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Sample records for coast forest fragments

  1. Fragmentation of eastern United States forest types

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Riitters; John W. Coulston

    2013-01-01

    Fragmentation is a continuing threat to the sustainability of forests in the Eastern United States, where land use changes supporting a growing human population are the primary driver of forest fragmentation (Stein and others 2009). While once mostly forested, approximately 40 percent of the original forest area has been converted to other land uses, and most of the...

  2. Global-scale patterns of forest fragmentation

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham; R. O' Neill; B. Jones; E. Smith

    2000-01-01

    We report an analysis of forest fragmentation based on 1-km resolution land-cover maps for the globe. Measurements in analysis windows from 81 km 2 (9 x 9 pixels, "small" scale) to 59,049 km 2 (243 x 243 pixels, "large" scale) were used to characterize the fragmentation around each forested pixel. We identified six categories of fragmentation (...

  3. The effects of forest fragmentation on forest stand attributes

    Treesearch

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Greg C. Liknes

    2002-01-01

    For two study areas in Minnesota, USA, one heavily forested and one sparsely forested, maps of predicted proportion forest area were created using Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery, forest inventory plot data, and a logistic regression model. The maps were used to estimate quantitative indices of forest fragmentation. Correlations between the values of the indices and...

  4. Global-scale patterns of forest fragmentation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riitters, K.; Wickham, J.; O'Neill, R.; Jones, B.; Smith, E.

    2000-01-01

    We report an analysis of forest fragmentation based on 1-km resolution land-cover maps for the globe. Measurements in analysis windows from 81 km 2 (9 ?? 9 pixels, "small" scale) to 59,049 km 2 (243 ?? 243 pixels, "large" scale) were used to characterize the fragmentation around each forested pixel. We identified six categories of fragmentation (interior, perforated, edge, transitional, patch, and undetermined) from the amount of forest and its occurrence as adjacent forest pixels. Interior forest exists only at relatively small scales; at larger scales, forests are dominated by edge and patch conditions. At the smallest scale, there were significant differences in fragmentation among continents; within continents, there were significant differences among individual forest types. Tropical rain forest fragmentation was most severe in North America and least severe in Europe - Asia. Forest types with a high percentage of perforated conditions were mainly in North America (five types) and Europe - Asia (four types), in both temperate and subtropical regions. Transitional and patch conditions were most common in 11 forest types, of which only a few would be considered as "naturally patchy" (e.g., dry woodland). The five forest types with the highest percentage of interior conditions were in North America; in decreasing order, they were cool rain forest, coniferous, conifer boreal, cool mixed, and cool broadleaf. Copyright ?? 2000 by The Resilience Alliance.

  5. Historical forest patterns of Oregon's central Coast Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ripple, W.J.; Hershey, K.T.; Anthony, R.G.

    2000-01-01

    To describe the composition and pattern of unmanaged forestland in Oregon's central Coast Range, we analyzed forest conditions from a random sample of 18 prelogging (1949 and earlier) landscapes. We also compared the amount and variability of old forest (conifer-dominated stands > 53 cm dbh) in the prelogging landscapes with that in the current landscapes. Sixty-three percent of the prelogging landscape comprised old forest, approximately 21% of which also had a significant (> 20% cover) hardwood component. The proportions of forest types across the 18 prelogging landscapes varied greatly for both early seral stages (cv = 81194) and hardwoods (cv = 127) and moderately for old forest (cv = 39). With increasing distance from streams, the amount of hardwoods and nonforest decreased, whereas the amount of seedling/sapling/pole and young conifers increased. The amount of old forest was significantly greater (p < 0.002) in prelogging forests than in current landscapes. Old-forest patterns also differed significantly (p < 0.015) between prelogging and current landscapes; patch density, coefficient of variation of patch size, edge density, and fragmentation were greater in current landscapes and mean patch size, largest patch size, and core habitat were greater in prelogging forests. Generally, old-forest landscape pattern variables showed a greater range in prelogging landscapes than in current landscapes. Management strategies designed to increase the amount of old forest and the range in landscape patterns would result in a landscape more closely resembling that found prior to intensive logging. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science Ltd.

  6. Global Forest Area Trends Underestimate Threats from Forest Fragmentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forest loss and fragmentation of the remainder threaten the ecological attributes and functions which depend upon forests1. Forest interior area is particularly valued because it is relatively remote from human influence2, 3, 4, 5. Recent global assessments report declines in t...

  7. Assessing forest fragmentation metrics from forest inventory cluster samples

    Treesearch

    Christoph Kleinn

    2000-01-01

    Fragmentation of forest area plays an important role in the ongoing discussion of forest dynamics and biological and ecosystem diversity. Among its contributing factors are size, shape, number, and spatial arrangement of forest patches. Several metrics and indexes are in use, predominantly in quantitative landscape ecology. An important area of interest is the...

  8. Global Forest Area Trends Underestimate Threats from Forest Fragmentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forest loss and fragmentation of the remainder threaten the ecological attributes and functions which depend upon forests1. Forest interior area is particularly valued because it is relatively remote from human influence2, 3, 4, 5. Recent global assessments report declines in t...

  9. Fragmentation of Continental United States Forests

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham; Robert V. O' Neill; K. Bruce Jones; Elizabeth R. Smith; John W. Coulston; Timothy G. Wade; Jonathan H. Smith

    2002-01-01

    We report a multiple-scale analysis of forest fragmentation based on 30-m (0.09 ha pixel-1) land- cover maps for the conterminous United States. Each 0.09-ha unit of forest was classified according to fragmentation indexes measured within the surrounding landscape, for five landscape sizes including 2.25, 7.29, 65.61, 590.49, and 5314.41 ha....

  10. Effect of forest fragmentation on bird populations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.

    1979-01-01

    Many of the insectivorous songbird species that winter in the tropics are dependent on large unbroken tracts of forest during the breeding season. These species are disappearing from localities where forests are becoming fragmented. By long-range planning, managers can prevent local extinctions of these area-sensitive birds through use of such techniques as management in large units, retention of connecting corridors, and prevention of excessive isolation of forest fragments. Edge conditions can be provided, where appropriate to meet the needs of upland game species.

  11. Long-term effects of fragmentation and fragment properties on bird species richness in Hawaiian forests

    Treesearch

    David J. Flaspohler; Christian P. Giardina; Gregory P. Asner; Patrick Hart; Jonathan Price; Cassie Ka’apu Lyons; Xeronimo. Castaneda

    2010-01-01

    Forest fragmentation is a common disturbance affecting biological diversity, yet the impacts of fragmentation on many forest processes remain poorly understood. Forest restoration is likely to be more successful when it proceeds with an understanding of how native and exotic vertebrates utilize forest patches of different size. We used a system of forest fragments...

  12. Forest fragmentation and Lyme disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vectorborne disease in the United States. It is associated with human exposure to infected Ixodes ticks which exist even in degraded forest and herbaceous habitat. We provide an overview of the epidemiology, ecology and landscape charact...

  13. Forest fragmentation and Lyme disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lyme disease is the most commonly reported vectorborne disease in the United States. It is associated with human exposure to infected Ixodes ticks which exist even in degraded forest and herbaceous habitat. We provide an overview of the epidemiology, ecology and landscape charact...

  14. Temporal change in fragmentation of continental US forests

    Treesearch

    James D. Wickham; Kurt H. Riitters; Timothy G. Wade; Collin Homer

    2008-01-01

    Changes in forest ecosystem function and condition arise from changes in forest fragmentation. Previous studies estimated forest fragmentation for the continental United States (US). In this study, new temporal land-cover data from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) were used to estimate changes in forest fragmentation at multiple scales for the continental US....

  15. Forest fragmentation in the Pacific Northwest: quantification and correlations

    Treesearch

    Brett J. Butler; Jennifer J. Swenson; Ralph J. Alig

    2004-01-01

    A forest fragmentation index was produced for western Oregon and western Washington that combined measures of forested area, percentage edge, and interspersion. While natural, human land-cover, and human land-use processes contribute to forest fragmentation in the region, the drivers of these processes are categorically different. Here we examine forest fragmentation...

  16. Regional Forest Fragmentation and the Nesting Success of Migratory Birds

    Treesearch

    Scott K. Robinson; Frank R. Thompson III; Therese M. Donovan; Donald R. Whitehead; John Faaborg

    1995-01-01

    Forest fragmentation, the disruption in the continuity of forest habitat, is hypothesized to be a major cause of population decline for, some species of forest birds because fragmentation reduces nesting (reproductive) success. Nest predation and parasitism by cowbirds increased with forest fragmentation in nine midwestern (United States)landscapes that varied from 6...

  17. Forest fragmentation and its effects on birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Johnson, James E.

    1988-01-01

    Fragmentation of forest land, whether by suburban development, highways, transmission lines, or poorly planned cutting regimes, seriously affects reproduction by the large numbers of obligate forest interior birds. Many of our warblers, vireos, thrushes, tanagers, and flycatchers are highly migratory insectivorous birds that spend more than half the year in the neotropics, but migrate north to the United States and Canada to rear their young. These tropical visitors are especially vulnerable to predation and cowbird parasitism and are unable to maintain their populations within 100-200 m of forest edge. Habitats for these declining species can be provided by managing forest lands in large blocks so as to maintain at all times extensive contiguous areas of successional stages as well as of mature forest. Avoiding scattered small cuts will also help by reducing edge, road construction, and other disturbance.

  18. Fragmentation of forest, grassland, and shrubland

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Riitters

    2013-01-01

    As humans introduce competing land uses into natural landscapes, the public concerns regarding landcover patterns are expressed through headline issues such as urban sprawl, forest fragmentation, water quality, and wilderness preservation. The spatial arrangement of an environment affects all human perceptions and ecological processes within that environment, but this...

  19. LOCALIZING NATIONAL FRAGMENTATION STATISTICS WITH FOREST TYPE MAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fragmmentation of forest types is an indicator of biodiversity in the Montreal Process, but the available national data permit assessment of only overall forestland fragmentation, not forest type fragmentation. Here we illustrate how to localize national statistics from the 2003...

  20. LOCALIZING NATIONAL FRAGMENTATION STATISTICS WITH FOREST TYPE MAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fragmmentation of forest types is an indicator of biodiversity in the Montreal Process, but the available national data permit assessment of only overall forestland fragmentation, not forest type fragmentation. Here we illustrate how to localize national statistics from the 2003...

  1. Localizing National Fragmentation Statistics with Forest Type Maps

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Riitters; John W. Coulston; James D. Wickham

    2003-01-01

    Fragmentation of forest types is an indicator of biodiversity in the Montreal Process, but the available national data permit assessment of only overall forestland fragmentation, not forest type fragmentation. Here we illustrate how to localize national statistics from the 2003 National Report on Sustainable Forests by combining state vegetation maps with national...

  2. Techniques and Considerations for FIA forest fragmentation analysis

    Treesearch

    Andrew J. Lister; Tonya W. Lister; Rachel Riemann; Mike Hoppus

    2002-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis unit of the Northeastern Research Station (NEFIA) is charged with inventorying and monitoring the Nation's forests. NEFIA has not gathered much information on forest fragmentation, but recent developments in computing and remote sensing technologies now make it possible to assess forest fragmentation on a regional basis. We...

  3. Marine West Coast Forests, Chapter 9

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perakis, Steven S.; Geiser, Linda H.; Lilleskov, Erik A.; Pardo, Linda H.; Robin-Abbott, Molly J.; Driscoll, Charles T.

    2011-01-01

    Human activities have greatly increased nitrogen emissions and deposition across large areas of Earth. Although nitrogen is an essential nutrient for plant growth, too much nitrogen in excess of critical loads leads to losses of biodiversity, soil and stream acidification, nutrient imbalances, and other deleterious effects. In a new report quantifying critical loads of nitrogen deposition across the United States, USGS scientist Steve Perakis and co-authors provided a chapter about responses of marine west coast forests. Much of this region is understudied with respect to nitrogen deposition, and in this chapter the authors identify known adverse effects and estimate critical loads of nitrogen deposition for western Oregon and Washington and southeast Alaska forests. Perakis also contributed to the synthesis chapter, which includes background, objectives, advantages and uncertainties of critical loads, an overview of critical loads across U.S. ecoregions, and other topics.

  4. Fragmentation of forest communities in the eastern United States

    Treesearch

    Kurt Riitters; John Coulston; James Wickham

    2011-01-01

    Forest fragmentation threatens the sustainability of forest communities in the eastern United States. Forest communities exhibiting either a low total area or low percentage of intact forest are subject to relatively higher risk of shifts in stand composition towards edge-adapted and invasive species. Such changes in stand composition could result in local extirpation...

  5. Forest habitat loss, fragmentation, and red-cockaded woodpecker populations

    Treesearch

    Richard N. Conner; D. Craig Rudolph

    1991-01-01

    Loss of mature forest habitat was measured around Red-cockaded Woodpecker (Picoides borealis) cavity tree clusters (colonies) in three National Forests in eastern Texas. Forest removal results in a loss of foraging habitat and causes habitat fragmentation of the remaining mature forest. Habitat loss was negatively associated with woodpecker group size in small...

  6. EXAMINING MULTI-SCALE CHANGES IN FOREST FRAGMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forest fragmentation is a key measurement of forest condition. In comparison to the Chesapeake Bay region, dominant forest loss in New Jersey was less sensitive to forest loss, which may be attributable the protected status of the New Jersey Pine Barrens.

  7. Fragmentation of Forest Communities in the Eastern United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forest fragmentation threatens the sustainability of forest communities and therefore the beta diversity of forestland in the eastern United States. We combined forest inventory data with land cover data to compare 70 forest communities in terms of the amount and ownership of int...

  8. Fragmentation of Forest Communities in the Eastern United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Forest fragmentation threatens the sustainability of forest communities and therefore the beta diversity of forestland in the eastern United States. We combined forest inventory data with land cover data to compare 70 forest communities in terms of the amount and ownership of int...

  9. Forest structure and downed woody debris in boreal temperate, and tropical forest fragments

    Treesearch

    William A. Gould; Grizelle Gonzalez; Andrew T. Hudak; Teresa Nettleton Hollingsworth; Jamie Hollingsworth

    2008-01-01

    Forest fragmentation affects the heterogeneity of accumulated fuels by increasing the diversity of forest types and by increasing forest edges. This heterogeneity has implications in how we manage fuels, fire, and forests. Understanding the relative importance of fragmentation on woody biomass within a single climatic regime, and along climatic gradients, will improve...

  10. Temporal change in fragmentation of continental US forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wickham, J.D.; Riitters, K.H.; Wade, T.G.; Homer, C.

    2008-01-01

    Changes in forest ecosystem function and condition arise from changes in forest fragmentation. Previous studies estimated forest fragmentation for the continental United States (US). In this study, new temporal land-cover data from the National Land Cover Database (NLCD) were used to estimate changes in forest fragmentation at multiple scales for the continental US. Early and late dates for the land-cover change data were ca. 1992 and ca. 2001. Forest density was used as a multi-scale index of fragmentation by measuring the proportion of forest in neighborhoods ranging in size from 2.25 to 5314.41 ha. The multi-scale forest density maps were classified using thresholds of 40% (patch), 60% (dominant), and 90% (interior) to analyze temporal change of fragmentation. The loss of dominant and interior forest showed distinct scale effects, whereas loss of patch forest was much less scale-dependent. Dominant forest loss doubled from the smallest to the largest spatial scale, while interior forest loss increased by approximately 80% from the smallest to the second largest spatial scale, then decreased somewhat. At the largest spatial scale, losses of dominant and interior forest were 5 and 10%, respectively, of their ca. 1992 amounts. In contrast, patch forest loss increased by only 25% from the smallest to largest spatial scale. These results indicate that continental US forests were sensitive to forest loss because of their already fragmented state. Forest loss would have had to occur in an unlikely spatial pattern in order to avoid the proportionately greater impact on dominant and interior forest at larger spatial scales.

  11. Characterizing the forest fragmentation of Canada's national parks.

    PubMed

    Soverel, Nicholas O; Coops, Nicholas C; White, Joanne C; Wulder, Michael A

    2010-05-01

    Characterizing the amount and configuration of forests can provide insights into habitat quality, biodiversity, and land use. The establishment of protected areas can be a mechanism for maintaining large, contiguous areas of forests, and the loss and fragmentation of forest habitat is a potential threat to Canada's national park system. Using the Earth Observation for Sustainable Development of Forests (EOSD) land cover product (EOSD LC 2000), we characterize the circa 2000 forest patterns in 26 of Canada's national parks and compare these to forest patterns in the ecological units surrounding these parks, referred to as the greater park ecosystem (GPE). Five landscape pattern metrics were analyzed: number of forest patches, mean forest patch size (hectare), standard deviation of forest patch size (hectare), mean forest patch perimeter-to-area ratio (meters per hectare), and edge density of forest patches (meters per hectare). An assumption is often made that forests within park boundaries are less fragmented than the surrounding GPE, as indicated by fewer forest patches, a larger mean forest patch size, less variability in forest patch size, a lower perimeter-to-area ratio, and lower forest edge density. Of the 26 national parks we analyzed, 58% had significantly fewer patches, 46% had a significantly larger mean forest patch size (23% were not significantly different), and 46% had a significantly smaller standard deviation of forest patch size (31% were not significantly different), relative to their GPEs. For forest patch perimeter-to-area ratio and forest edge density, equal proportions of parks had values that were significantly larger or smaller than their respective GPEs and no clear trend emerged. In summary, all the national parks we analyzed, with the exception of the Georgian Bay Islands, were found to be significantly different from their corresponding GPE for at least one of the five metrics assessed, and 50% of the 26 parks were significantly

  12. Screening Gulf Coast forest species for susceptibility to Phytophthora ramorum

    Treesearch

    Jason Preuett; Daniel Collins; Douglas Luster; Timothy Widmer

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora ramorum, the causal agent of sudden oak death in California oak woodlands, poses a threat to woody plants in the rest of the United States, including the Gulf Coast area, which is regarded as a high-risk location. Several plant species native to Gulf Coast forests were tested for susceptibility to P. ramorum,...

  13. Survival and rebound of Antillean dry forests: role of forest fragments

    Treesearch

    I.A. Ramjohn; P.G. Murphy; T.M. Burton; A.E. Lugo

    2012-01-01

    Antillean dry forests have experienced high levels of human impact for almost five centuries. Economic changes in the second half of the 20th century have facilitated forest recovery in Puerto Rico. We quantified the extent of forest cover and the community composition of representative forest fragments in the subtropical dry forest life zone (sensu Holdridge, 1967) in...

  14. Effect of fragmentation on the Costa Rican dry forest avifauna

    PubMed Central

    Barrantes, Gilbert; Ocampo, Diego; Ramírez-Fernández, José D.

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and changes in land use have reduced the tropical dry forest to isolated forest patches in northwestern Costa Rica. We examined the effect of patch area and length of the dry season on nestedness of the entire avian community, forest fragment assemblages, and species occupancy across fragments for the entire native avifauna, and for a subset of forest dependent species. Species richness was independent of both fragment area and distance between fragments. Similarity in bird community composition between patches was related to habitat structure; fragments with similar forest structure have more similar avian assemblages. Size of forest patches influenced nestedness of the bird community and species occupancy, but not nestedness of assemblages across patches in northwestern Costa Rican avifauna. Forest dependent species (species that require large tracts of mature forest) and assemblages of these species were nested within patches ordered by a gradient of seasonality, and only occupancy of species was nested by area of patches. Thus, forest patches with a shorter dry season include more forest dependent species. PMID:27672498

  15. Effect of fragmentation on the Costa Rican dry forest avifauna.

    PubMed

    Barrantes, Gilbert; Ocampo, Diego; Ramírez-Fernández, José D; Fuchs, Eric J

    2016-01-01

    Deforestation and changes in land use have reduced the tropical dry forest to isolated forest patches in northwestern Costa Rica. We examined the effect of patch area and length of the dry season on nestedness of the entire avian community, forest fragment assemblages, and species occupancy across fragments for the entire native avifauna, and for a subset of forest dependent species. Species richness was independent of both fragment area and distance between fragments. Similarity in bird community composition between patches was related to habitat structure; fragments with similar forest structure have more similar avian assemblages. Size of forest patches influenced nestedness of the bird community and species occupancy, but not nestedness of assemblages across patches in northwestern Costa Rican avifauna. Forest dependent species (species that require large tracts of mature forest) and assemblages of these species were nested within patches ordered by a gradient of seasonality, and only occupancy of species was nested by area of patches. Thus, forest patches with a shorter dry season include more forest dependent species.

  16. Evaluating differences in forest fragmentation and restoration between western natural forests and southeastern plantation forests in the United States.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xinyu; Lv, Yingying; Li, Mingshi

    2017-03-01

    Changes in forest ecosystem structure and functions are considered some of the research issues in landscape ecology. In this study, advancing Forman's theory, we considered five spatially explicit processes associated with fragmentation, including perforation, dissection, subdivision, shrinkage, and attrition, and two processes associated with restoration, i.e., increment and expansion processes. Following this theory, a forest fragmentation and restoration process model that can detect the spatially explicit processes and ecological consequences of forest landscape change was developed and tested in the current analysis. Using the National Land Cover Databases (2001, 2006 and 2011), the forest fragmentation and restoration process model was applied to US western natural forests and southeastern plantation forests to quantify and classify forest patch losses into one of the four fragmentation processes (the dissection process was merged into the subdivision process) and to classify the newly gained forest patches based on the two restoration processes. At the same time, the spatio-temporal differences in fragmentation and restoration patterns and trends between natural forests and plantations were further compared. Then, through overlaying the forest fragmentation/restoration processes maps with targeting year land cover data and land ownership vectors, the results from forest fragmentation and the contributors to forest restoration in federal and nonfederal lands were identified. Results showed that, in natural forests, the forest change patches concentrated around the urban/forest, cultivated/forest, and shrubland/forest interfaces, while the patterns of plantation change patches were scattered sparsely and irregularly. The shrinkage process was the most common type in forest fragmentation, and the average size was the smallest. Expansion, the most common restoration process, was observed in both natural forests and plantations and often occurred around the

  17. Forest edge disturbance increases rattan abundance in tropical rain forest fragments.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Mason J; Edwards, Will; Magrach, Ainhoa; Laurance, Susan G; Alamgir, Mohammed; Porolak, Gabriel; Laurance, William F

    2017-07-20

    Human-induced forest fragmentation poses one of the largest threats to global diversity yet its impact on rattans (climbing palms) has remained virtually unexplored. Rattan is arguably the world's most valuable non-timber forest product though current levels of harvesting and land-use change place wild populations at risk. To assess rattan response to fragmentation exclusive of harvesting impacts we examined rattan abundance, demography and ecology within the forests of northeastern, Australia. We assessed the community abundance of rattans, and component adult (>3 m) and juvenile (≤3 m) abundance in five intact forests and five fragments (23-58 ha) to determine their response to a range of environmental and ecological parameters. Fragmented forests supported higher abundances of rattans than intact forests. Fragment size and edge degradation significantly increased adult rattan abundance, with more in smaller fragments and near edges. Our findings suggest that rattan increase within fragments is due to canopy disturbance of forest edges resulting in preferential, high-light habitat. However, adult and juvenile rattans may respond inconsistently to fragmentation. In managed forest fragments, a rattan abundance increase may provide economic benefits through sustainable harvesting practices. However, rattan increases in protected area forest fragments could negatively impact conservation outcomes.

  18. Forest-climate interactions in fragmented tropical landscapes.

    PubMed

    Laurance, William F

    2004-03-29

    In the tropics, habitat fragmentation alters forest-climate interactions in diverse ways. On a local scale (less than 1 km), elevated desiccation and wind disturbance near fragment margins lead to sharply increased tree mortality, thus altering canopy-gap dynamics, plant community composition, biomass dynamics and carbon storage. Fragmented forests are also highly vulnerable to edge-related fires, especially in regions with periodic droughts or strong dry seasons. At landscape to regional scales (10-1000 km), habitat fragmentation may have complex effects on forest-climate interactions, with important consequences for atmospheric circulation, water cycling and precipitation. Positive feedbacks among deforestation, regional climate change and fire could pose a serious threat for some tropical forests, but the details of such interactions are poorly understood.

  19. Forest-climate interactions in fragmented tropical landscapes.

    PubMed Central

    Laurance, William F

    2004-01-01

    In the tropics, habitat fragmentation alters forest-climate interactions in diverse ways. On a local scale (less than 1 km), elevated desiccation and wind disturbance near fragment margins lead to sharply increased tree mortality, thus altering canopy-gap dynamics, plant community composition, biomass dynamics and carbon storage. Fragmented forests are also highly vulnerable to edge-related fires, especially in regions with periodic droughts or strong dry seasons. At landscape to regional scales (10-1000 km), habitat fragmentation may have complex effects on forest-climate interactions, with important consequences for atmospheric circulation, water cycling and precipitation. Positive feedbacks among deforestation, regional climate change and fire could pose a serious threat for some tropical forests, but the details of such interactions are poorly understood. PMID:15212089

  20. DISTRIBUTION AND CAUSES OF GLOBAL FOREST FRAGMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because human land uses tend to expand over time, forests that share a high proportion of their borders with anthropogenic uses are at higher risk of further degradation than forests that share a high proportion of their borders with non-forest, natural land cover (e.g. wetland)....

  1. Distribution and Causes of Global Forest Fragmentation

    Treesearch

    Timothy G. Wade; Kurt H. Riitters; James D. Wickham; K. Bruce Jones

    2003-01-01

    Abstract Because human land uses tend to expand over time, forests that share a high proportion of their borders with anthropogenic uses are at higher risk of further degradation than forests that share a high proportion of their borders with non-forest, natural land cover (e.g., wetland). Using 1-km advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR)...

  2. DISTRIBUTION AND CAUSES OF GLOBAL FOREST FRAGMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because human land uses tend to expand over time, forests that share a high proportion of their borders with anthropogenic uses are at higher risk of further degradation than forests that share a high proportion of their borders with non-forest, natural land cover (e.g. wetland)....

  3. Assessing the Effects of Forest Fragmentation Using Satellite Imagery and Forest Inventory Data

    Treesearch

    Ronald E. McRoberts; Greg C. Liknes

    2005-01-01

    For a study area in the North Central region of the USA, maps of predicted proportion forest area were created using Landsat Thematic Mapper imagery, forest inventory plot data, and a logistic regression model. The maps were used to estimate quantitative indices of forest fragmentation. Correlations between the values of the indices and forest attributes observed on...

  4. Forest fragmentation of southern U.S. bottomland hardwoods

    Treesearch

    Victor A. Rudis

    1993-01-01

    The magnitude and character of forest fragmentation are evaluated for bottomland hardwoods in the southern United States.Fragment size class is significantly associated with the frequency of bottomland hardwood species, stand size and ownership classes, and land use attributes.Differences in the frequency of indicators of multiple values are apparent. Two diverse...

  5. Forest fragmentation and bird community dynamics: inference at regional scales

    Treesearch

    Thierry Boulinier; James D. Nichols; James E. Hines; John R. Sauer; Curtis H. Flather; Kenneth H. Pollock

    2001-01-01

    With increasing fragmentation of natural areas and a dramatic reduction of forest cover in several parts of the world, quantifying the impact of such changes on species richness and community dynamics has been a subject of much concern. Here, we tested whether in more fragmented landscapes there was a lower number of area-sensitive species and higher local extinction...

  6. Fragmented forest in tropical landscape--the case of the state of Selangor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Saiful Arif

    2003-03-01

    This paper presents the pattern and changes of fragmented forest in relation with changes of total forest cover in the state of Selangor in three decades. In this study, inventoried forest cover maps of Selangor in 1971/1972, 1981/1982 and 1991/1992 produced by the Forestry Department of Peninsular Malaysia were digitized to examine the changes in area and number of fragmented forest. Results showed that in 1971/1972, 16 fragmented forests were identified in Selangor. All fragmented forests were identified as dipterocarp forest. A decade later the number of fragmented forests increased by approximately 44% (23). Of the 23 fragmented forests, two were peat swamp forests whereas the remaining were dipterocarp forests. In 1991/1992 the number of fragmented forests (12) was reduced by 47.8%. Two of the fragmented forests were identified as peat swamp forest, seven dipterocarp forest and the other three was mixed of dipterocarp forests and plantation forests. Fragmentation of both dipterocarp and peat swamp forests occurred profoundly during the period between 1971/1972 and 1981/1982, which consequently increased the number of fragmented forests compared with before the period of 1971/1972 where fragmentation happened only at dipterocarp forests. However, many fragmented forests vanished between the 1981/1982 and 1991/1992 periods.

  7. Rain forest fragmentation and the proliferation of successional trees.

    PubMed

    Laurance, William F; Nascimento, Henrique E M; Laurance, Susan G; Andrade, Ana C; Fearnside, Philip M; Ribeiro, José E L; Capretz, Robson L

    2006-02-01

    The effects of habitat fragmentation on diverse tropical tree communities are poorly understood. Over a 20-year period we monitored the density of 52 tree species in nine predominantly successional genera (Annona, Bellucia, Cecropia, Croton, Goupia, Jacaranda, Miconia, Pourouma, Vismia) in fragmented and continuous Amazonian forests. We also evaluated the relative importance of soil, topographic, forest dynamic, and landscape variables in explaining the abundance and species composition of successional trees. Data were collected within 66 permanent 1-ha plots within a large (approximately 1000 km2) experimental landscape, with forest fragments ranging from 1 to 100 ha in area. Prior to forest fragmentation, successional trees were uncommon, typically comprising 2-3% of all trees (> or =10 cm diameter at breast height [1.3 m above the ground surface]) in each plot. Following fragmentation, the density and basal area of successional trees increased rapidly. By 13-17 years after fragmentation, successional trees had tripled in abundance in fragment and edge plots and constituted more than a quarter of all trees in some plots. Fragment age had strong, positive effects on the density and basal area of successional trees, with no indication of a plateau in these variables, suggesting that successional species could become even more abundant in fragments over time. Nonetheless, the 52 species differed greatly in their responses to fragmentation and forest edges. Some disturbance-favoring pioneers (e.g., Cecropia sciadophylla, Vismia guianensis, V. amazonica, V. bemerguii, Miconia cf. crassinervia) increased by >1000% in density on edge plots, whereas over a third (19 of 52) of all species remained constant or declined in numbers. Species responses to fragmentation were effectively predicted by their median growth rate in nearby intact forest, suggesting that faster-growing species have a strong advantage in forest fragments. An ordination analysis revealed three main

  8. Long-term carbon loss in fragmented Neotropical forests.

    PubMed

    Pütz, Sandro; Groeneveld, Jürgen; Henle, Klaus; Knogge, Christoph; Martensen, Alexandre Camargo; Metz, Markus; Metzger, Jean Paul; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; de Paula, Mateus Dantas; Huth, Andreas

    2014-10-07

    Tropical forests play an important role in the global carbon cycle, as they store a large amount of carbon (C). Tropical forest deforestation has been identified as a major source of CO2 emissions, though biomass loss due to fragmentation--the creation of additional forest edges--has been largely overlooked as an additional CO2 source. Here, through the combination of remote sensing and knowledge on ecological processes, we present long-term carbon loss estimates due to fragmentation of Neotropical forests: within 10 years the Brazilian Atlantic Forest has lost 69 (±14) Tg C, and the Amazon 599 (±120) Tg C due to fragmentation alone. For all tropical forests, we estimate emissions up to 0.2 Pg C y(-1) or 9 to 24% of the annual global C loss due to deforestation. In conclusion, tropical forest fragmentation increases carbon loss and should be accounted for when attempting to understand the role of vegetation in the global carbon balance.

  9. Forests and timber resources of California's central coast.

    Treesearch

    Daniel D. Oswald

    1979-01-01

    This report summarizes the findings of a 1972 inventory of the forest land area and timber resources of a 10-county area on California's central coast. Included are detailed tables of area, timber volume, timber growth and harvest, and mortality. The report includes a discussion of the current timber resources and some potential limitations on their availability...

  10. FOREST FRAGMENTATION AS AN ECONOMIC INDICATOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Despite concern over the ecological consequences of conversion of land from natural cover to anthropogenic uses, there are few studies that show a quantitative relationship between fragmentation and economic factors. For the southside economic region of Virginia, we generated a ...

  11. Biogeographical and taxonomic biases in tropical forest fragmentation research.

    PubMed

    Deikumah, Justus P; McAlpine, Clive A; Maron, Martine

    2014-12-01

    Despite several decades of research on the effects of fragmentation and habitat change on biodiversity, there remain strong biases in the geographical regions and taxonomic species studied. The knowledge gaps resulting from these biases are of particular concern if the forests most threatened with modification are also those for which the effects of such change are most poorly understood. To quantify the nature and magnitude of such biases, we conducted a systematic review of the published literature on forest fragmentation in the tropics for the period 1980-2012. Studies included focused on any type of response of single species, communities, or assemblages of any taxonomic group to tropical forest fragmentation and on fragmentation-related changes to forests. Of the 853 studies we found in the SCOPUS database, 64% were conducted in the Neotropics, 13% in Asia, 10% in the Afrotropics, and 5% in Australasia. Thus, although the Afrotropics is subject to the highest rates of deforestation globally, it was the most disproportionately poorly studied biome. Significant taxonomic biases were identified. Of the taxonomic groups considered, herpetofauna was the least studied in the tropics, particularly in Africa. Research examining patterns of species distribution was by far the most common type (72%), and work focused on ecological processes (28%) was rare in all biomes, but particularly in the Afrotropics and for fauna. We suggest research efforts be directed toward less-studied biogeographic regions, particularly where the threat of forest fragmentation continues to be high. Increased research investment in the Afrotropics will be important to build knowledge of threats and inform responses in a region where almost no efforts to restore its fragmented landscapes have yet begun and forest protection is arguably most tenuous. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  12. The paradox of forest fragmentation genetics

    Treesearch

    Andrea T. Kramer; Jennifer L. Ison; Mary V. Ashley; Henry F. Howe

    2008-01-01

    Theory predicts widespread loss of genetic diversity from drift and inbreeding in trees subjected to habitat fragmentation, yet empirical support of this theory is scarce. We argue that population genetics theory may be misapplied in light of ecological realities that, when recognized, require scrutiny of underlying evolutionary assumptions. One ecological reality is...

  13. Habitat fragmentation lowers survival of a tropical forest bird.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Gutiérrez, Viviana; Gavin, Thomas A; Dhondt, André A

    2008-06-01

    Population ecology research has long been focused on linking environmental features with the viability of populations. The majority of this work has largely been carried out in temperate systems and, until recently, has examined the effects of habitat fragmentation on survival. In contrast, we looked at the effect of forest fragmentation on apparent survival of individuals of the White-ruffed Manakin (Corapipo altera) in southern Costa Rica. Survival and recapture rates were estimated using mark-recapture analyses, based on capture histories from 1993 to 2006. We sampled four forest patches ranging in size from 0.9 to 25 ha, and four sites in the larger 227-ha Las Cruces Biological Station Forest Reserve (LCBSFR). We found a significant difference in annual adult apparent survival rates for individuals marked and recaptured in forest fragments vs. individuals marked and recaptured in the larger LCBSFR. Contrary to our expectation, survival and recapture probabilities did not differ between male and female manakins. Also, there was no support for the existence of annual variation in survival within each study site. Our results suggest that forest fragmentation is likely having an effect on population dynamics for the White-ruffed Manakin in this landscape. Therefore, populations that appear to be persisting in fragmented landscapes might still be at risk of local extinction, and conservation action for tropical birds should be aimed at identifying and reducing sources of adult mortality. Future studies in fragmentation effects on reproductive success and survival, across broad geographical scales, will be needed before it is possible to achieve a clear understanding of the effects of habitat fragmentation on populations for both tropical and temperate regions.

  14. Forest structure and downed woody debris in boreal, temperate, and tropical forest fragments.

    PubMed

    Gould, William A; González, Grizelle; Hudak, Andrew T; Hollingsworth, Teresa Nettleton; Hollingsworth, Jamie

    2008-12-01

    Forest fragmentation affects the heterogeneity of accumulated fuels by increasing the diversity of forest types and by increasing forest edges. This heterogeneity has implications in how we manage fuels, fire, and forests. Understanding the relative importance of fragmentation on woody biomass within a single climatic regime, and along climatic gradients, will improve our ability to manage forest fuels and predict fire behavior. In this study we assessed forest fuel characteristics in stands of differing moisture, i.e., dry and moist forests, structure, i.e., open canopy (typically younger) vs. closed canopy (typically older) stands, and size, i.e., small (10-14 ha), medium (33 to 60 ha), and large (100-240 ha) along a climatic gradient of boreal, temperate, and tropical forests. We measured duff, litter, fine and coarse woody debris, standing dead, and live biomass in a series of plots along a transect from outside the forest edge to the fragment interior. The goal was to determine how forest structure and fuel characteristics varied along this transect and whether this variation differed with temperature, moisture, structure, and fragment size. We found nonlinear relationships of coarse woody debris, fine woody debris, standing dead and live tree biomass with mean annual median temperature. Biomass for these variables was greatest in temperate sites. Forest floor fuels (duff and litter) had a linear relationship with temperature and biomass was greatest in boreal sites. In a five-way multivariate analysis of variance we found that temperature, moisture, and age/structure had significant effects on forest floor fuels, downed woody debris, and live tree biomass. Fragment size had an effect on forest floor fuels and live tree biomass. Distance from forest edge had significant effects for only a few subgroups sampled. With some exceptions edges were not distinguishable from interiors in terms of fuels.

  15. PATTERNS OF NITRATE LOSSES FROM FORESTED BASINS IN THE OREGON COAST RANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous factors may control losses of dissolved nutrients from forested basins in the Oregon Coast Range. Potentially important factors include forest composition, stand age, forest management, grazing, agriculture, sewage inputs and bedrock types, as well as others perhaps not...

  16. PATTERNS OF NITRATE LOSSES FROM FORESTED BASINS IN THE OREGON COAST RANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Numerous factors may control losses of dissolved nutrients from forested basins in the Oregon Coast Range. Potentially important factors include forest composition, stand age, forest management, grazing, agriculture, sewage inputs and bedrock types, as well as others perhaps not...

  17. Changes in fragmentation of western Washington forest land (Project WC-EM-08-01)

    Treesearch

    Andrew Gray

    2013-01-01

    Land conversion and forest fragmentation is an important issue across the country. Forest fragmentation is one of the international Montréal criteria and indicators that the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, must assess periodically (Riitters and others 2004). Characteristics of increased fragmentation include increases in the amount of forest-nonforest...

  18. Artificial nest experiments in a fragmented neotropical cloud forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trujillo, G.; Ahumada, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    We conducted artificial nest experiments in a Neotropical montane forest in the eastern Andes, Colombia, in order to test the effect of placing the nests in forest fragments or continuous forests, at two nest heights and for two different climatic seasons. Predation was not consistently different between nests placed in fragments and controls. However, we found that nests on the ground had a higher daily probability of being predated than nests in the understory. Also, daily nest mortality rate (DNM) was higher in the wet season than in the dry season. Most of the predated nests were attributed to mammals (56%), and predation occurred mostly on the ground (78%). Our estimates of DNM are quite low (= 0.023) and similar to another Neotropical montane forest and other Neotropical sites. Comparisons of DNM between Neotropical and temperate sites suggests that predation rates are similar. Our results suggest that fragmentation may not have a large negative impact in nest predation for bird populations breeding in fragments compared to other sites in tropical and temperate regions. ?? The Neotropical Ornithological Society.

