marine emissions. The chosen model is the MIRO-CO2-DMS, a complex biogeochemical model describing carbon, biogenic sulphur and nutrient cycles in the marine domain. Model simulations are performed for the contemporary period since 1950, using real forcing fields for sea surface temperature, wind speed and atmospheric CO2 and RIVERSTRAHLER model simulations for river carbon and nutrient loads. Results are discussing the importance of human activities and river inputs of carbon and nutrients on the eutrophication of coastal areas, their ability to absorb atmospheric CO2 and the importance of DMS emissions associated with phytoplankton blooms, especially Phaeocystis.

  18. A Lower Ordovician sponge/algal facies in the southern United States and its counterparts elsewhere in North America

    SciTech Connect

    Alberstadt, L. ); Repetski, J.E. )

    1989-06-01

    Subsurface Ordovician rocks in the Black Warrior Basin, Mississippi Embayment, and the eastern part of the Arkoma Basin reflect a different depositional history than coeval rocks exposed in the Nashville Basin, Ozark Dome, and southern Appalachians. The succession consists of four informal lithologic units. From top to bottom these are: (1) Stones River limestones, (2) upper dolostone, (3) sponge/algal limestones characterized by the presence of Nuia, and (4) lower dolostone. Of these, the sponge/algal limestone unit is the most atypical. It has a conspicuous biotic assemblage which can be recognized petrographically in well cuttings. The diagnostic fossil allochems are: sponges, sponge spicules, Nuia, Girvanella, and Sphaerocodium. Conodonts from the sponge/algal limestones are probably entirely Early Ordovician (Canadian) and include cold- and deep-water species found in the North Atlantic Province, whereas those in the overlying dolostones represent exclusively warm-water, shelf environments. The conodonts in the Black Warrior Basin suggest that an unconformity between Lower and Middle Ordovician carbonates (Knox unconformity) does not exist in much of that region. The sponge/algal limestones represent a different facies than their coeval shelf rocks in the interior of the continent. The limestone contains a distinctive biotic assemblage recognized in Lower Ordovician rocks in Newfoundland, in the Arbuckle and Wichita mountains of Oklahoma, in West Texas, and in the Great Basin of Nevada and Utah.

  19. A seasonal study of particulate organic matter composition and quality along an offshore transect in the southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Guitton, M.; Soetaert, K.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2017-03-01

    We investigated temporal differences in particulate organic matter (POM) composition and quality in the water column and sediment at three stations along a transect from the coast via Oyster Grounds to Dogger Bank within the southern North Sea, using a multiproxy approach covering a wide spectrum of organic matter (OM) degradation states. Results of pigments and phospholipid-derived fatty acids showed distinct OM composition and quality differences in these stations, as well as seasonal variations. Major events, such as a late fall bloom at Dogger Bank and a spring bloom at Oyster Grounds and the Coastal Station were highlighted and the semi-depositional status of Oyster Grounds was confirmed. The OM composition and quality were relatively constant in the upper 10 cm of the sediment at all stations. Finally, this study highlights the importance of lateral and vertical transport processes in seasonal variations in the biogeochemical carbon cycle in this area and the intense pre-depositional processing before eventual burial in coastal settings.

  20. A North American ammonite fauna from the late Middle Turonian of Vaucluse and Gard, southern France: the Romaniceras mexicanum, Prionocyclus hyatti and Coilopoceras cf. springeri association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amédro, Francis; Robaszynski, Francis; Matrion, Bertrand; Devalque, Christian

    2016-12-01

    An unusual, exotic, ammonite fauna including Romaniceras mexicanum (Jones, 1938), Prionocyclus hyatti (Stanton, 1894) and Coilopoceras cf. springeri (Hyatt, 1903) is recorded from the late Middle Turonian of Vaucluse and Gard, southern France. It is the first record of this ammonite association outside the Gulf Coast region and the Western Interior of the United States of North America. Up to present, these species were considered as endemic to the Western Interior sea-way. The migration of numerous ammonites from North America to western Europe during the late Middle Turonian suggests it is linked to a transgressive event or to a short sea-level high.

  1. Genetic sequence relationships of Winnipegosis platform carbonates, Southern Elk Point basin, North Dakota

    SciTech Connect

    Shanley, K.W.; Cross, T.A.

    1988-07-01

    Examination of cores and well-log data from the Winnipegosis Formation (Givetian) within a study area of approximately 11,500 mi/sup 2/ (30,000 km/sup 2/) in northern North Dakota allows recognition of seven time-stratigraphic progradational units within the Winnipegosis Formation. Together with the underlying Ashern Formation, these units are arranged in landward-stepping, vertical stacking, and seaward-stepping geometric patterns, which reflect changes in relative sea level. Abrupt juxtaposition of shallow over deeper water lithologies, evidence for subaerial exposure, and onlap geometries further suggest that these progradational units form two larger Vail-type sequences separated by regionally persistent unconformities or their correlative conformities. Sea level rise during the early Eifelian caused southeastward onlap of the Ashern Formation onto Middle Silurian carbonates of the Interlake Formation. Maximum flooding, expressed by deepest marine facies and a hardground surface, suggests the existence of a condensed section at the top of the Ashern Formation. This section was developed during the maximum rate of sea level rise. A decrease in the rate of sea level rise resulted in aggradation of lower Winnipegosis units on a gently dipping ramp. These units are presented by nodular and burrowed open-marine limestones with scattered stromatoporoid patch reefs and grainstone shoals. During the subsequent sea level fall, represented by Temple units, a shelf margin with pronounced depositional topography and adjacent starved basin were developed. Temple strata include coral-brachiopod-stromatoporoid reefs and productive fore-reef talus deposits along the shelf-margin rim. With increased rates of sea level fall, the platform interior and shelf margin were subaerially exposed, slope carbonates were dolomitized, and the E-shale was deposited as a lowstand wedge.

  2. Ordovician platform, slope, and basin facies in subsurface of southern North America

    SciTech Connect

    Alberstadt, L.P.; Colvin, G.; Sauve, J.

    1986-05-01

    Ordovician carbonates of the Nashville dome and Ozark dome regions have long been considered typical shelf deposits. In the subsurface to the south, in the Black Warrior basin, Mississippi Embayment, and Arkoma basin, these shelf carbonate units changed facies. The most significant change is the occurrence of a thick limestone unit characterized by a faunal and floral assemblage of Nuia, Girvanella (isolated long strands), Sphaerocodium, a delicate stacked-chambered organism (.algal), and sponge spicules and sponge mudstone clumps. In ascending order, the complete Ordovician sequence consists of: a lower dolostone, the Nuia-sponge limestone, a dolostone, and a limestone. The upper part of this four-fold sequence changes character westward into the Arkoma basin. The lower two units maintain their character for long distances along depositional strike and occur in parts of the Appalachians as far north as Newfoundland, and on the opposite side of the continent in Nevada. The Nuia-sponge assemblage is a distinctive petrographic marker and seems to be a persistent Ordovician rock and fossil assemblage of widespread occurrence. In Nevada, it occurs on the surface where it is associated with slump and slide features that suggest that it is an outer shelf or upper slope deposit. Coeval carbonates in the Ouachita Mountains are different and show indications of being deep water (basinal). Biostratigraphic evidence indicates that the succession in the subsurface is continuous; the regional Lower Ordovician-Middle Ordovician unconformity is absent. The Lower Ordovician-Middle Ordovician boundary falls near the top of the Nuia-sponge mudstone unit and not at the top of the underlying thick dolostone unit.

  3. Efficiency of blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) spat collectors in highly dynamic tidal environments of the Lower Saxonian coast (southern North Sea).

    PubMed

    Walter, Uwe; Liebezeit, Gerd

    2003-07-01

    Traditional mussel culture in the Wadden Sea, southern North Sea, is carried out by taking seed mussels of about 1-4 cm shell length from natural beds and transplanting them to permanently water covered sites. Besides the damage done to the natural beds, the ratio of seeded to harvested mussels is only about 1:1-1.3, i.e. about the same tonnage of mussels seeded is recovered. In addition, this technique relies exclusively on natural spat falls, which do not occur regularly. In order to overcome these difficulties spat collectors have been deployed in the Jade Bay, southern North Sea. These provided suitable settlement grounds for mussel larvae. Blue mussel weights reached weights of about 8-9 kg/m collector rope with maximum shell lengths of 4-5 cm within one growing season.

  4. Participation in Lifelong Learning: Reality or Myth? Issues Arising from a United Kingdom Coalfield Closure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thursfield, Denise; Henderson, Roger

    2004-01-01

    In the spring of 2004, the Selby Coalfield, the largest of the remaining coal mines in the United Kingdom (UK) will close and 2071 employees will lose their jobs. The impact of the closure will be severe in the surrounding area, and will present a challenge to local employment services and training agencies. It will also test the UK government's…

  5. Unique organic remains from an upper Permian coal bearing sequence in the Talcher Coalfield, Orissa, India

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, A.

    2004-07-01

    The playnological assemblage of coal bearing upper Permian sequence of Talcher Coalfield registers presence of some peculiar organic remains. These are described as Orissiella gen. nov., which is characterized by a vesicle with collar-like structure at the oral end, spines and or corrugations on the body. The affinity and palaeoecological significance of Orissiella is also discussed. 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 plates.

  6. Geophysical and geologic studies in southern Mecklenburg County and vicinity, North Carolina and South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilson, Frederick A.

    1983-01-01

    Geophysical methods consisting of gravity, aeromagnetics and aeroradioactivity have been applied to part of the Charlotte and Carolina slate belts in southern Mecklenburg County and vicinity to help interpret geology, lithology and structure. High aeroradioactivity is associated with potassium-rich granitic plutons, muscovite-rich gneisses, schists, and metavolcanic rocks; positive gravity and magnetic anomalies are associated with gabbro plutons; and negative gravity anomalies are associated with granitic plutons. At the west side of the slate belt, the Tillery phyllite is interpreted as having undergone progressive metamorphism. The underlying Uwharrie Formation extends into the Charlotte belt where it is mapped as metavolcanic rocks. Gravity models of the Carolina slate belt indicate that it is a synform containing a wedge of metasedimentary and volcanoclastic rock on plutonic basement. The basement is exposed in the adjacent Charlotte belt antiform. The northern Charlotte belt contains mainly plutonic rocks which have been divided into 3 supergroups of plutons based upon chemistry, mineralogy, texture, and age. They are: 1. Old Plutonic supergroup - plutons 545-490 m.y. that are medium to coarse-grained tonalite, quartz diorite, and granodiorites. 2. Concord-Salisbury supergroup -- plutons 426-350 m.y. which form sheet-like intrusions of differentiated gabbro; local volcanic centers with ring complexes 13 km in diameter that suggest magma chambers 0 - 8 km deep; smaller bodies of diorite, monzonite, and syenite; and small Salisbury type granodiorites. 3. Landis supergroup -- plutons 350-280 m.y. that are usually very coarse-grained, porphyritic, 'big feldspar,' potassium-rich granites. The Mecklenburg-Weddington gabbro complex of the Concord-Salisbury supergroup, the largest feature in the study area, contains three large gabbro plutons. The gabbro intruded old Plutonic complex rocks and could-have produced the metamorphic reaction K-feldspar + sillimanite

  7. Assessment of Coal Geology, Resources, and Reserves in the Gillette Coalfield, Powder River Basin, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Luppens, James A.; Scott, David C.; Haacke, Jon E.; Osmonson, Lee M.; Rohrbacher, Timothy J.; Ellis, Margaret S.

    2008-01-01

    The Gillette coalfield, within the Powder River Basin in east-central Wyoming, is the most prolific coalfield in the United States. In 2006, production from the coalfield totaled over 431 million short tons of coal, which represented over 37 percent of the Nation's total yearly production. The Anderson and Canyon coal beds in the Gillette coalfield contain some of the largest deposits of low-sulfur subbituminous coal in the world. By utilizing the abundance of new data from recent coalbed methane development in the Powder River Basin, this study represents the most comprehensive evaluation of coal resources and reserves in the Gillette coalfield to date. Eleven coal beds were evaluated to determine the in-place coal resources. Six of the eleven coal beds were evaluated for reserve potential given current technology, economic factors, and restrictions to mining. These restrictions included the presence of railroads, a Federal interstate highway, cities, a gas plant, and alluvial valley floors. Other restrictions, such as thickness of overburden, thickness of coal beds, and areas of burned coal were also considered. The total original coal resource in the Gillette coalfield for all eleven coal beds assessed, and no restrictions applied, was calculated to be 201 billion short tons. Available coal resources, which are part of the original coal resource that is accessible for potential mine development after subtracting all restrictions, are about 164 billion short tons (81 percent of the original coal resource). Recoverable coal, which is the portion of available coal remaining after subtracting mining and processing losses, was determined for a stripping ratio of 10:1 or less. After mining and processing losses were subtracted, a total of 77 billion short tons of coal were calculated (48 percent of the original coal resource). Coal reserves are the portion of the recoverable coal that can be mined, processed, and marketed at a profit at the time of the economic

  8. North Atlantic Deep Water export to the Southern Ocean over the past 14 Myr: Evidence from Nd and Pb isotopes in ferromanganese crusts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, M.; Whiteley, N.; Kasten, S.; Hein, J.R.; O'Nions, K.

    2002-01-01

    The intensity of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) production has been one of the most important parameters controlling the global thermohaline ocean circulation system and climate. Here we present a new approach to reconstruct the overall strength of NADW export from the North Atlantic to the Southern Ocean over the past 14 Myr applying the deep water Nd and Pb isotope composition as recorded by ferromanganese crusts and nodules. We present the first long-term Nd and Pb isotope time series for deep Southern Ocean water masses, which are compared with previously published time series for NADW from the NW Atlantic Ocean. These data suggest a continuous and strong export of NADW, or a precursor of it, into the Southern Ocean between 14 and 3 Ma. An increasing difference in Nd and Pb isotope compositions between the NW Atlantic and the Southern Ocean over the past 3 Myr gives evidence for a progressive overall reduction of NADW export since the onset of Northern Hemisphere glaciation (NHG). The Nd isotope data allow us to assess at least semiquantitatively that the amount of this reduction has been in the range between 14 and 37% depending on location.

  9. Continuous wavelet transform and Euler deconvolution method and their application to magnetic field data of Jharia coalfield, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Arvind; Singh, Upendra Kumar

    2017-02-01

    This paper deals with the application of continuous wavelet transform (CWT) and Euler deconvolution methods to estimate the source depth using magnetic anomalies. These methods are utilized mainly to focus on the fundamental issue of mapping the major coal seam and locating tectonic lineaments. The main aim of the study is to locate and characterize the source of the magnetic field by transferring the data into an auxiliary space by CWT. The method has been tested on several synthetic source anomalies and finally applied to magnetic field data from Jharia coalfield, India. Using magnetic field data, the mean depth of causative sources points out the different lithospheric depth over the study region. Also, it is inferred that there are two faults, namely the northern boundary fault and the southern boundary fault, which have an orientation in the northeastern and southeastern direction respectively. Moreover, the central part of the region is more faulted and folded than the other parts and has sediment thickness of about 2.4 km. The methods give mean depth of the causative sources without any a priori information, which can be used as an initial model in any inversion algorithm.

  10. Geology, mineralization, and geochronology of the Qianhe gold deposit, Xiong'ershan area, southern North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Ke-Fei; Li, Jian-Wei; Selby, David; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Bi, Shi-Jian; Deng, Xiao-Dong

    2013-08-01

    The Qianhe gold deposit in the Xiong'ershan area is located along the southern margin of the Archean-Paleoproterozoic North China Craton. The deposit consists of six orebodies that are hosted in Paleoproterozoic andesites to basaltic andesites and structurally controlled by roughly EW-trending faults. Individual orebodies comprise auriferous quartz veins and disseminated Au-bearing pyrite within hydrothermally altered rocks on both sides of, or close to, the veins. Ore-related hydrothermal alteration has produced various mixtures of K-feldspar, quartz, sericite, chlorite, epidote, carbonate, and sulfides. Pyrite is the most important ore mineral, associated with minor amounts of galena, sphalerite, and chalcopyrite. Other trace minerals include molybdenite, arsenopyrite, scheelite, rutile, xenotime, and parisite. Gold occurs mostly as native gold and electrum enclosed in pyrite or along microfractures of sulfides and quartz. Microthermometric measurements of primary inclusions in auriferous quartz suggest that gold and associated minerals were precipitated in the range of 160-305 °C from aqueous or carbonic-aqueous fluids with salinities of 6-22 wt% NaCl equiv. Samples of molybdenite coexisting with Au-bearing pyrite have Re-Os model ages of 134-135 Ma, whereas ore-related hydrothermal sericite separates yield 40Ar/39Ar plateau ages between 127 and 124 Ma. The Re-Os and 40Ar/39Ar ages are remarkably consistent with zircon U-Pb ages (134.5 ± 1.5 and 127.2 ± 1.4 Ma; 1 σ) of the biotite monzogranite from the Heyu-intrusive complex and granitic dikes in and close to the Qianhe gold mine, indicating a close temporal and thus possibly genetic relationship between gold mineralization and granitic magmatism in the area. Fluid inclusion waters extracted from auriferous quartz have δD values of -80 to -72 ‰, whereas the calculated δ 18OH2O values range from 3.1 to 3.8 ‰. The hydrogen and oxygen isotopes from this study and previous work indicate that ore fluids

  11. Coupled decadal variability of the North Atlantic Oscillation, regional rainfall and karst spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Vita, P.; Allocca, V.; Manna, F.; Fabbrocino, S.

    2012-05-01

    Thus far, studies on climate change have focused mainly on the variability of the atmospheric and surface components of the hydrologic cycle, investigating the impact of this variability on the environment, especially with respect to the risks of desertification, droughts and floods. Conversely, the impacts of climate change on the recharge of aquifers and on the variability of groundwater flow have been less investigated, especially in Mediterranean karst areas whose water supply systems depend heavily upon groundwater exploitation. In this paper, long-term climatic variability and its influence on groundwater recharge were analysed by examining decadal patterns of precipitation, air temperature and spring discharges in the Campania region (southern Italy), coupled with the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). The time series of precipitation and air temperature were gathered over 90 yr, from 1921 to 2010, using 18 rain gauges and 9 air temperature stations with the most continuous functioning. The time series of the winter NAO index and of the discharges of 3 karst springs, selected from those feeding the major aqueducts systems, were collected for the same period. Regional normalised indexes of the precipitation, air temperature and karst spring discharges were calculated, and different methods were applied to analyse the related time series, including long-term trend analysis using smoothing numerical techniques, cross-correlation and Fourier analysis. The investigation of the normalised indexes highlighted the existence of long-term complex periodicities, from 2 to more than 30 yr, with differences in average values of up to approximately ±30% for precipitation and karst spring discharges, which were both strongly correlated with the winter NAO index. Although the effects of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) had already been demonstrated in the long-term precipitation and streamflow patterns of different European countries and Mediterranean areas, the results

  12. Reservoir leakage along concentric faults in the Southern North Sea: Implications for the deployment of CCS and EOR techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, Nicholas I. P.; Alves, Tiago M.; Blenkinsop, Tom G.

    2016-10-01

    High-quality 3D seismic and borehole data in the Broad Fourteens Basin, Southern North Sea, is used to investigate newly recognised concentric faults formed in salt-withdrawal basins flanking reactivated salt structures. Throw-depth and throw-distance plots were used to understand the growth histories of individual faults. As a result, three families of concentric faults are identified: a) intra-seal faults within a salt-withdrawal basin, b) faults connecting the seal and the reservoir on the crest of an inverted anticline, c) raft-bounding faults propagating into reservoir units. They have moved obliquely and show normal throws, even though they formed during a period of regional compression. Faults in the salt-withdrawal basin and on the inverted anticline are highly segmented, increasing the chances of compartmentalisation or localised fluid flow through fault linkages. Slip tendency analysis was carried out on the distinct fault families to compare the likelihood of slip along a fault at different pore fluid pressures and within different lithologies. Our results show that sections of the faults are optimally oriented with regards to maximum horizontal stresses (σHmax), increasing the slip tendency. The identified faults cut through a variety of lithologies, allowing different values of pore fluid pressures to build up before faults reactivate. Within the Vlieland Sandstones, pore fluid pressures of 30 MPa are not sufficient to reactivate pre-existing faults, whereas in the deeper Posidonia Shales faults might reactivate at pore fluid pressures of 25 MPa. Fluid flow features preferentially occur near fault segments close to failure. Heterogeneity in slip tendency along concentric faults, and high degrees of fault segmentation, present serious hazards when injecting CO2 into the subsurface. This study stresses the importance of high-quality 3D seismic data and the need to evaluate individual fault systems when investigating potential reservoirs for carbon

  13. Influences of the El Nino Southern Oscillation and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation on the Timing of the North American Spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Ault, Toby R.; Cook, Benjamin I.; Betancourt, Julio L.; Schwartz, Mark D.

    2012-01-01

    Detrended, modelled first leaf dates for 856 sites across North America for the period 1900-2008 are used to examine how the El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) separately and together might influence the timing of spring. Although spring (mean March through April) ENSO and PDO signals are apparent in first leaf dates, the signals are not statistically significant (at a 95% confidence level (p <0.05)) for most sites. The most significant ENSO/PDO signal in first leaf dates occurs for El Nino and positive PDO conditions. An analysis of the spatial distributions of first leaf dates for separate and combined ENSO/PDO conditions features a northwest-southeast dipole that is significantly (at p <0.05) different than the distributions for neutral conditions. The nature of the teleconnection between Pacific SST's and first leaf dates is evident in comparable composites for detrended sea level pressure (SLP) in the spring months. During positive ENSO/PDO, there is an anomalous flow of warm air from the southwestern US into the northwestern US and an anomalous northeasterly flow of cold air from polar regions into the eastern and southeastern US. These flow patterns are reversed during negative ENSO/PDO. Although the magnitudes of first leaf date departures are not necessarily significantly related to ENSO and PDO, the spatial patterns of departures are significantly related to ENSO and PDO. These significant relations and the long-lived persistence of SSTs provide a potential tool for forecasting the tendencies for first leaf dates to be early or late.

  14. Assessing the effect of nutrient mitigation measures in the watersheds of the Southern Bight of the North Sea.

    PubMed

    Thieu, Vincent; Garnier, Josette; Billen, Gilles

    2010-02-15

    The Seine, Somme, and Scheldt Rivers (France, Belgium, and Netherlands) are the major delivering rivers flowing into the continental coastal zone of the Southern Bight of the North Sea, an area regularly affected by eutrophication problems. In the present work, the Seneque-Riverstrahler model was implemented in a multi-regional case study in order to test several planned mitigation measures aimed at limiting stream nutrient contamination and restoring balanced nutrient ratios at the coastal zone. This modeling approach, which is spatially distributed at the basin scale, allows assessing the impact of any change in human activities, which widely differ over the three basins. Here, we define realistic scenarios based on currently proposed measures to reduce point and non-point sources, such as the upgrading of wastewater treatment, the introduction of catch crops, and the development of extensive farming. An analysis of the current situation showed that a 47-72% reduction in P point-source emissions within the three basins could be reached if the intended P treatment was generalized to the largest treatment plants. However, only an overall 14-23% reduction in N could be achieved at the outlet of the three basins, by combining improved wastewater treatment and land use with management measures aimed at regulating agricultural practices. Nonetheless, in spite of these efforts, N will still be exported in large excess with respect to the equilibrium defined by the Redfield ratios, even in the most optimistic hypothesis describing the long-term response of groundwater nitrate concentrations. A comprehensive assessment of these mitigation measures supports the need for additional reductions of nutrient losses from agriculture to control harmful algae development. It also stresses the relevance of this mechanistic approach, in which nutrient transfers from land to sea can be calculated, as an integrated strategy to test policy recommendations.

  15. Tidal cycles of total particulate mercury in the Jade Bay, lower Saxonian Wadden Sea, southern North Sea.

    PubMed

    Jin, Huafang; Liebezeit, Gerd

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we evaluate the nature of the relationship between particulate matter and total mercury concentrations. For this purpose, we estimate both of the two values in water column over 12-h tidal cycles of the Jade Bay, southern North Sea. Total particulate mercury in 250 mL water samples was determined by oxygen combustion-gold amalgamation. Mercury contents varied from 63 to 259 ng/g suspended particulate matter (SPM) or 3.5-52.8 ng/L in surface waters. Total particulate mercury content (THg(p)) was positively correlated with (SPM), indicating that mercury in tidal waters is mostly associated with (SPM), and that tidal variations of total particulate mercury are mainly due to changes in (SPM) content throughout the tidal cycle. Maximum values for THg(p) were observed during mid-flood and mid-ebb, while the lowest values were determined at low tide and high tide. These data suggest that there are no mercury point sources in the Jade Bay. Moreover, the THg(p) content at low tide and high tide were significantly lower than the values recorded in the bottom sediment of the sampling site (>200 ng/g DW), while THg(p) content during the mid-flood and mid-ebb were comparable to the THg content in the surface bottom sediments. Therefore, changes in THg(p) content in the water column due to tidal forcing may have resulted from re-suspension of underlying surface sediments with relatively high mercury content.

  16. The dimethylsulfide cycle in the eutrophied Southern North Sea: a model study integrating phytoplankton and bacterial processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gypens, Nathalie; Borges, Alberto V.; Speeckaert, Gaelle; Lancelot, Christiane

    2014-05-01

    We developed a module describing the dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethylsulfide (DMS) dynamics, including biological transformations by phytoplankton and bacteria, and physico-chemical processes (including DMS air-sea exchange). This module was integrated in the MIRO ecological model and applied in a 0D frame in the Southern North Sea (SNS). The DMS(P) module is built on parameterizations derived from available knowledge on DMS(P) sources, transformations and sinks, and provides an explicit representation of bacterial activity in contrast to most of existing models that only include phytoplankton process (and abiotic transformations). The model is tested in a highly productive coastal ecosystem (the Belgian coastal zone, BCZ) dominated by diatoms and the Haptophyceae Phaeocystis, respectively low and high DMSP producers. On an annual basis, the particulate DMSP (DMSPp) production simulated in 1989 is mainly related to Phaeocystis colonies (78%) rather than diatoms (13%) and nanoflagellates (9%). Accordingly, sensitivity analysis shows that the model responds more to changes in the sulfur:carbon (S:C) quota and lyase yield of Phaeocystis. DMS originates equally from phytoplankton and bacterial DMSP-lyase activity and only 3% of the DMS is emitted to the atmosphere. Model analysis demonstrates the sensitivity of DMS emission towards the atmosphere to the description and parameterization of biological processes emphasizing the need of adequately representing in models both phytoplankton and bacterial processes affecting DMS(P) dynamics. This is particularly important in eutrophied coastal environments such as the SNS dominated by high non-diatom blooms and where empirical models developed from data-sets biased towards open ocean conditions do not satisfactorily predict the timing and amplitude of the DMS seasonal cycle. In order to predict future feedbacks of DMS emissions on climate, it is needed to account for hotspots of DMS emissions from coastal

  17. Centennial-scale vegetation and North Atlantic Oscillation changes during the Late Holocene in the southern Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos-Román, M. J.; Jiménez-Moreno, G.; Anderson, R. S.; García-Alix, A.; Toney, J. L.; Jiménez-Espejo, F. J.; Carrión, J. S.

    2016-07-01

    High-reso CE to lution pollen analysis, charcoal, non-pollen palynomorphs and magnetic susceptibility have been analyzed in the sediment record of a peat bog in Sierra Nevada in southern Iberia. The study of these proxies provided the reconstruction of vegetation, climate, fire and human activity of the last ∼4500 cal yr BP. A progressive trend towards aridification during the late Holocene is observed in this record. This trend is interrupted by millennial- and centennial-scale variability of relatively more humid and arid periods. Arid conditions are recorded between ∼4000 and 3100 cal yr BP, being characterized by a decline in arboreal pollen and with a spike in magnetic susceptibility. This is followed by a relatively humid period from ∼3100 to 1600 cal yr BP, coinciding partially with the Iberian-Roman Humid Period, and is indicated by the increase of Pinus and the decrease in xerophytic taxa. The last 1500 cal yr BP are characterized by several centennial-scale climatic oscillations. Generally arid conditions from ∼450 to 1300 CE, depicted by a decrease in Pinus and an increase in Artemisia, comprise the Dark Ages and the Medieval Climate Anomaly. Since ∼ 1300 to 1850 CE pronounced oscillations occur between relatively humid and arid conditions. Four periods depicted by relatively higher Pinus coinciding with the beginning and end of the Little Ice Age are interrupted by three arid events characterized by an increase in Artemisia. These alternating arid and humid shifts could be explained by centennial-scale changes in the North Atlantic Oscillation and solar activity.

  18. Pre-Variscan back-arc extension of Avalonia: The genesis of the Southern North Sea Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smit, Jeroen; van Wees, Jan-Diederik; Cloetingh, Sierd

    2016-04-01

    The Devonian-Early Carboniferous was a period of intense rifting in the Avalonia microplate in between the Caledonian and the Hercynian-Alleghanian collision phases. This rifting phase created the typical horst-and-graben structure of much of East Avalonia's crust that is best known from the UK and Ireland where the horsts and the graben infill are located at or near the surface. In the Southern North Sea, the Netherlands and northwest Germany, the Late Devonian-Early Carboniferous rift structure and units are obliterated by the thick cover of Late Carboniferous-to-Recent basin fill and by the recurrent fault reactivation. Although this rifting created the basis for 350 Ma of lithospheric memory, its dynamics remains relatively unknown. Major open questions include the mode and total amount of extension as well as the age and origin of the Central Graben and the relation between structures located east and west of it. This study addresses these issues by integrating existing data from lithosphere to basin scales and a map-view restoration. We have revised the crustal map of the Thor Suture Zone. The newly defined northern margin of Avalonia and the Thor Suture Zone are key elements in the reconstruction of Devonian-Carboniferous rifting of Avalonian lithosphere. We present a revised map of Devonian-Carboniferous basin structures including the main horsts and grabens and the governing faults east of the Central Graben. Based on these maps, we present a new paleotectonic reconstruction and a novel geodynamic scenario for the Devonian- Carboniferous rifting. These findings are key for better understanding of long-lived tectonic compartmentalisation and post-rifting deformation phases.

  19. Evidence of Carboniferous volcanic ash in Pictou Group (West-phalian D), Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada

    SciTech Connect

    Lyons, P.C.; Outerbridge, W.F. ); Hacquebard, P.A. )

    1991-08-01

    Until now, Carboniferous-altered volcanic ash in North America was known only from the Middle Pennsylvanian (upper Westphalian A to lower Westphalian D) of the Appalachian basin. Now, however, mineralogical analysis of thin claystones (8-24 mm thick) in mineable bituminous coal (Hub and Harbour seams) form the P-boreholes in the Donkin submarine areas of the Sydney coalfield, Nova Scotia, indicates the presence of trace amounts of minerals probably derived from a volcanic ash fall of late Westphalian D age. Water-clear to cloudy quartz splinters and euhedral zircon with sharp crystal faces and edges, and length-to-width ratios up to 6:1 - which are typical of Appalachian altered acidic volcanic ash deposits (tonsteins) - were with a dominantly detrital (fluvial ) mineral suite. Fifty to 90% water-laid silt- to sand-size detrital grains of quartz, tourmaline( ), zircon, white mica, and other minerals are found in the HF residum after the removal of the dominant components: clay minerals, pyrite, and coal particles (spores, secretinite, etc.). The fine size of the volcanic minerals and their low concentration indicate a very distant volcanic ash source, perhaps western Europe, where volcanic activity extended into the Stephanian.

  20. Long-term impact of bottom trawling on pelagic-benthic coupling in the southern North Sea (German Bight)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, Jana; van Beusekom, Justus E. E.; Neumann, Andreas; Naderipour, Celine; Janssen, Felix; Ahmerkamp, Soeren; Holtappels, Moritz; Schueckel, Ulrike

    2016-04-01

    The southern North Sea, and the German Bight, has been systematically bottom-trawled at least since the late 19th century (Christiansen, 2009; Reiss et al., 2009; Kröncke 2011; Emeis et al., 2015, Neumann et al., 2016). As a result, benthic habitats and benthic biogenic structures created by bivalves, polychaetes and hydroids where destroyed or reduced. The parallel removal of hard substrate (gravel and boulders) avoids the resettlement of hard-substrate depended species. For example, the Oyster ground, a huge oyster bank a hundred years ago (Olsen, 1883), turned into a muddy depression today. In addition, shallow depth of max 40 m, strong tidal currents and frequent storms result in a high-energy environment with low sedimentation rates and recurrent sediment resuspension. The decrease in benthic filtering capacity by disturbance in epifauna and bottom roughness (Callaway et al., 2007) apparently influence pelagic-benthic coupling of biogeochemical fluxes. Heip et al. (1995) indicate that benthic respiration at depths prevailing in the German Bight accounts for 10-40% of total respiration, whereas pelagic respiration accounts for 60-90%. Previous estimates are in the middle of this range (Heip et al., 1995). To test these hypotheses and to assess the partitioning of benthic and pelagic processes, and the factors influencing organic matter mineralization, we measured pelagic production and respiration based on Winkler titration, in-situ benthic fluxes using chamber landers, we did ex-situ incubations of intact sediment cores and analysed still images from a towed benthic video sled. In addition, O2 fluxes in permeable sediments were estimated by integrating the volumetric rate measurements of the upper sediment layer over in-situ microsensor-measured O2 penetration depth. Our current results show significant seasonality in benthic respiration, with highest rates in summer and lowest rates in winter. No significant differences in total benthic respiration rates

  1. Millennial scale precipitation changes over Easter Island (Southern Pacific) during MIS 3: Inter-hemispheric connections during North Atlantic abrupt cold events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margalef, Olga; Cacho, Isabel; Pla-Rabes, Sergi; Cañellas-Boltà, Núria; Pueyo, Juan Jose; Sáez, Alberto; Valero-Garcés, Blas L.; Giralt, Santiago

    2013-04-01

    Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 3 climate has been globally characterized by the occurrence of millennial-scale climate variations defined over North Atlantic as Dansgaard-Oeschger and Heinrich events. Despite climate variability has been broadly explored over North Atlantic records, the response of the tropical and subtropical latitudes, especially in the Southern Hemisphere, still remains as a matter of debate. Rano Aroi peat record (Easter Island, Chile, 27°S) provides a unique opportunity to understand Southern Pacific atmospheric and oceanic changes during these stadial-interstadial transitions because of its exceptional location on the interplay of the South Pacific Convergence Zone (SPCZ), the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ), the South Pacific Anticyclone (SPA) and the Southern Westerlies (SW). Rano Aroi record contains 8 main enhanced precipitation events between 70 and 40 kyr BP that can be correlated with the timing of Heinrich events 5, 5a and 6 as well as other cold stadials. These humid events are also present in other Southern Hemisphere continental sites and correspond to dry periods on Northern Hemisphere records. This opposite hydrologic trend has been explained by the latitudinal migration of ITCZ and has been supported by several climatic models. As Easter Island precipitation is mainly dependent on SPCZ storm track belt activity, we suggest that the southern migration of the ITCZ is associated to an expansion of SPCZ to the east. This process should be intimately related to a weakening of the Walker circulation, which is further supported by an estimation of d18Osw gradient along the equator for the same time period. Consequently, atmospheric and oceanic responses during these cold stadials and Heinrich events might lead to a configuration that resembles the warm ENSO state over Southern Pacific, as previously suggested by some global climatic models. Rano Aroi record clearly points out that shifts in hydrological cycle in tropical Southern

  2. The influence of eastern North American autumnal migrant monarch butterflies (Danaus plexippus L.) on continuously breeding resident monarch populations in southern Florida.

    PubMed

    Knight, Amy; Brower, Lincoln P

    2009-07-01

    In Florida, the eastern North American population of the monarch butterfly exhibits geographic variability in population structure and dynamics. This includes the occurrence of migrants throughout the peninsula during the autumnal migration, occasional overwintering clusters that form along the Gulf Coast, remigrants from Mexico that breed in north-central Florida during the spring, and what have been assumed to be year-round, resident breeding populations in southern Florida. The work reported here focused on two monarch populations west of Miami and addressed four questions: Are there permanent resident populations of monarchs in southern Florida? Do these breed continuously throughout the year? Do they receive northern monarchs moving south during the autumn migration? Do they receive overwintered monarchs returning via Cuba or the Yucatan during the spring remigration from the Mexican overwintering area? Monthly collections and counts of spermatophores in the bursa copulatrices of females established that a resident population of continuously breeding monarchs exists year-round in southern Florida. It was determined through cardenolide fingerprinting that most of the butterflies had bred on the local southern Florida milkweed species, Asclepias curassavica. During the autumn migration period, however, some monarchs had fed on the northern milkweed, Asclepias syriaca. It appears that instead of migrating to Mexico, these individuals travel south through peninsular Florida, break diapause, mate with and become incorporated into the resident breeding populations. None of the monarchs captured in spring had the A. syriaca cardenolide fingerprint, which is evidence against the southern Florida populations receiving overwintered remigrants from Cuba, Central America or Mexico.

  3. West Point Melange, remnants of a Lower Paleozoic ophiolitic, eclogite-bearing melange in the Southern Appalachians, Alabama, Georgia, and North Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Crawford, R.F. III; Higgins, M.W.; Crawford, T.

    1985-01-01

    The lower Paleozoic West Point melange in the West Point thrust sheet is locally preserved beneath and commonly folded with ocean-floor Ropes Creek Metabasalt of the Ropes Creek thrust sheet in the crystalline terrane of Alabama, Georgia, and North Carolina. The melange overlies a calc-alkaline island arc assemblage known as the Paulding volcanic-plutonic complex in the Paulding thrust sheet. The matrix of the melange is generally highly sheared talc-actinolite schist and (or) highly deformed amphibolite, and less commonly sheared scaly pelitic schist. Most clasts in the melange are of a wide variety of mafic and ultramafic rocks, including dunite, coronite troctolite, olivine gabbro, wehrlite, cortlandite, pyroxenite, and olivine-pyroxenite. Eclogite clasts are found at several localities in northern Georgia, southern North Carolina, and in Alabama. The mostly mafic ophiolitic nature of the West Point melange, the clasts of eclogite, and its location between an island-arc assemblage and ocean-ridge basalts suggests that it is the remnants of a subduction melange formed between the mid-Iapetus ridge and the oceanic Paulding island arc. The melange also forms part of the Hillabee Greenstone in Alabama and the Lake Chatuge sill and Shooting Creek complex in northern Georgia and southern North Carolina.

  4. Storms, shoreface morphodynamics, sand supply, and the accretion and erosion of coastal dune barriers in the southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anthony, Edward J.

    2013-10-01

    The coast of the southern North Sea is bound by dune barriers that have developed adjacent to a shallow storm- and tide-dominated shoreface comprising numerous shore-parallel to sub-shore-parallel tidal sand banks. The banks evolve under the joint control of tide-, wave- and wind-induced shore-parallel currents, which tend to ‘stretch' them, eventually leading to bank division, and to shoaling and breaking storm waves, which tend to drive them ashore. The banks, thus, modulate the delivery of storm wave energy to the coast, redirect currents alongshore and are the sand sources for the accretion of coastal dunes. Foredune accretion occurs where major sand banks have migrated shoreward over the last centuries to be finally driven ashore and weld under the impact of storm waves. Morphological changes in the bank field can impact on shoreline stability through dissipation or enhanced shoreward transmission of storm wave energy and effects on radiation stress, particularly when waves are breaking over the banks. Where banks are close to the shore, mitigation of offshore sediment transport, especially during storms, can occur because of gradients in radiation stress generated by the complex 3D bank structure. These macro-scale mechanisms involve embedded meso-scale interactions that revolve around the mobility of sand waves, mobility of beach bars and troughs and foredune mobility, and micro-scale processes of bedform mobility in the subaqueous and intertidal domains, and of swash and aeolian beach-dune sand transport. These embedded interactions and the morphodynamic feedback loops illustrate the importance of synchroneity of sand transport from shoreface to dune on this coast. Large stretches of the foredunes show either signs of stability, or mild but chronic erosion. Furthermore, a demonstrated lack of a clear relationship occurs between storminess and coastal response over the second half of the 20th century. The present situation may be indicative of conditions

  5. Complementary Metaproteomic Approaches to Assess the Bacterioplankton Response toward a Phytoplankton Spring Bloom in the Southern North Sea

    PubMed Central

    Wöhlbrand, Lars; Wemheuer, Bernd; Feenders, Christoph; Ruppersberg, Hanna S.; Hinrichs, Christina; Blasius, Bernd; Daniel, Rolf; Rabus, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Annually recurring phytoplankton spring blooms are characteristic of temperate coastal shelf seas. During these blooms, environmental conditions, including nutrient availability, differ considerably from non-bloom conditions, affecting the entire ecosystem including the bacterioplankton. Accordingly, the emerging ecological niches during bloom transition are occupied by different bacterial populations, with Roseobacter RCA cluster and SAR92 clade members exhibiting high metabolic activity during bloom events. In this study, the functional response of the ambient bacterial community toward a Phaeocystis globosa bloom in the southern North Sea was studied using metaproteomic approaches. In contrast to other metaproteomic studies of marine bacterial communities, this is the first study comparing two different cell lysis and protein preparation methods [using trifluoroethanol (TFE) and in-solution digest as well as bead beating and SDS-based solubilization and in-gel digest (BB GeLC)]. In addition, two different mass spectrometric techniques (ESI-iontrap MS and MALDI-TOF MS) were used for peptide analysis. A total of 585 different proteins were identified, 296 of which were only detected using the TFE and 191 by the BB GeLC method, demonstrating the complementarity of these sample preparation methods. Furthermore, 158 proteins of the TFE cell lysis samples were exclusively detected by ESI-iontrap MS while 105 were only detected using MALDI-TOF MS, underpinning the value of using two different ionization and mass analysis methods. Notably, 12% of the detected proteins represent predicted integral membrane proteins, including the difficult to detect rhodopsin, indicating a considerable coverage of membrane proteins by this approach. This comprehensive approach verified previous metaproteomic studies of marine bacterioplankton, e.g., detection of many transport-related proteins (17% of the detected proteins). In addition, new insights into e.g., carbon and nitrogen

  6. Complementary Metaproteomic Approaches to Assess the Bacterioplankton Response toward a Phytoplankton Spring Bloom in the Southern North Sea.

    PubMed

    Wöhlbrand, Lars; Wemheuer, Bernd; Feenders, Christoph; Ruppersberg, Hanna S; Hinrichs, Christina; Blasius, Bernd; Daniel, Rolf; Rabus, Ralf

    2017-01-01

    Annually recurring phytoplankton spring blooms are characteristic of temperate coastal shelf seas. During these blooms, environmental conditions, including nutrient availability, differ considerably from non-bloom conditions, affecting the entire ecosystem including the bacterioplankton. Accordingly, the emerging ecological niches during bloom transition are occupied by different bacterial populations, with Roseobacter RCA cluster and SAR92 clade members exhibiting high metabolic activity during bloom events. In this study, the functional response of the ambient bacterial community toward a Phaeocystis globosa bloom in the southern North Sea was studied using metaproteomic approaches. In contrast to other metaproteomic studies of marine bacterial communities, this is the first study comparing two different cell lysis and protein preparation methods [using trifluoroethanol (TFE) and in-solution digest as well as bead beating and SDS-based solubilization and in-gel digest (BB GeLC)]. In addition, two different mass spectrometric techniques (ESI-iontrap MS and MALDI-TOF MS) were used for peptide analysis. A total of 585 different proteins were identified, 296 of which were only detected using the TFE and 191 by the BB GeLC method, demonstrating the complementarity of these sample preparation methods. Furthermore, 158 proteins of the TFE cell lysis samples were exclusively detected by ESI-iontrap MS while 105 were only detected using MALDI-TOF MS, underpinning the value of using two different ionization and mass analysis methods. Notably, 12% of the detected proteins represent predicted integral membrane proteins, including the difficult to detect rhodopsin, indicating a considerable coverage of membrane proteins by this approach. This comprehensive approach verified previous metaproteomic studies of marine bacterioplankton, e.g., detection of many transport-related proteins (17% of the detected proteins). In addition, new insights into e.g., carbon and nitrogen

  7. Flame retardants in eggs of American kestrels and European starlings from southern Lake Ontario region (North America).

    PubMed

    Chen, Da; Letcher, Robert J; Martin, Pamela

    2012-11-01

    While a number of studies have extensively investigated flame retardant (FR) contamination in aquatic ecosystems from the Laurentian Great Lakes basin, there remains a dearth of information for terrestrial ecosystems. In the current study, American kestrels (Falco sparverius) (AMKE) and European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) (EUST) that are terrestrial ecosystem consumers, and from the southern Lake Ontario regions, were investigated as potential terrestrial bio-monitoring species. Egg homogenates were screened for sixteen PBDE congeners and nineteen non-PBDE FRs of established or emerging environmental importance. PBDE congeners dominated the FR burdens in eggs of AMKE and EUST, with total concentrations ranging from 3.4 to 39.8 (median: 13.5) and 1.5 to 117 (median: 4.9) ng g(-1) wet weight (ww), respectively. Although the production and application of the Firemaster FF-1 (a commercial hexabromobiphenyl PBB mixture) has been discontinued for over four decades, its major component, 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexabromobiphenyl (BB-153), was still frequently detected in AMKE and EUST eggs. Two isomers of the chlorinated FR Dechlorane plus (DP) were mostly detected in eggs collected from Niagara-on-the-Lake in the western portion of Lake Ontario, approximately 15 km from the only North American DP manufacturing site, clearly reflecting point source influences. FR comparisons in eggs from AMKE, EUST and Great Lakes herring gulls revealed species-specific contamination burdens and PBDE congener profiles, likely due to influences from trophic levels and PBDE congener-specific bioaccumulation and biomagnification capacities in terrestrial versus aquatic food chains. Insectivorous birds (e.g. great tit) and relatives of AMKE have also been used as bio-monitoring tools in European and Asian regions, allowing investigation of spatial distribution patterns on a more international scale. AMKE and EUST have also been used as model species for laboratory evaluation of FR toxic effects in

  8. Reconnaissance of the Pigeon River, a cold-water river in the north-central part of Michigan's southern peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hendrickson, G.E.; Doonan, C.J.

    1970-01-01

    The cold-water streams of the northern states provide unique recreational values to the American people (wilderness or semi-wilderness atmosphere, fast-water canoeing, and trout fishing), but the expanding recreational needs must be balanced against the growing demand of water for public and industrial supplies, for irrigation, and for the dilution of sewage and other wastes. In order to make intelligent decisions regarding use and management of the water resource for recreation and other demands, an analysis of the hydrologic factors related to recreational values is essential.The Pigeon River is one of Michigan's outstanding trout streams and is the favorite of a large number of anglers who return year after year. Camping is also popular and is usually, but not always, associated with fishing. Boating is very rare on the Pigeon because of numerous portages around log jams. Cabin-living and resorting are relatively minor on this river as yet, but much of the private river front may be developed in future years.The Pigeon is located in the north-central part of the southern peninsula of Michigan (see index map). Headwaters are a few miles northeast of Gaylord, and the mouth is at Mullet Lake, a few miles northeast of Indian River. Interstate Highway 75 roughly parallels the river about 5 to 10 miles to the west. Exits from this highway at Gaylord, Vanderbilt, Wolverine, and Indian River, provide easy access to the Pigeon.The recreational value of the river depends on the streamflow characteristics, quality of water, and character of stream channel, and bed and banks. The purpose of this atlas is to describe these characteristics, and to show how they relate to recreational uses.Most of the information presented here was obtained from a field reconnaissance in June, 1966, and from basic records of the U.S. Geological Survey's Water Resources Division. The area of field study is limited to the channel, bed, and banks of the main stem of the Pigeon from source to

  9. Tools to evaluate seafloor integrity: comparison of multi-device acoustic seafloor classifications for benthic macrofauna-driven patterns in the German Bight, southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holler, Peter; Markert, Edith; Bartholomä, Alexander; Capperucci, Ruggero; Hass, H. Christian; Kröncke, Ingrid; Mielck, Finn; Reimers, H. Christian

    2016-12-01

    To determine the spatial resolution of sediment properties and benthic macrofauna communities in acoustic backscatter, the suitability of four acoustic seafloor classification devices (single-beam echosounder with RoxAnn and QTC 5.5 seafloor classification system, sidescan sonar with QTC Swathview seafloor classification, and multi-beam echosounder with QTC Swathview seafloor classification) was compared in a study area of approx. 6 km2 northwest of the island of Helgoland in the German Bight, southern North Sea. This was based on a simple similarity index between simultaneous sidescan sonar, single-beam echosounder and multi-beam echosounder profiling spanning the period 2011-2014. The results show a high similarity between seafloor classifications based on sidescan sonar and RoxAnn single-beam systems, in turn associated with a lower similarity for the multi-beam echosounder system. Analyses of surface sediment samples at 39 locations along four transects (0.1 m2 Van Veen grab) revealed the presence of sandy mud (southern and western parts), coarse sand, gravel and cobbles. Rock outcrops were identified in the north-eastern and eastern parts. A typical Nucula nitidosa-Abra alba community was found in sandy muds to muddy sands in the northern part, whereas the southern part is characterised by widespread occurrence of the ophiuroid brittle star Amphiura filiformis. A transitional N. nitidosa-A. filiformis community was detected in the central part. Moreover, the southern part is characterised by a high abundance of A. filiformis and its commensal bivalve Kurtiella bidentata. The high number of A. filiformis feeding arms (up to ca. 6,800 per m2) can largely explain the gentle change of backscatter intensity along the tracks, because sediment composition and/or seafloor structures showed no significant variability.

  10. Tools to evaluate seafloor integrity: comparison of multi-device acoustic seafloor classifications for benthic macrofauna-driven patterns in the German Bight, southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holler, Peter; Markert, Edith; Bartholomä, Alexander; Capperucci, Ruggero; Hass, H. Christian; Kröncke, Ingrid; Mielck, Finn; Reimers, H. Christian

    2017-04-01

    To determine the spatial resolution of sediment properties and benthic macrofauna communities in acoustic backscatter, the suitability of four acoustic seafloor classification devices (single-beam echosounder with RoxAnn and QTC 5.5 seafloor classification system, sidescan sonar with QTC Swathview seafloor classification, and multi-beam echosounder with QTC Swathview seafloor classification) was compared in a study area of approx. 6 km2 northwest of the island of Helgoland in the German Bight, southern North Sea. This was based on a simple similarity index between simultaneous sidescan sonar, single-beam echosounder and multi-beam echosounder profiling spanning the period 2011-2014. The results show a high similarity between seafloor classifications based on sidescan sonar and RoxAnn single-beam systems, in turn associated with a lower similarity for the multi-beam echosounder system. Analyses of surface sediment samples at 39 locations along four transects (0.1 m2 Van Veen grab) revealed the presence of sandy mud (southern and western parts), coarse sand, gravel and cobbles. Rock outcrops were identified in the north-eastern and eastern parts. A typical Nucula nitidosa- Abra alba community was found in sandy muds to muddy sands in the northern part, whereas the southern part is characterised by widespread occurrence of the ophiuroid brittle star Amphiura filiformis. A transitional N. nitidosa- A. filiformis community was detected in the central part. Moreover, the southern part is characterised by a high abundance of A. filiformis and its commensal bivalve Kurtiella bidentata. The high number of A. filiformis feeding arms (up to ca. 6,800 per m2) can largely explain the gentle change of backscatter intensity along the tracks, because sediment composition and/or seafloor structures showed no significant variability.