  19. Effects of natural forest fragmentation on a Hawaiian spider community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandergast, Amy; Gillespie, Rosemary G.

    2004-01-01

    The kipuka system, a network of forest fragments surrounded by lava flows on the island of Hawaii, offers an opportunity to study the natural, long-term fragmentation of a native ecosystem. We examined the impacts of habitat edges upon the community structure of nocturnally active native spiders, primarily in the genus Tetragnatha. We measured plant and spider species distributions across the edges of four small fragments and one large continuously forested area that were surrounded by a lava flow in 1855. Results indicated that an ???20 m edge ecotone surrounds core forest habitat. Spider community structure changed across the edge, with a decrease in total species richness and diversity at the forest/lava boundary, and a change in the dominant taxon from native Tetragnatha (Tetragnathidae) to native Cyclosa (Araneidae). Severe habitat restrictions were found for some spider species. In addition, nearly all of the spiders captured were endemic species, and the few introduced species were limited to the younger and more open lava flows. Our results suggest that species responses to edges can vary, and that core habitat specialists may decline in fragmented conditions.

  20. TEMPORAL CHANGE IN FOREST FRAGMENTATION AT MULTIPLE SCALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous studies of temporal changes in fragmentation have focused almost exclusively on patch and edge statistics, which might not detect changes in the spatial scale at which forest occurs in or dominates the landscape. We used temporal land-cover data for the Chesapeake Bay r...

  1. Characterizing forest fragments in boreal, temperate, and tropical ecosystems

    Treesearch

    Arjan J. H. Meddens; Andrew T. Hudak; Jeffrey S. Evans; William A. Gould; Grizelle Gonzalez

    2008-01-01

    An increased ability to analyze landscapes in a spatial manner through the use of remote sensing leads to improved capabilities for quantifying human-induced forest fragmentation. Developments of spatially explicit methods in landscape analyses are emerging. In this paper, the image delineation software program eCognition and the spatial pattern analysis program...

  2. Birds transport nutrients to fragmented forests in an urban landscape.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Motoko; Koike, Fumito

    2007-04-01

    The influence of urbanization on nutrient cycling is vaguely known. Here we document that birds, especially those increasing in urban areas (such as crows, Corvus macrorhynchos and C. corone), affect nutrient cycles. Using fecal traps, we measured phosphorus (P) and nitrogen (N) input from the excrement of birds in fragmented forests in an urban landscape. Sources of avian feces were examined on the basis of carbon (C), N, and P percentages and stable isotopes of delta15N and delta13C. Nitrogen and P input was aggregated in the urban landscape, being especially high at the forest where crows roosted during winter. The annual P input due to bird droppings (range 0.068-0.460 kg x ha(-1) x yr(-1); mean 0.167 kg x ha(-1) x yr(-1)) was 12.4% of the total of other pathways in typical forests and 52.9% in the evergreen forest where crows roosted. The annual N input due to bird droppings (range 0.44-3.49 kg x ha(-1) x yr(-1); mean 1.15 kg x ha(-1) x yr(-1)) was 5.2% of the total of other pathways in typical forests and 27.0% in the evergreen forest used by roosting crows. Expected sources of nutrients in feces included insects in the breeding season, fruits in autumn, and mammals and birds in winter. Stable isotopes suggested that the source of nutrients in forests used by roosting crows was from outside the forest. Therefore, birds played a significant role as transporters of nutrients from garbage (including fish, livestock, and/or C4 plants such as corn, with high delta15N and delta13C) in residential and business areas to fragmented evergreen forests, especially near their winter roosts.

  3. Quantifying forest fragmentation using Geographic Information Systems and Forest Inventory and Analysis plot data

    Treesearch

    Dacia M. Meneguzzo; Mark H. Hansen

    2009-01-01

    Fragmentation metrics provide a means of quantifying and describing forest fragmentation. The most common method of calculating these metrics is through the use of Geographic Information System software to analyze raster data, such as a satellite or aerial image of the study area; however, the spatial resolution of the imagery has a significant impact on the results....

  4. A Multi-Scale Perspective of the Effects of Forest Fragmentation on Birds in Eastern Forests

    Treesearch

    Frank R. Thompson; Therese M. Donovan; Richard M. DeGraff; John Faaborg; Scott K. Robinson

    2002-01-01

    We propose a model that considers forest fragmentation within a spatial hierarchy that includes regional or biogeographic effects, landscape-level fragmentation effects, and local habitat effects. We hypothesize that effects operate "top down" in that larger scale effects provide constraints or context for smaller scale effects. Bird species' abundance...

  5. Forests on thawing permafrost: fragmentation, edge effects, and net forest loss.

    PubMed

    Baltzer, Jennifer L; Veness, Tyler; Chasmer, Laura E; Sniderhan, Anastasia E; Quinton, William L

    2014-03-01

    Much of the world's boreal forest occurs on permafrost (perennially cryotic ground). As such, changes in permafrost conditions have implications for forest function and, within the zone of discontinuous permafrost (30-80% permafrost in areal extent), distribution. Here, forested peat plateaus underlain by permafrost are elevated above the surrounding permafrost-free wetlands; as permafrost thaws, ground surface subsidence leads to waterlogging at forest margins. Within the North American subarctic, recent warming has produced rapid, widespread permafrost thaw and corresponding forest loss. Although permafrost thaw-induced forest loss provides a natural analogue to deforestation occurring in more southerly locations, we know little about how fragmentation relates to subsequent permafrost thaw and forest loss or the role of changing conditions at the edges of forested plateaus. We address these knowledge gaps by (i) examining the relationship of forest loss to the degree of fragmentation in a boreal peatland in the Northwest Territories, Canada; and (ii) quantifying associated biotic and abiotic changes occurring across forest-wetland transitions and extending into the forested plateaus (i.e., edge effects). We demonstrate that the rate of forest loss correlates positively with the degree of fragmentation as quantified by perimeter to area ratio of peat plateaus (edge : area). Changes in depth of seasonal thaw, soil moisture, and effective leaf area index (LAIe ) penetrated the plateau forests by 3-15 m. Water uptake by trees was sevenfold greater in the plateau interior than at the edges with direct implications for tree radial growth. A negative relationship existed between LAIe and soil moisture, suggesting that changes in vegetation physiological function may contribute to changing edge conditions while simultaneously being affected by these changes. Enhancing our understanding of mechanisms contributing to differential rates of permafrost thaw and associated

  6. Rates of species loss from Amazonian forest fragments

    PubMed Central

    Ferraz, Gonçalo; Russell, Gareth J.; Stouffer, Philip C.; Bierregaard, Richard O.; Pimm, Stuart L.; Lovejoy, Thomas E.

    2003-01-01

    In the face of worldwide habitat fragmentation, managers need to devise a time frame for action. We ask how fast do understory bird species disappear from experimentally isolated plots in the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project, central Amazon, Brazil. Our data consist of mist-net records obtained over a period of 13 years in 11 sites of 1, 10, and 100 hectares. The numbers of captures per species per unit time, analyzed under different simplifying assumptions, reveal a set of species-loss curves. From those declining numbers, we derive a scaling rule for the time it takes to lose half the species in a fragment as a function of its area. A 10-fold decrease in the rate of species loss requires a 1,000-fold increase in area. Fragments of 100 hectares lose one half of their species in <15 years, too short a time for implementing conservation measures. PMID:14614134

  7. The conservation value of small, isolated fragments of lowland tropical rain forest.

    PubMed

    Turner, I M; T Corlett, R

    1996-08-01

    Deforestation is occurring at an alarming rate in the lowland tropics. In many tropical regions, rain forest is restricted to small (<100 ha), isolated fragments. While only the preservation of large areas of tropical rain forest can safeguard the complete biota, recent research has shown that a substantial number of forest species can persist for decades in fragmented forest, though large vertebrates are susceptible to habitat fragmentation. Inevitably, small fragments will become the last refuges of many rainforest species that are on the brink of extinction. In areas with little rain forest remaining, fragments can be the 'seeds' from which to re-establish extensive forest.

  8. Avian nest success in midwestern forests fragmented by agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutson, M.G.; Friberg, M.A.; Niemi, G.J.; Newton, W.E.

    2004-01-01

    Knutson et al. (2004) report the results of an avian nest success study conducted to investigate how forest-bird nest success varied by nest location and type as well as by landscape context from 1996 to 1998 in an agricultural region of southwestern Minnesota, and southwestern Wisconsin, and northeastern Iowa. The authors found an overall Mayfield adjusted nest success of 48%, 82% for cavity-nesting species, and 42% for cup-nesting species. Common species varied from 23% for American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) to 43% for the Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens). Nest success was lowest for open-cup nesters, species that reject Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) eggs, species that next near forest edges, and Neotropical migrants. These tendencies were consistent across the years of the study. Assessments of nest success considering surrounding landscape metrics indicated that forest area may not be a strong indicator of nest success in landscapes where all the available forests are fragmented.

  9. [Ants: species-area relationship in tropical dry forest fragments].

    PubMed

    Lozano-Zambrano, Fabio H; Ulloa-Chacón, Patricia; Armbrecht, Inge

    2009-01-01

    We analyzed the effect of fragmentation on ant species-area and specimen frequency-area relationships in nine patches of tropical dry forest in the middle Cauca river basin in Colombia. Species richness and specimen relative frequency of ants were positively correlated with area, whereas no significant correlation was found between species richness and the degree of isolation calculated for the forest patches. As the fragmentation affects different functional groups in different ways, we analyzed the species-area relationship for separate functional groups of ants. According to the habitat requirements we found that the species richness increased faster as area increased for ants inhabiting decomposing wood, followed by ants associated with trees, while species richness of ants living under dead leaves did not correlate with area. According to the food preference, species richness was positively correlated with area for the army ant group, while no significant correlation was found for solitary hunters or for leaf-cutting ants. Ant species richness and specimen density were calculated from equal size samples and examined in relation to the habitat area. An inverse correlation was found only for specimen density, the opposite of what was expected. To our knowledge this is one of the first studies showing differential responses of functional groups of ants to habitat loss. Moreover, it emphasizes the conservation value of small forest fragments for ants in a tropical dry forest.

  10. Chimpanzee seed dispersal in a montane forest fragment in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Chancellor, Rebecca L; Rundus, Aaron S; Nyandwi, Sylvain

    2017-03-01

    Primate seed dispersal plays an important role in forest regeneration. It may be particularly important to anthropogenically disturbed habitats such as forest fragments. However, few studies have examined primate seed dispersal in these types of environments. Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) are frugivorous and large-bodied, and are therefore able to disperse both large and small seeds, making them an important seed dispersal species. We examined chimpanzee seed dispersal in Gishwati forest, a 14 km(2) montane rainforest fragment in Rwanda. We systematically collected ≤24-hr-old fecal samples and counted the number of seeds of each fruit species. We also recorded observations of seeds found in wadges. We found that chimpanzees dispersed at least 18 fruit species in 14 families in their feces. Ninety-five percent of feces had seeds, the most common of which were Ficus spp., Myrianthus holstii, and Maesa lanceolata. We estimated that the Gishwati chimpanzee community with a density of 1.7 individuals per km(2) dispersed an average of 592 (>2 mm) seeds km(-2)  day(-1) . We also found that chimpanzees dispersed the seeds of at least two fruit species, Ficus spp. and Chrysophyllum gorungosanum, in their wadges. In addition, 17% of the tree species recorded in our vegetation plots were chimpanzee-dispersed. This study emphasizes the importance of chimpanzees as large seed dispersers in regenerating forest fragments. Chimpanzees in Gishwati disperse a significant number of large seeds. Large-bodied seed dispersers, like chimpanzees, are particularly important in regenerating forest fragments. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Identifying areas of relative change in forest fragmentation in New Hampshire between 1990 and 2000

    Treesearch

    Tonya Lister; Andrew Lister; William McWilliams; Rachel Riemann

    2007-01-01

    Forest fragmentation potentially can impact many facets of natural ecosystems. Numerous methods have been employed to assess static forest fragmentation. Few studies, however, have analyzed changes in forest fragmentation over time. In this study, we developed new classifications from Landsat imagery data acquired in 1990 and 2000 for New Hampshire, assessed...

  12. Forest fragmentation and bird community dynamics: inference at regional scales

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boulinier, T.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Sauer, J.R.; Flather, C.H.; Pollock, K.H.

    2001-01-01

    With increasing fragmentation of natural areas and a dramatic reduction of forest cover in several parts of the world, quantifying the impact of such changes on species richness and community dynamics has been a subject of much concern. Here, we tested whether in more fragmented landscapes there was a lower number of area-sensitive species and higher local extinction and turnover rates, which could explain higher temporal variability in species richness. To investigate such potential landscape effects at a regional scale, we merged two independent, large-scale monitoring efforts: the North American Breeding Bird Survey (BBS) and the Land Use and Land Cover Classification data from the U.S. Geological Survey. We used methods that accounted for heterogeneity in the probability of detecting species to estimate species richness and temporal changes in the bird communities for BBS routes in three mid-Atlantic U.S. states. Forest breeding bird species were grouped prior to the analyses into area-sensitive and non-area-sensitive species according to previous studies. We tested predictions relating measures of forest structure at one point in time (1974) to species richness at that time and to parameters of forest bird community change over the following 22-yr-period (1975-1996). We used the mean size of forest patches to characterize landscape structure, as high correlations among landscape variables did not allow us to disentangle the relative roles of habitat fragmentation per se and habitat loss. As predicted, together with lower species richness for area-sensitive species on routes surrounded by landscapes with lower mean forest-patch size, we found higher mean year-to-year rates of local extinction. Moreover, the mean year-to-year rates of local turnover (proportion of locally new species) for area-sensitive species were also higher in landscapes with lower mean forest-patch size. These associations were not observed for the non-area-sensitive species group. These

  13. Transitions in forest fragmentation: implications for restoration opportunities at regional scales

    Treesearch

    James D. Wickham; K. Bruce Jones; Kurt H. Riitters; Timothy G. Wade; Robert V. O' Neill

    1999-01-01

    Where the potential natural vegetation is continuous forest (e.g., eastern US), a region can be divided into smaller units (e.g., counties, watersheds), and a graph of the proportion of forest in the largest patch versus the proportion in anthropogenic cover can be used as an index of forest fragmentation. If forests are not fragmented beyond that converted to...

  14. Temporal change in forest fragmentation at multiple scales

    Treesearch

    J.D. Wickham; K.H. Riitters; T.G. Wade; J.W. Coulston

    2007-01-01

    Previous studies of temporal changes in fragmentation have focused almost exclusively on patch and edge statistics, which might not detect changes in the spatial scale at which forest occurs in or dominates the landscape. We used temporal land-cover data for the Chesapeake Bay region and the state of New Jersey to compare patch-based and area–density scaling measures...

  15. Effects of changing forest land definitions on forest inventory on the West Coast, USA.

    PubMed

    Azuma, David L; Gray, Andrew

    2014-02-01

    A key function of forest inventory is to detect changes in the area of forest land over time, yet different definitions of forest land are used in different regions of the world. Changes in the definition of forest intended to improve international consistency can affect the ability to quantify true changes over time. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a definitional change from relative stocking to canopy cover on the area classified as forest land and its relationship to species and forest density in California, Oregon, and Washington. Both western Juniper and ponderosa pine will yield higher estimates of forest land area using a canopy cover definition in comparison to a stocking-based definition, with the difference being most pronounced where land is marginally forested. The change in definition may result in an additional 146,000 ha of forest land identified on the West Coast. Measuring marginal forest lands with both metrics for the first cycle after implementation should make it possible to distinguish real change from definitional change.

  16. Foraging habits of Alouatta palliata mexicana in three forest fragments.

    PubMed

    Asensio, Norberto; Cristobal-Azkarate, Jurgi; Dias, Pedro Américo D; Vea, Joaquim J; Rodríguez-Luna, Ernesto

    2007-01-01

    The activity patterns and diet of howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata mexicana) were studied in 3 forest fragments in south-eastern Mexico: Playa Escondida (PLA), Agaltepec Island (AGA) and Arroyo Liza (LIZ). Intersite differences offered the opportunity to investigate the foraging adaptations of howler monkeys in response to population and habitat size. In the largest fragment (PLA), the howlers' diet was based on high-quality items (fruit and young leaves). In AGA, where the density of howlers was the highest, their diet was mostly folivorous with a marked exploitation of uncommon food items such as vines, lianas, shrubs and herbs. The dietary differences in AGA were accompanied by more time spent travelling and less time spent resting. Although LIZ was the smallest fragment and had a high howler density, the small group size and the use of energy-minimizing strategies (less time spent travelling and more time spent resting) probably allowed howlers to maintain a frugivorous diet.

  17. [Microclimate edge effects of evergreen broad-leaved forest fragments in Jinyun Mountain: a preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Yan, Min; Zhong, Zhangchen; Qiao, Xiuhong

    2006-01-01

    This paper studied the microclimate of continuous and fragmental evergreen broad-leaved forests in Jinyun Mountain by determining the horizontal gradient distribution of microclimate elements near forest edges. The results showed that there existed clear edge effects of microclimate in every edge of fragmental forests. The distinctions of maximum and minimum air temperature, photosynthetic active radiation, and minimum relative humidity between edge forest and interior forest were higher or greater, while that of maximum ground surface temperature was lower or smaller in dry season than in rain season. The edge effect was the smallest in the biggest fragmental patch, but the greatest in the smallest fragmental patch in interior forest.

  18. Avian nest success in midwestern forests fragmented by agriculture

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knutson, M.G.; Niemi, G.J.; Newton, W.E.; Friberg, M.A.

    2004-01-01

    We studied how forest-bird nest success varied by landscape context from 1996 to 1998 in an agricultural region of southeastern Minnesota, southwestern Wisconsin, and northeastern Iowa. Nest success was 48% for all nests, 82% for cavity-nesting species, and 42% for cup-nesting species. Mayfield-adjusted nest success for five common species ranged from 23% for the American Redstart (Setophaga ruticilla) to 43% for the Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens). Nest success was lowest for open-cup nesters, species that reject Brown-headed Cowbird (Molothrus ater) eggs, species that nest near forest edges, and Neo-tropical migrants. The proportion of forest core area in a 5-km radius around the plot had a weakly negative relationship with daily survival rate of nests for all species pooled and for medium or high canopy nesters, species associated with interior and edge habitats, open-cup nesters, and nests located between 75 and 199 m from an edge. The proportion of forest core area was positively related to daily survival rate only for ground and low nesters. Our findings are in contrast to a number of studies from the eastern United States reporting strong positive associations between forest area and nesting success. Supported models of habitat associations changed with the spatial scale of analysis and included variables not often considered in studies of forest birds, including the proportion of water, shrubs, and grasslands in the landscape. Forest area may not be a strong indicator of nest success in landscapes where all the available forests are fragmented.

  19. Analysis of Edge Effects on Fragmented Forests Using Forest Inventories in Southwestern Amazonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numata, I.; Silva, S.; Cochrane, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    Deforestation fragments contiguous forests into smaller and smaller pieces, inducing ecological and biological changes in forest ecosystems. Edge effects are spatial and temporal phenomena. The effects of forest fragmentation vary primarily as functions of edge penetration distance, spatial arrangements and time of persistence of forest edges. Across varying penetration distances in a forest edge, numerous changes occur including elevated tree mortality and canopy desiccation, changes in forest structure and species composition, alternation of hydrological and carbon cycles. We analyzed the effects of edge penetration distance and time of persistence of forest edges on forest biophysical characteristics based upon more than thirty 500m transects over highly fragmented forests in Acre, the southwestern Amazon. Spatial variability of tree data (diameter at breast height - DBH, above ground biomass, tree density, species composition and population) was measured along a penetration distance of 500m from forest edges. Different edge age classes (1-5yr, 6-10yr, > 10yr) and edge penetration distances were identified based upon a Landsat time-series analysis. The number of individual plants with DBH > 10cm tends to be greater near edge (largest in the first 100m), while larger biomass amounts are found at > 300m distance. The impact of penetration distance on biomass, however, is not statistically significant. In terms of the distribution of DBHs, while smaller trees with DBH <=20cm account for 70% of all trees, larger DBH trees tend to increase after 300m penetration distance. The effect of edge persistence period (edge age) is not significant for both the number of individual plants as well as the biomass, however it is more pronounced on secondary species' biomass such as Cecrcopia sp and bamboo, which increase as edges persist longer.

  20. Season-modulated responses of Neotropical bats to forest fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Diogo F; Rocha, Ricardo; López-Baucells, Adrià; Farneda, Fábio Z; Carreiras, João M B; Palmeirim, Jorge M; Meyer, Christoph F J

    2017-06-01

    Seasonality causes fluctuations in resource availability, affecting the presence and abundance of animal species. The impacts of these oscillations on wildlife populations can be exacerbated by habitat fragmentation. We assessed differences in bat species abundance between the wet and dry season in a fragmented landscape in the Central Amazon characterized by primary forest fragments embedded in a secondary forest matrix. We also evaluated whether the relative importance of local vegetation structure versus landscape characteristics (composition and configuration) in shaping bat abundance patterns varied between seasons. Our working hypotheses were that abundance responses are species as well as season specific, and that in the wet season, local vegetation structure is a stronger determinant of bat abundance than landscape-scale attributes. Generalized linear mixed-effects models in combination with hierarchical partitioning revealed that relationships between species abundances and local vegetation structure and landscape characteristics were both season specific and scale dependent. Overall, landscape characteristics were more important than local vegetation characteristics, suggesting that landscape structure is likely to play an even more important role in landscapes with higher fragment-matrix contrast. Responses varied between frugivores and animalivores. In the dry season, frugivores responded more to compositional metrics, whereas during the wet season, local and configurational metrics were more important. Animalivores showed similar patterns in both seasons, responding to the same group of metrics in both seasons. Differences in responses likely reflect seasonal differences in the phenology of flowering and fruiting between primary and secondary forests, which affected the foraging behavior and habitat use of bats. Management actions should encompass multiscale approaches to account for the idiosyncratic responses of species to seasonal variation in

  1. Thermokarst rates intensify due to climate change and forest fragmentation in an Alaskan boreal forest lowland.

    PubMed

    Lara, Mark J; Genet, Hélène; McGuire, Anthony D; Euskirchen, Eugénie S; Zhang, Yujin; Brown, Dana R N; Jorgenson, Mark T; Romanovsky, Vladimir; Breen, Amy; Bolton, William R

    2016-02-01

    Lowland boreal forest ecosystems in Alaska are dominated by wetlands comprised of a complex mosaic of fens, collapse-scar bogs, low shrub/scrub, and forests growing on elevated ice-rich permafrost soils. Thermokarst has affected the lowlands of the Tanana Flats in central Alaska for centuries, as thawing permafrost collapses forests that transition to wetlands. Located within the discontinuous permafrost zone, this region has significantly warmed over the past half-century, and much of these carbon-rich permafrost soils are now within ~0.5 °C of thawing. Increased permafrost thaw in lowland boreal forests in response to warming may have consequences for the climate system. This study evaluates the trajectories and potential drivers of 60 years of forest change in a landscape subjected to permafrost thaw in unburned dominant forest types (paper birch and black spruce) associated with location on elevated permafrost plateau and across multiple time periods (1949, 1978, 1986, 1998, and 2009) using historical and contemporary aerial and satellite images for change detection. We developed (i) a deterministic statistical model to evaluate the potential climatic controls on forest change using gradient boosting and regression tree analysis, and (ii) a 30 × 30 m land cover map of the Tanana Flats to estimate the potential landscape-level losses of forest area due to thermokarst from 1949 to 2009. Over the 60-year period, we observed a nonlinear loss of birch forests and a relatively continuous gain of spruce forest associated with thermokarst and forest succession, while gradient boosting/regression tree models identify precipitation and forest fragmentation as the primary factors controlling birch and spruce forest change, respectively. Between 1950 and 2009, landscape-level analysis estimates a transition of ~15 km² or ~7% of birch forests to wetlands, where the greatest change followed warm periods. This work highlights that the vulnerability and resilience of

  2. Tropical forest fragmentation limits pollination of a keystone understory herb.

    PubMed

    Hadley, Adam S; Frey, Sarah J K; Robinson, W Douglas; Kress, W John; Betts, Matthew G

    2014-08-01

    Loss of native vegetation cover is thought to be a major driver of declines in pollination success worldwide. However, it is not well known whether reducing the fragmentation of remaining vegetation can ameliorate these negative effects. We tested the independent effects of composition vs. configuration on the reproductive success of a keystone tropical forest herb (Heliconia tortuosa). To do this we designed a large-scale mensurative experiment that independently varied connected forest-patch size (configuration) and surrounding amount of forest (composition). In each patch, we tested whether pollen tubes, fruit, and seed set were associated with these landscape variables. We also captured hummingbirds as an indication of pollinator availability in a subset of patches according to the same design. We found evidence for an effect of configuration on seed set of H. tortuosa, but not on other aspects of plant reproduction; proportion of seeds produced increased 40% across the gradient in patch size we observed (0.64 to > 1300 ha), independent of the amount of forest in the surrounding landscape at both local and landscape scales. We also found that the availability of pollinators was dependent upon forest configuration; hummingbird capture rates increased three and one-half times across the patch size gradient, independent of forest amount. Finally, pollinator availability was strongly positively correlated with seed set. We hypothesize that the effects of configuration on plant fitness that we observed are due to reduced pollen quality resulting from altered hummingbird availability and/or movement behavior. Our results suggest that prioritizing larger patches of tropical forest may be particularly important for conservation of this species.

  3. A large-scale forest fragmentation experiment: the Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems Project.

    PubMed

    Ewers, Robert M; Didham, Raphael K; Fahrig, Lenore; Ferraz, Gonçalo; Hector, Andy; Holt, Robert D; Kapos, Valerie; Reynolds, Glen; Sinun, Waidi; Snaddon, Jake L; Turner, Edgar C

    2011-11-27

    Opportunities to conduct large-scale field experiments are rare, but provide a unique opportunity to reveal the complex processes that operate within natural ecosystems. Here, we review the design of existing, large-scale forest fragmentation experiments. Based on this review, we develop a design for the Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems (SAFE) Project, a new forest fragmentation experiment to be located in the lowland tropical forests of Borneo (Sabah, Malaysia). The SAFE Project represents an advance on existing experiments in that it: (i) allows discrimination of the effects of landscape-level forest cover from patch-level processes; (ii) is designed to facilitate the unification of a wide range of data types on ecological patterns and processes that operate over a wide range of spatial scales; (iii) has greater replication than existing experiments; (iv) incorporates an experimental manipulation of riparian corridors; and (v) embeds the experimentally fragmented landscape within a wider gradient of land-use intensity than do existing projects. The SAFE Project represents an opportunity for ecologists across disciplines to participate in a large initiative designed to generate a broad understanding of the ecological impacts of tropical forest modification.

  4. A large-scale forest fragmentation experiment: the Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems Project

    PubMed Central

    Ewers, Robert M.; Didham, Raphael K.; Fahrig, Lenore; Ferraz, Gonçalo; Hector, Andy; Holt, Robert D.; Kapos, Valerie; Reynolds, Glen; Sinun, Waidi; Snaddon, Jake L.; Turner, Edgar C.

    2011-01-01

    Opportunities to conduct large-scale field experiments are rare, but provide a unique opportunity to reveal the complex processes that operate within natural ecosystems. Here, we review the design of existing, large-scale forest fragmentation experiments. Based on this review, we develop a design for the Stability of Altered Forest Ecosystems (SAFE) Project, a new forest fragmentation experiment to be located in the lowland tropical forests of Borneo (Sabah, Malaysia). The SAFE Project represents an advance on existing experiments in that it: (i) allows discrimination of the effects of landscape-level forest cover from patch-level processes; (ii) is designed to facilitate the unification of a wide range of data types on ecological patterns and processes that operate over a wide range of spatial scales; (iii) has greater replication than existing experiments; (iv) incorporates an experimental manipulation of riparian corridors; and (v) embeds the experimentally fragmented landscape within a wider gradient of land-use intensity than do existing projects. The SAFE Project represents an opportunity for ecologists across disciplines to participate in a large initiative designed to generate a broad understanding of the ecological impacts of tropical forest modification. PMID:22006969

  5. Thermokarst Rates Intensify Due to Climate Change and Forest Fragmentation in an Alaskan Boreal Forest Lowland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lara, M. J.; Genet, H.; McGuire, A. D.; Euskirchen, E. S.; Zhang, Y.; Brown, D. N.; Jorgenson, T.; Romanovsky, V. E.; Breen, A. L.; Bolton, W. R.

    2015-12-01

    Lowland boreal forest ecosystems in Alaska are dominated by wetlands comprised of a complex mosaic of fens, collapse scar-bogs, low shrub/scrub, and forests growing on elevated ice rich permafrost soils. Thermokarst has affected the lowlands of the Tanana Flats in central Alaska for centuries, as thawing permafrost collapses forests that transition to wetlands. Located within the discontinuous permafrost zone, this region has significantly warmed over the past half-century, and much of these carbon-rich permafrost soils are now within ~0.5o C of thawing. Increases in the collapse of lowland boreal forests in response to warming may have consequences for the climate system. This study evaluates the trajectories and potential drivers of 60 years of forest change in a landscape subjected to permafrost thaw in unburned dominant forest types (paper birch and black spruce) associated with location on elevated permafrost plateau and across multiple time periods (1949, 1978, 1986, 1998 and 2009) using historical and contemporary aerial and satellite images for change detection. We developed (i) a deterministic statistical model to evaluate the potential climatic controls on forest change using gradient boosting and regression tree analysis, and (ii) a 30x30 m land cover map of the Tanana Flats to estimate the potential landscape-level losses of forest area due to thermokarst from 1949 to 2009. Over the 60-year period, we observed a nonlinear loss of birch forests and a relatively continuous gain of spruce forest associated with thermokarst and forest succession, respectively. Gradient boosting and regression tree models identify precipitation and forest fragmentation as the primary factors controlling birch and spruce forest change, respectively. Between 1950-2009 landscape-level analysis estimates a transition of ~15 km² of birch forest area to wetlands on the Tanana Flats, where the greatest change followed warm periods. This work highlights the vulnerability of lowland

  6. Northeastern Regional Forest Fragmentation Assessment: Rationale, Methods, and Comparisons With Other Studies

    Treesearch

    Andrew Lister; Rachel Riemann; Tonya Lister; Will McWilliams

    2005-01-01

    Forest fragmentation is thought to impact many biotic and abiotic processes important to ecosystem function. We assessed forest fragmentation in 13 Northeastern States to gain a greater understanding of the trends in and status of this region?s forests. We reclassified and then statistically filtered and updated classified Landsat imagery from the early 1990s, and...

  7. Mosquito (Diptera: Culicidae) diversity of a forest-fragment mosaic in the Amazon rain forest.

    PubMed

    Hutchings, Rosa Sá Gomes; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb; Hutchings, Roger William

    2011-03-01

    To study the impact of Amazonian forest fragmentation on the mosquito fauna, an inventory of Culicidae was conducted in the upland forest research areas of the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project located 60 km north of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. The culicid community was sampled monthly between February 2002 and May 2003. CDC light traps, flight interception traps, manual aspiration, and net sweeping were used to capture adult specimens along the edges and within forest fragments of different sizes (1, 10, and 100 ha), in second-growth areas surrounding the fragments and around camps. We collected 5,204 specimens, distributed in 18 genera and 160 species level taxa. A list of mosquito taxa is presented with 145 species found in the survey, including seven new records for Brazil, 16 new records for the state of Amazonas, along with the 15 morphotypes that probably represent undescribed species. No exotic species [Aedes aegypti (L.) and Aedes albopictus (Skuse)] were found within the sampled areas. Several species collected are potential vectors of Plasmodium causing human malaria and of various arboviruses. The epidemiological and ecological implications of mosquito species found are discussed, and the results are compared with other mosquito inventories from the Amazon region.

  8. Forest fragmentation and risk of giardiasis in New York State.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Michael G

    2013-12-01

    In the United States, giardiasis is endemic in northern and northeastern states, but its ecology and epidemiology remain elusive. The underlying physical landscape may play a role in shaping points of contact between humans, animals, and Giardia cysts. This study examined 11 years of surveillance data in New York State to measure the relationship between forest fragmentation and the incidence of giardiasis. Adjusted Poisson models showed that increasing points of contact between forested land and developed land, as measured by their shared edges [incident rate ratio (IRR) = 1.003; P < 0.001] and by the perimeter length of forested patches (IRR = 1.31; P = 0.01), were associated with higher incidence of giardiasis cases, whereas increasing forest density was associated with a lower incidence (IRR = 0.97; P < 0.001). These associations were independent of both temperature and surface water area. While these results are only suggestive due to the county-level aggregated data, the findings do identify a potentially important signal in the landscape epidemiology of giardiasis and highlight the need for better, more targeted, field studies on individual water sources for household consumption, inter-species contact in ecotones, surface water contamination, and human giardiasis cases.

  9. Effects of pioneer tree species hyperabundance on forest fragments in northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Tabarelli, Marcelo; Aguiar, Antonio V; Girão, Luciana C; Peres, Carlos A; Lopes, Ariadna V

    2010-12-01

    Despite many studies on fragmentation of tropical forests, the extent to which plant and animal communities are altered in small, isolated forest fragments remains obscure if not controversial. We examined the hypothesis that fragmentation alters the relative abundance of tree species with different vegetative and reproductive traits. In a fragmented landscape (670 km(2) ) of the Atlantic Forest of northeastern Brazil, we categorized 4056 trees of 182 species by leafing pattern, reproductive phenology, and morphology of seeds and fruit. We calculated relative abundance of traits in 50 1-ha plots in three types of forest configurations: forest edges, small forest fragments (3.4-83.6 ha), and interior of the largest forest fragment (3500 ha, old growth). Although evergreen species were the most abundant across all configurations, forest edges and small fragments had more deciduous and semideciduous species than interior forest. Edges lacked supra-annual flowering and fruiting species and had more species and stems with drupes and small seeds than small forest fragments and forest interior areas. In an ordination of species similarity and life-history traits, the three types of configurations formed clearly segregated clusters. Furthermore, the differences in the taxonomic and functional (i.e., trait-based) composition of tree assemblages we documented were driven primarily by the higher abundance of pioneer species in the forest edge and small forest fragments. Our work provides strong evidence that long-term transitions in phenology and seed and fruit morphology of tree functional groups are occurring in fragmented tropical forests. Our results also suggest that edge-induced shifts in tree assemblages of tropical forests can be larger than previously documented.

  10. Associations of forest cover, fragment area, and connectivity with neotropical understory bird species richness and abundance.

    PubMed

    Martensen, Alexandre Camargo; Ribeiro, Milton Cezar; Banks-Leite, Cristina; Prado, Paulo Inácio; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2012-12-01

    Theoretical and empirical studies demonstrate that the total amount of forest and the size and connectivity of fragments have nonlinear effects on species survival. We tested how habitat amount and configuration affect understory bird species richness and abundance. We used mist nets (almost 34,000 net hours) to sample birds in 53 Atlantic Forest fragments in southeastern Brazil. Fragments were distributed among 3 10,800-ha landscapes. The remaining forest in these landscapes was below (10% forest cover), similar to (30%), and above (50%) the theoretical fragmentation threshold (approximately 30%) below which the effects of fragmentation should be intensified. Species-richness estimates were significantly higher (F= 3715, p = 0.00) where 50% of the forest remained, which suggests a species occurrence threshold of 30-50% forest, which is higher than usually occurs (<30%). Relations between forest cover and species richness differed depending on species sensitivity to forest conversion and fragmentation. For less sensitive species, species richness decreased as forest cover increased, whereas for highly sensitive species the opposite occurred. For sensitive species, species richness and the amount of forest cover were positively related, particularly when forest cover was 30-50%. Fragment size and connectivity were related to species richness and abundance in all landscapes, not just below the 30% threshold. Where 10% of the forest remained, fragment size was more related to species richness and abundance than connectivity. However, the relation between connectivity and species richness and abundance was stronger where 30% of the landscape was forested. Where 50% of the landscape was forested, fragment size and connectivity were both related to species richness and abundance. Our results demonstrated a rapid loss of species at relatively high levels of forest cover (30-50%). Highly sensitive species were 3-4 times more common above the 30-50% threshold than below it

  11. Massive structural and compositional changes over two decades in forest fragments near Kampala, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Bulafu, C; Baranga, D; Mucunguzi, P; Telford, R J; Vandvik, V

    2013-01-01

    Private forests harbor considerable biodiversity, however, they are under greater threat than reserved areas, particularly from urbanization, agriculture, and intense exploitation for timber and fuel wood. The extent to which they may act as habitats for biodiversity and how level of protection impacts trends in biodiversity and forest structure over time remain underresearched. We contribute to filling this research gap by resampling a unique data set, a detailed survey from 1990 of 22 forests fragments of different ownership status and level of protection near Kampala, Uganda. Eleven of the 22 fragments were lost over 20 years, and six of the remnants reduced in size. Forest structure and composition also showed dramatic changes, with six of the remnant fragments showing high temporal species turnover. Species richness increased in four of the remaining forests over the resample period. Forest ownership affected the fate of the forests, with higher loss in privately owned forests. Our study demonstrates that ownership affects the fate of forest fragments, with private forests having both higher rates of area loss, and of structural and compositional change within the remaining fragments. Still, the private forests contribute to the total forest area, and they harbor biodiversity including IUCN “vulnerable” and “endangered” species. This indicates the conservation value of the fragments and suggests that they should be taken into account in forest conservation and restoration. PMID:24198941

  12. Detecting Fragmentation Extinction Thresholds for Forest Understory Plant Species in Peninsular Spain

    PubMed Central

    Rueda, Marta; Moreno Saiz, Juan Carlos; Morales-Castilla, Ignacio; Albuquerque, Fabio S.; Ferrero, Mila; Rodríguez, Miguel Á.

    2015-01-01

    Ecological theory predicts that fragmentation aggravates the effects of habitat loss, yet empirical results show mixed evidences, which fail to support the theory instead reinforcing the primary importance of habitat loss. Fragmentation hypotheses have received much attention due to their potential implications for biodiversity conservation, however, animal studies have traditionally been their main focus. Here we assess variation in species sensitivity to forest amount and fragmentation and evaluate if fragmentation is related to extinction thresholds in forest understory herbs and ferns. Our expectation was that forest herbs would be more sensitive to fragmentation than ferns due to their lower dispersal capabilities. Using forest cover percentage and the proportion of this percentage occurring in the largest patch within UTM cells of 10-km resolution covering Peninsular Spain, we partitioned the effects of forest amount versus fragmentation and applied logistic regression to model occurrences of 16 species. For nine models showing robustness according to a set of quality criteria we subsequently defined two empirical fragmentation scenarios, minimum and maximum, and quantified species’ sensitivity to forest contraction with no fragmentation, and to fragmentation under constant forest cover. We finally assessed how the extinction threshold of each species (the habitat amount below which it cannot persist) varies under no and maximum fragmentation. Consistent with their preference for forest habitats probability occurrences of all species decreased as forest cover contracted. On average, herbs did not show significant sensitivity to fragmentation whereas ferns were favored. In line with theory, fragmentation yielded higher extinction thresholds for two species. For the remaining species, fragmentation had either positive or non-significant effects. We interpret these differences as reflecting species-specific traits and conclude that although forest amount is of

  13. Detecting fragmentation extinction thresholds for forest understory plant species in peninsular Spain.

    PubMed

    Rueda, Marta; Moreno Saiz, Juan Carlos; Morales-Castilla, Ignacio; Albuquerque, Fabio S; Ferrero, Mila; Rodríguez, Miguel Á

    2015-01-01

    Ecological theory predicts that fragmentation aggravates the effects of habitat loss, yet empirical results show mixed evidences, which fail to support the theory instead reinforcing the primary importance of habitat loss. Fragmentation hypotheses have received much attention due to their potential implications for biodiversity conservation, however, animal studies have traditionally been their main focus. Here we assess variation in species sensitivity to forest amount and fragmentation and evaluate if fragmentation is related to extinction thresholds in forest understory herbs and ferns. Our expectation was that forest herbs would be more sensitive to fragmentation than ferns due to their lower dispersal capabilities. Using forest cover percentage and the proportion of this percentage occurring in the largest patch within UTM cells of 10-km resolution covering Peninsular Spain, we partitioned the effects of forest amount versus fragmentation and applied logistic regression to model occurrences of 16 species. For nine models showing robustness according to a set of quality criteria we subsequently defined two empirical fragmentation scenarios, minimum and maximum, and quantified species' sensitivity to forest contraction with no fragmentation, and to fragmentation under constant forest cover. We finally assessed how the extinction threshold of each species (the habitat amount below which it cannot persist) varies under no and maximum fragmentation. Consistent with their preference for forest habitats probability occurrences of all species decreased as forest cover contracted. On average, herbs did not show significant sensitivity to fragmentation whereas ferns were favored. In line with theory, fragmentation yielded higher extinction thresholds for two species. For the remaining species, fragmentation had either positive or non-significant effects. We interpret these differences as reflecting species-specific traits and conclude that although forest amount is of

  14. Understanding the impacts of forest fragmentation in the Southern Appalachian Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Pearson, S.M.

    1993-06-01

    Southern Appalachian forests are rich in biological diversity. These forests contain many species adapted to conditions ranging from mesic coves to xeric ridges. The major plant communities include wetlands and balds as well as hardwood and coniferous forests. To understand the impacts of habitat fragmentation, the sensitivity of ecosystems, communities, and species to fragmentation must be determined. Recognizing the natural patterns of heterogeneity in these forest and the importance of this heterogeneity to ecological processes will promote our understanding of fragmentation. The impact of a specific forest use (economic development, forest harvesting, recreation) depends on the type of habitat modification.and the spatial extent and pattern of this use. Information on ecological processes, maps of natural communities, and projections about activities that modify forests are needed in order to implement management strategies that will minimize forest fragmentation.

  15. Calibrating and testing a gap model for simulating forest management in the Oregon Coast Range

    Treesearch

    Robert J. Pabst; Matthew N. Goslin; Steven L. Garman; Thomas A. Spies

    2008-01-01

    The complex mix of economic and ecological objectives facing today's forest managers necessitates the development of growth models with a capacity for simulating a wide range of forest conditions while producing outputs useful for economic analyses. We calibrated the gap model ZELIG to simulate stand level forest development in the Oregon Coast Range as part of a...

  16. Simulating historical variability in the amount of old forests in the Oregon Coast Range.

    Treesearch

    M.C. Wimberly; T.M. Spies; C.J. Long; C. Whitlock

    2000-01-01

    We developed the landscape age-class demographics simulator (LADS) to model historical variability in the amount of old-growth and late-successional forest in the Oregon Coast Range over the past 3,000 years. The model simulated temporal and spatial patterns of forest fires along with the resulting fluctuations in the distribution of forest age classes across the...

  17. Yellow-cedar decline in the North Coast Forest District of British Columbia.

    Treesearch

    Paul E. Hennon; David V. D' Amore; Stefan Zeglan; Mike. Grainger

    2005-01-01

    The distribution of a forest decline of yellow-cedar (Callitropsis nootkatensis (D. Don) Örsted) has been documented in southeast Alaska, but its occurrence in British Columbia was previously unknown. We conducted an aerial survey in the Prince Rupert area in September 2004 to determine if yellow-cedar forests in the North Coast Forest District of...

  18. Effects of microhabitat on palm seed predation in two forest fragments in southeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleury, Marina; Galetti, Mauro

    2004-12-01

    The establishment of plants depends crucially on where seeds are deposited in the environment. Some authors suggest that in forest understory seed predation is lower than in gaps, and higher than at the forest edge. However, most studies have been carried out in large forest patches and very little is known about the effects of microhabitat conditions on seed predation in forest fragments. We evaluated the effects of three microhabitats (gaps, forest edge, and understory) on seed predation of two palm species ( Euterpe edulis and Syagrus romanzoffiana) in two semi-deciduous forest fragments (230 and 2100 ha) in southeast Brazil. Our objective was to test two hypotheses: (1) Low rodent abundance in small fragments as a result of meso-predator action levels leads to lower seed predation in small fragments. (2) Most mammal species in small fragments are generalists with respect to diet and habitat, so that seed predation is similar in different microhabitats (gaps, forest edge and understory) in the small fragment, but not in the larger one. The study community of small fragments is usually composed of generalist species (in diet and habitat aspects), so we expected the same rate of seed predation among microhabitats (gaps, forest edge and understory) in the tested smaller fragment. The experiment was carried out in the dry season (for E. edulis) and in the wet season (for S. romanzoffiana) in 1999. We conclude that post-dispersal seed predation in forest fragments can be directly connected with mammal communities, reflecting their historical and ecological aspects.

  19. Effects of forest fragmentation and habitat degradation on West African leaf-litter frogs.

    PubMed

    Hillers, Annika; Veith, Michael; Rödel, Mark-Oliver

    2008-06-01

    Habitat degradation alters the dynamics and composition of anuran assemblages in tropical forests. The effects of forest fragmentation on the composition of anuran assemblages are so far poorly known. We studied the joint influence of forest fragmentation and degradation on leaf-litter frogs. We specifically asked whether the processes structuring leaf-litter anuran assemblages in fragmented forests are the same as those in continuous forests. We analyzed anuran assemblages with respect to habitat characteristics, including fragmentation and degradation parameters. In comparison with continuous forests, species richness and diversity were lower and assemblage composition was altered in forest fragments. These changes seemed to be mainly caused by habitat degradation rather than forest fragmentation. Availability of aquatic sites for breeding, vegetation structure (including those variables indicating degradation), and leaf-litter cover had the most influence on the presence of single species. The comparatively small impact of fragmentation on anurans might be due to the location of the study area; it still possessed large tracts of continuous forest. These forest blocks may stabilize the regional rainforest climate and thus weaken the effects of fragmentation.

  20. Measurement and management of human-induced patterns of forest fragmentation: a case study.

    PubMed

    Tole, Lise

    2006-06-01

    In many tropical developing countries, the twin pressures of population and poverty are resulting in substantial fragmentation of forests, increasing the probability of extinction for many species, Forest fragmentation occurs when large contiguous forests are perforated by small holes or broken up into edges and smaller patches to form a nonforested matrix of open spaces. Thus, forest fragmentation refers not only to the area of forest cleared, but also to the pattern of this clearance, the resulting forest's spatial properties. Both characteristics are important for species survivability. Apart from opening up forests to many abiotic and biotic influences, fragmentation can affect species dispersal and migration through its effects on forest connectivity. Landscape ecology conceptualizes connectivity as a gradient of critical thresholds, ranging from the large intact forest to the small unconnected forest patch. This article reports results from a multiple-scale analysis of forest fragmentation in Jamaica's Cockpit Country, an area of once contiguous forest now under threat from human encroachment. Spatial forest data derived from classification of ETM+ satellite imagery are used to measure fragmentation patterns representing various degrees of forest connectivity and density. The results suggest that, overall, 81% of the region is in forest. However, fragmentation patterns also suggest that this forest is riven with extensive perforations indicative of an early stage in the decline of contiguity. The results provided by the spatial fragmentation model are a first step in the design of effective conservation and rehabilitation plans for the area. The article concludes with a discussion of possible multiscale management options for the region.

  1. Limited effect of anthropogenic habitat fragmentation on molecular diversity in a rain forest skink, Gnypetoscincus queenslandiae.

    PubMed

    Sumner, Joanna; Jessop, Tim; Paetkau, David; Moritz, Craig

    2004-02-01

    To examine the effects of recent habitat fragmentation, we assayed genetic diversity in a rain forest endemic lizard, the prickly forest skink (Gnypetoscincus queenslandiae), from seven forest fragments and five sites in continuous forest on the Atherton tableland of northeastern Queensland, Australia. The rain forest in this region was fragmented by logging and clearing for dairy farms in the early 1900s and most forest fragments studied have been isolated for 50-80 years or nine to 12 skink generations. We genotyped 411 individuals at nine microsatellite DNA loci and found fewer alleles per locus in prickly forest skinks from small rain forest fragments and a lower ratio of allele number to allele size range in forest fragments than in continuous forest, indicative of a decrease in effective population size. In contrast, and as expected for populations with small neighbourhood sizes, neither heterozygosity nor variance in allele size differed between fragments and sites in continuous forests. Considering measures of among population differentiation, there was no increase in FST among fragments and a significant isolation by distance pattern was identified across all 12 sites. However, the relationship between genetic (FST) and geographical distance was significantly stronger for continuous forest sites than for fragments, consistent with disruption of gene flow among the latter. The observed changes in genetic diversity within and among populations are small, but in the direction predicted by the theory of genetic erosion in recently fragmented populations. The results also illustrate the inherent difficulty in detecting genetic consequences of recent habitat fragmentation, even in genetically variable species, and especially when effective population size and dispersal rates are low.

  2. Thermokarst rates intensify due to climate change and forest fragmentation in an Alaskan boreal forest lowland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lara, M.; Genet, Helene; McGuire, Anthony; Euskirchen, Eugénie S.; Zhang, Yujin; Brown, Dana R. N.; Jorgenson, M.T.; Romanovsky, V.; Breen, Amy L.; Bolton, W.R.

    2016-01-01

    Lowland boreal forest ecosystems in Alaska are dominated by wetlands comprised of a complex mosaic of fens, collapse-scar bogs, low shrub/scrub, and forests growing on elevated ice-rich permafrost soils. Thermokarst has affected the lowlands of the Tanana Flats in central Alaska for centuries, as thawing permafrost collapses forests that transition to wetlands. Located within the discontinuous permafrost zone, this region has significantly warmed over the past half-century, and much of these carbon-rich permafrost soils are now within ~0.5 °C of thawing. Increased permafrost thaw in lowland boreal forests in response to warming may have consequences for the climate system. This study evaluates the trajectories and potential drivers of 60 years of forest change in a landscape subjected to permafrost thaw in unburned dominant forest types (paper birch and black spruce) associated with location on elevated permafrost plateau and across multiple time periods (1949, 1978, 1986, 1998, and 2009) using historical and contemporary aerial and satellite images for change detection. We developed (i) a deterministic statistical model to evaluate the potential climatic controls on forest change using gradient boosting and regression tree analysis, and (ii) a 30 × 30 m land cover map of the Tanana Flats to estimate the potential landscape-level losses of forest area due to thermokarst from 1949 to 2009. Over the 60-year period, we observed a nonlinear loss of birch forests and a relatively continuous gain of spruce forest associated with thermokarst and forest succession, while gradient boosting/regression tree models identify precipitation and forest fragmentation as the primary factors controlling birch and spruce forest change, respectively. Between 1950 and 2009, landscape-level analysis estimates a transition of ~15 km² or ~7% of birch forests to wetlands, where the greatest change followed warm periods. This work highlights that the vulnerability and resilience of

  3. Spatial and temporal changes in bird assemblages in forest fragments in an eastern Amazonian savannah.

    PubMed

    Cintra, Renato; Magnusson, William E; Albernaz, Ana

    2013-09-01

    We investigated the effects of forest fragmentation on bird assemblages in an Amazonian savannah landscape with forest fragments that have been isolated for more than 100 years. The study was conducted in areas surrounding the village of Alter do Chão (2°31'S, 55°00'W), Santarém, Brazil. Bird surveys and measurements of tree density were undertaken in 25 areas, with 19 plots in forest fragments of different sizes and six in an area of continuous forest. Data on forest-fragment size, perimeter, and isolation were obtained from a georeferenced satellite image. Variation in number of bird species recorded per plot was not related to vegetation structure (tree density). The number of bird species recorded per plot increased significantly only with fragment area, but was not influenced by fragment shape or degree of isolation, even when considering species from the savannah matrix in the analysis. Fragments had fewer rare species. Multivariate ordination analyses (multiple dimensional scaling, [MDS]) indicated that bird species composition changed along a gradient from small to large forest fragments and continuous-forest areas. In the Amazonian savannah landscapes of Alter do Chão, the organization and composition of bird assemblages in forest fragments are affected by local long-term forest-fragmentation processes. Differences in the number of bird species recorded per plot and assemblage composition between forest fragments and continuous forest were not influenced by forest structure, suggesting that the observed patterns in species composition result from the effects of fragmentation per se rather than from preexisting differences in vegetation structure between sites. Nevertheless, despite their long history of isolation, the forest fragments still preserve a large proportion (on average 80%) of the avifauna found in continuous-forest areas. The fragments at Alter do Chão are surrounded by natural (rather than planted) grassland, with many trees in the

  4. Spatial and temporal changes in bird assemblages in forest fragments in an eastern Amazonian savannah

    PubMed Central

    Cintra, Renato; Magnusson, William E; Albernaz, Ana

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the effects of forest fragmentation on bird assemblages in an Amazonian savannah landscape with forest fragments that have been isolated for more than 100 years. The study was conducted in areas surrounding the village of Alter do Chão (2°31'S, 55°00'W), Santarém, Brazil. Bird surveys and measurements of tree density were undertaken in 25 areas, with 19 plots in forest fragments of different sizes and six in an area of continuous forest. Data on forest-fragment size, perimeter, and isolation were obtained from a georeferenced satellite image. Variation in number of bird species recorded per plot was not related to vegetation structure (tree density). The number of bird species recorded per plot increased significantly only with fragment area, but was not influenced by fragment shape or degree of isolation, even when considering species from the savannah matrix in the analysis. Fragments had fewer rare species. Multivariate ordination analyses (multiple dimensional scaling, [MDS]) indicated that bird species composition changed along a gradient from small to large forest fragments and continuous-forest areas. In the Amazonian savannah landscapes of Alter do Chão, the organization and composition of bird assemblages in forest fragments are affected by local long-term forest-fragmentation processes. Differences in the number of bird species recorded per plot and assemblage composition between forest fragments and continuous forest were not influenced by forest structure, suggesting that the observed patterns in species composition result from the effects of fragmentation per se rather than from preexisting differences in vegetation structure between sites. Nevertheless, despite their long history of isolation, the forest fragments still preserve a large proportion (on average 80%) of the avifauna found in continuous-forest areas. The fragments at Alter do Chão are surrounded by natural (rather than planted) grassland, with many trees in the

  5. Forest stand dynamics and sudden oak death: Mortality in mixed-evergreen forests dominated by coast live oak

    Treesearch

    L.B. Brown; B. Allen-Diaz

    2009-01-01

    Sudden oak death (SOD), caused by the recently discovered non-native invasive pathogen, Phytophthora ramorum, has already killed tens of thousands of native coast live oak and tanoak trees in California. Little is known of potential short and long term impacts of this novel plant–pathogen interaction on forest structure and composition. Coast live...

  6. Discerning Fragmentation Dynamics of Tropical Forest and Wetland during Reforestation, Urban Sprawl, and Policy Shifts

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qiong; Yu, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Despite the overall trend of worldwide deforestation over recent decades, reforestation has also been found and is expected in developing countries undergoing fast urbanization and agriculture abandonment. The consequences of reforestation on landscape patterns are seldom addressed in the literature, despite their importance in evaluating biodiversity and ecosystem functions. By analyzing long-term land cover changes in Puerto Rico, a rapidly reforested (6 to 42% during 1940–2000) and urbanized tropical island, we detected significantly different patterns of fragmentation and underlying mechanisms among forests, urban areas, and wetlands. Forest fragmentation is often associated with deforestation. However, we also found significant fragmentation during reforestation. Urban sprawl and suburb development have a dominant impact on forest fragmentation. Reforestation mostly occurs along forest edges, while significant deforestation occurs in forest interiors. The deforestation process has a much stronger impact on forest fragmentation than the reforestation process due to their different spatial configurations. In contrast, despite the strong interference of coastal urbanization, wetland aggregation has occurred due to the effective implementation of laws/regulations for wetland protection. The peak forest fragmentation shifted toward rural areas, indicating progressively more fragmentation in forest interiors. This shift is synchronous with the accelerated urban sprawl as indicated by the accelerated shift of the peak fragmentation index of urban cover toward rural areas, i.e., 1.37% yr−1 in 1977–1991 versus 2.17% yr−1 in 1991–2000. Based on the expected global urbanization and the regional forest transition from deforested to reforested, the fragmented forests and aggregated wetlands in this study highlight possible forest fragmentation processes during reforestation in an assessment of biodiversity and functions and suggest effective laws/regulations in

  7. Discerning fragmentation dynamics of tropical forest and wetland during reforestation, urban sprawl, and policy shifts.

    PubMed

    Gao, Qiong; Yu, Mei

    2014-01-01

    Despite the overall trend of worldwide deforestation over recent decades, reforestation has also been found and is expected in developing countries undergoing fast urbanization and agriculture abandonment. The consequences of reforestation on landscape patterns are seldom addressed in the literature, despite their importance in evaluating biodiversity and ecosystem functions. By analyzing long-term land cover changes in Puerto Rico, a rapidly reforested (6 to 42% during 1940-2000) and urbanized tropical island, we detected significantly different patterns of fragmentation and underlying mechanisms among forests, urban areas, and wetlands. Forest fragmentation is often associated with deforestation. However, we also found significant fragmentation during reforestation. Urban sprawl and suburb development have a dominant impact on forest fragmentation. Reforestation mostly occurs along forest edges, while significant deforestation occurs in forest interiors. The deforestation process has a much stronger impact on forest fragmentation than the reforestation process due to their different spatial configurations. In contrast, despite the strong interference of coastal urbanization, wetland aggregation has occurred due to the effective implementation of laws/regulations for wetland protection. The peak forest fragmentation shifted toward rural areas, indicating progressively more fragmentation in forest interiors. This shift is synchronous with the accelerated urban sprawl as indicated by the accelerated shift of the peak fragmentation index of urban cover toward rural areas, i.e., 1.37% yr-1 in 1977-1991 versus 2.17% yr-1 in 1991-2000. Based on the expected global urbanization and the regional forest transition from deforested to reforested, the fragmented forests and aggregated wetlands in this study highlight possible forest fragmentation processes during reforestation in an assessment of biodiversity and functions and suggest effective laws/regulations in land

  8. Genetic signature of population fragmentation varies with mobility in seven bird species of a fragmented Kenyan cloud forest.

    PubMed

    Callens, Tom; Galbusera, Peter; Matthysen, Erik; Durand, Eric Y; Githiru, Mwangi; Huyghe, Jeroen R; Lens, Luc

    2011-05-01

    Habitat fragmentation can restrict geneflow, reduce neighbourhood effective population size, and increase genetic drift and inbreeding in small, isolated habitat remnants. The extent to which habitat fragmentation leads to population fragmentation, however, differs among landscapes and taxa. Commonly, researchers use information on the current status of a species to predict population effects of habitat fragmentation. Such methods, however, do not convey information on species-specific responses to fragmentation. Here, we compare levels of past population differentiation, estimated from microsatellite genotypes, with contemporary dispersal rates, estimated from multi-strata capture-recapture models, to infer changes in mobility over time in seven sympatric, forest-dependent bird species of a Kenyan cloud forest archipelago. Overall, populations of sedentary species were more strongly differentiated and clustered compared to those of vagile ones, while geographical patterning suggested an important role of landscape structure in shaping genetic variation. However, five of seven species with broadly similar levels of genetic differentiation nevertheless differed substantially in their current dispersal rates. We conclude that post-fragmentation levels of vagility, without reference to past population connectivity, may not be the best predictor of how forest fragmentation affects the life history of forest-dependent species. As effective conservation strategies often hinge on accurate prediction of shifts in ecological and genetic relationships among populations, conservation practices based solely upon current population abundances or movements may, in the long term, prove to be inadequate.

  9. Assessment of forest fragmentation in southern New England using remote sensing and geographic information systems technology

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vogelmann, James E.

    1995-01-01

    Spatial patterns and rates of forest fragmentation were assessed using digital remote sensing data for a region in southern New England that included 157 townships in southern New Hampshire and northeastern Massachusetts. The study area has undergone marked population increases over the last several decades. Following classification of 1973 and 1988 Landsat Multispectral Scanner data into forest and nonforest classes, data were incorporated into a geographic information system. The natural logarithms of forest area to perimeter ratios, referred to as the forest continuity index, were used to assess patterns and trends of forest fragmentation across the region Forest continuity index values were extracted from each township for both data sets and compared with population data. Forest continuity index values were found to decrease with increasing population density until about 200 persons per square kilometer, after which the relationship stabilized. With slight population increases at low densities forest continuity index values declined sharply, implying abrupt increases in forest fragmentation. Results from the study indicated good negative correlations (r2 values of 0.81 and 0.77) between the Multispectral Scanner-derived forest continuity index and natural logs of township population density. Socioeconomic indicators such as affluence and commuting patterns did not appear to correlate well with forest fragmentation estimates. Decreases in forest continuity index values occurred throughout much of the study region between 1973 and 1988, suggesting that forest fragmentation is occurring over large regions within the eastern United States. It is technologically feasible to assess patterns and rates of forest fragmentation across much larger areas than analyzed in this study; such analyses would provide useful overviews enabling objective assessment of the magnitude of forest fragmentation.

  10. Forest fragmentation and selective logging have inconsistent effects on multiple animal-mediated ecosystem processes in a tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Schleuning, Matthias; Farwig, Nina; Peters, Marcell K; Bergsdorf, Thomas; Bleher, Bärbel; Brandl, Roland; Dalitz, Helmut; Fischer, Georg; Freund, Wolfram; Gikungu, Mary W; Hagen, Melanie; Garcia, Francisco Hita; Kagezi, Godfrey H; Kaib, Manfred; Kraemer, Manfred; Lung, Tobias; Naumann, Clas M; Schaab, Gertrud; Templin, Mathias; Uster, Dana; Wägele, J Wolfgang; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and selective logging are two main drivers of global environmental change and modify biodiversity and environmental conditions in many tropical forests. The consequences of these changes for the functioning of tropical forest ecosystems have rarely been explored in a comprehensive approach. In a Kenyan rainforest, we studied six animal-mediated ecosystem processes and recorded species richness and community composition of all animal taxa involved in these processes. We used linear models and a formal meta-analysis to test whether forest fragmentation and selective logging affected ecosystem processes and biodiversity and used structural equation models to disentangle direct from biodiversity-related indirect effects of human disturbance on multiple ecosystem processes. Fragmentation increased decomposition and reduced antbird predation, while selective logging consistently increased pollination, seed dispersal and army-ant raiding. Fragmentation modified species richness or community composition of five taxa, whereas selective logging did not affect any component of biodiversity. Changes in the abundance of functionally important species were related to lower predation by antbirds and higher decomposition rates in small forest fragments. The positive effects of selective logging on bee pollination, bird seed dispersal and army-ant raiding were direct, i.e. not related to changes in biodiversity, and were probably due to behavioural changes of these highly mobile animal taxa. We conclude that animal-mediated ecosystem processes respond in distinct ways to different types of human disturbance in Kakamega Forest. Our findings suggest that forest fragmentation affects ecosystem processes indirectly by changes in biodiversity, whereas selective logging influences processes directly by modifying local environmental conditions and resource distributions. The positive to neutral effects of selective logging on ecosystem processes show that the

  11. Forest Fragmentation and Selective Logging Have Inconsistent Effects on Multiple Animal-Mediated Ecosystem Processes in a Tropical Forest

    PubMed Central

    Schleuning, Matthias; Farwig, Nina; Peters, Marcell K.; Bergsdorf, Thomas; Bleher, Bärbel; Brandl, Roland; Dalitz, Helmut; Fischer, Georg; Freund, Wolfram; Gikungu, Mary W.; Hagen, Melanie; Garcia, Francisco Hita; Kagezi, Godfrey H.; Kaib, Manfred; Kraemer, Manfred; Lung, Tobias; Schaab, Gertrud; Templin, Mathias; Uster, Dana; Wägele, J. Wolfgang; Böhning-Gaese, Katrin

    2011-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and selective logging are two main drivers of global environmental change and modify biodiversity and environmental conditions in many tropical forests. The consequences of these changes for the functioning of tropical forest ecosystems have rarely been explored in a comprehensive approach. In a Kenyan rainforest, we studied six animal-mediated ecosystem processes and recorded species richness and community composition of all animal taxa involved in these processes. We used linear models and a formal meta-analysis to test whether forest fragmentation and selective logging affected ecosystem processes and biodiversity and used structural equation models to disentangle direct from biodiversity-related indirect effects of human disturbance on multiple ecosystem processes. Fragmentation increased decomposition and reduced antbird predation, while selective logging consistently increased pollination, seed dispersal and army-ant raiding. Fragmentation modified species richness or community composition of five taxa, whereas selective logging did not affect any component of biodiversity. Changes in the abundance of functionally important species were related to lower predation by antbirds and higher decomposition rates in small forest fragments. The positive effects of selective logging on bee pollination, bird seed dispersal and army-ant raiding were direct, i.e. not related to changes in biodiversity, and were probably due to behavioural changes of these highly mobile animal taxa. We conclude that animal-mediated ecosystem processes respond in distinct ways to different types of human disturbance in Kakamega Forest. Our findings suggest that forest fragmentation affects ecosystem processes indirectly by changes in biodiversity, whereas selective logging influences processes directly by modifying local environmental conditions and resource distributions. The positive to neutral effects of selective logging on ecosystem processes show that the

  12. Does Tropical Forest Fragmentation Increase Long-Term Variability of Butterfly Communities?

    PubMed Central

    Leidner, Allison K.; Haddad, Nick M.; Lovejoy, Thomas E.

    2010-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation is a major driver of biodiversity loss. Yet, the overall effects of fragmentation on biodiversity may be obscured by differences in responses among species. These opposing responses to fragmentation may be manifest in higher variability in species richness and abundance (termed hyperdynamism), and in predictable changes in community composition. We tested whether forest fragmentation causes long-term hyperdynamism in butterfly communities, a taxon that naturally displays large variations in species richness and community composition. Using a dataset from an experimentally fragmented landscape in the central Amazon that spanned 11 years, we evaluated the effect of fragmentation on changes in species richness and community composition through time. Overall, adjusted species richness (adjusted for survey duration) did not differ between fragmented forest and intact forest. However, spatial and temporal variation of adjusted species richness was significantly higher in fragmented forests relative to intact forest. This variation was associated with changes in butterfly community composition, specifically lower proportions of understory shade species and higher proportions of edge species in fragmented forest. Analysis of rarefied species richness, estimated using indices of butterfly abundance, showed no differences between fragmented and intact forest plots in spatial or temporal variation. These results do not contradict the results from adjusted species richness, but rather suggest that higher variability in butterfly adjusted species richness may be explained by changes in butterfly abundance. Combined, these results indicate that butterfly communities in fragmented tropical forests are more variable than in intact forest, and that the natural variability of butterflies was not a buffer against the effects of fragmentation on community dynamics. PMID:20224772

  13. Does tropical forest fragmentation increase long-term variability of butterfly communities?

    PubMed

    Leidner, Allison K; Haddad, Nick M; Lovejoy, Thomas E

    2010-03-10

    Habitat fragmentation is a major driver of biodiversity loss. Yet, the overall effects of fragmentation on biodiversity may be obscured by differences in responses among species. These opposing responses to fragmentation may be manifest in higher variability in species richness and abundance (termed hyperdynamism), and in predictable changes in community composition. We tested whether forest fragmentation causes long-term hyperdynamism in butterfly communities, a taxon that naturally displays large variations in species richness and community composition. Using a dataset from an experimentally fragmented landscape in the central Amazon that spanned 11 years, we evaluated the effect of fragmentation on changes in species richness and community composition through time. Overall, adjusted species richness (adjusted for survey duration) did not differ between fragmented forest and intact forest. However, spatial and temporal variation of adjusted species richness was significantly higher in fragmented forests relative to intact forest. This variation was associated with changes in butterfly community composition, specifically lower proportions of understory shade species and higher proportions of edge species in fragmented forest. Analysis of rarefied species richness, estimated using indices of butterfly abundance, showed no differences between fragmented and intact forest plots in spatial or temporal variation. These results do not contradict the results from adjusted species richness, but rather suggest that higher variability in butterfly adjusted species richness may be explained by changes in butterfly abundance. Combined, these results indicate that butterfly communities in fragmented tropical forests are more variable than in intact forest, and that the natural variability of butterflies was not a buffer against the effects of fragmentation on community dynamics.

  14. Centennial impacts of fragmentation on the canopy structure of tropical montane forest

    Treesearch

    Nicholas Vaughn; Greg Asner; Christian Giardina

    2014-01-01

    Fragmentation poses one of the greatest threats to tropical forests with short-term changes to the structure of forest canopies affecting microclimate, tree mortality, and growth. Yet the long-term effects of fragmentation are poorly understood because (1) most effects require many decades to materialize, but long-term studies are very rare, (2) the effects of edges on...

  15. USE OF ROAD MAPS IN NATIONAL ASSESSMENTS OF FOREST FRAGMENTATION IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Including road-mediated forest fragmentation is a contentious issue in United States national assessments. We compared fragmentation as calculated from national land-cover maps alone, and from land-cover maps in combination with road maps. The increment of forest edge from roads ...

  16. Is forest fragmentation driven by the spatial configuration of land quality? The case of western Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Ralph J. Alig; David J. Lewis; Jennifer J. Swenson

    2005-01-01

    We investigated spatial configuration of economic returns, to enhance models of forest fragmentation for western Oregon and western Washington. Drawing from spatial land rent theory, economic drivers of forest fragmentation at the landscape level include land quality comprised of attributes such as soil fertility or the distance of urban plots to amenities. We included...

  17. Hardwood Snag Fragmentation in a Pine-oak Forest of Southeastern Arkansas

    Treesearch

    Michael D. Cain

    1996-01-01

    Because snags are important to forest wildlife as breeding, roosting and foraging sites, resource managers who wish to maintain this component in forest stands need to be aware of snag fragmentation rates. Measurements were taken in uneven-agedpine hardwood stands in southeastern Arkansas to determine fragmentation rates for hardwood snags 2 to 6 yr after stem...

  18. Using fragmentation to assess degradation of forest edges in Democratic Republic of Congo.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Aurélie C; Aguilar-Amuchastegui, Naikoa; Hostert, Patrick; Bastin, Jean-François

    2016-12-01

    Recent studies have shown that fragmentation is an increasing threat to global forests, which has major impacts on biodiversity and the important ecosystem services provided by forested landscapes. Several tools have been developed to evaluate global patterns of fragmentation, which have potential applications for REDD+. We study how canopy height and above ground biomass (AGB) change across several categories of forest edges determined by fragmentation analysis. We use Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) as an example. An analysis of variance of different edge widths and airborne estimated canopy height found that canopy heights were significantly different in forest edges at a distance of 100 m from the nonforest edge. Biomass was significantly different between fragmentation classes at an edge distance of 300 m. Core forest types were found to have significantly higher canopy height and greater AGB than forest edges and patches, where height and biomass decrease significantly as the level of fragmentation increases. A change analysis shows that deforestation and degradation are increasing over time and biomass loss associated with degradation account for at least one quarter of total loss. We estimate that about 80 % of primary forests are intact, which decreases 3.5 % over the 15 year study period, as primary forest is either deforested or transitioned to forest edge. While the carbon loss per hectare is lower than that of deforestation, degradation potentially affects up to three times more area than deforestation alone. When defining forest degradation by decreased biomass without any loss in forest area, assessing transitions of core forest to edges over time can contribute an important element to REDD+MRV systems. The estimation of changes between different forest fragmentation types and their associated biomass loss can provide an estimate of degradation carbon emission factors. Forest degradation and emissions due to fragmentation are often

  19. Higher climate warming sensitivity of Siberian larch in small than large forest islands in the fragmented Mongolian forest steppe.

    PubMed

    Khansaritoreh, Elmira; Dulamsuren, Choimaa; Klinge, Michael; Ariunbaatar, Tumurbaatar; Bat-Enerel, Banzragch; Batsaikhan, Ganbaatar; Ganbaatar, Kherlenchimeg; Saindovdon, Davaadorj; Yeruult, Yolk; Tsogtbaatar, Jamsran; Tuya, Daramragchaa; Leuschner, Christoph; Hauck, Markus

    2017-09-01

    Forest fragmentation has been found to affect biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in multiple ways. We asked whether forest size and isolation in fragmented woodlands influences the climate warming sensitivity of tree growth in the southern boreal forest of the Mongolian Larix sibirica forest steppe, a naturally fragmented woodland embedded in grassland, which is highly affected by warming, drought, and increasing anthropogenic forest destruction in recent time. We examined the influence of stand size and stand isolation on the growth performance of larch in forests of four different size classes located in a woodland-dominated forest-steppe area and small forest patches in a grassland-dominated area. We found increasing climate sensitivity and decreasing first-order autocorrelation of annual stemwood increment with decreasing stand size. Stemwood increment increased with previous year's June and August precipitation in the three smallest forest size classes, but not in the largest forests. In the grassland-dominated area, the tree growth dependence on summer rainfall was highest. Missing ring frequency has strongly increased since the 1970s in small, but not in large forests. In the grassland-dominated area, the increase was much greater than in the forest-dominated landscape. Forest regeneration decreased with decreasing stand size and was scarce or absent in the smallest forests. Our results suggest that the larch trees in small and isolated forest patches are far more susceptible to climate warming than in large continuous forests pointing to a grim future for the forests in this strongly warming region of the boreal forest that is also under high land use pressure. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. The Importance of Maize Management on Dung Beetle Communities in Atlantic Forest Fragments.

    PubMed

    Campos, Renata Calixto; Hernández, Malva Isabel Medina

    2015-01-01

    Dung beetle community structures changes due to the effects of destruction, fragmentation, isolation and decrease in tropical forest area, and therefore are considered ecological indicators. In order to assess the influence of type of maize cultivated and associated maize management on dung beetle communities in Atlantic Forest fragments surrounded by conventional and transgenic maize were evaluated 40 Atlantic Forest fragments of different sizes, 20 surrounded by GM maize and 20 surrounded by conventional maize, in February 2013 and 2014 in Southern Brazil. After applying a sampling protocol in each fragment (10 pitfall traps baited with human feces or carrion exposed for 48 h), a total of 3454 individuals from 44 species were captured: 1142 individuals from 38 species in GM maize surrounded fragments, and 2312 from 42 species in conventional maize surrounded fragments. Differences in dung beetle communities were found between GM and conventional maize communities. As expected for fragmented areas, the covariance analysis showed a greater species richness in larger fragments under both conditions; however species richness was greater in fragments surrounded by conventional maize. Dung beetle structure in the forest fragments was explained by environmental variables, fragment area, spatial distance and also type of maize (transgenic or conventional) associated with maize management techniques. In Southern Brazil's scenario, the use of GM maize combined with associated agricultural management may be accelerating the loss of diversity in Atlantic Forest areas, and consequently, important ecosystem services provided by dung beetles may be lost.

  1. The Importance of Maize Management on Dung Beetle Communities in Atlantic Forest Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Campos, Renata Calixto; Hernández, Malva Isabel Medina

    2015-01-01

    Dung beetle community structures changes due to the effects of destruction, fragmentation, isolation and decrease in tropical forest area, and therefore are considered ecological indicators. In order to assess the influence of type of maize cultivated and associated maize management on dung beetle communities in Atlantic Forest fragments surrounded by conventional and transgenic maize were evaluated 40 Atlantic Forest fragments of different sizes, 20 surrounded by GM maize and 20 surrounded by conventional maize, in February 2013 and 2014 in Southern Brazil. After applying a sampling protocol in each fragment (10 pitfall traps baited with human feces or carrion exposed for 48 h), a total of 3454 individuals from 44 species were captured: 1142 individuals from 38 species in GM maize surrounded fragments, and 2312 from 42 species in conventional maize surrounded fragments. Differences in dung beetle communities were found between GM and conventional maize communities. As expected for fragmented areas, the covariance analysis showed a greater species richness in larger fragments under both conditions; however species richness was greater in fragments surrounded by conventional maize. Dung beetle structure in the forest fragments was explained by environmental variables, fragment area, spatial distance and also type of maize (transgenic or conventional) associated with maize management techniques. In Southern Brazil’s scenario, the use of GM maize combined with associated agricultural management may be accelerating the loss of diversity in Atlantic Forest areas, and consequently, important ecosystem services provided by dung beetles may be lost. PMID:26694874

  2. Taxonomic and functional divergence of tree assemblages in a fragmented tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Sfair, Julia C; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Santos, Bráulio A; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2016-09-01

    Tropical forests are being exposed to increasing levels of habitat loss and fragmentation, threatening the maintenance of global biodiversity. However, the effect that land-use change may have on the spatial dissimilarities in taxonomic and functional composition of remaining assemblages (i.e., taxonomic/functional β-diversity) remains poorly understood. We examined a large vegetation database from an old and severely fragmented Atlantic forest landscape to test two alternative hypotheses: (1) tree assemblages experience a taxonomic and functional homogenization (reduced β-diversity) between forest fragments and along forest edges, or alternatively, (2) these edge-affected forests show increased taxonomic and functional differentiation (increased β-diversity) when compared to forest interior (reference) stands. Taxonomic and functional β-diversity were examined via novel abundance-based metrics and considering functional traits related to plant dispersion, recruitment, and growth. Overall, taxonomic β-diversity among fragments was significantly higher than among edge and reference plots. Edge plots also showed higher β-diversity than reference plots, but only when considering dominant species. In functional terms, β-diversity among reference plots was also lower than among forest fragments and among edge plots. These patterns support the landscape-divergence hypothesis, which postulates that variable human disturbances among forest fragments and along forest edges can lead to contrasting trajectories of vegetation changes, thus increasing the compositional and functional differentiation of tree communities in these emerging environments. Our results also show that such differentiation can preserve landscape-wide biodiversity, thus overriding negative effects of habitat fragmentation on local (α) diversity. Therefore, our findings demonstrate that forest fragments and forest edges can be more valuable for maintaining species diversity and ecosystem function

  3. Fragmentation increases wind disturbance impacts on forest structure and carbon stocks in a western Amazonian landscape.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Naomi B; Uriarte, María; DeFries, Ruth; Bedka, Kristopher M; Fernandes, Katia; Gutiérrez-Vélez, Victor; Pinedo-Vasquez, Miguel A

    2017-09-01

    Tropical second-growth forests could help mitigate climate change, but the degree to which their carbon potential is achieved will depend on exposure to disturbance. Wind disturbance is common in tropical forests, shaping structure, composition, and function, and influencing successional trajectories. However, little is known about the impacts of extreme winds on second-growth forests in fragmented landscapes, though these ecosystems are often located in mosaics of forest, pasture, cropland, and other land cover types. Indirect evidence suggests that fragmentation increases risk of wind damage in tropical forests, but no studies have found such impacts following severe storms. In this study, we ask whether fragmentation and forest type (old vs. second growth) were associated with variation in wind damage after a severe convective storm in a fragmented production landscape in western Amazonia. We applied linear spectral unmixing to Landsat 8 imagery from before and after the storm, and combined it with field observations of damage to map wind effects on forest structure and biomass. We also used Landsat 8 imagery to map land cover with the goals of identifying old- and second-growth forest and characterizing fragmentation. We used these data to assess variation in wind disturbance across 95,596 ha of forest, distributed over 6,110 patches. We find that fragmentation is significantly associated with wind damage, with damage severity higher at forest edges and in edgier, more isolated patches. Damage was also more severe in old-growth than in second-growth forests, but this effect was weaker than that of fragmentation. These results illustrate the importance of considering landscape context in planning tropical forest restoration and natural regeneration projects. Assessments of long-term carbon sequestration potential need to consider spatial variation in disturbance exposure. Where risk of extreme winds is high, minimizing fragmentation and isolation could increase

  4. Alternative Modelling Approach to Spatial Harvest Scheduling with Respect to Fragmentation of Forest Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marušák, Róbert; Kašpar, Jan; Hlavatý, Robert; Kotek, Václav; Kuželka, Karel; Vopěnka, Petr

    2015-11-01

    Fragmentation of the forests affects forest ecosystems by changing the composition, shape, and configuration of the resulting patches. Subsequently, the prevailing conditions vary between patches. The exposure to the sun decreases from the patch boundary to the patch interior and this forms core and edge areas within each patch. Forest harvesting and, in particular, the clear-cut management system which is still preferred in many European countries has a significant impact on forest fragmentation. There are many indices of measuring fragmentation: non-spatial and spatial. The non-spatial indices measure the composition of patches, while the spatial indices measure both the shape and configuration of the resulting patches. The effect of forest harvesting on fragmentation, biodiversity, and the environment is extensively studied; however, the integration of fragmentation indices in the harvest scheduling model is a new, novel approach. This paper presents a multi-objective integer model of harvest scheduling for clear-cut management system and presents a case study demonstrating its use. Harvest balance and sustainability are ensured by the addition of constraints from the basic principle of the regulated forest model. The results indicate that harvest balance and sustainability can be also achieved in minimizing fragmentation of forest ecosystems. From the analyses presented in this study, it can be concluded that integration of fragmentation into harvest scheduling can provide better spatial structure. It depends on the initial spatial and age structure. It was confirmed that it is possible to find compromise solution while minimizing fragmentation and maximizing harvested area.