  11. Palm leaves from the Late Oligocene sediments of Makum Coalfield, Assam, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Gaurav; Mehrotra, R. C.; Bauer, Hugues

    2012-06-01

    Two new palm leaf impressions, cf. Iguanura wallichiana and Palmacites makumensis sp. nov. are described from the Makum Coalfield, Tinsukia District, Assam. They belong to the Tikak Parbat Formation being considered as Late Oligocene (Chattian 28-23 Myr) in age. Their presence, along with the other known fossil records indicates that CMMT (cold month mean temperature) was not less than 18°C with plenty of rainfall, in the region during the period of deposition.

  12. Holocene relative sea-level change, isostatic subsidence and the radial viscosity structure of the mantle of northwest Europe (Belgium, the Netherlands, Germany, southern North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vink, Annemiek; Steffen, Holger; Reinhardt, Lutz; Kaufmann, Georg

    2007-12-01

    A comprehensive observational database of Holocene relative sea-level (RSL) index points from northwest Europe (Belgium, the Netherlands, northwest Germany, southern North Sea) has been compiled in order to compare and reassess the data collected from the different countries/regions and by different workers on a common time-depth scale. RSL rise varies in magnitude and form between these regions, revealing a complex pattern of differential crustal movement which cannot be solely attributed to tectonic activity. It clearly contains a non-linear, glacio- and/or hydro-isostatic subsidence component, which is only small on the Belgian coastal plain but increases significantly to a value of ca 7.5 m relative to Belgium since 8 cal. ka BP along the northwest German coast. The subsidence is at least in part related to the Post-Glacial collapse of the so-called peripheral forebulge which developed around the Fennoscandian centre of ice loading during the Last Glacial Maximum. The RSL data have been compared to geodynamic Earth models in order to infer the radial viscosity structure of the Earth's mantle underneath NW Europe (lithosphere thickness, upper- and lower-mantle viscosity), and conversely to predict RSL in regions where we have only few observational data (e.g. in the southern North Sea). A very broad range of Earth parameters fit the Belgian RSL data, suggesting that glacial isostatic adjustment (GIA) only had a minor effect on Belgian crustal dynamics during and after the Last Ice Age. In contrast, a narrow range of Earth parameters define the southern North Sea region, reflecting the greater influence of GIA on these deeper/older samples. Modelled RSL data suggest that the zone of maximum forebulge subsidence runs in a relatively narrow, WNW-ESE trending band connecting the German federal state of Lower Saxony with the Dogger Bank area in the southern North Sea. Identification of the effects of local-scale factors such as past changes in tidal range or tectonic

  13. Composition and quality of coals in the Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zheng, Lingyun; Liu, Gaisheng; Wang, L.; Chou, C.-L.

    2008-01-01

    The Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui Province, China, is one of the largest coalfields in China. The coals of Permian age are used mainly for power generation. Coal compositions and 47 trace elements of the No. 10 Coal of the Shanxi Formation, the No. 7, 5, and 4 Coals of the Lower Shihezi Formation, and the No. 3 Coal of the Upper Shihezi Formation from the Huaibei Coalfield were studied. The results indicate that the Huaibei coals have low ash, moisture, and sulfur contents, but high volatile matter and calorific value. The ash yield increases stratigraphically upwards, but the volatile matter and total sulfur contents show a slight decrease from the lower to upper seams. Magmatic intrusion into the No. 5 Coal resulted in high ash, volatile matter, and calorific value, but low moisture value in the coal. Among the studied 47 trace elements, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Th, U, V, and Zn are of environmental concerns. Four elements Hg, Mo, Zn, and Sb are clearly enriched in the coals as compared with the upper continental crust. ?? 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Acid deposition sensitivity map of the Southern Appalachian Assessment area; Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Georgia, and Alabama

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pepper, John D.; Grosz, Andrew E.; Kress, Thomas H.; Collins, Thomas K.; Kappesser, Gary B.; Huber, Cindy M.; Webb, James R.

    1995-01-01

    Project Summary: The following digital product represents the Acid Deposition Sensitivity of the Southern Appalachian Assessment Area. Areas having various susceptibilities to acid deposition from air pollution are designated on a three tier ranking in the region of the Southern Appalachian Assessment (SAA). The assessment is being conducted by Federal agencies that are members of the Southern Appalachian Man and Biosphere (SAMAB) Cooperative. Sensitivities to acid deposition, ranked high, medium, and low are assigned on the basis of bedrock compositions and their associated soils, and their capacities to neutralize acid precipitation.

  15. Commercial fishing gear modifications to reduce interactions between Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) and the southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) fishery in North Carolina (USA)

    PubMed Central

    Hager, Christian; Diaddorio, Eric; Dickey, R. Jason

    2016-01-01

    Bycatch of protected species in commercial fishing operations is a primary concern to fishery managers because it threatens the conservation, protection, and recovery of fragile species, such as the Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus). One potential solution to reduce the risk associated with commercial fishing operations is to design commercial fishing gear that is more selective in terms of interactions between Atlantic sturgeon and commercial fisheries. Given this conservation and management need, the overarching goal was to reduce Atlantic sturgeon fishery interactions and maintain southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) catch in North Carolina. The specific objectives of this study were to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a modified gillnet. Overall, the results proved that lowering the profile and amount of webbing had a beneficial impact at reducing Atlantic sturgeon incidental encounters and bycatch. The modified gillnet reduced bycatch and Atlantic sturgeon encounters by 39.6% and 60.9%, respectively. Our design entangled 51.6% fewer southern flounder, which corresponded to a 48.9% reduction in total weight; the modified gear entangled slightly larger southern flounder than the control gear. Our findings showed the number of Atlantic sturgeon encounters was positively associated with mean water depth, with more Atlantic sturgeon encountered in deeper (5.1–6.3 m) than shallower waters; 75% were encountered at depths between 4.6 and 6.1 m. Most southern flounder (n = 518, 39.7%) were taken at a water depth between 3.76 and 5.0 m. This observation suggests that southern flounder prefer slightly shallower waters than Atlantic sturgeon. PMID:27547524

  16. Commercial fishing gear modifications to reduce interactions between Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus) and the southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) fishery in North Carolina (USA).

    PubMed

    Levesque, Juan C; Hager, Christian; Diaddorio, Eric; Dickey, R Jason

    2016-01-01

    Bycatch of protected species in commercial fishing operations is a primary concern to fishery managers because it threatens the conservation, protection, and recovery of fragile species, such as the Atlantic sturgeon (Acipenser oxyrinchus oxyrinchus). One potential solution to reduce the risk associated with commercial fishing operations is to design commercial fishing gear that is more selective in terms of interactions between Atlantic sturgeon and commercial fisheries. Given this conservation and management need, the overarching goal was to reduce Atlantic sturgeon fishery interactions and maintain southern flounder (Paralichthys lethostigma) catch in North Carolina. The specific objectives of this study were to design and evaluate the effectiveness of a modified gillnet. Overall, the results proved that lowering the profile and amount of webbing had a beneficial impact at reducing Atlantic sturgeon incidental encounters and bycatch. The modified gillnet reduced bycatch and Atlantic sturgeon encounters by 39.6% and 60.9%, respectively. Our design entangled 51.6% fewer southern flounder, which corresponded to a 48.9% reduction in total weight; the modified gear entangled slightly larger southern flounder than the control gear. Our findings showed the number of Atlantic sturgeon encounters was positively associated with mean water depth, with more Atlantic sturgeon encountered in deeper (5.1-6.3 m) than shallower waters; 75% were encountered at depths between 4.6 and 6.1 m. Most southern flounder (n = 518, 39.7%) were taken at a water depth between 3.76 and 5.0 m. This observation suggests that southern flounder prefer slightly shallower waters than Atlantic sturgeon.

  17. The problems of the kinematic restoration of hyper-extended rifted margins: the example of the southern North-Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nirrengarten, Michael; Manatschal, Gianreto; Tugend, Julie; Kusznir, Nick

    2016-04-01

    The development in space and time of hyper-extended lithosphere is fundamental to our understanding of the 3D development and propagation of rifting and lithospheric breakup. Hyper-extended domains, consisting of extremely thinned continental crust and exhumed mantle with possible minor magmatic addition, often extend over wide areas, sometimes up to 400 km, continentward of the first unequivocal oceanic crust. Although considerable work has been done in the last decades to describe the evolution of hyper-extended domains, there is yet no generally accepted approach to kinematically restore them. Indeed, in contrast to oceanic crust, where the kinematics can be defined by isochronal magnetic anomalies, in hyper-extended well-defined consistent magnetic anomalies are lacking. Therefore in order to restore these domains, we need to define alternative approaches. The main questions to be addressed to solve this problem are: 1) how can hyper-extended domains be restored, 2) which kinematic markers could be used 3) what are the implications for the 3D propagation of hyper-extended systems. We use the example of the southern North-Atlantic to develop and apply an approach to kinematically analyse the evolution of hyper-extended domains. We combine seismic dataset and drill hole data available with crustal thickness maps determined from gravity inversion to define and map rift domains and rift domain boundaries. We distinguish between the proximal domain (weakly thinned continental crust), thinned continental crust, exhumed mantle, and oceanic crust. From this mapping, we observe that the width of each domain is variable along the margins and that domain boundaries are not always straight lines. It implies that these boundaries, in particular the edge of the continental crust cannot be easily superimposed at a specific time. Therefore, rift domain boundaries cannot be considered as isochrones and do not represent kinematical markers. The restoration of hyper

  18. Marine Fouling Assemblages on Offshore Gas Platforms in the Southern North Sea: Effects of Depth and Distance from Shore on Biodiversity.

    PubMed

    van der Stap, Tim; Coolen, Joop W P; Lindeboom, Han J

    2016-01-01

    Offshore platforms are known to act as artificial reefs, though there is on-going debate on whether this effect is beneficial or harmful for the life in the surrounding marine environment. Knowing what species exist on and around the offshore platforms and what environmental variables influence this species assemblage is crucial for a better understanding of the impact of offshore platforms on marine life. Information on this is limited for offshore platforms in the southern North Sea. This study aims to fill this gap in our knowledge and to determine how the composition and the abundance of species assemblages changes with depth and along a distance-from-shore gradient. The species assemblages on five offshore gas platforms in the southern North Sea have been inventoried using Remotely Operated Vehicles inspection footage. A total of 30 taxa were identified. A Generalised Additive Model of the species richness showed a significant non-linear relation with water depth (p = 0.001): from a low richness in shallow waters it increases with depth until 15-20 m, after which richness decreases again. Using PERMANOVA, water depth (p≤0.001), community age (p≤0.001) and the interaction between distance from shore and community age (p≤0.001) showed a significant effect on the species assemblages. Future research should focus on the effect additional environmental variables have on the species assemblages.

  19. Marine Fouling Assemblages on Offshore Gas Platforms in the Southern North Sea: Effects of Depth and Distance from Shore on Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    van der Stap, Tim; Coolen, Joop W. P.; Lindeboom, Han J.

    2016-01-01

    Offshore platforms are known to act as artificial reefs, though there is on-going debate on whether this effect is beneficial or harmful for the life in the surrounding marine environment. Knowing what species exist on and around the offshore platforms and what environmental variables influence this species assemblage is crucial for a better understanding of the impact of offshore platforms on marine life. Information on this is limited for offshore platforms in the southern North Sea. This study aims to fill this gap in our knowledge and to determine how the composition and the abundance of species assemblages changes with depth and along a distance-from-shore gradient. The species assemblages on five offshore gas platforms in the southern North Sea have been inventoried using Remotely Operated Vehicles inspection footage. A total of 30 taxa were identified. A Generalised Additive Model of the species richness showed a significant non-linear relation with water depth (p = 0.001): from a low richness in shallow waters it increases with depth until 15–20 m, after which richness decreases again. Using PERMANOVA, water depth (p≤0.001), community age (p≤0.001) and the interaction between distance from shore and community age (p≤0.001) showed a significant effect on the species assemblages. Future research should focus on the effect additional environmental variables have on the species assemblages. PMID:26745870

  20. Defining habitats suitable for larval fish in the German Bight (southern North Sea): An IBM approach using spatially- and temporally-resolved, size-structured prey fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kühn, Wilfried; Peck, Myron A.; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Daewel, Ute; Moll, Andreas; Pohlmann, Thomas; Stegert, Christoph; Tamm, Susanne

    2008-11-01

    We employed a coupled biological-physical, individual-based model (IBM) to estimate spatial and temporal changes in larval fish habitat suitability (the potential for areas to support survival and high rates of growth) of the German Bight, southern North Sea. In this Lagrangian approach, larvae were released into a size-structured prey field that was constructed from in situ measurements of the abundance and prosome lengths of stages of three copepods ( Acartia spp., Temora longicornis, Pseudocalanus elongatus) collected on a station grid repeatedly sampled from February to October 2004. The choice of prey species and the model parameterisations for larval fish foraging and growth were based on field data collected for sprat ( Sprattus sprattus) and other clupeid larvae. A series of 10-day simulations were conducted using 20 release locations to quantify spatial-temporal differences in projected larval sprat growth rates (mm d - 1) for mid-April, mid-May and mid-June 2004. Based upon an optimal foraging approach, modeled sprat growth rates agreed well with those measured in situ using larval fish ototliths. On the German GLOBEC station grid, our model predicted areas that were mostly unsuitable habitats (areas of low growth potential), e.g. north of the Frisian Islands, and others that were consistently suitable habitats (areas that had high growth potential), e.g. in the inner German Bight. In some instances, modelled larvae responded rapidly (~ 5 days) to changing environmental characteristics experienced along their drift trajectory, a result that appears reasonable given the dynamic nature of frontal regions such as our study area in the southern North Sea.

  1. The Grenville orogeny in the Llano Uplift, Texas: A record of collision and contraction along the southern margin of North America

    SciTech Connect

    Reese, J.F. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1993-02-01

    Precambrian metamorphic rocks in the SE Llano Uplift record NE-directed ductile thrusting and regional-scale polyphase folding. This deformation is in response to Grenville-age shortening and crustal thickening associated with the collision of a south-lying tectonic block with the southern margin of North America. In the SE Llano Uplift, the most intense and pervasive deformational event, D2, is characterized in the Packsaddle Schist (PS) and Valley Spring Gneiss (VSG) by SSE-plunging, NE-verging isoclinal folds (F2) with an associated SW-dipping axial planar metamorphic layering (S2), and SW-dipping mylonite zones with kinematic indicators showing top-to-the-NE motion. In the Red Mountain and augen-bearing Big Branch gneisses, D2 structures are SW-dipping mylonite zones parallel to S2, and a SW-plunging stretching lineation. Taken together, this suite of structures indicates tectonic transport was to the NE, perpendicular to the NW trending regional structural and metamorphic grain. D2 structures were reoriented by at least two later phases of folding. Timing of all ductile deformation in the SE Llano Uplift is constrained from post-1,215 Ma (deformed PS) to pre-1,098 Ma (undeformed melarhyolite dike). From south to north, metatonalitic, arc-derived Big Branch Gneiss ([approximately] 1,303 Ma) and older mafic schist country rock, previously interpreted as possible ophiolitic melange, structurally overlie much younger, lithologically heterogeneous PS units (1,248-1,215 Ma), previously considered as arc flank deposits. In turn, the PS has been tectonically emplaced above the predominantly felsic VSG (1,270-1,232 Ma). The presence of older zircons in the VSG, of similar age ([approximately]1360 Ma) to Western Granite-Rhyolite Terrane rocks to the north, suggests that the VSG formed in a settling proximal to North America.

  2. Spatio-temporal pattern of eco-environmental parameters in Jharia coalfield, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saini, V.; Gupta, R. P.; Arora, M. K.

    2015-10-01

    Jharia coal-field holds unequivocal importance in the Indian context as it is the only source of prime coking coal in the country. The coalfield is also known for its infamous coal mine fires which have been burning since last more than a century. Haphazard mining over a century has led to eco-environmental changes to a large extent such as changes in vegetation distribution and widespread development of surface and subsurface fires. This article includes the spatiotemporal study of remote sensing derived eco-environmental parameters like vegetation index (NDVI), tasseled cap transformation (TCT) and temperature distribution in fire areas. In order to have an estimate of the temporal variations of NDVI over the years, a study has been carried out on two subsets of the Jharia coalfield using Landsat images of 1972 (MSS), 1992 (TM), 1999 (ETM+) and 2013 (OLI). To assess the changes in brightness and greenness over the year s, difference images have been calculated using the 1992 (TM) and 2013 (OLI) images. Radiance images derived from thermal bands have been used to calculate at-sensor brightness temperature over a 23 year period from 1991 to 2013. It has been observed that during the years 1972 to 2013, moderate to dense vegetation has decreased drastically due to the intense mining going on in the area. TCT images show the areas that have undergone changes in both brightness and greenness from 1992 to 2013. Surface temperature data obtained shows a constant increase from 1991 to 2013 apparently due to coal fires. The utility of remote sensing data in such EIA studies has been emphasized.

  3. EXPERIENCES OF PSYCHIATRIC CONSULTATION SERVICE IN TWO COALFIELD HOSPITALS OF BIHAR

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, L.N.; Khanna, R.; Chatterjee, S.

    1990-01-01

    SUMMARY The Central Institute of Psychiatry provides extension consultation services at two coalfield hospitals of Bihar, representing the intermediate and central level of health care delivery system. Analysis of data covering a period of one year, from September 1988 to August 1989, revealed significant differences in the utilization pattern of the two centres. The differences relate to the proportion of population observed, their demographic characteristics, diagnostic break-up, and follow-up pattern. The provision of psychiatric extension services at the intermediate level is recommended. PMID:21927441

  4. Temporal occurrence and community structure of helminth parasites in southern leopard frogs, Rana sphenocephala, from north central Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    Vhora, M Suhail; Bolek, Matthew G

    2015-03-01

    Currently, little information is available about the temporal recruitment of helminth communities in amphibian hosts. We examined the helminth community structure and temporal recruitment of helminth parasites in southern leopard frogs, Rana sphenocephala. Specifically, we were interested in how host life history such as habitat, age and/or size, diet, sex, and temporal variation in abiotic factors (precipitation and temperature) were important in determining monthly infection patterns of helminth populations and communities in southern leopard frogs. From May to September 2011, 74 southern leopard frogs were collected from Teal Ridge in Stillwater Payne County, OK, USA. Sixty-nine (93 %) of 74 frogs were infected with 1 or more helminth species. During our collecting period, the average monthly temperature was lowest in May and highest in July, and monthly precipitation was highest in May and lowest during the first week of September. The component community consisted of 11 species of helminth, including 1 larval and 1 adult cestode, 2 larval and 3 adult trematodes, and 1 juvenile and 3 adult nematodes. Of the 1790 helminths recovered, 51 % (911) were nematodes, 47 % (842) were cestodes, and 2 % (37) were trematodes. There were significant differences in the total abundance and mean species richness of helminths acquired by skin contact or through frog diet in monthly component communities of southern leopard frogs. A positive correlation existed for percentage of all helminths acquired by skin contact and monthly precipitation (r = 0.94, P < 0.01). Conversely, a negative correlation existed for monthly precipitation and percentage of helminths acquired by diet (r = -0.94, P < 0.01). Our results indicate that abiotic conditions such as precipitation have a major influence on the avenues for and constraints on the transmission of helminths with life cycles associated with water/moisture or terrestrial intermediate/paratenic hosts and are important in structuring

  5. Cost assessment and ecological effectiveness of nutrient reduction options for mitigating Phaeocystis colony blooms in the Southern North Sea: an integrated modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Lancelot, Christiane; Thieu, Vincent; Polard, Audrey; Garnier, Josette; Billen, Gilles; Hecq, Walter; Gypens, Nathalie

    2011-05-01

    Nutrient reduction measures have been already taken by wealthier countries to decrease nutrient loads to coastal waters, in most cases however, prior to having properly assessed their ecological effectiveness and their economic costs. In this paper we describe an original integrated impact assessment methodology to estimate the direct cost and the ecological performance of realistic nutrient reduction options to be applied in the Southern North Sea watershed to decrease eutrophication, visible as Phaeocystis blooms and foam deposits on the beaches. The mathematical tool couples the idealized biogeochemical GIS-based model of the river system (SENEQUE-RIVERSTRAHLER) implemented in the Eastern Channel/Southern North Sea watershed to the biogeochemical MIRO model describing Phaeocystis blooms in the marine domain. Model simulations explore how nutrient reduction options regarding diffuse and/or point sources in the watershed would affect the Phaeocystis colony spreading in the coastal area. The reference and prospective simulations are performed for the year 2000 characterized by mean meteorological conditions, and nutrient reduction scenarios include and compare upgrading of wastewater treatment plants and changes in agricultural practices including an idealized shift towards organic farming. A direct cost assessment is performed for each realistic nutrient reduction scenario. Further the reduction obtained for Phaeocystis blooms is assessed by comparison with ecological indicators (bloom magnitude and duration) and the cost for reducing foam events on the beaches is estimated. Uncertainty brought by the added effect of meteorological conditions (rainfall) on coastal eutrophication is discussed. It is concluded that the reduction obtained by implementing realistic environmental measures on the short-term is costly and insufficient to restore well-balanced nutrient conditions in the coastal area while the replacement of conventional agriculture by organic farming

  6. Environmental significance of 13C/ 12C and 18O/ 16O ratios of modern land-snail shells from the southern great plains of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, Meena; Yapp, Crayton J.; Theler, James L.; Carter, Brian J.; Wyckoff, Don G.

    2005-01-01

    13C/ 12C and 18O/ 16O ratios of aragonite shells of modern land snails from the southern Great Plains of North America were measured for samples from twelve localities in a narrow east-west corridor that extended from the Flint Hills in North Central Oklahoma to the foothills of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains in Northern New Mexico, USA. Across the study area, shell δ 18O values (PDB scale) ranged from -4.1‰ to 1.2‰, while δ 13C values ranged from -13.2‰ to 0.0‰. δ 18O values of the shell aragonite were predicted with a published, steady state, evaporative flux balance model. The predicted values differed (with one exception) by less than 1‰ from locality averages of measured δ 18O values. This similarity suggests that relative humidity at the time of snail activity is an important control on the δ 18O values of the aragonite and emphasizes the seasonal nature of the climatic information preserved in the shells. Correlated δ 13C values of coexisting Vallonia and Gastrocopta suggest similar feeding habits and imply that these genera can provide information on variations in southern Great Plains plant ecology. Although there is considerable scatter, multispecies, transect average δ 13C values of the modern aragonite shells are related to variations in the type of photosynthesis (i.e., C 3, C 4) in the local plant communities. The results of this study emphasize the desirability of obtaining isotope ratios representing averages of many shells in a locale to reduce possible biases associated with local variations among individuals, species, etc., and thus better represent the "neighborhood" scale temporal and/or spatial environmental variations of interest in studies of modern and ancient systems.

  7. Review article. Studying climate effects on ecology through the use of climate indices: the North Atlantic Oscillation, El Niño Southern Oscillation and beyond.

    PubMed Central

    Stenseth, Nils Chr; Ottersen, Geir; Hurrell, James W; Mysterud, Atle; Lima, Mauricio; Chan, Kung-Sik; Yoccoz, Nigel G; Adlandsvik, Bjørn

    2003-01-01

    Whereas the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) affects weather and climate variability worldwide, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) represents the dominant climate pattern in the North Atlantic region. Both climate systems have been demonstrated to considerably influence ecological processes. Several other large-scale climate patterns also exist. Although less well known outside the field of climatology, these patterns are also likely to be of ecological interest. We provide an overview of these climate patterns within the context of the ecological effects of climate variability. The application of climate indices by definition reduces complex space and time variability into simple measures, 'packages of weather'. The disadvantages of using global climate indices are all related to the fact that another level of problems are added to the ecology-climate interface, namely the link between global climate indices and local climate. We identify issues related to: (i) spatial variation; (ii) seasonality; (iii) non-stationarity; (iv) nonlinearity; and (v) lack of correlation in the relationship between global and local climate. The main advantages of using global climate indices are: (i) biological effects may be related more strongly to global indices than to any single local climate variable; (ii) it helps to avoid problems of model selection; (iii) it opens the possibility for ecologists to make predictions; and (iv) they are typically readily available on Internet. PMID:14561270

  8. Activity on the multi-stranded Central Branch of the North Anatolian Fault along the southern shelf of the Marmara Sea, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okay, S.; Sorlien, C. C.; Cifci, G.; Cormier, M. H.; Dondurur, D.; Steckler, M. S.; Barin, B.; Seeber, L.

    2014-12-01

    The North Anatolian Fault (NAF), a major continental transform boundary, splays westward into three branches in the Sea of Marmara region of NW Turkey. The main northern branch passes only ~20 km from Istanbul and has been the subject of intense investigation, The central branch enters the sea of Marmara in Gemlik Bay and extends westeward along the southern shelf of the Sea of Marmara. However, its detailed offshore geometry as well as its level of seismic activity have remained controversial. Under the SoMAR Project, two geophysical cruises were carried out in 2013 and 2014 to map the major sedimentary basins and shallow fault patterns of the southern shelf of the Marmara Sea. Including our 2008 and 2010 acquisition, we acquired 4,430 km of high-resolution multichannel seismic, sparker, multibeam bathymetric and CHIRP data. We used the new data to correlate our published late Quaternary stratigraphic age model across the outer shelf, and a ~1/4 Ma horizon across the Inner Shelf, thus providing a chronology that can be applied to the tectonic history of the central branch. As it exits Gemlik Bay, the central branch itself diverges westward into strands in a fan pattern. A half dozen southern strands strike WSW and W, with one continuing onland near the Kocasu River delta between Bandırma and Mudanya, and others dying out offshore. The northern strand strikes WNW and splays again into the İmrali Ridge Fault and the Imrali Fault across respectively the mid-shelf and the shelf break. A middle fault, the Kapidag fault, is present between Kapidag Peninsula and Marmara Island. Most of the faults increase their vertical component with depth, suggesting activity during Pliocene through Holocene time. The Kapidag fault and Imrali Ridge fault each exhibit between 1 and 2 km of vertical separation of acoustic basement. Late Quaternary rates of vertical separation on these faults can accumulate the total vertical component after Miocene time. Thus, steady-state activity is

  9. "Non-Servile Virtuosi" in Insubordinate Spaces: School Disaffection, Refusal and Resistance in a Former English Coalfield

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bright, N. Geoffrey

    2011-01-01

    This article reviews excerpts from a body of ethnographic data examining some young people's disaffection from, and refusal of, the education project as a whole in a UK coalfield area. Key examples are used to illustrate intergenerational continuities and disjunctions in attitudes to formal education in these exceptional and sometimes…

  10. The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian Coalfields (2011 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA announced the availability of the final report, The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian Coalfields. This report assesses the state of the science on the environmental impacts of mountaintop mines and valley ...

  11. The Effects of Mountaintop Mines and Valley Fills on Aquatic Ecosystems of the Central Appalachian Coalfields (External Review Draft)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report assesses the state of the science on the environmental impacts of mountaintop mines and valley fills (MTM-VF) on streams in the Central Appalachian Coalfields. Our review focused on the aquatic impacts of mountaintop removal coal mining, which, as its name suggests, ...

  12. Geochemistry of environmentally sensitive trace elements in Permian coals from the Huainan coalfield, Anhui, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, J.; Liu, Gaisheng; Jiang, M.; Chou, C.-L.; Li, H.; Wu, B.; Zheng, Lingyun; Jiang, D.

    2011-01-01

    To study the geochemical characteristics of 11 environmentally sensitive trace elements in the coals of the Permian Period from the Huainan coalfield, Anhui province, China, borehole samples of 336 coals, two partings, and four roof and floor mudstones were collected from mineable coal seams. Major elements and selected trace elements were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES), inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HAAS). The depositional environment, abundances, distribution, and modes of occurrence of trace elements were investigated. Results show that clay and carbonate minerals are the principal inorganic constituents in the coals. A lower deltaic plain, where fluvial channel systems developed successively, was the likely depositional environment of the Permian coals in the Huainan coalfield. All major elements have wider variation ranges than those of Chinese coals except for Mg and Fe. The contents of Cr, Co, Ni, and Se are higher than their averages for Chinese coals and world coals. Vertical variations of trace elements in different formations are not significant except for B and Ba. Certain roof and partings are distinctly higher in trace elements than underlying coal bench samples. The modes of occurrence of trace elements vary in different coal seams as a result of different coal-forming environments. Vanadium, Cr, and Th are associated with aluminosilicate minerals, Ba with carbonate minerals, and Cu, Zn, As, Se, and Pb mainly with sulfide minerals. ?? 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi enhance soil carbon sequestration in the coalfields, northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhi-Gang; Bi, Yin-Li; Jiang, Bin; Zhakypbek, Yryszhan; Peng, Su-Ping; Liu, Wen-Wen; Liu, Hao

    2016-10-01

    Carbon storage is affected by photosynthesis (Pn) and soil respiration (Rs), which have been studied extensively in natural and agricultural systems. However, the effects of Pn and Rs on carbon storages in the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in coalfields remain unclear. A field experiment was established in 2014 in Shendong coal mining subsidence area. The treatments comprised two inoculation levels (inoculated with or without 100 g AMF inoculums per seedlings) and four plant species [wild cherry (Prunus discadenia Koebne L.), cerasus humilis (Prunus dictyneura Diels L.), shiny leaf Yellow horn (Xanthoceras sorbifolium Bunge L.) and apricot (Armeniaca sibirica L.)]. AMF increased Pn of four species ranging from 15.3% to 33.1% and carbon storage, averaged by 17.2% compared to controls. Soil organic carbon (OC), easily extractable glomalin-relation soil protein (EE-GRSP), and total glomalin-relation soil protein (T-GRSP) were significantly increased by AMF treatment. The effect of AMF on the sensitivity of Rs depended on soil temperature. The results highlighted the exponential models to explain the responses of Rs to soil temperature, and for the first time quantified AMF caused carbon sequestration and Rs. Thus, to our knowledge, AMF is beneficial to ecosystems through facilitating carbon conservation in coalfield soils.

  14. Ambient Air Quality Assessment with Particular Reference to Particulates in Jharia Coalfield, Eastern India.

    PubMed

    Singh, Gurdeep; Roy, Debananda; Sinha, Sweta

    2014-01-01

    Jharia Coalfield is the critically polluted area with the intense mining and associated industrial activities. There has been widespread concern of particulate pollution with the alarming levels of Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Respirable Particulate Matter (PM10 & PM2.5). Coke oven plants, coal washing, thermal power stations and associated activities coupled with the transportation activities, give rise to critical air pollution levels in the region. This study envisages the assessment of air pollution of the region with particular reference to SPM, PM10 and PM2.5. Eighteen monitoring stations were selected considering various sources of pollution such as mining, industrial, commercial and residential areas apart from siting criteria as per IS: 5182 Part XIV. Air quality monitoring was carried out following standard methodologies and protocols as per Central Pollution Control Board (CPCB)/ National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) norms using Respirable Dust Samplers (RDS) and Fine Particulate Samplers (PM2.5 Samplers). This study reveals considerable load of particulates (SPM, PM10, PM 2.5) which exceed not only the NAAQS but also the coal mining areas standards of Jharia coalfield, thus falling under the category of critically polluted area. Air Quality Indexing has also been developed which provides a clear map of the deterioration of air quality and also presenting comparative ranking of all the monitoring locations with respect to air quality status in the study area.

  15. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi enhance soil carbon sequestration in the coalfields, northwest China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhi-Gang; Bi, Yin-Li; Jiang, Bin; Zhakypbek, Yryszhan; Peng, Su-Ping; Liu, Wen-Wen; Liu, Hao

    2016-01-01

    Carbon storage is affected by photosynthesis (Pn) and soil respiration (Rs), which have been studied extensively in natural and agricultural systems. However, the effects of Pn and Rs on carbon storages in the presence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in coalfields remain unclear. A field experiment was established in 2014 in Shendong coal mining subsidence area. The treatments comprised two inoculation levels (inoculated with or without 100 g AMF inoculums per seedlings) and four plant species [wild cherry (Prunus discadenia Koebne L.), cerasus humilis (Prunus dictyneura Diels L.), shiny leaf Yellow horn (Xanthoceras sorbifolium Bunge L.) and apricot (Armeniaca sibirica L.)]. AMF increased Pn of four species ranging from 15.3% to 33.1% and carbon storage, averaged by 17.2% compared to controls. Soil organic carbon (OC), easily extractable glomalin-relation soil protein (EE-GRSP), and total glomalin-relation soil protein (T-GRSP) were significantly increased by AMF treatment. The effect of AMF on the sensitivity of Rs depended on soil temperature. The results highlighted the exponential models to explain the responses of Rs to soil temperature, and for the first time quantified AMF caused carbon sequestration and Rs. Thus, to our knowledge, AMF is beneficial to ecosystems through facilitating carbon conservation in coalfield soils. PMID:27748365

  16. Ice core sulfur and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) records from southern Greenland document North American and European air pollution and suggest a decline in regional biogenic sulfur emissions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasteris, D. R.; McConnell, J. R.; Burkhart, J. F.; Saltzman, E. S.

    2014-12-01

    Sulfate aerosols have an important cooling effect on the Earth because they scatter sunlight back to space and form cloud condensation nuclei. However, understanding of the atmospheric sulfur cycle is incomplete, leading to uncertainty in the assessment of past, present and future climate forcing. Here we use annually resolved observations of sulfur and methanesulfonic acid (MSA) concentration in an array of precisely dated Southern Greenland ice cores to assess the history of sulfur pollution emitted from North America and Europe and the history of biogenic sulfate aerosol derived from the North Atlantic Ocean over the last 250 years. The ice core sulfur time series is found to closely track sulfur concentrations in North American and European precipitation since records began in 1965, and also closely tracks estimated sulfur emissions since 1850 within the air mass source region as determined by back trajectory analysis. However, a decline to near-preindustrial sulfur concentrations in the ice cores after 1995 that is not so extensive in the source region emissions indicates that there has been a change in sulfur cycling over the last 150 years. The ice core MSA time series shows a decline of 60% since the 1860s, and is well correlated with declining sea ice concentrations around Greenland, suggesting that the phytoplankton source of biogenic sulfur has declined due to a loss of marginal sea ice zone habitat. Incorporating the implied decrease in biogenic sulfur in our analysis improves the match between the ice core sulfur record and the source region emissions throughout the last 150 years, and solves the problem of the recent return to near-preindustrial levels in the Greenland ice. These findings indicate that the transport efficiency of sulfur air pollution has been relatively stable through the industrial era and that biogenic sulfur emissions in the region have declined.

  17. Flow path of the 1993 Hokkaido-Nansei-oki earthquake seismoturbidite, southern margin of the Japan sea north basin, inferred from anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdeldayem, A. L.; Ikehara, K.; Yamazaki, T.

    2004-04-01

    A magnetic fabric analysis has been carried out on standard cube samples from one gravity and three multiple cores extracted from the Shiribeshi trough and Okushiri basin in the southern margin of the Japan sea north basin. It is aimed at tracing the flow path of turbidites that are assumed to have deposited in response to the 1993 Hokkaido-Nansei-oki earthquake. Magnetic remanence was used for reorientation to the geographic coordinates. Magnetomineralogical investigations including low-temperature magnetometry, magnetic hysteresis loops and isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) acquisition experiments indicate that pseudo-single domain to multidomain magnetite is the principal magnetic carrier and is, therefore, capable of providing reliable anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) palaeocurrent direction estimates. A well-developed near-horizontal magnetic foliation and minimum susceptibility axes lying close to vertical are recorded at all sites reflecting an original depositional fabric. Clearly defined magnetic lineation was observed at all sites and is considered to reflect the palaeocurrent direction. Down-core changes of susceptibility and key AMS parameters show good correspondence to occurrences of turbidite layers marking the increase of input of influx materials. In agreement with results from recent marine surveys and IZANAGI side-scan sonar images, an NNE transportation trend has been estimated for sediments at sites from the Shiribeshi trough with a possible depositing path initiating from the slope bounding the south and southeastern margin down to the trough floor. Similarly, a SSE palaeocurrent direction has been estimated for sediments from the Okushiri basin with evidence for a relatively strong transporting current flowing through the canyons along the steep slope bounding the north and northeastern margins of the basin. The present results agree with the view that slope failure is the most probable mechanism for the down-slope transport

  18. Late Ordovician (post-Sardic) rifting branches in the North Gondwanan Montagne Noire and Mouthoumet massifs of southern France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javier Álvaro, J.; Colmenar, Jorge; Monceret, Eric; Pouclet, André; Vizcaïno, Daniel

    2016-06-01

    Upper Ordovician-Lower Devonian rocks of the Cabrières klippes (southern Montagne Noire) and the Mouthoumet massif in southern France rest paraconformably or with angular discordance on Cambrian-Lower Ordovician strata. Neither Middle-Ordovician volcanism nor associated metamorphism is recorded, and the subsequent Middle-Ordovician stratigraphic gap is related to the Sardic phase. Upper Ordovician sedimentation started in the rifting branches of Cabrières and Mouthoumet with deposition of basaltic lava flows and lahar deposits (Roque de Bandies and Villerouge formations) of continental tholeiite signature (CT), indicative of continental fracturing. The infill of both rifting branches followed with the onset of (1) Katian (Ka1-Ka2) conglomerates and sandstones (Glauzy and Gascagne formations), which have yielded a new brachiopod assemblage representative of the Svobodaina havliceki Community; (2) Katian (Ka2-Ka4) limestones, marlstones, and shales with carbonate nodules, reflecting development of bryozoan-echinoderm meadows with elements of the Nicolella Community (Gabian and Montjoi formations); and (3) the Hirnantian Marmairane Formation in the Mouthoumet massif that has yielded a rich and diverse fossil association representative of the pandemic Hirnantia Fauna. The sealing of the subaerial palaeorelief generated during the Sardic phase is related to Silurian and Early Devonian transgressions leading to onlapping patterns and the record of high-angle discordances.

  19. Spatio-temporal spawning and larval dynamics of a zebra mussel (Dreissena polymorpha) population in a North Texas Reservoir: implications for invasions in the southern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Churchill, Christopher John

    2013-01-01

    Zebra mussels were first observed in Texas in 2009 in a reservoir (Lake Texoma) on the Texas-Oklahoma border. In 2012, an established population was found in a near-by reservoir, Ray Roberts Lake, and in June 2013, settled mussels were detected in a third north Texas reservoir, Lake Lewisville. An established population was detected in Belton Lake in September 2013. With the exception of Louisiana, these occurrences in Texas mark the current southern extent of the range of this species in the United States. Previous studies indicate that zebra mussel populations could be affected by environmental conditions, especially increased temperatures and extreme droughts, which are characteristic of surface waters of the southern and southwestern United States. Data collected during the first three years (2010–12) of a long-term monitoring program were analyzed to determine if spatio-temporal zebra mussel spawning and larval dynamics were related to physicochemical water properties in Lake Texoma. Reproductive output of the local population was significantly related to water temperature and lake elevation. Estimated mean date of first spawn in Lake Texoma was approximately 1.5 months earlier and peak veliger densities were observed two months earlier than in Lake Erie. Annual maximum veliger density declined significantly during the study period (p < 0.0001). A population crash occurred as a result of thermal stress and variability of lake elevation. In summer 2011, water temperatures peaked at 34.3°C and lake elevation declined to the lowest level recorded during the previous 18 years, which resulted in desiccation of substantial numbers of settled mussels in littoral zones. Veliger spatial distributions were associated with physicochemical stratification characteristics. Veligers were observed in the deepest oxygenated water after lake stratification, which occurred in late spring. Results of this study indicate environmental conditions can influence variability of

  20. 50 CFR 226.219 - Critical habitat for the Southern Distinct Population Segment of North American Green Sturgeon...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...°44′46″ N./124°1′39″ W.); Butler Creek (43°42′50″ N./124°3′0″ W.); Eslick Creek (43°47′46″ N./123°58...″ N./123°53′3″ W.); Smith River, North Fork (43°48′17″ N./123°55′59″ W.); Umpqua River (43°40′3″ N...°21′10″ N./124°13′17″ W.); Coos River, South Fork (43°22′32″ N./123°59′34″ W.); Cox Canyon Creek......

  1. 50 CFR 226.219 - Critical habitat for the Southern Distinct Population Segment of North American Green Sturgeon...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Clallam County east of a line connecting Cape Flattery (48°23′10″ N./124°43′32″ W.), Tatoosh Island (48°23... and Island counties north and west of a line connecting Point Wilson (48°08′38″ N./122°45′07″ W.) and... (48°29′34″ N./122°42′07″ W.) and Lopez Island (48°28′43″ N./122°49′08″ W.). (2) Freshwater...

  2. Annual variations of biomass and photosynthesis in Zostera marina at its southern end of distribution in the North Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cabello-Pasini, Alejandro; Munoz-Salazar, R.; Ward, D.H.

    2003-01-01

    Density, biomass, morphology, phenology and photosynthetic characteristics of Zostera marina were related to continuous measurements of in situ irradiance, attenuation coefficient and temperature at three coastal lagoons in Baja California, Mexico. In situ irradiance was approximately two-fold lower at San Quintin Bay (SQ) than at Ojo de Liebre Lagoon (OL) and San Ignacio Lagoon (SI). As a consequence of the greater irradiance, plants at OL and SI were established 1 m deeper within the water column than those at SQ. At SQ, there was a four-fold variation in biomass of Z. marina caused by changes on shoot length and not shoot density, while at OL and SI biomass and shoot length did not fluctuate significantly throughout the year. Reproductive shoot density reached maximum values concomitantly with the greatest irradiance during spring-summer, however, the density was approximately three-fold greater at SQ than at the southern coastal lagoons. While irradiance levels were two-fold greater at the southern lagoons, in general, photosynthetic characteristics were similar among all three lagoons. The hours of light saturated photosynthesis, calculated from their photosynthetic characteristics and irradiance measurements, suggest that photosynthesis of shoots from OL and SI are saturated for more than 6 h per day throughout the year, while shoots from SQ are likely light limited during approximately 15% of the year. Consequently, an increase in attenuation coefficient values in the water column will likely decrease light availability to Z. marina plants at SQ, potentially decreasing their survival. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The geology and petroleum potential of the North Afghan platform and adjacent areas (northern Afghanistan, with parts of southern Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan and Tajikistan)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brookfield, Michael E.; Hashmat, Ajruddin

    2001-10-01

    platform began in the Miocene. Oil and gas traps are mainly in Upper Jurassic carbonates and Lower Cretaceous sandstones across the entire North Afghan block. Upper Jurassic carbonate traps, sealed by evaporites, occur mainly north of the southern limit of the Upper Jurassic salt. Lower Cretaceous traps consist of fine-grained continental sandstones, sealed by Aptian-Albian shales and siltstones. Upper Cretaceous-Palaeocene carbonates, sealed by Palaeogene shales are the main traps along the northern edge of the platform and in the Tajik basin. Almost all the traps are broad anticlines related to Neogene wrench faulting, in this respect, like similar traps along the San Andreas fault. Hydrocarbon sources are in the Mesozoic section. The Lower-Middle Jurassic continental coal-bearing beds provide about 75% of the hydrocarbons; the Callovian-Oxfordian provides about 10%; the Neocomian a meagre 1%, and the Aptian-Albian about 14%. The coal-bearing source rocks decrease very markedly in thickness southwards cross the North Afghan platform. Much of the hydrocarbon generation probably occurred during the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene and migrated to structural traps during Neogene deformation. Since no regional structural dip aids southward hydrocarbon migration, and since the traps are all structural and somewhat small, then there is little chance of very large petroleum fields on the platform. Nevertheless, further studies of the North Afghan platform should be rewarding because: (a) the traps of strike-slip belts are difficult to find without detailed exploration; (b) the troubles of the last 20 years mean that almost no exploration has been done; and, (c) conditions may soon become more favorable. There should be ample potential for oil, and particularly gas, discoveries especially in the northern and western parts of the North Afghan platform.

  4. Westward extension of the Devils River uplift Implications for the Paleozoic evolution of the southern margin of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, Thomas E.

    1985-06-01

    The Devils River uplift is inferred to continue westward into Trans-Pecos Texas. Both the known Devils River uplift and the Tascotal uplift are bounded on the north by east-west fault zones (Chalk Draw and Carta Valley fault zones) separating them from Late Pennsylvanian clastic foredeep basins (Marfa and Val Verde basins). The exposed, much-shortened Marathon thrust belt may have been emplaced in the earliest Permian by gravity gliding. Meager evidence suggests that the Devils River block represents a Cambrian or Infracambrian rift and that the uplift is an aulacogen. The early Cambrian continental margin probably continued southwest into Mexico but has been displaced by Mesozoic left-lateral movement.

  5. Transport of East Asian dust storms to the marginal seas of China and the southern North Pacific in spring 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Sai-Chun; Li, Jiawei; Che, Huizheng; Chen, Bin; Wang, Hong

    2017-01-01

    The transport of a super-severe dust storm that occurred in East Asia from 19 to 22 March 2010 has been well documented by both model simulations and surface observations. We investigated the transport of this severe dust storm and several other spring 2010 dust storms using model simulations, backward trajectories, and measurements from the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) satellite. The model simulations indicated that the emission of dust in spring 2010 was about 35% higher than that in spring 2006 and was twice that of the 44-year average from 1960 to 2003. The dust emissions over two major source regions (western China and the Gobi Desert) in spring 2010 accounted for 86% of the total amount of dust. The simulated depositional flux over the two major source regions was c.2.7-9.0 times that over two marginal seas (the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea) and more than two magnitudes higher than that over the North Pacific Subtropical Gyre. The mean extinction coefficient observed by the CALIPSO satellite over the two source regions was c.1.3-3.7 times that over the two marginal seas and one magnitude higher than that over the North Pacific. This was consistent with the result from our model, suggesting that this model is able to capture the major features of dust storms. The vertical profiles recorded by the CALIPSO satellite indicated that the dust aerosol mainly floated from the ground to 13 km above ground level over the source regions and above the seas. A multiple dust layer appeared over the seas and the backward trajectories suggested that the dust aerosol in different layers may have been sourced from different regions.

  6. The hercynian compressive then extensive tectonic of the north flank of the Montagne Noire (southern French Massif Central)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turpaud, P.; Matte, P.

    2003-04-01

    The Montagne Noire, (southernmost edge of the Massif Central) is well known on its southern flank by low-grade spectacular hercynian nappes and southward recumbent folds. The northern flank, much less known is separated from the southern nappes by a large high grade metamorphic dome, the Axial Zone, which has been interpreted either as a purely extensive metamorphic core complex or as a compressive migmatitic antiform. The northern flank made of Lower Paleozoic epizonal sediments and granitic orthogneisses was previously interpreted as tectonic units separated by, NE-SW trending, southeastward verging thrusts. Our recent kinematic study shows a more complex structure and history: -- Some of the so-called southeastward thrusts (Brusque area) are in fact large, kilometre thick, ductile sinistral shear-zones with a southwestward thrust component (Guérangé-Lozes et Alsac, 1986), southward verging folds and slaty cleavage. That is the first major deformation in the Northern Montagne Noire and it is still undated. -- Closer to the Axial dome, in the Lacaune area, the most conspicuous structures are younger and related to large northeastward detachment with a LP/MT metamorphism. NE-SW trending lineations are here significant of a strong top to the NE shearing well expressed by fish-like biotites, synkinematic cordierites with helicitic inclusion trails, asymmetric boudinage and F2 northeastward drag folds. This spectacular detachment tectonic, which affects as well the whole northern flank of the granitic-gneissic Axial Zone, is dated by Ar39/Ar40 laser method on synkinematic micas at about 300--310 Ma. This event helped to the exhumation and denudation of the gneissic Axial Zone, just before the deposit of Stephanian limnic coal basins. The MT/BP metamophism is contemporaneous of the ductile detachment tectonic but some clues of gaps of metamorphism in the PT section indicate probably late normal faults with the same kinematics but posterior to the metamorphic climax

  7. The 3-D Tectonic Crustal Stress Field and Style of Faulting Along the Pacific North America Plate Boundary in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, W.; Hauksson, E.

    2012-12-01

    We invert for the state of stress in the southern California crust using recent high quality earthquake focal mechanisms catalog (1981-2010). To interpret the stress field we determine the maximum horizontal compressive stress (SHmax) orientations and the style of faulting across southern California at four different scales of resolution, with grid spacing of 5 and 10 km, and with 15 or 30 events per grid. The stress field is best resolved where seismicity rates are high but sufficient data are available to constrain the stress field across most of the region. The trend of SHmax exhibits significant regional and local spatial heterogeneities. The regional trend of SHmax varies from north along the San Andreas system to NNE to the east in the Eastern California Shear Zone as well as to the west, within the Continental Borderland and the western Transverse Ranges. The transition zones from one state of stress to the other are very sharp and occur over a distance of a few kilometers, following a trend from Yucca Valley to Imperial Valley to the east, and the western edge of the Peninsular Ranges to the west. The local scale heterogeneities in the SHmax trend include NNW trends along the San Andreas Fault near Cajon Pass, Tejon Pass, and the Cucapa Range, as well as NNE trends near the northern San Jacinto Fault and the Wheeler Ridge region. The style of faulting exhibits similar complexity, ranging from predominantly normal faulting in the high Sierra Nevada, to strike-slip faulting along the San Andreas system, to three consecutive bands of thrust faulting in the Wheeler Ridge area and the western Transfer Ranges. The local variations in the style of faulting include normal faulting at the north end of the San Jacinto Fault and scattered regions of thrust faulting. We compare the pattern of SHmax trend in the crust with the GPS measured maximum shortening strain rate tensor and upper mantle anisotropy. The regional variations in the SHmax trends are very similar to

  8. Petrologic, geochemical, and geochronologic constraints on the tectonic evolution of the southern Appalachian orogen, Blue Ridge Province of western North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Eric Douglas

    2011-07-01

    The Blue Ridge Province of western North Carolina contains a wide variety of metamorphosed igneous and sedimentary rocks that record the tectonic effects of Precambrian and Paleozoic orogenic cycles. Tectonic interpretations of the events that led to the present configuration are varied and often conflicting. This investigation examines metamorphosed mafic rocks that are widely interpreted to have formed during the closure of ocean basins. Metabasites, and specifically eclogites, have a tendency to mark tectonic sutures and frequently preserve pressure (P), temperature (T), and age data (t) that can be gleaned from mineral equilibria and U-Pb isotopic compositions. As such, the examination of the metabasites is considered the key to understanding the orogenic history of the southern Blue Ridge where these metabasites occur. Chapter 2 is an investigation of the retrograde reactions related to the decompression of sodic pyroxenes that react to form diopside-plagioclase-hornblende-quartz symplectites as stability fields are overstepped during isothermal decompression. In Chapter 3 metabasites from the central and eastern Blue Ridge are re-examined and P-T pathways of these lithologies are determined. The argument is made that the Taconic orogeny of the Blue Ridge is the result of a continent-continent collision event that culminated in a mega-melange that coincides with the Cullowhee terrane and the eastern Blue Ridge melange of western North Carolina. Chapter 4 contains the results of a geochronological investigation of the Precambrian basement complex of the eastern Great Smoky Mountains. Chapter 5 is a whole rock geochemical study of the same basement complex. In Chapter 6, a potential lithologic correlation between the southern Blue Ridge basement and the Arequipa-Antofalla block of Peru is discussed. The geologic history of western South America from the Mesoproterozoic through Cambrian is summarized, a potential isotope-based lithologic correlation is proposed

  9. The Cambrian-Ordovician rocks of Sonora, Mexico, and southern Arizona, southwestern margin of North America (Laurentia): chapter 35

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Page, William R.; Harris, Alta C.; Repetski, John E.; Derby, James R.; Fritz, R.D.; Longacre, S.A.; Morgan, W.A.; Sternbach, C.A.

    2013-01-01

    The most complete sections of Ordovician shelf rocks in Sonora are 50 km (31 mi) northwast of Hermosillo. In these sections, the Lower Ordovician is characterized by intraclastic limestone, siltstone, shale, and chert. The Middle Ordovician is mostly silty limestone and quartzite, and the Upper Ordovician is cherty limestone and some argillaceous limestone. A major disconformity separates the Middle Ordovician quartzite from the overlying Upper Ordovician carbonate rocks and is similar to the disconformity between the Middle and Upper Ordovician Eureka Quartzite and Upper Ordovician Ely Springs Dolomite in Nevada and California. In parts of northwestern Sonora, Ordovician rocks are disconformably overlain by Upper Silurain rocks. Northeastward in Sonora and Arizona, toward the craton, Ordovician rocks are progressively truncated by a major onlap unconformity and are overliand by Devonian rocks. Except in local area, Ordovician rocks are generally absent in cratonic platform sequences in northern Sonora and southern Arizona.

  10. Respiratory Microbiome of Endangered Southern Resident Killer Whales and Microbiota of Surrounding Sea Surface Microlayer in the Eastern North Pacific.

    PubMed

    Raverty, Stephen A; Rhodes, Linda D; Zabek, Erin; Eshghi, Azad; Cameron, Caroline E; Hanson, M Bradley; Schroeder, J Pete

    2017-03-24

    In the Salish Sea, the endangered Southern Resident Killer Whale (SRKW) is a high trophic indicator of ecosystem health. Three major threats have been identified for this population: reduced prey availability, anthropogenic contaminants, and marine vessel disturbances. These perturbations can culminate in significant morbidity and mortality, usually associated with secondary infections that have a predilection to the respiratory system. To characterize the composition of the respiratory microbiota and identify recognized pathogens of SRKW, exhaled breath samples were collected between 2006-2009 and analyzed for bacteria, fungi and viruses using (1) culture-dependent, targeted PCR-based methodologies and (2) taxonomically broad, non-culture dependent PCR-based methodologies. Results were compared with sea surface microlayer (SML) samples to characterize the respective microbial constituents. An array of bacteria and fungi in breath and SML samples were identified, as well as microorganisms that exhibited resistance to multiple antimicrobial agents. The SML microbes and respiratory microbiota carry a pathogenic risk which we propose as an additional, fourth putative stressor (pathogens), which may adversely impact the endangered SRKW population.

  11. Communication beyond the Classroom: Dimension 2010. A Thematic Index of "Dimension," 1980-2009. Selected Proceedings of the 2010 Joint Conference of the Southern Conference on Language Teaching, the Foreign Language Association of North Carolina, the North Carolina Chapter of AATSP, and the National Network of Early Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, C. Maurice, Comp.; Wilkerson, Carol, Comp.

    2010-01-01

    "Dimension" is the annual volume containing the selected, refereed, edited Proceedings of each year's conference. The Southern Conference on Language Teaching (SCOLT), held its annual conference April 15-17, 2010, at the Winston-Salem Marriott in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, in collaboration with the Foreign Language Association of…

  12. Metamorphic P-T-t path retrieved from metapelites in the southeastern Taihua metamorphic complex, and the Paleoproterozoic tectonic evolution of the southern North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jun-Sheng; Zhai, Ming-Guo; Lu, Lin-Sheng; Wang, Hao Y. C.; Chen, Hong-Xu; Peng, Tao; Wu, Chun-Ming; Zhao, Tai-Ping

    2017-02-01

    The Taihua metamorphic complex in the southern part of the North China Craton is composed of tonalite-trondhjemite-granodiorite (TTG) gneisses, amphibolites, metapelitic gneisses, marbles, quartzites, and banded iron formations (BIFs). The protoliths of the complex have ages ranging from ∼2.1 to ∼2.9 Ga and was metamorphosed under the upper amphibolite to granulite facies conditions with NWW-SEE-striking gneissosity. Metapelitites from the Wugang area have three stages of metamorphic mineral assemblages. The prograde metamorphic mineral assemblage (M1) includes biotite + plagioclase + quartz + ilmenite preserved as inclusions in garnet porphyroblasts. The peak mineral assemblage (M2) consists of garnet porphyroblasts and matrix minerals of sillimanite + biotite + plagioclase + quartz + K-feldspar + ilmenite + rutile + pyrite. The retrograde mineral assemblage (M3), biotite + plagioclase + quartz, occurs as symplectic assemblages surrounding embayed garnet porphyroblasts. Garnet porphyroblasts are chemically zoned. Pseudosection calculated in the NCKFMASHTO model system suggests that mantles of garnet porphyroblasts define high-pressure granulites facies P-T conditions of 12.2 kbar and 830 °C, whereas garnet rims record P-T conditions of 10.2 kbar and 840 °C. Integrating the prograde mineral assemblages, zoning of garnet porphyroblasts with symplectic assemblages, a clockwise metamorphic P-T path can be retrieved. High resolution SIMS U-Pb dating and LA-ICP-MS trace element measurements of the metamorphic zircons demonstrate that metapelites in Wugang possibly record the peak or near peak metamorphic ages of ∼1.92 Ga. Furthermore, 40Ar/39Ar dating of biotite in metapelites suggests that the cooling of the Taihua complex may have lasted until ∼1.83 Ga. Therefore, a long-lived Palaeoproterozoic metamorphic event may define a slow exhumation process. Field relationship and new metamorphic data for the Taihua metamorphic complex does not support the previous

  13. The southern margin of the East European Craton: new results from seismic sounding and potential fields between the North Sea and Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, U.; Grad, M.; Pharaoh, T. C.; Thybo, H.; Guterch, A.; Banka, D.; Lamarche, J.; Lassen, A.; Lewerenz, B.; Scheck, M.; Marotta, A.-M.

    2002-12-01

    The extension of eastern Avalonia from Britain through the NE German Basin into Poland is, in some sense, a virtual structure. It is covered almost everywhere by late Paleozoic and younger sediments. Evidence for this terrane is only gathered from geophysical data and age information derived from magmatic rocks. During the last two decades, much geophysical and geological information has been gathered since the European Geotraverse (EGT), which was followed by the BABEL, LT-7, MONA LISA, DEKORP-Basin'96, and POLONAISE'97 deep seismic experiments. Based on seismic lines, a remarkable feature has been observed between the North Sea and Poland: north of the Elbe Line (EL), the lower crust is characterised by high velocities (6.8-7.0 km/s), a feature which seems to be characteristic for at least a major part of eastern Avalonia (far eastern Avalonia). In addition, the seismic lines indicate that a wedge of the East European Craton (EEC) (or Baltica) continues to the south below the southern Permian Basin (SPB)—a structure which resembles a passive continental margin. The observed pattern may either indicate an extension of the Baltic crust much farther south than earlier expected or oceanic crust of the Tornquist Sea trapped during the Caledonian collision. In either case, the data require a reinterpretation of the docking mechanism of eastern Avalonia, and the Elbe-Odra Line (EOL), as well as the Elbe Fault system, together with the Intra-Sudedic Faults, appear to be related to major changes in the deeper crustal structures separating the East European crust from the Paleozoic agglomeration of Middle European terranes.

  14. Long-term changes in species composition of demersal fish and epibenthic species in the Jade area (German Wadden Sea/Southern North Sea) since 1972

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meyer, Julia; Kröncke, Ingrid; Bartholomä, Alexander; Dippner, Joachim W.; Schückel, Ulrike

    2016-11-01

    Within this long-term study, the short- and long-term variability of demersal fish and epibenthic species in relation to temperature and climate-driven environmental changes in the inshore tidal bay system of the Jade area was investigated. Semiquantitative sampling took place once per spring and summer period from 1972 to 2014 by using a 2 m beam trawl at one station in the Jade area (German Wadden Sea/southern North Sea). Min/max autocorrelation analysis (MAFA) and Mann-Kendall analysis revealed significant increasing trends in total abundance and species number. Homogeneity analysis revealed shifts for abundance in spring and summer in the late 1980s and for species number in the late 1980s in spring and early 2000s in summer. Abundances of the estuarine crustacean species Carcinus maenas and Liocarcinus holsatus and of the estuarine fish species Pomatoschistus spp. showed significant increasing abundances since the late 1980s. The marine juvenile species Pleuronectes platessa and Limanda limanda showed significant decreasing abundances, while abundances of Solea solea showed significant increasing abundances since the early 2000s. Abundances of L.holsatus and C. maenas showed mass occurrences since the early 2000s. Spearman correlation analysis revealed significant correlations of temperature and abundance data of some characteristic species. Statistical downscaling analysis revealed significant correlations between observations and climate indicators such as the North Sea Environmental (NSE) Index for spring. Thus, it appears that climate effects influenced the long-term variability of species number and abundance of epibenthic and demersal fish species in the Jade area, resulting in community shifts in the late 1980s and early 2000s.

  15. Plio-Pleistocene North-South and East-West Extension at the Southern Margin of the Tibetan Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDermott, Jeni Amber

    The tectonic significance of the physiographic transition from the low-relief Tibetan plateau to the high peaks, rugged topography and deep gorges of the Himalaya is the source of much controversy. Some workers have suggested the transition may be structurally controlled (e.g. Hodges et al., 2001), and indeed, the sharp change in geomorphic character across the transition strongly suggests differential uplift between the Himalayan realm and the southernmost Tibetan Plateau. Most Himalayan researchers credit the South Tibetan fault system (STFS), a family of predominantly east-west trending, low-angle normal faults with a known trace of over 2,000 km along the Himalayan crest (e.g. Burchfiel et al., 1992), with defining the southern margin of the Tibetan Plateau in the Early Miocene. Inasmuch as most mapped strands of the STFS have not been active since the Middle Miocene (e.g., Searle & Godin, 2003), modern-day control of the physiographic transition by this fault system seems unlikely. However, several workers have documented Quaternary slip on east-west striking, N-directed extensional faults, of a similar structural nature but typically at a different tectonostratigraphic level than the principal STFS strand, in several locations across the range (Nakata, 1989; Wu et al., 1998; Hurtado et al., 2001). In order to explore the nature of the physiographic transition and determine its relationship to potential Quaternary faulting, I examined three field sites: the Kali Gandaki valley in central Nepal (˜28°39'54"N; 83°35'06"E), the Nyalam region of south-central Tibet (28°03'23.3"N, 86°03'54.08"E), and the Ama Drime Range in southernmost Tibet (87º15'-87º50'E; 27º45'-28º30'N). Research in each of these areas yielded evidence of young faulting on structures with normal-sense displacement in various forms: the structural truncation of lithostratigraphic units, distinctive fault scarps, or abrupt changes in bedrock cooling age patterns. These structures are

  16. Hydrogeology of aquifers in Cretaceous and younger rocks in the vicinity of Onslow and southern Jones counties, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lyke, W.L.; Winner, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    Unconsolidated sediments in Onslow and Jones Counties, North Carolina overlie crystalline basement rocks and range in thickness from about 700 ft to more than 1,800 ft, thickening toward the east. This material is composed of permeable sand and limestone interlayered with relatively impermeable clay and silt beds. Sediments are divided into two groups: aquifers in Quaternary-, and Tertiary-aged rocks and aquifers in Cretaceous-aged rocks. Aquifers in the Cretaceous rocks provide most of the groundwater for public supplies and are the focus of this report. The aquifers in Cretaceous rocks are the Peedee, Black Creek, upper Cape Fear, and lower Cape Fear aquifers, which are composed of beds or groups of beds of sand and gravel. Each aquifer is overlain by a clay and silt bed, that impedes the flow of water between aquifers. The thickness of Cretaceous hydrogeologic units ranges from about 700 ft to more than 1, 300 ft. Hydrogeologic units are correlated using 60 geophysical logs and accompanying drillers ' logs along with water level and water quality data. Three hydrogeologic sections demonstrate the continuity of the aquifers and confining units, show water levels and chloride concentration in water from test intervals, and delineate where chloride concentration in water exceeds 250 mg/L within each aquifer. Maps of each aquifer in Cretaceous rocks show altitude of its top, thickness, sand percentage, and the transition from freshwater to saltwater. Maps of the confining units show thickness and sand percentage of each.

  17. Assessment of trace metal toxicity in soils of Raniganj Coalfield, India.

    PubMed

    Das, Supriyo Kumar; Chakrapani, Govind J

    2011-06-01

    Soil, rock and water samples were collected from India's oldest coalfield Raniganj to investigate trace metal contamination from mining activity. Our data reveal that trace metal concentration in soil samples lies above the average world soil composition; especially, Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn concentrations exceed the maximum allowable concentration proposed by the European Commission for agricultural soils. In particular, Cr, Cu and Ni exceed the ecotoxicological limit, and Ni exceeds the typical value for cultivated soils. Mineral dissolution from overburden material and high adsorption capacity of laterite soil are responsible for the elevated concentrations. This is evident from enrichment factor (E (f)), geoaccumulation index (I (geo)) and metal pollution index values. Sediment quality guideline index indicates toxicity to local biota although enrichment index suggests no threat from consuming crops cultivated in the contaminated soil.

  18. Palynostratigraphy of Permian succession in the Mand-Raigarh Coalfield, Chhattisgarh, India and phytogeographical provincialism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murthy, Srikanta; Ram-Awatar; Gautam, Saurabh

    2014-12-01

    Palynofloras have been recorded from the Barakar Formation in the Borehole MBKW-3, Barpali-Karmitikra Block, Mand-Raigarh Coalfield, Chhattisgarh. Three distinct palynoassemblages have been identified and referred to the following palynoassemblage zones - Gondisporites raniganjensis (Latest Permian); Faunipollenites varius (latest Early Permian), and Scheuringipollenites barakarensis (late Early Permian). It is inferred that these deposits contain the representative palynoassamblages of Early to Late Permian in age. The First Appearance Datum (FAD)s of Arcuatipollenites pellucidus, A. ovatus, Guttulapollenites hannonicus, Lundbladispora microconata, Alisporites opii, Klausipollenites sp., and Goubinispora indica (at 41.95, 45.90, 98.35 m depth), indicate the closing phase of Permian, as these elements are the key species that mark a transition from Permian to the Lower Triassic. An attempt has been made here to reconstruct the phytogeographical provincialism on the basis of Guttulapollenites recorded in this basin.

  19. Quaternary magnetic and oxygen isotope stratigraphy in diatom-rich sediments of the southern Gardar Drift (IODP Site U1304, North Atlantic)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, Chuang; Channell, James E. T.; Hodell, David A.

    2016-06-01

    The sediment sequence from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Site U1304 (53°03.40‧N, 33°31.78‧W; water depth, 3024 m) on the southern Gardar Drift, North Atlantic Ocean, covers the last ∼1.8 Myr with a mean sedimentation rate of ∼15 cm/kyr. At Site U1304, paleomagnetic directional and relative paleointensity (RPI) records have been generated for the last ∼1.5 Myr, and benthic oxygen isotope data for the last ∼1 Myr. The age model for Site U1304 was established by matching δ18O and RPI data to calibrated reference records. Prominent intervals of diatom mats at Site U1304 are associated with the latter stages of interglacial marine isotope stages (MIS) 9, 11, 13, 15, 21, 27 and 35, and with the weak glacial of MIS 14. The deposition of diatom mats, and associated diluted magnetic mineral concentrations, leads to weak magnetizations and susceptibilities in these intervals. Comparison of histograms of paleomagnetic directions and RPI from diatom-rich sediments and from surrounding silty clays indicates that, although results from diatom-rich sediments are more scattered, the occurrence of diatom mats does not appreciably distort the paleomagnetic directional and RPI records. Site U1304 sediments record the Matuyama/Brunhes boundary (∼772 ka), the Jaramillo Subchron (∼993-1071 ka) and the Cobb Mountain Subchron (∼1193-1219 ka), as well as three apparent geomagnetic excursions in the Matuyama Chron, interpreted as the "Kamikatsura/Santa Rosa", "Punaruu", and "Gardar" excursions, at ∼888 ka, ∼1124 ka, and ∼1463 ka, respectively. The Site U1304 RPI record can be correlated with the PISO-1500 RPI stack and with other high-resolution RPI records from the North Atlantic Ocean. Wavelet analyses performed on the Site U1304 RPI record and a new high-resolution North Atlantic paleointensity stack for the last 1500 kyr (HINAPIS-1500), comprising Ocean Drilling Program (ODP) Sites 983, 984 and IODP Sites U1306 and U1304, did not reveal significant

  20. Mineralogy and geochemistry of the No. 6 Coal (Pennsylvanian) in the Junger Coalfield, Ordos Basin, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dai, S.; Ren, D.; Chou, C.-L.; Li, S.; Jiang, Y.

    2006-01-01

    This paper discusses the mineralogy and geochemistry of the No. 6 Coal (Pennsylvanian) in the Junger Coalfield, Ordos Basin, China. The results show that the vitrinite reflectance (0.58%) is lowest and the proportions of inertinite and liptinite (37.4% and 7.1%, respectively) in the No. 6 Coal of the Junger Coalfield are highest among all of the Late Paleozoic coals in the Ordos Basin. The No. 6 Coal may be divided vertically into four sections based on their mineral compositions and elemental concentrations. A high boehmite content (mean 6.1%) was identified in the No. 6 Coal. The minerals associated with the boehmite in the coal include goyazite, rutile, zircon, and Pb-bearing minerals (galena, clausthalite, and selenio-galena). The boehmite is derived from weathered and oxidized bauxite in the weathered crust of the underlying Benxi Formation (Pennsylvanian). A high Pb-bearing mineral content of samples ZG6-2 and ZG6-3 is likely of hydrothermal origin. The No. 6 coal is enriched in Ga (44.8 ??g/g), Se (8.2 ??g/g), Sr (423 ??g/g), Zr (234 ??g/g), REEs (193.3 ??g/g), Hg (0.35 ??g/g), Pb (35.7 ??g/ g), and Th (17.8 ??g/g). Gallium and Th in the No. 6 Coal mainly occur in boehmite, and the Pb-bearing selenide and sulfide minerals contribute not only to Se and Pb contents in the coal, but also probably to Hg content. A high Zr content is attributed to the presence of zircon, and Sr is related to goyazite. The REEs in the coal are supplied from the sediment-source region, and the REEs leached from the adjacent partings by groundwater. ?? 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Geochemistry of rare earth elements in Permian coals from the Huaibei Coalfield, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zheng, Lingyun; Liu, Gaisheng; Chou, C.-L.; Qi, C.; Zhang, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REEs) in coals are important because of: (a) REE patterns can be an indicator of the nature of source rocks of the mineral matter as well as sedimentary environments; (b) REEs abundance in coal may have industrial-significance. In this study, a total of thirty-four samples of Permian coal, partings, roof, and floor were collected from the Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui Province, China. Abundances of rare earth elements (REEs) and other elements in the samples were determined by inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled-plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results show that the REEs are enriched in coals in the Huaibei Coalfield as compared with Chinese and U.S. coals and the world coal average. Coals in the Lower Shihezi Formation (No. 7, 5, and 4 Coals) and Upper Shihezi Formation (No. 3) have higher REE abundances than the coals in Shanxi Formation (No. 10). Magmatic intrusion resulted in high enrichment of REEs concentrations in No. 5 and 7 Coals. The REE abundances are positively correlated with the ash content. The mineral matter in these coals is mainly made up of clay minerals and carbonates. The REEs are positively correlated with lithophile elements including Si, Al, Ti, Fe, and Na, which are mainly distributed in clay minerals, indicating that REEs are contained mainly in clay minerals. The REE abundances in coals normalized by the ash are higher than that in partings. REEs abundances of coals cannot be accounted for by the REE content in the mineral matter, and some REEs associated with organic matter in coals. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Geochemistry of rare earth elements in Permian coals from the Huaibei Coalfield, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Liugen; Liu, Guijian; Chou, Chen-Lin; Qi, Cuicui; Zhang, Ying

    2007-10-01

    The rare earth elements (REEs) in coals are important because of: (a) REE patterns can be an indicator of the nature of source rocks of the mineral matter as well as sedimentary environments; (b) REEs abundance in coal may have industrial-significance. In this study, a total of thirty-four samples of Permian coal, partings, roof, and floor were collected from the Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui Province, China. Abundances of rare earth elements (REEs) and other elements in the samples were determined by inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and inductively coupled-plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results show that the REEs are enriched in coals in the Huaibei Coalfield as compared with Chinese and U.S. coals and the world coal average. Coals in the Lower Shihezi Formation (No. 7, 5, and 4 Coals) and Upper Shihezi Formation (No. 3) have higher REE abundances than the coals in Shanxi Formation (No. 10). Magmatic intrusion resulted in high enrichment of REEs concentrations in No. 5 and 7 Coals. The REE abundances are positively correlated with the ash content. The mineral matter in these coals is mainly made up of clay minerals and carbonates. The REEs are positively correlated with lithophile elements including Si, Al, Ti, Fe, and Na, which are mainly distributed in clay minerals, indicating that REEs are contained mainly in clay minerals. The REE abundances in coals normalized by the ash are higher than that in partings. REEs abundances of coals cannot be accounted for by the REE content in the mineral matter, and some REEs associated with organic matter in coals.

  3. A novel adaptive biogeochemical model, and its 3-D application for a decadal hindcast simulation of the biogeochemistry of the southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerimoglu, Onur; Hofmeister, Richard; Wirtz, Kai

    2016-04-01

    Adaptation and acclimation processes are often ignored in ecosystem-scale model implementations, despite the long-standing recognition of their importance. Here we present a novel adaptive phytoplankton growth model where acclimation of the community to the changes in external resource ratios is accounted for, using optimality principles and dynamic physiological traits. We show that the model can reproduce the internal stoichiometries obtained at marginal supply ratios in chemostat experiments. The model is applied in a decadal hindcast simulation of the southern North Sea, where it is coupled to a 2-D benthic model and a 3-D hydrodynamic model in an approximately 1.5km horizontal resolution at the German Bight coast. The model is shown to have good skill in capturing the steep, coastal gradients in the German Bight, suggested by the match between the estimated and observed dissolved nutrient and chlorophyll concentrations. We then analyze the differential sensitivity of the coastal and off-shore zones to major drivers of the system, such as riverine nutrient loads. We demonstrate that the relevance of phytoplankton acclimation varies across coastal gradients and can become particularly significant in terms of summer nutrient depletion.

  4. Depositional environment and origin of the Lilaozhuang Neoarchean BIF-hosted iron-magnesite deposit on the southern margin of the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hua; Zhang, LianChang; Fabre, Sébastien; Wang, ChangLe; Zhai, MingGuo

    2016-08-01

    The Neoarchean Lilaozhuang iron-magnesite deposit is located in the middle of the Huoqiu banded iron formation (BIF) ore belt in Anhui Province on the southern margin of the North China Craton. The Huoqiu BIF is the unique one that simultaneously develops quartz-type, silicate-type, and carbonate-type magnetite in the region. The Lilaozhuang deposit is characterized by magnesium-rich carbonate (magnesite) in magnetite ores. The BIF-hosted iron ores include mainly of silicate type and carbonate type, with a small amount of quartz type, which chiefly exhibit banded and massive structure, with minor disseminated structure. The magnesite ores occur as crystal-like bright white and exhibits massive structure. The Y/Ho ratio and REY pattern of both iron and magnesite ores are similar to that of seawater, while Eu shows positive anomaly, which is the sign of seafloor hydrothermal mixture. These features suggest that ore-forming materials of iron and magnesium in the Lilaozhuang deposit are mainly from the mixture of seafloor hydrothermal and seawater. Both ores do not exhibit negative Ce anomaly, which indicates that the deposit was formed in an environment showing a lack of oxygen. C-O isotopic compositions indicate that magnesite ore has been reformed by metamorphism of low amphibolite facies and later hydrothermal alteration. Based on the comprehensive analysis, authors suggest that iron and magnesite ores in the Lilaozhuang deposits formed in a confined sea basin on continental margin and was influenced by later complex geological processes.

  5. Spatial variability in structural and functional aspects of macrofauna communities and their environmental parameters in the Jade Bay (Wadden Sea Lower Saxony, southern North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schückel, Ulrike; Beck, Melanie; Kröncke, Ingrid

    2013-03-01

    Spatial distribution and functional structure of intertidal benthic macrofauna in relation to environmental variables in the Jade Bay (southern North Sea) were studied and compared with other intertidal areas of the Wadden Sea. A total of 128 stations covering the whole Jade Bay were sampled in summer 2009. A total of 114 taxa were found. Highest species numbers occurred in the subtidal areas, whereas highest mean abundances were found in the upper intertidal areas. Based on species abundance data, six significantly distinct macrofauna communities in the Jade Bay were identified and evaluated with multivariate statistics, univariate correlations and canonical correspondence analysis. Differences in these community patterns were caused by the response of the dominant species ( Hydrobia ulvae, Tubificoides benedii, Pygospio elegans, Caulleriella killariensis, Scoloplos armiger, Urothoe poseidonis, Microprotopus maculatus) to prevailing environmental conditions along the gradient from the lower and exposed sandy intertidal areas via intermediate mixed sediments to the upper mudflat areas. Distribution patterns in relation to tidal zonation were best explained by variability in submergence time, Chlorophyll a (chl a) content and sediment composition (mud content), which are proxies for hydrodynamic conditions and food availability. Species inventory and species richness were comparable with other intertidal areas of the Wadden Sea, but the Jade Bay differs from these areas regarding dominant species. Differences in sediment composition and morphological characteristics (macrotidal versus mesotidal Wadden Sea areas) are discussed for comparison of regional differences.

  6. A 3-D shear velocity model of the southern North America and the Caribbean plates from ambient noise and earthquake tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaite, B.; Villaseñor, A.; Iglesias, A.; Herraiz, M.; Jiménez-Munt, I.

    2014-10-01

    We use group velocities from earthquake tomography together with group and phase velocities from ambient noise tomography (ANT) of Rayleigh-waves to invert for the 3-D shear-wave velocity structure (5-70 km) of the Caribbean (CAR) and southern North American (NAM) plates. The lithospheric model proposed offers a complete image of the crust and uppermost-mantle with imprints of the tectonic evolution. One of the most striking features inferred is the main role of the Ouachita-Marathon-Sonora orogeny front on the crustal seismic structure of NAM plate. A new imaged feature is the low crustal velocities along USA-Mexico border. The model also shows a break of the E-W mantle velocity dichotomy of the NAM and CAR plates beneath the Isthmus of Tehuantepec and Yucatan Block. High upper-mantle velocities along the Mesoamerican Subduction Zone coincide with inactive volcanic areas while the lowest velocities correspond to active volcanic arcs and thin lithospheric mantle regions.

  7. Impact of a phytoplankton bloom on the diversity of the active bacterial community in the southern North Sea as revealed by metatranscriptomic approaches.

    PubMed

    Wemheuer, Bernd; Güllert, Simon; Billerbeck, Sara; Giebel, Helge-Ansgar; Voget, Sonja; Simon, Meinhard; Daniel, Rolf

    2014-02-01

    Despite their importance for ecosystem functioning, little is known about the composition of active marine bacterioplankton communities. Hence, this study was focused on assessing the diversity of these communities in the southern North Sea and examining the impact of a phytoplankton spring bloom on the ambient bacterioplankton community. Community composition in and outside the bloom was assessed in 14 samples by pyrosequencing-based analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons generated from environmental RNA. The data set comprised of 211 769 16S rRNA gene sequences. Proteobacteria were the predominant phylogenetic group with Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria as the most abundant classes. Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes were identified in minor abundances. Active bacterial communities were dominated by few lineages such as the Roseobacter RCA cluster and the SAR92 clade. Community structures of three selected samples were also assessed by direct sequencing of cDNA generated from rRNA-depleted environmental RNA. Generated data sets comprised of 988 202 sequences. Taxonomic assignment of the reads confirmed the predominance of Proteobacteria. The examined phytoplankton spring bloom affected the bacterioplankton community structures significantly. Bacterial richness was reduced in the bloom area, and the abundance of certain bacterial groups was affected by bloom presence. The SAR92 clade and the Roseobacter RCA cluster were significantly more abundant and active in the bloom. Functions affected by the bloom include photosynthesis, protein metabolism, and DNA metabolism.

  8. Polychlorinated biphenyls in marine sediments from the southern North Sea and Scheldt estuary: a ten-year study of concentrations, patterns and trends.

    PubMed

    Roose, Patrick; Raemaekers, Marc; Cooreman, Kris; Brinkman, Udo A Th

    2005-07-01

    The paper reports the concentrations and patterns of CBs in sediments of the Belgian part of the southern North Sea and the Scheldt estuary for the period 1991-2001. The long-term analytical performance was well within the quality assurance boundaries set at the outset of the study and is consistent with the state of the art for this type of analysis. The CB concentrations (given as the median of the sum of IUPAC Nos 28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153 and 180) vary between 0.1 microg kg(-1) and 50 microg kg(-1) dry weight in the total sediment and it could be demonstrated that CB patterns in the fine fraction of the sediment were closely similar throughout the investigated area. Isolation of the fine fraction (<63 microm) by sieving can be regarded as a physical normalisation to reduce the differences in sediment granulometric composition. It allows for a better understanding of CB distribution and patterns and improves the trend analysis. A significant downward trend could not be found at any of the stations, which suggests that CB levels have not been changing in the area of interest in the past decade.

  9. Seismic facies analysis of delta-plain coals from Camrose, Alberta, and lacustrine coals from Pictou coalfield, Nova Scotia

    SciTech Connect

    Lawton, D.C.

    1985-12-01

    Facies models of two coalfields in Canada have been developed through seismic facies analysis. Fluvial-deltaic Upper Cretaceous coals near Camrose, Alberta, are characterized by hummocky, subparallel, high-amplitude reflections that are laterally continuous over distances of several kilometers. Deposition in an extensive delta-plain swamp is inferred. Coals of Pennsylvanian age in the Pictou coalfield, Nova Scotia, occur in two distinct seismic facies. Parallel to subparallel, relatively continuous reflections are interpreted to define a basinal facies comprising thick coals and lacustrine sediments. Basinal margin facies contain a greater abundance of variable clastic sediments and are recognized by discontinuous, subparallel to chaotic reflections. Further improvements in stratigraphic analysis will require synthetic seismograms to analyze individual reflections in terms of the thickness and separation of seams, and to enable interseam multiples to be recognized. 9 figures, 2 tables.

  10. The application of the Intermittent SBAS (ISBAS) InSAR method to the South Wales Coalfield, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bateson, Luke; Cigna, Francesca; Boon, David; Sowter, Andrew

    2015-02-01

    Satellite radar interferometry is a well-documented technique for the characterisation of ground motions over large spatial areas. However, the measurement density is often constrained by the land use, with best results obtained over urban and semi urban areas. We use an implementation of the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) methodology, whereby areas exhibiting intermittent coherence are considered alongside those displaying full coherence, in the final result, to characterise the ground motion over the South Wales Coalfield, United Kingdom. 55 ERS-1/2 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) C-band images for the period between 1992 and 1999 are processed using the ISBAS (Intermittent Small BAseline Subset) technique, which provides 3.4 times more targets, with associated measurements than a standard SBAS implementation. The dominant feature of the observed motions is a relatively large spatial area of uplift. Uplift rates are as much as 1 cm/yr. and are centred on the part of the coalfield which was most recently exploited. Geological interpretation reveals that this uplift is most likely a result of mine water rebound. Collieries in this part of the coalfield required a ground water to be pumped to enable safe coal extraction; following their closure pumping activity ceased allowing the water levels to return to equilibrium. The ISBAS technique offers significant improvements in measurement density ensuring an increase in detection of surface motions and enabling easier interpretation.

  11. Fast hydrodynamic model for medium- and long-term dispersion in seawater in the English Channel and southern North Sea, qualitative and quantitative validation by radionuclide tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    du Bois, P. Bailly; Dumas, F.

    The database for medium- and long-term model validation using 125Sb released by the La Hague reprocessing plant includes 1400 measurements performed between 1987 and 1994 in the English Channel and the North Sea and data for each release since 1982. Antimony-125 has a conservative behaviour in water masses over a period of several years. These data can be used qualitatively and quantitatively to compare the measured concentrations with the calculated ones and quantities of tracers. Tritium measurements are also available for model calibration. A two-dimensional hydrodynamic model has been developed to allow repetitive long-term simulations. This model uses a database of residual tidal currents calculated using the Lagrangian barycentric method [Salomon, J.C., Guéguéniat, P., Orbi, A., Baron, Y., 1988. A Lagrangian model for long-term tidally induced transport and mixing. Verification by artificial radionuclide concentrations. In: Guary, J.C., Guéguéniat, P., Pentreath, R.J. (Eds.), Radionuclides: A Tool for Oceanography, Cherbourg 1-5 June, 1987. Elsevier Applied Science Publishers, London, New York, pp. 384-394]. The area covered by the model includes the English Channel, the southern North Sea and the Irish Sea with a mesh size of 1 km. The main adjustment parameters of this model are the sources of wind data used and the calculation method for evaluating wind stress at the sea surface. With these parameters, the fluxes of radionuclides and water masses in the English Channel and the North Sea were balanced for the whole period of field measurements (1987-1994). The correlation factor between individual measurements in seawater and calculation results is 0.88 with an average error of ±54%, the error attributable to the measurement process being 15% on average. The mean flux through the Dover Strait is 126,000 m 3 s -1, close from the one obtained from previous studies [Salomon, J.C., Breton, M., Guéguéniat, P. 1993. Computed residual flow through the Dover

  12. 1.4 kyrs of flash flood events in the Southern European Alps: implications for extreme precipitation patterns and forcing over the north-western Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilhelm, B.; Arnaud, F.; Sabatier, P.; Crouzet, C.; Brisset, E.; Guiter, F.; Reyss, J. L.; Chaumillon, E.; Tachikawa, K.; Bard, E.; Delannoy, J. J.

    2012-04-01

    the general moisture, the hydrology of large rivers and temperature patterns of the south-western European region, i.e. a low flood activity during the warm/dry MCA and conversely during the cold/wet Little Ice Age (LIA). At a sub-centennial scale, a high variability of the flood frequency is superimposed to the general increase during the LIA and appeared in phase with solar maximum. Moreover peaks of flood frequency seem to be correlated with negative autumnal NAO phases, in agreement with previous paleoflood reconstructions of Mediterranean Spanish rivers. Finally the comparison of flood frequency patterns from north-western Mediterranean sites suggests a 50-150 years oscillation mode, probably related to a NAO-like pattern, in two main NW Mediterranean atmospheric circulation patterns triggering extreme precipitations either over the Southern Alps or the Cevennes-Vivarais region.

  13. Refined Views of Strike-slip Fault Zones, Seismicity, and State of Stress Associated With the Pacific-North America Plate Boundary in Southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauksson, E.; Nicholson, C.; Shaw, J. H.; Plesch, A.; Shearer, P. M.; Sandwell, D. T.; Yang, W.

    2013-12-01

    The mostly strike-slip plate boundary in southern California is expressed as a system of late Quaternary faults or principal slip zones (PSZs), with numerous adjacent smaller slip surfaces. It is complex, even after large cumulative displacements, and consists of major fault systems with multi-stranded, non-planar fault geometry, including some in close proximity to each other. There are also secondary cross faults and low-angle detachments that interact with the PSZs accommodating main plate boundary motion. The loading of plate-tectonic strain causes the largest earthquakes along PSZs, moderate-sized events in their immediate vicinity, and small earthquakes across the whole region. We apply relocated earthquake and refined focal mechanism (1981-2013) catalogs, as well as other geophysical datasets to provide refined views of the 3D fault geometry of these active fault systems. To determine properties of individual fault zones, we measure the Euclidian distance from every hypocenter to the nearest PSZ. In addition, we assign crustal geophysical parameters such as heat flow value and shear or dilatation strain rates to each epicenter. We investigate seismogenic thickness and fault zone width as well as earthquake source processes. We find that the seismicity rate is a function of location, with the rate dying off exponentially with distance from the PSZ. About 80% of small earthquakes are located within 5 km of a PSZ. For small earthquakes, stress drops increase in size with distance away from the PSZs. The magnitude distribution near the PSZs suggests that large earthquakes are more common close to PSZs, and they are more likely to occur at greater depth than small earthquakes. In contrast, small quakes can occur at any geographical location. An optimal combination of heat flow and strain rate is required to concentrate the strain along rheologically weak fault zones, which accommodate the crustal deformation processes, causing seismicity. The regional trend of

  14. Gold distribution in As-deficient pyrite and telluride mineralogy of the Yangzhaiyu gold deposit, Xiaoqinling district, southern North China craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Shi-Jian; Li, Jian-Wei; Zhou, Mei-Fu; Li, Zhan-Ke

    2011-12-01

    The Mesozoic Yangzhaiyu lode gold deposit is situated in the southern edge of the North China craton. Gold mineralization is hosted in Archean amphibolite facies metamorphic rocks, and consists mainly of auriferous quartz veins. Pyrite is the predominant sulfide mineral, with minor amounts of chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and galena. Based on morphology and paragenesis, there are three generations of pyrite, termed as first generation (G1), second generation (G2), and third generation (G3). They have distinct contents, occurrences, and distribution patterns of gold. The coarse-grained, euhedral G1 pyrite contains negligible to low levels of gold, whereas both invisible and visible gold are present in the fine- to medium-grained G2 pyrite that is characterized by abundance of microfractures and porosities, forming a foam-like texture. Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) depth profiles indicate that invisible gold occurs either as solid solution or as nanoparticles of gold-bearing tellurides in the G2 pyrite. Visible gold is widespread and present as irregular grains and stringers of native gold mostly along grain boundaries or filling microfractures of pyrite, likely resulting from remobilization of invisible gold once locked in the G2 pyrite. The G3 pyrite, invariably intergrown with chalcopyrite, sphalerite, and galena, contains the highest levels of invisible gold. There is a positive correlation between Au, Ag, and Te, indicating that gold occurs as submicroscopic Au-bearing telluride inclusions in the host minerals. Whenever gold, either invisible or visible, is present, As is always below or only marginally higher than the detection limit of LA-ICP-MS. This indicates that As played an insignificant role in gold mineralization. Tellurides are widespread in the auriferous quartz veins, consisting mainly of petzite, calaverite, hessite, altaite, and tellurobismuthite. Native gold commonly occurs as intergrowths with tellurides

  15. Shallow groundwater from the far north of Cameroon (southern Lake Chad): revisiting a 20 years old survey of hydrochemistry and stable isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ketchemen-Tandia, Beatrice; Mohammad, Bello; Fouepe, Alain; Ngo Boum, Suzanne; Nlend, Bertil; Garel, Emilie; Celle-Jeanton, Helene; Huneau, Frederic

    2016-04-01

    Two field hydrogeological investigation surveys were conducted in 1992 and 2013 using hydrochemistry and isotope techniques in the far north part of Cameroon which corresponds to the southern part of Lake Chad basin. All of these data relate to groundwater and surface water which were collected at the same places to potentially reveal any temporal variation in the chemical and isotopic characteristics of the water resources. Groundwater show mainly a Ca-HCO3 water type but CaMg-Cl and Na-HCO3 water types can also be found. The groundwater chemistry is resulting from many processes including pure silicate weathering and cation exchange. It is found that the nitrate content after 20 years has increased by an average factor of 6. These high concentrations in nitrate (up to 400 mg/l) are related to local anthropogenic activities and to the very bad conditions of maintaining of wells and boreholes. This pollution is also correlated to the population growth over the past two decades in the region. The isotopic content of groundwater is ranging from -6.87‰ to -0.32‰ for δ18O in 2013 and from -6.03‰ to +0.25‰ in 1992 without noticeable evolution through time. The conventional δD-δ18O diagram indicates that the groundwater has a meteoric origin more or less influenced by evaporation processes. Different processes involving different water sources were highlighted: (i) groundwater which has been affected by evaporation or in communication with evaporated surface waters; (ii) groundwater which is very close to the Global Meteoric Water Line and corresponding to a recent and direct recharge from precipitation; (iii) groundwater which is more depleted corresponding to a mixing between shallow and deep groundwater. This research is partly supported by the RAF7012and RAF7011 project from IAEA.

  16. The influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation and El Niño-Southern Oscillation on mean and extreme values of column ozone over the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petropavlovskikh, I.; Evans, R.; McConville, G.; Manney, G. L.; Rieder, H. E.

    2014-08-01

    Continuous measurements of total ozone (by Dobson spectrophotometers) across the contiguous United States (US) began in the early 1960s. Here, we analyze temporal and spatial variability and trends in total ozone from the five US sites with long-term records. While similar long-term ozone changes are detected at all five sites, we find differences in the patterns of ozone variability on shorter time scales. In addition to standard evaluation techniques, STL-decomposition methods (Seasonal Trend decomposition of time series based on LOcally wEighted Scatterplot Smoothing, LOESS) are used to address temporal variability and trends in the Dobson data. The LOESS-smoothed trend components show a decline of total ozone between the 1970s and 2000s and a "stabilization" at lower levels in recent years, which is also confirmed by linear trend analysis. Methods from statistical extreme value theory (EVT) are used to characterize days with high and low total ozone (termed EHOs and ELOs, respectively) at each station and to analyze temporal changes in the frequency of ozone extremes and their relationship to dynamical features such as the North Atlantic Oscillation and El Niño Southern Oscillation. A comparison of the "fingerprints" detected in the frequency distribution of the extremes with those for standard metrics (i.e., the mean) shows that more "fingerprints" are found for the extremes, particularly for the positive phase of the NAO, at all five US monitoring sites. Results from the STL-decomposition support the findings of the EVT analysis. Finally, we analyze the relative influence of low and high ozone events on seasonal mean column ozone at each station. The results show that the influence of ELOs and EHOs on seasonal mean column ozone can be as much as ±5%, or about twice as large as the overall long-term decadal ozone trends.

  17. The green impact: bacterioplankton response toward a phytoplankton spring bloom in the southern North Sea assessed by comparative metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Wemheuer, Bernd; Wemheuer, Franziska; Hollensteiner, Jacqueline; Meyer, Frauke-Dorothee; Voget, Sonja; Daniel, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplankton blooms exhibit a severe impact on bacterioplankton communities as they change nutrient availabilities and other environmental factors. In the current study, the response of a bacterioplankton community to a Phaeocystis globosa spring bloom was investigated in the southern North Sea. For this purpose, water samples were taken inside and reference samples outside of an algal spring bloom. Structural changes of the bacterioplankton community were assessed by amplicon-based analysis of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts generated from environmental DNA and RNA, respectively. Several marine groups responded to bloom presence. The abundance of the Roseobacter RCA cluster and the SAR92 clade significantly increased in bloom presence in the total and active fraction of the bacterial community. Functional changes were investigated by direct sequencing of environmental DNA and mRNA. The corresponding datasets comprised more than 500 million sequences across all samples. Metatranscriptomic data sets were mapped on representative genomes of abundant marine groups present in the samples and on assembled metagenomic and metatranscriptomic datasets. Differences in gene expression profiles between non-bloom and bloom samples were recorded. The genome-wide gene expression level of Planktomarina temperata, an abundant member of the Roseobacter RCA cluster, was higher inside the bloom. Genes that were differently expressed included transposases, which showed increased expression levels inside the bloom. This might contribute to the adaptation of this organism toward environmental stresses through genome reorganization. In addition, several genes affiliated to the SAR92 clade were significantly upregulated inside the bloom including genes encoding for proteins involved in isoleucine and leucine incorporation. Obtained results provide novel insights into compositional and functional variations of marine bacterioplankton communities as response to a phytoplankton bloom. PMID

  18. Observations on the population dynamics of amphiura filiformis (ophiuroidea: echinodermata) in the southern north sea and its exploitation by the dab, Limanda limanda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duineveld, G. C. A.; Van Noort, G. J.

    Density and growth of an Amphiura filiformis population living at a station in the Oyster Ground (southern North Sea) were monitored during 2 successive years (1982-1984). During this period, the density of adult animals (disk size > 4 mm) was constant and they numerically dominated the 1 mm sieve fraction of the samples. The size distribution of these adults was nearly constant and year classes were not discernable among these larger individuals. Annual recruitment was observed, but growth and survival rates of juveniles were low. During their first year, the disk size of recruits increased from 0.3 to 1.2 mm, and to 2.2 mm in their second year. Approximately 10% of the recruits of the 1982 year class survived the first 8 months. Of the recruits of the 1983 year class only 3% survived after 9 months. Consequently, the contribution by juveniles to the annual production of body tissue was small during the observation period. Adult somatic growth could not be assessed due to the apparent lack of disk growth. Regenerating arms, however, were very common among the larger individuals. Only 4% of the individuals in a sample had intact arms, whereas 55% of the animals (or 20% of all arms) had one or more 'recent' distal regenerations distinguishable by their smaller diameter. These regenerations presumably account for a large part of the annual growth and somatic production. Stomach content analysis of demersal fish in this area suggests that Amphiura arms form an important part of the diet of the dab, Limanda limanda. Annual consumption of Amphiura arms by dab was estimated to be 0.84 g wet weight-m -2, which is equivalent to 420 arms or 6% of the arm population. Considering the large number of adult animals in the population and regeneration capabilities of the species, the grazing by dab will have only little if any effect on the population.

  19. Validation of impact penetrometer data by cone penetration testing and shallow seismic data within the regional geology of the Southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephan, Sebastian; Kaul, Norbert; Villinger, Heinrich

    2015-06-01

    This study presents the assessment of total cone resistance from in situ deceleration measurements using the Lance Insertion Retardation meter (LIRmeter) in the Southern North Sea. The penetrometer is equipped with a measurement lance that is up to 6 m in length. The aim was to validate LIRmeter data interpretation within the regional geological context by comparison with static velocity cone penetration testing (CPT) and sub-bottom profiles. In total, 13 datasets were taken, in addition to preexisting hydroacoustical and static velocity CPT datasets. The dynamically acquired data were processed and compared to the reference static velocity data. The validation encourages the use of acceleration-based dynamic penetration tests, since a high degree of agreement was demonstrated between independently acquired dynamic and static cone resistance data. Moreover, the results reveal evidence of two successive formations with different geotechnical properties, consistent with existing knowledge on the regional setting. Additionally, there is novel indication of an incised glacial valley with muddy low-permeability sediments extending much further than reported to date, which would necessitate updating of older maps. The main advantage of penetrometer-based deceleration measurements lies in the robustness of the method, and the reliability of the sensors. However, penetration depth is, for dimensioning reasons, limited to the order of a few meters. Additionally, data processing includes the dependency of knowledge about the soil type to correct the dynamic data. These limitations can be satisfactorily outweighed by combination with reference data from static velocity tests, as demonstrated by integrating these data into a soil classification scheme.

  20. The green impact: bacterioplankton response toward a phytoplankton spring bloom in the southern North Sea assessed by comparative metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approaches.

    PubMed

    Wemheuer, Bernd; Wemheuer, Franziska; Hollensteiner, Jacqueline; Meyer, Frauke-Dorothee; Voget, Sonja; Daniel, Rolf

    2015-01-01

    Phytoplankton blooms exhibit a severe impact on bacterioplankton communities as they change nutrient availabilities and other environmental factors. In the current study, the response of a bacterioplankton community to a Phaeocystis globosa spring bloom was investigated in the southern North Sea. For this purpose, water samples were taken inside and reference samples outside of an algal spring bloom. Structural changes of the bacterioplankton community were assessed by amplicon-based analysis of 16S rRNA genes and transcripts generated from environmental DNA and RNA, respectively. Several marine groups responded to bloom presence. The abundance of the Roseobacter RCA cluster and the SAR92 clade significantly increased in bloom presence in the total and active fraction of the bacterial community. Functional changes were investigated by direct sequencing of environmental DNA and mRNA. The corresponding datasets comprised more than 500 million sequences across all samples. Metatranscriptomic data sets were mapped on representative genomes of abundant marine groups present in the samples and on assembled metagenomic and metatranscriptomic datasets. Differences in gene expression profiles between non-bloom and bloom samples were recorded. The genome-wide gene expression level of Planktomarina temperata, an abundant member of the Roseobacter RCA cluster, was higher inside the bloom. Genes that were differently expressed included transposases, which showed increased expression levels inside the bloom. This might contribute to the adaptation of this organism toward environmental stresses through genome reorganization. In addition, several genes affiliated to the SAR92 clade were significantly upregulated inside the bloom including genes encoding for proteins involved in isoleucine and leucine incorporation. Obtained results provide novel insights into compositional and functional variations of marine bacterioplankton communities as response to a phytoplankton bloom.

  1. The role of the sedimentary regime in shaping the distribution of subtidal sandbank environments and the associated meiofaunal nematode communities: an example from the southern North Sea.

    PubMed

    Schratzberger, Michaela; Larcombe, Piers

    2014-01-01

    We combined sediment and faunal data to explore the role of the sedimentary regime in shaping the distribution of subtidal sandbank environments and the associated meiofaunal nematode communities at Broken Bank and Swarte Bank, in the southern North Sea. A variety of sediment transport processes occur in the area, differing in the frequency and magnitude of sediment mobility, and the continuum between erosion, translation and sediment accumulation. The seabed contained a variety of bedforms, including longitudinal furrows, and small to very large sandwaves. The bed sediments were dominated by fine and medium sands, with admixtures of silt and gravel. Based on sedimentary bedforms and grain size analysis, a total of 11 sedimentary facies were delineated, of which 8 were analysed in detail for their relationships with the meiofauna. The sedimentary facies fell clearly into groups of facies, respectively representing high, high-moderate and moderate, and episodic sediment mobility. For those sedimentary facies where daily movement of sediments and bedforms occurred ('high' sediment mobility), the resulting spatially homogeneous environments were dominated by an impoverished nematode community comprising small deposit feeders and large predators. Resistance to sediment movement and the ability to exploit alternative food sources were prominent functional features of the successful colonisers. Those facies characterised by relatively infrequent sediment mobility ('episodic' and 'high-moderate and moderate' sediment mobility) comprised a heterogeneous suite of benthic habitats, containing taxonomically and functionally diverse assemblages of nematodes of various sizes, feeding types and reproductive potential. Faunal distribution patterns here indicated trade-offs between the resistance to sediment movement, environmental tolerance and competitive abilities. Our focus on diverse assemblages of organisms with high turnover times, inhabiting highly dynamic sedimentary

  2. Biogeochemical plant-soil interaction: variable element composition in leaves of four plant species collected along a south-north transect at the southern tip of Norway.