  5. Alternative Modelling Approach to Spatial Harvest Scheduling with Respect to Fragmentation of Forest Ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Marušák, Róbert; Kašpar, Jan; Hlavatý, Robert; Kotek, Václav; Kuželka, Karel; Vopěnka, Petr

    2015-11-01

    Fragmentation of the forests affects forest ecosystems by changing the composition, shape, and configuration of the resulting patches. Subsequently, the prevailing conditions vary between patches. The exposure to the sun decreases from the patch boundary to the patch interior and this forms core and edge areas within each patch. Forest harvesting and, in particular, the clear-cut management system which is still preferred in many European countries has a significant impact on forest fragmentation. There are many indices of measuring fragmentation: non-spatial and spatial. The non-spatial indices measure the composition of patches, while the spatial indices measure both the shape and configuration of the resulting patches. The effect of forest harvesting on fragmentation, biodiversity, and the environment is extensively studied; however, the integration of fragmentation indices in the harvest scheduling model is a new, novel approach. This paper presents a multi-objective integer model of harvest scheduling for clear-cut management system and presents a case study demonstrating its use. Harvest balance and sustainability are ensured by the addition of constraints from the basic principle of the regulated forest model. The results indicate that harvest balance and sustainability can be also achieved in minimizing fragmentation of forest ecosystems. From the analyses presented in this study, it can be concluded that integration of fragmentation into harvest scheduling can provide better spatial structure. It depends on the initial spatial and age structure. It was confirmed that it is possible to find compromise solution while minimizing fragmentation and maximizing harvested area.

  6. Markedly Divergent Tree Assemblage Responses to Tropical Forest Loss and Fragmentation across a Strong Seasonality Gradient

    PubMed Central

    Orihuela, Rodrigo L. L.; Peres, Carlos A.; Mendes, Gabriel; Jarenkow, João A.; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    We examine the effects of forest fragmentation on the structure and composition of tree assemblages within three seasonal and aseasonal forest types of southern Brazil, including evergreen, Araucaria, and deciduous forests. We sampled three southernmost Atlantic Forest landscapes, including the largest continuous forest protected areas within each forest type. Tree assemblages in each forest type were sampled within 10 plots of 0.1 ha in both continuous forests and 10 adjacent forest fragments. All trees within each plot were assigned to trait categories describing their regeneration strategy, vertical stratification, seed-dispersal mode, seed size, and wood density. We detected differences among both forest types and landscape contexts in terms of overall tree species richness, and the density and species richness of different functional groups in terms of regeneration strategy, seed dispersal mode and woody density. Overall, evergreen forest fragments exhibited the largest deviations from continuous forest plots in assemblage structure. Evergreen, Araucaria and deciduous forests diverge in the functional composition of tree floras, particularly in relation to regeneration strategy and stress tolerance. By supporting a more diversified light-demanding and stress-tolerant flora with reduced richness and abundance of shade-tolerant, old-growth species, both deciduous and Araucaria forest tree assemblages are more intrinsically resilient to contemporary human-disturbances, including fragmentation-induced edge effects, in terms of species erosion and functional shifts. We suggest that these intrinsic differences in the direction and magnitude of responses to changes in landscape structure between forest types should guide a wide range of conservation strategies in restoring fragmented tropical forest landscapes worldwide. PMID:26309252

  7. Epiphyte biodiversity in the coffee agricultural matrix: canopy stratification and distance from forest fragments.

    PubMed

    Moorhead, Leigh C; Philpott, Stacy M; Bichier, Peter

    2010-06-01

    Quality of the agricultural matrix profoundly affects biodiversity and dispersal in agricultural areas. Vegetatively complex coffee agroecosystems maintain species richness at larger distances from the forest. Epiphytes colonize canopy trees and provide resources for birds and insects and thus effects of agricultural production on epiphytes may affect other species. We compared diversity, composition, and vertical stratification of epiphytes in a forest fragment and in two coffee farms differing in management intensity in southern Mexico. We also examined spatial distribution of epiphytes with respect to the forest fragment to examine quality of the two agricultural matrix types for epiphyte conservation. We sampled vascular epiphytes in a forest fragment, a shade polyculture farm, and a shade monoculture farm at 100 m, 200 m, and 400 m from the forest. Epiphyte and orchid richness was greater in the forest than in the monoculture but richness was similar in the forest and polyculture farm. Epiphyte species composition differed with habitat type, but not with distance from the forest. In the forest, epiphytes were distributed throughout tree canopies, but in the farms, epiphytes were primarily found on trunks and larger branches. Epiphyte richness and species similarity to forest species declined with distance from the forest fragment in the monoculture, but richness and similarity to forest species did not decline with distance from forest in the polyculture. This suggests polyculture coffee has greater conservation value. In contrast, monoculture coffee is likely a sink habitat for epiphytes dispersing from forests into coffee. Coffee farms differ from forests in terms of the habitat they provide and species composition, thus protecting forest fragments is essential for epiphyte conservation. Nonetheless, in agricultural landscapes, vegetatively complex coffee farms may contribute to conservation of epiphytes more than other agricultural land uses.

  8. Markedly Divergent Tree Assemblage Responses to Tropical Forest Loss and Fragmentation across a Strong Seasonality Gradient.

    PubMed

    Orihuela, Rodrigo L L; Peres, Carlos A; Mendes, Gabriel; Jarenkow, João A; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2015-01-01

    We examine the effects of forest fragmentation on the structure and composition of tree assemblages within three seasonal and aseasonal forest types of southern Brazil, including evergreen, Araucaria, and deciduous forests. We sampled three southernmost Atlantic Forest landscapes, including the largest continuous forest protected areas within each forest type. Tree assemblages in each forest type were sampled within 10 plots of 0.1 ha in both continuous forests and 10 adjacent forest fragments. All trees within each plot were assigned to trait categories describing their regeneration strategy, vertical stratification, seed-dispersal mode, seed size, and wood density. We detected differences among both forest types and landscape contexts in terms of overall tree species richness, and the density and species richness of different functional groups in terms of regeneration strategy, seed dispersal mode and woody density. Overall, evergreen forest fragments exhibited the largest deviations from continuous forest plots in assemblage structure. Evergreen, Araucaria and deciduous forests diverge in the functional composition of tree floras, particularly in relation to regeneration strategy and stress tolerance. By supporting a more diversified light-demanding and stress-tolerant flora with reduced richness and abundance of shade-tolerant, old-growth species, both deciduous and Araucaria forest tree assemblages are more intrinsically resilient to contemporary human-disturbances, including fragmentation-induced edge effects, in terms of species erosion and functional shifts. We suggest that these intrinsic differences in the direction and magnitude of responses to changes in landscape structure between forest types should guide a wide range of conservation strategies in restoring fragmented tropical forest landscapes worldwide.

  9. Improved recruitment of a lemur-dispersed tree in Malagasy dry forests after the demise of vertebrates in forest fragments.

    PubMed

    Dausmann, K H; Glos, J; Linsenmair, K E; Ganzhorn, J U

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine how the processes of seed dispersal and seed predation were altered in forest fragments of the dry forest of Madagascar, where the usual seed dispersers and vertebrate seed predators were absent, using a lemur-dispersed tree species (Strychnos madagascariensis; Loganiaceae) as an example. We then assessed how the changes in vertebrate community composition alter the regeneration pattern and establishment of this tree species and thus, ultimately, the species composition of the forest fragments. By using size-selective exclosures, data from forest fragments were compared with results from continuous forest where vertebrate dispersers and predators were abundant. Visits to the exclosures by mammalian seed predators were monitored with hair traps. In the continuous forest up to 100% of the seeds were removed within the 7 days of the experiments. A substantial proportion of them was lost to seed predation by native rodents. In contrast, practically no predation took place in the forest fragments and almost all seeds removed were dispersed into the safety of ant nests by Aphaenogaster swammerdami, which improves chances of seedling establishment. In congruence with these findings, the abundance of S. madagascariensis in the forest fragments exceeded that of the continuous forest. Thus, the lack of vertebrate seed dispersers in these forest fragments did not lead to a decline in regeneration of this animal-dispersed tree species as would have been expected, but rather was counterbalanced by the concomitant demise of vertebrate seed predators and an increased activity of ants taking over the role of seed dispersers, and possibly even out-doing the original candidates. This study provides an example of a native vertebrate-dispersed species apparently profiting from fragmentation due to flexible animal-plant interactions in different facets, possibly resulting in an impoverished tree species community.

  10. Habitat fragmentation, tree diversity, and plant invasion interact to structure forest caterpillar communities.

    PubMed

    Stireman, John O; Devlin, Hilary; Doyle, Annie L

    2014-09-01

    Habitat fragmentation and invasive species are two of the most prominent threats to terrestrial ecosystems. Few studies have examined how these factors interact to influence the diversity of natural communities, particularly primary consumers. Here, we examined the effects of forest fragmentation and invasion of exotic honeysuckle (Lonicera maackii, Caprifoliaceae) on the abundance and diversity of the dominant forest herbivores: woody plant-feeding Lepidoptera. We systematically surveyed understory caterpillars along transects in 19 forest fragments over multiple years in southwestern Ohio and evaluated how fragment area, isolation, tree diversity, invasion by honeysuckle and interactions among these factors influence species richness, diversity and abundance. We found strong seasonal variation in caterpillar communities, which responded differently to fragmentation and invasion. Abundance and richness increased with fragment area, but these effects were mitigated by high levels of honeysuckle, tree diversity, landscape forest cover, and large recent changes in area. Honeysuckle infestation was generally associated with decreased caterpillar abundance and diversity, but these effects were strongly dependent on other fragment traits. Effects of honeysuckle on abundance were moderated when fragment area, landscape forest cover and tree diversity were high. In contrast, negative effects of honeysuckle invasion on caterpillar diversity were most pronounced in fragments with high tree diversity and large recent increases in area. Our results illustrate the complex interdependencies of habitat fragmentation, plant diversity and plant invasion in their effects on primary consumers and emphasize the need to consider these processes in concert to understand the consequences of anthropogenic habitat change for biodiversity.

  11. Birds communities of fragmented forest within highly urbanized landscape in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohd-Taib, F. S.; Rabiatul-Adawiyah, S.; Md-Nor, S.

    2014-09-01

    Urbanization is one form of forest modification for development purposes. It produces forest fragments scattered in the landscape with different intensity of disturbance. We want to determine the effect of forest fragmentation towards bird community in urbanized landscapes in Kuala Lumpur, namely Sungai Besi Forest Reserve (FR), Bukit Nenas FR and Bukit Sungei Puteh FR. We used mist-netting and direct observation method along established trails. These forests differ in size, vegetation composition and land use history. Results show that these forests show relatively low number of species compared to other secondary forest with only 39 bird species recorded. The largest fragment, Sg. Besi encompassed the highest species richness and abundance with 69% species but lower in diversity. Bukit Nenas, the next smallest fragment besides being the only remaining primary forest has the highest diversity index with 1.866. Bkt. Sg. Puteh the smallest fragment has the lowest species richness and diversity with Shanon diversity index of 1.332. The presence of introduced species such as Corvus splendens (House crow) in all study areas suggest high disturbance encountered by these forests. Nonetheless, these patches comprised of considerably high proportion of native species. In conclusion, different intensity of disturbance due to logging activities and urbanization surrounding the forest directly influenced bird species richness and diversity. These effects however can be compensated by maintaining habitat complexity including high vegetation composition and habitat structure at the landscape level.

  12. Forests

    Treesearch

    Louis R. Iverson; Mark W. Schwartz

    1994-01-01

    Originally diminished by development, forests are coming back: forest biomass is accumulating. Forests are repositories for many threatened species. Even with increased standing timber, however, biodiversity is threatened by increased forest fragmentation and by exotic species.

  13. Resilient Networks of Ant-Plant Mutualists in Amazonian Forest Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Passmore, Heather A.; Bruna, Emilio M.; Heredia, Sylvia M.; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L.

    2012-01-01

    Background The organization of networks of interacting species, such as plants and animals engaged in mutualisms, strongly influences the ecology and evolution of partner communities. Habitat fragmentation is a globally pervasive form of spatial heterogeneity that could profoundly impact the structure of mutualist networks. This is particularly true for biodiversity-rich tropical ecosystems, where the majority of plant species depend on mutualisms with animals and it is thought that changes in the structure of mutualist networks could lead to cascades of extinctions. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated effects of fragmentation on mutualistic networks by calculating metrics of network structure for ant-plant networks in continuous Amazonian forests with those in forest fragments. We hypothesized that networks in fragments would have fewer species and higher connectance, but equal nestedness and resilience compared to forest networks. Only one of the nine metrics we compared differed between continuous forest and forest fragments, indicating that networks were resistant to the biotic and abiotic changes that accompany fragmentation. This is partially the result of the loss of only specialist species with one connection that were lost in forest fragments. Conclusions/Significance We found that the networks of ant-plant mutualists in twenty-five year old fragments are similar to those in continuous forest, suggesting these interactions are resistant to the detrimental changes associated with habitat fragmentation, at least in landscapes that are a mosaic of fragments, regenerating forests, and pastures. However, ant-plant mutualistic networks may have several properties that may promote their persistence in fragmented landscapes. Proactive identification of key mutualist partners may be necessary to focus conservation efforts on the interactions that insure the integrity of network structure and the ecosystems services networks provide. PMID:22912666

  14. Are fragments islands? Landscape context and density-area relationships in boreal forest birds.

    PubMed

    Brotons, Lluís; Mönkkönen, Mikko; Martin, Jean Louis

    2003-09-01

    We investigated the role of matrix type as a determinant of change in bird densities with forest patch area (patch area effect) in two different Fennoscandian landscape types: mature forest fragments surrounded by cut-over or regenerating forest and true forested islands surrounded by water. Since the matrix of forested archipelagoes offers no resources to and impedes movement of forest birds, we predict that patch area effects on bird densities should be stronger on forested islands than in forest patches fragmented by forestry. We compiled correlation estimates of the bird density-patch area relationship from the literature and analyzed the data using meta-analysis. Combined correlation coefficients were significantly positive on islands but were not significantly different from 0 in fragments. Within-species comparisons also showed that correlations were consistently more positive on islands than in fragments. On islands but not in fragments, the densities of forest specialist species were more sensitive to area than were the densities of forest generalists, suggesting that specialists are more sensitive to changes in matrix quality. Migration status was only weakly associated with bird responses to island or fragment area. Thus, forest fragments do not function as true islands. We interpret this as the result of compensatory effects of the surrounding matrix in terms of availability of resources and enhanced connectivity (matrix quality hypothesis). A purely patch-centered approach seems an unrealistic framework to analyze population processes occurring in complex landscapes. The characteristics of the habitat matrix should therefore be explicitly incorporated into the assessment of species' responses to habitat fragmentation.

  15. Fire-climate interactions in forests of the American Pacific Coast

    Treesearch

    Valerie Trouet; Alan H. Taylor; Andrew M. Carleton; Carl N. Skinner

    2006-01-01

    We investigate relationships between climate and wildfire activity between 1929 and 2004 in Pacific coast forests of the United States. Self-Organizing Mapping (SOM) of annual area burned in National Forests (NF) in California, Oregon, and Washington identifies three contiguous NF groups and a fourth group of NF traversed by major highways. Large fire years in all...

  16. Forecasting the future of coast live oak forests in the face of sudden oak death

    Treesearch

    Letty B. Brown; Barbara Allen-Diaz

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about the potential short- and long-term impacts of sudden oak death (SOD) on forest structure and composition. This study began in 2002 to evaluate the effects of SOD on coast live oak (Quercus agrifolia) - California bay laurel (Umbellularia californica) forests over a gradient of Phytophthora ramorum...

  17. Management practices eelated to the Restoration of old dorest characteristics in coast redwood forests

    Treesearch

    Gregory A. Guisti

    2012-01-01

    A standardized, interactive, interview process was used with practicing Registered Professional Foresters asking a suite of questions to ascertain their management approaches to coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens [D. Don] Endl.) stands that could best be transferred to other projects and lands interested in recruiting older forest...

  18. A chronosequence of vegetation change following timber harvest in naturally recovering coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) forests

    Treesearch

    Kristin K. Hageseth Michels; Will. Russell

    2012-01-01

    The management of second-growth coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) forests for the purpose of restoration and ecological conservation is a growing trend. However, little is known about the long-term regenerative potential of this forest type in the absence of postharvest management techniques such as thinning and planting. Data were...

  19. Gamebird responses to anthropogenic forest fragmentation and degradation in a southern Amazonian landscape.

    PubMed

    Michalski, Fernanda; Peres, Carlos A

    2017-01-01

    Although large-bodied tropical forest birds are impacted by both habitat loss and fragmentation, their patterns of habitat occupancy will also depend on the degree of forest habitat disturbance, which may interact synergistically or additively with fragmentation effects. Here, we examine the effects of forest patch and landscape metrics, and levels of forest disturbance on the patterns of persistence of six gamebird taxa in the southern Brazilian Amazon. We use both interview data conducted with long-term residents and/or landowners from 129 remnant forest patches and 15 continuous forest sites and line-transect census data from a subset of 21 forest patches and two continuous forests. Forest patch area was the strongest predictor of species persistence, explaining as much as 46% of the overall variation in gamebird species richness. Logistic regression models showed that anthropogenic disturbance-including surface wildfires, selective logging and hunting pressure-had a variety of effects on species persistence. Most large-bodied gamebird species were sensitive to forest fragmentation, occupying primarily large, high-quality forest patches in higher abundances, and were typically absent from patches <100 ha. Our findings highlight the importance of large (>10,000 ha), relatively undisturbed forest patches to both maximize persistence and maintain baseline abundances of large neotropical forest birds.

  20. A Small Mammal Community in a Forest Fragment, Vegetation Corridor and Coffee Matrix System in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest

    PubMed Central

    Rocha, Mariana Ferreira; Passamani, Marcelo; Louzada, Júlio

    2011-01-01

    The objective of our work was to verify the value of the vegetation corridor in the conservation of small mammals in fragmented tropical landscapes, using a model system in the southeastern Minas Gerais. We evaluated and compared the composition and structure of small mammals in a vegetation corridor, forest fragments and a coffee matrix. A total of 15 species were recorded, and the highest species richness was observed in the vegetation corridor (13 species), followed by the forest fragments (10) and the coffee matrix (6). The absolute abundance was similar between the vegetation corridor and fragments (F = 22.94; p = 0.064), and the greatest differences occurred between the vegetation corridor and the matrix (F = 22.94; p = 0.001) and the forest fragments and the matrix (F = 22.94; p = 0.007). Six species showed significant habitat preference possibly related to the sensitivity of the species to the forest disturbance. Marmosops incanus was the species most sensitive to disturbance; Akodon montensis, Cerradomys subflavus, Gracilinanus microtarsus and Rhipidomys sp. displayed little sensitivity to disturbance, with a high relative abundance in the vegetation corridor. Calomys sp. was the species least affected by habitat disturbance, displaying a high relative abundance in the coffee matrix. Although the vegetation corridors are narrow (4 m width), our results support the hypothesis in which they work as a forest extension, share most species with the forest fragment and support species richness and abundance closer to forest fragments than to the coffee matrix. Our work highlights the importance and cost-effectiveness of these corridors to biodiversity management in the fragmented Atlantic Forest landscapes and at the regional level. PMID:21912591

  1. High resolution analysis of tropical forest fragmentation and its impact on the global carbon cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brinck, Katharina; Fischer, Rico; Groeneveld, Jürgen; Lehmann, Sebastian; Dantas de Paula, Mateus; Pütz, Sandro; Sexton, Joseph O.; Song, Danxia; Huth, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    Deforestation in the tropics is not only responsible for direct carbon emissions but also extends the forest edge wherein trees suffer increased mortality. Here we combine high-resolution (30 m) satellite maps of forest cover with estimates of the edge effect and show that 19% of the remaining area of tropical forests lies within 100 m of a forest edge. The tropics house around 50 million forest fragments and the length of the world's tropical forest edges sums to nearly 50 million km. Edge effects in tropical forests have caused an additional 10.3 Gt (2.1-14.4 Gt) of carbon emissions, which translates into 0.34 Gt per year and represents 31% of the currently estimated annual carbon releases due to tropical deforestation. Fragmentation substantially augments carbon emissions from tropical forests and must be taken into account when analysing the role of vegetation in the global carbon cycle.

  2. Use of FIA data and GIS to characterize the effects of fragmentation on the forests of New Hampshire

    Treesearch

    Randall S. Morin; Andrew Lister; James Doyle

    2009-01-01

    Urbanization, and the resulting fragmentation of forest land, are of great concern across the world and continues to affect many facets of natural ecosystems. Due to development pressure, this is especially true in the northeastern United States. Assessments of regional and national forest fragmentation highlight where forest fragmentation has occurred at one point in...

  3. Forest fragmentation in Massachusetts, USA: a town-level assessment using Morphological Spatial Pattern Analysis and affinity propagation

    Treesearch

    J. Rogan; T.M. Wright; J. Cardille; H. Pearsall; Y. Ogneva-Himmelberger; Rachel Riemann; Kurt Riitters; K. Partington

    2016-01-01

    Forest fragmentation has been studied extensively with respect to biodiversity loss, disruption of ecosystem services, and edge effects although the relationship between forest fragmentation and human activities is still not well understood. We classified the pattern of forests in Massachusetts using fragmentation indicators to address...

  4. Effects of forest fragmentation on male and female reproductive success in Cestrum parqui (Solanaceae).

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Ramiro; Galetto, Leonardo

    2004-03-01

    In this paper we evaluate the effects of forest fragmentation on male (pollen removal, pollen load, and pollen tubes) and female reproductive success (fruit- and seed-set) of Cestrum parqui, a self-incompatible, pollination-specialist plant species. We also measure focal individual conspecific density to account for possible density-related effects that could influence the response variables. We calculate an index which incorporates male and female fitness and gives an integrated assessment of overall reproductive success. Forest fragmentation strongly affected the amount of pollen grains on stigmas and number of pollen tubes as well as seed-set, decreasing from continuous forest to small forest fragments, whereas focal individual conspecific density failed to explain any of the variability for the studied variables. Declines in overall reproductive success (i.e. male and female) in small forest fragments are ascribed to decreases in both the quality and quantity of pollination. Self-incompatibility coupled with a specialist pollination system may be particularly important traits determining the negative fragmentation effects observed in C. parqui. Logarithmic regression models described the behaviour of the variables along the fragmentation size gradient, allowing us to detect a threshold below which the effects of fragmentation begin to negatively affect reproductive success in C. parqui. Our results emphasize the importance of evaluating both components of the total plant fitness, as well as including simultaneously several aspects of pollination and reproduction processes when assessing the effects of forest fragmentation on plant reproductive success.

  5. Temperate forest fragments maintain aboveground carbon stocks out to the forest edge despite changes in community composition.

    PubMed

    Ziter, Carly; Bennett, Elena M; Gonzalez, Andrew

    2014-11-01

    Edge effects are among the primary mechanisms by which forest fragmentation can influence the link between biodiversity and ecosystem processes, but relatively few studies have quantified these mechanisms in temperate regions. Carbon storage is an important ecosystem function altered by edge effects, with implications for climate change mitigation. Two opposing hypotheses suggest that aboveground carbon (AGC) stocks at the forest edge will (a) decrease due to increased tree mortality and compositional shifts towards smaller, lower wood density species (e.g., as seen in tropical systems) or, less often, (b) increase due to light/temperature-induced increases in diversity and productivity. We used field-based measurements, allometry, and mixed models to investigate the effects of proximity to the forest edge on AGC stocks, species richness, and community composition in 24 forest fragments in southern Quebec. We also asked whether fragment size or connectivity with surrounding forests altered these edge effects. AGC stocks remained constant across a 100 m edge-to-interior gradient in all fragment types, despite changes in tree community composition and stem density consistent with expectations of forest edge effects. We attribute this constancy primarily to compensatory effects of small trees at the forest edge; however, it is due in some cases to the retention of large trees at forest edges, likely a result of forest management. Our results suggest important differences between temperate and tropical fragments with respect to mechanisms linking biodiversity and AGC dynamics. Small temperate forest fragments may be valuable in conservation efforts based on maintaining biodiversity and multiple ecosystem services.

  6. A 50-m forest cover map in Southeast Asia from ALOS/PALSAR and its application on forest fragmentation assessment.

    PubMed

    Dong, Jinwei; Xiao, Xiangming; Sheldon, Sage; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Zhang, Geli; Duong, Nguyen Dinh; Hazarika, Manzul; Wikantika, Ketut; Takeuhci, Wataru; Moore, Berrien

    2014-01-01

    Southeast Asia experienced higher rates of deforestation than other continents in the 1990s and still was a hotspot of forest change in the 2000s. Biodiversity conservation planning and accurate estimation of forest carbon fluxes and pools need more accurate information about forest area, spatial distribution and fragmentation. However, the recent forest maps of Southeast Asia were generated from optical images at spatial resolutions of several hundreds of meters, and they do not capture well the exceptionally complex and dynamic environments in Southeast Asia. The forest area estimates from those maps vary substantially, ranging from 1.73×10(6) km(2) (GlobCover) to 2.69×10(6) km(2) (MCD12Q1) in 2009; and their uncertainty is constrained by frequent cloud cover and coarse spatial resolution. Recently, cloud-free imagery from the Phased Array Type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) became available. We used the PALSAR 50-m orthorectified mosaic imagery in 2009 to generate a forest cover map of Southeast Asia at 50-m spatial resolution. The validation, using ground-reference data collected from the Geo-Referenced Field Photo Library and high-resolution images in Google Earth, showed that our forest map has a reasonably high accuracy (producer's accuracy 86% and user's accuracy 93%). The PALSAR-based forest area estimates in 2009 are significantly correlated with those from GlobCover and MCD12Q1 at national and subnational scales but differ in some regions at the pixel scale due to different spatial resolutions, forest definitions, and algorithms. The resultant 50-m forest map was used to quantify forest fragmentation and it revealed substantial details of forest fragmentation. This new 50-m map of tropical forests could serve as a baseline map for forest resource inventory, deforestation monitoring, reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) implementation, and biodiversity.

  7. A 50-m Forest Cover Map in Southeast Asia from ALOS/PALSAR and Its Application on Forest Fragmentation Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Jinwei; Xiao, Xiangming; Sheldon, Sage; Biradar, Chandrashekhar; Zhang, Geli; Dinh Duong, Nguyen; Hazarika, Manzul; Wikantika, Ketut; Takeuhci, Wataru; Moore, Berrien

    2014-01-01

    Southeast Asia experienced higher rates of deforestation than other continents in the 1990s and still was a hotspot of forest change in the 2000s. Biodiversity conservation planning and accurate estimation of forest carbon fluxes and pools need more accurate information about forest area, spatial distribution and fragmentation. However, the recent forest maps of Southeast Asia were generated from optical images at spatial resolutions of several hundreds of meters, and they do not capture well the exceptionally complex and dynamic environments in Southeast Asia. The forest area estimates from those maps vary substantially, ranging from 1.73×106 km2 (GlobCover) to 2.69×106 km2 (MCD12Q1) in 2009; and their uncertainty is constrained by frequent cloud cover and coarse spatial resolution. Recently, cloud-free imagery from the Phased Array Type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) onboard the Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) became available. We used the PALSAR 50-m orthorectified mosaic imagery in 2009 to generate a forest cover map of Southeast Asia at 50-m spatial resolution. The validation, using ground-reference data collected from the Geo-Referenced Field Photo Library and high-resolution images in Google Earth, showed that our forest map has a reasonably high accuracy (producer's accuracy 86% and user's accuracy 93%). The PALSAR-based forest area estimates in 2009 are significantly correlated with those from GlobCover and MCD12Q1 at national and subnational scales but differ in some regions at the pixel scale due to different spatial resolutions, forest definitions, and algorithms. The resultant 50-m forest map was used to quantify forest fragmentation and it revealed substantial details of forest fragmentation. This new 50-m map of tropical forests could serve as a baseline map for forest resource inventory, deforestation monitoring, reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD+) implementation, and biodiversity. PMID:24465714

  8. Differences in seed rain composition in small and large fragments in the northeast Brazilian Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Knörr, U C; Gottsberger, G

    2012-09-01

    Tropical forests are seriously threatened by fragmentation and habitat loss. The impact of fragment size and forest configuration on the composition of seed rain is insufficiently studied. For the present study, seed rain composition of small and large forest fragments (8-388 ha) was assessed in order to identify variations in seed abundance, species richness, seed size and dispersal mode. Seed rain was documented during a 1-year period in three large and four small Atlantic Forest fragments that are isolated by a sugarcane matrix. Total seed rain included 20,518 seeds of 149 species of trees, shrubs, palms, lianas and herbs. Most species and seeds were animal-dispersed. A significant difference in the proportion of seeds and species within different categories of seed size was found between small and large fragments. Small fragments received significantly more very small-sized seeds (<0.3 cm) and less large-seeded species (>1.5 cm) that were generally very rare, with only one species in small and eight in large fragments. We found a negative correlation between the inflow of small-sized seeds and the percentage of forest cover. Species richness was lower in small than in large fragments, but the difference was not very pronounced. Given our results, we propose changing plant species pools through logging, tree mortality and a high inflow of pioneer species and lianas, especially in small forest fragments and areas with low forest cover. Connecting forest fragments through corridors and reforestation with local large-seeded tree species may facilitate the maintenance of species diversity.

  9. Assessing rates of forest change and fragmentation in Alabama, USA, using the vegetation change tracker model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, M.; Huang, C.; Zhu, Z.; Shi, H.; Lu, H.; Peng, S.

    2009-01-01

    Forest change is of great concern for land use decision makers and conservation communities. Quantitative and spatial forest change information is critical for addressing many pressing issues, including global climate change, carbon budgets, and sustainability. In this study, our analysis focuses on the differences in geospatial patterns and their changes between federal forests and nonfederal forests in Alabama over the time period 1987–2005, by interpreting 163 Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) scenes using a vegetation change tracker (VCT) model. Our analysis revealed that for the most part of 1990 s and between 2000 and 2005, Alabama lost about 2% of its forest on an annual basis due to disturbances, but much of the losses were balanced by forest regeneration from previous disturbances. The disturbance maps revealed that federal forests were reasonably well protected, with the fragmentation remaining relatively stable over time. In contrast, nonfederal forests, which are predominant in area share (about 95%), were heavily disturbed, clearly demonstrating decreasing levels of fragmentation during the time period 1987–1993 giving way to a subsequent accelerating fragmentation during the time period 1994–2005. Additionally, the identification of the statistical relationships between forest fragmentation status and forest loss rate and forest net change rate in relation to land ownership implied the distinct differences in forest cutting rate and cutting patterns between federal forests and nonfederal forests. The forest spatial change information derived from the model has provided valuable insights regarding regional forest management practices and disturbance regimes, which are closely associated with regional economics and environmental concerns.

  10. Behavioral modifications in northern bearded saki monkeys (Chiropotes satanas chiropotes) in forest fragments of central Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Sarah Ann; Smith, Andrew T

    2010-01-01

    We investigated behavioral differences among seven groups of northern bearded saki monkeys (Chiropotes satanas chiropotes) living in five forest fragments and two areas of continuous forest at the Biological Dynamics of Forest Fragments Project study area, located approximately 80 km north of Manaus, Brazil. We collected data in six research cycles from July-August 2003 to January 2005-April 2006. When bearded saki monkeys were present in a study area, we followed the group from dawn until dusk for three consecutive days. Every 5 min, we conducted behavioral scans of all visible individuals. There was a positive relationship between forest size and group size, but animals in the small forest fragments lived at greater densities. Bearded saki monkeys in the smaller fragments spent more time resting, less time traveling, and less time vocalizing, but there was no relationship between forest size and the amount of time spent feeding. Our results indicate that the main behavioral differences among the groups are related to the amount of forest resources (e.g., fruit trees, space) available to the monkeys in the smaller fragments, as well as the resulting smaller group sizes. We stress the need to preserve large tracts of forest and provide connectivity between forest patches.

  11. Changes in seed rain across Atlantic Forest fragments in Northeast Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freitas, Cíntia Gomes; Dambros, Cristian; Camargo, José Luís Campana

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize the distribution of seeds in remnant fragments of the Atlantic Coastal Forest and to determine whether the species diversity, seed weight, and species composition of plant communities are altered by forest fragmentation. A transect of 100 m was established in the core of each of nine fragments of Atlantic Coastal Forest in a private sugarcane plantation in the state of Alagoas, NE Brazil, and ten seed-traps were distributed at intervals of 10 m each along the transects. For 12 consecutive months seeds were collected, dried, counted, weighed, and identified to species. Seeds were assigned to categories according to their size, dispersal mode, and shade tolerance. Multiple regression models and Mantel correlation tests were used to detect the effects of fragment size, percent forest cover nearby, distance from the source area, and distance from the nearest fragment on species diversity, mean seed weight, and species similarity. Analyses were carried out for all species and for subsets corresponding to each seed category. A total of 21,985 diaspores of 190 species were collected. Most seeds were small, shade-intolerant, and zoochoric, which corroborates other studies of fragmented forest landscapes and reflects the high disturbance levels in isolated forest remnants. Our data indicate that fragmentation processes such as habitat loss can alter species diversity and species composition by reducing habitat availability and increasing fragment isolation. We also found that large-seeded species are more affected by fragment isolation, possibly because their seed dispersers rarely cross non-forested areas between fragments, while zoochoric species are more strongly affected by fragment size and apparently more strongly associated with local edaphic conditions than with distance from seed sources.

  12. Sustaining Productivity of Planted Forests in the Gulf Coast Region

    Treesearch

    James P. Bamett; Allan E. Tiarks; Mary Anne Sword

    2000-01-01

    The forests of the Gulf Coastal Region provide the basis for its economic well-being. Because of the semitropical climate, abundant rainfall and availing topography, the nation's richest plant communities thrive. These forests are predominately privately owned. Millions of private landowners are committed to managing their forests for a broad array of values which...

  13. Richness and Abundance of Ichneumonidae in a Fragmented Tropical Rain Forest.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Guerra, B; Hanson, P; Guevara, R; Dirzo, R

    2013-10-01

    Because of the magnitude of land use currently occurring in tropical regions, the local loss of animal species due to habitat fragmentation has been widely studied, particularly in the case of vertebrates. Many invertebrate groups and the ichneumonid wasps in particular, however, have been poorly studied in this context, despite the fact that they are one of the most species-rich groups and play an important role as regulators of other insect populations. Here, we recorded the taxonomic composition of ichneumonid parasitoids and assessed their species richness, abundance, similarity, and dominance in the Los Tuxtlas tropical rain forest, Mexico. We compared two forest types: a continuous forest (640 ha) and a forest fragment (19 ha). We sampled ichneumonids using four malaise traps in both forest types during the dry (September-October) and rainy (March-April) seasons. A total of 104 individuals of Ichneumonidae belonging to 11 subfamilies, 18 genera, and 42 species were collected in the continuous forest and 11 subfamilies, 15 genera, and 24 species were collected in the forest fragment. Species richness, abundance, and diversity of ichneumonids were greater in the continuous forest than in the forest fragment. We did not detect differences between seasons. Species rank/abundance curves showed that the ichneumonid community between the forest types was different. Species similarity between forest types was low. The most dominant species in continuous forest was Neotheronia sp., whereas in the forest fragment, it was Orthocentrus sp. Changes in the ichneumonid wasp community may compromise important tropical ecosystem processes.

  14. Forest cover change and fragmentation using Landsat data in Maçka State Forest Enterprise in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cakir, Günay; Sivrikaya, Fatih; Keleş, Sedat

    2008-02-01

    Monitoring forest cover change and understanding the dynamic of forest cover is increasingly important in sustainable development and management of forest ecosystems. This paper uses remote sensing (RS) techniques to monitor forest cover change in Maçka State Forest Enterprise (MSFE) located in NE of Turkey through 1975 to 2000 and then analyses spatial and temporal changes in forest cover by Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and FRAGSTATStrade mark. Forest cover changes were detected from a time series of satellite images of Landsat MSS in 1975, Landsat TM in 1987, and Landsat ETM+ in 2000 using RS and GIS. The results showed that total forest area, productive forest area and degraded forest area increased while broadleaf forest area and non forest area decreased. Mixed forest and degraded forest increased during the first (1975-1987) period, but decreased during the second (1987-2000) period. During the whole study period, the annual forestation rate was 152 ha year(-1), equivalent to 0.27% year(-1) using the compound-interest-rate formula. The total number of patches increased from 36,204 to 48,092 (33%), and mean size of forest patch (MPS) decreased from 2.8 ha to 2.1 ha during a 25 year period. Number of smaller patches (patches in 0-100 ha size class) increased, indicating more fragmented landscape over time that might create a risk for the maintenance of biodiversity of the area. While total population increased from 1975 to 2000 (3.7%), rural population constantly decreased. The increase of forest areas may well be explained by the fact that demographic movement of rural areas concentrated into Maçka City Center. These figures also indicated that decrease in the rural population might likely lead to the release of human pressure to forest areas, probably resulting in a positive development of forest areas.

  15. Edge effects resulting from forest fragmentation enhance carbon uptake and its vulnerability to climate change in temperate broadleaf forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reinmann, A.; Hutyra, L.