    PubMed

    Reimann, C; Englmaier, P; Fabian, K; Gough, L; Lamothe, P; Smith, D

    2015-02-15

    Leaves from four different plant species (birch, willow, juniper, and heather) together with samples of the soil O and C horizons were collected at 44-46 sites along a south-to-north transect extending inland for 200 km from the southern tip of Norway. The transect covers one of the steepest vegetation gradients on Earth, crossing six vegetation zones. Juniper and heather are evergreen, and preferably exclude potentially toxic elements to avoid their accumulation in assimilating tissues, birch and willow shed their leaves in autumn together with the load of potentially toxic elements, and thus can tolerate the uptake of such elements. The plant leaves show the highest concentrations for B, Ca, K, Mg, Mn, P, Rb and S. In the soil O-horizon Ag, Au, As, Bi, Cu, Ge, Hg, In, Pb, Sb, Se, Sn, Te and W are enriched with respect to the C-horizon, whilst Mn and Rb are depleted. Cadmium, Sr and Zn are enriched in willow and Cs, Na and Tl in heather. In terms of concentration gradients from the coast inland, two different patterns are detected: 1) short range with an almost exponential decrease of concentrations from the coast, which appears to be typical for seaspray-related element input, and 2) long range with an almost linear decrease of concentrations with distance from the coast. These patterns differ among the four species, even for one and the same element. Inter-element correlation is different from material to material. Along the transect each of the different plants at the same site individually adapts to the available element combination. High linear correlations in the plants occur between the lanthanides (La, Ce, Y), and interestingly, between P and Ti. The plant/soil system appears highly non-linear and self-regulated.

  3. A theory of the Ka band radar imaging mechanism of a submerged wreck and associated bed forms in the southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennings, Ingo; Herbers, Dagmar

    2010-10-01

    The Ka band radar imaging mechanism of the submerged wreck/sand ribbon of the motor vessel (M/V) Birkenfels in the southern North Sea is investigated by applying the quasi-specular scattering theory and considering the capillary as well as the gravity wave ranges of the wave energy density spectrum. For the imaging of wrecks and other oceanographic and meteorological phenomena at the sea surface it is assumed that quasi-specular scattering becomes dominant at higher radar frequencies like Ka and X band and wind speeds ≥ 7-8 m s-1. Multibeam echo sounder images of the Birkenfels wreck and associated sand ribbons as well as other available environmental in situ data have been analyzed. The formation of sand ribbons at the sea bed and the manifestation of its radar signatures at the water surface are caused by an elliptical vortex or helical flow cell triggered by unidirectional tidal current flow interacting with the wreck. The difference between simulated and measured normalized radar cross section (NRCS) modulation as a function of the space variable is less than 31.6%. Results are presented for NRCS simulations dependent on position for different effective incidence angles, unidirectional current speeds, wind speeds, and relaxation rates. The calculated current gradient or strain rate of the imaging theory has the same order of magnitude as those obtained for marine sand waves. This implies that the responsible hydrodynamic interaction mechanism is able to produce radar signatures of submerged wrecks/sand ribbons and make them visible at the sea surface.

  4. The seroprevalence of avipoxvirus and its association with avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) infection in introduced passerine birds in the southern regions of the North Island of New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Ha, H J; Banda, M; Alley, M R; Howe, L; Gartrell, B D

    2013-03-01

    Blood samples were collected from 65 free-ranging birds from six species in the southern North Island of New Zealand. Sera from the birds were tested for the presence of avipoxvirus (APV) antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and blood cells from 55 birds were also tested for Plasmodium spp. by PCR. Forty-five birds (69.2%) tested seropositive to APV. Song thrushes (Turdus philomelos) presented the highest seroprevalence at 100% (4/4), followed by Eurasian blackbirds (Turdus merula) (96.86%, 31/32), chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs) (54.55%, 6/11), starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) (25%, 3/12), greenfinches (Carduelis chloris) (25%, 1/4), and European goldfinches (Carduelis carduelis) (0%, 0/2). Plasmodium spp. DNA was detected in 15/55 birds (27.3%), including 11 Eurasian blackbirds, one song thrush, and three starlings. Eight Eurasian blackbird isolates (73%) grouped within the subgenus Novyella. Two Eurasian blackbird isolates and the song thrush isolate clustered within a different group with previously reported lineages LINN1 and AFTRU5. In addition, all three starling isolates clustered within the well-characterized lineage Plasmodium (Huffia) elongatum GRW06. All Plasmodium-positive Eurasian blackbirds and the song thrush were seropositive to APV, whereas only 67% of Plasmodium-positive starlings showed evidence of previous exposure to APV. A significant relationship between birds seropositive to APV and birds infected by Plasmodium spp. was observed (chi2 = 5.69, df = 1, P = 0.0086). To the authors' knowledge this is the first report describing the seroprevalence of APV and its association with Plasmodium spp. infection in introduced bird species in New Zealand.

  5. The Role of the Sedimentary Regime in Shaping the Distribution of Subtidal Sandbank Environments and the Associated Meiofaunal Nematode Communities: An Example from the Southern North Sea

    PubMed Central

    Schratzberger, Michaela; Larcombe, Piers

    2014-01-01

    We combined sediment and faunal data to explore the role of the sedimentary regime in shaping the distribution of subtidal sandbank environments and the associated meiofaunal nematode communities at Broken Bank and Swarte Bank, in the southern North Sea. A variety of sediment transport processes occur in the area, differing in the frequency and magnitude of sediment mobility, and the continuum between erosion, translation and sediment accumulation. The seabed contained a variety of bedforms, including longitudinal furrows, and small to very large sandwaves. The bed sediments were dominated by fine and medium sands, with admixtures of silt and gravel. Based on sedimentary bedforms and grain size analysis, a total of 11 sedimentary facies were delineated, of which 8 were analysed in detail for their relationships with the meiofauna. The sedimentary facies fell clearly into groups of facies, respectively representing high, high-moderate and moderate, and episodic sediment mobility. For those sedimentary facies where daily movement of sediments and bedforms occurred (‘high’ sediment mobility), the resulting spatially homogeneous environments were dominated by an impoverished nematode community comprising small deposit feeders and large predators. Resistance to sediment movement and the ability to exploit alternative food sources were prominent functional features of the successful colonisers. Those facies characterised by relatively infrequent sediment mobility (‘episodic’ and ‘high-moderate and moderate’ sediment mobility) comprised a heterogeneous suite of benthic habitats, containing taxonomically and functionally diverse assemblages of nematodes of various sizes, feeding types and reproductive potential. Faunal distribution patterns here indicated trade-offs between the resistance to sediment movement, environmental tolerance and competitive abilities. Our focus on diverse assemblages of organisms with high turnover times, inhabiting highly dynamic

  6. Assessment and analysis of noise levels in and around Ib river coalfield, Orissa, India.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, Haraprasad; Goswami, Shreerup

    2012-05-01

    Heavy earth moving machineries, different capacities of dumpers and loaders, blasting and drilling make the mining environment noisy. A study was carried out to assess the noise level in different opencast projects in and around Belpahar and Brajarajnagar areas of Ib river coalfield. Noise assessment was carried out in various residential, commercial and industrial places. The noise levels, especially L(eq) values of different wheel loaders, dumpers, shovel and crusher units were also assessed and were more than permissible limit (90dB) in some of their operating conditions. Sound ressure level measurements while drilling into coal and overburden at Lakhanpur opencast project yielded noise levels (L(eq)) of 81.33 to 96.2 dB. Thus, these L(eq) values of drilling machines in most of the operating conditions were above permissible limit. The average noise intensities (6 a.m.-10 p.m.: 51.6-60.875dB and 10 p.m.-6 a.m.: 42.6-49.8dB) and L(eq) values (6 a.m.-10 p.m.: 50.9-67.0dB and 10 p.m.-6 a.m.: 40.8-53.3dB) during both day and night time of the residential areas around the Ib river coalfield were in close proximity or beyond the permissible limit. The L(eq) values at some of the commercial and industrial places were beyond (6 a.m.-10 p.m.: 61.6-88.3 dB and 10 p.m.-6 a.m.: 55.4-64.8dB) permissible limit. However, in most of the cases, the L(max) noise values were more (6 a.m.-10 p.m.: 68.5-91.4 dB and 10 p.m.-6 a.m.: 69.3-76.4dB) than the permissible limit. Analysis of variance was also computed for heavy earth moving machineries in different operating conditions and also for different residential, commercial and industrial places to infer the level of significance. The difference of noise intensity produced by different wheel loaders at Lakhanpur and Lilari opencast projects, drilling machines at Lakhanpur opencast project, 50 tons capacity dumpers at various conditions of Ib river coalfield within the same operating condition was significant at both 5% and 1% levels

  7. Hydrologic reconnaissance of the Wasatch Plateau-Book Cliffs coal-fields area, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddell, Kidd M.; Contratto, P. Kay; Sumsion, C.T.; Butler, John R.

    1981-01-01

    Data obtained during a hydrologic reconnaissance in 1975-77 in the Wasatch Plateau-Book Cliffs coal-fields area of Utah were correlated with existing long-term data. Maps were prepared showing average precipitation, average streamflow, stream temperature, ground- and surface-water quality, sediment yield, and geology. Recommendations were made for additional study and suggested approaches for continued monitoring in the coalfields areas. During the 1931-75 water years, the minimum discharges for the five major streams that head in the area ranged from about 12,000 to 26,000 acre-feet per year, and the maximum discharges ranged from about 59,000 to 315,000 acre-feet per year. Correlations indicate that 3 years of low-flow records at stream sites in the Wasatch Plateau would allow the development of relationships with long-term sites that can be used to estimate future low-flow records within a standard error of about 20 percent. Most water-quality degradation in streams occurs along the flanks of the Wasatch Plateau and Book Cliffs. In the uplands, dissolved-solids concentrations generally ranged from less than 100 to about 250 milligrams per liter, and in the lowlands, the concentrations ranged from about 250 to more than 6,000 milligrams per liter. Most springs in the Wasatch Plateau and Book Cliffs discharge from the Star Point Sandstone or younger formations, and the water generally contains less than about 1,000 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids. The discharges of 65 springs ranged from about 0.2 to 200 gallons per minute. The Blackhawk Formation, which is the principal coal-bearing formation, produces water in many of the mines. The dissolved-solids concentration in water discharging from springs and mines in the Blackhawk ranged from about 60 to 800 milligrams per liter. In the lowland areas, the Ferron Sandstone Member of the Maneos Shale appears to have the most potential for subsurface development of water of suitable chemical quality for human

  8. Depositional setting, petrology and chemistry of Permian coals from the Paraná Basin: 2. South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkreuth, W.; Holz, M.; Mexias, A.; Balbinot, M.; Levandowski, J.; Willett, J.; Finkelman, R.; Burger, H.

    2010-01-01

    In Brazil economically important coal deposits occur in the southern part of the Paran?? Basin, where coal seams occur in the Permian Rio Bonito Formation, with major coal development in the states of Rio Grande de Sul and Santa Catarina. The current paper presents results on sequence stratigraphic interpretation of the coal-bearing strata, and petrological and geochemical coal seam characterization from the South Santa Catarina Coalfield, Paran?? Basin.In terms of sequence stratigraphic interpretation the precursor mires of the Santa Catarina coal seams formed in an estuarine-barrier shoreface depositional environment, with major peat accumulation in a high stand systems tract (Pre-Bonito and Bonito seams), a lowstand systems tract (Ponta Alta seam, seam A, seam B) and a transgressive systems tract (Irapu??, Barro Branco and Treviso seams).Seam thicknesses range from 1.70 to 2.39. m, but high proportions of impure coal (coaly shale and shaley coal), carbonaceous shale and partings reduce the net coal thickness significantly. Coal lithoypes are variable, with banded coal predominant in the Barro Branco seam, and banded dull and dull coal predominantly in Bonito and Irapu?? seams, respectively. Results from petrographic analyses indicate a vitrinite reflectance range from 0.76 to 1.63 %Rrandom (HVB A to LVB coal). Maceral group distribution varies significantly, with the Barro Branco seam having the highest vitrinite content (mean 67.5 vol%), whereas the Irapu?? seam has the highest inertinite content (33.8. vol%). Liptinite mean values range from 7.8. vol% (Barro Branco seam) to 22.5. vol% (Irapu?? seam).Results from proximate analyses indicate for the three seams high ash yields (50.2 - 64.2wt.%). Considering the International Classification of in-Seam Coals, all samples are in fact classified as carbonaceous rocks (>50wt.% ash). Sulfur contents range from 3.4 to 7.7 wt.%, of which the major part occurs as pyritic sulfur. Results of X-ray diffraction indicate the

  9. Coal fire mapping of East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coalfield using vertical derivative technique of magnetic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, S. K.; Vaish, Jitendra; Kumar, Sahadev; Bharti, Abhay Kumar

    2016-02-01

    The present study deals with the coal fire mapping of East Basuria Colliery, Jharia coalfield, India, using the magnetic method. It is based on the fact that rise in temperature would result significant changes in magnetic susceptibility and thermo-remanent magnetization (TRM) of the overlying rocks. Magnetism increases slowly with the rise of temperature until the Curie temperature. Generally, rock/ overburden loses magnetization and becomes paramagnetic due to heating to Curie temperature, which results with significant reduction in magnetic susceptibility. However, magnetism increases significantly after cooling below the Curie temperature. Several data processing methods such as diurnal correction, reduction to pole (RTP), first and second vertical derivatives have been used for analysis of magnetic data and their interpretation. It is observed that the total magnetic field intensity anomaly of the area varies approximately from 44850 to 47460 nT and the residual magnetic anomaly varies approximately from -1323 to 1253 nT. The range of the magnetic anomaly after RTP is approximately 1050-1450 nT. About 20 low magnetic anomaly zones have been identified associated with active coal fire regions and 11 high magnetic anomaly zones have been identified associated with non-coal fire regions using vertical derivative techniques.

  10. Evaluation of the fate of arsenic-contaminated groundwater at different aquifers of Thar coalfield Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ali, Jamshed; Kazi, Tasneem G; Baig, Jameel A; Afridi, Hassan I; Arain, Mariam S; Ullah, Naeem; Brahman, Kapil D; Arain, Sadaf S; Panhwar, Abdul H

    2015-12-01

    In present study, the ground water at different aquifers was evaluated for physicochemical parameters, iron, total arsenic, total inorganic arsenic and arsenic species (arsenite and arsenate). The samples of groundwater were collected at different depths, first aquifer (AQ1) 50-60 m, second aquifer (AQ2) 100-120 m, and third aquifer (AQ3) 200-250 m of Thar coalfield, Pakistan. Total inorganic arsenic was determined by solid phase extraction using titanium dioxide as an adsorbent. The arsenite was determined by cloud point extraction using ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate as a chelating reagent, and resulted complex was extracted by Triton X-114. The resulted data of groundwater were reported in terms of basic statistical parameters, principal component, and cluster analysis. The resulted data indicated that physicochemical parameters of groundwater of different aquifers were exceeded the World Health Organization provisional guideline for drinking water except pH and SO4(2-). The positive correlation was observed between arsenic species and physicochemical parameters of groundwater except F(-) and K(+), which might be caused by geochemical minerals. Results of cluster analysis indicated that groundwater samples of AQ1 was highly contaminated with arsenic species as compared to AQ2 and AQ3 (p > 0.05).

  11. Raman spectral characteristics of magmatic-contact metamorphic coals from Huainan Coalfield, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shancheng; Wu, Dun; Liu, Guijian; Sun, Ruoyu

    2017-01-15

    Normal burial metamorphism of coal superimposed by magmatic-contact metamorphism makes the characteristics of the Raman spectrum of coal changed. Nine coal samples were chosen at a coal transect perpendicular to the intrusive dike, at the No. 3 coal seam, Zhuji Coal Mine, Huainan Coalfield, China, with different distances from dike-coal boundary (DCB). Geochemical (proximate and ultimate) analysis and mean random vitrinite reflectance (R0, %) indicate that there is a significant relationship between the values of volatile matter and R0 in metamorphosed coals. Raman spectra show that the graphite band (G band) becomes the major band but the disordered band (D band) disappears progressively, with the increase of metamorphic temperature in coals, showing that the structural organization in high-rank contact-metamorphosed coals is close to that of well-crystallized graphite. Evident relationships are observed between the calculated Raman spectral parameters and the peak metamorphic temperature, suggesting some spectral parameters have the potentials to be used as geothermometers for contact-metamorphic coals.

  12. Raman spectral characteristics of magmatic-contact metamorphic coals from Huainan Coalfield, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Shancheng; Wu, Dun; Liu, Guijian; Sun, Ruoyu

    2017-01-01

    Normal burial metamorphism of coal superimposed by magmatic-contact metamorphism makes the characteristics of the Raman spectrum of coal changed. Nine coal samples were chosen at a coal transect perpendicular to the intrusive dike, at the No. 3 coal seam, Zhuji Coal Mine, Huainan Coalfield, China, with different distances from dike-coal boundary (DCB). Geochemical (proximate and ultimate) analysis and mean random vitrinite reflectance (R0, %) indicate that there is a significant relationship between the values of volatile matter and R0 in metamorphosed coals. Raman spectra show that the graphite band (G band) becomes the major band but the disordered band (D band) disappears progressively, with the increase of metamorphic temperature in coals, showing that the structural organization in high-rank contact-metamorphosed coals is close to that of well-crystallized graphite. Evident relationships are observed between the calculated Raman spectral parameters and the peak metamorphic temperature, suggesting some spectral parameters have the potentials to be used as geothermometers for contact-metamorphic coals.

  13. Modern Pearl River Delta and Permian Huainan coalfield, China: A comparative sedimentary facies study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suping, P.; Flores, R.M.

    1996-01-01

    Sedimentary facies types of the Pleistocene deposits of the Modern Pearl River Delta in Guangdong Province, China and Permian Member D deposits in Huainan coalfield in Anhui Province are exemplified by depositional facies of anastomosing fluvial systems. In both study areas, sand/sandstone and mud/mudstone-dominated facies types formed in diverging and converging, coeval fluvial channels laterally juxtaposed with floodplains containing ponds, lakes, and topogenous mires. The mires accumulated thin to thick peat/coal deposits that vary in vertical and lateral distribution between the two study areas. This difference is probably due to attendant sedimentary processes that affected the floodplain environments. The ancestral floodplains of the Modern Pearl River Delta were reworked by combined fluvial and tidal and estuarine processes. In contrast, the floodplains of the Permian Member D were mainly influenced by freshwater fluvial processes. In addition, the thick, laterally extensive coal zones of the Permian Member D may have formed in topogenous mires that developed on abandoned courses of anastomosing fluvial systems. This is typified by Seam 13-1, which is a blanket-like body that thickens to as much as 8 in but also splits into thinner beds. This seam overlies deposits of diverging and converging, coeval fluvial channels of the Sandstone D, and associated overbank-floodplain deposits. The limited areal extent of lenticular Pleistocene peat deposits of the Modern Pearl River Delta is due to their primary accumulation in topogenous mires in the central floodplains that were restricted by contemporaneous anastomosing channels.

  14. Arsenic in coal of the Thar coalfield, Pakistan, and its behavior during combustion.

    PubMed

    Ali, Jamshed; Kazi, Tasneem G; Baig, Jameel A; Afridi, Hassan I; Arain, Mariam S; Brahman, Kapil D; Naeemullah; Panhwar, Abdul H

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the current study is to evaluate the occurrence of arsenic in coal collected from Thar coalfield, Pakistan, and its behavior during the combustion. Fractionation of arsenic (As) in coal samples was carried out by Community Bureau of Reference sequential extraction scheme (BCR-SES) and single-step-based BCR method (BCR-SS). These methods are validated using the certified reference material of sediment BCR 701 and standard addition method. The stepwise fractions of As in laboratory-made ash (LMA) have been also investigated. The extractable As content associated with different phases in coal and LMA samples were analyzed by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The extraction efficiency of As by BCR-SS was slightly higher than BCR-SES, while the difference was not significant (p < 0.05). The BCR-SS method is a time-saving method because it can reduce the extraction time from 51 to 22 h. The As contents in LMA revealed that during combustion of the coal, >85 % of As may be released into atmosphere. The relative mobility of As in the coal samples was found in increasing order as follows: oxidizable fraction < reducible fraction < acid soluble fraction. The total and extractable As obtained by BCR-SES and BCR-SS were higher in coal samples of block III as compared to block V (p > 0.05).

  15. Differential modulation of eastern oyster ( Crassostrea virginica) disease parasites by the El-Niño-Southern Oscillation and the North Atlantic Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soniat, Thomas M.; Hofmann, Eileen E.; Klinck, John M.; Powell, Eric N.

    2009-02-01

    The eastern oyster ( Crassostrea virginica) is affected by two protozoan parasites, Perkinsus marinus which causes Dermo disease and Haplosporidium nelsoni which causes MSX (Multinucleated Sphere Unknown) disease. Both diseases are largely controlled by water temperature and salinity and thus are potentially sensitive to climate variations resulting from the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), which influences climate along the Gulf of Mexico coast, and the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), which influences climate along the Atlantic coast of the United States. In this study, a 10-year time series of temperature and salinity and P. marinus infection intensity for a site in Louisiana on the Gulf of Mexico coast and a 52-year time series of air temperature and freshwater inflow and oyster mortality from Delaware Bay on the Atlantic coast of the United States were analyzed to determine patterns in disease and disease-induced mortality in C. virginica populations that resulted from ENSO and NAO climate variations. Wavelet analysis was used to decompose the environmental, disease infection intensity and oyster mortality time series into a time-frequency space to determine the dominant modes of variability and the time variability of the modes. For the Louisiana site, salinity and Dermo disease infection intensity are correlated at a periodicity of 4 years, which corresponds to ENSO. The influence of ENSO on Dermo disease along the Gulf of Mexico is through its effect on salinity, with high salinity, which occurs during the La Niña phase of ENSO at this location, favoring parasite proliferation. For the Delaware Bay site, the primary correlation was between temperature and oyster mortality, with a periodicity of 8 years, which corresponds to the NAO. Warmer temperatures, which occur during the positive phase of the NAO, favor the parasites causing increased oyster mortality. Thus, disease prevalence and intensity in C. virginica populations along the Gulf of Mexico

  16. Textures, trace elements, and Pb isotopes of sulfides from the Haopinggou vein deposit, southern North China Craton: implications for discrete Au and Ag-Pb-Zn mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhan-Ke; Li, Jian-Wei; Cooke, David R.; Danyushevsky, Leonid; Zhang, Lejun; O'Brien, Hugh; Lahaye, Yann; Zhang, Wen; Xu, Hai-Jun

    2016-12-01

    The Haopinggou deposit in the Xiong'ershan district, southern margin of the North China Craton, comprises numerous Au and Ag-Pb-Zn veins hosted in metamorphic rocks of the Late Archean to early Paleoproterozoic Taihua Group. Two stages of mineralization have been recognized: Stage 1 pyrite-quartz veins and Stage 2 Pb-Zn-sulfide veins. Some pyrite-quartz veins are surrounded or cut by Pb-Zn-sulfide veins, others occur as independent veins. Six generations of pyrite have been identified at Haopinggou: Py1 to Py3 in Stage 1 and Py4 to Py6 in Stage 2. Pyrites from Stage 1 are enriched in Au, As, Co, Ni, and Bi, whereas Stage 2 pyrites contain higher Ag, Pb, Zn, Sn, and Sb. Invisible Au mostly occurs as lattice-bound gold in Py2 (up to 92 ppm Au) and Py3 (up to 127 ppm Au) and has a close relationship with As. Native Au grains are also present in Py3 and likely resulted from mobilization and reprecipitation of the invisible Au previously locked in the precursor pyrite. This view is supported by extensive plastic deformation in Stage 1 pyrite as revealed by electron backscatter diffraction analysis. In Stage 2, Ag is mostly present as lattice-bound silver closely associated with Sb in galena (up to 798 ppm Ag). A variety of silver minerals are also present as inclusions within galena or as interstitial grains. These silver minerals were likely formed via Ag-Cu exchange reaction between tetrahedrite and galena or represent exsolution from galena due to a temperature decrease. Pb isotopic compositions differ remarkably between Stage 1 and Stage 2 sulfides, indicating different sources of lead. Pb in Stage 2 Pb-Zn-sulfide veins is consistent with the Haopinggou porphyry close to the veins. The field, textural, compositional, and lead isotopic data led us to conclude that the early gold-bearing pyrite-quartz veins and late silver-bearing Pb-Zn-sulfide veins likely formed from distinct fluid systems related to discrete mineralization events. Our study suggests that Au and Ag

  17. CCN in the marine environment: Results from two intensive measurement campaigns - The Eastern North Atlantic (Mace Head) and The Southern Ocean (PEGASO cruise)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovadnevaite, Jurgita; Fossum, Kirsten; Ceburnis, Darius; Dall'Osto, Manuel; Simo, Rafel; O'Dowd, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Marine aerosol occurring in cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) sizes suggest that it may contribute notably to the CCN population [1, 2], but further cloud droplet number concentration would strongly depend on the ambient (cloud) conditions, such as available water content, supersaturation and competition between the CCN of different composition [3]. Since the global importance of marine aerosol particles to the cloud formation was postulated several decades ago [4], it has progressed from the evaluation of the nss-sulphate and sea salt effects to an acknowledgement of the significant role of organic aerosol [5]. It was demonstrated that primary marine organics, despite its hydrophobic nature, can possess the high CCN activation efficiency, resulting in the efficient cloud formation [6]. Results from two intensive measurement campaigns in The Eastern North Atlantic (Mace Head) and The Southern Ocean (PEGASO cruise) is presented here with the main focus on ssCCN dependence on aerosol chemical composition and, especially, origin and sources of marine organic. We investigate the activation of sea spray composed of the sea salt and externally mixed with nss-sulphate as well as the sea spray highly enriched in organics, stressing the importance of the latter to the formation of the cloud droplets. We also explore the suitability of existing theories to explain the marine aerosol activation to CCN. Acknowledgments The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) project BACCHUS under grant agreement n° 603445; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) as part of the PEGASO (Ref.: CTM2012-37615) and BIO-NUC (Ref.: CGL2013-49020-R); HEA-PRTLI4;EC ACTRIS. [1] Meskhidze & Nenes (2006) Science 314, 1419-1423. [2] Sorooshian et al. (2009) Global Biogeochemical Cycles 23, GB4007. [3] O'Dowd et al. (1999) Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society 125, 1295-1313. [4] Charlson

  18. Amino acid racemization analysis (AAR) as a successful tool for dating Holocene coastal sediments: Stratigraphy of a barrier island spit (Southern Sylt/North Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tillmann, Tanja; Ziehe, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Dating of Holocene sediments in shallow coastal areas of the German North Sea by conventional techniques is commonly problematic. In particular the marine reservoir effect of radiocarbon means that radiocarbon dating cannot be applied to sediments younger than about 400 years. Amino acid racemization dating (AAR) is a viable alternative for dating young sediments. The method is based on the determination of ratios of D and L amino acid enantiomers in organic matrices of biogenic carbonates. In this study we use AAR as a tool for dating Holocene barrier islands sediments. Based on an AAR derived chronological framework we develop a model of barrier spit accretion which describes the interaction between extreme events, fair weather coastal processes and sedimentary development that constrains the major episodes of barrier island evolution. The stratigraphy was defined using ground-penetrating radar (GPR) surveys complemented by sedimentological coring data. The stratigraphy is then conceptualised in a AAR chronostratigraphic framework to define a chronological order and allow the development of a stratigraphic model of the evolution of Southern Sylt. The AAR data provide high temporal resolution and have been used for dating stages of barrier spit accretion. The time lines are marked as storm surge generated erosion unconformities in the stratigraphic profile. Individual shells and shell fragments of Cerastoderma edule, Mya arenaria, Mytilus edulis and Scrobicularia plana have been accumulated by short-term storm events as shell layers associated with the erosion unconformities and have been dated by AAR. Time lines reveal that the barrier spit accretion occurred episodically, and is dependant on the provided rate of sand delivery. The general trend is that sequences young to the. South. The AAR derived time lines have been verified and correlated by historic maps and sea charts. It is apparent that spit enlargement at this site increased significantly during the

  19. Cloud filling of ocean colour and sea surface temperature remote sensing products over the Southern North Sea by the Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions methodology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sirjacobs, Damien; Alvera-Azcárate, Aida; Barth, Alexander; Lacroix, Geneviève; Park, YoungJe; Nechad, Bouchra; Ruddick, Kevin; Beckers, Jean-Marie

    2011-01-01

    Optical remote sensing data is now being used systematically for marine ecosystem applications, such as the forcing of biological models and the operational detection of harmful algae blooms. However, applications are hampered by the incompleteness of imagery and by some quality problems. The Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions methodology (DINEOF) allows calculation of missing data in geophysical datasets without requiring a priori knowledge about statistics of the full dataset and has previously been applied to SST reconstructions. This study demonstrates the reconstruction of complete space-time information for 4 years of surface chlorophyll a (CHL), total suspended matter (TSM) and sea surface temperature (SST) over the Southern North Sea (SNS) and English Channel (EC). Optimal reconstructions were obtained when synthesising the original signal into 8 modes for MERIS CHL and into 18 modes for MERIS TSM. Despite the very high proportion of missing data (70%), the variability of original signals explained by the EOF synthesis reached 93.5% for CHL and 97.2% for TSM. For the MODIS TSM dataset, 97.5% of the original variability of the signal was synthesised into 14 modes. The MODIS SST dataset could be synthesised into 13 modes explaining 98% of the input signal variability. Validation of the method is achieved for 3 dates below 2 artificial clouds, by comparing reconstructed data with excluded input information. Complete weekly and monthly averaged climatologies, suitable for use with ecosystem models, were derived from regular daily reconstructions. Error maps associated with every reconstruction were produced according to Beckers et al. (2006). Embedded in this error calculation scheme, a methodology was implemented to produce maps of outliers, allowing identification of unusual or suspicious data points compared to the global dynamics of the dataset. Various algorithm artefacts were associated with high values in the outlier maps (undetected cloud

  20. Characterization and origin of the Taishanmiao aluminous A-type granites: implications for Early Cretaceous lithospheric thinning at the southern margin of the North China Craton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Changming; Chen, Liang; Bagas, Leon; Lu, Yongjun; He, Xinyu; Lai, Xiangru

    2016-07-01

    Late Mesozoic magmatic rocks from the Taishanmiao Batholith were collected for LA-ICP-MS dating, Sr-Nd-Hf isotope systematics, and whole-rock major and trace element geochemistry to help understand the nature of collisional and extensional events along the southern margin of the North China Craton. The batholith consists of three texturally distinguishable phases of a 125 ± 1 Ma medium- to coarse-grained syenogranite, a 121 ± 1 Ma fine- to medium-grained syenogranite, and a 113 ± 1 Ma porphyritic monzogranite. Most of the units in the batholith are syenogranitic in composition with high levels of silica (70-78 wt% SiO2), alkalis (8.0-8.6 wt% Na2O + K2O), Fe* (FeOT/(FeOT + MgO) = 0.76-0.90), and depletion in CaO (0.34-1.37 wt%), MgO (0.12-0.52 wt%), TiO2 (0.09-0.40 wt%), and A/CNK (Al2O3/(Na2O + K2O + CaO)) molar ratios of 1.00-1.11. All samples have high proportions of Ga, Nb, Zr, Ga/Al, and REE, and depletions in Ba, Sr, Eu, and compatible elements, indicating that the batholith consists of A-type granites. The zircon saturation temperature for these units yields a mean value of 890 °C, and zircons with Early Cretaceous magmatic ages have ɛNd( t) values of -14.0 to -12.0, ɛHf( t) values ranging from -18.7 to -2.1, and corresponding Hf model ages of 2339-1282 Ma. These geochemical and isotopic characteristics allowed us to conclude that the primary magma for the Taishanmiao Batholith originated from partial melting of Precambrian crustal rocks in the medium-lower crust. However, the high Nb and Ta contents and low normalized Nb/Ta values for the Taishanmiao granites are due to fractionation in Nb- and Ta-rich amphibole (or biotite). It is further proposed that these aluminous A-type granites were generated in an extensional tectonic setting during the Early Cretaceous, which was induced by lithospheric thinning and asthenospheric upwelling beneath eastern China toward the Paleo-Pacific Plate.

  1. Concentrations and modes of occurrence of trace elements in the Late Permian coals from the Puan Coalfield, southwestern Guizhou, China.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianye

    2006-12-01

    The concentration, mode of occurrence, and origin of trace elements in the Late Permian coals from the Puan Coalfield, southwestern Guizhou, China, were examined using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), cold-vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS), ion-selective electrode method (ISE), sequential chemical extraction procedure (SCEP), scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX), and optical microscope. Results show that minerals in the No. 2 Coal from the Puan Coalfield were mainly made up of epigenetic pyrite of low-temperature hydrothermal fluid origin and kaolinite of detrital terrigenous origin. Elements including As (36.9 microg/g), Cd (10.2 microg/g), Cr (167.3 microg/g), Cu (365.4 microg/g), Hg (2.82 microg/g), Mo (92.6 microg/g), Ni (82.6 microg/g), Pb (184.6 microg/g), Se (6.23 microg/g), Zn (242.3 microg/g), and U (132.7 microg/g) are significantly enriched in the No. 2 Coal from the Puan Coalfield. However, concentrations of trace elements in the other four coals, the No. 1, No. 8, No. 11, and No. 18 Coals, were close to the usual ranges found for Guizhou of China, China, and USA. Results of SEM-EDX and SCEP showed that As, Cd, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, and Zn occur mainly in veined pyrite, while Cr, Cu, and U distribute mainly in kaolinite, indicating that the low-temperature hydrothermal fluid and detrital materials of terrigenous origin are the main contributors to the enrichment of these trace elements in the No. 2 Coal.

  2. Abundances and isotopic compositions of rhenium and osmium in pyrite samples from the Huaibei coalfield, Anhui, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liu, Gaisheng; Chou, C.-L.; Peng, Z.; Yang, G.

    2008-01-01

    Two pyrite samples from the Shihezi Formation (Lower Permian), Huaibei coalfield, Anhui, China, have been analyzed for abundances and isotopic compositions of rhenium and osmium using negative thermal ion mass spectrometry. The Re-Os ages of the pyrites are 64.4 and 226 Ma, which are younger than the formation age of the coal seam. The pyrite samples may consist of pyrite formed at various stages during the history of coal formation. The ??Osvalues of the two pyrite samples are +17 and +18, respectively. Such high ??Osvalues are reported for the first time for recycles crustal materials from a sedimentary basin. ?? Springer-Verlag 2007.

  3. Triton's Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    This polar projection of Triton's southern hemisphere provides a view of the southern polar cap and bright equatorial fringe. The margin of the cap is scalloped and ranges in latitude from +10 degrees to -30 degrees. The bright fringe is closely associated with the cap's margin; from it, diffuse bright rays extend north-northeast for hundreds of kilometers. The bright fringe probably consists of very fresh nitrogen frost or snow, and the rays consist of bright-fringe materials that were redistributed by north-moving Coriolis-deflected winds.

  4. Geochemistry of trace elements in coals from the Zhuji Mine, Huainan Coalfield, Anhui, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sun, R.; Liu, Gaisheng; Zheng, Lingyun; Chou, C.-L.

    2010-01-01

    The abundances of nine major elements and thirty-eight trace elements in 520 samples of low sulfur coals from the Zhuji Mine, Huainan Coalfield, Anhui, China, were determined. Samples were mainly collected from 10 minable coal seams of 29 boreholes during exploration. The B content in coals shows that the influence of brackish water decreased toward the top of coal seams; marine transgression and regression occurred frequently in the Lower Shihezi Formation. A wide range of elemental abundances is found. Weighted means of Na, K, Fe, P, Be, B, Co, Ni, Cr, Se, Sb, Ba, and Bi abundances in Zhuji coals are higher, and the remainder elements are either lower or equal to the average values of elements in coals of northern China. Compared to the Chinese coals, the Zhuji coals are higher in Na, K, Be, B, Cr, Co, Se, Sn, Sb, and Bi, but lower in Ti, P, Li, V and Zn. The Zhuji coals are lower only in S, P, V and Zn than average U.S. and world coals. Potassium, Mg, Ca, Mn, Sr, As, Se, Sb and light rare earth elements (LREE) had a tendency to be enriched in thicker coal seams, whereas Fe, Ti, P, V, Co, Ni, Y, Mo, Pb and heavy rare earth elements (HREE) were inclined to concentrate in thinner coal seams. The enrichment of some elements in the Shanxi or Upper Shihezi Formations is related to their depositional environments. The elements are classified into three groups based on their stratigraphic distributions from coal seams 3 to 11-2, and the characteristics of each group are discussed. Lateral distributions of selected elements are also investigated. The correlation coefficients of elemental abundances with ash content show that the elements may be classified into four groups related to modes of occurrence of these elements. ?? 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A study of mining-induced subsidence in Hebi coalfield based on D-InSAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Chao

    2014-11-01

    The aim of obtaining a continuous space distribution of mining-induced subsidence in a large scale, damage intensity, and its dynamic evolution, furthermore understanding the rule of the subsidence, is extracts finally the surface movement parameters of the mining-induced subsidence. Using 9 issues of ENVISAT ASAR data over 2009 year and by both of DInSAR processing algorithms, an atmospheric effect can eliminate and real subsidence region can be determined by a cumulative phase 2 PASS D-InSAR, and a temporal decoherence effect can be reduced and each stage deformation can be extracted by an adjacent phase 2 PASS D-InSAR. Results are as follows: (1) 8 phase variation regions according with the criterion of mining subsidence are extracted from 70 phase variation regions with the two methods of D-InSAR. (2) 16 main profiles (along with the strike, dip) of subsidence contained in 8 typical subsidence basins are obtained. Annual maximum subsidence reaches -210.0mm during the period of image acquisitions, from Jan. to Sep. 2009, the maximum rate is ±1.2 mm/d, and the average daily subsidence rate is ±0.60mm/d. (3) Sampling the minimum Standard Deviation (SD) is ± 4.3 mm, maximum SD is ± 8.1mm, and the total SD Mean is ± 5.9mm. Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of data processing is ± 0.41 mm, the maximum RMSE is ± 0.74 mm, total average RMSE of observations is ± 0.55mm. The monitoring accuracy is self-consistent at sub-centimeter level, and it can reveal the rule of mining subsidence and extract partly parameters of mining damage. The result presents also that mine surface by the impact of mining activities are frequent and severe, deterioration of surface stability, and the risk of collapse, slip or mudslides is higher than outside coalfield.

  6. Assessment of environmental soil quality around Sonepur Bazari mine of Raniganj coalfield, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masto, R. E.; Sheik, S.; Nehru, G.; Selvi, V. A.; George, J.; Ram, L. C.

    2015-07-01

    Assessment of soil quality is one of the key parameters for evaluation of environmental contamination in the mining ecosystem. To investigate the effect of coal mining on soil quality, opencast and underground mining sites were selected in the Raniganj coalfield area, India. The physical, chemical, and biological parameters of the soils, and trace metals and PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) in the soils were evaluated. Soil dehydrogenase (+79 %) and fluorescein (+32 %) activities were significantly higher in underground mine (UGM) soil, whereas peroxidase activity (+57 %) was higher in opencast mine (OCM) soil. Content of As, Be, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, and Pb was significantly higher in OCM soil, whereas Cd was higher in UGM. In general, the PAHs contents were higher in UGM soils, probably due to the natural coal burning at these sites. The observed values for the above properties were converted into a unitless score (0-1.00) and the scores were integrated into an environmental soil quality index (ESQI). In the unscreened index (ESQI-1) all the soil parameters were included and the results showed that the quality of the soil was better for UGM (0.539) than the OCM (0.511) soils. Principal component analysis was employed to derive ESQI-2 and accordingly, total PAHs, loss on ignition, bulk density, Be, Co, Cr, Ni, Pb, and microbial quotient (respiration: microbial biomass ratio) were found to be the most critical properties. The ESQI-2 was also higher for soils near UGM (+10.1 %). The observed indicators and the ESQI results revealed that soil quality assessment for these coal mining soils is largely depended on soil PAHs and potentially toxic trace metals. The proposed ESQI may be further refined by incorporating specific parameters related to human exposure risks and exposure pathways.

  7. Effects of faults as barriers or conduits to displaced brine flow on a putative CO2 storage site in the Southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannis, Sarah; Bricker, Stephanie; Williams, John

    2013-04-01

    The Bunter Sandstone Formation in the Southern North Sea is a potential reservoir being considered for carbon dioxide storage as a climate change mitigation option. A geological model of a putative storage site within this saline aquifer was built from 3D seismic and well data to investigate potential reservoir pressure changes and their effects on fault movement, brine and CO2 migration as a result of CO2 injection. The model is located directly beneath the Dogger Bank Special Area of Conservation, close to the UK-Netherlands median line. Analysis of the seismic data reveals two large fault zones, one in each of the UK and Netherlands sectors, many tens of kilometres in length, extending from reservoir level to the sea bed. Although it has been shown that similar faults compartmentalise gas fields elsewhere in the Netherlands sector, significant uncertainty remains surrounding the properties of the faults in our model area; in particular their cross- and along-fault permeability and geomechanical behaviour. Despite lying outside the anticipated CO2 plume, these faults could provide potential barriers to pore fluid migration and pressure dissipation, until, under elevated pressures, they provide vertical migration pathways for brine. In this case, the faults will act to enhance injectivity, but potential environmental impacts, should the displaced brine be expelled at the sea bed, will require consideration. Pressure gradients deduced from regional leak-off test data have been input into a simple geomechanical model to estimate the threshold pressure gradient at which faults cutting the Mesozoic succession will fail, assuming reactivation of fault segments will cause an increase in vertical permeability. Various 4D scenarios were run using a single-phase groundwater modelling code, calibrated to results from a multi-phase commercial simulator. Possible end-member ranges of fault parameters were input to investigate the pressure change with time and quantify brine

  8. Late Pleistocene evolution of the Rhine-Meuse system in the southern North Sea basin: imprints of climate change, sea-level oscillation and glacio-isostacy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Busschers, F. S.; Kasse, C.; van Balen, R. T.; Vandenberghe, J.; Cohen, K. M.; Weerts, H. J. T.; Wallinga, J.; Johns, C.; Cleveringa, P.; Bunnik, F. P. M.

    2007-12-01

    High-resolution continuous core material, geophysical measurements, and hundreds of archived core descriptions enabled to identify 13 Late Pleistocene Rhine-Meuse sedimentary units in the infill of the southern part of the North Sea basin (the Netherlands, northwestern Europe). This sediment record and a large set of Optical Stimulated Luminescence dates, 14C dates and biostratigraphical data, allowed to establish detailed relationships between climate change, sea-level oscillation, glaciation history and the sedimentary development of the Rhine fluvial system during the last glacial cycle (Marine Isotope Stages 5e-2, Eemian-Weichselian). A well-preserved Eemian sediment record was encountered as the infill of a Late Saalian (MIS6) subglacial basin. Part of this record reflects groundwater rise controlled (fine-grained) sedimentation as a result of postglacial (early) Eemian sea-level rise. It shows strong analogy to developments known from the Holocene Rhine-Meuse delta. Outside of the glacial depressions near coastal deposits are only fragmentarily preserved. The Early Glacial Rhine sediment record is dominated by organic debris and peat layers, marking landscape stability and low fluvial activity. Part of this record may have been formed under near coastal conditions. Significant amounts of reworked marine biomarkers in the lag-deposits of Early Pleniglacial (MIS4) fluvial systems indicate that this period is characterized by extensive reworking of older (MIS5) near-coastal sediments. Despite the marked Early Pleniglacial climatic cooling, input of new sediment from the drainage basin was relatively low, a feature that is related to the presence of regolith protective relic soil complexes in the basin. During the early Middle Pleniglacial, a major Rhine avulsion indicates the system was in an aggrading mode and that sediment supply into the lower reaches of the Rhine had strongly increased. This increase in sediment supply coincided with the timing of major

  9. The research and implementation of coalfield spontaneous combustion of carbon emission WebGIS based on Silverlight and ArcGIS server

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Z.; Bi, J.; Wang, X.; Zhu, W.

    2014-02-01

    As an important sub-topic of the natural process of carbon emission data public information platform construction, coalfield spontaneous combustion of carbon emission WebGIS system has become an important study object. In connection with data features of coalfield spontaneous combustion carbon emissions (i.e. a wide range of data, which is rich and complex) and the geospatial characteristics, data is divided into attribute data and spatial data. Based on full analysis of the data, completed the detailed design of the Oracle database and stored on the Oracle database. Through Silverlight rich client technology and the expansion of WCF services, achieved the attribute data of web dynamic query, retrieval, statistical, analysis and other functions. For spatial data, we take advantage of ArcGIS Server and Silverlight-based API to invoke GIS server background published map services, GP services, Image services and other services, implemented coalfield spontaneous combustion of remote sensing image data and web map data display, data analysis, thematic map production. The study found that the Silverlight technology, based on rich client and object-oriented framework for WCF service, can efficiently constructed a WebGIS system. And then, combined with ArcGIS Silverlight API to achieve interactive query attribute data and spatial data of coalfield spontaneous emmission, can greatly improve the performance of WebGIS system. At the same time, it provided a strong guarantee for the construction of public information on China's carbon emission data.

  10. InSAR Monitoring OF Landslides In Britain: BGS' Feasibility Map And First ISBAS Studies Over The South Wales Coalfield

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cigna, F.; Bateson, L.; Dashwood, C.; Jordan, C. J.; Sowter, A.; Boon, D.

    2013-12-01

    InSAR is an accepted method for monitoring ground motion, however its applicability in non-urban areas is generally limited except for rocky terrains. This paper investigates a new method for deriving improved results outside the urban environment. Topographic distortions to the ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT SAR acquisition modes are simulated based on high resolution DTMs of the landmass of Britain. Persistent Scatterers (PS) densities are predicted by calibrating the CORINE Land Cover 2006 dataset using PS data available via the ESA Terrafirma and EC FP7 PanGeo projects. The InSAR feasibility to monitor land motions is discussed for the South Wales Coalfield, and the Intermittent Small Baseline Subset (ISBAS) technique is tested over the Coalfield using 55 ERS-1/2 images (1992-1999). With unprecedented target coverage, ISBAS reveals up to 1cm/yr uplift in areas of former coal mining, likely associated with groundwater rebound following cessation of mine water pumping.

  11. Permian, Jurassic and Early Cretaceous palynofloral assemblages from subsurface sedimentary rocks in Chuperbhita Coalfield, Rajmahal Basin, India.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, A

    2001-04-01

    The results of a palynological analysis of the sedimentary sequence of Borehole RCH-151, Chuperbhita Coalfield, Rajmahal Basin, Bihar are presented here. The borehole penetrated the Rajmahal Formation (comprising two traps sandwiching an intertrappean bed), the thinly represented Dubrajpur Formation and in its lower part, the Coal Measures. The coal-bearing interval is associated with Scheuringipollenites barakarensis, Faunipollenites varius, Densipollenites indicus, Gondisporites raniganjensis and Densipollenites magnicorpus Assemblage Zones. The presence of these biostratigraphic units indicates correlation with the Barakar Formation (Early Permian) and the Barren Measures and Raniganj Formations (both Late Permian). This is the first record, in the Chuperbhita Coalfield, of Late Permian strata, which appear to represent a condensed sequence. Prior to the present study, the Permian succession was thought to have been associated entirely with the Barakar Formation. The overlying Dubrajpur Formation yielded a distinct spore-pollen assemblage (in association with the first report of dinoflagellate, Phallocysta), which is assigned to the newly identified Callialasporites turbatus palynozone of latest Early to early Middle Jurassic age. The diverse spore-pollen flora of the intertrappean bed (Rajmahal Formation) incorporates several age marker taxa, viz. Undulatisporites, Leptolepidites, Klukisporites, Ruffordiaspora, and Coptospora. The assemblages from intertrappean beds are correlated with the Ruffordiaspora australiensis palynozone of Australia. Thus the palynodating indicates Permian, latest Early to early Mid-Jurassic and Early Cretaceous age for the strata studied. This is the first record of definite Jurassic microfossils from the non-marine sequence of Rajmahal Basin, India.

  12. Towards "a different kind of beauty": responses to coal-based pollution in the Witbank coalfield between 1903 and 1948.

    PubMed

    Singer, Michal

    2011-01-01

    This article assesses the changing conceptions of the environmental impact of South African coal mining in the first half of the twentieth century, with special reference to the Witbank coalfield in the Mpumalanga province of South Africa. The anticipated development of the emerging coal town of Witbank was founded on the growing demand for coal. As Witbank's local landscape became visibly scarred, coal-based pollution was continually challenged and redefined. In an attempt to market electricity, and appease the doubts of potential consumers, attempts were made by Escom to romanticise features of Witbank's industrialised environment. Once mines were decommissioned, they were abandoned. Coal production increased dramatically during the Second World War, which provided an economic windfall for the local electrical, steel and chemical industries, placing undue pressure on the coal industry to step up production. The severe damage caused by coal mining during this period resulted in the ecological devastation of affected landscapes. The findings of an inter-departmental committee established to conduct research during the mid-1940s revealed the gravity of coal-based pollution, and set a precedent in the way that the state conceived of the impact of industry and mining. The report of this committee was completed in the wake of the war, by which time the Witbank coalfield had become one of the most heavily polluted regions of South Africa.

  13. Prevalence of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, Encephalitozonn cuniculi, Sarcocystis neurona, Besnoitia darlingi, and Neospora caninum in North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana, from Southern Louisian

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the prevalence of antibodies to zoonotic protozoan parasites (Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, and Encephalitozoon cuniculi) and protozoan’s of veterinary importance (Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona and Besnoitia darlingi) in a population of North American opossums (Didelphis...

  14. Effects of Watershed Land Use and Geomorphology on Stream Low Flows During Severe Drought Conditions in the Southern Blue Ridge Mountains, Georgia and North Carolina, United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Land use and physiographic variability influence stream low flows, yet their interactions and relative influence remain unresolved. Our objective was to assess the influence of land use and watershed geomorphic characteristics on low-flow variability in the southern Blue Ridge Mo...