    2016-12-01

    Forest fragmentation resulting from land use and land cover change is a ubiquitous, ongoing global phenomenon with profound impacts on the growing conditions of the world's remaining forest. However, our understanding of forest carbon dynamics and their response to climate largely comes from unfragmented forest systems, which presents an important mismatch between the landscapes we study and those we aim to characterize. The temperate broadleaf forest makes a large contribution to the global terrestrial carbon sink, but is also the most heavily fragmented forest biome in the world. We use field measurements and geospatial analyses to characterize carbon dynamics in temperate broadleaf forest fragments. We show that forest growth and biomass increase by 89 ± 17% and 64 ± 12%, respectively, from the forest interior to edge. These ecosystem edge enhancements are not currently captured by models or approaches to quantifying regional C balance, but across southern New England, USA it increases carbon uptake and storage by 12.5 ± 2.9% and 9.6 ± 1.4%, respectively. However, we also find that forest growth near the edge declines three times faster than in the interior in response to heat stress during the growing season. Using climate projections, we show that future heat stress could reduce the forest edge growth enhancement by one-third by the end of the century. These findings contrast studies of edge effects in the world's other major forest biomes and indicate that the strength of the temperate broadleaf forest carbon sink and its capacity to mitigate anthropogenic carbon emissions may be stronger, but also more sensitive to climate change than previous estimates suggest.

  16. Society's choices: land use changes, forest fragmentation, and conservation.

    Treesearch

    Jonathan. Thompson

    2006-01-01

    Changing patterns of land use are at the heart of many environmental concerns regarding U.S. forest lands. Of all the human impacts to forests, development is one of the most significant because of the severity and permanency of the change. Concern about the effects of development on America’s forests has risen sharply since the 1990s, when the conversion of forest...

  17. Large-scale forest fragmentation increases the duration of tent caterpillar outbreak.

    PubMed

    Roland, Jens

    1993-02-01

    I examined historical data (1950-1984) on the duration of outbreaks of the forest tent caterpillar (Malacosoma disstria) in northern Ontario, Canada. Outbreak duration was compared to host tree species dominance and forest structure over large areas of boreal forest partially cleared for agriculture. Abundance of the principal host tree species Populus tremuloides had no consistent effect on duration of outbreak within forest districts, and was negatively correlated with duration of outbreaks among the eight forest districts examined. The amount of forest edge per km(2) was the best, and most consistent, predictor of the duration of tent caterpillar outbreaks both within individual forest districts and among forest districts. Because forest tent caterpillar populations are driven largely by the impact of parasitoids and pathogens, results here suggest that large-scale increase in forest fragmentation affects the interaction between these natural enemies and forest tent caterpillar. Increased clearing and fragmentation of boreal forests, by agriculture and forestry, may be exacerbating outbreaks of this forest defoliator.

  18. Carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation in the Brazilian Amazon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numata, Izaya; Cochrane, Mark A.; Souza, Carlos M., Jr.; Sales, Marcio H.

    2011-10-01

    Forest-fragmentation-related edge effects are one of the major causes of forest degradation in Amazonia and their spatio-temporal dynamics are highly influenced by annual deforestation patterns. Rapid biomass collapse due to edge effects in forest fragments has been reported in the Brazilian Amazon; however the collective impacts of this process on Amazonian carbon fluxes are poorly understood. We estimated biomass loss and carbon emissions from deforestation and forest fragmentation related to edge effects on the basis of the INPE (Brazilian National Space Research Institute) PRODES deforestation data and forest biomass volume data. The areas and ages of edge forests were calculated annually and the corresponding biomass loss and carbon emissions from these forest edges were estimated using published rates of biomass decay and decomposition corresponding to the areas and ages of edge forests. Our analysis estimated carbon fluxes from deforestation (4195 Tg C) and edge forest (126-221 Tg C) for 2001-10 in the Brazilian Amazon. The impacts of varying rates of deforestation on regional forest fragmentation and carbon fluxes were also investigated, with the focus on two periods: 2001-5 (high deforestation rates) and 2006-10 (low deforestation rates). Edge-released carbon accounted for 2.6-4.5% of deforestation-related carbon emissions. However, the relative importance of carbon emissions from forest fragmentation increased from 1.7-3.0% to 3.3-5.6% of the respective deforestation emissions between the two contrasting deforestation rates. Edge-related carbon fluxes are of increasing importance for basin-wide carbon accounting, especially as regards ongoing reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation (REDD) efforts in Brazilian Amazonia.

  19. Trophic structure stability and extinction dynamics of beetles (Coleoptera) in tropical forest fragments

    PubMed Central

    Didham, R. K.

    1998-01-01

    A first analysis of the stability of trophic structure following tropical forest fragmentation was performed in an experimentally fragmented tropical forest landscape in Central Amazonia. A taxonomically and trophically diverse assemblage of 993 species of beetles was sampled from 920 m2 of leaf litter at 46 sites varying in distance from forest edge and fragment area. Beetle density increased significantly towards the forest edge and showed non-linear changes with fragment area, due to the influx of numerous disturbed-area species into 10 ha and 1 ha fragments. There was a marked change in species composition with both decreasing distance from forest edge and decreasing fragment area, but surprisingly this change in composition was not accompanied by a change in species richness. Rarefied species richness did not vary significantly across any of the sites, indicating that local extinctions of deep forest species were balanced by equivalent colonization rates of disturbed-area species. The change in species composition with fragmentation was non-random across trophic groups. Proportions of predator species and xylophage species changed significantly with distance from forest edge, but no area-dependent changes in proportions of species in trophic groups were observed. Trophic structure was also analysed with respect to proportions of abundance in six trophic groups. Proportions of abundance of all trophic groups except xylomycetophages changed markedly with respect to both distance from forest edge and fragment area. Local extinction probabilities calculated for individual beetle species supported theoretical predictions of the differential susceptibility of higher trophic levels to extinction, and of changes in trophic structure following forest fragmentation. To reduce random effects due to sampling error, only abundant species (n = 46) were analysed for extinction probabilities, as defined by absence from samples. Of these common species, 27% had significantly

  20. Comparing forest fragmentation and its drivers in China and the USA with Globcover v2.2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, M.; Mao, L.; Zhou, C.; Vogelmann, J.E.; Zhu, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Forest loss and fragmentation are of major concern to the international community, in large part because they impact so many important environmental processes. The main objective of this study was to assess the differences in forest fragmentation patterns and drivers between China and the conterminous United States (USA). Using the latest 300-m resolution global land cover product, Globcover v2.2, a comparative analysis of forest fragmentation patterns and drivers was made. The fragmentation patterns were characterized by using a forest fragmentation model built on the sliding window analysis technique in association with landscape indices. Results showed that China’s forests were substantially more fragmented than those of the USA. This was evidenced by a large difference in the amount of interior forest area share, with China having 48% interior forest versus the 66% for the USA. China’s forest fragmentation was primarily attributed to anthropogenic disturbances, driven particularly by agricultural expansion from an increasing and large population, as well as poor forest management practices. In contrast, USA forests were principally fragmented by natural land cover types. However, USA urban sprawl contributed more to forest fragmentation than in China. This is closely tied to the USA’s economy, lifestyle and institutional processes. Fragmentation maps were generated from this study, which provide valuable insights and implications regarding habitat planning for rare and endangered species. Such maps enable development of strategic plans for sustainable forest management by identifying areas with high amounts of human-induced fragmentation, which improve risk assessments and enable better targeting for protection and remediation efforts. Because forest fragmentation is a long-term, complex process that is highly related to political, institutional, economic and philosophical arenas, both nations need to take effective and comprehensive measures to mitigate

  1. Tropical Forest Fragmentation Limits Movements, but Not Occurrence of a Generalist Pollinator Species

    PubMed Central

    Volpe, Noelia L.; Robinson, W. Douglas; Frey, Sarah J. K.; Hadley, Adam S.; Betts, Matthew G.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation influence species distributions and therefore ecological processes that depend upon them. Pollination may be particularly susceptible to fragmentation, as it depends on frequent pollinator movement. Unfortunately, most pollinators are too small to track efficiently which has precluded testing the hypothesis that habitat fragmentation reduces or eliminates pollen flow by disrupting pollinator movement. We used radio-telemetry to examine space use of the green hermit hummingbird (Phaethornis guy), an important ‘hub’ pollinator of understory flowering plants across substantial portions of the neotropics and the primary pollinator of a keystone plant which shows reduced pollination success in fragmented landscapes. We found that green hermits strongly avoided crossing large stretches of non-forested matrix and preferred to move along stream corridors. Forest gaps as small as 50 m diminished the odds of movement by 50%. Green hermits occurred almost exclusively inside the forest, with the odds of occurrence being 8 times higher at points with >95% canopy cover compared with points having <5% canopy cover. Nevertheless, surprisingly. the species occurred in fragmented landscapes with low amounts of forest (~30% within a 2 km radius). Our results indicate that although green hermits are present even in landscapes with low amounts of tropical forest, movement within these landscapes ends up strongly constrained by forest gaps. Restricted movement of pollinators may be an underappreciated mechanism for widespread declines in pollination and plant fitness in fragmented landscapes, even when in the presence of appropriate pollinators. PMID:27941984

  2. Tropical Forest Fragmentation Limits Movements, but Not Occurrence of a Generalist Pollinator Species.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Noelia L; Robinson, W Douglas; Frey, Sarah J K; Hadley, Adam S; Betts, Matthew G

    2016-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation influence species distributions and therefore ecological processes that depend upon them. Pollination may be particularly susceptible to fragmentation, as it depends on frequent pollinator movement. Unfortunately, most pollinators are too small to track efficiently which has precluded testing the hypothesis that habitat fragmentation reduces or eliminates pollen flow by disrupting pollinator movement. We used radio-telemetry to examine space use of the green hermit hummingbird (Phaethornis guy), an important 'hub' pollinator of understory flowering plants across substantial portions of the neotropics and the primary pollinator of a keystone plant which shows reduced pollination success in fragmented landscapes. We found that green hermits strongly avoided crossing large stretches of non-forested matrix and preferred to move along stream corridors. Forest gaps as small as 50 m diminished the odds of movement by 50%. Green hermits occurred almost exclusively inside the forest, with the odds of occurrence being 8 times higher at points with >95% canopy cover compared with points having <5% canopy cover. Nevertheless, surprisingly. the species occurred in fragmented landscapes with low amounts of forest (~30% within a 2 km radius). Our results indicate that although green hermits are present even in landscapes with low amounts of tropical forest, movement within these landscapes ends up strongly constrained by forest gaps. Restricted movement of pollinators may be an underappreciated mechanism for widespread declines in pollination and plant fitness in fragmented landscapes, even when in the presence of appropriate pollinators.

  3. Meta-analysis of the effects of forest fragmentation on interspecific interactions.

    PubMed

    Magrach, Ainhoa; Laurance, William F; Larrinaga, Asier R; Santamaria, Luis

    2014-10-01

    Forest fragmentation dramatically alters species persistence and distribution and affects many ecological interactions among species. Recent studies suggest that mutualisms, such as pollination and seed dispersal, are more sensitive to the negative effects of forest fragmentation than antagonisms, such as predation or herbivory. We applied meta-analytical techniques to evaluate this hypothesis and quantified the relative contributions of different components of the fragmentation process (decreases in fragment size, edge effects, increased isolation, and habitat degradation) to the overall effect. The effects of fragmentation on mutualisms were primarily driven by habitat degradation, edge effects, and fragment isolation, and, as predicted, they were consistently more negative on mutualisms than on antagonisms. For the most studied interaction type, seed dispersal, only certain components of fragmentation had significant (edge effects) or marginally significant (fragment size) effects. Seed size modulated the effect of fragmentation: species with large seeds showed stronger negative impacts of fragmentation via reduced dispersal rates. Our results reveal that different components of the habitat fragmentation process have varying impacts on key mutualisms. We also conclude that antagonistic interactions have been understudied in fragmented landscapes, most of the research has concentrated on particular types of mutualistic interactions such as seed dispersal, and that available studies of interspecific interactions have a strong geographical bias (arising mostly from studies carried out in Brazil, Chile, and the United States). © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  4. Increased pollen flow counteracts fragmentation in a tropical dry forest: An example from Swietenia humilis Zuccarini

    PubMed Central

    White, G. M.; Boshier, D. H.; Powell, W.

    2002-01-01

    Habitat destruction and the resultant fragmentation of the remaining forest are a common phenomenon in the tropics. Most investigations emphasize the potential dangers of fragmentation in isolating patches of forest and exposing populations to loss of species diversity through founder effects, genetic drift, inbreeding, and restricted gene flow. However, a limited number of studies have shown that gene flow may be extensive in tropical trees, suggesting that it may occur between forest fragments and also “isolated” remnant trees. There is an urgent need to quantify pollen flow within and between forest fragments to test the veracity of such views and determine the genetic value of such fragments for in situ conservation. Microsatellite markers are used to genotype individuals of Swietenia humilis from a highly fragmented forest mosaic to directly quantify pollen-mediated gene flow. Distances of pollen flow more than 10 times greater than previously reported were detected. Our results show that some tropical angiosperm tree species may be much more adaptable and resilient to habitat destruction and fragmentation than previously considered. The description of many remnant trees as isolated or “living dead” may be more a conditioning of human perception than a true reflection of their potential conservation value. PMID:11842203

  5. Characteristics of remnant old-growth forests in the northern Coast Range of Oregon and comparison to surrounding landscapes.

    Treesearch

    Andrew N. Gray; Vicente J. Monleon; Thomas A. Spies

    2009-01-01

    Old-growth forests provide unique habitat features and landscape functions compared to younger stands. The goals of many forest management plans in the Pacific Northwest include increasing the area of late-successional and old-growth forests. The goal of this study was to describe existing old-growth forests in the northern Oregon Coast Range that might serve as...

  6. Edge-related loss of tree phylogenetic diversity in the severely fragmented Brazilian Atlantic forest.

    PubMed

    Santos, Bráulio A; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Moreno, Claudia E; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2010-09-08

    Deforestation and forest fragmentation are known major causes of nonrandom extinction, but there is no information about their impact on the phylogenetic diversity of the remaining species assemblages. Using a large vegetation dataset from an old hyper-fragmented landscape in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest we assess whether the local extirpation of tree species and functional impoverishment of tree assemblages reduce the phylogenetic diversity of the remaining tree assemblages. We detected a significant loss of tree phylogenetic diversity in forest edges, but not in core areas of small (<80 ha) forest fragments. This was attributed to a reduction of 11% in the average phylogenetic distance between any two randomly chosen individuals from forest edges; an increase of 17% in the average phylogenetic distance to closest non-conspecific relative for each individual in forest edges; and to the potential manifestation of late edge effects in the core areas of small forest remnants. We found no evidence supporting fragmentation-induced phylogenetic clustering or evenness. This could be explained by the low phylogenetic conservatism of key life-history traits corresponding to vulnerable species. Edge effects must be reduced to effectively protect tree phylogenetic diversity in the severely fragmented Brazilian Atlantic forest.

  7. Island vs. countryside biogeography: an examination of how Amazonian birds respond to forest clearing and fragmentation

    Treesearch

    Jared D. Wolfe; Philip C. Stouffer; Karl Mokross; Luke L. Powell; Marina M. Anciães

    2015-01-01

    Avian diversity in fragmented Amazonian landscapes depends on a balance between extinction and colonization in cleared and disturbed areas. Regenerating forest facilitates bird dispersal within degraded Amazonian landscapes and may tip the balance in favor of persistence in habitat patches. Determining the response of Amazonian birds to fragmentation may be...

  8. Use of Road Maps in National Assessments of Forest Fragmentation in the United States

    Treesearch

    Kurt H. Riitters; James Wickham; John Coulston

    2004-01-01

    The question of incorporating road maps into U.S. national assessments of forest fragmentation has been a contentious issue, but there has not been a comparative national analysis to inform the debate. Using data and indices from previous national assessments, we compared fragmentation as calculated from high-resolution land-cover maps alone (Method 1) and after...

  9. 7.0 Monitoring the status and impacts of forest fragmentation and urbanization

    Treesearch

    Rachel Riemann; Karen Riva-Murray; Peter S. Murdoch

    2008-01-01

    The geographic expansion of urban and suburban development and the influx of residential and recreational development into previously forested areas are growing concerns for natural resource managers. This project sought to: identify and characterize urbanization and forest fragmentation over large areas with the detail and accuracy required for studies of wildlife...

  10. Regional forest fragmentation effects on bottomland hardwood community types and resource values

    Treesearch

    Victor A. Rudis

    1995-01-01

    In human-dominated regions, forest vegetation removal impacts remaining ecosystems but regional-scale biological consequences and resource value changes are not well known. Using forest resource survey data, I examined current bottomland hardwood community types and a range of fragment size classes in the south central United States. Analyses examined resource value...

  11. A PRELIMINARY ASSESSMENT OF THE MONTREAL PROCESS INDICATORS OF FOREST FRAGMENTATION FOR THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of the 2003 U.S. Report on Sustainable Forests, four metrics of forest fragmentation patch size, edge amount, inter-patch contrast - were measured within 142,602 non overlapping 56.25 km2 analysis units on land-cover maps derived from satellite imagery for the 48 contermi...

  12. Species Richness and Phenology of Cerambycid Beetles in Urban Forest Fragments of Northern Delaware

    Treesearch

    K. Handley; J. Hough-Goldstein; L.M. Hanks; J.G. Millar; V. D' amico

    2015-01-01

    Cerambycid beetles are abundant and diverse in forests, but much about their host relationships and adult behavior remains unknown. Generic blends of synthetic pheromones were used as lures in traps, to assess the species richness, and phenology of cerambycids in forest fragments in northern Delaware. More than 15,000 cerambycid beetles of 69 species were trapped over...

  13. Wildlife conservation in fragmented tropical forests: A case of South Garo Hills, Meghalaya, North East India

    Treesearch

    Ashish. Kumar; Bruce G. Marcot; Rohitkumar. Patel

    2017-01-01

    This volume presents findings on, and implications for, wildlife conservation in the tropical forests in Garo Hills of Meghalaya state in the North East India. A companion volume presented the findings on forest fragmentation due to practice of slash and burn agriculture in the region. Both of the volumes summarize work completed over more than a decade on...

  14. Forest fragments as barriers to fruit fly dispersal: Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations in orchards and adjacent forest fragments in Puerto Rico

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    McPhail-type traps baited with ammonium acetate and putrescine were used to monitor populations of Anastrepha obliqua and A. suspensa at four sites in Guánica, Puerto Rico; one forest fragment in Ponce, Puerto Rico; in a commercial mango orchard in Guayanilla, PR; and an experimental carambola orcha...

  15. Would protecting tropical forest fragments provide carbon and biodiversity cobenefits under REDD+?

    PubMed

    Magnago, Luiz Fernando S; Magrach, Ainhoa; Laurance, William F; Martins, Sebastião V; Meira-Neto, João Augusto A; Simonelli, Marcelo; Edwards, David P

    2015-09-01

    Tropical forests store vast amounts of carbon and are the most biodiverse terrestrial habitats, yet they are being converted and degraded at alarming rates. Given global shortfalls in the budgets required to prevent carbon and biodiversity loss, we need to seek solutions that simultaneously address both issues. Of particular interest are carbon-based payments under the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) mechanism to also conserve biodiversity at no additional cost. One potential is for REDD+ to protect forest fragments, especially within biomes where contiguous forest cover has diminished dramatically, but we require empirical tests of the strength of any carbon and biodiversity cobenefits in such fragmented systems. Using the globally threatened Atlantic Forest landscape, we measured above-ground carbon stocks within forest fragments spanning 13 to 23 442 ha in area and with different degrees of isolation. We related these stocks to tree community structure and to the richness and abundance of endemic and IUCN Red-listed species. We found that increasing fragment size has a positive relationship with above-ground carbon stock and with abundance of IUCN Red-listed species and tree community structure. We also found negative relationships between distance from large forest block and tree community structure, endemic species richness and abundance, and IUCN Red-listed species abundance. These resulted in positive congruence between carbon stocks and Red-listed species, and the abundance and richness of endemic species, demonstrating vital cobenefits. As such, protecting forest fragments in hotspots of biodiversity, particularly larger fragments and those closest to sources, offers important carbon and biodiversity cobenefits. More generally, our results suggest that macroscale models of cobenefits under REDD+ have likely overlooked key benefits at small scales, indicating the necessity to apply models that include finer

  16. A multi-scale metrics approach to forest fragmentation for Strategic Environmental Impact Assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Eunyoung; Song, Wonkyong; Lee, Dongkun

    2013-09-15

    Forests are becoming severely fragmented as a result of land development. South Korea has responded to changing community concerns about environmental issues. The nation has developed and is extending a broad range of tools for use in environmental management. Although legally mandated environmental compliance requirements in South Korea have been implemented to predict and evaluate the impacts of land-development projects, these legal instruments are often insufficient to assess the subsequent impact of development on the surrounding forests. It is especially difficult to examine impacts on multiple (e.g., regional and local) scales in detail. Forest configuration and size, including forest fragmentation by land development, are considered on a regional scale. Moreover, forest structure and composition, including biodiversity, are considered on a local scale in the Environmental Impact Assessment process. Recently, the government amended the Environmental Impact Assessment Act, including the SEA, EIA, and small-scale EIA, to require an integrated approach. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish an impact assessment system that minimizes the impacts of land development using an approach that is integrated across multiple scales. This study focused on forest fragmentation due to residential development and road construction sites in selected Congestion Restraint Zones (CRZs) in the Greater Seoul Area of South Korea. Based on a review of multiple-scale impacts, this paper integrates models that assess the impacts of land development on forest ecosystems. The applicability of the integrated model for assessing impacts on forest ecosystems through the SEIA process is considered. On a regional scale, it is possible to evaluate the location and size of a land-development project by considering aspects of forest fragmentation, such as the stability of the forest structure and the degree of fragmentation. On a local scale, land-development projects should

  17. Predicting primate local extinctions within "real-world" forest fragments: a pan-neotropical analysis.

    PubMed

    Benchimol, Maíra; Peres, Carlos A

    2014-03-01

    Understanding the main drivers of species extinction in human-modified landscapes has gained paramount importance in proposing sound conservation strategies. Primates play a crucial role in maintaining the integrity of forest ecosystem functions and represent the best studied order of tropical terrestrial vertebrates, yet primate species diverge widely in their responses to forest habitat disturbance and fragmentation. Here, we present a robust quantitative review on the synergistic effects of habitat fragmentation on Neotropical forest primates to pinpoint the drivers of species extinction across a wide range of forest patches from Mexico to Argentina. Presence-absence data on 19 primate functional groups were compiled from 705 forest patches and 55 adjacent continuous forest sites, which were nested within 61 landscapes investigated by 96 studies. Forest patches were defined in terms of their size, surrounding matrix and level of hunting pressure on primates, and each functional group was classified according to seven life-history traits. Generalized linear mixed models showed that patch size, forest cover, level of hunting pressure, home range size and trophic status were the main predictors of species persistence within forest isolates for all functional groups pooled together. However, patterns of local extinction varied greatly across taxa, with Alouatta and Callicebus moloch showing the highest occupancy rates even within tiny forest patches, whereas Brachyteles and Leontopithecus occupied fewer than 50% of sites, even in relatively large forest tracts. Our results uncover the main predictors of platyrrhine primate species extinction, highlighting the importance of considering the history of anthropogenic disturbances, the structure of landscapes, and species life-history attributes in predicting primate persistence in Neotropical forest patches. We suggest that large-scale conservation planning of fragmented forest landscapes should prioritize and set

  18. Timber resource statistics for the north coast resource area of California, 1994. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Waddell, K.L.; Bassett, P.M.

    1996-09-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the North Coast Resource Area of California, which includes Del Norte, Humboldt, Mendocino, and Sonoma Counties. Data were collected by the Pacific Northwest Research Station as part of a State wide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National Forests. The National Forest System provided data from regional inventories of North Coast National Forests. Area information for parks and other reserves was obtained directly from the organizations managing these areas. Statistical tables summarize all ownerships and provide estimates of land area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest. Estimates of periodic change of volume and area on timber land are presented for all ownerships outside National Forests.

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Forest Fragmentation in the Atlantic Forest Reveals More Threatened Bird Species than the Current Red List

    PubMed Central

    Schnell, Jessica K.; Harris, Grant M.; Pimm, Stuart L.; Russell, Gareth J.

    2013-01-01

    Habitat loss and attendant fragmentation threaten the existence of many species. Conserving these species requires a straightforward and objective method that quantifies how these factors affect their survival. Therefore, we compared a variety of metrics that assess habitat fragmentation in bird ranges, using the geographical ranges of 127 forest endemic passerine birds inhabiting the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. A common, non-biological metric — cumulative area of size-ranked fragments within a species range — was misleading, as the least threatened species had the most habitat fragmentation. Instead, we recommend a modified version of metapopulation capacity. The metric links detailed spatial information on fragment sizes and spatial configuration to the birds’ abilities to occupy and disperse across large areas (100,000+ km2). In the Atlantic Forest, metapopulation capacities were largely bimodal, in that most species’ ranges had either low capacity (high risk of extinction) or high capacity (very small risk of extinction). This pattern persisted within taxonomically and ecologically homogenous groups, indicating that it is driven by fragmentation patterns and not differences in species ecology. Worryingly, we found IUCN considers some 28 of 58 species in the low metapopulation capacity cluster to not be threatened. We propose that assessing the effect of fragmentation will separate species more clearly into distinct risk categories than does a simple assessment of remaining habitat. PMID:23734248

  20. Quantitative analysis of forest fragmentation in the atlantic forest reveals more threatened bird species than the current red list.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Jessica K; Harris, Grant M; Pimm, Stuart L; Russell, Gareth J

    2013-01-01

    Habitat loss and attendant fragmentation threaten the existence of many species. Conserving these species requires a straightforward and objective method that quantifies how these factors affect their survival. Therefore, we compared a variety of metrics that assess habitat fragmentation in bird ranges, using the geographical ranges of 127 forest endemic passerine birds inhabiting the Atlantic Forest of Brazil. A common, non-biological metric - cumulative area of size-ranked fragments within a species range - was misleading, as the least threatened species had the most habitat fragmentation. Instead, we recommend a modified version of metapopulation capacity. The metric links detailed spatial information on fragment sizes and spatial configuration to the birds' abilities to occupy and disperse across large areas (100,000+ km(2)). In the Atlantic Forest, metapopulation capacities were largely bimodal, in that most species' ranges had either low capacity (high risk of extinction) or high capacity (very small risk of extinction). This pattern persisted within taxonomically and ecologically homogenous groups, indicating that it is driven by fragmentation patterns and not differences in species ecology. Worryingly, we found IUCN considers some 28 of 58 species in the low metapopulation capacity cluster to not be threatened. We propose that assessing the effect of fragmentation will separate species more clearly into distinct risk categories than does a simple assessment of remaining habitat.

  1. Comparison of neotropical migrant landbird populations wintering in tropical forest, isolated forest fragments, and agricultural habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, C.S.; Dowell, B.A.; Dawson, D.K.; Colon, J.A.; Estrada, R.; Sutton, A.; Sutton, R.; Weyer, D.; Hagan, John M.; Johnston, David W.

    1992-01-01

    Neotropical migrant bird populations were sampled at 76 sites in seven countries by using mist nets and point counts during a six-winter study. Populations in major agricultural habitats were compared with those in extensive forest and isolated forest fragments. Certain Neotropical migrants, such as the Northern Parula, American Redstart, and the Black-throated Blue, Magnolia, Black-and-white, and Hooded warblers, were present in arboreal agricultural habitats such as pine, cacao, citrus, and shade coffee plantations in relatively large numbers. Many north temperate zone shrub-nesting species, such as the Gray Catbird, White-eyed Vireo, Tennessee Warbler, Common Yellowthroat, and Indigo Bunting, also used agricultural habitats in winter, as did resident hummingbirds and migrant orioles. Ground-foraging migrants, such as thrushes and Kentucky Warblers, were rarely found in the agricultural habitats sampled. Although many Neotropical migrants use some croplands, this use might be severely limited by overgrazing by cattle, by intensive management (such as removal of ground cover in an orchard), or by heavy use of insecticides, herbicides, or fungicides.

  2. Forest Fragmentation as Cause of Bacterial Transmission among Nonhuman Primates, Humans, and Livestock, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Gillespie, Thomas R.; Rwego, Innocent B.; Estoff, Elizabeth L.; Chapman, Colin A.

    2008-01-01

    We conducted a prospective study of bacterial transmission among humans, nonhuman primates (primates hereafter), and livestock in western Uganda. Humans living near forest fragments harbored Escherichia coli bacteria that were ≈75% more similar to bacteria from primates in those fragments than to bacteria from primates in nearby undisturbed forests. Genetic similarity between human/livestock and primate bacteria increased ≈3-fold as anthropogenic disturbance within forest fragments increased from moderate to high. Bacteria harbored by humans and livestock were approximately twice as similar to those of red-tailed guenons, which habitually enter human settlements to raid crops, than to bacteria of other primate species. Tending livestock, experiencing gastrointestinal symptoms, and residing near a disturbed forest fragment increased genetic similarity between a participant’s bacteria and those of nearby primates. Forest fragmentation, anthropogenic disturbance within fragments, primate ecology, and human behavior all influence bidirectional, interspecific bacterial transmission. Targeted interventions on any of these levels should reduce disease transmission and emergence. PMID:18760003

  3. Near-complete extinction of native small mammal fauna 25 years after forest fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Luke; Lynam, Antony J; Bradshaw, Corey J A; He, Fangliang; Bickford, David P; Woodruff, David S; Bumrungsri, Sara; Laurance, William F

    2013-09-27

    Tropical forests continue to be felled and fragmented around the world. A key question is how rapidly species disappear from forest fragments and how quickly humans must restore forest connectivity to minimize extinctions. We surveyed small mammals on forest islands in Chiew Larn Reservoir in Thailand 5 to 7 and 25 to 26 years after isolation and observed the near-total loss of native small mammals within 5 years from <10-hectare (ha) fragments and within 25 years from 10- to 56-ha fragments. Based on our results, we developed an island biogeographic model and estimated mean extinction half-life (50% of resident species disappearing) to be 13.9 years. These catastrophic extinctions were probably partly driven by an invasive rat species; such biotic invasions are becoming increasingly common in human-modified landscapes. Our results are thus particularly relevant to other fragmented forest landscapes and suggest that small fragments are potentially even more vulnerable to biodiversity loss than previously thought.

  4. Effects of Forest Fragmentation on Human Risk of Lyme Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Percent forest-herbaceous edge repeatedly explained most of the variability in reported Lyme disease rates within a rural-to-urban study gradient across central Maryland and southeastern Pennsylvania. A one-percent increase in forest-herbaceous edge was associated with an increas...

  5. Effects of Forest Fragmentation on Human Risk of Lyme Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Percent forest-herbaceous edge repeatedly explained most of the variability in reported Lyme disease rates within a rural-to-urban study gradient across central Maryland and southeastern Pennsylvania. A one-percent increase in forest-herbaceous edge was associated with an increas...

  6. Responses of Breeding Bird Communities to Forest Fragmentation

    Treesearch

    James F. Lynch

    1987-01-01

    Field studies in eastern North America indicate that local densities of most forest-dwelling bird species are directly or indirectly influenced by forest insularization. Relevant site variables among those measured include patch area and isolation, tree stature and density, and development of herbaceous and shrub understorey. In general, highly migratory species that...

  7. The Effect of the Landscape Matrix on the Distribution of Dung and Carrion Beetles in a Fragmented Tropical Rain Forest

    PubMed Central

    Díaz, Alfonso; Galante, Eduardo; Favila, Mario E.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the response of species to anthropogenic landscape modification is essential to design effective conservation programs. Recently, insects have been used in empirical studies to evaluate the impact of habitat modification and landscape fragmentation on biological diversity because they are often affected rapidly by changes in land use. In this study, the use of the landscape matrix by dung and carrion beetles in a fragmented tropical rain forest in the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve was analyzed. Fragments of tropical rain forest, forest-pasture edges, pastures, isolated trees, living fences (trees connected with barbed wire) and barbed wire fences were studied both near and far from forest fragments. Forest fragments had the highest abundance values, but pastures had the highest dung and carrion beetle biomass. Habitat specificity was high for the beetles in the most dissimilar habitats. Forest fragments and forest-pasture edges had and shared the highest number of species, but they shared only two species with pastures, barbed wire fences and isolated trees. Only one forest species was found within living fences far from the forest fragments. However, approximately 37% of the forest species were caught within living fences near the forest fragments. Therefore, forest-pasture edges function as hard edges and prevent movement among forest fragments, but living fences seem to act as continuous habitat corridors when connected to forest fragments, allowing forest beetles to move between the fragments. Further studies are necessary to determine the minimum width of living fences necessary to provide good corridors for these beetles and other species. PMID:20673066

  8. Nutrient loss from disturbed forest watersheds in Oregon's Coast Range

    Treesearch

    James H. Miller; M. Newton

    1983-01-01

    Dissolved nutrients were monitored bi-weekly in stream water draining 14 upland watetzhcds in Oregon's Coast Range after sprayin g with 2,4,5-T + 2,4-D, clearcut harvesting and slash burning. Anion generation and leaching were primarily studied. The nitrate concentrations fell and the bicarbonate concentrations rose during summer low-flows from treated watersheds...

  9. Effects of climate and forest structure on palms, bromeliads and bamboos in Atlantic Forest fragments of Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Hilário, R R; Toledo, J J

    2016-01-01

    Palms, bromeliads and bamboos are key elements of tropical forests and understanding the effects of climate, anthropogenic pressure and forest structure on these groups is crucial to forecast structural changes in tropical forests. Therefore, we investigated the effects of these factors on the abundance of these groups in 22 Atlantic forest fragments of Northeastern Brazil. Abundance of bromeliads and bamboos were assessed through indexes. Palms were counted within a radius of 20 m. We also obtained measures of vegetation structure, fragment size, annual precipitation, precipitation seasonality and human population density. We tested the effects of these predictors on plant groups using path analysis. Palm abundance was higher in taller forests with larger trees, closed canopy and sparse understory, which may be a result of the presence of seed dispersers and specific attributes of local palm species. Bromeliads were negatively affected by both annual precipitation and precipitation seasonality, what may reflect adaptations of these plants to use water efficiently, but also the need to capture water in a regular basis. Bamboos were not related to any predictor variable. As climate and forest structure affected the abundance of bromeliads and palms, human-induced climatic changes and disturbances in forest structure may modify the abundance of these groups. In addition, soil properties and direct measurements of human disturbance should be used in future studies in order to improve the predictability of models about plant groups in Northeastern Atlantic Forest.

  10. Determining the dynamics of evapotranspiration from fragmented forests under drought in southwestern Amazonia using Landsat imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numata, I.; Khand, K.; Kjaersgaard, J.; Cochrane, M. A.; Silva, S.

    2016-12-01

    Deforestation in the Amazon has resulted in massive amounts of forest biomass loss and also in extensive forest fragmentation across the region. Fragmented tropical forests are exposed to abrupt environmental changes and experience several biological and ecological changes across distances from forest edges. Extreme droughts in 2005 and 2010 have caused extensive tree mortality across this region. These events may exacerbate edge effects, where already water stressed forest fragments dry more rapidly potentially enabling other disturbances such as forest fire. We analyzed the effects of forest fragmentation and drought on forest evapotranspiration (ET) estimated using the energy balance-based model METRIC with Landsat imagery in Rondônia State in the southwestern Amazon. Forest ET estimates were produced for the dry seasons (June-August) of 2009-2011 thus including the 2010 drought event and pre- and post-event periods. METRIC ET data were combined with forest edge data with edge distances of 100m, 300m, 500m, 1000m, 5000m and >5000m (core forest), generated from Landsat land cover maps for spatiotemporal analysis of forest ET. METRIC ET estimates had an agreement with flux tower ET data from the field of R2 = 0.72. Within the study time period, the 2010 drought year showed the lowest average ET from core forest (2.5mm/day), followed by 2011 (3.0mm/day) and 2009 (3.6mm/day) in the month of August, the mid dry season, while no significant differences were noted among three study years earlier in the dry seasons. In terms of edge effects, the major changes in forest ET occur up to 300 m from the forest edges, with ET decreasees of 30 % at 100 m as compared to further distances. The magnitude of edge-related ET changes became even greater during August of the drought year (2010) and the post-drought year (2011). Annual (drought and non-drought) and seasonal (June-August) forest ET variations were highly significant (p<0.001), while the impact of distance from edge on

  11. Effects of forest fragmentation on brood parasitism and nest predation in eastern and western landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cavitt, J.F.; Martin, T.E.

    2002-01-01

    The fragmentation of North American forests by agriculture and other human activities may negatively impact the demographic processes of birds through increases in nest predation and brood parasitism. In fact, the effects of fragmentation on demographic processes are thought to be a major underlying cause of long-term population declines of many bird species. However, much of our understanding of the demographic consequences of fragmentation has come from research conducted in North America east of the Rocky Mountains. Thus, results obtained from these studies may not be applicable to western landscapes, where habitats are often naturally heterogeneous due to topographic variation and periodic fire. We utilized data from a large database of nest records (>10,000) collected at sites both east and west of the Rocky Mountains to determine if the effects of fragmentation are consistent across broad geographic regions. We found that forest fragmentation tended to increase the frequency of brood parasitism by Brown-headed Cowbirds (Molothrus ater) east of the Rockies but we were unable to detect a significant difference in the West. Within the eastern United States, nest predation rates were consistently higher within fragmented sites relative to unfragmented sites. Yet, in the West, fragmentation resulted in a decrease in nest predation relative to unfragmented sites. This is perhaps accounted for by differential responses of the local predator community to fragmentation. Our results suggest that the effects of fragmentation may not be consistent across broad geographic regions and that the effects of fragmentation may depend on dynamics within local landscapes.

  12. Landscape fragmentation, severe drought, and the new Amazon forest fire regime.

    PubMed

    Alencar, Ane A; Brando, Paulo M; Asner, Gregory P; Putz, Francis E

    2015-09-01

    Changes in weather and land use are transforming the spatial and temporal characteristics of fire regimes in Amazonia, with important effects on the functioning of dense (i.e., closed-canopy), open-canopy, and transitional forests across the Basin. To quantify, document, and describe the characteristics and recent changes in forest fire regimes, we sampled 6 million ha of these three representative forests of the eastern and southern edges of the Amazon using 24 years (1983-2007) of satellite-derived annual forest fire scar maps and 16 years of monthly hot pixel information (1992-2007). Our results reveal that changes in forest fire regime properties differentially affected these three forest types in terms of area burned and fire scar size, frequency, and seasonality. During the study period, forest fires burned 15% (0.3 million ha), 44% (1 million ha), and 46% (0.6 million ha) of dense, open, and transitional forests, respectively. Total forest area burned and fire scar size tended to increase over time (even in years of average rainfall in open canopy and transitional forests). In dense forests, most of the temporal variability in fire regime properties was linked to El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-related droughts. Compared with dense forests, transitional and open forests experienced fires twice as frequently, with at least 20% of these forests' areas burning two or more times during the 24-year study period. Open and transitional forests also experienced higher deforestation rates than dense forests. During drier years, the end of the dry season was delayed by about a month, which resulted in larger burn scars and increases in overall area burned later in the season. These observations suggest that climate-mediated forest flammability is enhanced by landscape fragmentation caused by deforestation, as observed for open and transitional forests in the Eastern portion of the Amazon Basin.