  15. Soil quality and carbon sequestration in a reclaimed coal mine spoil of Jharia coalfield, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sangeeta; Masto, Reginald; Ram, Lal

    2016-04-01

    Revegetation of coal mine spoil helps in carbon storage and the success of remediation depend on the selection of appropriate tree species. A study was conducted at the coalmine overburden dumps of Jharia Coalfield, Dhanbad, India to evaluate the impact of revegetation on the overall soil quality and carbon sequestration. Morphological parameters (tree height, diameter at breast height, tree biomass, wood specific gravity) of the dominant tree species (Acacia auriculiformis, Cassia siamea, Dalbergia sissoo and Leucaena leucocephala) growing on the mine spoil was recorded. Mine spoil samples were collected under the canopy cover of different tree species and analyzed for soil physical, chemical, and biological parameters. In general reclaimed sites had better soil quality than the reference site. For instance, D. sissoo and C. siamea improved soil pH (+28.5%, +27.9%), EC (+15.65%, +19%), cation exchange capacity (+58.7%, +52.3%), organic carbon (+67.5%, +79.5%), N (+97.2%, +75.7%), P (+98.2%, +76.9%), K (+31.8%, +37.4%), microbial biomass carbon (+143%, +164%) and dehydrogenase activity (+228%, +262%) as compared to the unreclaimed reference coal mine site. The concentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) decreased significantly in the reclaimed site than the reference spoil, C. siamea was found to be more promising for PAH degradation. The overall impact of tree species on the quality of reclaimed mine spoil cannot be assessed by individual soil parameters, as most of the parameters are interlinked and difficult to interpret. However, combination of soil properties into an integrated soil quality index provides a more meaningful assessment of reclamation potential of tree species. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to identify key mine soil quality indicators to develop a soil quality index (SQI). Coarse fraction, pH, EC, soil organic carbon, P, Ca, S, and dehydrogenase activity were the most critical properties controlling growth of tree

  16. February 2011 sensitive clay landslides at the Çöllolar coalfield, eastern Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akçar, Naki; Yavuz, Vural; Ivy-Ochs, Susan; Nyffenegger, Franziska; Fredin, Ola; Stolz, Martin; Schlunegger, Fritz

    2016-04-01

    The Elbistan basin is an intramontane basin, which is located in the eastern Turkey and bound by the Taurus and Antitaurus Mountains. The basin covers an area of 900 km² at a mean elevation of about 1200 m. The basement rock in this field is karstic limestone, which is overlain by a thick layer of clay (>100 m), followed by 20-50 m thick Lignite series that is overlain by the 20-50 m thick Gyttja sequence. These deposits are overlain by Quaternary deposits, comprising the top surfaces of the terraces of the Hurman River, which drains the surface and ground water from the surrounding hills to the northeast towards the center of the Elbistan basin. The Çöllolar open pit mine, situated in the northwestern sector of the Elbistan basin, contains 90 km2 of mineable coal which has been excavated since 2008. In February 2011, two landslides in which 10 workers were killed, occurred in this field. Of the two landslides, the 2nd and largest which covers an area of ca. 2.3 km2,was caused by the collapse of the northeastern wall of the open-pit mine. The failure was made of successive rearward collapses with the debris flowing into the open-pit. In this study, we focus on the geologic factors that led to instability and the trigger of the landslides. To reveal these factors, we employ sedimentological and geotechnical analysis of deposits, with a special emphasis on the Pliocene lacustrine carbonaceous sediments and the sensitivity of the overlying Quaternary clays. First results from the fieldwork and the mineralogical composition and physical properties of the collected samples indicate that the landslide was caused by the liquefaction of one of the layers within the thick sequence of this part of the Elbistan basin based on the flow style of the movement and nature of the failure. In brief, we conclude that massive failures at the Çöllolar coalfield are unique examples of sensitive clay landslides occurred in a subtropical arid region beyond the extent of Quaternary

  17. A proposed origin for fossilized Pennsylvanian plant cuticles by pyrite oxidation (Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zodrow, E.L.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Fossilized cuticles, though rare in the roof rocks of coal seam in the younger part of the Pennsylvanian Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, represent nearly all of the major plant groups. Selected for investigation, by methods of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and elemental analysis, are fossilized cuticles (FCs) and cuticles extracted from compressions by Schulze's process (CCs) of Alethopteris ambigua. These investigations are supplemented by FTIR analysis of FCs and CCs of Cordaites principalis, and a cuticle-fossilized medullosalean(?) axis. The purpose of this study is threefold: (1) to try to determine biochemical discriminators between FCs and CCs of the same species using semi-quantitative FTIR techniques; (2) to assess the effects chemical treatments have, particularly Schulze's process, on functional groups; and most importantly (3) to study the primary origin of FCs. Results are equivocal in respect to (1); (2) after Schulze's treatment aliphatic moieties tend to be reduced relative to oxygenated groups, and some aliphatic chains may be shortened; and (3) a primary chemical model is proposed. The model is based on a variety of geological observations, including stratal distribution, clay and pyrite mineralogies associated with FCs and compressions, and regional geological structure. The model presupposes compression-cuticle fossilization under anoxic conditions for late authigenic deposition of sub-micron-sized pyrite on the compressions. Rock joints subsequently provided conduits for oxygen-enriched ground-water circulation to initiate in situ pyritic oxidation that produced sulfuric acid for macerating compressions, with resultant loss of vitrinite, but with preservation of cuticles as FCs. The timing of the process remains undetermined, though it is assumed to be late to post-diagenetic. Although FCs represent a pathway of organic matter transformation (pomd) distinct from other plant-fossilization processes, global applicability of the

  18. Cuticular hydrocarbons and soldier defense secretions of Reticulitermes in southern California: a critical analysis of the taxonomy of the genus in North America.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Lori J; Cool, Laurence G; Solek, Christopher W; Haverty, Michael I

    2008-11-01

    Cuticular hydrocarbons (CHC) and soldier defense secretions (SDS) were characterized for collections of Reticulitermes from six counties (Los Angeles, Orange, Riverside, San Bernardino, San Diego, and Santa Barbara) in southern California. Collection sites included the type locality for R. hesperus, Lake Arrowhead (formerly known as Little Bear Lake) in the San Bernardino Mountains. In southern California, there are two CHC phenotypes, SC-A and SC-B, which are easily distinguished by the presence or absence of 5-methyl pentacosane, 5-methyl heptacosane, 5,17-dimethyl pentacosane, and 5,17-dimethyl heptacosane. These phenotypes are similar, but not identical, to previously designated phenotypes of Reticulitermes from northern California. The SDS of termites collected from southern California were characterized; (-)-germacrene A was abundant in all but the four samples from Lake Arrowhead. Soldiers of phenotype SC-A produced >79% germacrene A. The four samples from Lake Arrowhead produced no germacrene A, but contained >78% gamma-cadinene. The SDS from the Lake Arrowhead samples were more similar to those of CA-A/CA-A' from northern California than to any of the CHC phenotypes from southern California. Soldiers of CHC phenotype SC-B produced germacrene A, with the proportion varying from 16.2 to 98.7%. The SDS of SC-B were more similar to those of SC-A than to any of the phenotypes from northern California. The CHC phenotype SC-A found in southern California likely represents R. hesperus and SC-B appears to be a new, as yet undescribed species. We discuss the state of current taxonomic research on Reticulitermes.

  19. Genetic separation of southern and northern soybean breeding programs in North America and their associated allelic variation at four maturity loci

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soybean has only 90 years of breeding history in North America. During the short breeding period, soybean breeders have successfully developed a large collection of elite cultivars with diverse maturity groups. To understand the molecular and genetic basis underlying the diverse soybean maturity, ...

  20. Effects of magmatic intrusion on mineralogy and geochemistry of coals from the Fengfeng-Handan Coalfield, Hebei, China

    SciTech Connect

    Shifeng Dai; Deyi Ren

    2007-06-15

    This paper describes the effects of magmatic intrusions on petrology, mineralogy, and geochemistry of the late Palaeozoic coals from the Fengfeng-Handan coalfield, Hebei, China. The narrowly zoned coals of variable ranks, from high-volatile A bituminous (hvAb), through medium-volatile bituminous (mvb), low-volatile bituminous (lvb), semianthracite (sa), and anthracite (an), to meta-anthracite (ma) in the coalfield, were found to be best explained by magmatic inputs. The minerals derived from magmatic thermal alteration consist of pyrite, calcite, and ankerite, which mainly occur as fracture or vesicle fillings in the thermally altered high-rank coals. The variation in element concentrations with coal ranks (enrichment, depletion, and no variation) and mineralogical affinity were used to classify elements in coals into six groups, groups A-F. Elements in group A (B, F, Cl, Br, and Hg), group B (As, Co, Cu, Ni, and Pb), group C (Sr, Mg, Ca, Mn, and Zn), and Group D (U) were enriched in the altered coals, indicating that the magmatic inputs are the source of these elements. Group A elements are volatile elements that probably came from the hydrothermal solutions, then deposited or were driven off from an organic component in coal by magmatic heat, and then redeposited in the coal. Group B elements mainly distribute in the fracture or vesicle fillings of pyrites. The dominant carriers of group C elements are thermally altered calcite and ankerite. Uranium in group D occurs in organic-bonded and silicate associations. Group E elements, including Sb, Sc, and V, have a depletion trend in the altered coals, and the remaining elements in group F do not clearly vary in the unaltered, slightly altered, or altered coals. The element concentrations independent of coal ranks in groups E and F may suggest that these elements are inherent to the coal. 44 refs., 15 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Long-term monitoring study of beached seabirds shows that chronic oil pollution in the southern North Sea has almost halted.

    PubMed

    Stienen, Eric W M; Courtens, Wouter; Van de Walle, Marc; Vanermen, Nicolas; Verstraete, Hilbran

    2017-02-15

    Trends in oil rates of beached seabirds reflect temporal and spatial patterns in chronic oil pollution at sea. We analysed a long-term dataset of systematic beached bird surveys along the Belgian North Sea coast during 1962-2015, where extreme high oil contamination rates and consequently high mortality rates of seabirds during the 1960s used to coincide with intensive ship traffic. In the 1960s, >90% of all swimming seabirds that washed ashore were contaminated with oil and estimated oil-induced mortality of seabirds was probably several times higher than natural mortality. More than 50years later oil rates of seabirds have dropped to historically low levels while shipping is still very intense, indicating that chronic oil pollution has significantly declined. The declining trend is discussed in the light of a series of legislative measures that were enacted in the North Sea region to reduce oil pollution.

  2. The Variability of the Atlantic Meridional Overturning Circulation, the North Atlantic Oscillation, and the El Niño-Southern Oscillation in the Bergen Climate Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mignot, Juliette; Frankignoul, Claude

    2005-07-01

    The link between the interannual to interdecadal variability of the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) and the atmospheric forcing is investigated using 200 yr of a control simulation of the Bergen Climate Model, where the mean circulation cell is rather realistic, as is also the location of deep convection in the northern North Atlantic. The AMOC variability has a slightly red frequency spectrum and is primarily forced by the atmosphere. The maximum value of the AMOC is mostly sensitive to the deep convection in the Irminger Sea, which it lags by about 5 yr. The latter is mostly forced by a succession of atmospheric patterns that induce anomalous northerly winds over the area. The impact of the North Atlantic Oscillation on deep convection in the Labrador and Greenland Seas is represented realistically, but its influence on the AMOC is limited to the interannual time scale and is primarily associated with wind forcing. The tropical Pacific shows a strong variability in the model, with too strong an influence on the North Atlantic. However, its influence on the tropical Atlantic is realistic. Based on lagged correlations and the release of fictitious Lagrangian drifters, the tropical Pacific seems to influence the AMOC with a time lag of about 40 yr. The mechanism is as follows: El Niño events induce positive sea surface salinity anomalies in the tropical Atlantic that are advected northward, circulate in the subtropical gyre, and then subduct. In the ocean interior, part of the salinity anomaly is advected along the North Atlantic current, eventually reaching the Irminger and Labrador Seas after about 35 yr where they destabilize the water column and favor deep convection.

  3. Hydrogeology and sources of recharge to the Buffalo and Wahpeton aquifers in the southern part of the Red River of the North drainage basin, west-central Minnesota and southeastern North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schoenberg, Michael

    1998-01-01

    The potential sources of recharge to the Wahpeton aquifers investigated were the Red River of the North, and adjacent hydro geologic units. The volume of ground water pumped from the Wahpeton aquifers provides an estimate of the upper limit for the volume of recharge to the aquifer. Based on pumpage from all of the Wapheton aquifers from 1990 to 1993, the upper limit is about 580 million gallons per year (2.4 x 105 cubic feet per day).

  4. Lesser black-backed gulls (Larus fuscus) consuming swimming crabs: An important link in the food web of the southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwemmer, Henriette; Schwemmer, Philipp; Ehrich, Siegfried; Garthe, Stefan

    2013-03-01

    Swimming crabs (Liocarcinus spp.) are one of the most common brachyuran species in the North Sea, and their abundance has substantially increased over the last century. Seabirds such as lesser black-backed gulls (LBBG) commonly feed mainly on higher-trophic-level organisms such as fish. However, intensive use of swimming crabs by LBBGs in the eastern North Sea has been noted over several years. Our investigation of this aspect of the food web by examining food remains from breeding LBBGs showed that swimming crabs accounted for more than half of the nutrition of LBBGs. Gulls selected larger individuals than expected, based on sizes of free-living swimming crabs. A long-term data set (2002-2006) shows that gulls took swimming crabs mainly in the early morning and late evening, suggesting that they might migrate vertically in the water column. Moreover, it shows that although swimming crabs occurred at considerable distances from the shore, LBBGs took this prey item exclusively from near the shore where it was most abundant. This suggests the existence of a possible energy threshold above which gulls experience a net energy loss, if they have to travel too far from their colony, where the abundance of swimming crabs is lower and the energy intake might thus not compensate for the long-distance flights. Swimming-crab abundance did not appear to be the primary factor influencing overall gull distribution. A simple bioenergetic model showed that the 22,000 individual LBBGs in the most important breeding colony in the south-eastern North Sea consumed approximately 35 million swimming crabs annually (i.e. 1590 swimming crabs per individual gull) during the breeding period. However, considering the high numbers of swimming crabs in the south-eastern North Sea (demonstrated by bottom-trawl surveys in 2005 and 2007) LBBGs are unlikely to exert top-down control on this prey. Conversely, a bottom-up effect is more likely, potentially enabling further increases in LBBG

  5. Pleistocene volcaniclastic units from North-Eastern Sicily (Italy): new evidence for calc-alkaline explosive volcanism in the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Bella, Marcella; Italiano, Francesco; Sabatino, Giuseppe; Tripodo, Alessandro; Baldanza, Angela; Casella, Sergio; Pino, Paolo; Rasa', Riccardo; Russo, Selma

    2016-08-01

    A well-preserved volcaniclastic sequence crops out in Pleistocene marine sediments along the Tyrrhenian coastline of the Calabrian-Peloritani arc (Sicily, Italy), testifying the occurrence of Lower-Middle Pleistocene volcanic activity in Southern Tyrrhenian Sea. The presence of dominant highly vesicular and minor blocky glassy particles indicates that the volcanic clasts were originated by explosive events related to the ascent and violent emission of volatile-rich magmas accompanied by and/or alternated with hydromagmatic fragmentation due to magma-sea water interaction. Field investigations and sedimentological features of the studied volcaniclastic units suggest a deposition from sediment-water density flows. The chemical classification of the pumice clasts indicates prevalent rhyolitic and dacitic compositions with calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline affinity. The geochemical features of immobile trace elements together with the presence of orthopyroxene are indicative of a provenance from an arc-type environment. The age (from 980-910 to 589 ka), the chemical composition and the evidence of subaerial explosive volcanic activity constrain the origin nature and temporal evolution of the arc-type volcanism in the Southern Tyrrhenian domain. Finally, the new information here provided contribute to a better understanding of the temporal geodynamic evolution of this sector of the Mediterranean domain.

  6. The winter distribution of nutrients in the Southern Bight of the North Sea (1961-1978) and in the estuaries of the scheldt and the rhine/meuse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Bennekom, A. J.; Wetsteijn, F. J.

    In many years the winter distribution of nutrients in the eastern part of the Southern Bight is influenced by phytoplankton growth, always in February, sometimes in January but not in January 1961 and 1978, months with a relatively low insolation and high wind strength. The Scheldt river has higher nutrient concentrations than the rivers Rhine and Seine. The waters of the Scheldt river plume are distinguished from those of the Seine and the Rhine/Meuse with dissolved silica as a tracer. The extension of the Scheldt river plume is related to wind direction. The increase of inorganic nutrients from January 1961 to January 1978 in the northern part of the Southern Bight is related to the increase in the river Rhine. The increase in the Strait of Dover is related to discharges from the river Seine and the English coast. Only data outside the Scheldt river plume were selected for the comparison. An increase of nutrient concentrations is measurable over the entire salinity range and is largest for phosphate (up to 3 times at low salinities), less for nitrate (about 1.5 times for all salinities) and hardly noticeable for silicic acid. Nitrate extrapolation to low salinity agrees with upstream river values, but phosphate extrapolation gives higher concentrations, probably due to discharges of phosphogypsum in estuaries.

  7. 14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior, Machine Shop, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Roundhouse Machine Shop Extension, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  8. 6. Interior oblique view from doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Interior oblique view from doorway, Oil House, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north (90mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Oil House, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  9. Guiana's Basin, A Unique Setting with Two Break-up and Drift Unconformities and a Feature Hypothesized to be a Southern North Atlantic, Iceland Equivalent Atlantis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kean, A. E.

    2007-12-01

    In the Guiana's Basin, two distinct Break-up/Drift Unconformities associated with thermal doming, rifting, cooling, compressing and drifting of plates were identified and mapped. The earliest unconformity 1) Mid-Jurassic-aged separation of North/Central America from Western Europe/North Western Africa and the latest unconformity 2) Albian-aged separation of Central West Africa from Central Northern South America, exist here. What complicates the interpretation of the plate motion is the amount of overburden deposited post Albian time on both sides of the ridge separating the African and the South American plates. To the east, the Niger River pushed out 5-20 km of sediments on top of the drift unconformity. In the Guiana's Basin the sedimentation is only about 5-10 km of sedimentation therefore it is easier to image and interpret the geologic history. Through a synthetic well to seismic tie, a correlation of new biostratigraphic data from a well spud in Nov. 1977 and TD'ed in June of 1978 by Esso, was incorporated into the regional geologic interpretation. The interpretation based on this data was that the timing of the opening of the South Atlantic was synchronous with that of the North Atlantic. The feature of interest closely resembles a buried volcanic landmass. It just happens to be located in the area hypothesized as the Mid Jurassic spreading center related to a hotspot, after Pindell and Kendall, March 2005. Interpretation and conclusions for this study are based on 1999 and 2004 vintages of 2D seismic data and a new interpretation of the biostratigraphy. Additionally, gravity and magnetic data along with regional subsidence modeling and a tectonic evaluation study supports these conclusions. On several 2D seismic lines from the area, a deep volcanic feature can be seen and interpreted to exist in Mid Jurassic time. This feature is similar in portion to Iceland the volcanic island currently residing in the middle of the North Atlantic Ocean. Today in the

  10. Biomagnification of naturally-produced methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) in harbour seals and harbour porpoises from the southern North Sea.

    PubMed

    Weijs, Liesbeth; Losada, Sara; Das, Krishna; Roosens, Laurence; Reijnders, Peter J H; Santos, Javier F; Neels, Hugo; Blust, Ronny; Covaci, Adrian

    2009-08-01

    Harbour seals and harbour porpoises are top predator species from the North Sea, have long life spans and hence, are known to accumulate high levels of anthropogenic contaminants. To gain knowledge about the behaviour of naturally-produced compounds in these marine mammals, the biomagnification of naturally-produced methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (MeO-PBDEs) was assessed. The biomagnification of MeO-PBDEs (2'-MeO-BDE 68 and 6-MeO-BDE 47) was lower in harbour seals (all biomagnification factors (BMFs)<1) compared to the same age-gender groups of the harbour porpoises (all BMFs>1). This may indicate a better metabolic breakdown of MeO-PBDEs in harbour seals, as was previously suggested for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). In both predators, 6-MeO-BDE 47 had the highest concentrations (range: 45-483 ng/g lw and 2-38 ng/g lw for harbour porpoises and seals, respectively) compared to 2'-MeO-BDE 68 (range: 2-28 ng/g lw and 1-6 ng/g lw for harbour porpoises and seals, respectively). In general, the highest concentrations were found in juveniles, suggesting an increased biotransformation capacity with age or the influence of dilution by growth for both species. Here we show that naturally-produced brominated organic compounds can biomagnify and accumulate in North Sea top predators, although to a lesser extent than anthropogenic lipophilic contaminants, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) or PBDEs.

  11. Accretion of southern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hillhouse, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Paleomagnetic data from southern Alaska indicate that the Wrangellia and Peninsular terranes collided with central Alaska probably by 65 Ma ago and certainly no later than 55 Ma ago. The accretion of these terranes to the mainland was followed by the arrival of the Ghost Rocks volcanic assemblage at the southern margin of Kodiak Island. Poleward movement of these terranes can be explained by rapid motion of the Kula oceanic plate, mainly from 85 to 43 Ma ago, according to recent reconstructions derived from the hot-spot reference frame. After accretion, much of southwestern Alaska underwent a counterclockwise rotation of about 50 ?? as indicated by paleomagnetic poles from volcanic rocks of Late Cretaceous and Early Tertiary age. Compression between North America and Asia during opening of the North Atlantic (68-44 Ma ago) may account for the rotation. ?? 1987.

  12. Latitudinal fractionation of polychlorinated biphenyls in surface seawater along a 62 degrees N-89 degrees N transect from the southern Norwegian Sea to the North Pole area.

    PubMed

    Sobek, Anna; Gustafsson, Orjan

    2004-05-15

    Surface seawater concentrations of PCBs, relative congener abundance, and possible effects of cold condensation were studied along a transect from the southern Norwegian Sea to the central Arctic Ocean (62 degrees N-89 degrees N). Large volume samples were collected from an ice breaker using a stainless steel surface seawater intake connected online to an ultra-clean laboratory. Concentrations of all studied PCB congeners, except for trichlorinated PCB 18, decreased with latitude. For instance, PCB 52 decreased from 470 fg L(-1) at 62 degrees N to 110 fg L(-1) at 89 degrees N and PCB 180 from 110 to 12 fg L(-1). Concentrations in the central Arctic Ocean were on the order of 10-100 fg L(-1) for the most abundant congeners. The relative contribution oftrichlorinated PCBs to the total PCB concentration increased with latitude, the tetrachlorinated contribution to the total PCBs did not show any correlation to latitude, and the relative contribution of heavier congeners decreased with latitude. This study establishes the occurrence at very low abundances of PCBs in seawater in the central Arctic Ocean and demonstrates a northward concentration decrease. The latitudinal shift in congener pattern is reflecting the relative propensity of the PCB congeners to undergo long-range transport in the Arctic and is consistent with their relative vapor pressures.

  13. Depositional controls on coal distribution and quality in the Eocene Brunner Coal Measures, Buller Coalfield, South Island, New Zealand

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Flores, R.M.; Sykes, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Buller Coalfield on the West Coast of the South Island, New Zealand, contains the Eocene Brunner Coal Measures. The coal measures unconformably overlie Paleozoic-Cretaceous basement rocks and are conformably overlain by, and laterally interfinger with, the Eocene marine Kaiata Formation. This study examines the lithofacies frameworks of the coal measures in order to interpret their depositional environments. The lower part of the coal measures is dominated by conglomeratic lithofacies that rest on a basal erosional surface and thicken in paleovalleys incised into an undulating peneplain surface. These lithofacies are overlain by sandstone, mudstone and organic-rich lithofacies of the upper part of the coal measures. The main coal seam of the organic-rich lithofacies is thick (10-20 m), extensive, locally split, and locally absent. This seam and associated coal seams in the Buller Coalfield are of low- to high-volatile bituminous rank (vitrinite reflectance between 0.65% and 1.75%). The main seam contains a variable percentage of ash and sulphur. These values are related to the thickening and areal distribution of the seam, which in turn, were controlled by the nature of clastic deposition and peat-forming mire systems, marine transgression and local tidal incursion. The conglomeratic lithofacies represent deposits of trunk and tributary braided streams that rapidly aggraded incised paleovalleys during sea-level stillstands. The main seam represents a deposit of raised mires that initially developed as topogenous mires on abandoned margins of inactive braidbelts. Peat accumulated in mires as a response to a rise in the water table, probably initially due to gradual sea-level rise and climate, and the resulting raised topography served as protection from floods. The upper part of the coal measures consists of sandstone lithofacies of flu vial origin and bioturbated sandstone, mudstone and organic-rich lithofacies, which represent deposits of paralic (deltaic

  14. Nitrous oxide cycling in the water column and sediments of the oxygen minimum zone, eastern subtropical North Pacific, Southern California, and Northern Mexico (23°N-34°N)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Townsend-Small, Amy; Prokopenko, Maria G.; Berelson, William M.

    2014-05-01

    Identifying sources and sinks of N2O can illuminate N cycling processes in marine systems, particularly where changes in dissolved O2 can lead to changes in N cycling pathways (i.e., nitrification versus denitrification). We measured N2O and NO3- concentration and their stable isotope ratios (δ15N and δ18O) in the water column and sediments of the oxygen minimum zone in the nearshore eastern subtropical North Pacific (23°N-34°N). Atmospheric efflux of N2O ranged from 2.2 to 17.9 μmol m-2 d-1 or about 2-20 times higher than in oxygenated regions of the North Pacific. Surface waters were a source of 15N-depleted and 18O-enriched N2O to the atmosphere, indicating a bacterial, not archaeal, nitrification N2O source. Stable isotopes indicated that nitrification in both surface and intermediate waters (˜0-200 m) was the major source of N2O in this study area, with denitrification acting as a small N2O sink in strongly O2-depleted waters. Denitrification had a larger impact on observed patterns of N2O and NO3- concentrations and isotope ratios in the southern oxygen minimum zone. Sediments were generally neutral or a weak sink for N2O, with only one site (Soledad basin) showing a positive efflux of +3.5 ± 1.0 μmol N2O-N m-2 d-1. Sediment fluxes of N2O at all sites were several orders of magnitude smaller than fluxes of dinitrogen, nitrate, and ammonium measured in previous studies and did not appear to impact water column N2O concentrations. N2O was less than 0.1% of the N2 efflux from sedimentary denitrification.

  15. Deformation above mobile substrates, salt rheology and spatial distribution of salt structures: A 3D seismic study of the Permian southern North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez, Karina; Mitchell, Neil; Huuse, Mads

    2016-04-01

    At ~255 Ma, cycles of evaporation of seawater led to deposition of evaporites including halite (rock salt) in the North Sea Basin. After later burial by denser sediments, the salt beds rose as pillows and diapirs. Assuming mobilization is due to Rayleigh-Taylor gravitational instability of heavy fluid (sediments) overlying light fluid (salts), theory suggests that the spacing between diapirs should be proportional to the original thickness of the salt layer. For example, a description of the theory in Turcotte and Schubert (1982) predicts structure wavelength to be 2.6 times the salt thickness. Previous research has explored mobilization of salt deposits assuming they have uniform rheology. However, this is not justified as halite rheology varies with temperature, grain size and pore brine content. Furthermore, evaporitic sequences contain various minerals besides halite (e.g., anhydrite, gypsum), which have different rheological properties. 3D seismic and well data reveal the internal structure of salt beds. The data have allowed characterization of structure wavelengths and salt thickness, so that the impact of internal composition and other properties on halokinetic behaviour can be assessed.

  16. Prevalence of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Sarcocystis neurona, Besnoitia darlingi, and Neospora caninum in North American opossums, Didelphis virginiana, from southern Louisiana.

    PubMed

    Houk, Alice E; Goodwin, David G; Zajac, Anne M; Barr, Stephen C; Dubey, J P; Lindsay, David S

    2010-12-01

    We examined the prevalence of antibodies to zoonotic protozoan parasites ( Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, and Encephalitozoon cuniculi) and protozoans of veterinary importance ( Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona, and Besnoitia darlingi) in a population of North American opossums ( Didelphis virginiana) from Louisiana. Samples from 30 opossums were collected as part of a survey for T. cruzi in Louisiana. Frozen sera from these 30 opossums were examined using an indirect immunofluorescent antibody test (IFAT) against in vitro-produced antigenic stages of these protozoans. Additionally, 24 of the 30 samples were examined using hemoculture, and all 30 were examined in the modified direct agglutination test (MAT) for antibodies to To. gondii. The prevalences of reactive IFAT samples were as follows: 60% for T. cruzi, 27% for To. gondii, 23% for E. cuniculi, 17% for S. neurona, 47% for B. darlingi, and 0% for N. caninum. Hemoculture revealed that 16 (67%) of 24 samples were positive for T. cruzi, compared to 18 of 30 (60%) by IFAT. The sensitivity and specificity for the IFAT compared to hemoculture was 100% for each. The modified direct agglutination test revealed that 9 (30%) of the 30 samples from opossums had antibodies to To. gondii , compared to 8 (27%) using the IFAT. The sensitivity and specificity of the IFAT compared to the MAT was 100% and 72%, respectively.

  17. The north-eastern aeolian 'European Sand Belt' as potential record of environmental changes: A case study from Eastern Latvia and Southern Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalińska-Nartiša, Edyta; Thiel, Christine; Nartišs, Māris; Buylaert, Jan-Pieter; Murray, Andrew S.

    2016-09-01

    The Latvian and Estonian inland dunes belong to the north-eastern part of the 'European Sand Belt' (ESB). These dunes are widely distributed over broad glaciolacustrine plains and Late Glacial alluvial deltas, considered to be potential sources for the aeolian material. Little is known about these aeolian sediments and their substratum; here we present a detailed sedimentary structural and textural characterisation together with a luminescence-based chronology. Through a comparison between grain-size, rounding of quartz grains and surface characteristics in medium/coarse (0.5-0.8 mm) sand, and the light mineral content, we found an alternation of aeolian and periglacial components. Further, short-lasting aeolian abrasion and/or transportation periods, and a significant contribution of a nearby sediment source are suggested. Luminescence dating points to aeolian sand accumulation and dune formation between ∼16 ka and ∼9 ka. However, we also observed some presumably watertable controlled environmental conditions at ∼13 ka; this corresponds with the occurrence of an ice-dammed/proglacial lake.

  18. Volcanic activities in the Southern part of East African rift initiation: Melilitites and nephelinites from the Manyara Basin (North Tanzania rift axis)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudouin, Celine; Parat, Fleurice; Tiberi, Christel; Gautier, Stéphanie; Peyrat, Sophie

    2016-04-01

    The East African Rift exposes different stages of plate boundary extension, from the initiation of the rift (North (N) Tanzania) to oceanic accretion (Afar). The N Tanzania rift-axis (north-south (S) trend) is divided into 2 different volcanic and seismic activities: (1) the Natron basin (N) with shallow seismicity and intense volcanism and (2) the Manyara basin (S) with deep crustal earthquakes and sparse volcanism. The Natron basin is characterized by extinct volcanoes (2 Ma-0.75 Ma) and active volcano (Oldoinyo Lengai) and a link between seismicity and volcanism has been observed during the Oldoinyo Lengai crisis in 2007. In the S part of the N Tanzanian rift, volcanoes erupted in the Manyara basin between 0.4 and 0.9 Ma. In this study, we used geochemical signature of magmas and deep fluids that percolate into the lithosphere beneath Manyara basin, to define the compositions of magmas and fluids at depth beneath the S part of the N Tanzania rift, compare to the Natron basin and place constrain on the volcanic and seismic activities. The Manyara basin has distinct volcanic activities with mafic magmas as melilitites (Labait) and Mg-nephelinites (carbonatite, Kwaraha), and more differentiated magmas as Mg-poor nephelinites (Hanang). Melilitites and Mg-nephelinites are primary magmas with olivine, clinopyroxene (cpx), and phlogopite recording high-pressure crystallization environment, (melilitites >4 GPa and Mg-nephelinites>1 GPa) with high volatile contents (whole rock: 0.7-4.6 wt% CO2, 0.1-0.3 wt% F and 0.1 wt% Cl). FTIR analyses of olivine constrained the water content of Labait and Kwaraha magmas at 0.1 and 0.4 wt% H2O, respectively. Geochemical modelling suggests that mafic magmas result from a low degree of partial melting (1-2%) of a peridotitic source with garnet and phlogopite (high Tb/Yb (>0.6) and Rb/Sr (0.03-0.12) ratio). Mg-poor nephelinites from Hanang volcano crystallized cpx, Ti-garnet, and nepheline as phenocrysts. Magmas result from fractional

  19. Age and zircon inheritance of eastern Blue Ridge plutons, southwestern North Carolina and northeastern Georgia, with implications for magma history and evolution of the southern Appalachian origin

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, C.F.; Hatcher, R.D. Jr.; Ayers, J.C.; Coath, C.D.; Harrison, T.M.

    2000-02-01

    High-resolution ion microprobe analysis of zircon has provided ages for previously undated plutons of the high-grade eastern Blue Ridge of northeastern Georgia and southwestern North Carolina. These data, together with backscattered electron imaging, reveal the presence of nearly ubiquitous inherited cores of highly variable age and magmatic rims that have experienced variable Pb loss, thus making interpretation of conventional U-Pb analyses very difficult. Ion probe rim analyses indicate that the plutons were emplaced during both the mod-Ordovician and mid-Devonian. Zircons from all intrusions have predominantly 1.0 to 1.25 Ga cores (Grenvillian). In addition, both Devonian and Ordovician plutons have smaller populations of Late Proterozoic-early Paleozoic (0.5--0.75 Ga), Middle Proterozoic (1.4 Ga), and Late Archean (2.6--2.9 Ga) cores. The ubiquitous, round cores and thick magmatic rims suggest significant resorption and then protracted growth within the melts. Zircon saturation temperatures based on whole-rock ({approximately}melt) Zr concentrations are lower than expected for magma generation (710--760 C). Zirconium concentrations may not reflect saturation at maximum temperature, if melting was very rapid (<{approximately}10{sup 5} yrs), or if zircon cores represent grains that were shielded from melt inside host grains for much of the magmatic history. Ages of magmatic and inherited zones of zircon from the plutons demonstrate that similar crust underlay the eastern Blue Ridge during both Taconian and Acadian orogenies, that there was no single episode of voluminous magmatism, and that metamorphism and deformation began before 470 Ma and continued after 370 Ma. These plutons do not constitute a significant convergence-related arc, though it is possible that they represent a displaced part of an arc that lies primarily to the east (in the Inner Piedmont?).

  20. Wetland-stream ecosystems of the western Kentucky coalfield: environmental disturbance and the shaping of aquatic community structure

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, P.L. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of surface mining effluents of the shaping of aquatic community structure in wetland-stream ecosystems of the western Kentucky coalfield were examined. Three variously impacted drainage systems were utilized for the investigation of cause-and-effect relationships. Clear Creek wetland-stream ecosystem had a uniformly low pH, high conductivity and high dissolved minerals load linked to the oozing of old, unreclaimed surface mine spoils. Cypress Creek wetland-stream ecosystem exhibited a slug-pulsing of mine drainage effluents tied to active surface mining limited to the headwaters region. Henderson Sloughs-Pond Creek wetland-stream ecosystem had no mining impact and was utilized as a comparison site. Macroinvertebrate taxa and diversity were considerably lowered in the systems receiving mine drainage. The Shannon-Weaver diversity index (H) was 0.61 for Clear Creek, 1.80 for Cypress Creek and 2.01 for Henderson Sloughs. Large numbers of chironomid larvae dominated the benthic community of Clear Creek while mayflies, caddisflies and crustaceans were the major components of the Cypress Creek community. Henderson Sloughs-Pond Creek had an even more diverse community of mayflies, caddisflies, crustaceans, molluscs and odonates. Fishes followed the same general trend, being almost absent in Clear Creek (H - 0.47), slightly depressed in Cypress Creek (H = 1.74) and generally diverse in Henderson Sloughs (H = 2.37).

  1. Effects of fracturing on well yields in the coalfield areas of Wise and Dickenson counties, southwestern Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, W.G.

    1985-01-01

    Fracturing associated with lineaments are the primary influence on yields from wells in the coalfields of southwestern Virgnia. Graphical comparison of yield from wells shows that wells located in valleys with lineaments produce larger quantities of water than wells in valleys without lineaments. Pumping tests at wells located in valleys with lineaments indicate transmissivities as high as 598 ft2/d, caused principally by secondary permeability. Analysis of data collected from packer-injection tests in a test hole located on a ridge indicate relatively large hydraulic conductivities ranging from 2x10(sup -2) to 1x10(sup -1) feet per day in upper parts of the test hole, compared to values typical of unfractured rocks in the study area. Fracturing due to stress relief contribute to these large values. Yields from wells located on lineaments are consistently higher than well yields from wells in unfractured rock in the study area, but well yields from wells placed randomly in areas suspected of having stress relief fractures cannot be predicted. (USGS)

  2. Sequential solvent extraction for the modes of occurrence of selenium in coals of different ranks from the Huaibei Coalfield, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Liu, Guijian; Chou, Chen-Lin; Wang, Lei; Kang, Yu

    2007-12-20

    Forms of selenium in bituminous coal, anthracite, and cokeite (natural coke) from Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui, China, have been determined by sequential solvent extraction. The selenium content in bulk samples is 4.0, 2.4, and 2.0 microg/g in bituminous coal, anthracite, and cokeite, respectively. The six forms of selenium determined by six-step solvent extraction are water-leachable, ion-exchangeable, organic matter-associated, carbonate-associated, silicate-associated, and sulfide-associated. The predominant forms of selenium in bituminous coal are organic matter-associated (39.0%), sulfide-associated (21.1%), and silicate bound (31.8%); these three forms account for 92% of the total. The organic matter bound-selenium decrease dramatically from bituminous coal (39.0%) to anthracite (11.6%) and to cokeite (0%), indicating that organic matter bound selenium is converted to other forms during metamorphism of the coal, most likely sulfide-form. The sulfide-associated form increased remarkably from bituminous coal (21.1%) to anthracite (50.4%) and cokeite (54.5%), indicating the formation of selenium sulfide, possibly in pyrite during the transformation of bituminous coal to anthracite and cokeite. The silicate-associated selenium in bituminous coal (31.8%) is much higher than that in anthracite (16.4%) and cokeite (15.8%), indicating that silicate-associated selenium is partly converted to sulfide during metamorphism.

  3. Sequential solvent extraction for the modes of occurrence of selenium in coals of different ranks from the Huaibei Coalfield, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zhang, Y.; Liu, Gaisheng; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, L.; Kang, Y.

    2007-01-01

    Forms of selenium in bituminous coal, anthracite, and cokeite (natural coke) from Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui, China, have been determined by sequential solvent extraction. The selenium content in bulk samples is 4.0, 2.4, and 2.0 ??g/g in bituminous coal, anthracite, and cokeite, respectively. The six forms of selenium determined by six-step solvent extraction are water-leachable, ion-exchangeable, organic matter-associated, carbonate-associated, silicate-associated, and sulfide-associated. The predominant forms of selenium in bituminous coal are organic matter-associated (39.0%), sulfide-associated (21.1%), and silicate bound (31.8%); these three forms account for 92% of the total. The organic matter bound-selenium decrease dramatically from bituminous coal (39.0%) to anthracite (11.6%) and to cokeite (0%), indicating that organic matter bound selenium is converted to other forms during metamorphism of the coal, most likely sulfide-form. The sulfide-associated form increased remarkably from bituminous coal (21.1%) to anthracite (50.4%) and cokeite (54.5%), indicating the formation of selenium sulfide, possibly in pyrite during the transformation of bituminous coal to anthracite and cokeite. The silicate-associated selenium in bituminous coal (31.8%) is much higher than that in anthracite (16.4%) and cokeite (15.8%), indicating that silicate-associated selenium is partly converted to sulfide during metamorphism. ?? 2007 Zhang et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  4. Controls on boron and germanium distribution in the low-sulfur Amos coal bed, Western Kentucky coalfield, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hower, J.C.; Ruppert, L.F.; Williams, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    The Duckmantian-aged Amos coal bed is a thin (<51 cm) coal bed that occurs in lobate southwest-trending pods separated by thin sandstones in the Western Kentucky coalfield. The coal bed, which is comprised of up to two benches and a rider coal, is low in ash yield (<6%) and sulfur content (<1%). The coal tends to be thin (<40 cm), but it was heavily mined in the 1980s because it could be combusted as mined. Geochemical analysis of the Amos coal bed shows higher concentrations of B and Ge than other Western Kentucky coal beds. High total B concentrations as well as high B/Be, both considered to be indicators of marine environments, increase toward the top of the coal bed. Most of the B values for the Amos samples range from 66 to 103 ppm (whole coal basis) indicating deposition in a brackish environment. High Ge concentrations in coals have been considered to be a function of seam thickness and proximity to the top and bottom of the coal bed. Thin coals, such as the Amos, are dominated by the coal bed margins and, therefore, have a tendency to have relatively high Ge concentrations. In the case of the Amos coal bed, the lower bench has a higher Ge content, suggesting that the substrate was a more important source of Ge than the roof rock. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Fluids in the Palaeogene Formation of Gaoyou Sag in the Southern Part of North Jiangsu Basin, China: Evidence for Hydrocarbon Migration and Accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LI, M.; Lou, Z.; Zhu, R.; Jin, A.

    2013-12-01

    Gaoyou Sag, lying in the middle of the Dongtai Depression in the North Jiangsu basin, China, has a well developed fault system and is characterised by structurally complicated oil and gas fields. Its oil-water relationship is very complicated. In the present study, we present the distribution of formation water chemistry, crude oil density, formation pressures and fluid potential in the Palaeogene formation of the Gaoyou Sag . The purpose of this article is to: (1) analyse the cause of hydrochemical diversity; (2) identify the flow pattern and evolution; and (3) understand the interplay between the flow of formation water and hydrocarbon migration and accumulation. The results showed that large variances in formation water chemistry occur in different oilfields of the Gaoyou Sag (Figure 1) due to dilution by meteoric water recharge, concentration by membrane filtration and complexity of geological structure. The low salinity (mean values from 8.53 g/L to 9.67 g/L) of the formation water and heavy crude oil density (up to 0.94g/cm3) in the Xuchuang oilfield indicate influence from meteoric water infiltration; the deep depression areas are mainly of connate origin. Geofluids in the Xuchuang, Zhenwu and Yang'an oilfields mainly flow vertically through the Zhenwu and Hanliu faults, while geofluids in the Shanian oilfield mainly migrate laterally through the reservoirs and are adjusted vertically along some cutting faults. Palaeo-hydrodynamic evolution had an affinity with the generation, migration, accumulation and preservation of hydrocarbons. In the depositional stages of the Dainan and Sanduo formations, formation water was expelled outward and upward from lacustrine mudstones of the deep depression into shallow sands of nearby oilfields, driven by compaction and overpressure. Hydrocarbon migrated with formation water and gathered in appropriate traps, forming primary reservoirs. During the Zhenwu and Sanduo movements, there were tectonic uplifts and the strata

  6. SECTIONS T AND S FROM NORTH DRIVE, SHOWING UPRIGHT HEADSTONES. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    SECTIONS T AND S FROM NORTH DRIVE, SHOWING UPRIGHT HEADSTONES. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  7. EAST FRONT AND NORTH SIDE OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. VIEW TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST FRONT AND NORTH SIDE OF ADMINISTRATION BUILDING. VIEW TO SOUTH - Rock Island National Cemetery, Rock Island Arsenal, 0.25 mile north of southern tip of Rock Island, Rock Island, Rock Island County, IL

  8. Preliminary estimate of coal resources in the Gillette coalfield affected by the location of the Burlington Northern/Union Pacific joint mainline railroad

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rohrbacher, Timothy J.; Haacke, Jon E.; Scott, David C.; Osmonson, Lee M.; Luppens, James A.

    2006-01-01

    This publication, primarily in graphic form, presents a preliminary resource assessment related to a major, near-term restriction to mining in that portion of the Gillette coalfield, Wyoming, that is traversed by the Burlington Northern/Union Pacific joint mainline railroad. This assessment is part of a current Powder River Basin regional coal assessment, including both resources and reserves, being conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey. The slides were used to illustrate a presentation of study results at a meeting of the Bureau of Land Management's Regional Coal Team in Casper, Wyoming on April 19, 2006 by the senior author.

  9. A research on coalfield fire detection in Daliuta mining area at Inner Mongolia based on hyperspectral thermal infrared remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guo-fang; Zhou, Jia-jing; Tian, Xin-guang

    2016-10-01

    Daliuta mining coal fires at Inner Mongolia were not reported at present in remote sensing. However, they still pose a serious threat to the surroundings. In order to extract combustion range of the coal mine, we used the wintertime thermal airborne infrared hyperspectral images of TASI acquired in 2016 to detect the coal fire of Daliuta mining. The synchronous in situ measured temperature was used to establish space-to-ground regression equation with the image temperature for retrieving land surface temperature. Extracted coal fire through the reasonable threshold by the processed image data, identified a region where the surface temperatures was -0.5°C to 300°C. MODTRAN4 code was used to estimate the upward and downward radiation and transmission of the atmosphere. On this basis, the non-coal fire anomaly areas, such as the cooling water of power plant, heat buildings, chimney, were separated from the coal fire heat anomaly areas by the characteristic difference of the emissivity spectrum in the objectives. The results show that the bands 1-16 of TASI are suitable for infrared inversion temperature for the coalfield fire. There was a linear relationship between synchronous in situ observation temperature and the image temperature, and the determination coefficient R2 was 0.9938. The extracted coal fire anomaly range is able to provide some decision support for underground coal fire extinguishing. A detailed fire map of shallow coal areas can help to prioritize fire fighting operations in order to avoid the chance of starting a new coal fire.

  10. Changes in Ecosystem Carbon Following Afforestation of Post-Mining Sites- A Case Study from Raniganj Coalfield, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, S.; Maiti, S. K.; Chaudhuri, S.; Ghosh, P.

    2015-12-01

    The concept of changes in ecosystem dynamics of carbon (C) as a function of soil and vegetation developments at post-mining sites is of interest because of its prospective function in mitigating increasing global C-cycle. Forestry reclamation approaches (FRA) for post-mining sites can significantly enhance C storage in minesoils and established species; however the mechanism that not widely assessed to predict changes in ecosystem functions. A chronosequence post-mining sites (2-years, 5-years, 9-years, 15-years and 21-years old reclaimed afforested minesoils at Raniganj Coalfield, India) were investigated to: (i) quantify the amount of soil C accumulating in developing ecosystem; (ii) examine several physiochemical properties and biological processes that govern the rate of C-sequestration; (iii) identify the relationships between C-sequestration and soil properties, and (iv) develop a soil quality index by principal component analysis (PCA). From changes in ecosystem C perspective, although soil organic carbon (Corg) was less in newly developed ecosystem in comparisons to older one (21-years). However, rate of soil C-accumulation was greater (2.6 Mg C ha-1yr-1) in newly formed minesoil ecosystem. The overall microbial indices, dehydrogenase activities (DHA-15.7 µg-1TPF g-1 24 hrs-1); microbial biomass carbon (MBC-368 mg C kg-1); and rates of soil CO2 flux (15 μmol CO2 m-2 s-1) were found highest in older minesoils in comparisons to younger minesoils. PCA showed that three PCs with eigenvalues > 1 explained 74.5% of the total variance in the soil properties. The first PC is mostly characterized by soil nutritional and biological properties; second PC by physical properties and showed a positive correlation with soil C-accumulation and changes in plant species diversity. The present study showed that changes in ecosystem C and nutrients are direct function of enhanced and established forest land use managements.

  11. [Sediment transport characteristics at different erosion stages for non-hardened roads of the Shenfu Coalfield, west China].

    PubMed

    Guo, Ming-ming; Wang, Wen-long; Li, Jian-ming; Huang, Peng-fei; Zhu, Bao-cai; Wang, Zhen; Luo, Ting

    2015-02-01

    Non-hardened roads formed in the production of the Shenfu Coalfield have a unique condition of underlying surface. The road surface is composed of a regolith layer with a certain thickness resulted from long-term rolling and thus, is characterized by weakened anti-scourabilty and anti-erodibility. In contrast, soil layer below the regolith has a higher bulk density and anti-erodibility. The processes of soil erosion on the non-hardened roads exhibit some differences under rainfall condition. The process of sediment transport and the relationship between sediment transport rate and erosion factors at different erosion stages were studied on non-hardened roads with slope degrees ranging from 3° to 12° (3°, 6°, 9°, 12°) by a field experiment under artificial rainfall. Results showed that the first peak of sediment transport on the regolith surface was observed at the sheet erosion stage. Sheet erosion occurred only at 3° slope degree, with an average variation coefficient of 0.07 for sediment transport rate. Rills in every testing began to develop at slope degrees of 6° to 12° about 15 min after runoff initiation. At the sheet erosion stage, the process of sediment transport fluctuated considerably at rainfall intensities of > 1.5 mm · min(-1), but the differences in its variation were little at the three slope degrees, with average variation coefficients of 0.20, 0.19 and 0.16, respectively. Rainfall intensity had a more significant impact on sediment transport rate than slope degree. The process of sediment transport at the rill erosion stage fluctuated, but the fluctuation was obviously smaller than that at the sheet erosion stage, with average variation coefficients of 0.05, 0.09 and 0.10 at the three slope degrees. Many wide and shallow rills evolved at the rill erosion stage. The sediment transport rate could be well predicted by a power function of rainfall intensity and slope degree at the sheet and rill erosion stages. The stable sediment transport

  12. South-to-north pyroxenite-peridotite source variation correlated with an OIB-type to arc-type enrichment of magmas from the Payenia backarc of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (SVZ)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandt, Frederik Ejvang; Holm, Paul Martin; Søager, Nina

    2017-01-01

    New high-precision minor element analysis of the most magnesian olivine cores (Fo85-88) in fifteen high-MgO (Mg#66-74) alkali basalts or trachybasalts from the Quaternary backarc volcanic province, Payenia, of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone in Argentina displays a clear north-to-south decrease in Mn/Feol. This is interpreted as the transition from mainly peridotite-derived melts in the north to mainly pyroxenite-derived melts in the south. The peridotite-pyroxenite source variation correlates with a transition of rock compositions from arc-type to OIB-type trace element signatures, where samples from the central part of the province are intermediate. The southernmost rocks have, e.g., relatively low La/Nb, Th/Nb and Th/La ratios as well as high Nb/U, Ce/Pb, Ba/Th and Eu/Eu* = 1.08. The northern samples are characterized by the opposite and have Eu/Eu* down to 0.86. Several incompatible trace element ratios in the rocks correlate with Mn/Feol and also reflect mixing of two geochemically distinct mantle sources. The peridotite melt end-member carries an arc signature that cannot solely be explained by fluid enrichment since these melts have relatively low Eu/Eu*, Ba/Th and high Th/La ratios, which suggest a component of upper continental crust (UCC) in the metasomatizing agent of the northern mantle. However, the addition to the mantle source of crustal materials or varying oxidation state cannot explain the variation in Mn and Mn/Fe of the melts and olivines along Payenia. Instead, the correlation between Mn/Feol and whole-rock (wr) trace element compositions is evidence of two-component mixing of melts derived from peridotite mantle source enriched by slab fluids and UCC melts and a pyroxenite mantle source with an EM1-type trace element signature. Very low Ca/Fe ratios ( 1.1) in the olivines of the peridotite melt component and lower calculated partition coefficients for Ca in olivine for these samples are suggested to be caused by higher H2O contents in the

  13. Meeting the Challenge in Rural North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barwick, Joseph T.

    2004-01-01

    If the nation's economy over the past 10 years can be described as a roller coaster, North Carolina was riding in the first car. The 1990s offered the promise of North Carolina's moving to the forefront of the nation's prosperity, since it outranked most states on many positive indices and outranked other southern states on most of them. North…

  14. The last glacial-Holocene transition in southern Chile.

    PubMed

    Bennett, K D; Haberle, S G; Lumley, S H

    2000-10-13

    Warming at the last glacial termination in the North Atlantic region was interrupted by a period of renewed glacial activity during the Younger Dryas chronozone (YDC). The underlying mechanism of this cooling remains elusive, but hypotheses turn on whether it was a global or a North Atlantic phenomenon. Chronological, sedimentological, and palaeoecological records from sediments of small lakes in oceanic southern Chile demonstrate that there was no YDC cooling in southern Chile. It is therefore likely that there was little or no cooling in southern Pacific surface waters and hence that YDC cooling in the North Atlantic was a regional, rather than global, phenomenon.

  15. Southern Exposure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schueler, Donald G.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses results of a Green Index, published by the Institute for Southern Studies, that ranks the 50 states on the basis of 256 environmental indicators. Explores how and why the deep South states are all at the bottom of the list. A vignette provides a comparison between state hazardous waste generation and spending on waste management. (MCO)

  16. Abandoned mine drainage in the Swatara Creek Basin, southern anthracite coalfield, Pennsylvania, USA: 1. stream quality trends coinciding with the return of fish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cravotta, Charles A.; Brightbill, Robin A.; Langland, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Acidic mine drainage (AMD) from legacy anthracite mines has contaminated Swatara Creek in eastern Pennsylvania. Intermittently collected base-flow data for 1959–1986 indicate that fish were absent immediately downstream from the mined area where pH ranged from 3.5 to 7.2 and concentrations of sulfate, dissolved iron, and dissolved aluminum were as high as 250, 2.0, and 4.7 mg/L, respectively. However, in the 1990s, fish returned to upper Swatara Creek, coinciding with the implementation of AMD treatment (limestone drains, limestone diversion wells, limestone sand, constructed wetlands) in the watershed. During 1996–2006, as many as 25 species of fish were identified in the reach downstream from the mined area, with base-flow pH from 5.8 to 7.6 and concentrations of sulfate, dissolved iron, and dissolved aluminum as high as 120, 1.2, and 0.43 mg/L, respectively. Several of the fish taxa are intolerant of pollution and low pH, such as river chub (Nocomis icropogon) and longnose dace (Rhinichthys cataractae). Cold-water species such as brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and warm-water species such as rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris) varied in predominance depending on stream flow and stream temperature. Storm flow data for 1996–2007 indicated pH, alkalinity, and sulfate concentrations decreased as the stream flow and associated storm-runoff component increased, whereas iron and other metal concentrations were poorly correlated with stream flow because of hysteresis effects (greater metal concentrations during rising stage than falling stage). Prior to 1999, pH\\5.0 was recorded during several storm events; however, since the implementation of AMD treatments, pH has been maintained near neutral. Flow-adjusted trends for1997–2006 indicated significant increases in calcium; decreases in hydrogen ion, dissolved aluminum, dissolved and total manganese, and total iron; and no change in sulfate or dissolved iron in Swatara Creek immediately downstream from the mined area. The increased pH and calcium from limestone in treatment systems can be important for mitigating toxic effects of dissolved metals. Thus, treatment of AMD during the 1990s improved pH buffering, reduced metals transport, and helped to decrease metals toxicity to fish.

  17. Mineralogy and geochemistry of a Late Permian coal in the Dafang Coalfield, Guizhou, China: Influence from siliceous and iron-rich calcic hydrothermal fluids

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dai, S.; Chou, C.-L.; Yue, M.; Luo, K.; Ren, D.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the influence of siliceous and iron-rich calcic low-temperature hydrothermal fluids (LTHF) on the mineralogy and geochemistry of the Late Permian No. 11 Coal (anthracitic, Rr =2.85%) in the Dafang Coalfield in northwestern Guizhou Province, China. The No. 11 Coal has high contents of vein ankerite (10.2 vol.%) and vein quartz (11.4 vol.%), with formation temperatures of 85 and 180 ??C, respectively, indicating that vein ankerite and vein quartz were derived from low-temperature calcic and siliceous hydrothermal fluids in two epigenetic episodes. The vein quartz appears to have formed earlier than vein ankerite did, and at least three distinct stages of ankerite formation with different Ca/Sr and Fe/Mn ratios were observed. The two types of mineral veins are sources of different suites of major and trace metals. Scanning electron microscope and sequential extraction studies show that, in addition to Fe, Mg, and Ca, vein ankerite is the dominant source of Mn, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in the coal, and the contents of these five elements are as high as 0.09% and 74.0, 33.6, 185, and 289 ??g/g, respectively. In contrast, vein quartz is the main carrier mineral for platinum-group elements (PGEs) Pd, Pt, and Ir in the coal, and the contents of Pd, Pt, and Ir are 1.57, 0.15, and 0.007 ??g/g, respectively. Sequential extraction showed a high PGE content in the silicate fraction, up to 10.4 ??g/g Pd, 1.23 ??g/g Pt, and 0.05 ??g/g Ir, respectively. It is concluded that the formation of ankerite and quartz and the anomalous enrichment of trace elements in the No. 11 Coal in the Dafang Coalfield, Guizhou, result from the influx of calcic and siliceous low-temperature hydrothermal fluids. ?? 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental Study of High-Temperature Fracture Propagation in Anthracite and Destruction of Mudstone from Coalfield Using High-Resolution Microfocus X-ray Computed Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Yang; Lu, Jun-Hui; Wang, Cai-Ping; Deng, Jun

    2016-09-01

    The coalfield fire is determined by fractures of coal and rock that provide tunnel for gases and heat exchange. To study fracture propagation at high temperatures, high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (CT) was used to scan anthracite and mudstone samples collected from the Qinshui coalfield, Shanxi Province, northern China. The samples were scanned at 100 °C intervals as they were subjected to temperatures of up to 500 °C. Three-dimensional images were reconstructed by the CT software to analyze changes in the fractures and pores in the samples. The experimental results show that fracturing of anthracite began at 200 °C. The generation rate of fractures in the coal samples increases slowly below 300 °C, but above 300 °C there is a sharp increase in fracture development. This indicates that the thermal fracturing temperature threshold for anthracite is 300 °C. During the experiment, it was found that preexisting fractures, voids, and regenerative fractures formed around the hard portions of anthracite particles or along the weak boundaries between particles. Some regenerative fractures developed along the fabric of the relatively crystalline particles within the particle and terminate at the edge of the particle or where the fracture encounters a harder portion of coal. Some fractures even expanded enough to be transformed into voids as temperatures rose. In the mudstone, the porosity changed suddenly at 300 °C. This indicated that there was a void generated at 200 °C, but the void expanded when the temperature was increased. However, changes in the void were not obvious from 200 to 300 °C.

  19. Mineralogy and geochemistry of boehmite-rich coals: New insights from the Haerwusu Surface Mine, Jungar Coalfield, Inner Mongolia, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dai, S.; Li, D.; Chou, C.-L.; Zhao, L.; Zhang, Y.; Ren, D.; Ma, Y.; Sun, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Boehmite-rich coal of Pennsylvanian age was discovered earlier at the Heidaigou Surface Mine, Jungar Coalfield, Inner Mongolia, China. This paper reports new results on 29 bench samples of the no. 6 coal from a drill core from the adjacent Haerwusu Surface Mine, and provides new insights into the origin of the minerals and elements present. The results show that the proportion of inertinite in the no. 6 coal is higher than in other Late Paleozoic coals in northern China. Based on mineral proportions (boehmite to kaolinite ratio) and major element concentrations in the coal benches of the drill core, the no. 6 coal may be divided into five sections (I to V). Major minerals in Sections I and V are kaolinite. Sections II and IV are mainly kaolinite with a trace of boehmite, and Section III is high in boehmite. The boehmite is derived from bauxite in the weathered surface (Benxi Formation) in the sediment-source region. The no. 6 coal is rich in Al2O3 (8.89%), TiO2 (0.47%), Li (116????g/g), F (286????g/g), Ga (18????g/g), Se (6.1????g/g), Sr (350????g/g), Zr (268????g/g), REEs (172????g/g), Pb (30????g/g), and Th (17????g/g). The elements are classified into five associations by cluster analysis, i.e. Groups A, B, C, D, and E. Group A (ash-SiO2-Al2O3-Na2O-Li) and Group B (REE-Sc-In-Y-K2O-Rb-Zr-Hf-Cs-U-P2O5-Sr-Ba-Ge) are strongly correlated with ash yield and mainly have an inorganic affinity. The elements that are negatively or less strongly correlated with ash yield (with exceptions of Fe2O3, Be, V, and Ni) are grouped in the remaining three associations: Group C, Se-Pb-Hg-Th-TiO2-Bi-Nb-Ta-Cd-Sn; Group D, Co-Mo-Tl-Be-Ni-Sb-MgO-Re-Ga-W-Zn-V-Cr-F-Cu; and Group E, S-As-CaO-MnO-Fe2O3. Aluminum is mainly distributed in boehmite, followed by kaolinite. The high correlation coefficients of the Li-ash, Li-Al2O3, and Li-SiO2 pairs indicate that Li is related to the aluminosilicates in the coal. The boehmite-rich coal is high in gallium and F, which occur in boehmite and the

  20. Applications of molecular analysis for the study of early land plant evolution during the upper Silurian - Lower Devonian: borehole M.G.1, Ghadamis Basin, southern Tunisia, North Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, M. F.; Vecoli, M.; Riboulleau, A.; Versteegh, G.

    2009-04-01

    in the palynofacies of all sampling levels. REFERENCES [1]Spina, A., Vecoli, M., 2008. Palynostratigraphy and miospore biodiversity dynamics across the Silurian-Devonian boundary in North Africa (Ghadamis Basin, southern Tunisia). Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol. 10, EGU2008-A-09147. [2]Grice, K., Backhouse, J., Alexander, R., Marshall, N., Logan, G., 2005. Correlating terrestrial signatures from biomarker distributions, 13C, and palynology in fluvio-deltaic deposits from NW Australia (Triassic - Jurassic). Organic Geochemistry 36, 1347 - 1358. [3]Ellis, L., Singh, R., Alexander, R., Kagi, R., 1996. Formation of isohexyl alkylaromatic hydrocarbons from aromatization-rearrangement of terpenoids in the sedimentary environment: A new class of biomarker. Geochimica and Cosmochimica Acta. Vol. 60, No. 23. 4747 - 4763. [4]Van Aarssen, B., Alexander, R., Kagi, R., 2000. Higher plant biomarkers reflect palaeovegetation changes during Jurassic times. Geochimica and Cosmochimica Acta. Vol. 64, No. 8. 1417 - 1424. [5]Wen, Z., Ruiyong, W., Radke, M., Qingyu, W., Guoying, S., Zhili, L., 2000. Retene in pyrolysates of algal and bacterial organic matter. Organic Geochemistry 31, 757 - 762.

  1. 5. SOUTHERN END OF INTERIOR OF STEEL FRAMEWORK TRAIN SHED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. SOUTHERN END OF INTERIOR OF STEEL FRAMEWORK TRAIN SHED LOOKING SE TO CAVED IN SHED, CENTER, AND BRICK AND STEEL SHED. - Western Railway of Alabama Montgomery Rail Shops, 701 North Perry Street, Montgomery, Montgomery County, AL

  2. 8. Detail of underside of bridge deck, from the southern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail of underside of bridge deck, from the southern end looking toward north-northwest. - Bridge No. 4800, Spanning Minnesota River on Trunk Highway 4 between Brown & Nicollet Counties, Sleepy Eye, Brown County, MN

  3. 30. Bronze plaque located on southern inner wall at east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Bronze plaque located on southern inner wall at east end of south pier taken looking southeast - Duluth Ship Canal, South Pier, North end of Minnesota Point & Canal Park, Duluth, St. Louis County, MN

  4. View along alignment of former Southern Pacific Railroad right of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View along alignment of former Southern Pacific Railroad right of way; note collision walls, provision for two tracks; view to north-northeast; 90mm lens - Carroll Overhead Bridge, Altamont Pass Road, Livermore, Alameda County, CA

  5. 76 FR 78335 - North Carolina & Virginia Railroad Company, LLC, Chesapeake & Albemarle Railroad Division-Lease...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... Surface Transportation Board North Carolina & Virginia Railroad Company, LLC, Chesapeake & Albemarle Railroad Division--Lease Amendment Exemption--Norfolk Southern Railway Company North Carolina & Virginia Railroad, LLC, Chesapeake & Albemarle Railroad Division (NCVR), a Class III carrier, has filed a...

  6. Southern Bald Eagles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    This is one in a series of remarkable photos documenting the daily lives of two of KSC's most famous residents: The Southern Bald Eagles which inhabit an enormous nest on the Kennedy Parkway North. Each fall, the eagles take up winter residence in the nest to breed and raise a new generation. Thanks to a remote-controlled Nikon camera installed yearly in the same pine tree as the nest, the activities of these magnificent birds are recorded on film. This year, a rare and unique event was captured by the camera when a second clutch of eggs was laid, even though a healthy eaglet was born a month earlier. Although it is impossible to determine if it is the same eagles returning each year, the continued tolerance shown by this pair to the human presence seems to indicate that they are the same couple. According to wildlife experts, eight to nine pairs of bald eagles inhabit nests at KSC. The nest on Kennedy Parkway North is particularly well-known because of its huge size and close proximity to a busy road.

  7. 77 FR 64959 - Endangered and Threatened Species; Initiation of 5-Year Review for the Southern Distinct...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ...; Initiation of 5-Year Review for the Southern Distinct Population Segment of North American Green Sturgeon... 5-year review of the Southern Distinct Population Segment (DPS) of North American green sturgeon... of requested information include: (1) Species biology including, but not limited to,...

  8. Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.C.C.; Johnston, A.C.; Chiu, J.M.

    1994-08-01

    The seismic activity in the southern Appalachian area was monitored by the Southern Appalachian Regional Seismic Network (SARSN) since late 1979 by the Center for Earthquake Research and Information (CERI) at Memphis State University. This network provides good spatial coverage for earthquake locations especially in east Tennessee. The level of activity concentrates more heavily in the Valley and Ridge province of eastern Tennessee, as opposed to the Blue Ridge or Inner Piedmont. The large majority of these events lie between New York - Alabama lineament and the Clingman/Ocoee lineament, magnetic anomalies produced by deep-seated basement structures. Therefore SARSN, even with its wide station spacing, has been able to define the essential first-order seismological characteristics of the Southern Appalachian seismic zone. The focal depths of the southeastern U.S. earthquakes concentrate between 8 and 16 km, occurring principally beneath the Appalachian overthrust. In cross-sectional views, the average seismicity is shallower to the east beneath the Blue Ridge and Piedmont provinces and deeper to the west beneath the Valley and Ridge and the North American craton. Results of recent focal mechanism studies by using the CERI digital earthquake catalog between October, 1986 and December, 1991, indicate that the basement of the Valley and Ridge province is under a horizontal, NE-SW compressive stress. Right-lateral strike-slip faulting on nearly north-south fault planes is preferred because it agrees with the trend of the regional magnetic anomaly pattern.

  9. A high-pyrite semianthracite of Late Permian age in the Songzao Coalfield, southwestern China: Mineralogical and geochemical relations with underlying mafic tuffs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dai, S.; Wang, X.; Chen, W.; Li, D.; Chou, C.-L.; Zhou, Y.; Zhu, Chen; Li, H.; Zhu, Xudong; Xing, Y.; Zhang, W.; Zou, J.

    2010-01-01

    The No. 12 Coal (Late Permian) in the Songzao Coalfield, Chongqing, southwestern China, is characteristically high in pyrite and some trace elements. It is uniquely deposited directly above mafic tuff beds. Samples of coal and tuffs have been studied for their mineralogy and geochemistry using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, X-ray fluorescence, plasma low-temperature ashing plus powder X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray analysis.The results show that the minerals of the No. 12 Coal are mainly composed of pyrite, clay minerals (kaolinite, chamosite, and illite), ankerite, calcite, and trace amounts of quartz and boehmite. Kaolinite and boehmite were mainly derived from sediment source region of mafic tuffs. Chamosite was formed by the reaction of kaolinite with Fe-Mg-rich fluids during early diagenesis. The high pyrite (Sp,d=8.83%) in the coal was related to marine transgression over peat deposits and abundant Fe derived from the underlying mafic tuff bed. Ankerite and calcite were precipitated from epigenetic fluids.Chemical compositions of incompatible elements indicate that the tuffs were derived from enriched mantle and the source magmas had an alkali-basalt character. Compared to other coals from the Songzao Coalfield and common Chinese coals, the No. 12 Coal has a lower SiO2/Al2O3 (1.13) but a higher Al2O3/Na2O (80.1) value and is significantly enriched in trace elements including Sc (13.5??g/g), V (121??g/g), Cr (33.6??g/g), Co (27.2??g/g), Ni (83.5??g/g), Cu (48.5??g/g), Ga (17.3??g/g), Y (68.3??g/g), Zr (444??g/g), Nb (23.8??g/g), and REE (392??g/g on average). Above mineralogical compositions, as well as similar ratios of selected elements (e.g., SiO2/Al2O3 and Al2O3/Na2O) and similar distribution patterns of incompatible elements (e.g., the mantle-normalized diagram for incompatible elements and chondrite-normalized diagram for rare earth elements) of coal and tuff, indicated that

  10. The geochemistry of environmentally important trace elements in UK coals, with special reference to the Parkgate coal in the Yorkshire-Nottinghamshire Coalfield, UK

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Spears, D.A.; Tewalt, S.J.

    2009-01-01

    The Parkgate coal of Langsettian age in the Yorkshire-Nottinghamshire coalfield is typical of many coals in the UK in that it has a high sulphur (S) content. Detailed information on the distribution of the forms of S, both laterally and vertically through the seam, was known from previous investigations. In the present work, 38 interval samples from five measured sections of the coal were comprehensively analysed for major, minor and trace elements and the significance of the relationships established using both raw and centered log transformed data. The major elements are used to quantify the variations in the inorganic and organic coal components and determine the trace element associations. Pyrite contains nearly all of the Hg, As, Se, Tl and Pb and is also the major source of the Mo, Ni, Cd and Sb. The clays contain the following elements in decreasing order of association: Rb, Cs, Li, Ga, U, Cr, V, Sc, Y, Bi, Cu, Nb, Sn, Te and Th. Nearly all of the Rb is present in the clay fraction, whereas for elements such as V, Cu and U, a significant amount is thought to be present in the organic matter, based on the K vs trace element regression equations. Only Ge, and possibly Be, would appear to have a dominant organic source. The trace element concentrations are calculated for pyrite, the clay fraction and organic matter. For pyrite it is noted that concentrations agree with published data from the Yorkshire-Nottinghamshire coalfield and also that Tl concentrations (median of 0.33 ppm) in the pyrite are greater than either Hg or Cd. Unlike these elements, Tl has attracted less attention and possibly more information is needed on its anthropogenic distribution and impacts on man and the environment. A seawater source is thought to be responsible for the high concentrations of S, Cl and the non-detrital trace elements in the Parkgate coal. Indicative of the seawater control is the Th/U ratio, which expresses the detrital to non-detrital element contributions. Using

  11. Mineralogy and geochemistry of a superhigh-organic-sulfur coal, Yanshan Coalfield, Yunnan, China: Evidence for a volcanic ash component and influence by submarine exhalation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dai, S.; Ren, D.; Zhou, Y.; Chou, C.-L.; Wang, X.; Zhao, L.; Zhu, Xudong

    2008-01-01

    The mineralogy and geochemistry of a superhigh-organic-sulfur (SHOS) coal of Late Permian age from the Yanshan Coalfield, Yunnan Province, southwestern China, have been studied using optical microscope, low-temperature ashing plus X-ray diffraction analysis, scanning electron microscope equipped with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer, a sequential chemical extraction procedure, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The M9 Coal from the Yanshan Coalfield is a SHOS coal that has a total sulfur content of 10.12%-11.30% and an organic sulfur content of 8.77%-10.30%. The minerals in the coal consist mainly of high-temperature quartz, sanidine, albite, muscovite, illite, pyrite, and trace amounts of kaolinite, plagioclase, akermanite, rutile, and dawsonite. As compared with ordinary worldwide (bituminous coals and anthracite) and Chinese coals, the M9 Coal is remarkably enriched in B (268????g/g), F (841????g/g), V (567????g/g), Cr (329????g/g), Ni (73.9????g/g), Mo (204????g/g), and U (153????g/g). In addition, elements including Se (25.2????g/g), Zr (262????g/g), Nb (20.1????g/g), Cd (2.07????g/g), and Tl (2.03????g/g) are also enriched in the coal. Occurrence of high-temperature quartz, sanidine, muscovite, and illite in the M9 Coal is evidence that there is a volcanic ash component in the coal that was derived from acid volcanic ashes fallen into the swamp during peat accumulation. Occurrence of albite and dawsonite in the coal and strong enrichment of some elements, including F, S, V, Cr, Ni, Mo and U, are attributed to the influence by submarine exhalation which invaded along with seawater into the anoxic peat swamp. Abundances of lithophile elements, including rare earth elements, Nb, Y, Zr, and TiO2, indicate that the silicate minerals in the coal were derived from the northern Vietnam Upland to the south of the basin. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Highlighting the Impacts of North-South Research Collaboration among Canadian and Southern Higher Education Partners (Principaux impacts des collaborations de recherche Nord-Sud entre les partenaires des etablissements d'enseignement superieur du Canada et du Sud)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada (AUCC) felt it was timely to create an academic forum in which university researchers have the opportunity to engage with their peers and relevant stakeholders and document the impacts of their North-South research collaboration in a peer-reviewed publication. The Association achieved this by…

  13. Defrosting North

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    15 June 2004 Spring is upon the martian northern hemisphere, and the north polar cap is shrinking. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image, acquired on 12 June 2004, shows the retreating edge of the seasonal north polar cap near 70oN, 209oW. Low clouds and fogs stream away from the cap edge as it sublimes away. North is approximately up and the image covers an area roughly 500 km (311 mi) across. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the lower left. The crater containing a thick mound of material near the right-center of the image is Korolev.

  14. 21. VIEW NORTH FROM SAFETY PLATFORM AT FIRST GATE ON ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. VIEW NORTH FROM SAFETY PLATFORM AT FIRST GATE ON SOUTHERN FIXED SPAN, FENDER SYSTEM ON EAST SIDE OF BRIDGE - Tipers Bridge, Spanning Great Wicomico River at State Route 200, Kilmarnock, Lancaster County, VA

  15. GENERAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM BEE HIVE COKE OVEN SITE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM BEE HIVE COKE OVEN SITE. - Pratt Coal & Coke Company, Pratt Mines, Tailings Pile, Bounded by First Street, Avenue G, Third Place, Birmingham Southern Railroad, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  16. GENERAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM COKE OVEN SITE, HEIGHT C. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    GENERAL OVERVIEW, LOOKING NORTH FROM COKE OVEN SITE, HEIGHT C. 20 FEET. - Pratt Coal & Coke Company, Pratt Mines, Tailings Pile, Bounded by First Street, Avenue G, Third Place, Birmingham Southern Railroad, Birmingham, Jefferson County, AL

  17. 1. WEST SIDE, NORTH END OF BUILDING 1. SHOWS ADDITIONAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. WEST SIDE, NORTH END OF BUILDING 1. SHOWS ADDITIONAL ANGLES IN BUILDING AT SOUTHERN END. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  18. 11. NORTH VIEW OF INNER FACING OF SOUTHEASTERN LEG OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. NORTH VIEW OF INNER FACING OF SOUTHEASTERN LEG OF SEA WALL. SOUTHERN END OF NORTHEASTERN LEG OF SEA WALL IN BACKGROUND. - Fort Delaware, Sea Wall, Pea Patch Island, Delaware City, New Castle County, DE

  19. VIEW NORTH OF AUSTRALIAN PINES THAT LINE SUNNY JIM LANE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW NORTH OF AUSTRALIAN PINES THAT LINE SUNNY JIM LANE FROM SOUTHERN MOST BARN TO THE STABLE GATE. BARNS LINE LEFT SIDE OF LANE: CD-N. - Hialeah Park Race Track, East Fourth Avenue, Hialeah, Miami-Dade County, FL

  20. Detail of metal canopy on north elevation of loading dock, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of metal canopy on north elevation of loading dock, looking west - Southern Pacific Railroad Depot, Railroad Terminal Post Office & Express Building, Fifth & I Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  1. 6. Keeper's house, view southwest, east and north sides ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Keeper's house, view southwest, east and north sides - Great Duck Island Light Station, At southern tip of Great Duck Island southeast of Bass Harbor & northeast of Frenchboro, Frenchboro, Hancock County, ME

  2. 4. Light tower, view southeast, north and west sides ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Light tower, view southeast, north and west sides - Great Duck Island Light Station, At southern tip of Great Duck Island southeast of Bass Harbor & northeast of Frenchboro, Frenchboro, Hancock County, ME

  3. 20. An elevation view of the north side of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. An elevation view of the north side of the southern portion of the upper grain conveyor system on Elevator and Silo Complex B (1932). - Quaker Oats Cereal Factory, Southeast corner of Broadway & Mill Streets, Akron, Summit County, OH

  4. Southern Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03026 Southern Clouds

    This image shows a system of clouds just off the margin of the South Polar cap. Taken during the summer season, these clouds contain both water-ice and dust.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 80.2S, Longitude 57.6E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  5. Southern Spots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Context image for PIA03092 Southern Spots

    This VIS image of the south polar region was collected during the summer season. The markings of the pole are very diverse and easy to see after the winter frost has been removed.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 79.7S, Longitude 56.6E. 17 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  6. Models of pure CO2 and pure CH4 adsorption on the late paleozoic coals from the Kailuan Coalfield, Hebei, China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dai, S.; Zhang, B.; Peng, S.; Zhang, X.; Chou, C.

    2009-01-01

    Isothermal adsorption experiments of pure CO2 and CH4 on different coals in rank (the No. 11 Coal from the Linnancang Mine and the No. 9 Coal from the Majiagou Mine) from the Kailuan Coalfield of Hebei Province, China, have been studied. Four different models (Langmuir, BET, D-R, and D-A) were used to fit the experimental data of CO2 and CH4 adsorption and their fitting degree were investigated. The results showed that the adsorption capacity of the Majiagou coal(Ro, ran = 1. 21%) is higher than that of the Linnancang coal (Ro, ran = 0. 58%). The adsorption capacity of CO2 is higher than that of CH4 on the same coal under the same pressure. The adsorption isotherms of pure CO 2 and pure CH4 on the Majiagou coal can be classified as Type I and their fitting errors of curves are very weak; thus the experimental data can be presented using the Langmuir isotherm. However, the adsorption of Linnancang coal is more complicated, and can be presented using D-A model because of its minimum error. Monolayer adsorption occurs during the adsorption of pure CO2 and pure CH4 on the No. 11 Coal and that of pure CH4 on the No. 9 Coal.

  7. Identification of possible sources of atmospheric PM10 using particle size, SEM-EDS and XRD analysis, Jharia Coalfield Dhanbad, India.

    PubMed

    Roy, Debananda; Singh, Gurdeep; Gosai, Nitin

    2015-11-01

    Identification of responsible sources of pollution using physical parameter particulate matter (PM)10 in a critically polluted area is discussed in this paper. Database was generated by Ambient Air Quality Monitoring (AAQM) with respect to PM10 and PM2.5 in 18 monitoring stations at Jharia coalfield as per the siting criteria (IS: 5182, Part XIV) during 2011 to 2012. Identification of the probable sources of PM10 was carried out through particle size, shape, morphology analysis (scanning electron microscopy (SEM)), suitable compounds (X-ray diffraction (XRD)) and elements (energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS)). Monitoring stations nearby opencast mine were affected by the big-sized and irregular-shaped particles; on the other hand, monitoring stations nearby city were affected by the small-sized and regular-shaped particles. In a city area, additional sources like diesel generator (DG) set, construction activities, coal burning, etc., were identified. Blistering effects were also observed in the particles from mine fire-affected areas. Using the X-ray diffraction technique, presence of FeS2, CuO, FeSO4 and CuSO4 compounds was observed, which indicates the effects of mine fire on particulate emission due to presence of SO4(2-) and S2- ions.

  8. Detrital modes of the Pyeongan Supergroup (Late Carboniferous Early Triassic) sandstones in the Samcheog coalfield, Korea: implications for provenance and tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Yong Il; Sheen, Dong-Hee

    1998-08-01

    Medium to coarse sandstones of the Carboniferous to Early Triassic Pyeongan Supergroup in the Samcheog coalfield, Korea, were studied to infer the provenance and tectonic settings of the source areas. Sandstone detrital modes change upwards stratigraphically. Sandstone types from the Manhang to Dosagog formations low to middle in the sequence are quartzarenite, and sublitharenite to litharenite, whereas sandstones of the Gohan and Donggo formations high in the sequence are feldspathic litharenite and arkose, respectively. Using various ternary diagrams, the provenance of the Manhang to Gohan formations is suggested to be a recycled orogen setting. Some Gohan Formation sandstones plot within the arc-related setting field, and the Donggo Formation sandstones plot within both continental block and recycled orogen fields. Results of quartz grain petrography are consistent with those of detrital modes. Quartz in sandstones of all units except the Donggo Formation indicates derivation from low-rank metamorphic sources. Quartz in Donggo sandstones was derived from medium- to high-rank metamorphic and plutonic source rocks. Considering the sandstone composition and palaeocurrent data, the Pyeongan Supergroup probably was deposited in a molasse foreland basin and was derived from a synbasinal orogenic belt, probably the Akiyoshi orogen located in southwest Japan.

  9. FTIR and py-GC-MS spectra of true-fern and seed-fern sphenopterids (Sydney Coalfield, Nova Scotia, Canada, Pennsylvanian)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zodrow, E.L.; Mastalerz, Maria

    2002-01-01

    Sphenopterid specimens from the Late Pennsylvanian of Sydney Coalfield, Canada, are investigated by FTIR and py-GC-MS techniques as part of an on-going research project into the biochemistry and chemotaxonomy of Pennsylvanian-age pteridophylls. Included in the investigation are samples of the true-fern species Oligocarpia brongniartii and Zeilleria delicatula that are preserved as naturally macerated cuticles (NMC), and the seed-fern Eusphenopteris neuropteroides that is also preserved as a compression/impression. FTIR spectra of NMC seed-fern E. neuropteroides, and fern sphenopterid O. brongniartii are very similar, except that the latter does not have aromatic bands in the 700-900 cm-1 out-of-plane region, py-GC-MS show more aromatic compounds for the seed fern than for the two true-fern sphenopterids. Another difference between seed-fern and true-fern sphenopterids is a lower ratio of CH2 to CH3 in chemically treated specimens (CTC) for the seed fern. These observations suggest slightly higher aromaticity for the seed ferns, perhaps related to some chemotaxonomic differences. Comparison of FTIR and py-GC-MS characteristics of sphenopterids and other plant groups shows that these two techniques have potential to identifying chemotaxonomic signals from Carboniferous pteridophylls in general, although more data are needed to confirm this. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Mobility behavior and environmental implications of trace elements associated with coal gangue: a case study at the Huainan Coalfield in China.

    PubMed

    Chuncai, Zhou; Guijian, Liu; Dun, Wu; Ting, Fang; Ruwei, Wang; Xiang, Fan

    2014-01-01

    The potential environmental hazards posed by trace elements have assumed serious proportions due to their toxicity, bioavailability and geochemical behavior. The toxicity and mobility of trace elements in coal gangue is dependent on the elements' chemical properties, therefore, the quantification of the different forms of trace elements is more significant than the estimation of their total concentrations. In this study, the mobility behavior of trace elements in coal gangue from the Huainan Coalfield was studied to evaluate the potential eco-toxicity of the trace elements. Sequential extraction was employed to analyze the fractionation behavior of trace elements in coal gangue. The selected trace elements (As, Co, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Se, Sn, V and Zn) are predominantly found in silicate-bound, sulfide-bound and carbonate-bound fractions. The correlation of the element concentration with ash yield, aluminum, calcium and iron-sulfur indicates that As, Co, Cu, Ni, Se and Zn in coal gangue are mainly associated with sulfide minerals, which could release from coal gangue easily and can disperse into the environment as a result of long-term natural weathering. The Risk Assessment Code reveals that the trace elements (Mn, Cr, Se, Ni, Zn, As and Cu) can pose serious environmental risks to the ecosystem. The fractionation profiles of other elements (Co, Sn and V) indicate no risk or low risk to the environment.

  11. Chemical forms of heavy metals in agricultural soils affected by coal mining in the Linhuan subsidence of Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui Province, China.

    PubMed

    Shang, Wenqin; Tang, Quan; Zheng, Liugen; Cheng, Hua

    2016-12-01

    Total concentrations of heavy metals in soils may not be enough to understand their mobility and bioavailability. It is important to evaluate the degree of association of heavy metals with different chemical forms of soil. The sequential extraction method was applied to evaluate the mobile behavior of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn in 42 representative soil samples from the Linhuan subsidence of Huaibei Coalfield, Anhui Province, China. The results showed that mean concentrations of heavy metals were higher than background values of Huaibei City surface soil by a factor of 1.16 to 3.21 (Cd, 3.21; Cr, 1.19; Cu, 1.16; Ni, 1.23; Zn, 1.85) except Pb (0.89). Most of the total Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were present in the residual forms (above 70 %), while Cd was dominated by the exchangeable forms (42 %). The correlations analysis showed that the mobility of Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn in soil was affected by both physicochemical properties and total metal concentrations. In contrast, the moblity of Cr and Ni of soil was mainly affected by their total metal concentrations. According to assessments by the potential ecological risk index (RI) and the risk assessment code (RAC), Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn posed no or low risk. However, Cd presents high to very high risk, due to its higher exchangeable and carbonate-bound fractions.

  12. Southern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    South-central Australia is home to several deserts, including the Simpson Desert, whose reddish-orange sands are seen in the upper left quadrant of this Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from July 1, 2002. Several impermanent, salty, lakes stand whitely out against the arid terrain. The largest is North Lake Eyre, southwest of center. At bottom center, Spencer Gulf separates the triangular Eyre Peninsula from the Yorke Peninsula. The Gulf of St. Vincent separates Yorke Peninsula from the mainland. In Spencer Gulf, colorful blue-green swirls indicate the presence of a bloom of marine plants called phytoplankton, whose brightly colored photosynthetic pigments stain the water. Water quality in the Gulf is an ongoing problem for Australia, as irrigation projects have diverted the already small flow of freshwater that empties into the Gulf. Other problems include contamination with pesticides and agricultural and residential fertilizer. On both the Eyre Peninsula and in the Victoria Territory to the east of Spencer Gulf, dark-colored rectangles show the boundaries of parks and nature preserves where the natural, drought-tolerant vegetation thrives.

  13. A Cross Generational Dialect Study in Western North Carolina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Yolanda Feimster

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation evaluates the relationship between African American English and White Vernacular English as spoken in a small rural town in western North Carolina for consistencies in vowel production by group membership and for participation in the Southern Vowel Shift (SVS), a vowel rotation currently occurring in the Southern United States. A…

  14. Communication beyond the Classroom. Dimension 2010. Selected Proceedings of the 2010 Joint Conference of the Southern Conference on Language Teaching, the Foreign Language Association of North Carolina, the North Carolina Chapter of AATSP, and the National Network of Early Language Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, C. Maurice, Ed.; Wilkerson, Carol, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    "Dimension" is the annual volume containing the selected, refereed, edited Proceedings of each year's conference. "Communication Beyond the Classroom" was the announced theme of the annual conference of the Southern Conference on Language Teaching (SCOLT), held April 15-17, 2010, at the Winston-Salem Marriott in Winston-Salem,…

  15. Petrology and chemistry of Permian coals from the Paraná Basin: 1. Santa Terezinha, Leão-Butiá and Candiota Coalfields, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kalkreuth, W.; Holz, M.; Kern, M.; Machado, G.; Mexias, A.; Silva, M.B.; Willett, J.; Finkelman, R.; Burger, H.

    2006-01-01

    Hierarchical cluster analysis identified three groups of major minerals and seven groups of trace elements based on similarity levels. On a regional scale, the coalfields can be separated by the differences in rank (Candiota and Leão-Butiá versus Santa Terezinha) and by applying discriminant analysis based on 4 trace elements (Li, As, Sr, Sb). Highest Rb and Sr values occur at Candiota and are linked to syngenetic volcanism of the area, whereas high Y and Sr values at Santa Terezinha can be related to the frequent diabase intrusions in that area.

  16. 84. INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH ENTRANCE, NORTH LOBBY, NORTH WALL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    84. INTERIOR, SECOND FLOOR, NORTH ENTRANCE, NORTH LOBBY, NORTH WALL, BRONZE DOUBLE DOORS (4' x 5' negative; 8' x 10' print) - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  17. Study on the origin of kaolin tonsteins in North China and its processing technology

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaojie; Liu Qinfu; Li Qijun

    1998-12-31

    Kaolin Tonstein, occurring in Permo-Carboniferous Coal measures in North China, is a kind of kaolinitic clay material, which is different from that in Germany, France, Russia, US. and other European-American Countries, featuring thick-bedded, wide-spread and good quality coal. The thickness of kaolin tonsteins in North China is 70 cm or so, but that in the above-mentioned countries only 3 cm. From Hunjiang County, Jilin Province to Handan County, Gansu Province, from Huainan and Huaibei coal field to Inner Mongolia coalfield, kaolin tonstein deposits are scattered over vast areas on the North China Platform with great proved reserves of 1.6 billion tons. It is of great interest and high significance to study the mineralization mechanism of kaolin tonsteins for its processing and utilization. By means of mineralogy, petrology, geochemistry and organic chemistry, the origin of kaolin tonsteins has been systematically deliberated and the origin model of it has been proposed. On the basis of this, the processing technology of kaolin tonsteins has been put forward, which has been successfully employed in China.

  18. North Island, New Zealand under heavy Cloud Cover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    North Island, New Zealand (37.0S, 179.0E) is in the foreground (obscured partially by clouds). The disorganized cloud mass to the north is thought to be associated with a tropical wave, in the early stages of formation and embedded in the southern equuatorial trough.

  19. Ethnic-Nationalism in North America: Some Comparative Features.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, John F.

    In the past two decades there has been an upsurge in ethnic nationalism not only in the recently decolonized world, but also in many of the industrialized countries of Europe and North America. Two major ethnic-nationalist movements in North America have been the separatist movement in Quebec and the civil rights movement in the Southern United…

  20. Mapping the Llano Estacado of North America

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Llano Estacado is a commonly recognized physiographic region in North America. Renowned for its remarkably level surface and the towering escarpments along its outer margins, the elevated plains of the Llano Estacado form an immense tableland that stands in high relief at the southern end of the...

  1. Geothermal resources of southern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mabey, Don R.

    1983-01-01

    The geothermal resource of southern Idaho as assessed by the U.S. Geological Survey in 1978 is large. Most of the known hydrothermal systems in southern Idaho have calculated reservoir temperatures of less than 150?C. Water from many of these systems is valuable for direct heat applications, but is lower than the temperature of interest for commercial generation of electricity at the present time. Most of the known and inferred geothermal resources of southern Idaho underlie the Snake River Plain. However, major uncertainties exist concerning the geology and temperatures beneath the plain. By far the largest hydrothermal system in Idaho is in the Bruneau-Grand View area of the western Snake River Plain with a calculated reservoir temperature of 107?C and an energy of 4.5? 10 20 joules. No evidence of higher temperature water associated with this system has been found. Although the geology of the eastern Snake River Plain suggests that a large thermal anomaly may underlie this area of the plain, direct evidence of high temperatures has not been found. Large volumes of water at temperatures between 90? and 150?C probably exist along the margins of the Snake River Plain and in local areas north and south of the plain. Areas that appear particularly promising for the occurrence of large high-temperature hydrothermal systems are: the area north of the Snake River Plain and west of the Idaho batholith, the Island Park area, segments of the margins of the eastern Snake River Plain, and the Blackfoot lava field.

  2. True North

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Jo-Anne Mary

    2007-01-01

    For Americans wanting to explore beyond their frontiers, their neighbor to the north is an ideal destination. Much of Canada's population is concentrated near the shared border, mostly in Ontario and Quebec. While nature is an obvious draw, Canada's dynamic urban centers present their own sophisticated enticements, and the country's ten provinces…

  3. The pore structure and fractal characteristics of shales with low thermal maturity from the Yuqia Coalfield, northern Qaidam Basin, northwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Haihai; Shao, Longyi; Li, Yonghong; Li, Zhen; Zhang, Wenlong; Wen, Huaijun

    2016-12-01

    The continental shales from the Middle Jurassic Shimengou Formation of the northern Qaidam Basin, northwestern China, have been investigated in recent years because of their shale gas potential. In this study, a total of twenty-two shale samples were collected from the YQ-1 borehole in the Yuqia Coalfield, northern Qaidam Basin. The total organic carbon (TOC) contents, pore structure parameters, and fractal characteristics of the samples were investigated using TOC analysis, low-temperature nitrogen adsorption experiments, and fractal analysis. The results show that the average pore size of the Shimengou shales varied from 8.149 nm to 20.635 nm with a mean value of 10.74 nm, which is considered mesopore-sized. The pores of the shales are mainly inkbottle- and slit-shaped. The sedimentary environment plays an essential role in controlling the TOC contents of the low maturity shales, with the TOC values of shales from deep to semi-deep lake facies (mean: 5.23%) being notably higher than those of the shore-shallow lake facies (mean: 0.65%). The fractal dimensions range from 2.4639 to 2.6857 with a mean of 2.6122, higher than those of marine shales, which indicates that the pore surface was rougher and the pore structure more complex in these continental shales. The fractal dimensions increase with increasing total pore volume and total specific surface area, and with decreasing average pore size. With increasing TOC contents in shales, the fractal dimensions increase first and then decrease, with the highest value occurring at 2% of TOC content, which is in accordance with the trends between the TOC and both total specific surface area and total pore volume. The pore structure complexity and pore surface roughness of these low-maturity shales would be controlled by the combined effects of both sedimentary environments and the TOC contents.

  4. New Zealand's Southern Alps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    The rugged Southern Alps extend some 650 kilometers along the western side of New Zealand's South Island. The mountains are often obscured by clouds, which is probably why the Maoris called New Zealand 'Aotearoa', the long white cloud. The higher peaks are snow-covered all year round. Westerly winds bring clouds that drop over 500 centimeters of rain annually on luxuriant rain forest along the west coast. The drier eastern seaboard is home to the majority of the island's population.

    This pair of MISR images is from April 13, 2000 (Terra orbit 1712). The upper image is a natural color view from the instrument's vertical-viewing (nadir) camera. It is presented at a resolution of 550 meters per pixel. The lower image is a stereo anaglyph generated from the instrument's 46-degree and 26-degree forward-viewing cameras, and is presented at 275-meter per pixel resolution to show the portion of the image containing the Southern Alps in greater detail. Viewing the anaglyph in 3-D requires the use of red/blue glasses with the red filter over your left eye. To facilitate stereoscopic viewing, both images have been oriented with north at the left.

    The tallest mountain in the Southern Alps is Mt. Cook, at an elevation of 3754 meters. Its snow-covered peak is visible to the left of center in each of these MISR images. From the high peaks, glaciers have gouged long, slender mountain lakes and coastal fiords. Immediately to the southeast of Mt. Cook (to the right in these images), the glacial pale-blue water of Lake Pukaki stands out. Further to the south in adjacent valleys you can easily see Lakes Hawea and Wanaka, between which (though not visible here) is the Haast Pass Road, the most southerly of the few links between the east and west coast road systems. Further to the south is the prominent 'S' shape of Lake Wakatipu, 83 kilometers long, on the northern shore of which is Queenstown, the principal resort town of the island. The remote and spectacular Fiordland National

  5. Geologic, geomorphic, and meteorological aspects of debris flows triggered by Hurricanes Frances and Ivan during September 2004 in the Southern Appalachian Mountains of Macon County, North Carolina (southeastern USA)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wooten, R.M.; Gillon, K.A.; Witt, A.C.; Latham, R.S.; Douglas, T.J.; Bauer, J.B.; Fuemmeler, S.J.; Lee, L.G.

    2008-01-01

    In September 2004, rain from the remnants of Hurricanes Frances and Ivan triggered at least 155 landslides in the Blue Ridge Mountains of North Carolina. At least 33 debris flows occurred in Macon County, causing 5 deaths, destroying 16 homes, and damaging infrastructure. We mapped debris flows and debris deposits using a light-detecting and ranging digital elevation model, remote imagery and field studies integrated in a geographic information system. Evidence of past debris flows was found at all recent debris flow sites. Orographic rainfall enhancement along topographic escarpments influenced debris flow frequency at higher elevations. A possible trigger for the Wayah and fatal Peeks Creek debris flows was a spiral rain band within Ivan that moved across the area with short duration rainfall rates of 150-230 mm/h. Intersecting bedrock structures in polydeformed metamorphic rock influence the formation of catchments within structural-geomorphic domains where debris flows originate. ?? 2007 Springer-Verlag.

  6. Meteor showers of the southern hemisphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molau, Sirko; Kerr, Steve

    2014-04-01

    We present the results of an exhaustive meteor shower search in the southern hemisphere. The underlying data set is a subset of the IMO Video Meteor Database comprising 50,000 single station meteors obtained by three Australian cameras between 2001 and 2012. The detection technique was similar to previous single station analysis. In the data set we find 4 major and 6 minor northern hemisphere meteor showers, and 12 segments of the Antihelion source (including the Northern and Southern Taurids and six streams from the MDC working list). We present details for 14 southern hemisphere showers plus the Centaurid and Puppid-Velid complex, with the η Aquariids and the Southern δ Aquariids being the strongest southern showers. Two of the showers (θ^2 Sagittariids and τ Cetids) were previously unknown and have received preliminary designations by the MDC. Overall we find that the fraction of southern meteor showers south of -30deg declination (roughly 25%) is clearly smaller than the fraction of northern meteor showers north of +30deg declination (more than 50%) obtained in our previous analysis.

  7. Charnockitic magmatism in southern India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajesh, H. M.; Santosh, M.

    2004-12-01

    Large charnockite massifs cover a substantial portion of the southern Indian granulite terrain. The older (late Archaean to early Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the northern part and the younger (late Proterozoic) charnockites occur in the southern part of this high-grade terrain. Among these, the older Biligirirangan hill, Shevroy hill and Nilgiri hill massifs are intermediate charnockites, with Pallavaram massif consisting dominantly of felsic charnockites. The charnockite massifs from northern Kerala and Cardamom hill show spatial association of intermediate and felsic charnockites, with the youngest Nagercoil massif consisting of felsic charnockites. Their igneous parentage is evident from a combination of features including field relations, mineralogy, petrography, thermobarometry, as well as distinct chemical features. The southern Indian charnockite massifs show similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids, with the tonalitic intermediate charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids with low K2O/Na2O ratios, and the felsic charnockites showing similarity with high-Ba-Sr granitoids with high K2O/Na2O ratios. A two-stage model is suggested for the formation of these charnockites. During the first stage there was a period of basalt underplating, with the ponding of alkaline mafic magmas. Partial melting of this mafic lower crust formed the charnockitic magmas. Here emplacement of basalt with low water content would lead to dehydration melting of the lower crust forming intermediate charnockites. Conversely, emplacement of hydrous basalt would result in melting at higher {ie565-01} favoring production of more siliceous felsic charnockites. This model is correlated with two crustal thickening phases in southern India, one related to the accretion of the older crustal blocks on to the Archaean craton to the north and the other probably related to the collision between crustal fragments of East and West Gondwana in a supercontinent framework.

  8. Staff Study Olympic Operations in Southern Kyushu

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1945-05-29

    miles north of MIYAZAKI. (3) High ground southwest of MIYAZAKI ..dominating coastal road leading to MIYAIlAHOJO. c. Beaches. TAKANABE BEACH AREA. • • (1...width of r.bout 1O miles.. It is locally hilly but the most hilly portion approaches close to the sea northward of TAKANABE ,. The terrain...immediately behind the beach consists mainly of a belt of wind-blown sand along the southern half of the beach. Inland of the beach from TAKANABE northward

  9. Spatio-temporal evolution of the Choisille River (southern Parisian Basin, France) during the Weichselian and the Holocene as a record of climate trend and human activity in north-western Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morin, Eymeric; Macaire, Jean-Jacques; Hinschberger, Florent; Gay-Ovéjéro, Isabelle; Rodrigues, Stéphane; Bakyono, Jean-Paul; Visset, Lionel

    2011-02-01

    The morpho-sedimentary evolution of the Choisille floodplain (lowland river, catchment: 288 km 2), a tributary of the River Loire in the south-western Parisian Basin, was studied through 61 core drillings along eight transects and a geophysical survey located in four stretches of the river: stretches A and B correspond to two sub-catchments, and stretches C and D are in the main valley. Sixty 14C and four OSL datings were obtained, and sediments were analysed on seven reference cores. Eight phases of evolution differing markedly from the evolution of more northern areas in the Parisian Basin and north-western Europe were identified from spatio-temporal distribution of nine lithological facies. The deepest incision phase (1) occurred during the first part of the Weichselian, followed by the deposition of a gravelly-sandy unit (phase 2) during the Middle Pleniglacial, which was deeply incised (phase 3), probably during the Bölling. From the Allerød up to the last third of the Boreal (phase 4), sedimentation was continuously dominated by peaty deposits, with no evidence of either increased hydraulic energy during the Younger Dryas, or of incision during the LateGlacial-Holocene transition. This trend seems to reflect the specificity of the south-western Parisian Basin climate from the Late Weichselian up to the end of the Boreal, due to the influence of the Atlantic Ocean, compared to more northern areas where the climate was more continental. The downstream incision trend during the last third of the Boreal up to the Subatlantic (phases 5 and 6) indicates a sharp increase in precipitation and vegetation cover; the lack of peaty sediments, widespread in north-western Europe, and also of precipitated carbonates frequent in the Parisian Basin, seems to be due to local physiographic characteristics. The main part of the sediment filling, which is principally silty and retrograde, began during the Subatlantic (phase 7 and 8) as a result of deforestation of the plateaux

  10. Segregation Again: North Carolina's Transition from Leading Desegregation Then to Accepting Segregation Now

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayscue, Jennifer B.; Woodward, Brian

    2014-01-01

    North Carolina has a storied history of school integration efforts spanning several decades. In response to the "Brown" decision, North Carolina's strategy of delayed integration was more subtle than the overt defiance of other Southern states. Numerous North Carolina school districts were early leaders in employing strategies to…

  11. Fire in Southern Greece

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    The last major fire in southern Greece was brought under control this weekend, but not until over 469,000 acres of mostly forest and farmland were destroyed. An estimated 4000 people lost their homes, and over 60 deaths were reported. These were the worst fires ever to occur in Greece. In this Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) image acquired September 4 over the western coast of the Peloponnesus Peninsula, burned areas appear in dark red, and unburned vegetation is green. The area includes the ancient site of Olympia, the site of the Olympic Games in classical times. The fires came within 2 kilometers (1.2 miles) of the archaeological site, but spared it.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra spacecraft. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 56.4 by

  12. Igneous activity, metamorphism, and deformation in the Mount Rogers area of SW Virginia and NW North Carolina: A geologic record of Precambrian tectonic evolution of the southern Blue Ridge Province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tollo, Richard P.; Aleinikoff, John N.; Mundil, Roland; Southworth, C. Scott; Cosca, Michael A.; Rankin, Douglas W.; Rubin, Allison E.; Kentner, Adrienne; Parendo, Christopher A.; Ray, Molly S.