  13. Changes in tree reproductive traits reduce functional diversity in a fragmented Atlantic forest landscape.

    PubMed

    Girão, Luciana Coe; Lopes, Ariadna Valentina; Tabarelli, Marcelo; Bruna, Emilio M

    2007-09-19

    Functional diversity has been postulated to be critical for the maintenance of ecosystem functioning, but the way it can be disrupted by human-related disturbances remains poorly investigated. Here we test the hypothesis that habitat fragmentation changes the relative contribution of tree species within categories of reproductive traits (frequency of traits) and reduces the functional diversity of tree assemblages. The study was carried out in an old and severely fragmented landscape of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. We used published information and field observations to obtain the frequency of tree species and individuals within 50 categories of reproductive traits (distributed in four major classes: pollination systems, floral biology, sexual systems, and reproductive systems) in 10 fragments and 10 tracts of forest interior (control plots). As hypothesized, populations in fragments and control plots differed substantially in the representation of the four major classes of reproductive traits (more than 50% of the categories investigated). The most conspicuous differences were the lack of three pollination systems in fragments--pollination by birds, flies and non-flying mammals--and that fragments had a higher frequency of both species and individuals pollinated by generalist vectors. Hermaphroditic species predominate in both habitats, although their relative abundances were higher in fragments. On the contrary, self-incompatible species were underrepresented in fragments. Moreover, fragments showed lower functional diversity (H' scores) for pollination systems (-30.3%), floral types (-23.6%), and floral sizes (-20.8%) in comparison to control plots. In contrast to the overwhelming effect of fragmentation, patch and landscape metrics such as patch size and forest cover played a minor role on the frequency of traits. Our results suggest that habitat fragmentation promotes a marked shift in the relative abundance of tree reproductive traits and greatly reduces

  14. Changes in Tree Reproductive Traits Reduce Functional Diversity in a Fragmented Atlantic Forest Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Girão, Luciana Coe; Lopes, Ariadna Valentina; Tabarelli, Marcelo; Bruna, Emilio M.

    2007-01-01

    Functional diversity has been postulated to be critical for the maintenance of ecosystem functioning, but the way it can be disrupted by human-related disturbances remains poorly investigated. Here we test the hypothesis that habitat fragmentation changes the relative contribution of tree species within categories of reproductive traits (frequency of traits) and reduces the functional diversity of tree assemblages. The study was carried out in an old and severely fragmented landscape of the Brazilian Atlantic forest. We used published information and field observations to obtain the frequency of tree species and individuals within 50 categories of reproductive traits (distributed in four major classes: pollination systems, floral biology, sexual systems, and reproductive systems) in 10 fragments and 10 tracts of forest interior (control plots). As hypothesized, populations in fragments and control plots differed substantially in the representation of the four major classes of reproductive traits (more than 50% of the categories investigated). The most conspicuous differences were the lack of three pollination systems in fragments-pollination by birds, flies and non-flying mammals-and that fragments had a higher frequency of both species and individuals pollinated by generalist vectors. Hermaphroditic species predominate in both habitats, although their relative abundances were higher in fragments. On the contrary, self-incompatible species were underrepresented in fragments. Moreover, fragments showed lower functional diversity (H' scores) for pollination systems (−30.3%), floral types (−23.6%), and floral sizes (−20.8%) in comparison to control plots. In contrast to the overwhelming effect of fragmentation, patch and landscape metrics such as patch size and forest cover played a minor role on the frequency of traits. Our results suggest that habitat fragmentation promotes a marked shift in the relative abundance of tree reproductive traits and greatly

  15. Proceedings of the coast redwood forests in a changing California: A symposium for scientists and managers

    Treesearch

    Richard B. Standiford; Theodore J. Weller; Douglas D. Piirto; John D Stuart

    2012-01-01

    The Coast Redwood Forests in a Changing California Science Symposium was held June 21-23, 2011 at UC Santa Cruz with just under 300 registrants in attendance. Participants ranged in background from graduate level students to university forestry faculty, land managers, and conservation groups, public agencies, and land trust members. The symposium was...

  16. Predicting Post-Fire Severity Effects in Coast Redwood Forests Using FARSITE

    Treesearch

    Hugh Scanlon; Yana Valachovic

    2006-01-01

    Assessing post-fire impacts in coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens) forests can be difficult due to rough terrain, limited roads, and dense canopies. Remote sensing techniques can identify overstory damage, locating high intensity damage areas, although this can underestimate the effects on the understory vegetation and soils. To accurately assess...

  17. Mammal assemblages in forest fragments and landscapes occupied by black howler monkeys.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Negrín, Ariadna; Coyohua-Fuentes, Alejandro; Canales-Espinosa, Domingo; Dias, Pedro Américo D

    2014-07-01

    Species assemblages in disturbed habitats vary as a function of the interaction between species requirements and the spatial configuration of the habitat. There are many reports accounting for the presence of howler monkeys in fragments where other mammals are absent, suggesting that they are more resilient. In the present study we explored this idea and predicted that if howler monkeys were more resilient to habitat loss and fragmentation than other mammals, mammal assemblages in fragments occupied by howler monkeys should include fewer species with decreasing amount of habitat (smaller fragment size and less habitat in the landscape) and increasing number of forest fragments. We explored these relationships by additionally considering the feeding and life habits of mammal species, as well as the isolation and proximity of each fragment to human settlements and roads. We sampled the presence of mammals in five fragments occupied by black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) in the Mexican state of Campeche. Through direct sights performed during 240 h in each fragment, we observed 23 species. At the landscape scale, higher fragmentation was associated with a decrease in herbivores, omnivores and total number of species. At the fragment scale semiarboreal, omnivore, and total number of species increased with increasing fragment size. This study supports the idea that howler monkeys are more resilient to forest loss and fragmentation than other native mammals, and our exploratory analyses suggest that the specific mammal assemblages that are found in fragments are related to both landscape and fragment scale spatial attributes, as well as with species-specific characteristics.

  18. The Multiple Impacts of Tropical Forest Fragmentation on Arthropod Biodiversity and on their Patterns of Interactions with Host Plants

    PubMed Central

    Benítez-Malvido, Julieta; Dáttilo, Wesley; Martínez-Falcón, Ana Paola; Durán-Barrón, César; Valenzuela, Jorge; López, Sara; Lombera, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Tropical rain forest fragmentation affects biotic interactions in distinct ways. Little is known, however, about how fragmentation affects animal trophic guilds and their patterns of interactions with host plants. In this study, we analyzed changes in biotic interactions in forest fragments by using a multitrophic approach. For this, we classified arthropods associated with Heliconia aurantiaca herbs into broad trophic guilds (omnivores, herbivores and predators) and assessed the topological structure of intrapopulation plant-arthropod networks in fragments and continuous forests. Habitat type influenced arthropod species abundance, diversity and composition with greater abundance in fragments but greater diversity in continuous forest. According to trophic guilds, coleopteran herbivores were more abundant in continuous forest and overall omnivores in fragments. Continuous forest showed a greater diversity of interactions than fragments. Only in fragments, however, did the arthropod community associated with H aurantiaca show a nested structure, suggesting novel and/or opportunistic host-arthropod associations. Plants, omnivores and predators contributed more to nestedness than herbivores. Therefore, Heliconia-arthropod network properties do not appear to be maintained in fragments mainly caused by the decrease of herbivores. Our study contributes to the understanding of the impact of fragmentation on the structure and dynamics of multitrophic arthropod communities associated with a particular plant species of the highly biodiverse tropical forests. Nevertheless, further replication of study sites is needed to strengthen the conclusion that forest fragmentation negatively affects arthropod assemblages. PMID:26731271

  19. The Multiple Impacts of Tropical Forest Fragmentation on Arthropod Biodiversity and on their Patterns of Interactions with Host Plants.

    PubMed

    Benítez-Malvido, Julieta; Dáttilo, Wesley; Martínez-Falcón, Ana Paola; Durán-Barrón, César; Valenzuela, Jorge; López, Sara; Lombera, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Tropical rain forest fragmentation affects biotic interactions in distinct ways. Little is known, however, about how fragmentation affects animal trophic guilds and their patterns of interactions with host plants. In this study, we analyzed changes in biotic interactions in forest fragments by using a multitrophic approach. For this, we classified arthropods associated with Heliconia aurantiaca herbs into broad trophic guilds (omnivores, herbivores and predators) and assessed the topological structure of intrapopulation plant-arthropod networks in fragments and continuous forests. Habitat type influenced arthropod species abundance, diversity and composition with greater abundance in fragments but greater diversity in continuous forest. According to trophic guilds, coleopteran herbivores were more abundant in continuous forest and overall omnivores in fragments. Continuous forest showed a greater diversity of interactions than fragments. Only in fragments, however, did the arthropod community associated with H aurantiaca show a nested structure, suggesting novel and/or opportunistic host-arthropod associations. Plants, omnivores and predators contributed more to nestedness than herbivores. Therefore, Heliconia-arthropod network properties do not appear to be maintained in fragments mainly caused by the decrease of herbivores. Our study contributes to the understanding of the impact of fragmentation on the structure and dynamics of multitrophic arthropod communities associated with a particular plant species of the highly biodiverse tropical forests. Nevertheless, further replication of study sites is needed to strengthen the conclusion that forest fragmentation negatively affects arthropod assemblages.

  20. Linking land-use projections and forest fragmentation analysis.

    Treesearch

    Andrew J. Plantinga; Ralph J. Alig; Henry Eichman; David J. Lewis

    2007-01-01

    An econometric model of private land-use decisions is used to project land use to 2030 for each county in the continental United States. On a national scale, forest area is projected to increase overall between 0.1 and 0.2 percent per year between now and 2030. However, forest area is projected to decrease in a majority of regions, including the key forestry regions of...

  1. Diurnal raptors in the fragmented rain forest of the Sierra Imataca, Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, E.; Ellis, D.H.; Smith, D.G.; LaRue, C.T.

    1994-01-01

    The rain forest of the Sierra Imataca in eastern Venezuela has been subjected to extensive deforestation for pastures and agricultural settlements. In the last decade the opening of access roads combined with intensified logging and mining activities have fragmented a significant portion of the remaining forest. We noted local distribution and habitat use for 40 species of diurnal raptors observed in ten affected areas, including raptors considered as forest interior species and some open country species utilizing the man-made openings inside the forest for roosting and foraging.

  2. Diurnal raptors in the fragmented rain forest of the Sierra Imataca, Venezuela

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Alvarez, E.; Ellis, D.H.; Smith, D.G.; LaRue, C.T.; Bird, David M.; Varland, Daniel E.; Negro, Juan Jose

    1996-01-01

    The rain forest of the Sierra Imataca in eastern Venezuela has been subjected to extensive deforestation for pastures and agricultural settlements. In the last decade the opening of access roads combined with intensified logging and mining activities have fragmented a significant portion of the remaining forest. We noted local distribution and habitat use for 42 species of diurnal raptors observed in affected areas in this region. We observed some raptors considered as forest interior species and other open country species foraging and roosting in man-made openings inside the forest.

  3. Impacts of changes in land use and fragmentation patterns on Atlantic coastal forests in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Teixido, Alberto L; Quintanilla, Luis G; Carreño, Francisco; Gutiérrez, David

    2010-01-01

    Changes in forested landscapes may have important consequences for ecosystem services and biodiversity conservation. In northern Spain, major changes in land use occurred during the second half of the 20th century, but their impacts on forests have not been quantified. We evaluated the dynamics of landscape and forest distribution patterns between 1957 and 2003 in Fragas do Eume Natural Park (northwestern Spain). We used orthoimages and a set of standard landscape metrics to determine transitions between land cover classes and to examine forest distribution patterns. Eucalypt plantations showed the greatest increase in area (197%) over time. Furthermore, transitions to eucalypt plantations were found in all major land cover classes. Forest showed a net decline of 20% in total area and represented 30% of the landscape area in 2003. Forest losses were mainly due to eucalypt plantations and the building of a water reservoir, while forest gains were due to increases in shrubland, meadows and cultivated fields which had been recolonised. Forest patch size and core area decreased, and edge length increased over time. In turn, increases were obtained in mean distance between forest patches, and in adjacency to eucalypt plantations and to a water reservoir. These results suggest an increase in forest fragmentation from 1957 to 2003, as well as a change in the nature of the habitat surrounding forest patches. This study shows that land use changes, mostly from eucalypt plantation intensification, negatively affected forested habitats, although some regeneration was ongoing through ecological succession from land abandonment. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Multiple successional pathways in human-modified tropical landscapes: new insights from forest succession, forest fragmentation and landscape ecology research.

    PubMed

    Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Melo, Felipe P L; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel; Bongers, Frans; Chazdon, Robin L; Meave, Jorge A; Norden, Natalia; Santos, Bráulio A; Leal, Inara R; Tabarelli, Marcelo

    2017-02-01

    Old-growth tropical forests are being extensively deforested and fragmented worldwide. Yet forest recovery through succession has led to an expansion of secondary forests in human-modified tropical landscapes (HMTLs). Secondary forests thus emerge as a potential repository for tropical biodiversity, and also as a source of essential ecosystem functions and services in HMTLs. Such critical roles are controversial, however, as they depend on successional, landscape and socio-economic dynamics, which can vary widely within and across landscapes and regions. Understanding the main drivers of successional pathways of disturbed tropical forests is critically needed for improving management, conservation, and restoration strategies. Here, we combine emerging knowledge from tropical forest succession, forest fragmentation and landscape ecology research to identify the main driving forces shaping successional pathways at different spatial scales. We also explore causal connections between land-use dynamics and the level of predictability of successional pathways, and examine potential implications of such connections to determine the importance of secondary forests for biodiversity conservation in HMTLs. We show that secondary succession (SS) in tropical landscapes is a multifactorial phenomenon affected by a myriad of forces operating at multiple spatio-temporal scales. SS is relatively fast and more predictable in recently modified landscapes and where well-preserved biodiversity-rich native forests are still present in the landscape. Yet the increasing variation in landscape spatial configuration and matrix heterogeneity in landscapes with intermediate levels of disturbance increases the uncertainty of successional pathways. In landscapes that have suffered extensive and intensive human disturbances, however, succession can be slow or arrested, with impoverished assemblages and reduced potential to deliver ecosystem functions and services. We conclude that: (i

  5. Deforestation and Forest Fragmentation in South Ecuador since the 1970s - Losing a Hotspot of Biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Tapia-Armijos, María Fernanda; Homeier, Jürgen; Espinosa, Carlos Iván; Leuschner, Christoph; de la Cruz, Marcelino

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation and fragmentation are major components of global change; both are contributing to the rapid loss of tropical forest area with important implications for ecosystem functioning and biodiversity conservation. The forests of South Ecuador are a biological 'hotspot' due to their high diversity and endemism levels. We examined the deforestation and fragmentation patterns in this area of high conservation value using aerial photographs and Aster satellite scenes. The registered annual deforestation rates of 0.75% (1976-1989) and 2.86% (1989-2008) for two consecutive survey periods, the decreasing mean patch size and the increasing isolation of the forest fragments show that the area is under severe threat. Approximately 46% of South Ecuador's original forest cover had been converted by 2008 into pastures and other anthropogenic land cover types. We found that deforestation is more intense at lower elevations (premontane evergreen forest and shrubland) and that the deforestation front currently moves in upslope direction. Improved awareness of the spatial extent, dynamics and patterns of deforestation and forest fragmentation is urgently needed in biologically diverse areas like South Ecuador.

  6. Human Impacts Affect Tree Community Features of 20 Forest Fragments of a Vanishing Neotropical Hotspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, José Aldo Alves; de Oliveira-Filho, Ary Teixeira; Eisenlohr, Pedro V.; Miranda, Pedro L. S.; de Lemos Filho, José Pires

    2015-02-01

    The loss in forest area due to human occupancy is not the only threat to the remaining biodiversity: forest fragments are susceptible to additional human impact. Our aim was to investigate the effect of human impact on tree community features (species composition and abundance, and structural descriptors) and check if there was a decrease in the number of slender trees, an increase in the amount of large trees, and also a reduction in the number of tree species that occur in 20 fragments of Atlantic montane semideciduous forest in southeastern Brazil. We produced digital maps of each forest fragment using Landsat 7 satellite images and processed the maps to obtain morphometric variables. We used investigative questionnaires and field observations to survey the history of human impact. We then converted the information into scores given to the extent, severity, and duration of each impact, including proportional border area, fire, trails, coppicing, logging, and cattle, and converted these scores into categorical levels. We used linear models to assess the effect of impacts on tree species abundance distribution and stand structural descriptors. Part of the variation in floristic patterns was significantly correlated to the impacts of fire, logging, and proportional border area. Structural descriptors were influenced by cattle and outer roads. Our results provided, for the first time, strong evidence that tree species occurrence and abundance, and forest structure of Atlantic seasonal forest fragments respond differently to various modes of disturbance by humans.

  7. Human impacts affect tree community features of 20 forest fragments of a vanishing neotropical hotspot.

    PubMed

    Pereira, José Aldo Alves; de Oliveira-Filho, Ary Teixeira; Eisenlohr, Pedro V; Miranda, Pedro L S; de Lemos Filho, José Pires

    2015-02-01

    The loss in forest area due to human occupancy is not the only threat to the remaining biodiversity: forest fragments are susceptible to additional human impact. Our aim was to investigate the effect of human impact on tree community features (species composition and abundance, and structural descriptors) and check if there was a decrease in the number of slender trees, an increase in the amount of large trees, and also a reduction in the number of tree species that occur in 20 fragments of Atlantic montane semideciduous forest in southeastern Brazil. We produced digital maps of each forest fragment using Landsat 7 satellite images and processed the maps to obtain morphometric variables. We used investigative questionnaires and field observations to survey the history of human impact. We then converted the information into scores given to the extent, severity, and duration of each impact, including proportional border area, fire, trails, coppicing, logging, and cattle, and converted these scores into categorical levels. We used linear models to assess the effect of impacts on tree species abundance distribution and stand structural descriptors. Part of the variation in floristic patterns was significantly correlated to the impacts of fire, logging, and proportional border area. Structural descriptors were influenced by cattle and outer roads. Our results provided, for the first time, strong evidence that tree species occurrence and abundance, and forest structure of Atlantic seasonal forest fragments respond differently to various modes of disturbance by humans.

  8. Ozone injury in west coast forests: 6 years of monitoring.

    Treesearch

    Sally J. Campbell; Ron Wanek; John W. Coulston

    2007-01-01

    Six years of monitoring for ozone injury by the Pacific Northwest Research Station Forest Inventory and Analysis Program are reported. The methods used to evaluate injury, compute an injury index, and estimate risk are described. Extensive injury was detected on ozone biomonitoring sites for all years in California, with ponderosa and Jeffrey pines, mugwort, skunkbush...

  9. Landslides after clearcut logging in a coast redwood forest

    Treesearch

    Leslie M. Reid; Elizabeth T. Keppeler

    2012-01-01

    Landslides have been mapped at least annually in the 473 ha North Fork Caspar Creek watershed since 1985, allowing evaluation of landslide distribution, characteristics, and rates associated with second-entry partial clearcut logging of 1989 to 1992. Comparison of sliding rates in logged and forested areas shows no appreciable difference for streamside slides (size...

  10. Fire-climate interactions in forests of the American Pacific coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trouet, Valerie; Taylor, Alan H.; Carleton, Andrew M.; Skinner, Carl N.

    2006-09-01

    We investigate relationships between climate and wildfire activity between 1929 and 2004 in Pacific coast forests of the United States. Self-Organizing Mapping (SOM) of annual area burned in National Forests (NF) in California, Oregon, and Washington identifies three contiguous NF groups and a fourth group of NF traversed by major highways. Large fire years in all groups are dry compared to small fire years. A sub-hemispheric circulation pattern of a strong trough over the North Pacific and a ridge over the West Coast is characteristic of large fire years in all groups. This pattern resembles the Pacific North American (PNA) teleconnection and positive phase of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). A reverse PNA and negative PDO phase characterizes small fire years. Despite the effect of fire suppression management between 1929 and 2004, forest area burned is linked to climatic variations related to large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns.

  11. Colonial foresters versus agriculturalists: the debate over climate change and cocoa production in the Gold Coast.

    PubMed

    Hodge, Joseph M

    2009-01-01

    This article draws attention to the unfolding debate concerning forest cover loss, climatic change, and declining cocoa production in the Gold Coast (colonial Ghana) during the early twentieth century. It argues that, although desiccationist theory was prevalent, its acceptance among colonial authorities in the Gold Coast was far from hegemonic. There were important dissenting colonial voices, particularly among agriculturalists, who argued that declining cocoa yields were due to plant diseases, most notably cocoa swollen shoot disease. It was based on the latter's non-environmental model of disease transmission, rather than the premises of desiccation science, that the government's postwar "cutting out campaign" of cocoa was predicated. Nevertheless, the foresters' correlation of the deterioration of cocoa areas with fears of desiccation was not without its effects on state practice, providing the rationale for an accelerated program of forest reservations in the 1930s.

  12. Factors affecting bird richness in a fragmented cork oak forest in Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherkaoui, Imad; Selmi, Slaheddine; Boukhriss, Jihen; Hamid, Rguibi-Idrissi; Mohammed, Dakki

    2009-03-01

    The cork oak forest of Ma'amora in north-western Morocco was the largest cork oak forest in the world until the beginning of the 20th century. Due to growing land use for agriculture and urbanization, however, this forest has become fragmented into relatively small and isolated patches. The effects of this fragmentation on the diversity of wild animal communities have never been investigated despite the importance of such investigations in elaborating long-term conservation plans of the biodiversity of this forest system. In this study of a sample of 44 forest patches we assessed the relationships between species numbers of wintering, breeding and spring migrant birds and patch size, shape, isolation and vegetation structure. We found that species richnesses of the three studied bird assemblages were strongly related to local vegetation structure, namely to the diversity and abundance of trees and bushes. Patches with higher diversity and cover of trees and bushes support higher numbers of bird species. However, patch size, shape and isolation were not significant predictors of bird richness. These results suggest that bird communities in the studied forest patches were more likely shaped by local habitat suitability rather than the amount of habitat or patch isolation. The results also demonstrate negative effects of current human pressures, namely logging, grazing and disturbance, on the diversity of bird communities in this forest system. This emphasizes the need for urgent management efforts aiming at reducing the negative impacts of forest use by humans on bird diversity in this forest system.

  13. Effects of changing forest land definitions on forest inventory on the West Coast, USA

    Treesearch

    David L. Azuma; Andrew Gray

    2014-01-01

    A key function of forest inventory is to detect changes in the area of forest land over time, yet different definitions of forest land are used in different regions of the world. Changes in the definition of forest intended to improve international consistency can affect the ability to quantify true changes over time. The objective of this study was to evaluate the...

  14. Restricted pollen flow of Dieffenbachia seguine populations in fragmented and continuous tropical forest.

    PubMed

    Cuartas-Hernández, S; Núñez-Farfán, J; Smouse, P E

    2010-08-01

    Habitat fragmentation can change the ecological context of populations, rupturing genetic connectivity among them, changing genetic structure, and increasing the loss of genetic diversity. We analyzed mating system and pollen structure in two population fragments and two continuous forest populations of Dieffenbachia seguine (Araceae), an insect-pollinated understory herb in the tropical rain forest of Los Tuxtlas, México, using nine allozyme loci. Mating system analysis indicated almost complete outcrossing but some inbreeding among the adults. Pollen structure analysis indicated highly restricted pollen flow, both within and among populations. We showed that the effective pollination neighborhood was small in all populations, and slightly (though not significantly) smaller in fragments, partially as a consequence of an increase in density of reproductive individuals in those fragments. Using assignment analysis, we showed that all populations were strongly structured, suggesting that pollen and seed flow across the Los Tuxtlas landscape has been spatially restricted, though sufficient to maintain connectedness. Forest fragmentation at Los Tuxtlas has (so far) had limited impact on pollen dynamics, despite the changing ecological context, with reduced pollinator abundance being partially offset by increased flowering density in fragments. Continued outcrossing and limited pollen immigration, coupled with more extensive seed migration, should maintain genetic connectedness in D. seguine, if fragmentation is not further exacerbated by additional deforestation.

  15. Habitat Characteristics of Forest Fragments Determine Specialisation of Plant-Frugivore Networks in a Mosaic Forest Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Chama, Lackson; Berens, Dana G.; Downs, Colleen T.; Farwig, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Plant-frugivore networks play a key role in the regeneration of sub-tropical forest ecosystems. However, information about the impact of habitat characteristics on plant-frugivore networks in fragmented forests is scarce. We investigated the importance of fruit abundance, fruiting plant species richness and canopy cover within habitat fragments for the structure and robustness of plant-frugivore networks in a mosaic forest landscape of South Africa. In total, 53 avian species were involved in fruit removal of 31 fleshy-fruiting plant species. Species specialisation was always higher for plants than for frugivores. Both species and network-level specialisation increased with increasing fruit abundance and decreased with increasing fruiting plant species richness and canopy cover within fragments. Interaction diversity was unaffected by fruit abundance and canopy cover, but increased slightly with increasing fruiting plant species richness. These findings suggest that especially the availability of resources is an important determinant of the structure of plant-frugivore networks in a fragmented forest landscape. PMID:23365688

  16. Sequential Fragmentation of Pleistocene Forests in an East Africa Biodiversity Hotspot: Chameleons as a Model to Track Forest History

    PubMed Central

    Measey, G. John; Tolley, Krystal A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The Eastern Arc Mountains (EAM) is an example of naturally fragmented tropical forests, which contain one of the highest known concentrations of endemic plants and vertebrates. Numerous paleo-climatic studies have not provided direct evidence for ancient presence of Pleistocene forests, particularly in the regions in which savannah presently occurs. Knowledge of the last period when forests connected EAM would provide a sound basis for hypothesis testing of vicariance and dispersal models of speciation. Dated phylogenies have revealed complex patterns throughout EAM, so we investigated divergence times of forest fauna on four montane isolates in close proximity to determine whether forest break-up was most likely to have been simultaneous or sequential, using population genetics of a forest restricted arboreal chameleon, Kinyongia boehmei. Methodology/Principal Findings We used mitochondrial and nuclear genetic sequence data and mutation rates from a fossil-calibrated phylogeny to estimate divergence times between montane isolates using a coalescent approach. We found that chameleons on all mountains are most likely to have diverged sequentially within the Pleistocene from 0.93–0.59 Ma (95% HPD 0.22–1.84 Ma). In addition, post-hoc tests on chameleons on the largest montane isolate suggest a population expansion ∼182 Ka. Conclusions/Significance Sequential divergence is most likely to have occurred after the last of three wet periods within the arid Plio-Pleistocene era, but was not correlated with inter-montane distance. We speculate that forest connection persisted due to riparian corridors regardless of proximity, highlighting their importance in the region's historic dispersal events. The population expansion coincides with nearby volcanic activity, which may also explain the relative paucity of the Taita's endemic fauna. Our study shows that forest chameleons are an apposite group to track forest fragmentation, with the inference that forest

  17. Effects of forest fragmentation on nocturnal Asian birds: A case study from Xishuangbanna, China.

    PubMed

    K Dayananda, Salindra; Goodale, Eben; Lee, Myung-Bok; Liu, Jia-Jia; Mammides, Christos; O Pasion, Bonifacio; Quan, Rui-Chang; W Ferry Slik, J; Sreekar, Rachakonda; W Tomlinson, Kyle; Yasuda, Mika

    2016-05-18

    Owls have the potential to be keystone species for conservation in fragmented landscapes, as the absence of these predators could profoundly change community structure. Yet few studies have examined how whole communities of owls respond to fragmentation, especially in the tropics. When evaluating the effect of factors related to fragmentation, such as fragment area and distance to the edge, on these birds, it is also important in heterogeneous landscapes to ask how 'location factors' such as the topography, vegetation and soil of the fragment predict their persistence. In Xishuangbanna, southwest China, we established 43 transects (200 m×60 m) within 20 forest fragments to sample nocturnal birds, both visually and aurally. We used a multimodel inference approach to identify the factors that influence owl species richness, and generalized linear mixed models to predict the occurrence probabilities of each species. We found that fragmentation factors dominated location factors, with larger fragments having more species, and four of eight species were significantly more likely to occur in large fragments. Given the potential importance of these birds on regulating small mammal and other animal populations, and thus indirectly affecting seed dispersal, we suggest further protection of large fragments and programs to increase their connectivity to the remaining smaller fragments.

  18. Effects of forest fragmentation on nocturnal Asian birds: A case study from Xishuangbanna, China

    PubMed Central

    DAYANANDA, Salindra K.; GOODALE, Eben; LEE, Myung-bok; LIU, Jia-Jia; MAMMIDES, Christos; PASION, Bonifacio O.; QUAN, Rui-Chang; SLIK, J. W. Ferry; SREEKAR, Rachakonda; TOMLINSON, Kyle W.; YASUDA, Mika

    2016-01-01

    Owls have the potential to be keystone species for conservation in fragmented landscapes, as the absence of these predators could profoundly change community structure. Yet few studies have examined how whole communities of owls respond to fragmentation, especially in the tropics. When evaluating the effect of factors related to fragmentation, such as fragment area and distance to the edge, on these birds, it is also important in heterogeneous landscapes to ask how ‘location factors’ such as the topography, vegetation and soil of the fragment predict their persistence. In Xishuangbanna, southwest China, we established 43 transects (200 m×60 m) within 20 forest fragments to sample nocturnal birds, both visually and aurally. We used a multimodel inference approach to identify the factors that influence owl species richness, and generalized linear mixed models to predict the occurrence probabilities of each species. We found that fragmentation factors dominated location factors, with larger fragments having more species, and four of eight species were significantly more likely to occur in large fragments. Given the potential importance of these birds on regulating small mammal and other animal populations, and thus indirectly affecting seed dispersal, we suggest further protection of large fragments and programs to increase their connectivity to the remaining smaller fragments. PMID:27265653

  19. Parallel declines in species and genetic diversity in tropical forest fragments.

    PubMed

    Struebig, Matthew J; Kingston, Tigga; Petit, Eric J; Le Comber, Steven C; Zubaid, Akbar; Mohd-Adnan, Adura; Rossiter, Stephen J

    2011-06-01

    The potential for parallel impacts of habitat change on multiple biodiversity levels has important conservation implications. We report on the first empirical test of the 'species-genetic diversity correlation' across co-distributed taxa with contrasting ecological traits in the context of habitat fragmentation. In a rainforest landscape undergoing conversion to oil palm, we show that depauperate species richness in fragments is mirrored by concomitant declines in population genetic diversity in the taxon predicted to be most susceptible to fragmentation. This association, not seen in the other species, relates to fragment area rather than isolation. While highlighting the over-simplification of extrapolating across taxa, we show that fragmentation presents a double jeopardy for some species. For these, conserving genetic diversity at levels of pristine forest could require sites 15-fold larger than those needed to safeguard species numbers. Importantly, however, each fragment contributes to regional species richness, with larger ones tending to contain more species.

  20. Fluctuating asymmetry increases with habitat disturbance in seven bird species of a fragmented afrotropical forest

    PubMed Central

    Lens, L.; Dongen, S. van; Wilder, C. M.; Brooks, T. M.; Matthysen, E.

    1999-01-01

    We studied fluctuating asymmetry (FA) in the tarsus length of seven forest-restricted bird species, two of which are globally critically endangered, in three indigenous forest remnants of a recently fragmented, afrotropical biodiversity hot spot. Based on mixed regression analysis and an extension of Levene's test, individuals from the most degraded fragment showed four- to sevenfold higher asymmetry levels compared to those from the least degraded one, with intermediate levels in the moderately disturbed fragment. When comparing contemporary FA levels with measurements of museum specimens collected 50 years ago, we found highly significant increases in asymmetry in the most degraded fragment but no differences in the least degraded one. These strikingly parallel spatial and temporal patterns across species confirm that repeated measurements of FA can provide a sensitive early warning system for monitoring stress effects in highly threatened ecosystems.

  1. Pilot survey of avahi population (woolly lemurs) in littoral forest fragments of southeast Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Norscia, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    This study presents a pilot survey of the avahis (pair-living, nocturnal prosimians) living in threatened littoral forest fragments of southeastern Madagascar. In the period of October-December 2004, I evaluated the density of adult and newborn avahis (carried by the mothers) by counting the individuals encountered during 58 night walks in seven fragments of Sainte Luce and Mandena forests, along one trail/fragment. Along each trail, I used random plots (5 m2) for a preliminary characterization of the vegetation. The density of the population was not correlated with fragment size and number of plant morphospecies, while it was correlated with large tree availability. Possibly due to a low energy diet based on leaves and to specialized and energetically expensive vertical leaping, the loss of large trees by selective logging seems to affect avahi populations more than other variables.

  2. Habitat fragmentation effects on the orchid bee communities in remnant forests of southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Knoll, Fátima do Rosário Naschenveng; Penatti, N C

    2012-10-01

    The effect of habitat fragmentation on the structure of orchid bee communities was analyzed by the investigation of the existence of a spatial structure in the richness and abundance of Euglossini species and by determining the relationship between these data and environmental factors. The surveys were carried out in four different forest fragments and one university campus. Richness, abundance, and diversity of species were analyzed in relation to abiotic (size of the area, extent of the perimeter, perimeter/area ratio, and shape index) and biotic characteristics (vegetation index of the fragment and of the matrix of each of the locations studied). We observed a highly significant positive correlation between the diversity index and the vegetation index of the fragment, landscape and shape index. Our analysis demonstrated that the observed variation could be explained mainly by the vegetation index and the size of the fragment. Variations in relative abundance showed a tendency toward an aggregated spatial distribution between the fragments studied, as well as between the sampling stations within the same habitat, demonstrating the existence of a spatial structure on a small scale in the populations of Euglossini. This distribution will determine the composition of species that coexist in the area after fragmentation. These data help in understanding the differences and similarities in the structure of communities of Euglossini resulting from forest fragmentation.

  3. High resolution analysis of tropical forest fragmentation and its impact on the global carbon cycle

    PubMed Central

    Brinck, Katharina; Fischer, Rico; Groeneveld, Jürgen; Lehmann, Sebastian; Dantas De Paula, Mateus; Pütz, Sandro; Sexton, Joseph O.; Song, Danxia; Huth, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    Deforestation in the tropics is not only responsible for direct carbon emissions but also extends the forest edge wherein trees suffer increased mortality. Here we combine high-resolution (30 m) satellite maps of forest cover with estimates of the edge effect and show that 19% of the remaining area of tropical forests lies within 100 m of a forest edge. The tropics house around 50 million forest fragments and the length of the world's tropical forest edges sums to nearly 50 million km. Edge effects in tropical forests have caused an additional 10.3 Gt (2.1–14.4 Gt) of carbon emissions, which translates into 0.34 Gt per year and represents 31% of the currently estimated annual carbon releases due to tropical deforestation. Fragmentation substantially augments carbon emissions from tropical forests and must be taken into account when analysing the role of vegetation in the global carbon cycle. PMID:28303883

  4. High resolution analysis of tropical forest fragmentation and its impact on the global carbon cycle.

    PubMed

    Brinck, Katharina; Fischer, Rico; Groeneveld, Jürgen; Lehmann, Sebastian; Dantas De Paula, Mateus; Pütz, Sandro; Sexton, Joseph O; Song, Danxia; Huth, Andreas

    2017-03-17

    Deforestation in the tropics is not only responsible for direct carbon emissions but also extends the forest edge wherein trees suffer increased mortality. Here we combine high-resolution (30 m) satellite maps of forest cover with estimates of the edge effect and show that 19% of the remaining area of tropical forests lies within 100 m of a forest edge. The tropics house around 50 million forest fragments and the length of the world's tropical forest edges sums to nearly 50 million km. Edge effects in tropical forests have caused an additional 10.3 Gt (2.1-14.4 Gt) of carbon emissions, which translates into 0.34 Gt per year and represents 31% of the currently estimated annual carbon releases due to tropical deforestation. Fragmentation substantially augments carbon emissions from tropical forests and must be taken into account when analysing the role of vegetation in the global carbon cycle.

  5. Corridors restore animal-mediated pollination in fragmented tropical forest landscapes.

    PubMed

    Kormann, Urs; Scherber, Christoph; Tscharntke, Teja; Klein, Nadja; Larbig, Manuel; Valente, Jonathon J; Hadley, Adam S; Betts, Matthew G

    2016-01-27

    Tropical biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions have become heavily eroded through habitat loss. Animal-mediated pollination is required in more than 94% of higher tropical plant species and 75% of the world's leading food crops, but it remains unclear if corridors avert deforestation-driven pollination breakdown in fragmented tropical landscapes. Here, we used manipulative resource experiments and field observations to show that corridors functionally connect neotropical forest fragments for forest-associated hummingbirds and increase pollen transfer. Further, corridors boosted forest-associated pollinator availability in fragments by 14.3 times compared with unconnected equivalents, increasing overall pollination success. Plants in patches without corridors showed pollination rates equal to bagged control flowers, indicating pollination failure in isolated fragments. This indicates, for the first time, that corridors benefit tropical forest ecosystems beyond boosting local species richness, by functionally connecting mutualistic network partners. We conclude that small-scale adjustments to landscape configuration safeguard native pollinators and associated pollination services in tropical forest landscapes.

  6. Corridors restore animal-mediated pollination in fragmented tropical forest landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Kormann, Urs; Scherber, Christoph; Tscharntke, Teja; Klein, Nadja; Larbig, Manuel; Valente, Jonathon J.; Hadley, Adam S.; Betts, Matthew G.

    2016-01-01

    Tropical biodiversity and associated ecosystem functions have become heavily eroded through habitat loss. Animal-mediated pollination is required in more than 94% of higher tropical plant species and 75% of the world's leading food crops, but it remains unclear if corridors avert deforestation-driven pollination breakdown in fragmented tropical landscapes. Here, we used manipulative resource experiments and field observations to show that corridors functionally connect neotropical forest fragments for forest-associated hummingbirds and increase pollen transfer. Further, corridors boosted forest-associated pollinator availability in fragments by 14.3 times compared with unconnected equivalents, increasing overall pollination success. Plants in patches without corridors showed pollination rates equal to bagged control flowers, indicating pollination failure in isolated fragments. This indicates, for the first time, that corridors benefit tropical forest ecosystems beyond boosting local species richness, by functionally connecting mutualistic network partners. We conclude that small-scale adjustments to landscape configuration safeguard native pollinators and associated pollination services in tropical forest landscapes. PMID:26817765

  7. Ecological impacts of tropical forest fragmentation: how consistent are patterns in species richness and nestedness?

    PubMed

    Hill, Jane K; Gray, Michael A; Khen, Chey Vun; Benedick, Suzan; Tawatao, Noel; Hamer, Keith C

    2011-11-27

    Large areas of tropical forest now exist as remnants scattered across agricultural landscapes, and so understanding the impacts of forest fragmentation is important for biodiversity conservation. We examined species richness and nestedness among tropical forest remnants in birds (meta-analysis of published studies) and insects (field data for fruit-feeding Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) and ants). Species-area relationships were evident in all four taxa, and avian and insect assemblages in remnants typically were nested subsets of those in larger areas. Avian carnivores and nectarivores and predatory ants were more nested than other guilds, implying that the sequential loss of species was more predictable in these groups, and that fragmentation alters the trophic organization of communities. For butterflies, the ordering of fragments to achieve maximum nestedness was by fragment area, suggesting that differences among fragments were driven mainly by extinction. In contrast for moths, maximum nestedness was achieved by ordering species by wing length; species with longer wings (implying better dispersal) were more likely to occur at all sites, including low diversity sites, suggesting that differences among fragments were driven more strongly by colonization. Although all four taxa exhibited high levels of nestedness, patterns of species turnover were also idiosyncratic, and thus even species-poor sites contributed to landscape-scale biodiversity, particularly for insects.