    2012-01-01

    Mesoproterozoic basement in the vicinity of Mount Rogers is characterized by considerable lithologic variability, including major map units composed of gneiss, amphibolite, migmatite, meta-quartz monzodiorite and various types of granitoid. SHRIMP U-Pb geochronology and field mapping indicate that basement units define four types of occurrences, including (1) xenoliths of ca. 1.33 to ≥1.18 Ga age, (2) an early magmatic suite including meta-granitoids of ca. 1185–1140 Ma age that enclose or locally intrude the xenoliths, (3) metasedimentary rocks represented by layered granofels and biotite schist whose protoliths were likely deposited on the older meta-granitoids, and (4) a late magmatic suite composed of younger, ca. 1075–1030 Ma intrusive rocks of variable chemical composition that intruded the older rocks. The magmatic protolith of granofels constituting part of a layered, map-scale xenolith crystallized at ca. 1327 Ma, indicating that the lithology represents the oldest, intact crust presently recognized in the southern Appalachians. SHRIMP U-Pb data indicate that periods of regional Mesoproterozoic metamorphism occurred at 1170–1140 and 1070–1020 Ma. The near synchroneity in timing of regional metamorphism and magmatism suggests that magmas were emplaced into crust that was likely at near-solidus temperatures and that melts might have contributed to the regional heat budget. Much of the area is cut by numerous, generally east- to northeast-striking Paleozoic fault zones characterized by variable degrees of ductile deformation and recrystallization. These high-strain fault zones dismember the terrane, resulting in juxtaposition of units and transformation of basement lithologies to quartz- and mica-rich tectonites with protomylonitic and mylonitic textures. Mineral assemblages developed within such zones indicate that deformation and recrystallization likely occurred at greenschist-facies conditions at ca. 340 Ma.

  13. Impact of post-mining subsidence on nitrogen transformation in southern tropical dry deciduous forest, India

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, N.; Singh, R.S.; Singh, J.S.

    2009-04-15

    The goal of our research was to assess the impact of post-mining land subsidence, caused due to underground coal mining operations, on fine root biomass and root tips count; plant available nutrient status, microbial biomass N (MBN) and N-mineralization rates of a Southern tropical dry deciduous forest of Singareni Coalfields of India. The changes were quantified in all the three (rainy, winter and summer) seasons, in slope and depression microsites of the subsided land and an adjacent undamaged forest microsite. Physico-chemical characteristics were found to be altered after subsidence, showing a positive impact of subsidence on soil moisture, bulk density, water holding capacity, organic carbon content, total N and total P. The increase in all the parameters was found in depression microsites, while in slope microsites, the values were lower. Fine root biomass and root tips count increased in the subsided depression microsites, as demonstrated by increases of 62% and 45%, respectively. Soil nitrate-N and phosphate-P concentrations were also found to be higher in depression microsite, showing an increase of 35.68% and 24.74%, respectively. Depression microsite has also shown the higher MBN value with an increase over control. Net nitrification, net N-mineralization and MBN were increased in depression microsite by 29.77%, 25.72% and 34%, respectively. There was a positive relation of microbial N with organic C, fine root biomass and root tips.

  14. In situ chemical and Sr-Nd-O isotopic compositions of apatite from the Tongshi intrusive complex in the southern part of the North China Craton: Implications for petrogenesis and metallogeny

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wen-Gang; Fan, Hong-Rui; Hu, Fang-Fang; Santosh, M.; Yang, Kui-Feng; Lan, Ting-Guang

    2015-06-01

    The Tongshi intrusive complex from the southeastern margin of the North China Craton is composed of syenite and monzonite, and was emplaced at ca. 180 Ma. Apatite from the syenite and monzonite were analyzed to better understand the petrogenesis of the complex and its mineralization potential. The cathodoluminescence images of some apatites from the monzonite exhibit core-rim texture, whereas the apatites from the syenite display uniform inner texture. The core and rim domains of the apatites exhibit distinct Sr isotopes and major-trace element compositions, whereas only little variation is displayed by the oxygen isotopes. The core portions of the apatites were inferred to be inherited from the protolith of the monzonite during remelting process. The calculated δ18O values of the syenite range from 3.5‰ to 4.1‰ with an average of 3.8‰ (SE = 0.21), which is significantly lower than that of the monzonite sample (with a range of 6.4-6.9‰, and mean at 6.7‰). In conjunction with the heterogeneity of Nd isotopic compositions (with normalized 143Nd/144Nd ratios varying from 0.51151 to 0.51236, and εNd (t = 180 Ma) values from -20.3 to -4.8) of the apatites from the syenite, it is proposed that the syenite melts may have been contaminated by crustal components which were earlier hydrothermally altered at high temperature. Based on element diffusion theory, we calculate the temperature of this crustal contamination to be higher than 637 °C, the closure temperature of Sm-Nd isotopic diffusion in apatite, and estimate that the duration of this process is probably shorter than 0.13 Ma. The oxygen fugacity of the syenite and monzonite calculated by apatite Mn content indicate that high oxidization state of the syenite magma can enhance the metallic mineralization potential. In contrast, the lower oxygen fugacity of the monzonite melt was unfavorable for metal enrichment, thus leading to insignificant mineralization. Our study recommends more focus for gold

  15. Monitoring large-scale landslides and their induced hazard with COSMO-SkyMed Intermittent SBAS (ISBAS): a case study in north-western Sicily, Italy.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novellino, Alessandro; Cigna, Francesca; Jordan, Colm; Sowter, Andrew; Calcaterra, Domenico

    2014-05-01

    Landslides detection and mapping are fundamental requirements for every hazard and risk evaluation. Due to their inevitable shortcomings, geomorphological field surveys and airphoto interpretation do not document all the gravitational events. Indeed some unstable slopes are inaccessible to field surveyors, while some landslides are too slow to be detected with the naked eye or interpretation of aerial photographs. In this work, we integrate geomorphological surveys with ground motion data derived by employing COSMO-SkyMed satellite imagery and the Intermittent Small BAseline Subset (ISBAS; Sowter et al., 2013), a new Advanced Differential Interferometry Synthetic Aperture Radar (ADInSAR) technique which has been developed recently at the Nottingham University in the UK. The main advantage of ISBAS with respect to other InSAR and SBAS techniques, is the possibility to detect good radar reflectors even in non-urbanized terrain, where ground targets usually look intermittently coherent, meaning they have high coherence only in some interferograms but not in others. ISBAS has proven capable of increasing results over natural, woodland and agricultural terrains and, as a result, it makes it possible to improve the detection of landslide boundaries and the assessment of the state of activity where other InSAR approaches fail. We used COSMO-SkyMed StripMap data covering the period between November 2008 and October 2011, with 3m ground range resolution, 40° look angle and minimum revisiting time of 8 days. The data consist of 38 ascending images (track 133, frame 380) with ground track angle at scene centre of 169.5° from the north-south direction. These have been obtained thanks to an agreement between the Italian Ministry for the Environment, Land and Sea and the University of Naples 'Federico II'. We tested ISBAS in north-western Sicily (southern Italy), over a 1,530 km2 area where 1,473 landslides have been identified based on optical imagery and field surveys by the

  16. Water budgets and groundwater volumes for abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, Schuylkill, Columbia, and Northumberland Counties, Pennsylvania-Preliminary estimates with identification of data needs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goode, Daniel J.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Hornberger, Roger J.; Hewitt, Michael A.; Hughes, Robert E.; Koury, Daniel J.; Eicholtz, Lee W.

    2011-01-01

    This report, prepared in cooperation with the Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection (PaDEP), the Eastern Pennsylvania Coalition for Abandoned Mine Reclamation, and the Dauphin County Conservation District, provides estimates of water budgets and groundwater volumes stored in abandoned underground mines in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield, which encompasses an area of 120 square miles in eastern Pennsylvania. The estimates are based on preliminary simulations using a groundwater-flow model and an associated geographic information system that integrates data on the mining features, hydrogeology, and streamflow in the study area. The Mahanoy and Shamokin Creek Basins were the focus of the study because these basins exhibit extensive hydrologic effects and water-quality degradation from the abandoned mines in their headwaters in the Western Middle Anthracite Coalfield. Proposed groundwater withdrawals from the flooded parts of the mines and stream-channel modifications in selected areas have the potential for altering the distribution of groundwater and the interaction between the groundwater and streams in the area. Preliminary three-dimensional, steady-state simulations of groundwater flow by the use of MODFLOW are presented to summarize information on the exchange of groundwater among adjacent mines and to help guide the management of ongoing data collection, reclamation activities, and water-use planning. The conceptual model includes high-permeability mine voids that are connected vertically and horizontally within multicolliery units (MCUs). MCUs were identified on the basis of mine maps, locations of mine discharges, and groundwater levels in the mines measured by PaDEP. The locations and integrity of mine barriers were determined from mine maps and groundwater levels. The permeability of intact barriers is low, reflecting the hydraulic characteristics of unmined host rock and coal. A steady-state model was calibrated to measured groundwater

  17. Optimizing irrigation strategies as influenced by El Nino southern oscillation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equatorial Pacific sea surface temperature anomalies (SSTA) can cause a systematic El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) coupling with the atmosphere to produce predictable weather patterns in much of North America. Adapting irrigation strategies for drought tolerant crops like cotton [Gossypium hirsu...

  18. 19. VIEW OF SECOND FLOOR, SOUTHERN PORTION OF BUILDING 707. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. VIEW OF SECOND FLOOR, SOUTHERN PORTION OF BUILDING 707. THE STORAGE TANKS CONTAIN MACHINE COOLANTS AND SOLVENTS USED IN FABRICATION PROCESSES. (5/70) - Rocky Flats Plant, Plutonium Manufacturing Facility, North-central section of Plant, just south of Building 776/777, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  19. Southern Ocean cephalopods.

    PubMed

    Collins, Martin A; Rodhouse, Paul G K

    2006-01-01

    The Southern Ocean cephalopod fauna is distinctive, with high levels of endemism in the squid and particularly in the octopodids. Loliginid squid, sepiids and sepiolids are absent from the Southern Ocean, and all the squid are oceanic pelagic species. The octopodids dominate the neritic cephalopod fauna, with high levels of diversity, probably associated with niche separation. In common with temperate cephalopods, Southern Ocean species appear to be semelparous, but growth rates are probably lower and longevity greater than temperate counterparts. Compared with equivalent temperate species, eggs are generally large and fecundity low, with putative long development times. Reproduction may be seasonal in the squid but is extended in the octopodids. Cephalopods play an important role in the ecology of the Southern Ocean, linking the abundant mesopelagic fish and crustaceans with higher predators such as albatross, seals and whales. To date Southern Ocean cephalopods have not been commercially exploited, but there is potential for exploitation of muscular species of the Family Ommastrephidae.

  20. Geology and mineral resources of the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex (Oregon and Nevada), the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada, and the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada (and Utah) Sagebrush Focal Areas: Chapter B in Mineral resources of the Sagebrush Focal Areas of Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vikre, Peter G.; Benson, Mary Ellen; Bleiwas, Donald I.; Colgan, Joseph P.; Cossette, Pamela M.; DeAngelo, Jacob; Dicken, Connie L.; Drake, Ronald M.; du Bray, Edward A.; Fernette, Gregory L.; Glen, Jonathan M.G.; Haacke, Jon E.; Hall, Susan M.; Hofstra, Albert H.; John, David A.; Ludington, Stephen; Mihalasky, Mark J.; Rytuba, James J.; Shaffer, Brian N.; Stillings, Lisa L.; Wallis, John C.; Williams, Colin F.; Yager, Douglas B.; Zürcher, Lukas

    2016-10-04

    SummaryThe U.S. Department of the Interior has proposed to withdraw approximately 10 million acres of Federal lands from mineral entry (subject to valid existing rights) from 12 million acres of lands defined as Sagebrush Focal Areas (SFAs) in Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, Utah, and Wyoming (for further discussion on the lands involved see Scientific Investigations Report 2016–5089–A). The purpose of the proposed action is to protect the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and its habitat from potential adverse effects of locatable mineral exploration and mining. The U.S. Geological Survey Sagebrush Mineral-Resource Assessment (SaMiRA) project was initiated in November 2015 and supported by the Bureau of Land Management to (1) assess locatable mineral-resource potential and (2) to describe leasable and salable mineral resources for the seven SFAs and Nevada additions.This chapter summarizes the current status of locatable, leasable, and salable mineral commodities and assesses the potential of selected locatable minerals in lands proposed for withdrawal that span the Nevada, Oregon, Idaho, and Utah borders. In this report, the four study areas evaluated were (1) the Sheldon-Hart Mountain National Wildlife Refuge Complex SFA in Washoe County, Nevada, and Harney and Lake Counties, Oregon; (2) the Southeastern Oregon and North-Central Nevada SFA in Humboldt County, Nevada, and Harney and Malheur Counties, Oregon; (3) the Southern Idaho and Northern Nevada SFA in Cassia, Owyhee, and Twin Falls Counties, Idaho, Elko County, Nevada, and Box Elder County, Utah; and (4) the Nevada additions in Humboldt and Elko Counties, Nevada.

  1. Anaglyph, North America

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This anaglyph (stereoscopic view) of North America was generated with data from the Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM). It is best viewed at or near full resolution with anaglyph glasses. For this broad view the resolution of the data was first reduced to 30 arcseconds (about 928 meters north-south and 736 meters east-west in central North America), matching the best previously existing global digital topographic data set called GTOPO30. The data were then resampled to a Mercator projection with approximately square pixels (about one kilometer, or 0.6 miles, on each side). Even at this decreased resolution the variety of landforms comprising the North American continent is readily apparent.

    Active tectonics (structural deformation of the Earth's crust) along and near the Pacific North American plate boundary creates the great topographic relief seen along the Pacific coast. Earth's crustal plates converge in southern Mexico and in the northwest United States, melting the crust and producing volcanic cones. Along the California coast, the plates are sliding laterally past each other, producing a pattern of slices within the San Andreas fault system. And, where the plates are diverging, the crust appears torn apart as one huge tear along the Gulf of California (northwest Mexico), and as the several fractures comprising the Basin and Range province (in and around Nevada).

    Across the Great Plains, erosional patterns dominate, with stream channels surrounding and penetrating the remnants of older smooth slopes east of the Rocky Mountains. This same erosion process is exposing the bedrock structural patterns of the Black Hills in South Dakota and the Ozark Mountains in Arkansas. Lateral erosion and sediment deposition by the Mississippi River has produced the flatlands of the lower Mississippi Valley and the Mississippi Delta.

    To the north, evidence of the glaciers of the last ice age is widely found, particularly east of the Canadian Rocky Mountains and

  2. Southern Identity in "Southern Living" Magazine

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauder, Tracy

    2012-01-01

    A fantasy-theme analysis of the editors' letters in "Southern Living" magazine shows an editorial vision of valuing the past and showcasing unique regional qualities. In addition, a content analysis of the visual representation of race in the magazine's formative years and recent past validates that inhabitants of the region were portrayed…

  3. 2. VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT BUILDING 881 DURING CONSTRUCTION. (12/24/52) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. VIEW LOOKING NORTH AT BUILDING 881 DURING CONSTRUCTION. (12/24/52) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  4. WILD SALMON IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICA: FORECASTING THE MOST LIKELY STATUS IN 2100

    EPA Science Inventory

    The future of wild salmon in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as current recovery efforts are, does not appear likely to realize sustain biologically significan...

  5. WILD SALMON IN WESTERN NORTH AMERICA; THE HISTORICAL AND POLICY CONTEXT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nearly all of the participants in the Salmon 2100 Project concluded that wild salmon recovery efforts in western North America (especially California, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and southern British Columbia), as earnest, expensive, and socially disruptive as they currently are, ...

  6. North Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Nicod, M.A.

    1981-10-01

    The total area covered by petroleum rights in the six countries described in this paper increased by more than 17% in 1980 compared to 1979. Joint venture agreements were finalized for 19 blocks over 94,000 km/sup 2/ in the Algerian venture. Although official information is scarce for Algeria and Libya, seismic activity probably increased in 1980 compared to 1979. Exploration drilling activity increased with 121 wildcats drilled compared to 93 during the previous year. This effort led to 40 discoveries, a 34.5% success ratio. Chevron was especially successful in wildcatting, with 6 oil discoveries for 8 wells drilled in the interior basins of Sudan. One Moroccan discovery can be considered as a highlight: the BRPM Meskala 101 well in the Essaouira basin found an apparently large amount of gas in Triassic sandstones. This discovery deserves special attention, since the gas has been found in Triassic pays rather than in the usual Jurassic pays in the Essaouira basin. Oil production in North Africa decreased from about 13.5% in 1980, with about 3,405,000 barrels of oil per day compared to 3,939,500 barrels of oil per day in 1979. When oil output strongly decreased in Algeria (-16.4%) and Libya (-15.6%), Tunisian production peaked at 116,287 barrels of oil per day and Egypt production also peaked at 584,148 barrels of oil per day. Total gas production in 1980 strongly declined from 44%, mostly due to the decline of the Algerian gas production. 8 figures, 40 tables.

  7. Southern Ocean Response to NADW Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, David; Schmidt, G.; Russell, G.; deMenocal, P.; Hansen, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The possibility of North Atlantic Deep Water (NADW) changes in both past and future climates has raised the issue of how the Southern Ocean would respond. Recent experiments with the GISS coupled atmosphere-ocean model have shown that a "bipolar see-saw" between NADW production and Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) production in the Weddell Sea can occur in conjunction with freshening of the North Atlantic. However, this effect operates not through a slow ocean response but via a rapid atmospheric mechanism. As NADW reduces, colder temperatures in the North Atlantic, and Northern Hemisphere in general, are associated with higher surface pressure (increased atmospheric mass). Reduced mass in the Southern Hemisphere occurs in response, with lower pressure over the South Pole (an EOF #1 effect, the "high phase" of the Antarctic Oscillation).The lower pressure is associated with stronger west winds that generate an intensified Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), which leads to longitudinal heat divergence in the South Atlantic (and heat convergence in the Southern Indian Ocean). Colder temperatures in the Weddell Sea region lead to sea ice growth, increased salinity and surface water density, and greater Weddell Sea Bottom Water production. Increased poleward transport of heat occurs in the South Atlantic in conjunction with increased bottom water production, but its convergence at high latitudes is not sufficient to offset the longitudinal heat divergence due to the intensified ACC. The colder temperatures at high latitudes in the South Atlantic increase the latitudinal temperature gradient, baroclinic instability, eddy energy and eddy poleward transport of momentum, helping to maintain the lower pressure over the pole in an interactive manner. The heat flux convergence in the Indian Ocean provides a warming tendency in that region, and overall global production of AABW remains unchanged. These results have implications for the interpretation of the ice core records of

  8. Southern California Edison PDF

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Southern California Edison report describes an evaluation of SCE’s Retail Appliance Recycling Program (Retail ARP) trial that was initiated in late October 2010 and completed in September of 2011.

  9. Mineral, Energy, and Fertilizer Resources of the North Coast of Peru: Perspective from the Santa Rita B Archaeological Site

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brooks, William E.; Kent, Jonathan D.; Willett, Jason C.

    2004-01-01

    The Santa Rita B archaeological site is in the Chao Valley, approximately 65 km southeast of Trujillo, northern Peru. Location of Santa Rita B at the emergence of several drainages from the Andean cordillera is an important factor in the almost continuous occupation of the site over the past 3,000 years. Mineral resources are abundant throughout the Andes; however, the north coast of Peru was an important center for pre-Columbian mining, metallurgy, and craftsmanship. Success of the Chavin, Moche, Chimu, and other north coast cultures is directly related to the availability and exploitation of mineral and energy resources that include: gold (?silver), as electrum, mainly from placers, and copper from local oxide and carbonate occurrences and from sulfides related to copper porphyry occurrences in the cordillera. An alloy of these three metals is referred to as tumbaga, which is the primary material for Andean metalcraft. Anthracite was used for mirrors by north coast cultures and is available near Rio Chicama, Rio Santa, and east of Santa Rita B. These outcrops are a part of the Alto Chicama, Peru's largest coalfield, which extends from Rio Chicama, in the north, for 200 km southward to Rio Santa. Charcoal from the algorrobo tree and llama dung are considered to be the common pre-Columbian energy sources for cooking and metalwork; however, availability and the higher heat content of anthracite indicate that it was used in metallurgical applications. Bitumen is available from petroleum seeps near Talara, north of the study area, and may have been used as glue or as cement. Hematite, goethite, limonite, and manganese oxides from clay-altered volcanic rock may have provided color and material for ceramics. Guano from the Islas Gua?apes, Chinchas, and Ballestas was used as fertilizer for cotton and other crops.

  10. Southern hemisphere observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orchiston, Wayne

    Because of insurmountable problems associated with absolute dating, the non-literate cultures of the Southern Hemisphere can contribute little to Applied Historical Astronomy, although Maori traditions document a possible supernova dating to the period 1000-1770 AD. In contrast, the abundant nineteenth century solar, planetary, cometary and stellar observational data provided by Southern Hemisphere professional and amateur observatories can serve as an invaluable mine of information for present-day astronomers seeking to incorporate historical data in their investigations.

  11. SOUTHERN FINE PARTICULATE MONITORING PROJECT

    SciTech Connect

    Ashley D. Williamson

    2001-07-01

    This is the third quarterly progress report of the ''Southern Fine Particulate Monitoring Project'', funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's National Energy Technology Laboratory under DOE Cooperative Agreement No. DE-FC26-00NT40770 to Southern Research Institute (SRI). In this two year project SRI will conduct detailed studies of ambient fine particulate matter in the Birmingham, AL metropolitan area. Project objectives include: Augment existing measurements of primary and secondary aerosols at an established urban southeastern monitoring site; Make a detailed database of near-continuous measurements of the time variation of fine particulate mass, composition, and key properties (including particle size distribution); Apply the measurements to source attribution, time/transport properties of fine PM, and implications for management strategies for PM{sub 2.5}; and Validate and compare key measurement methods used in this study for applicability within other PM{sub 2.5} research by DOE-FE, EPA, NARSTO, and others. During the third project quarter, the new SRI air monitoring shelter and additional instruments were installed at the site. Details include: Installation of Radiance Research M903 Nephelometer; Installation of SRI air monitoring shelter at North Birmingham Site; Relocation of instruments from SEARCH shelter to SRI shelter; Installation of Rupprecht & Patashnick 8400 Sulfate Monitor; Assembly and initial laboratory testing for particulate sulfate monitor of Harvard design; Efficiency testing of particle sizing instrument package at SRI lab; Preparation for the Eastern Supersite July measurement intensive program; and Continued monitoring with TEOM and particle sizing instruments.

  12. Development of the southern reaches of Laurentia

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, J.C. Jr. . Federal Center)

    1993-02-01

    Laurentia, the Late Proterozoic continental fragment that now forms the core of North America, has a long and complex history, much of which involves development along its southern margin. The southernmost parts of the Archean continental core are the Wyoming and Superior cratons, both of which contain gneisses that record crust-forming events in the interval 3.8--3.1 Ga as well as greenstone belts that reflect continental growth in the interval 2.8--2.6 Ga. Each of these cratonic elements was assembled and stabilized prior to deposition of passive margin sequences along their southern flanks during the interval [approximately]2.5--1.9 Ga. Between [approximately]1.8 Ga and 1.6 Ga arc-related sedimentary and volcanic rocks were accreted to the southern margin of the Laurentian core during a complex series of tectonic episodes that included events locally referred to as the Penokean, Ivanpah, Yavapai, and Mazatzal orogenies, resulting in the addition of a belt of continental crust at least 1,000 km wide. Voluminous highly evolved granite and rhyolite were emplaced along this southern marginal belt between [approximately] 1.45 and 1.35 Ga under conditions of general tectonic stability, or perhaps dispersed regional extension. This same interval was also marked by onset of deposition of thick Middle Proterozoic sedimentary sequences along the western and southern margins of Laurentia. The eastern margin of Laurentia contains the complexly deformed and metamorphosed rocks of the 1.25 to 1.1 Ga Grenville orogen which, according to recent reconstructions, may record a collision with cratonic elements in western South America. The 2,000 km-long Midcontinent rift system in central Laurentia opened and filled with basalt and sediments at about the same time as the end of Grenville activity.

  13. Preformed Nitrate in the Glacial North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Homola, K.; Spivack, A. J.; D'Hondt, S.; Estes, E. R.; Insua, T. L.; McKinley, C. C.; Murray, R. W.; Pockalny, R. A.; Robinson, R. S.; Sauvage, J.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric CO2 abundances are highly correlated with global temperature variations over the past 800,000 years. Consequently, understanding the feedbacks between climate and CO2 is important for predictions of future climate. Leading hypotheses to explain this feedback invoke changes in ocean biology, circulation, chemistry, and/or gas exchange rates to trap CO2 in the deep ocean, thereby reducing the greenhouse effect of CO2 in the atmosphere. To test these hypotheses, we use sediment pore water profiles of dissolved nitrate and oxygen to reconstruct paleo-preformed nitrate concentrations at two deep-water sites in the western North Atlantic (23°N 57°W, 5557 m water depth; 30°N 58°W, 5367 m water depth). Preformed nitrate increases down-core to 22.7 μM (25.6 m core depth) at the northern site, and to 28.5 μM (27.8 m core depth) at the southern site. The large preformed nitrate gradient between these sites reveals a paleo-boundary between a southern water source high in preformed nitrate and a northern water source with lower concentrations, similar to today's ocean. However, the boundary between these water masses occurs north of where their modern counterparts meet, indicating that Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) extended farther north during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). In addition, the southern source had a higher preformed nitrate concentration than today's AABW (25 μM), contradicting hypotheses that nutrient utilization was more efficient in the Southern Ocean deep-water formation regions during the LGM. Comparison to our previous Pacific data reveals that the average preformed nitrate concentration of the deep ocean was slightly higher during the LGM than today. This result implies that the CO2-climate feedback was not principally due to more efficient nitrate utilization.

  14. North Nilosyrtis Mensae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image was obtained during the first week of June 1999. It shows a portion of the Nilosyrtis Mensae region, located north of Syrtis Major and southwest of Utopia Planitia. This region is part of a planet-wide transition zone that separates the high, cratered terrain of the southern two thirds of Mars from the low, relatively uncratered northern plains. Old remnants of the cratered highlands are common in this transition zone, and they are usually in the form of mesas and buttes.

    The MOC image shows several low, flat-topped mesas. Although flat at large scale, their surfaces are quite rough and bumpy at smaller scales. Many of these bumps might be boulders, but the resolution of this particular image (4.5 meters--15 feet--per pixel) is not high enough to be certain. The lowlands surrounding the mesas are cracked and pitted--especially the darker surfaces on the right side of the image. The cause of the pitting is not known and can only be speculated upon (because the material removed from each pit is now gone). Possible origins for the pits include removal of dust or sand by wind and/or sublimation of ice from the near subsurface. The picture covers an area 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) wide and is illuminated from the left.

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  15. Alpine North and South Foehn: Are They Different?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plavcan, David; Mayr, Georg J.

    2016-04-01

    Foehn in the European Alps has mostly been studied for air flowing from the climatologically warmer southern side to the north although it occurs also for reverse flow situations. The dense mesonet in the Alpine countries together with an objective foehn diagnosis method makes it possible to systematically compare north and south foehn for a variety of topographical settings. While they share many common characteristics, north foehn is more frequent than south foehn and in general temperatures do not rise as much or even decrease during foehn onset.

  16. Population genetic structure of the soybean aphid from Asia and North America based on microsatellites.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The soybean aphid, APHIS GLYCINES Matsumura, was recently introduced from Asia into North America (NA) where it has become a serious pest of soybeans. This invasive pest spread rapidly throughout the north central United States and southern Canada since its discovery in 2000. We examined 593 individ...

  17. 33 CFR 3.65-20 - Sector North Bend Search and Rescue Mission Coordinator Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Mission Coordinator Zone. The Sector North Bend office is located in North Bend, OR. The boundaries of.... latitude, 123°18.0′ W. longitude; thence westerly along 42°0.00′ N. latitude to the sea. The offshore boundary is bounded on the south by the southern boundary of the 13th Coast Guard District, which...

  18. 33 CFR 3.65-20 - Sector North Bend Search and Rescue Mission Coordinator Zone.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Mission Coordinator Zone. The Sector North Bend office is located in North Bend, OR. The boundaries of.... latitude, 123°18.0′ W. longitude; thence westerly along 42°0.00′ N. latitude to the sea. The offshore boundary is bounded on the south by the southern boundary of the 13th Coast Guard District, which...

  19. The North American Free Trade Agreement. Headline Series No. 299.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grayson, George W.

    This document discusses the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) as a debate over the wisdom of opening the southern United States border to the free flow of goods and services between the United States and Mexico. The book is divided into six chapters. The first is a basic introduction to the development of the idea of a free trade…

  20. School Desegregation in the North: A Preliminary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, David J.; And Others

    This report presents the preliminary findings of a research project designed to investigate the ways local school systems in the North deal with de facto school segregation. The communities chosen for the investigation are those 95 cities in the Permanent Community Sample of the National Opinion Research Center (NORC) which are non-Southern and…

  1. New planktic foraminiferal data document Coniacian Age (88 Ma) for Laramide Orogeny onset and paleoceanography in southern Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frerichs, W. E.

    1997-01-01

    As part of a larger project to assess the Mesozoic tectonostratigraphic evolution of the southern margin of the North America Plate, we report here new planktic foraminiferal data from northeastern Guerrero State, 120 km south of Mexico City. The study area is part of the southern arm of the Laramide fold-thrust belt of Mexico.

  2. Early evolution of salt structures in north Louisiana salt basin

    SciTech Connect

    Lobao, J.J.; Pilger, R.H. Jr.

    1986-05-01

    Several salt diapirs and pillows in southern and central north Louisiana have been studied using approximately 355 mi (570 km) of seismic reflection data and information from 57 deep well holes. Using seismic profiles with deep well-hole data is the most advantageous method to document regional salt tectonism through time. The following conclusions were reached on diapirism in the North Louisiana Salt basin. (1) The diapiric event began early (early Coahuilan) in the southern and central part of the basin, and later (late Coahuilan to Comanchean) in the northern part. (2) The initial diapiric event is much more abrupt and intense in the southern and central diapirs when compared with the later diapiric event in the northern diapirs. (3) Regional depocenter shifting, relative sea level, local erosion with salt extrusion, and rapid depositional loading of sediments are the major controls on diapirism in the basin.

  3. Industrial Physics---Southern California Style

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leslie, Stuart

    2013-03-01

    Only in Southern California did space-age style really come into its own as a unique expression of Cold War scientific culture. The corporate campuses of General Atomic in San Diego and North American Aviation in Los Angeles perfectly expressed the exhilarating spirit of Southern California's aerospace era, scaling up the residential version of California modernism to industrial proportion. Architects William Pereira and A.C. Martin Jr., in collaboration with their scientific counterparts, fashioned military-industrial `dream factories' for industrial physics that embodied the secret side of the space-age zeitgeist, one the public could only glimpse of in photographs, advertisements, and carefully staged open houses. These laboratories served up archetypes of the California dream for a select audience of scientists, engineers, and military officers, live-action commercials for a lifestyle intended to lure the best and brightest to Southern California. Paradoxically, they hid in plain sight, in the midst of aerospace suburbs, an open secret, at once visible and opaque, the public face of an otherwise invisible empire. Now, at the end of the aerospace era, these places have become an endangered species, difficult to repurpose, on valuable if sometimes highly polluted land. Yet they offer an important reminder of a more confident time when many physicists set their sights on the stars.

  4. Cholera outbreak--southern Sudan, 2007.

    PubMed

    2009-04-10

    Vibrio cholerae causes cholera, an acute infectious diarrheal disease that can result in death without appropriate therapy, depending on the severity of the disease. War, poverty, inadequate sanitation, and large numbers of refugees and internally displaced persons (IDPs) are major precursors to cholera outbreaks. In 2005, Southern Sudan ended its 22-year civil war with North Sudan; as a result, IDPs and refugees are returning to the south. During April--June 2007, investigators from the Southern Sudan Field Epidemiology and Laboratory Training Program (SS-FELTP) and CDC investigated a cholera outbreak in the town of Juba, Southern Sudan. This report summarizes the results of that investigation, which found that 3,157 persons were diagnosed with suspected cholera during January--June 2007, with 74 deaths resulting from the disease. An environmental investigation revealed suboptimal hygiene practices and a lack of water and sanitation infrastructure in Juba. A case-control study indicated that persons less likely to have cholera were more likely to have consumed hot meals containing meat during the outbreak. Contaminated food or water were not identified as possible sources of the cholera outbreak in Juba. However, this might be attributed to limitations of the study, including small sample size. Cholera can reach epidemic proportions if adequate control measures are not implemented early. Mass media campaigns are important for current and new residents in Juba to understand the importance of proper food handling, clean water, and optimal hygiene practices to prevent the spread of cholera.

  5. Geology of the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Clark, Sandra H.B.

    2008-01-01

    The Southern Appalachian Mountains includes the Blue Ridge province and parts of four other physiographic provinces. The Blue Ridge physiographic province is a high, mountainous area bounded by several named mountain ranges (including the Unaka Mountains and the Great Smoky Mountains) to the northwest, and the Blue Ridge Mountains to the southeast. Metamorphic rocks of the mountains include (1) fragments of a billion-year-old supercontinent, (2) thick sequences of sedimentary rock that were deposited in subsiding (sinking) basins on the continent, (3) sedimentary and volcanic rocks that were deposited on the sea floor, and (4) fragments of oceanic crust. Most of the rocks formed as sediments or volcanic rocks on ocean floors, islands, and continental plates; igneous rocks formed when crustal plates collided, beginning about 450 million years ago. The collision between the ancestral North American and African continental plates ended about 270 million years ago. Then, the continents began to be stretched, which caused fractures to open in places throughout the crust; these fractures were later filled with sediment. This product (U.S. Geological Survey Scientific Investigations Map 2830) consists of a geologic map of the Southern Appalachian Mountains overlain on a shaded-relief background. The map area includes parts of southern Virginia, eastern West Virginia and Tennessee, western North and South Carolina, northern Georgia and northeastern Alabama. Photographs of localities where geologic features of interest can be seen accompany the map. Diagrams show how the movement of continental plates over many millions of years affected the landscapes seen today, show how folds and faults form, describe important mineral resources of the region, and illustrate geologic time. This two-sided map is folded into a convenient size (5x9.4 inches) for use in the field. The target audience is high school to college earth science and geology teachers and students; staffs of

  6. North Korean Relationships

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-12-18

    21 Figure 5: China’s Food Aid to North Korea...discount alone exceeds aid provided by any other country (Bajora 2). Beyond the trade discount, China also provides North Korea with food aid. China’s...fluctuating food aid totals to North Korea can be seen in Figure 5. 23 Energy Like much of North Korea’s economy, energy is provided both in the

  7. 2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. AERIAL VIEW, LOOKING NORTH. CHICAGO & NORTH WESTERN RAILWAY BRIDGE IS AT BOTTOM OF FRAME. - Chicago & North Western Railway, Kinzie Street Bridge, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Kinzie Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  8. 8. INTERIOR, NORTH WING, VIEW THROUGH DOORWAY IN NORTH WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. INTERIOR, NORTH WING, VIEW THROUGH DOORWAY IN NORTH WALL OF SOUTHEAST ROOM, SHOWING FENESTRATED NORTH WALL (BASEMENT THROUGH SECOND LEVELS) OF NORTH-CENTRAL ROOM - Bulows Minde Estate House, Bulows Minde, Bulows Minde, St. Croix, VI

  9. Syntectonic remagnetization in the southern Methow block: Resolving large displacements in the southern Canadian Cordillera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Enkin, R.J.; Mahoney, J.B.; Baker, J.; Kiessling, M.; Haugerud, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    The Upper Cretaceous Ventura Member of the Goat Wall unit in the southern Methow block of southern British Columbia and northern Washington State holds a syntectonic magnetization. Eight new sites from Manning Park in British Columbia give a mean direction of D = 27.5??, I = 60.1??, k = 304.7, ??95 = 3.2?? after optimal partial tilt correction. Of five groups of bedded sites from farther south in the basin reported by Bazard et al. [1990], four have a syntectonic remanence with a direction similar to what we observe. The exception is one group which has optimal concentration of remanence directions on >100% untilting and an abherent direction which must be rejected. Combining the accepted sites, the optimal differential syntilting direction is D = 11.8??, I = 61.5??, k = 39.3, ??95 = 3.4?? (N = 47), giving a mean pole of 79.8??N, 359.2??E, K = 19.5, and A95 = 4.8??. The age of the remagnetization is constrained to be between 88 and 80 Ma. Compared to cratonic North America, this result indicates that the southern Methow block was displaced from the south by 1800 ?? 500 km, meaning it lay south of the Sierra Nevada subduction zone but well north of other paleomagnetically constrained Cretaceous rock units from the Insular superterrane, including correlative strata of the Mount Tatlow area in the northern Methow block. Among several possibilities to reconcile this discrepancy, the most plausible has the whole Methow block translated coherently but with the southern Methow block strata remagnetized during transit.

  10. Diseases in North Sea fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dethlefsen, V.

    1984-03-01

    that the long-range distribution of fish diseases in the southern North Sea might reflect the long-range transport of persistent pollutants.

  11. "Pearl" southern highbush blueberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    ‘Pearl’ is a new southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium spp. hybrid) developed and released by the United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service. The new cultivar has several advantages for growers in the Southeastern U.S. over rabbiteye blueberry cultivars, the most widely ...

  12. Geologic framework, age, and lithologic characteristics of the North Park Formation in North Park, north-central Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shroba, Ralph R.

    2016-10-18

    Deposits of the North Park Formation of late Oligocene and Miocene age are locally exposed at small, widely spaced outcrops along the margins of the roughly northwest-trending North Park syncline in the southern part of North Park, a large intermontane topographic basin in Jackson County in north-central Colorado. These outcrops suggest that rocks and sediments of the North Park Formation consist chiefly of poorly consolidated sand, weakly cemented sandstone, and pebbly sandstone; subordinate amounts of pebble conglomerate; minor amounts of cobbly pebble gravel, siltstone, and sandy limestone; and rare beds of cobble conglomerate and altered tuff. These deposits partly filled North Park as well as a few small nearby valleys and half grabens. In North Park, deposits of the North Park Formation probably once formed a broad and relatively thick sedimentary apron composed chiefly of alluvial slope deposits (mostly sheetwash and stream-channel alluvium) that extended, over a distance of at least 150 kilometers (km), northwestward from the Never Summer Mountains and northward from the Rabbit Ears Range across North Park and extended farther northwestward into the valley of the North Platte River slightly north of the Colorado-Wyoming border. The maximum preserved thickness of the formation in North Park is about 550 meters near the southeastern end of the North Park syncline.The deposition of the North Park Formation was coeval in part with local volcanism, extensional faulting, development of half grabens, and deposition of the Browns Park Formation and Troublesome Formation and was accompanied by post-Laramide regional epeirogenic uplift. Regional deposition of extensive eolian sand sheets and loess deposits, coeval with the deposition of the North Park Formation, suggests that semiarid climatic conditions prevailed during the deposition of the North Park Formation during the late Oligocene and Miocene.The North Park Formation locally contains a 28.1-mega-annum (Ma

  13. Evidence from Earthquake Data for a Partially Molten Crustal Layer in Southern Tibet

    PubMed

    Kind; Ni; Zhao; Wu; Yuan; Zhao; Sandvol; Reese; Nabelek; Hearn

    1996-12-06

    Earthquake data collected by the INDEPTH-II Passive-Source Experiment show that there is a substantial south to north variation in the velocity structure of the crust beneath southern Tibet. North of the Zangbo suture, beneath the southern Lhasa block, a midcrustal low-velocity zone is revealed by inversion of receiver functions, Rayleigh-wave phase velocities, and modeling of the radial component of teleseismic P-waveforms. Conversely, to the south beneath the Tethyan Himalaya, no low-velocity zone was observed. The presence of the midcrustal low-velocity zone in the north implies that a partially molten layer is in the middle crust beneath the northern Yadong-Gulu rift and possibly much of southern Tibet.

  14. The loess and coversands of northern France and southern England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoine, Pierre; Catt, John; Lautridou, Jean-Pierre; Sommé, Jean

    2003-02-01

    Loess and coversands are widespread on either side of the English Channel. In southern England, loess is generally thin and discontinuous, but locally reaches thickness of about 4 m in east Kent. Coversands occur mainly in areas well north of the Channel, such as parts of East Anglia and the southern side of the Bristol Channel. Most of the loess and coversand deposits in southern England date from the Late Devensian cold stage (marine oxygen isotope stage (MOIS) 2), but there are also a few localised patches of older (mainly MOIS 6 and 12) loess, which are the dissected remnants of originally more extensive covers. In France loess is widespread and locally very thick (up to 12 m), especially in northern and northeastern France. In Normandy and in the Somme basin some long records indicate that accumulation began at the end of the Lower Pleistocene, at about 900 ka. Nevertheless the main accumulations of typical calcareous loess are related to the Upper Weichselian and Upper Saalian stages (MOIS 2 and end of MOIS 3 and MOIS 6). Indeed, before about 160-170 ka, loess deposition was generally restricted to special sediment traps such as fluvial and marine terraces exposed to the east or northeast. These older deposits are characterised by more sandy facies derived from local fluvial sources (mainly by northwest to north-northwest winds). Coversands occur locally along the coast of the Mont Saint-Michel bay, and over the northern part of the Seine estuary near Le Havre. The main differences in thickness and extent of the loess deposits between southern England and northern France are linked to their location in relation to the source areas (Channel and North Sea), to ice sheets, and to the main wind directions (northwest to north-northwest in France and western England but northeast in eastern England).

  15. May organic pollutants affect fish populations in the North Sea?

    PubMed

    Hylland, Ketil; Beyer, Jonny; Berntssen, Marc; Klungsøyr, Jarle; Lang, Thomas; Balk, Lennart

    2006-01-08

    The North Sea is a highly productive area with large fish populations that have been extensively harvested over the past century. North Sea fisheries remain important to the surrounding countries despite declining fish stocks over the past decades. The main reason for declining fish stocks is nearly certainly overfishing, but other environmental pressures also affect fish populations, such as eutrophication, climate change, and exposure to metals and organic pollutants, including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), alkylphenols, and organochlorine compounds. There are three main sources of organic pollutants in the North Sea: atmospheric, land-based sources, and inputs from offshore gas and oil installations. All three sources contribute to elevated concentrations of organic pollutants in the North Sea compared to the Norwegian Sea. There is evidence that chlorinated organic contaminants were present in sufficiently high concentrations in the southern North Sea two decades ago, to alter embryonal development in fish. The results from extensive, long-term monitoring programs show that some diseases decreased whereas other increased in the southern North Sea and that, among other factors, contaminants may play a role in the temporal changes recorded in disease prevalence. Recent studies demonstrated that components in offshore effluents may affect fish reproduction and that tissues of fish near oil rigs are structurally different to tissues of fish from reference areas. Data on effluents from offshore activities have recently become available through an international workshop (BECPELAG) and follow-up studies.

  16. Southern Ocean Deep-Convection as a Driver of Centennial-to-Millennial-Scale Climate Variability at Southern High Latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedro, J. B.; Martin, T.; Steig, E. J.; Jochum, M.; Park, W.; Rasmussen, S.

    2015-12-01

    Antarctic Isotope Maxima (AIM) are centennial-to-millennial scale warming events observed in Antarctic ice core records from the last glacial period and deglaciation. Mounting evidence links AIM events to parallel variations in atmospheric CO2, Southern Ocean (SO) sea surface temperatures and Antarctic Bottom Water production. According to the prevailing view, AIM events are forced from the North Atlantic by melt-water discharge from ice sheets suppressing the production of North Atlantic Deep Water and associated northward heat transport in the Atlantic. However observations and model studies increasingly suggest that melt-water fluxes have the wrong timing to be invoked as such a trigger. Here, drawing on results form the Kiel Climate Model, we present an alternative hypothesis in which AIM events are forced via internal oscillations in SO deep-convection. The quasi-periodic timescale of deep-convection events is set by heat (buoyancy) accumulation at SO intermediate depths and stochastic variability in sea ice conditions and freshening at the surface. Massive heat release from the SO convective zone drives Antarctic and large-scale southern hemisphere warming via a two-stage process involving changes in the location of Southern Ocean fronts, in the strength and intensity of the Westerlies and in meridional ocean and atmospheric heat flux anomalies. The potential for AIM events to be driven by internal Southern Ocean processes and the identification of time-lags internal to the southern high latitudes challenges conventional views on the North Atlantic as the pacemaker of millennial-scale climate variability.

  17. Southern Ocean Deep-Convection as a Driver of Centennial-to-Millennial-Scale Climate Variability at Southern High Latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedro, J. B.; Martin, T.; Steig, E. J.; Jochum, M.; Park, W.; Rasmussen, S.

    2014-12-01

    Antarctic Isotope Maxima (AIM) are centennial-to-millennial scale warming events observed in Antarctic ice core records from the last glacial period and deglaciation. Mounting evidence links AIM events to parallel variations in atmospheric CO2, Southern Ocean (SO) sea surface temperatures and Antarctic Bottom Water production. According to the prevailing view, AIM events are forced from the North Atlantic by melt-water discharge from ice sheets suppressing the production of North Atlantic Deep Water and associated northward heat transport in the Atlantic. However observations and model studies increasingly suggest that melt-water fluxes have the wrong timing to be invoked as such a trigger. Here, drawing on results form the Kiel Climate Model, we present an alternative hypothesis in which AIM events are forced via internal oscillations in SO deep-convection. The quasi-periodic timescale of deep-convection events is set by heat (buoyancy) accumulation at SO intermediate depths and stochastic variability in sea ice conditions and freshening at the surface. Massive heat release from the SO convective zone drives Antarctic and large-scale southern hemisphere warming via a two-stage process involving changes in the location of Southern Ocean fronts, in the strength and intensity of the Westerlies and in meridional ocean and atmospheric heat flux anomalies. The potential for AIM events to be driven by internal Southern Ocean processes and the identification of time-lags internal to the southern high latitudes challenges conventional views on the North Atlantic as the pacemaker of millennial-scale climate variability.

  18. Southern Ocean warming delayed by circumpolar upwelling and equatorward transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armour, Kyle C.; Marshall, John; Scott, Jeffery R.; Donohoe, Aaron; Newsom, Emily R.

    2016-07-01

    The Southern Ocean has shown little warming over recent decades, in stark contrast to the rapid warming observed in the Arctic. Along the northern flank of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, however, the upper ocean has warmed substantially. Here we present analyses of oceanographic observations and general circulation model simulations showing that these patterns--of delayed warming south of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current and enhanced warming to the north--are fundamentally shaped by the Southern Ocean's meridional overturning circulation: wind-driven upwelling of unmodified water from depth damps warming around Antarctica; greenhouse gas-induced surface heat uptake is largely balanced by anomalous northward heat transport associated with the equatorward flow of surface waters; and heat is preferentially stored where surface waters are subducted to the north. Further, these processes are primarily due to passive advection of the anomalous warming signal by climatological ocean currents; changes in ocean circulation are secondary. These findings suggest the Southern Ocean responds to greenhouse gas forcing on the centennial, or longer, timescale over which the deep ocean waters that are upwelled to the surface are warmed themselves. It is against this background of gradual warming that multidecadal Southern Ocean temperature trends must be understood.

  19. The Big Flood: North Sea storm surge.

    PubMed

    McRobie, Allan; Spencer, Tom; Gerritsen, Herman

    2005-06-15

    In the 50 years since the catastrophic southern North Sea storm surge of 31 January-1 February 1953, there have been technological advances in the engineering of flood protection, increased understanding of physical processes in shallow seas and estuaries, and developments in the mathematical statistics of extreme events. This introductory paper reviews how the scientific understanding of surge events, their impacts and the human responses to them is evolving on many fronts, often across disciplinary boundaries. The question of how the long-term nature of the problem itself will be influenced by possible climate, land use and policy changes is addressed, along with their associated uncertainties.

  20. North-South precipitation patterns in western North America on interannual-to-decadal timescales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dettinger, M.D.; Cayan, D.R.; Diaz, Henry F.; Meko, D.M.

    1998-01-01

    The overall amount of precipitation deposited along the West Coast and western cordillera of North America from 25??to 55??N varies from year to year, and superimposed on this domain-average variability are varying north-south contrasts on timescales from at least interannual to interdecadal. In order to better understand the north-south precipitation contrasts, their interannual and decadal variations are studied in terms of how much they affect overall precipitation amounts and how they are related to large-scale climatic patterns. Spatial empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) and spatial moments (domain average, central latitude, and latitudinal spread) of zonally averaged precipitation anomalies along the westernmost parts of North America are analyzed, and each is correlated with global sea level pressure (SLP) and sea surface temperature series, on interannual (defined here as 3-7 yr) and decadal (>7 yr) timescales. The interannual band considered here corresponds to timescales that are particularly strong in tropical climate variations and thus is expected to contain much precipitation variability that is related to El Nino-Southern Oscillation; the decadal scale is defined so as to capture the whole range of long-term climatic variations affecting western North America. Zonal EOFs of the interannual and decadal filtered versions of the zonal-precipitation series are remarkably similar. At both timescales, two leading EOFs describe 1) a north-south seesaw of precipitation pivoting near 40??N and 2) variations in precipitation near 40??N, respectively. The amount of overall precipitation variability is only about 10% of the mean and is largely determined by precipitation variations around 40??-45??N and most consistently influenced by nearby circulation patterns; in this sense, domain-average precipitation is closely related to the second EOF. The central latitude and latitudinal spread of precipitation distributions are strongly influenced by precipitation

  1. Shoe spill in the North Pacific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebbesmeyer, Curtis C.; Ingraham, , W. James, Jr.

    Approximately 80,000 Nike brand shoes were lost overboard on May 27, 1990, in the north Pacific Ocean (˜48°N 161°W Figure 2). Six months to a year later, thousands of shoes washed ashore in North America from southern Oregon to the Queen Charlotte Islands. Figure 1 shows six shoes found on the beach. We have gathered beachcomber reports and compared the inferred shoe drift with an oceanographic hindcast model and historical drift bottle returns. This spill-of- opportunity provided a calibration point for the model; computer runs for 1946-1991 suggested that drift of floatable material across the northeast Pacific Ocean for May 1990-January 1991 was farther south than the mean of the forty-five simulations.

  2. Cross folding in southern Bighorn basin

    SciTech Connect

    Gubbels, T.L.

    1986-08-01

    Analysis of Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery coupled with surface structural investigations of well-exposed folds in the southern Bighorn basin have revealed two northwest-trending folds that have been refolded. The eastern boundary of the Owl Creek Mountains is characterized by a well-defined alignment of folds that extend north-northwest from the Owl Creek thrust front. Bridger monocline, Wildhorse Butte anticline, and Red Hole anticline lie along this trend. Initial Laramide folding, probably during latest Cretaceous time, resulted in a single, continuous, north-northwest-trending anticline with a southwestward vergence. This anticline was progressively unfolded from south to north as the Owl Creek Range was thrust southward over the Wind River basin in earliest Eocene time; scissors-like vertical motion along this flexure rotated the axial surface of the early formed Bridger anticline, resulting in a monocline with a reversed vergence (northeastward). Formation of the Thermopolis/East Warm Springs anticline parallel to the north flank of the range accompanied thrusting and effectively refolded the northern end of the Wildhorse Butte anticline along an east-west axis. Faulting of the oversteepened south limb of the Red Hole cross fold was contemporaneous with folding. Cross-cutting fold axes in this area and the Mud Creek area to the west are best explained by a counterclockwise change in stress direction during the latest phase of the Laramide orogeny. Vertical movement along the eastern side of the Owl Creek Range results from differential motion in the hanging wall of the crystalline thrust sheet.

  3. Plate-induced Miocene extension in southern California

    SciTech Connect

    Stuart, W.D. Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA )

    1992-01-01

    Miocene crustal extension in southern California can be explained by the interaction of tectonic plates in relative motion. The Pacific, Juan de Fuca, and Farallon (Guadalupe) plates are represented by flat elastic plates surrounded by an infinite elastic plate, the eastern part of which represents the North America plate. Forcing is by assigned subduction pull, and tractions at all plate boundaries satisfy a viscous constitutive law. Plate bottoms are stress-free. In the first part of the solution plate velocities and boundary tractions are found from static equilibrium. Then principal horizontal stresses and strains in plate interiors caused by tractions and subduction pull are found by a boundary element procedure. Using plate boundary geometry from Stock and Hodges for early- and mid-Miocene times, it is found that the portion of the North America plate margin between the Mendocino and Rivera triple junctions has maximum extensional strain directed westward. This result is generally consistent with directions associated with metamorphic core complex formation in southern California. The model is also consistent with extensional strain and rotation sense of crustal blocks in the vicinity of Los Angeles, as inferred by Luyendyk and others from paleomagnetic data. In the model the greatest extensional strain of the North America plate occurs near the Pacific-North America transform, in the area above the absent Farallon slab. Extension direction varies from northwest to southwest according to plate geometry, subduction pull (Juan de Fuca and Guadalupe), and plate boundary tractions.

  4. Mass Balance of Multiyear Sea Ice in the Southern Beaufort Sea

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    seaice.alaska.edu/gi/ LONG-TERM GOALS 1) Determination of the net growth and melt of multiyear (MY) sea ice during its transit through the southern Beaufort...states of the Arctic ice pack OBJECTIVES We have four main scientific objectives: I) Estimation of MY ice volume entrained into the Beaufort Sea from...north of Canada The region north of the Canadian Archipelago contains some of the oldest and thickest ice in the Arctic and the amount of this ice

  5. Diamonds in an upper mantle peridotite nodule from kimberlite in southern wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McCallum, M.E.; Eggler, D.H.

    1976-01-01

    Diamonds in a serpentinized garnet peridotite nodule from a diatreme in southern Wyoming are the first known occurrence in an upper mantle peridotite xenolith from a kimberlite intrusion in North America as well as the second authenticated occurrence of diamonds from kimberlite pipes in North America. The nodule is believed to have come from a section of depleted (partially melted) Iherzolite at a depth of 130 to 180 kilometers.

  6. Diamonds in an upper mantle peridotite nodule from kimberlite in southern wyoming.

    PubMed

    McCallum, M E; Eggler, D H

    1976-04-16

    Diamonds in a serpentinized garnet peridotite nodule from a diatreme in southern Wyoming are the first known occurrence in an upper mantle peridotite xenolith from a kimberlite intrusion in North America as well as the second authenticated occurrence of diamonds from kimberlite pipes in North America. The nodule is believed to have come from a section of depleted (partially melted) lherzolite at a depth of 130 to 180 kilometers.

  7. Atmospheric Teleconnections of Northern Hemisphere cooling to the Southern Hemisphere midlatitudes, and implications for Southern Ocean ventilation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiang, John; Lee, Shih-Yu; Matsumoto, Katsumi; Tokos, Kathy

    2010-05-01

    Recent marine proxy studies, most notably by Anderson et al. (2009), show intensification of wind-driven upwelling in the Southern Ocean during Heinrich events, and suggesting the possibility of robust atmospheric teleconnections from the Northern Hemisphere affecting the Southern Hemisphere midlatitude westerlies. We explore the latter hypothesis using simulations of an AGCM coupled to a reduced-gravity ocean, and with reference to current thinking regarding extratropical-tropical atmospheric dynamical linkages. When we simulate a Heinrich-like event in our model (by cooling the North Atlantic), we find a significant strengthening of the southern midlatitude westerlies, in particular during the austral winter (JJA), and in the South Pacific. The other pronounced climate change is a marked southward shift of the tropical rainbelt, indicating alteration of the Hadley circulation. Our analysis indicates that the teleconnection can be broken into two parts: first, the northern hemisphere cooling shifting the ITCZ southwards with a pronounced effect on the Hadley circulation (Lindzen and Hou 1988), and then the altered Hadley circulation in turn affecting the southern midlatitude westerlies through the former's control of the southern subtropical westerlies and subsequent effect on the eddy-driven midlatitude westerlies (Lee and Kim, 2003). The seasonal (JJA) and regional (South Pacific) preference of the teleconnection's effects can be explained in terms of the peculiarities of the regional atmospheric dynamics. As an aside, we also find that the growth or decay of the Laurentide ice sheet can also generate this type of north-south teleconnection, although the dynamics are somewhat different. With regards to possible implications for southern ocean ventilation and atmospheric CO2: we applied the wind changes we obtained in our AGCM 'Heinrich' simulation to a global biogeochemical model (the Minnesota Earth System Model for Ocean biogeochemistry), and found a ~20ppm

  8. 1. West portal of Tunnel 3, contextual view to north ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. West portal of Tunnel 3, contextual view to north from milepost 537.6, 210mm lens. The single-lens searchlight-type block signals are Southern Pacific Common Standard signals, a type in use since the 1920s. Many of these have been replaced system-wide as a result of various mergers since the 1980s. Located in the Diamond Peak Wilderness of Willamette National Forest, Tunnel 3 passes beneath Pengra Pass. - Southern Pacific Railroad Natron Cutoff, Tunnel 3, Milepost 537.77, Odell Lake, Klamath County, OR

  9. BETR North America: A regionally segmented multimedia contaminant fate model for North America

    SciTech Connect

    MacLeod, M.; Woodfine, D.G.; Mackay, D.; McKone, T.E.; Bennett, D.H.; Maddalena, R.L.

    2001-03-01

    We present the Berkeley-Trent North American contaminant fate model (BETR North America), a regionally segmented multimedia contaminant fate model based on the fugacity concept. The model is built on a framework that links contaminant fate models of individual regions, and is generally applicable to large, spatially heterogeneous areas. The North American environment is modeled as 24 ecological regions, within each region contaminant fate is described using a 7 compartment multimedia fugacity model including a vertically segmented atmosphere, freshwater, freshwater sediment, soil, coastal water and vegetation compartments. Inter-regional transport of contaminants in the atmosphere, freshwater and coastal water is described using a database of hydrological and meteorological data compiled with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) techniques. Steady-state and dynamic solutions to the 168 mass balance equations that make up the linked model for North America are discussed, and an illustrative case study of toxaphene transport from the southern United States to the Great Lakes Basin is presented. Regionally segmented models such as BETR North America can provide a critical link between evaluative models of long-range transport potential and contaminant concentrations observed in remote regions. The continent-scale mass balance calculated by the model provides a sound basis for evaluating long-range transport potential of organic pollutants, and formulation of continent scale management and regulatory strategies for chemicals.

  10. Variable North Pacific influence on drought in southwestern North America since AD 854

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCabe-Glynn, Staryl; Johnson, Kathleen R.; Strong, Courtenay; Berkelhammer, Max; Sinha, Ashish; Cheng, Hai; Edwards, R. Lawrence

    2013-08-01

    Precipitation in southwestern North America has exhibited significant natural variability over the past few thousand years. This variability has been attributed to sea surface temperature regimes in the Pacific and Atlantic oceans, and to the attendant shifts in atmospheric circulation patterns. In particular, decadal variability in the North Pacific has influenced precipitation in this region during the twentieth century, but links to earlier droughts and pluvials are unclear. Here we assess these links using δ18O data from a speleothem from southern California that spans AD 854-2007. We show that variations in the oxygen isotopes of the speleothem correlate to sea surface temperatures in the Kuroshio Extension region of the North Pacific, which affect the atmospheric trajectory and isotopic composition of moisture reaching the study site. Interpreting our speleothem data as a record of sea surface temperatures in the Kuroshio Extension, we find a strong 22-year periodicity, suggesting a persistent solar influence on North Pacific decadal variability. A comparison with tree-ring records of precipitation during the past millennium shows that some droughts occurred during periods of warmth in the Kuroshio Extension, similar to the instrumental record. However, other droughts did not and instead must have been influenced by other factors. Finally, we find a significant increase in sea surface temperature variability over the past 150 years, which may reflect an influence of greenhouse gas concentrations on variability in the North Pacific.

  11. Northerners versus southerners: Italian anthropology and psychology faced with the "southern question".

    PubMed

    Cimino, Guido; Foschi, Renato

    2014-11-01

    Following the Unification of Italy (1861), when confronted with the underdevelopment problems of the south that had given rise to the so-called "southern question," some Italian anthropologists and psychologists began to study the populations of the south from the psycho-anthropological point of view. These scientists, at times subject to preconceived ideas toward the southerners, conveyed observations and descriptions of the southern character traits that, in general, were considered different, in a negative sense, with respect to those of the northern peoples. To explain such diversity in the "psychological" characteristics between the north and south of the country (presumed cause also of the south's backwardness), various hypotheses were advanced related to the kind of heredity theory adopted, which could be of, more or less, an "innatist" or "transformist" or "environmentalist" kind. The distinction proposed in this article between at least 2 different "hereditarian" theories formulated by the Italian scientists, and the confrontation of these theories with the hypotheses expressed by the "southernist" sociologists, contrary to the idea of "racial varieties" present in the Italian population, allows one to understand in what way and in what sense, at the threshold of the 20th century, there arose the ideology of "Nordicism" and the roots of racism were planted.

  12. Effects of Southern Hemisphere Wind Changes on the Meridional Overturning Circulation in Ocean Models.

    PubMed

    Gent, Peter R

    2016-01-01

    Observations show that the Southern Hemisphere zonal wind stress maximum has increased significantly over the past 30 years. Eddy-resolving ocean models show that the resulting increase in the Southern Ocean mean flow meridional overturning circulation (MOC) is partially compensated by an increase in the eddy MOC. This effect can be reproduced in the non-eddy-resolving ocean component of a climate model, providing the eddy parameterization coefficient is variable and not a constant. If the coefficient is a constant, then the Southern Ocean mean MOC change is balanced by an unrealistically large change in the Atlantic Ocean MOC. Southern Ocean eddy compensation means that Southern Hemisphere winds cannot be the dominant mechanism driving midlatitude North Atlantic MOC variability.

  13. Regional Variations in Low Frequency Transport Variability of the Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makowski, Jessica; Chambers, Don

    2016-04-01

    Using ocean bottom pressure data from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and the ECCO2 state estimate, we estimate the variability of the low frequency zonal transport in the Southern Ocean. The interannual variations and trend estimates from calculated transport variability differ as the east-west averaging area and north-south boundaries change. We look at various study areas throughout the Southern Ocean, including west of the Drake Passage, in order to determine the regional variability and coherency within the Southern Ocean. We have observed a high coherency between the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) and interannual variability in the transport south of Australia, and further investigate how other regions respond to the SAM and zonally averaged Southern Hemisphere winds.

  14. [Vaccines: producers in countries of the Southern hemisphere].

    PubMed

    Bertrand, J J

    2007-08-01

    Vaccine producers in southern hemisphere countries now contribute significantly to global output. In 2006 southern hemisphere countries accounted for more than 10% of the total worldwide production with a progression approximately 70% greater than all producers combined in the two-year period between 2004 and 2006. Though difficult to measure, production in volume is higher due to lower prices practiced in most of these countries. For many years before the 1980s, production was scattered among numerous limited-scale companies. Most were founded at the initiative of governments striving to cover the needs of the population for essential vaccines. A number of institutions and private structures such as Institut Pasteur Production, Connaught Laboratories, and Institut Merieux have also set up production facilities. Today's producers can be divided into two categories, i.e., local producers that produce mainly monovalent vaccines and worldwide producers with strong R&D investment programs. Local producers are located mainly in large southern hemisphere countries such as China, India, Brazil, and Indonesia as well as in eastern countries. For the most dynamic companies, international development is focused on southern hemisphere countries excluding North America and Europe. With the support international organization such as WHO, UNICEF and GAVI, alliances are now being formed and networks are being organized in an effort to ensure reliable supplies of high quality vaccines at affordable prices in developing countries. The contribution of these producers will increase for the greater benefit of the people living in the southern hemisphere.

  15. The floras of southern and tropical southeastern Yunnan have been shaped by divergent geological histories.

    PubMed

    Hua, Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The southern and tropical southeastern regions of the Yunnan Province in southwestern China have similar monsoonal climates and lowland tropical rain forest vegetations. The floras of both regions are dominated by tropical floristic elements (78.3% in southern Yunnan and 68.83% in southeastern Yunnan), and both belong to the Indo-Malaysian flora at the northern margin of tropical Asia. However, some temperate East Asian characteristic families are well represented in the flora of tropical southeastern Yunnan, while families characteristic of tropical Asia are well represented in the flora of southern Yunnan. Additionally, there are 14 mainly east Asian families in tropical southeastern Yunnan that are not found in southern Yunnan. Although the two regions share 80% of their genera, 237 genera are restricted to southern Yunnan, and 349 genera to tropical southeastern Yunnan. Furthermore, 57 genera with an East Asian distribution, 53 genera with a North temperate distribution, 22 genera endemic to China, and 17 genera with an East Asia and North America disjunct distribution are found only in tropical southeastern Yunnan. The flora of tropical southeastern Yunnan is more closely related to Eastern Asian flora, while the flora of southern Yunnan is more closely related to Indo-Malaysian flora. The divergence of the flora is well supported by the geological history of the region; the flora of tropical southeastern Yunnan was mainly derived from the South China Geoblock, while the southern Yunnan flora derived from the Shan-Thai Geoblock.

  16. The Floras of Southern and Tropical Southeastern Yunnan Have Been Shaped by Divergent Geological Histories

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Zhu

    2013-01-01

    The southern and tropical southeastern regions of the Yunnan Province in southwestern China have similar monsoonal climates and lowland tropical rain forest vegetations. The floras of both regions are dominated by tropical floristic elements (78.3% in southern Yunnan and 68.83% in southeastern Yunnan), and both belong to the Indo-Malaysian flora at the northern margin of tropical Asia. However, some temperate East Asian characteristic families are well represented in the flora of tropical southeastern Yunnan, while families characteristic of tropical Asia are well represented in the flora of southern Yunnan. Additionally, there are 14 mainly east Asian families in tropical southeastern Yunnan that are not found in southern Yunnan. Although the two regions share 80% of their genera, 237 genera are restricted to southern Yunnan, and 349 genera to tropical southeastern Yunnan. Furthermore, 57 genera with an East Asian distribution, 53 genera with a North temperate distribution, 22 genera endemic to China, and 17 genera with an East Asia and North America disjunct distribution are found only in tropical southeastern Yunnan. The flora of tropical southeastern Yunnan is more closely related to Eastern Asian flora, while the flora of southern Yunnan is more closely related to Indo-Malaysian flora. The divergence of the flora is well supported by the geological history of the region; the flora of tropical southeastern Yunnan was mainly derived from the South China Geoblock, while the southern Yunnan flora derived from the Shan-Thai Geoblock. PMID:23724036

  17. 78 FR 43141 - Foreign-Trade Zone 93-Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Foreign-Trade Zone 93--Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina, Authorization of Production Activity, Southern Lithoplate, Inc. (Aluminum Printing Plates), Youngsville, North Carolina...

  18. Fires in Southern Georgia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Several large fires were burning in southern Georgia on April 29, 2007, when the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite passed overhead and captured this image. Places where MODIS detected actively burning fires are outlined in red. The Roundabout Fire sprang up on April 27, according to the U.S. Southern Area Coordination Center, and was about 3,500 acres as of April 30. That fire was threatening homes in the community of Kirkland. Meanwhile, south of Waycross, two large blazes were burning next to each other in the northern part of Okefenokee Swamp. The Sweat Farm Road Fire threatened the town of Waycross in previous weeks, but at the end of April, activity had moved to the southeastern perimeter. The fire had affected more than 50,000 acres of timber (including pine tree plantations) and swamps. Scores of residences scattered throughout the rural area are threatened. The Big Turnaround Complex is burning to the east. The 26,000-acre fire was extremely active over the weekend, with flame lengths more than 60 feet (just over 18 meters) in places. The two blazes appeared to overlap in fire perimeter maps available from the U.S. Geospatial Multi-Agency Coordination Team. According to the Southern Area Coordination Center morning report on April 30, the Sweat Farm Road Fire 'will be a long term fire. Containment and control will depend on significant rainfall, due to the inaccessible swamp terrain.' No expected containment date was available for the Big Turnaround Complex Fire, either. Describing that fire, the report stated, 'Heavy fuel loading, high fire danger, and difficulty of access continue to hamper suppression efforts.' The large image provided above has a spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response Team provides twice-daily images of the region in additional resolutions. They also provide a version of the image that shows smoke plumes stretching out across the Atlantic Ocean.

  19. Southern Sky Redshift Survey

    SciTech Connect

    Da Costa, L.N.; Pellegrini, P.S.; Sargent, W.L.W.; Tonry, J.; Davis, M.

    1988-04-01

    The general characteristics of the space distribution of galaxies in the SSRS sample, covering the southern Galactic cap, are examined, and maps of the space distribution are presented. The sample consists of 2028 galaxies in an area of 1.75 sr with declination south of -17.5 deg and galactic latitude below -30 deg. The survey provides useful information on large-scale structure to a depth of 120/h Mpc. The galaxy distribution exhibits prominent filaments, sheets, and voids. Some large-scale structures are highly subclustered; others are much more diffuse. 21 references.

  20. North American Biome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The North America biome includes the major ecoregions that make up the land area of Canada, the United States, Mexico, and countries in Central America. The biome is bordered to the north by the Arctic Ocean, to the east by the Atlantic Ocean, to the west and south by the Pacific Ocean, and to the s...

  1. 17. Interior first level view looking north within forward (north) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Interior first level view looking north within forward (north) section of firing pier. - Naval Torpedo Station, Firing Pier, North end of Gould Island in Narragansett Bay, Newport, Newport County, RI

  2. North view; Canopy detail and platformlevel freight elevator North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    North view; Canopy detail and platform-level freight elevator - North Philadelphia Station, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  3. NORTH GATE AT 11TH AVENUE (490 NORTH & 900 EAST), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    NORTH GATE AT 11TH AVENUE (490 NORTH & 900 EAST), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT CEMETERY'S NORTH GATE (WPA PROJECT, 1938-1941). - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  4. WEST PIER OF NORTH GATE (490 NORTH & 900 EAST), ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    WEST PIER OF NORTH GATE (490 NORTH & 900 EAST), SALT LAKE CITY, UT. VIEW LOOKING SOUTH AT THE WEST PIER OF THE CEMETERY'S NORTH GATE. - Salt Lake City Cemetery, 200 N Street, Salt Lake City, Salt Lake County, UT

  5. INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, AN ACTIVE DOLOMITE QUARRY, LOOKING NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    INTERIOR VIEW, NORTH QUARRY, AN ACTIVE DOLOMITE QUARRY, LOOKING NORTH TO THE POWER PLANT OF THE HISTORIC THOMAS COKEWORKS SITE. - Wade Sand & Gravel Company, North Quarry, State Highway 78, Thomas, Jefferson County, AL

  6. 626628 North Eutaw Street (Commercial Building), 626628 North Eutaw Street ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    626-628 North Eutaw Street (Commercial Building), 626-628 North Eutaw Street & 400-412 Druid Hill Avenue on a block bounded by North Eutaw Street, George Street, Jaspar Street, & Druid Hill Avenue, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  7. Detail; Street Car Waiting House window, north wall North ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail; Street Car Waiting House window, north wall - North Philadelphia Station, Street Car Waiting House, 2900 North Broad Street, on northwest corner of Broad Street & Glenwood Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  8. 52. GREAT HALL, LOOKING NORTH THROUGH STAIR HALL TO NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. GREAT HALL, LOOKING NORTH THROUGH STAIR HALL TO NORTH VESTIBULE DOORS - Smithsonian Institution Building, 1000 Jefferson Drive, between Ninth & Twelfth Streets, Southwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  9. EAST (FRONT) AND NORTH SIDE OF DOUBLE FURNACE AND NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    EAST (FRONT) AND NORTH SIDE OF DOUBLE FURNACE AND NORTH SIDE OF SINGLE FURNACE, SOUTHWEST. - Tannehill Furnace, 12632 Confederate Parkway, Tannehill Historical State Park, Bucksville, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  10. Southern Ocean eddy phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frenger, I.; Münnich, M.; Gruber, N.; Knutti, R.

    2015-11-01

    Mesoscale eddies are ubiquitous features in the Southern Ocean, yet their phenomenology is not well quantified. To tackle this task, we use satellite observations of sea level anomalies and sea surface temperature (SST) as well as in situ temperature and salinity measurements from profiling floats. Over the period 1997-2010, we identified over a million mesoscale eddy instances and were able to track about 105 of them over 1 month or more. The Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC), the boundary current systems, and the regions where they interact are hot spots of eddy presence, representing also the birth places and graveyards of most eddies. These hot spots contrast strongly to areas shallower than about 2000 m, where mesoscale eddies are essentially absent, likely due to topographical steering. Anticyclones tend to dominate the southern subtropical gyres, and cyclones the northern flank of the ACC. Major causes of regional polarity dominance are larger formation numbers and lifespans, with a contribution of differential propagation pathways of long-lived eddies. Areas of dominance of one polarity are generally congruent with the same polarity being longer-lived, bigger, of larger amplitude, and more intense. Eddies extend down to at least 2000 m. In the ACC, eddies show near surface temperature and salinity maxima, whereas eddies in the subtropical areas generally have deeper anomaly maxima, presumably inherited from their origin in the boundary currents. The temperature and salinity signatures of the average eddy suggest that their tracer anomalies are a result of both trapping in the eddy core and stirring.

  11. Astrophysics in Southern Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitelock, Patricia

    2008-03-01

    The government of South Africa has identified astronomy as a field in which their country has a strategic advantage and is consequently investing very significantly in astronomical infrastructure. South Africa now operates a 10-m class optical telescope, the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT), and is one of two countries short listed to host the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), an ambitious international project to construct a radio telescope with a sensitivity one hundred times that of any existing telescope. The challenge now is to produce an indigenous community of users for these facilities, particularly from among the black population which was severely disadvantaged under the apartheid regime. In this paper I briefly describe the observing facilities in Southern Africa before going on to discuss the various collaborations that are allowing us to use astronomy as a tool for development, and at the same time to train a new generation of astronomers who will be well grounded in the science and linked to their colleagues internationally.

  12. A dynamic mass budget for toxaphene in North America.

    PubMed

    MacLeod, Matthew; Woodfine, David; Brimacombe, Jenn; Toose, Liisa; Mackay, Don

    2002-08-01

    A continental-scale dynamic mass budget for toxaphene in North America is presented, based on available information on physicochemical properties, usage patterns, and reported environmental concentrations and using the Berkeley-Trent North American mass balance contaminant fate model (BETR North America). The model describes contaminant fate in 24 ecological regions of North America, including advective transport between regions in the atmosphere, freshwater, and near-shore coastal water. The dynamic mass budget accounts for environmental partitioning, transport, and degradation of the estimated 534 million kg of toxaphene that were used in North America as an insecticide and piscicide between 1945 and 2000. Satisfactory agreement exists between model results and current and historically reported concentrations of toxaphene in air, water, soil, and sediments throughout North America. An estimated 15 million kg of toxaphene are believed to remain in active circulation in the North American environment in the year 2000, with the majority in soils in the southern United States and Mexico, where historic usage was highest. Approximately 70% of total toxaphene deposition from the atmosphere to the Great Lakes is attributed to sources outside the Great Lakes Basin, and an estimated total of 3.9 million kg of toxaphene have been transported to this region from other parts of the continent. The toxaphene mass budget presented here is believed to be the first reported continental-scale multimedia mass budget for any contaminant.

  13. North European Transect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korja, Annakaisa; Heikkinen, Pekka J.; Roslov, Yuri; Ivanova, Nina; Verba, Marc; Sakoulina, Tamara

    2010-05-01

    A nearly continuous, 3600 km long, NE-running North European Transect (NET) is combined from the existing deep seismic reflection data sets in the Baltic Sea (BABEL, 1600 km), Northern Finland (FIRE 4-4A, 580 km) and Barents Sea (1-AR, 1440 km;). The reflective image of the deep crust is highly dependent on the thickness of the sedimentary cover. The cover is few hundred meters in the Baltic sea, few tens of meters in the land areas and few kilometers in the Barents Sea area. In the Barents Sea area, the seismic image is dominated by the layered structure of the sedimentary basins and the middle and lower crust are poorly imaged. Therefore the Moho boundary in the Barents Sea has been determined from wide-angle reflections. Geologically the transect covers the transition from Phanerozoic Europe to Precambrian Europe and back to the Phanerozoic Barents Sea Shelf. It displays how Northern Europe grew around Baltica in several tectonic episodes involving the formation and destruction of Columbia/Hudsonland, Rodinia and Pangea supercontinents. The paleo plateboundaries are traversed by subvertical transparent zones suggesting transpressional and trantensional environments. The BABEL lines image how the core of Baltica was formed by sequential accretion of microcontinents and arc terranes at the old continental margin during the Svecofennian Orogeny ~1.9-1.8 Ga .When Baltica joined the Columbia supercontinent, new terranes were added to its southern edge in the Sveocbaltic Orogeny (~1.8 Ga). During the dispersal of the Columbia, the Baltic Sea failed rift was formed, rapakivi granitoids were intruded and sedimentary basins were developed. An extended plate margin structure has been imposed on the Rodinian (Sveconorwegian) and Pangean additions (Variscan-Caledonian). Major crustal thinning takes place along a series of subvertical faults across the Trans-European Suture Zone marking the transition from Phanerozoic to Proterozoic Europe. The FIRE lines in Northen Finland

  14. North Atlantic westerlies during the last millennium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasskog, Kristian; Bakke, Jostein; Ringkjøb Nielsen, Pål; Meidell, Susanne

    2015-04-01

    Understanding North Atlantic decadal-scale climate variability is crucial in order to make projections of future climate change and to assess anthropogenic impacts on climate. However, reconstructing past changes in atmospheric circulation patterns from proxy data is particularly challenging, and different proxy reconstructions often show conflicting results. Winter accumulation dominates the annual mass-balance of glaciers along the west coast of Norway, and because the winter accumulation is highly sensitive to changes in the strength of wintertime westerly winds, these glaciers are potentially valuable recorders of past atmospheric circulation. Here we present a 1200-year long spatiotemporal reconstruction of Nordfonna, a maritime plateau glacier in western Norway, based on an integrated study of terrestrial moraine sequences, sub-glacial topography, and multi-proxy records from two distal glacier-fed lakes located at the opposite sides of the glacier in a west-east transect. We use temporal changes in the west-to-east tilt of the Equilibrium-Line-Altitude (ELA) across the ice cap to infer the strength of North-Atlantic westerly winds over the past 1200 years, and validate our high-resolution (5-yr) record against instrumental data. While multidecadal fluctuations in the regional ELA can be explained largely by changes in North Atlantic sea surface temperatures (i.e. the AMO), our data suggests that the local 'Little Ice Age' maximum glacier expansion (AD 1700-1750) was caused mainly by strengthened wintertime westerlies. The wintertime westerlies over southern Norway are closely linked to the leading mode of atmospheric variability in the North Atlantic, known as the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), and our record therefore represents a unique proxy of past changes in the NAO.

  15. Geophysical Identification and Geological Implications of the Southern Alaska Magnetic Trough

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Saltus, R.W.; Hudson, T.L.; Wilson, F.H.

    2003-01-01

    The southern Alaska magnetic trough (SAMT) is one of the fundamental, crustal-scale, magnetic features of Alaska. It is readily recognized on 10 km upward-continued aeromagnetic maps of the state. The arcuate SAMT ranges from 30 to 100 km wide and extends in two separate segments along the southern Alaska margin for about 1200 km onshore (from near the Alaska/Canada border at about 60 degrees north latitude to the Bering Sea) and may continue an additional 500 km or more offshore (in the southern Bering Sea). The SAMT is bordered to the south by the southern Alaska magnetic high (SAMH) produced by strongly magnetic crust and to the north by a magnetically quiet zone that reflects weakly magnetic interior Alaska crust. Geophysically, the SAMT is more than just the north-side dipole low associated with the SAMH. Several modes of analysis, including examination of magnetic potential (pseudogravity) and profile modeling, indicate that the source of this magnetic trough is a discrete, crustal-scale body. Geologically, the western portion of the SAMT coincides to a large degree with collapsed Mesozoic Kahiltna flysch basin. This poster presents our geophysical evidence for the extent and geometry of this magnetic feature as well as initial geological synthesis and combined geologic/geophysical modeling to examine the implications of this feature for the broad scale tectonic framework of southern Alaska.

  16. Atmospheric teleconnections between the tropics and the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds during abrupt climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markle, B. R.; Steig, E. J.; Buizert, C.; Schoenemann, S. W.; Bitz, C. M.; Fudge, T. J.; Pedro, J. B.; Ding, Q.; Jones, T. R.; White, J. W. C.; Sowers, T. A.

    2015-12-01

    Abrupt, large amplitude climate oscillations occurred in the North Atlantic region during the last deglaciation and glacial period. Antarctic temperatures show a lagged and out-of-phase response, suggesting that these climate anomalies were propagated to the Southern Hemisphere high latitudes through changes in ocean circulation. Large changes in atmospheric circulation in the tropics accompanied abrupt North Atlantic climate change and modeling studies have predicted an atmospheric teleconnection between the tropics and the Southern Hemisphere westerly winds. However, consistent paleoclimate evidence for this tropical-high southern latitude atmospheric teleconnection has been lacking. Here we use a new high-resolution deuterium excess record from West Antarctica to show that moisture sources for Antarctic precipitation changed in phase with abrupt shifts in Northern Hemisphere climate, significantly before Antarctic temperature change. These results suggest that Southern Hemisphere mid-latitude storm tracks and westerly winds migrated north- and southwards within decades of rapid North Atlantic warming and cooling, respectively, and in parallel with the well-established migrations of the intertropical convergence zone. Both ocean and atmospheric processes, operating on different timescales, are critical to the global expression of abrupt climate change and this atmospheric link between the hemispheres may be important to the underlying dynamics.

  17. 40 CFR 81.152 - Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial... territorial area of all municipalities (as defined in section 302(f) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C....

  18. 40 CFR 81.152 - Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Designation of... Southern Coastal Plain Intrastate Air Quality Control Region (North Carolina) consists of the territorial... territorial area of all municipalities (as defined in section 302(f) of the Clean Air Act, 42 U.S.C....

  19. Relating El Nino-Southern oscillation climate conditions to irrigation strategies for increased cotton yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The global-scale El Nino–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) of sea surface temperature that causes monsoonal rain in India also affects precipitation in North America.The ENSO phases and related rain expectations have been used to limit climate uncertainties when producing wheat for grazing and grain. Insi...

  20. Forecast EL NIÑO–Southern oscillation phases and best irrigation strategies to increase cotton yield

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Equatorial Pacific sea surface temperatures cause a systematic El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) coupling with the atmosphere to produce predictable weather patterns in much of North America. Forecast ENSO phases and associated rainfall frequency and amount were related to modeled dual purpose whe...

  1. Genome Sequence of Southern tomato virus in Asymptomatic Tomato ‘Sweet Hearts’

    PubMed Central

    Alcalá-Briseño, Ricardo I.; Coşkan, Sevgi; Londoño, Maria A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The genome sequence of Southern tomato virus in asymptomatic Solanum lycopersicum ‘Sweet Hearts’ (STV-Florida) in Florida was assembled from small RNAs sequenced by Illumina RNA-seq. The STV-Florida genome shared 99.0 to 99.9% similarity with full genome sequences from Bangladesh, China, Mexico, and the United States (Mississippi and North Carolina). PMID:28209810

  2. 1. West portal of Tunnel 1, contextual view to north, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. West portal of Tunnel 1, contextual view to north, 135mm lens. The Central Pacific originally built Tunnel 1 in 1868; Southern Pacific widened it in 1913 to accommodate both the original and new mainline as it continued its double-tracking efforts east from Colfax to Blue CaÏon. - Central Pacific Transcontinental Railroad, Tunnel No. 1, Milepost 164.34, Blue Canyon, Placer County, CA

  3. A New Eocene Casquehead Lizard (Reptilia, Corytophanidae) from North America.

    PubMed

    Conrad, Jack L

    2015-01-01

    A new fossil showing affinities with extant Laemanctus offers the first clear evidence for a casquehead lizard (Corytophanidae) from the Eocene of North America. Along with Geiseltaliellus from roughly coeval rocks in central Europe, the new find further documents the tropical fauna present during greenhouse conditions in the northern mid-latitudes approximately 50 million years ago (Ma). Modern Corytophanidae is a neotropical clade of iguanian lizards ranging from southern Mexico to northern South America.

  4. A New Eocene Casquehead Lizard (Reptilia, Corytophanidae) from North America

    PubMed Central

    Conrad, Jack L.

    2015-01-01

    A new fossil showing affinities with extant Laemanctus offers the first clear evidence for a casquehead lizard (Corytophanidae) from the Eocene of North America. Along with Geiseltaliellus from roughly coeval rocks in central Europe, the new find further documents the tropical fauna present during greenhouse conditions in the northern mid-latitudes approximately 50 million years ago (Ma). Modern Corytophanidae is a neotropical clade of iguanian lizards ranging from southern Mexico to northern South America. PMID:26131767

  5. Habitat characteristics of North American tortoises: chapter 9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nussear, Kenneth E.; Tuberville, Tracey D.

    2014-01-01

    North American tortoises are distributed in semi-arid and temperate deserts and coastal regions of the southern United States and Mexico. The five species currently recognized each have specific habitat requirements, which they fulfill through their selection of, and interaction with unique habitat constituents. In this chapter we discuss the physiographic and geological associations, perennial and annual vegetation components, shelter sites, and climatic conditions associated with the species’ habitats, as well as the potential threats to their habitat.

  6. North Base Industrial Area Development Plan Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-01

    emission testing and lube oil and filter bays. In addition to the building, a parking area for approximately 70 vehicles would also be constructed... Hammond Avenue. Parking in some on-base areas is limited. Access to the North Base Industrial Area and the Poplar Road alternative locations is from a...facility complex in the northwestern, southern, and southeastern portion of the base. The large wind tunnels and aeronautical test equipment that

  7. Status of soil acidification in North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fenn, M.E.; Huntington, T.G.; Mclaughlin, S.B.; Eagar, C.; Gomez, A.; Cook, R.B.

    2006-01-01

    Forest soil acidification and depletion of nutrient cations have been reported for several forested regions in North America, predominantly in the eastern United States, including the northeast and in the central Appalachians, but also in parts of southeastern Canada and the southern U.S. Continuing regional inputs of nitrogen and sulfur are of concern because of leaching of base cations, increased availability of soil Al, and the accumulation and ultimate transmission of acidity from forest soils to streams. Losses of calcium from forest soils and forested watersheds have now been documented as a sensitive early indicator and a functionally significant response to acid deposition for a wide range of forest soils in North America. For red spruce, a clear link has been established between acidic deposition, alterations in calcium and aluminum supplies and increased sensitivity to winter injury. Cation depletion appears to contribute to sugar maple decline on some soils, specifically the high mortality rates observed in northern Pennsylvania over the last decade. While responses to liming have not been systematically examined in North America, in a study in Pennsylvania, restoring basic cations through liming increased basal area growth of sugar maple and levels of calcium and magnesium in soil and foliage. In the San Bernardino Mountains in southern California near the west coast, the pH of the A horizon has declined by at least 2 pH units (to pH 4.0-4.3) over the past 30 years, with no detrimental effects on bole growth; presumably, because of the Mediterranean climate, base cation pools are still high and not limiting for plant growth.

  8. Seismotectonic implications of sand blows in the southern Mississippi Embayment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, R.T.; Hill, A.A.; Larsen, D.; Holzer, T.; Forman, S.L.; Noce, T.; Gardner, C.; Morat, J.

    2007-01-01

    We explore seismically-induced sand blows from the southern Mississippi Embayment and their implications in resolving the question of near or distal epicentral source region. This was accomplished using aerial photography, field excavations, and cone penetration tests. Our analysis shows that three sand blow fields exhibit a distinct chronology of strong ground motion for the southern embayment: (1) The Ashley County, Arkansas sand blow field, near the Arkansas/Louisiana state border, experienced four Holocene sand venting episodes; (2) to the north, the Desha County field experienced at least three episodes of liquefaction; and (3) the Lincoln-Jefferson Counties field experienced at least one episode. Cone penetration tests (CPT) conducted in and between the sand blow fields suggest that the fields may not be distal liquefaction associated with New Madrid seismic zone earthquakes but rather are likely associated with strong earthquakes on local faults. This conclusion is consistent with the differences in timing of the southern embayment sand venting episodes and those in the New Madrid seismic zone. These results suggest that active tectonism and strong seismicity in intraplate North America may not be localized at isolated weak spots, but rather widespread on fault systems that are favorably oriented for slip in the contemporary stress field. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Southern California Daily Energy Report

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    EIA has updated its Southern California Daily Energy Report to provide additional information on key energy market indicators for the winter season. The dashboard includes information that EIA regularly compiles about energy operations and the management of natural gas and electricity systems in Southern California in the aftermath of a leak at the Aliso Canyon natural gas storage facility outside of Los Angeles

  10. Evolution of Modern Deepwater Circulation: Evidence from the Late Miocene Southern Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, James D.; Miller, Kenneth G.; Fairbanks, Richard G.

    1991-04-01

    Deepwater circulation plays an important role in climate modulation through its redistribution of heat and salt and its control of atmospheric CO2. Oppo and Fairbanks (1987) showed that the Southern Ocean is an excellent monitor of deepwater circulation changes for two reasons: (1) the Southern Ocean is a mixing reservoir for incoming North Atlantic Deep Water and recirculated water from the Pacific and Indian oceans; and (2) the nutrient/δ13C tracers of deepwater are not significantly changed by surficial processes within the Southern Ocean. We can extend these principles to the late Miocene because tectonic changes in the Oligocene and early and middle Miocene developed near-modern basinal configurations. However, on these time scales, changes in the oceanic carbon reservoir and mean ocean nutrient levels also affect the δ13C differences between ocean basins. From 9.8 to 9.3 Ma, Southern Ocean δ13C values oscillated between high North Atlantic values and low Pacific values. The Southern Ocean recorded δ13C values similar to Pacific values from 9.2 to 8.9 Ma, reflecting a low contribution of Northern Component Water (NCW). The δ13C differences between the NCW and Pacific Outflow Water (POW) end-members were low from 8.9 to 8.0 Ma, making it difficult to discern circulation patterns. NCW production may have completely shutdown at 8.6 Ma, allowing Southern Component Water (SCW) to fill the North Atlantic and causing the δ13C values in the North Atlantic, Pacific, and Southern oceans to converge. Deepwater δ13C patterns resembling the modern distributions evolved by 7.0 Ma: δ13C values were near 1.0‰ in the North Atlantic; 0.0‰ in the Pacific; and 0.5‰ in the Southern Ocean. Development of near-modern δ13C distributions by 7.0 Ma resulted not only from an increase in NCW flux but also from an increase in deepwater nutrient levels. Both of these processes increased the δ13C difference between the North Atlantic and Pacific oceans. Deepwater circulation

  11. IR: A Look towards the 1980's and Institutional Research and Student Aid. Proceedings, Sixth Annual Meeting of the North Carolina Association for Institutional Research and the Drive-In Conference, Charlotte, November 1-2, 1978, and Southern Pines, August 10-11, 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Charles I., Ed.; Sanford, Timothy R., Ed.

    Highlights of the Sixth Annual Meeting of the North Carolina Association for Institutional Research (NCAIR) and of the Drive-In Conference held prior to the annual meeting are presented. The major emphasis of the annual meeting was to look toward the 1980's and project the role that institutional research might play in higher education. The…

  12. Neptune's Southern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    This photograph of Neptune's southern hemisphere was taken by the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Voyager 2 when the spacecraft was 4.2 million km (2.6 million miles) from the planet. The smallest features that can be seen are 38 km (24 miles) across. The almond-shaped structure at the left is a large cloud system that has been seen for several weeks. Internal details in the feature have become increasingly apparent as Voyager 2 has approached. Systems with similar shapes in Jupiter's atmosphere rotate about their centers, rolling in the local winds that increase toward the south. However, the wispy nature of the white central clouds in this Neptunian feature make confirmation of the system's rotation difficult. The Voyager Mission is conducted by JPL for NASA's Office of Space Science and Applications.

  13. Southern California Disasters II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicholson, Heather; Todoroff, Amber L.; LeBoeuf, Madeline A.

    2015-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service (USFS) has multiple programs in place which primarily utilize Landsat imagery to produce burn severity indices for aiding wildfire damage assessment and mitigation. These indices provide widely-used wildfire damage assessment tools to decision makers. When the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) is launched in 2022, the sensor's hyperspectral resolution will support new methods for assessing natural disaster impacts on ecosystems, including wildfire damage to forests. This project used simulated HyspIRI data to study three southern California fires: Aspen, French, and King. Burn severity indices were calculated from the data and the results were quantitatively compared to the comparable USFS products currently in use. The final results from this project illustrate how HyspIRI data may be used in the future to enhance assessment of fire-damaged areas and provide additional monitoring tools for decision support to the USFS and other land management agencies.

  14. Tornado Strikes Southern Maryland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Evening light catches the tops of towering thunderheads over the Mid-Atlantic states on April 28, 2002. The powerful storms spawned several tornados, one of which was classified as an F4 tornado. The powerful tornado touched down in the southern Maryland town of La Plata, destroying most of the historic downtown. The twister-one of the strongest ever to hit the state-beat a 24-mile swath running west to east through the state and claimed at least three lives. The image above was taken by the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) at 7:15 PM Eastern Daylight Savings Time. A large version of the animation shows more detail. (5.9 MB Quicktime) Image courtesy National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the GOES Project Science Office. Animation by Robert Simmon, NASA GSFC.

  15. Tropical North Atlantic ocean-atmosphere interactions synchronize forest carbon losses from hurricanes and Amazon fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yang; Randerson, James T.; Morton, Douglas C.

    2015-08-01

    We describe a climate mode synchronizing forest carbon losses from North and South America by analyzing time series of tropical North Atlantic sea surface temperatures (SSTs), landfall hurricanes and tropical storms, and Amazon fires during 1995-2013. Years with anomalously high tropical North Atlantic SSTs during March-June were often followed by a more active hurricane season and a larger number of satellite-detected fires in the southern Amazon during June-November. The relationship between North Atlantic tropical cyclones and southern Amazon fires (r = 0.61, p < 0.003) was stronger than links between SSTs and either cyclones or fires alone, suggesting that fires and tropical cyclones were directly coupled to the same underlying atmospheric dynamics governing tropical moisture redistribution. These relationships help explain why seasonal outlook forecasts for hurricanes and Amazon fires both failed in 2013 and may enable the design of improved early warning systems for drought and fire in Amazon forests.

  16. Strain accumulation in southern California, 1973-1980.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Savage, J.C.; Prescott, W.H.; Lisowski, M.; King, N.E.

    1981-01-01

    Frequent surveys of seven trilateration networks in southern California over the interval 1973-1980 suggest that a regional increment in strain may have occurred in 1978-1979. Prior to 1978 and after late 1979 the strain accumulation has been predominantly a uniaxial north-south compression. This secular trend was interrupted sometime in 1978-1979 by an increment in both north-south and east-west extension in five of the seven networks. The onset of this change appears to have occurred first in the networks farthest south. The changes occurred without any unusual seismicity within the networks, but the overall seismicity in southern California was unusually low prior to and has been unusually high since the occurrence. The average principal strain rates for the seven networks in the 1973-1980 interval are 0.17 mu strain/yr north- south contraction and 0.08 mu strain/yr east-west extension. Although the observed increment in strain could be related to unidentified systematic error in the measuring system, a careful review of the measurements and comparisons with three other measuring systems reveal no appreciable cumulative systematic error. -Authors

  17. The buried southern continuation of the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary and Oaxaca Fault, southern Mexico: Magnetotelluric constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campos-Enriquez, J. O.; Corbo-Camargo, F.; Arzate-Flores, J.; Keppie, J. D.; Arango-Galván, C.; Unsworth, M.; Belmonte-Jiménez, S. I.

    2013-04-01

    Thirty magnetotelluric soundings were made along two NW-SE profiles to the north and south of Oaxaca City in southern Mexico. The profiles crossed the N-S Oaxaca Fault and the Oaxaca-Juarez terrane boundary defined by the Juarez mylonitic complex. Dimensionality analysis of the MT data showed that the subsurface resistivity structure is 2D or 3D. The Oaxaca and correlative Guichicovi terranes consist of ca. 1-1.4 Ga granulitic continental crust overlain by Phanerozoic sedimentary rocks, characterized by high and low resistivities, respectively. The Juarez terrane consists of oceanic Mesozoic metavolcanic and metasedimentary rocks, characterized by a low to medium resistivity layer, that is approximately 10 km thick. The Oaxaca Fault is a Cenozoic aged, normal fault that reactivated the dextral and thrust Juarez mylonitic complex north of Oaxaca City: its location south of Oaxaca City is uncertain. In the southern profile, the MT data show a ca. 20-50 km wide, west-dipping, relatively low resistivity zone material that extends through the entire crust. This is inferred to be the Juarez terrane bounded on either side by the ca. 1-1.4 Ga granulites. The Oaxaca Fault is imaged only by a major electrical resistivity discontinuity (low to the west, high to the east) along both the western border of the Juarez mylonitic complex (northern profile) and the San Miguel de la Cal mountains (southern profile) suggesting continuity.

  18. Poet North Manchester Approval

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This update August 9, 2016 letter from EPA approves, with modifications, the petition from Poet Biorefining-North Manchester, LLC, regarding non-grandfathered ethanol produced through a dry mill process, qualifying under the Clean Air Act for renewable

  19. Interior, north end of building, looking north. At left is ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior, north end of building, looking north. At left is the threading machine and the cutout in the wall for a long tube in the machine is on the north wall beyond the machine. - Fitzsimons General Hospital, Shops Building, Northwest Corner of West Pennington Avenue, & North Tenth Street, Aurora, Adams County, CO

  20. North Korean plutonium production

    SciTech Connect

    Albright, D.

    1994-12-01

    In 1992, as part of its obligations under the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, North Korea declared that it had earlier separated about 100 grams of plutonium from damaged fuel rods removed from a 25 megawatt-thermal (MW{sub t}) gas-graphite reactor at Yongbyon. The plutonium was separated at the nearby {open_quotes}Radiochemical Laboratory.{close_quotes} Separated plutonium is the raw ingredient for making nuclear weapons, but 100 grams is too little to make a crude bomb. Based on intelligence reports and IAEA inspections, North Korea may have separated enough plutonium for a nuclear weapon. Regardless of whether this is true, there is no doubt that North Korea has enough weapons-grade plutonium in spent fuel to make four or five nuclear weapons. But it cannot turn this plutonium into nuclear weapons unless it separates the plutonium from the spent fuel. Preventing the North from separating any more plutonium must remain a global priority. The IAEA must also be able to verify North Korea`s past nuclear activities and determine the amount of plutonium North Korea may have diverted in the past.

  1. Sentinel Landscapes: Working and Military Lands Conservation in North Carolina. Farm, Forest, and Training Protection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-12

    contracts in “away space”) 20 LONGLEAF PINE (LLP) • Concept – Southern Regional Conservation Plan – Provides a road map, establishes goals, identifies...maintenance and restoration of North Carolina’s longleaf pine ecosystem, including its cultural and economic values, by forming a collaborative network...Significant Geographic Areas, establishes strategies, approaches, objectives and key actions – North Carolina Longleaf Coalition • Promote the

  2. Lake Darling Flood Control Project, Souris River, North Dakota. General Project Design.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    earth dams, cover much of the valley floor. Lake Darling is the largest, extending from the southern boundary of Renville County, North Dakota, to...valley reach extending north from the southwestern limit of the glacial Lake Souris area is very shallow, but downstream from Upham the valley...project extends from Upham downstream to the international bound- ary and provides for ponding water behind a series of five low dams. 16. The refuges

  3. A Southern Bald Eagle perches on a pole at KSC.