  8. Ecological impacts of tropical forest fragmentation: how consistent are patterns in species richness and nestedness?

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Jane K.; Gray, Michael A.; Khen, Chey Vun; Benedick, Suzan; Tawatao, Noel; Hamer, Keith C.

    2011-01-01

    Large areas of tropical forest now exist as remnants scattered across agricultural landscapes, and so understanding the impacts of forest fragmentation is important for biodiversity conservation. We examined species richness and nestedness among tropical forest remnants in birds (meta-analysis of published studies) and insects (field data for fruit-feeding Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths) and ants). Species–area relationships were evident in all four taxa, and avian and insect assemblages in remnants typically were nested subsets of those in larger areas. Avian carnivores and nectarivores and predatory ants were more nested than other guilds, implying that the sequential loss of species was more predictable in these groups, and that fragmentation alters the trophic organization of communities. For butterflies, the ordering of fragments to achieve maximum nestedness was by fragment area, suggesting that differences among fragments were driven mainly by extinction. In contrast for moths, maximum nestedness was achieved by ordering species by wing length; species with longer wings (implying better dispersal) were more likely to occur at all sites, including low diversity sites, suggesting that differences among fragments were driven more strongly by colonization. Although all four taxa exhibited high levels of nestedness, patterns of species turnover were also idiosyncratic, and thus even species-poor sites contributed to landscape-scale biodiversity, particularly for insects. PMID:22006967

  9. Calibrating and testing a gap model for simulating forest management in the Oregon Coast Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pabst, R.J.; Goslin, M.N.; Garman, S.L.; Spies, T.A.

    2008-01-01

    The complex mix of economic and ecological objectives facing today's forest managers necessitates the development of growth models with a capacity for simulating a wide range of forest conditions while producing outputs useful for economic analyses. We calibrated the gap model ZELIG to simulate stand-level forest development in the Oregon Coast Range as part of a landscape-scale assessment of different forest management strategies. Our goal was to incorporate the predictive ability of an empirical model with the flexibility of a forest succession model. We emphasized the development of commercial-aged stands of Douglas-fir, the dominant tree species in the study area and primary source of timber. In addition, we judged that the ecological approach of ZELIG would be robust to the variety of other forest conditions and practices encountered in the Coast Range, including mixed-species stands, small-scale gap formation, innovative silvicultural methods, and reserve areas where forests grow unmanaged for long periods of time. We parameterized the model to distinguish forest development among two ecoregions, three forest types and two site productivity classes using three data sources: chronosequences of forest inventory data, long-term research data, and simulations from an empirical growth-and-yield model. The calibrated model was tested with independent, long-term measurements from 11 Douglas-fir plots (6 unthinned, 5 thinned), 3 spruce-hemlock plots, and 1 red alder plot. ZELIG closely approximated developmental trajectories of basal area and large trees in the Douglas-fir plots. Differences between simulated and observed conifer basal area for these plots ranged from -2.6 to 2.4 m2/ha; differences in the number of trees/ha ???50 cm dbh ranged from -8.8 to 7.3 tph. Achieving these results required the use of a diameter-growth multiplier, suggesting some underlying constraints on tree growth such as the temperature response function. ZELIG also tended to overestimate

  10. Strategic rat control for restoring populations of native species in forest fragments.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Doug P; Gorman, Nic; Pike, Rhonda; Kreigenhofer, Brigitte; McArthur, Nikki; Govella, Susanne; Barrett, Paul; Richard, Yvan

    2014-06-01

    Forest fragments have biodiversity value that may be enhanced through management such as control of non-native predators. However, such efforts may be ineffective, and research is needed to ensure that predator control is done strategically. We used Bayesian hierarchical modeling to estimate fragment-specific effects of experimental rat control on a native species targeted for recovery in a New Zealand pastoral landscape. The experiment was a modified BACI (before-after-control-impact) design conducted over 6 years in 19 forest fragments with low-density subpopulations of North Island Robins (Petroica longipes). The aim was to identify individual fragments that not only showed clear benefits of rat control, but also would have a high probability of subpopulation growth even if they were the only fragment managed. We collected data on fecundity, adult and juvenile survival, and juvenile emigration, and modeled the data in an integrated framework to estimate the expected annual growth rate (λ) of each subpopulation with and without rat control. Without emigration, subpopulation growth was estimated as marginal (λ = 0.95-1.05) or negative (λ = 0.74-0.90) without rat control, but it was estimated as positive in all fragments (λ = 1.4-2.1) if rats were controlled. This reflected a 150% average increase in fecundity and 45% average increase in adult female survival. The probability of a juvenile remaining in its natal fragment was 0.37 on average, but varied with fragment connectivity. With juvenile emigration added, 6 fragments were estimated to have a high (>0.8) probability of being self-sustaining (λ > 1) with rat control. The key factors affecting subpopulation growth rates under rat control were low connectivity and stock fencing because these factors were associated with lower juvenile emigration and higher fecundity, respectively. However, there was also substantial random variation in adult survival among fragments, illustrating the importance of

  11. Changes in land use, forest fragmentation, and policy responses.

    Treesearch

    Ralph J. Alig; David J. Lewis; Jennifer J. Swenson

    2005-01-01

    Land-use conversion is a primary determinant of environmental change in terrestrial ecosystems. Projections are for more than 50 million acres of U.S. forest to be converted to developed uses (e.g., parking lots) over the next 50 years (Alig et al. 2004, Alig and Plantinga 2004), as the population grows by more than 120 million people. Land use change can lead to...

  12. Timber resource statistics for the central coast resource area of California. Forest Service resource bulletin

    SciTech Connect

    Waddell, K.L.; Bassett, P.M.

    1997-03-01

    This report is a summary of timber resource statistics for the Central Coast Resource Area of California, which includes Alameda, Contra Costa, Marin, Monterey, San Benito, San Francisco, San Luis Obispo, San Mateo, Santa Barbara, Santa Clara, Santa Cruz, Solano, and Ventura Counties. Data were collected as part of a state-wide multiresource inventory. The inventory sampled private and public lands except reserved areas and National Forests. The national Forest System provided data from regional inventories of the Los Padres National Forest. Area information for parks and other reserves was obtained directly from the organizations managing these areas. Statistical tables summarize all ownerships and provide estimates of land area, timber volume, growth, mortality, and harvest. Estimates of period change of timberland area and timber volume are presented for all ownerships outside National Forests.

  13. Hurricane Katrina's carbon footprint on U.S. Gulf Coast forests.

    PubMed

    Chambers, Jeffrey Q; Fisher, Jeremy I; Zeng, Hongcheng; Chapman, Elise L; Baker, David B; Hurtt, George C

    2007-11-16

    Hurricane Katrina's impact on U.S. Gulf Coast forests was quantified by linking ecological field studies, Landsat and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image analyses, and empirically based models. Within areas affected by relatively constant wind speed, tree mortality and damage exhibited strong species-controlled gradients. Spatially explicit forest disturbance maps coupled with extrapolation models predicted mortality and severe structural damage to approximately 320 million large trees totaling 105 teragrams of carbon, representing 50 to 140% of the net annual U.S. forest tree carbon sink. Changes in disturbance regimes from increased storm activity expected under a warming climate will reduce forest biomass stocks, increase ecosystem respiration, and may represent an important positive feedback mechanism to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide.

  14. Phylogenetic impoverishment of Amazonian tree communities in an experimentally fragmented forest landscape.

    PubMed

    Santos, Bráulio A; Tabarelli, Marcelo; Melo, Felipe P L; Camargo, José L C; Andrade, Ana; Laurance, Susan G; Laurance, William F

    2014-01-01

    Amazonian rainforests sustain some of the richest tree communities on Earth, but their ecological and evolutionary responses to human threats remain poorly known. We used one of the largest experimental datasets currently available on tree dynamics in fragmented tropical forests and a recent phylogeny of angiosperms to test whether tree communities have lost phylogenetic diversity since their isolation about two decades previously. Our findings revealed an overall trend toward phylogenetic impoverishment across the experimentally fragmented landscape, irrespective of whether tree communities were in 1-ha, 10-ha, or 100-ha forest fragments, near forest edges, or in continuous forest. The magnitude of the phylogenetic diversity loss was low (<2% relative to before-fragmentation values) but widespread throughout the study landscape, occurring in 32 of 40 1-ha plots. Consistent with this loss in phylogenetic diversity, we observed a significant decrease of 50% in phylogenetic dispersion since forest isolation, irrespective of plot location. Analyses based on tree genera that have significantly increased (28 genera) or declined (31 genera) in abundance and basal area in the landscape revealed that increasing genera are more phylogenetically related than decreasing ones. Also, the loss of phylogenetic diversity was greater in tree communities where increasing genera proliferated and decreasing genera reduced their importance values, suggesting that this taxonomic replacement is partially underlying the phylogenetic impoverishment at the landscape scale. This finding has clear implications for the current debate about the role human-modified landscapes play in sustaining biodiversity persistence and key ecosystem services, such as carbon storage. Although the generalization of our findings to other fragmented tropical forests is uncertain, it could negatively affect ecosystem productivity and stability and have broader impacts on coevolved organisms.

  15. Phylogenetic Impoverishment of Amazonian Tree Communities in an Experimentally Fragmented Forest Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Bráulio A.; Tabarelli, Marcelo; Melo, Felipe P. L.; Camargo, José L. C.; Andrade, Ana; Laurance, Susan G.; Laurance, William F.

    2014-01-01

    Amazonian rainforests sustain some of the richest tree communities on Earth, but their ecological and evolutionary responses to human threats remain poorly known. We used one of the largest experimental datasets currently available on tree dynamics in fragmented tropical forests and a recent phylogeny of angiosperms to test whether tree communities have lost phylogenetic diversity since their isolation about two decades previously. Our findings revealed an overall trend toward phylogenetic impoverishment across the experimentally fragmented landscape, irrespective of whether tree communities were in 1-ha, 10-ha, or 100-ha forest fragments, near forest edges, or in continuous forest. The magnitude of the phylogenetic diversity loss was low (<2% relative to before-fragmentation values) but widespread throughout the study landscape, occurring in 32 of 40 1-ha plots. Consistent with this loss in phylogenetic diversity, we observed a significant decrease of 50% in phylogenetic dispersion since forest isolation, irrespective of plot location. Analyses based on tree genera that have significantly increased (28 genera) or declined (31 genera) in abundance and basal area in the landscape revealed that increasing genera are more phylogenetically related than decreasing ones. Also, the loss of phylogenetic diversity was greater in tree communities where increasing genera proliferated and decreasing genera reduced their importance values, suggesting that this taxonomic replacement is partially underlying the phylogenetic impoverishment at the landscape scale. This finding has clear implications for the current debate about the role human-modified landscapes play in sustaining biodiversity persistence and key ecosystem services, such as carbon storage. Although the generalization of our findings to other fragmented tropical forests is uncertain, it could negatively affect ecosystem productivity and stability and have broader impacts on coevolved organisms. PMID:25409011

  16. Spatiotemporal dynamics of forest fragmentation and its potential implications for carbon dynamics in the Brazilian Amazon between 2001 and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Numata, I.; Cochrane, M.

    2012-12-01

    Vast tracts of Amazonian tropical rain forest have been converted to human land uses in recent decades as regional development proceeds. Large losses of forest cover are exacerbated because remaining forests are fragmented into smaller habitats. The current basin-wide status and implications of forest fragmentation on remnant forests and regional carbon dynamics are not well known. We performed a regional forest fragmentation analysis for the entire Brazilian Amazon between 2001 and 2010 using INPE PRODES data. During the past decade, the number of forest fragments doubled, nearly 125,000 fragments were formed, with more than 50% being smaller than 10 ha. Forest edges increased by 36,335 km/year on average over the study period. However, the rate was much greater from 2001-2005 (50,046 km/year) than 2006-2010 (25,365 km/year) when deforestation rates dropped drastically. In 2010, 55% of basin-wide forest edges were < 10 years old as a result of the creation of small forest fragments where intensive biological and ecological degradation is ongoing. We estimate that biomass collapse-related carbon fluxes from forests within100m of edges were between 126-221 Tg C for 2001-2010 in the Brazilian Amazon. Edge-released carbon accounted for 2.6-4.5% of deforestation-related carbon emissions. However, the relative importance of carbon emissions from forest fragmentation varied according to annual deforestation rates and increased from 1.7-3.0% to 3.3-5.6% of the respective deforestation emissions in 2001-2005 and 2006-2010, respectively. As of 2010, 17% of Amazonian forests are within 1km of forest edges, making them easily accessible and vulnerable to degradation. On the other hand, 51% of remaining forests across the basin are within protected areas and only 1.5% has been deforested within 1 km of a forest edge, while, unprotected forests, 1km-edge forests averaged 34% deforestation. The state of Rondônia, where 95% of unprotected forests are within 1km of edges in 2010

  17. Geotechnology and landscape ecology applied to the selection of potential forest fragments for seed harvesting.

    PubMed

    Santos, Alexandre Rosa Dos; Antonio Alvares Soares Ribeiro, Carlos; de Oliveira Peluzio, Telma Machado; Esteves Peluzio, João Batista; de Queiroz, Vagner Tebaldi; Figueira Branco, Elvis Ricardo; Lorenzon, Alexandre Simões; Domingues, Getulio Fonseca; Marcatti, Gustavo Eduardo; de Castro, Nero Lemos Martins; Teixeira, Thaisa Ribeiro; Dos Santos, Gleissy Mary Amaral Dino Alves; Santos Mota, Pedro Henrique; Ferreira da Silva, Samuel; Vargas, Rozimelia; de Carvalho, José Romário; Macedo, Leandro Levate; da Silva Araújo, Cintia; de Almeida, Samira Luns Hatum

    2016-12-01

    The Atlantic Forest biome is recognized for its biodiversity and is one of the most threatened biomes on the planet, with forest fragmentation increasing due to uncontrolled land use, land occupation, and population growth. The most serious aspect of the forest fragmentation process is the edge effect and the loss of biodiversity. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the dynamics of forest fragmentation and select potential forest fragments with a higher degree of conservation for seed harvesting in the Itapemirim river basin, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. Image classification techniques, forest landscape ecology, and multi-criteria analysis were used to evaluate the evolution of forest fragmentation to develop the landscape metric indexes, and to select potential forest fragments for seed harvesting for the years 1985 and 2013. According to the results, there was a reduction of 2.55% of the occupancy of the fragments in the basin between the years 1985 and 2013. For the years 1985 and 2013, forest fragment units 2 and 3 were spatialized with a high potential for seed harvesting, representing 6.99% and 16.01% of the total fragments, respectively. The methodology used in this study has the potential to be used to support decisions for the selection of potential fragments for seed harvesting because selecting fragments in different environments by their spatial attributes provides a greater degree of conservation, contributing to the protection and conscious management of the forests. The proposed methodology can be adapted to other areas and different biomes of the world.

  18. Land parcelization and forest cover fragmentation in three forested countries in Northern Lower Michigan

    Treesearch

    Scott A. Drzyzga; Daniel G. Brown

    1999-01-01

    Many northern Michigan counties have grown in permanent residents and seasonal homes over the past several decades. Forest managers have observed that this influx of new forest owners affects public expectations and the range of socially acceptable forest management options. This shift in settlement and ownership patterns affects the landscape and has important...

  19. A National Assessment of Forest Fragmentation Change for the Conterminous United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determination of land-cover change is important for ecological assessments and environmental planning. We used national land-cover change data, resolved at 0.09 ha per pixel, to assess change in forest fragmentation for the conterminous United States. Temporal change in fragmen...

  20. The responses of understorey birds to forest fragmentation, logging and wildfires: An Amazonian synthesis

    Treesearch

    J. Barlow; C. A. Peres; L. M. P. Henr¡ques; P. C. Stouffer; J. M. Wunderle

    2006-01-01

    We combine mist-net data from 24 disturbance treatments taken from seven studies on the responses of understorey Amazonian birds to selective logging, single and recurrent wildfires, and habitat fragmentation. The different disturbance treatments had distinct effects on avian guild structure, and fire disturbance and the isolation of forest patches resulted in bird...

  1. THE INFLUENCE OF FOREST FRAGMENTATION AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON LAKE SUPERIOR STREAM FISH ASSEMBLAGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a comparative watershed project investigating land cover/land use disturbance gradients for streams in the western Lake Superior region, we wanted to determine the relative influence of hydrogeomorphic region, forest fragmentation, watershed storage, and in-stream habi...

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF FOREST FRAGMENTATION AND OTHER ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS ON LAKE SUPERIOR STREAM FISH ASSEMBLAGES

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a comparative watershed project investigation land cover/land use disturbance gradients for streams in the western Lake Superior region, we wanted to determine the relative influence of hydrogeomorphic region, forest fragmentation, watershed storage and in-stream habit...

  3. A National Assessment of Forest Fragmentation Change for the Conterminous United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Determination of land-cover change is important for ecological assessments and environmental planning. We used national land-cover change data, resolved at 0.09 ha per pixel, to assess change in forest fragmentation for the conterminous United States. Temporal change in fragmen...

  4. Forest fragmentation and landscape transformation in a reindeer husbandry area in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Kivinen, Sonja; Berg, Anna; Moen, Jon; Ostlund, Lars; Olofsson, Johan

    2012-02-01

    Reindeer husbandry and forestry are two main land users in boreal forests in northern Sweden. Modern forestry has numerous negative effects on the ground-growing and arboreal lichens that are crucial winter resources for reindeer husbandry. Using digitized historical maps, we examined changes in the forest landscape structure during the past 100 years, and estimated corresponding changes in suitability of forest landscape mosaics for the reindeer winter grazing. Cover of old coniferous forests, a key habitat type of reindeer herding system, showed a strong decrease during the study period, whereas clear-cutting and young forests increased rapidly in the latter half of the 20th century. The dominance of young forests and fragmentation of old-growth forests (decreased patch sizes and increased isolation) reflect decreased amount of arboreal lichens as well as a lowered ability of the landscape to sustain long-term persistence of lichens. The results further showed that variation in ground lichen cover among sites was mainly related to soil moisture conditions, recent disturbances, such as soil scarification and prescribed burning, and possibly also to forest history. In general, the results suggest that the composition and configuration of the forest landscape mosaic has become less suitable for sustainable reindeer husbandry.

  5. Forest Fragmentation and Landscape Transformation in a Reindeer Husbandry Area in Sweden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivinen, Sonja; Berg, Anna; Moen, Jon; Östlund, Lars; Olofsson, Johan

    2012-02-01

    Reindeer husbandry and forestry are two main land users in boreal forests in northern Sweden. Modern forestry has numerous negative effects on the ground-growing and arboreal lichens that are crucial winter resources for reindeer husbandry. Using digitized historical maps, we examined changes in the forest landscape structure during the past 100 years, and estimated corresponding changes in suitability of forest landscape mosaics for the reindeer winter grazing. Cover of old coniferous forests, a key habitat type of reindeer herding system, showed a strong decrease during the study period, whereas clear-cutting and young forests increased rapidly in the latter half of the 20th century. The dominance of young forests and fragmentation of old-growth forests (decreased patch sizes and increased isolation) reflect decreased amount of arboreal lichens as well as a lowered ability of the landscape to sustain long-term persistence of lichens. The results further showed that variation in ground lichen cover among sites was mainly related to soil moisture conditions, recent disturbances, such as soil scarification and prescribed burning, and possibly also to forest history. In general, the results suggest that the composition and configuration of the forest landscape mosaic has become less suitable for sustainable reindeer husbandry.

  6. Linear infrastructure drives habitat conversion and forest fragmentation associated with Marcellus shale gas development in a forested landscape.

    PubMed

    Langlois, Lillie A; Drohan, Patrick J; Brittingham, Margaret C

    2017-07-15

    Large, continuous forest provides critical habitat for some species of forest dependent wildlife. The rapid expansion of shale gas development within the northern Appalachians results in direct loss of such habitat at well sites, pipelines, and access roads; however the resulting habitat fragmentation surrounding such areas may be of greater importance. Previous research has suggested that infrastructure supporting gas development is the driver for habitat loss, but knowledge of what specific infrastructure affects habitat is limited by a lack of spatial tracking of infrastructure development in different land uses. We used high-resolution aerial imagery, land cover data, and well point data to quantify shale gas development across four time periods (2010, 2012, 2014, 2016), including: the number of wells permitted, drilled, and producing gas (a measure of pipeline development); land use change; and forest fragmentation on both private and public land. As of April 2016, the majority of shale gas development was located on private land (74% of constructed well pads); however, the number of wells drilled per pad was lower on private compared to public land (3.5 and 5.4, respectively). Loss of core forest was more than double on private than public land (4.3 and 2.0%, respectively), which likely results from better management practices implemented on public land. Pipelines were by far the largest contributor to the fragmentation of core forest due to shale gas development. Forecasting future land use change resulting from gas development suggests that the greatest loss of core forest will occur with pads constructed farthest from pre-existing pipelines (new pipelines must be built to connect pads) and in areas with greater amounts of core forest. To reduce future fragmentation, our results suggest new pads should be placed near pre-existing pipelines and methods to consolidate pipelines with other infrastructure should be used. Without these mitigation practices, we

  7. Internal habitat quality determines the effects of fragmentation on austral forest climbing and epiphytic angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Magrach, Ainhoa; Larrinaga, Asier R; Santamaría, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation has become one of the major threats to biodiversity worldwide, particularly in the case of forests, which have suffered enormous losses during the past decades. We analyzed how changes in patch configuration and habitat quality derived from the fragmentation of austral temperate rainforests affect the distribution of six species of forest-dwelling climbing and epiphytic angiosperms. Epiphyte and vine abundance is primarily affected by the internal characteristics of patches (such as tree size, the presence of logging gaps or the proximity to patch edges) rather than patch and landscape features (such as patch size, shape or connectivity). These responses were intimately related to species-specific characteristics such as drought- or shade-tolerance. Our study therefore suggests that plant responses to fragmentation are contingent on both the species' ecology and the specific pathways through which the study area is being fragmented, (i.e. extensive logging that shaped the boundaries of current forest patches plus recent, unregulated logging that creates gaps within patches). Management practices in fragmented landscapes should therefore consider habitat quality within patches together with other spatial attributes at landscape or patch scales.

  8. Internal Habitat Quality Determines the Effects of Fragmentation on Austral Forest Climbing and Epiphytic Angiosperms

    PubMed Central

    Magrach, Ainhoa; Larrinaga, Asier R.; Santamaría, Luis

    2012-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation has become one of the major threats to biodiversity worldwide, particularly in the case of forests, which have suffered enormous losses during the past decades. We analyzed how changes in patch configuration and habitat quality derived from the fragmentation of austral temperate rainforests affect the distribution of six species of forest-dwelling climbing and epiphytic angiosperms. Epiphyte and vine abundance is primarily affected by the internal characteristics of patches (such as tree size, the presence of logging gaps or the proximity to patch edges) rather than patch and landscape features (such as patch size, shape or connectivity). These responses were intimately related to species-specific characteristics such as drought- or shade-tolerance. Our study therefore suggests that plant responses to fragmentation are contingent on both the species' ecology and the specific pathways through which the study area is being fragmented, (i.e. extensive logging that shaped the boundaries of current forest patches plus recent, unregulated logging that creates gaps within patches). Management practices in fragmented landscapes should therefore consider habitat quality within patches together with other spatial attributes at landscape or patch scales. PMID:23119096

  9. Landscape responses of bats to habitat fragmentation in Atlantic forest of paraguay

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gorresen, P.M.; Willig, M.R.

    2004-01-01

    Understanding effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on populations or communities is critical to effective conservation and restoration. This is particularly important for bats because they provide vital services to ecosystems via pollination and seed dispersal, especially in tropical and subtropical habitats. Based on more than 1,000 h of survey during a 15-month period, we quantified species abundances and community structure of phyllostomid bats at 14 sites in a 3,000-km2 region of eastern Paraguay. Abundance was highest for Artibeus lituratus in deforested landscapes and for Chrotopterus auritus in forested habitats. In contrast, Artibeus fimbriatus, Carollia perspicillata, Glossophaga soricina, Platyrrhinus lineatus, Pygoderma bilabiatum, and Sturnira lilium attained highest abundance in moderately fragmented forest landscapes. Forest cover, patch size, and patch density frequently were associated with abundance of species. At the community level, species richness was highest in partly deforested landscapes, whereas evenness was greatest in forested habitat. In general, the highest diversity of bats occurred in landscapes comprising moderately fragmented forest habitat. This underscores the importance of remnant habitat patches to conservation strategies.

  10. The nexus between forest fragmentation in Africa and Ebola virus disease outbreaks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rulli, Maria Cristina; Santini, Monia; Hayman, David T. S.; D’Odorico, Paolo

    2017-02-01

    Tropical forests are undergoing land use change in many regions of the world, including the African continent. Human populations living close to forest margins fragmented and disturbed by deforestation may be particularly exposed to zoonotic infections because of the higher likelihood for humans to be in contact with disease reservoirs. Quantitative analysis of the nexus between deforestation and the emergence of Ebola virus disease (EVD), however, is still missing. Here we use land cover change data in conjunction with EVD outbreak records to investigate the association between recent (2004–2014) outbreaks in West and Central Africa, and patterns of land use change in the region. We show how in these EVD outbreaks the index cases in humans (i.e. spillover from wildlife reservoirs) occurred mostly in hotspots of forest fragmentation.

  11. The nexus between forest fragmentation in Africa and Ebola virus disease outbreaks.

    PubMed

    Rulli, Maria Cristina; Santini, Monia; Hayman, David T S; D'Odorico, Paolo

    2017-02-14

    Tropical forests are undergoing land use change in many regions of the world, including the African continent. Human populations living close to forest margins fragmented and disturbed by deforestation may be particularly exposed to zoonotic infections because of the higher likelihood for humans to be in contact with disease reservoirs. Quantitative analysis of the nexus between deforestation and the emergence of Ebola virus disease (EVD), however, is still missing. Here we use land cover change data in conjunction with EVD outbreak records to investigate the association between recent (2004-2014) outbreaks in West and Central Africa, and patterns of land use change in the region. We show how in these EVD outbreaks the index cases in humans (i.e. spillover from wildlife reservoirs) occurred mostly in hotspots of forest fragmentation.

  12. The nexus between forest fragmentation in Africa and Ebola virus disease outbreaks

    PubMed Central

    Rulli, Maria Cristina; Santini, Monia; Hayman, David T. S.; D’Odorico, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    Tropical forests are undergoing land use change in many regions of the world, including the African continent. Human populations living close to forest margins fragmented and disturbed by deforestation may be particularly exposed to zoonotic infections because of the higher likelihood for humans to be in contact with disease reservoirs. Quantitative analysis of the nexus between deforestation and the emergence of Ebola virus disease (EVD), however, is still missing. Here we use land cover change data in conjunction with EVD outbreak records to investigate the association between recent (2004–2014) outbreaks in West and Central Africa, and patterns of land use change in the region. We show how in these EVD outbreaks the index cases in humans (i.e. spillover from wildlife reservoirs) occurred mostly in hotspots of forest fragmentation. PMID:28195145

  13. Observed Differences in the Human Footprint and Forest Fragmentation in the Primary Forest Area of the Democratic Republic of Congo: A Remote Sensing Study for 2000-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molinario, G.

    2015-12-01

    Conflict in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and neighboring countries has caused the displacement of people internally and internationally sometimes leading to drastic changes in the impact that traditional slash and burn shifting cultivation has on the forest ecosystem. In other areas, the lack of infrastructure and governance has isolated and protected areas of core forest from large scale exploitation. Observing specific patterns of forest fragmentation caused either by the expansion of existing rural complex areas or of isolated forest perforations has allowed us to track the differential growth of the human footprint throughout forested area of the country during the period 2000-2010. Our methodological approach involved the development of a model of shifting cultivation and forest fragmentation in which spatial rules applied morphological image processing to the Forets d'Afrique Central Evaluee par Teledetection (FACET) product. The result is a disaggregated classification of the primary forest into patch, edge, perforated, fragmented and core forest subtypes which we subsequently re-aggregated into homogenous anthropogenic macro-areas of rural complex and isolated forest perforations. We tracked how subsequent forest loss observed in 2005 and 2010 grew or shrunk these areas, presumably with differential impacts on the forest ecosystem. Using this approach we were able to map forest degradation by contextualizing the contribution of forest loss to change in different types of areas, highlighting how it can be greatly underestimated by a non contextualized per-pixel assessment of forest cover loss.

  14. Ecology of maritime forests of the southern Atlantic coast: A community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Bellis, V.J.

    1995-05-01

    Maritime forests dominated by broadleaved evergreen trees and shrubs occur in a discontinuous narrow band along the barrier islands and on the adjacent mainland from North Carolina to Florida. The flora and fauna of maritime forests typically consist of a distinctive subset of the regional biota that is particularly well adapted to survive the elevated salt content, limited availability of fresh water, soil erosion and dune migration, periodic seawater inundation, and wind damage associated with oceanic storms. Recent recognition of the relatively greater physical stability of maritime forests compared to the beachfront has resulted in intensified urban development within them. Maritime forests across the range have been increasingly impaired by clearing for roads and parking lots and fragmented by subdivision development.

  15. Within and Among Patch Variability in Patterns of Insect Herbivory Across a Fragmented Forest Landscape

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Dorothy Y.; Buddle, Christopher M.; Bennett, Elena M.

    2016-01-01

    Fragmentation changes the spatial patterns of landscapes in ways that can alter the flow of materials and species; however, our understanding of the consequences of this fragmentation and flow alteration for ecosystem processes and ecosystem services remains limited. As an ecological process that affects many ecosystem services and is sensitive to fragmentation, insect herbivory is a good model system for exploring the role of fragmentation, and the resulting spatial patterns of landscapes, in the provision of ecosystem services. To refine our knowledge of how changes in landscape pattern affect insect herbivory, we quantified the combined influence of among patch (patch area and patch connectivity) and within patch (location within patch; canopy, edge, interior) factors on amounts of insect herbivory in a fragmented forest landscape. We measured herbivory in 20 forest patches of differing size and connectivity in southern Quebec (Canada). Within each patch, herbivory was quantified at the interior, edge, and canopy of sugar maple trees during the spring and summer of 2011 and 2012. Results show that connectivity affects herbivory differently depending on the location within the patch (edge, interior, canopy), an effect that would have gone unnoticed if samples were pooled across locations. These results suggest considering structure at both the patch and within patch scales may help to elucidate patterns when studying the effects of fragmentation on ecosystem processes, with implications for the services they support. PMID:26938457

  16. Within and Among Patch Variability in Patterns of Insect Herbivory Across a Fragmented Forest Landscape.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Dorothy Y; Buddle, Christopher M; Bennett, Elena M

    2016-01-01

    Fragmentation changes the spatial patterns of landscapes in ways that can alter the flow of materials and species; however, our understanding of the consequences of this fragmentation and flow alteration for ecosystem processes and ecosystem services remains limited. As an ecological process that affects many ecosystem services and is sensitive to fragmentation, insect herbivory is a good model system for exploring the role of fragmentation, and the resulting spatial patterns of landscapes, in the provision of ecosystem services. To refine our knowledge of how changes in landscape pattern affect insect herbivory, we quantified the combined influence of among patch (patch area and patch connectivity) and within patch (location within patch; canopy, edge, interior) factors on amounts of insect herbivory in a fragmented forest landscape. We measured herbivory in 20 forest patches of differing size and connectivity in southern Quebec (Canada). Within each patch, herbivory was quantified at the interior, edge, and canopy of sugar maple trees during the spring and summer of 2011 and 2012. Results show that connectivity affects herbivory differently depending on the location within the patch (edge, interior, canopy), an effect that would have gone unnoticed if samples were pooled across locations. These results suggest considering structure at both the patch and within patch scales may help to elucidate patterns when studying the effects of fragmentation on ecosystem processes, with implications for the services they support.

  17. Tropical Forest Fragmentation Affects Floral Visitors but Not the Structure of Individual-Based Palm-Pollinator Networks

    PubMed Central

    Dáttilo, Wesley; Aguirre, Armando; Quesada, Mauricio; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing knowledge about the effects of habitat loss on pollinators in natural landscapes, information is very limited regarding the underlying mechanisms of forest fragmentation affecting plant-pollinator interactions in such landscapes. Here, we used a network approach to describe the effects of forest fragmentation on the patterns of interactions involving the understory dominant palm Astrocaryum mexicanum (Arecaceae) and its floral visitors (including both effective and non-effective pollinators) at the individual level in a Mexican tropical rainforest landscape. Specifically, we asked: (i) Does fragment size affect the structure of individual-based plant-pollinator networks? (ii) Does the core of highly interacting visitor species change along the fragmentation size gradient? (iii) Does forest fragment size influence the abundance of effective pollinators of A. mexicanum? We found that fragment size did not affect the topological structure of the individual-based palm-pollinator network. Furthermore, while the composition of peripheral non-effective pollinators changed depending on fragment size, effective core generalist species of pollinators remained stable. We also observed that both abundance and variance of effective pollinators of male and female flowers of A. mexicanum increased with forest fragment size. These findings indicate that the presence of effective pollinators in the core of all forest fragments could keep the network structure stable along the gradient of forest fragmentation. In addition, pollination of A. mexicanum could be more effective in larger fragments, since the greater abundance of pollinators in these fragments may increase the amount of pollen and diversity of pollen donors between flowers of individual plants. Given the prevalence of fragmentation in tropical ecosystems, our results indicate that the current patterns of land use will have consequences on the underlying mechanisms of pollination in remnant forests

  18. Tropical forest fragmentation affects floral visitors but not the structure of individual-based palm-pollinator networks.

    PubMed

    Dáttilo, Wesley; Aguirre, Armando; Quesada, Mauricio; Dirzo, Rodolfo

    2015-01-01

    Despite increasing knowledge about the effects of habitat loss on pollinators in natural landscapes, information is very limited regarding the underlying mechanisms of forest fragmentation affecting plant-pollinator interactions in such landscapes. Here, we used a network approach to describe the effects of forest fragmentation on the patterns of interactions involving the understory dominant palm Astrocaryum mexicanum (Arecaceae) and its floral visitors (including both effective and non-effective pollinators) at the individual level in a Mexican tropical rainforest landscape. Specifically, we asked: (i) Does fragment size affect the structure of individual-based plant-pollinator networks? (ii) Does the core of highly interacting visitor species change along the fragmentation size gradient? (iii) Does forest fragment size influence the abundance of effective pollinators of A. mexicanum? We found that fragment size did not affect the topological structure of the individual-based palm-pollinator network. Furthermore, while the composition of peripheral non-effective pollinators changed depending on fragment size, effective core generalist species of pollinators remained stable. We also observed that both abundance and variance of effective pollinators of male and female flowers of A. mexicanum increased with forest fragment size. These findings indicate that the presence of effective pollinators in the core of all forest fragments could keep the network structure stable along the gradient of forest fragmentation. In addition, pollination of A. mexicanum could be more effective in larger fragments, since the greater abundance of pollinators in these fragments may increase the amount of pollen and diversity of pollen donors between flowers of individual plants. Given the prevalence of fragmentation in tropical ecosystems, our results indicate that the current patterns of land use will have consequences on the underlying mechanisms of pollination in remnant forests.

  19. Response of the agile antechinus to habitat edge, configuration and condition in fragmented forest.

    PubMed

    Johnstone, Christopher P; Lill, Alan; Reina, Richard D

    2011-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation and degradation seriously threaten native animal communities. We studied the response of a small marsupial, the agile antechinus Antechinus agilis, to several environmental variables in anthropogenically fragmented Eucalyptus forest in south-east Australia. Agile antechinus were captured more in microhabitats dominated by woody debris than in other microhabitats. Relative abundances of both sexes were positively correlated with fragment core area. Male and female mass-size residuals were smaller in larger fragments. A health status indicator, haemoglobin-haematocrit residuals (HHR), did not vary as a function of any environmental variable in females, but male HHR indicated better health where sites' microhabitats were dominated by shrubs, woody debris and trees other than Eucalyptus. Females were trapped less often in edge than interior fragment habitat and their physiological stress level, indicated by the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in peripheral blood, was higher where fragments had a greater proportion of edge habitat. The latter trend was potentially due to lymphopoenia resulting from stress hormone-mediated leukocyte trafficking. Using multiple indicators of population condition and health status facilitates a comprehensive examination of the effects of anthropogenic disturbances, such as habitat fragmentation and degradation, on native vertebrates. Male agile antechinus' health responded negatively to habitat degradation, whilst females responded negatively to the proportion of edge habitat. The health and condition indicators used could be employed to identify conservation strategies that would make habitat fragments less stressful for this or similar native, small mammals.

  20. Response of the Agile Antechinus to Habitat Edge, Configuration and Condition in Fragmented Forest

    PubMed Central

    Johnstone, Christopher P.; Lill, Alan; Reina, Richard D.

    2011-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation and degradation seriously threaten native animal communities. We studied the response of a small marsupial, the agile antechinus Antechinus agilis, to several environmental variables in anthropogenically fragmented Eucalyptus forest in south-east Australia. Agile antechinus were captured more in microhabitats dominated by woody debris than in other microhabitats. Relative abundances of both sexes were positively correlated with fragment core area. Male and female mass-size residuals were smaller in larger fragments. A health status indicator, haemoglobin-haematocrit residuals (HHR), did not vary as a function of any environmental variable in females, but male HHR indicated better health where sites' microhabitats were dominated by shrubs, woody debris and trees other than Eucalyptus. Females were trapped less often in edge than interior fragment habitat and their physiological stress level, indicated by the neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio in peripheral blood, was higher where fragments had a greater proportion of edge habitat. The latter trend was potentially due to lymphopoenia resulting from stress hormone-mediated leukocyte trafficking. Using multiple indicators of population condition and health status facilitates a comprehensive examination of the effects of anthropogenic disturbances, such as habitat fragmentation and degradation, on native vertebrates. Male agile antechinus' health responded negatively to habitat degradation, whilst females responded negatively to the proportion of edge habitat. The health and condition indicators used could be employed to identify conservation strategies that would make habitat fragments less stressful for this or similar native, small mammals. PMID:22076129

  1. Fragmentation

    Treesearch

    K.H. Riitters

    2009-01-01

    Effective resource management takes into account the administrative and biophysical settings within which natural resources occur. A setting may be described in many ways; for example, by forest land ownership, by reserved and roadless designation, or by the distribution of human populations in relation to forest (chapter 3). The physical arrangement of forest in a...

  2. Effect of forest fragmentation on microsporogenesis and pollen viability in Eugenia uniflora, a tree native to the Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    de Almeida, D J; Faria, M V; da Silva, P R

    2012-12-06

    Habitat fragmentation, caused by the expansion of agriculture in natural areas, may be one of the strongest impacts humans have on the ecosystem. These changes can decrease the number of individuals in a population, leading to endogamy. In allogamous species, endogamy can have a negative effect on reproductive capacity. In this study, we analyzed the effects of forest fragmentation on microsporogenesis and pollen viability in Eugenia uniflora L., a tree species native to the Atlantic Forest. We analyzed 4 populations, 3 of which were connected by forest corridors and 1 of which was isolated by agricultural fields on all sides. For microsporogenesis analysis, 9000 meiocytes representing all stages of meiosis were evaluated. To perform the pollen viability test, we evaluated 152,000 pollen grains. Microsporogenesis was stable in plants from populations that were connected by forest corridors (abnormalities, less than 6%), while microsporogenesis in plants from the isolated population showed a higher level of abnormalities (13-29%). Average pollen viability was found to be more than 93% in the non-isolated populations and 82.62% in the isolated population. The χ(2) test showed that, in the isolated population, the meiotic index was significantly lower than that in the non-isolated populations (P = 0.03). The analysis of variance for the percentage of viable pollen grains confirmed the significant difference between the isolated and non-isolated populations. Our data show that forest fragmentation has a direct effect on microsporogenesis and pollen viability in E. uniflora and can directly influence the reproductive capacity of isolated populations of this species.

  3. Effects of forest fragmentation on phenological patterns and reproductive success of the tropical dry forest tree Ceiba aesculifolia.

    PubMed

    Herrerías-Diego, Yvonne; Quesada, Mauricio; Stoner, Kathryn E; Lobo, Jorge A

    2006-08-01

    Spatial isolation caused by forest fragmentation and temporal isolation caused by asynchronous flowering of plants have been proposed as important factors that affect the reproduction ofplant populations. In a 4-year study, we determined the effects of forest fragmentation and spatial isolation on flowering phenology and reproductive success of the tropical tree Ceiba aesculifolia ([Kunth] Britton & Rose). We conducted our study in the dry forest of Mexico and compared populations in two habitat conditions based on density and environmental conditions: (1) disturbed habitat (four populations of < or =3 reproductive individuals/ha surrounded by agriculturalfields or pastures) and (2) undisturbed habitat (three populations of groups of >6 reproductive individuals/ha surrounded by undisturbed mature forest). We compared the following variables within these populations over 4 years: flowering overlap, proportion of individuals with flowers and fruit, total flower production, total fruit production, fruit set, seed production, and seed abortion. Little overlap in flowering occurred among the populations in the two habitat conditions. The flowering period of trees in the disturbed habitat initiated between 15 to 20 days before the flowering period of trees in the undisturbed habitat during 3 years. Flowering of trees in the undisturbed habitat peaked at the end of the flowering period of the trees in the disturbed habitat. The proportion of trees that flowered was greater in the undisturbed habitat. Nevertheless, total flower production was greater in the disturbed habitat and these differences were maintained across 3 years. The proportion of individuals that produced fruit did not differ across habitat conditions but did differ across years. Total fruit production was greater in the disturbed habitat, but fruit set and seed production were the same across years and between habitat conditions. Seed abortion varied over years between habitats. We concluded that forest

  4. Long-term fragmentation effects on the distribution and dynamics of canopy gaps in a tropical montane forest

    Treesearch

    Nicholas R. Vaughn; Gregory P. Asner; Christian P. Giardina

    2015-01-01

    Fragmentation alters forest canopy structure through various mechanisms, which in turn drive subsequent changes to biogeochemical processes and biological diversity. Using repeated airborne LiDAR (Light Detection and Ranging) mappings, we investigated the size distribution and dynamics of forest canopy gaps across a topical montane forest landscape in Hawaii naturally...

  5. Landscape genetics indicate recently increased habitat fragmentation in African forest-associated chafers.

    PubMed

    Eberle, Jonas; Rödder, Dennis; Beckett, Marc; Ahrens, Dirk

    2017-01-07

    Today, indigenous forests cover less than 0.6% of South Africa's land surface and are highly fragmented. Most forest relicts are very small and typically occur in fire-protected gorges along the eastern Great Escarpment. Yet, they hold a unique and valuable fauna with high endemism and ancient phylogenetic lineages, fostered by long-term climatic stability and complex microclimates. Despite numerous studies on southern African vegetation cover, the current state of knowledge about the natural extension of indigenous forests is rather fragmentary. We use an integrated approach of population-level phylogeography and climatic niche modeling of forest-associated chafer species to assess connectivity and extent of forest habitats since the last glacial maximum. Current and past species distribution models ascertained potential fluctuations of forest distribution and supported a much wider potential current extension of forests based on climatic data. Considerable genetic admixture of mitochondrial and nuclear DNA among many populations and an increase in mean population mutation rate in Extended Bayesian Skyline Plots of all species indicated more extended or better connected forests in the recent past (<5 kya). Genetic isolation of certain populations, as revealed by population differentiation statistics (GST'), as well as landscape connectivity statistics and habitat succession scenarios suggests considerable loss of habitat connectivity. As major anthropogenic influence is likely, conservational actions need to be considered.

  6. Tree species and soil nutrient profiles in old-growth forests of the Oregon Coast Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cross, Alison; Perakis, Steven S.

    2011-01-01

    Old-growth forests of the Pacific Northwest provide a unique opportunity to examine tree species – soil relationships in ecosystems that have developed without significant human disturbance. We characterized foliage, forest floor, and mineral soil nutrients associated with four canopy tree species (Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco), western hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla (Raf.) Sarg.), western redcedar (Thuja plicata Donn ex D. Don), and bigleaf maple (Acer macrophyllum Pursh)) in eight old-growth forests of the Oregon Coast Range. The greatest forest floor accumulations of C, N, P, Ca, Mg, and K occurred under Douglas-fir, primarily due to greater forest floor mass. In mineral soil, western hemlock exhibited significantly lower Ca concentration and sum of cations (Ca + Mg + K) than bigleaf maple, with intermediate values for Douglas-fir and western redcedar. Bigleaf maple explained most species-based differences in foliar nutrients, displaying high concentrations of N, P, Ca, Mg, and K. Foliar P and N:P variations largely reflected soil P variation across sites. The four tree species that we examined exhibited a number of individualistic effects on soil nutrient levels that contribute to biogeochemical heterogeneity in these ecosystems. Where fire suppression and long-term succession favor dominance by highly shade-tolerant western hemlock, our results suggest a potential for declines in both soil Ca availability and soil biogeochemical heterogeneity in old-growth forests.

  7. Robustness of plant-insect herbivore interaction networks to climate change in a fragmented temperate forest landscape.

    PubMed

    Bähner, K W; Zweig, K A; Leal, I R; Wirth, R

    2017-02-10

    Forest fragmentation and climate change are among the most severe and pervasive forms of human impact. Yet, their combined effects on plant-insect herbivore interaction networks, essential components of forest ecosystems with respect to biodiversity and functioning, are still poorly investigated, particularly in temperate forests. We addressed this issue by analysing plant-insect herbivore networks (PIHNs) from understories of three managed beech forest habitats: small forest fragments (2.2-145 ha), forest edges and forest interior areas within three continuous control forests (1050-5600 ha) in an old hyper-fragmented forest landscape in SW Germany. We assessed the impact of forest fragmentation, particularly edge effects, on PIHNs and the resulting differences in robustness against climate change by habitat-wise comparison of network topology and biologically realistic extinction cascades of networks following scores of vulnerability to climate change for the food plant species involved. Both the topological network metrics (complexity, nestedness, trophic niche redundancy) and robustness to climate change strongly increased in forest edges and fragments as opposed to the managed forest interior. The nature of the changes indicates that human impacts modify network structure mainly via host plant availability to insect herbivores. Improved robustness of PIHNs in forest edges/small fragments to climate-driven extinction cascades was attributable to an overall higher thermotolerance across plant communities, along with positive effects of network structure. The impoverishment of PIHNs in managed forest interiors and the suggested loss of insect diversity from climate-induced co-extinction highlight the need for further research efforts focusing on adequate silvicultural and conservation approaches.

  8. Effects of Local Tree Diversity on Herbivore Communities Diminish with Increasing Forest Fragmentation on the Landscape Scale

    PubMed Central

    Peter, Franziska; Berens, Dana G.; Farwig, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and plant diversity have been shown to play a crucial role for herbivorous insects (herbivores, hereafter). In turn, herbivory-induced leaf area loss is known to have direct implications for plant growth and reproduction as well as long-term consequences for ecosystem functioning and forest regeneration. So far, previous studies determined diverging responses of herbivores to forest fragmentation and plant diversity. Those inconsistent results may be owed to complex interactive effects of both co-occurring environmental factors albeit they act on different spatial scales. In this study, we investigated whether forest fragmentation on the landscape scale and tree diversity on the local habitat scale show interactive effects on the herbivore community and leaf area loss in subtropical forests in South Africa. We applied standardized beating samples and a community-based approach to estimate changes in herbivore community composition, herbivore abundance, and the effective number of herbivore species on the tree species-level. We further monitored leaf area loss to link changes in the herbivore community to the associated process of herbivory. Forest fragmentation and tree diversity interactively affected the herbivore community composition, mainly by a species turnover within the family of Curculionidae. Furthermore, herbivore abundance increased and the number of herbivore species decreased with increasing tree diversity in slightly fragmented forests whereas the effects diminished with increasing forest fragmentation. Surprisingly, leaf area loss was neither affected by forest fragmentation or tree diversity, nor by changes in the herbivore community. Our study highlights the need to consider interactive effects of environmental changes across spatial scales in order to draw reliable conclusions for community and interaction patterns. Moreover, forest fragmentation seems to alter the effect of tree diversity on the herbivore community, and thus

  9. Multitemporal analysis of forest fragmentation in Hindu Kush Himalaya-a case study from Khangchendzonga Biosphere Reserve, Sikkim, India.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Mohit; Areendran, G; Raj, Krishna; Sharma, Ankita; Joshi, P K

    2016-10-01

    Forests in the mountains are a treasure trove; harbour a large biodiversity; and provide fodder, firewood, timber and non-timber forest products; all of these are essential for human survival in the highest mountains on earth. The present paper attempts a spatiotemporal assessment of forest fragmentation and changes in land use land cover (LULC) pattern using multitemporal satellite data over a time span of around a decade (2000-2009), within the third highest protected area (PA) in the world. The fragmentation analysis using Landscape Fragmentation Tool (LFT) depicts a decrease in large core, edge and patches areas by 5.93, 3.64 and 0.66 %, respectively, while an increase in non-forest and perforated areas by 6.59 and 4.01 %, respectively. The land cover dynamics shows a decrease in open forest, alpine scrub, alpine meadows, snow and hill shadow areas by 2.81, 0.39, 8.18, 3.46 and 0.60 %, respectively, and there is an increase in dense forest and glacier area by 4.79 and 10.65 %, respectively. The change analysis shows a major transformation in areas from open forest to dense forest and from alpine meadows to alpine scrub. In order to quantify changes induced by forest fragmentation and to characterize composition and configuration of LULC mosaics, fragmentation indices were computed using Fragstats at class level, showing the signs of accelerated fragmentation. The outcome of the analysis revealed the effectiveness of geospatial tools coupled with landscape ecology in characterization and quantification of forest fragmentation and land cover changes. The present study provides a baseline database for sustainable conservation planning that will benefit the subsistence livelihoods in the region. Recommendations made based on the present analysis will help to recover forest and halt the pessimistic effects of fragmentation and land cover changes on biodiversity and ecosystem services in the region.

  10. Effects of local tree diversity on herbivore communities diminish with increasing forest fragmentation on the landscape scale.

    PubMed

    Peter, Franziska; Berens, Dana G; Farwig, Nina

    2014-01-01

    Forest fragmentation and plant diversity have been shown to play a crucial role for herbivorous insects (herbivores, hereafter). In turn, herbivory-induced leaf area loss is known to have direct implications for plant growth and reproduction as well as long-term consequences for ecosystem functioning and forest regeneration. So far, previous studies determined diverging responses of herbivores to forest fragmentation and plant diversity. Those inconsistent results may be owed to complex interactive effects of both co-occurring environmental factors albeit they act on different spatial scales. In this study, we investigated whether forest fragmentation on the landscape scale and tree diversity on the local habitat scale show interactive effects on the herbivore community and leaf area loss in subtropical forests in South Africa. We applied standardized beating samples and a community-based approach to estimate changes in herbivore community composition, herbivore abundance, and the effective number of herbivore species on the tree species-level. We further monitored leaf area loss to link changes in the herbivore community to the associated process of herbivory. Forest fragmentation and tree diversity interactively affected the herbivore community composition, mainly by a species turnover within the family of Curculionidae. Furthermore, herbivore abundance increased and the number of herbivore species decreased with increasing tree diversity in slightly fragmented forests whereas the effects diminished with increasing forest fragmentation. Surprisingly, leaf area loss was neither affected by forest fragmentation or tree diversity, nor by changes in the herbivore community. Our study highlights the need to consider interactive effects of environmental changes across spatial scales in order to draw reliable conclusions for community and interaction patterns. Moreover, forest fragmentation seems to alter the effect of tree diversity on the herbivore community, and thus

  11. Conservation value of a native forest fragment in a region of extensive agriculture.

    PubMed

    Chiarello

    2000-05-01

    A survey of mammals and birds was carried out in a semi-deciduous forest fragment of 150 ha located in a zone of intensive agriculture in Ribeirão Preto, State of São Paulo, south-eastern Brazil. Line transect sampling was used to census mammals and birds during six days, totalling 27.8 km of trails and 27.8 hours of observation. Twenty mammal species were confirmed in the area (except bats and small mammals), including rare or endangered species, such as the mountain lion (Puma concolor), the maned wolf (Chrysocyon brachyurus), and the ocelot (Leopardus pardalis). The brown capuchin monkey (Cebus apella) and the black-tufted-ear marmoset (Callithrix penicillata) were found frequently, suggesting high population density in the fragment. Regarding the avifauna, 49 bird species were recorded, most of them typical of open areas or forest edges. Some confirmed species, however, are becoming increasingly rare in the region, as for example the muscovy duck (Cairina moschata) and the toco toucan (Ramphastos toco). The results demonstrate that forest fragment of this size are refuges for native fauna in a region dominated almost exclusively by sugar-cane plantations. Besides faunal aspects, the conservation of these fragments is of great importance for the establishment of studies related to species preservation in the long term, including reintroduction and translocation projects, as well as studies related to genetic health of isolated populations.

  12. Patch Size and Isolation Predict Plant Species Density in a Naturally Fragmented Forest

    PubMed Central

    Munguía-Rosas, Miguel A.; Montiel, Salvador

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the effects of patch size and isolation on plant species density have yielded contrasting results. However, much of the available evidence comes from relatively recent anthropogenic forest fragments which have not reached equilibrium between extinction and immigration. This is a critical issue because the theory clearly states that only when equilibrium has been reached can the number of species be accurately predicted by habitat size and isolation. Therefore, species density could be better predicted by patch size and isolation in an ecosystem that has been fragmented for a very long time. We tested whether patch area, isolation and other spatial variables explain variation among forest patches in plant species density in an ecosystem where the forest has been naturally fragmented for long periods of time on a geological scale. Our main predictions were that plant species density will be positively correlated with patch size, and negatively correlated with isolation (distance to the nearest patch, connectivity, and distance to the continuous forest). We surveyed the vascular flora (except lianas and epiphytes) of 19 forest patches using five belt transects (50×4 m each) per patch (area sampled per patch = 0.1 ha). As predicted, plant species density was positively associated (logarithmically) with patch size and negatively associated (linearly) with patch isolation (distance to the nearest patch). Other spatial variables such as patch elevation and perimeter, did not explain among-patch variability in plant species density. The power of patch area and isolation as predictors of plant species density was moderate (together they explain 43% of the variation), however, a larger sample size may improve the explanatory power of these variables. Patch size and isolation may be suitable predictors of long-term plant species density in terrestrial ecosystems that are naturally and anthropogenically fragmented. PMID:25347818

  13. Clustering Timber Harvests and the Effects of Dynamic Forest Management Policy on Forest Fragmentation

    Treesearch

    Eric J. Gustafson

    1998-01-01

    To integrate multiple uses (mature forest and commodity production) better on forested lands, timber management strategies that cluster harvests have been proposed. One such approach clusters harvest activity in space and time, and rotates timber production zones across the landscape with a long temporal period (dynamic zoning). Dynamic zoning has...

  14. Sociological edge effects: Spatial distribution of human impact in suburban forest fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matlack, Glenn R.

    1993-11-01

    Suburban forest fragments often experience heavy recreational and waste disposal use, with considerable damage to the vegetation. To suggest strategies for conservation of the forest flora, spatial distributions of human impact were described in 40 fragmentary stands in northern New Castle County, Delaware. The distribution of human impact showed a significant bias to the forest edge, with 95% of localized damage occurring in the first 82 m. Forms of impact related to lawn maintenance fell significantly closer to the edge than impacts related to recreation and showed the strongest edge orientation. Edge distances of campsites, vandalized trees, and firewood gathering were negatively correlated with distance to the nearest graded road, indicating the importance of road access. Several forms of impact were also clustered near footpaths, although distance to paths was independent of edge distance in all cases. In terms of penetration of the forest and severity of damage, human impact greatly exceeds natural edge effects reported for this community. These findings suggest that damage may be minimized by limiting road access and avoiding the creation of small forest fragments.

  15. Surveys of Puerto Rican screech-owl populations in large-tract and fragmented forest habitats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pardieck, K.L.; Meyers, J.M.; Pagan, M.

    1996-01-01

    We conducted road surveys of Puerto Rican Screech-Owls (Otus nudipes) by playing conspecific vocalizations in secondary wet forest and fragmented secondary moist forest in rural areas of eastern Puerto Rico. Six paired surveys were conducted bi-weekly beginning in April. We recorded number of owl responses, cloud cover, wind speed, moon phase, and number of passing cars during 5-min stops at 60 locations. Owls responded in similar numbers (P > 0.05) in both habitat types. Also, we detected no association with cloud cover, wind speed, moon phase, or passing cars.

  16. Spatial dynamics of deforestation and forest fragmentation (1930-2013) in Eastern Ghats, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhakar Reddy, C.; Jha, C. S.; Dadhwal, V. K.

    2014-11-01

    The tropical forests are the most unique ecosystems for their potential economic value. Eastern Ghats, a phytogeographical region of India has rugged hilly terrain distributed in parts of five states, viz. Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. The present study is mainly aimed to analyse the trends in deforestation and its role in forest fragmentation of Eastern Ghats. The long term changes in forest cover with its spatial pattern over time has been assessed by analyzing a set of topographical maps and satellite remote sensing datasets. The multi-source and multi-date mapping has been carried out using survey of India topographical maps (1930's), Landsat MSS (1975 and 1985), IRS 1B LISS-I (1995), IRS P6 AWiFS (2005) and Resourcesat-2 AWiFS (2013) satellite images. The classified spatial data for 1930, 1975, 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2013 showed that the forest cover for the mentioned years are 102213 km2 (45.6 %), 76630 (34.2 %), 73416 km2 (32.7 %), 71730 km2 (32 %), 71305 km2 (31.8 %) and 71186 km2 (31.7 %) of the geographical area of Eastern Ghats respectively. A spatial statistical analysis of the deforestation rates and forest cover change were carried out based on distinctive time phases, i.e. 1930-1975, 1975-1985, 1985-1995, 1995-2005 and 2005-2013. The spatial analysis was carried out first by segmenting the study area into grid cells of 5 km x 5 km for time series assessment and determining spatial changes in forests. The distribution of loss and gain of forest was calculated across six classes i.e. <1 km2, 1-5 km2, 5-10 km2, 10-15 km2, 15-20 km2 and >20 km2. Landscape metrics were used to quantify spatial variability of landscape structure and composition. The results of study on net rate of deforestation was found to be 0.64 during 1935 to 1975, 0.43 during 1975-1985, 0.23 during 1985-1995, 0.06 during 1995-2005 and 0.02 during 2005-2013. The number of forest patches increased from 2688 (1930) to 13009 (2013). The largest forest patch in

  17. Stream temperature change detection for state and private forests in the Oregon Coast Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groom, Jeremiah D.; Dent, Liz; Madsen, Lisa J.

    2011-01-01

    Oregon's forested coastal watersheds support important cold-water fisheries of salmon and steelhead (Oncorhynchus spp.) as well as forestry-dependent local economies. Riparian timber harvest restrictions in Oregon and elsewhere are designed to protect stream habitat characteristics while enabling upland timber harvest. We present an assessment of riparian leave tree rule effectiveness at protecting streams from temperature increases in the Oregon Coast Range. We evaluated temperature responses to timber harvest at 33 privately owned and state forest sites with Oregon's water quality temperature antidegradation standard, the Protecting Cold Water (PCW) criterion. At each site we evaluated stream temperature patterns before and after harvest upstream, within, and downstream of harvest units. We developed a method for detecting stream temperature change between years that adhered as closely as possible to Oregon's water quality rule language. The procedure provided an exceedance history across sites that allowed us to quantify background and treatment (timber harvest) PCW exceedance rates. For streams adjacent to harvested areas on privately owned lands, preharvest to postharvest year comparisons exhibited a 40% probability of exceedance. Sites managed according to the more stringent state forest riparian standards did not exhibit exceedance rates that differed from preharvest, control, or downstream rates (5%). These results will inform policy discussion regarding the sufficiency of Oregon's forest practices regulation at protecting stream temperature. The analysis process itself may assist other states and countries in developing and evaluating their forest management and water quality antidegradation regulations.

  18. Gene Flow of a Forest-Dependent Bird across a Fragmented Landscape.

    PubMed

    Adams, Rachael V; Burg, Theresa M

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation can affect the persistence of populations by reducing connectivity and restricting the ability of individuals to disperse across landscapes. Dispersal corridors promote population connectivity and therefore play important roles in maintaining gene flow in natural populations inhabiting fragmented landscapes. In the prairies, forests are restricted to riparian areas along river systems which act as important dispersal corridors for forest dependent species across large expanses of unsuitable grassland habitat. However, natural and anthropogenic barriers within riparian systems have fragmented these forested habitats. In this study, we used microsatellite markers to assess the fine-scale genetic structure of a forest-dependent species, the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus), along 10 different river systems in Southern Alberta. Using a landscape genetic approach, landscape features (e.g., land cover) were found to have a significant effect on patterns of genetic differentiation. Populations are genetically structured as a result of natural breaks in continuous habitat at small spatial scales, but the artificial barriers we tested do not appear to restrict gene flow. Dispersal between rivers is impeded by grasslands, evident from isolation of nearby populations (~ 50 km apart), but also within river systems by large treeless canyons (>100 km). Significant population genetic differentiation within some rivers corresponded with zones of different cottonwood (riparian poplar) tree species and their hybrids. This study illustrates the importance of considering the impacts of habitat fragmentation at small spatial scales as well as other ecological processes to gain a better understanding of how organisms respond to their environmental connectivity. Here, even in a common and widespread songbird with high dispersal potential, small breaks in continuous habitats strongly influenced the spatial patterns of genetic variation.

  19. Gene Flow of a Forest-Dependent Bird across a Fragmented Landscape

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation can affect the persistence of populations by reducing connectivity and restricting the ability of individuals to disperse across landscapes. Dispersal corridors promote population connectivity and therefore play important roles in maintaining gene flow in natural populations inhabiting fragmented landscapes. In the prairies, forests are restricted to riparian areas along river systems which act as important dispersal corridors for forest dependent species across large expanses of unsuitable grassland habitat. However, natural and anthropogenic barriers within riparian systems have fragmented these forested habitats. In this study, we used microsatellite markers to assess the fine-scale genetic structure of a forest-dependent species, the black-capped chickadee (Poecile atricapillus), along 10 different river systems in Southern Alberta. Using a landscape genetic approach, landscape features (e.g., land cover) were found to have a significant effect on patterns of genetic differentiation. Populations are genetically structured as a result of natural breaks in continuous habitat at small spatial scales, but the artificial barriers we tested do not appear to restrict gene flow. Dispersal between rivers is impeded by grasslands, evident from isolation of nearby populations (~ 50 km apart), but also within river systems by large treeless canyons (>100 km). Significant population genetic differentiation within some rivers corresponded with zones of different cottonwood (riparian poplar) tree species and their hybrids. This study illustrates the importance of considering the impacts of habitat fragmentation at small spatial scales as well as other ecological processes to gain a better understanding of how organisms respond to their environmental connectivity. Here, even in a common and widespread songbird with high dispersal potential, small breaks in continuous habitats strongly influenced the spatial patterns of genetic variation. PMID

  20. Continental divide: Predicting climate-mediated fragmentation and biodiversity loss in the boreal forest.

    PubMed

    Murray, Dennis L; Peers, Michael J L; Majchrzak, Yasmine N; Wehtje, Morgan; Ferreira, Catarina; Pickles, Rob S A; Row, Jeffrey R; Thornton, Daniel H

    2017-01-01

    Climate change threatens natural landscapes through shifting distribution and abundance of species and attendant change in the structure and function of ecosystems. However, it remains unclear how climate-mediated variation in species' environmental niche space may lead to large-scale fragmentation of species distributions, altered meta-population dynamics and gene flow, and disrupted ecosystem integrity. Such change may be especially relevant when species distributions are restricted either spatially or to a narrow environmental niche, or when environments are rapidly changing. Here, we use range-wide environmental niche models to posit that climate-mediated range fragmentation aggravates the direct effects of climate change on species in the boreal forest of North America. We show that climate change will directly alter environmental niche suitability for boreal-obligate species of trees, birds and mammals (n = 12), with most species ranges becoming smaller and shifting northward through time. Importantly, species distributions will become increasingly fragmented, as characterized by smaller mean size and greater isolation of environmentally-suitable landscape patches. This loss is especially pronounced along the Ontario-Québec border, where the boreal forest is narrowest and roughly 78% of suitable niche space could disappear by 2080. Despite the diversity of taxa surveyed, patterns of range fragmentation are remarkably consistent, with our models predicting that spruce grouse (Dendragapus canadensis), boreal chickadee (Poecile hudsonicus), moose (Alces americanus) and caribou (Rangifer tarandus) could have entirely disjunct east-west population segments in North America. These findings reveal potentially dire consequences of climate change on population continuity and species diversity in the boreal forest, highlighting the need to better understand: 1) extent and primary drivers of anticipated climate-mediated range loss and fragmentation; 2) diversity of

  1. Modeling spatial decisions with graph theory: logging roads and forest fragmentation in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Walker, Robert; Arima, Eugenio; Messina, Joe; Soares-Filho, Britaldo; Perz, Stephen; Vergara, Dante; Sales, Marcio; Pereira, Ritaumaria; Castro, Williams

    2013-01-01

    This article addresses the spatial decision-making of loggers and implications for forest fragmentation in the Amazon basin. It provides a behavioral explanation for fragmentation by modeling how loggers build road networks, typically abandoned upon removal of hardwoods. Logging road networks provide access to land, and the settlers who take advantage of them clear fields and pastures that accentuate their spatial signatures. In shaping agricultural activities, these networks organize emergent patterns of forest fragmentation, even though the loggers move elsewhere. The goal of the article is to explicate how loggers shape their road networks, in order to theoretically explain an important type of forest fragmentation found in the Amazon basin, particularly in Brazil. This is accomplished by adapting graph theory to represent the spatial decision-making of loggers, and by implementing computational algorithms that build graphs interpretable as logging road networks. The economic behavior of loggers is conceptualized as a profit maximization problem, and translated into spatial decision-making by establishing a formal correspondence between mathematical graphs and road networks. New computational approaches, adapted from operations research, are used to construct graphs and simulate spatial decision-making as a function of discount rates, land tenure, and topographic constraints. The algorithms employed bracket a range of behavioral settings appropriate for areas of terras de volutas, public lands that have not been set aside for environmental protection, indigenous peoples, or colonization. The simulation target sites are located in or near so-called Terra do Meio, once a major logging frontier in the lower Amazon Basin. Simulation networks are compared to empirical ones identified by remote sensing and then used to draw inferences about factors influencing the spatial behavior of loggers. Results overall suggest that Amazonia's logging road networks induce more

  2. Continental divide: Predicting climate-mediated fragmentation and biodiversity loss in the boreal forest

    PubMed Central

    Murray, Dennis L.; Peers, Michael J. L.; Majchrzak, Yasmine N.; Wehtje, Morgan; Ferreira, Catarina; Pickles, Rob S. A.; Row, Jeffrey R.; Thornton, Daniel H.

    2017-01-01

    Climate change threatens natural landscapes through shifting distribution and abundance of species and attendant change in the structure and function of ecosystems. However, it remains unclear how climate-mediated variation in species’ environmental niche space may lead to large-scale fragmentation of species distributions, altered meta-population dynamics and gene flow, and disrupted ecosystem integrity. Such change may be especially relevant when species distributions are restricted either spatially or to a narrow environmental niche, or when environments are rapidly changing. Here, we use range-wide environmental niche models to posit that climate-mediated range fragmentation aggravates the direct effects of climate change on species in the boreal forest of North America. We show that climate change will directly alter environmental niche suitability for boreal-obligate species of trees, birds and mammals (n = 12), with most species ranges becoming smaller and shifting northward through time. Importantly, species distributions will become increasingly fragmented, as characterized by smaller mean size and greater isolation of environmentally-suitable landscape patches. This loss is especially pronounced along the Ontario-Québec border, where the boreal forest is narrowest and roughly 78% of suitable niche space could disappear by 2080. Despite the diversity of taxa surveyed, patterns of range fragmentation are remarkably consistent, with our models predicting that spruce grouse (Dendragapus canadensis), boreal chickadee (Poecile hudsonicus), moose (Alces americanus) and caribou (Rangifer tarandus) could have entirely disjunct east-west population segments in North America. These findings reveal potentially dire consequences of climate change on population continuity and species diversity in the boreal forest, highlighting the need to better understand: 1) extent and primary drivers of anticipated climate-mediated range loss and fragmentation; 2) diversity of

  3. Intraspecific variations in dispersal ability of saproxylic beetles in fragmented forest patches.

    PubMed

    Bouget, C; Brin, A; Tellez, D; Archaux, F

    2015-03-01

    The extrapolation of metapopulation concepts to saproxylic insects suggests that the occupancy of forest patches and the colonization of ephemeral deadwood substrates are driven by micro-evolutionary processes that are related to adaptive plasticity and intraspecific sex-dependent polymorphism of dispersal traits. We hypothesized that forest fragmentation could favor more mobile individuals within populations, but little empirical data have been published on the potentially sex-biased response of insect populations to habitat availability. We selected 88 fragmented woodlots in two European agricultural landscapes to cover different degrees of spatio-temporal fragmentation, from small, isolated and recently established woodlots to large, inter-connected ancient woodlots. In line with our hypothesis, the average wing loading (WL), used as a proxy for dispersal ability, for each of nine flight-dispersing saproxylic beetle species should be lower in recent, small, isolated woodlots than in ancient, large, inter-connected woodlots, respectively (i.e. ancient vs. recent, small vs. large, isolated vs. connected). Forest patch size did not significantly influence the average dispersal ability of beetle colonizers. However, WL of one-third of the tested species did significantly respond to forest ancientness or connectivity. Significant patterns were sex-biased, probably due to the contrasting role of males and females in species colonization dynamics. WL was lower in recent than in ancient forest plots for Melandrya barbata males, and it was lower in isolated than in connected woodlots for Tetratoma ancora and Phymatodes testaceus males. Contrary to expectations, we did not observe any decrease in polymorphism of dispersal abilities with decreasing woodlot size or increasing isolation. Our findings give support to the usefulness of gender consideration in insect conservation ecology studies.

  4. Stuck in fragments: Population genetics of the Endangered collared brown lemur Eulemur collaris in the Malagasy littoral forest.

    PubMed

    Bertoncini, Stefania; D'Ercole, Jacopo; Brisighelli, Francesca; Ramanamanjato, Jean-Baptiste; Capelli, Cristian; Tofanelli, Sergio; Donati, Giuseppe

    2017-07-01

    The Endangered collared brown lemur (Eulemur collaris) is the largest primate living in the littoral forest of southeastern Madagascar, a top priority habitat for biodiversity conservation on the island. Because this lemur is a key seed-disperser, an evaluation of the structure and connectivity of the populations surviving in the forest fragments is urgently needed to guide conservation plans. Genetic variability at autosomal microsatellites and mitochondrial DNA was investigated in a total of 49 collared brown lemurs sampled by non-invasive methods in three littoral forest fragments and in the nearby lowland humid forest. The overall genetic diversity of E. collaris in the southeastern coastal region of Madagascar was lower than in other populations, as well as in other lemur species. The population appears highly structured, with less variable and more inbred groups inhabiting the littoral forest fragments compared to the inland area. Major barriers to gene flow were identified isolating littoral forest fragments from each other and from the inland lowland humid forest. Medium to long-term drift and scarce gene flow is the scenario that best explains the current genetic distribution. Habitat discontinuities such as rivers and grassland between forest fragments played a major role in structuring the population. A common history of size contraction is pointed out by several genetic estimators, indicating a possible ecological crisis triggered around 1,300 years ago. The adoption of strategies aimed at facilitating gene flow and population growth appears crucial to delay further loss of genetic diversity. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. How forest marsupials are affected by habitat degradation and fragmentation? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Fontúrbel, Francisco E; Candia, Alina B; Salazar, Daniela A; Malebrán, Javiera; González-Browne, Catalina; Botto-Mahan, Carezza

    2014-07-01

    Habitat fragmentation and degradation are important biodiversity change drivers worldwide. Their effects have been described for many animal groups, but little is known about marsupials. We conducted a meta-analysis aiming to evaluate the actual effects of habitat fragmentation and degradation on forest marsupials. From a literature survey, we obtained 85 case studies reporting disturbance comparisons. We found a negative overall effect, as well as a negative effect for habitat fragmentation, but not for habitat degradation. Marsupials from Oceania were negatively affected by habitat disturbance, whereas there was no effect for those from South America. Arboreal marsupials were negatively affected, whereas terrestrial marsupials did not. Species from the families Dasyuridae (Antechinus spp.) and Microbiotheriidae (Dromiciops gliroides) showed to be sensitive to habitat disturbance.

  6. Got Dung? Resource Selection by Dung Beetles in Neotropical Forest Fragments and Cattle Pastures.

    PubMed

    Bourg, A; Escobar, F; MacGregor-Fors, I; Moreno, C E

    2016-10-01

    Both the impact of habitat modification on the food preferences of species and its impact on ecosystem functioning are poorly understood. In this study, we analyzed food selection by dung beetles in 80 tropical forest fragments and their adjacent cattle pastures in the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve, Mexico. Ten pitfall traps were placed at each site, half baited with human dung and the other half with fish carrion. We assessed dung beetle food selection and classified any specialization in resource use quantitatively using a multinomial classification model. We collected 15,445 beetles belonging to 42 species, 8747 beetles (38 species) in forest fragments and 6698 beetles (29 species) in cattle pastures. Twenty-five species were present in both habitats. Of all the beetles captured, 76% were caught in dung traps (11,727 individuals) and 24% in carrion traps (3718 individuals). We found 21 species of dung specialists, 7 carrion specialists, 8 generalists, and 6 species too rare to classify. The bait most frequently selected by beetles in this study was dung in both forests and pastures. Specialists tended to remain specialists in both habitats, while generalists tended to change their selection of bait type depending on the habitat. In summary, our results show that replacing forests with cattle pastures modifies the patterns of resource selection by dung beetles and this could affect ecosystem functioning.

  7. Frugivorous Bats Maintain Functional Habitat Connectivity in Agricultural Landscapes but Rely Strongly on Natural Forest Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Ripperger, Simon P.; Kalko, Elisabeth K. V.; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Mayer, Frieder; Tschapka, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in land use threaten biodiversity and ecosystem functioning by the conversion of natural habitat into agricultural mosaic landscapes, often with drastic consequences for the associated fauna. The first step in the development of efficient conservation plans is to understand movement of animals through complex habitat mosaics. Therefore, we studied ranging behavior and habitat use in Dermanura watsoni (Phyllostomidae), a frugivorous bat species that is a valuable seed disperser in degraded ecosystems. Radio-tracking of sixteen bats showed that the animals strongly rely on natural forest. Day roosts were exclusively located within mature forest fragments. Selection ratios showed that the bats foraged selectively within the available habitat and positively selected natural forest. However, larger daily ranges were associated with higher use of degraded habitats. Home range geometry and composition of focal foraging areas indicated that wider ranging bats performed directional foraging bouts from natural to degraded forest sites traversing the matrix over distances of up to three hundred meters. This behavior demonstrates the potential of frugivorous bats to functionally connect fragmented areas by providing ecosystem services between natural and degraded sites, and highlights the need for conservation of natural habitat patches within agricultural landscapes that meet the roosting requirements of bats. PMID:25830222

  8. Frugivorous bats maintain functional habitat connectivity in agricultural landscapes but rely strongly on natural forest fragments.

    PubMed

    Ripperger, Simon P; Kalko, Elisabeth K V; Rodríguez-Herrera, Bernal; Mayer, Frieder; Tschapka, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic changes in land use threaten biodiversity and ecosystem functioning by the conversion of natural habitat into agricultural mosaic landscapes, often with drastic consequences for the associated fauna. The first step in the development of efficient conservation plans is to understand movement of animals through complex habitat mosaics. Therefore, we studied ranging behavior and habitat use in Dermanura watsoni (Phyllostomidae), a frugivorous bat species that is a valuable seed disperser in degraded ecosystems. Radio-tracking of sixteen bats showed that the animals strongly rely on natural forest. Day roosts were exclusively located within mature forest fragments. Selection ratios showed that the bats foraged selectively within the available habitat and positively selected natural forest. However, larger daily ranges were associated with higher use of degraded habitats. Home range geometry and composition of focal foraging areas indicated that wider ranging bats performed directional foraging bouts from natural to degraded forest sites traversing the matrix over distances of up to three hundred meters. This behavior demonstrates the potential of frugivorous bats to functionally connect fragmented areas by providing ecosystem services between natural and degraded sites, and highlights the need for conservation of natural habitat patches within agricultural landscapes that meet the roosting requirements of bats.

  9. Time-Lag in Responses of Birds to Atlantic Forest Fragmentation: Restoration Opportunity and Urgency.

    PubMed

    Uezu, Alexandre; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    There are few opportunities to evaluate the relative importance of landscape structure and dynamics upon biodiversity, especially in highly fragmented tropical landscapes. Conservation strategies and species risk evaluations often rely exclusively on current aspects of landscape structure, although such limited assumptions are known to be misleading when time-lag responses occur. By relating bird functional-group richness to forest patch size and isolation in ten-year intervals (1956, 1965, 1978, 1984, 1993 and 2003), we revealed that birds with different sensitivity to fragmentation display contrasting responses to landscape dynamics in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. For non-sensitive groups, there was no time-lag in response: the recent degree of isolation best explains their variation in richness, which likely relates to these species' flexibility to adapt to changes in landscape structure. However, for sensitive bird groups, the 1978 patch area was the best explanatory variable, providing evidence for a 25-year time-lag in response to habitat reduction. Time-lag was more likely in landscapes that encompass large patches, which can support temporarily the presence of some sensitive species, even when habitat cover is relatively low. These landscapes potentially support the most threatened populations and should be priorities for restoration efforts to avoid further species loss. Although time-lags provide an opportunity to counteract the negative consequences of fragmentation, it also reinforces the urgency of restoration actions. Fragmented landscapes will be depleted of biodiversity if landscape structure is only maintained, and not improved. The urgency of restoration action may be even higher in landscapes where habitat loss and fragmentation history is older and where no large fragment remained to act temporarily as a refuge.

  10. Time-Lag in Responses of Birds to Atlantic Forest Fragmentation: Restoration Opportunity and Urgency

    PubMed Central

    Uezu, Alexandre; Metzger, Jean Paul

    2016-01-01

    There are few opportunities to evaluate the relative importance of landscape structure and dynamics upon biodiversity, especially in highly fragmented tropical landscapes. Conservation strategies and species risk evaluations often rely exclusively on current aspects of landscape structure, although such limited assumptions are known to be misleading when time-lag responses occur. By relating bird functional-group richness to forest patch size and isolation in ten-year intervals (1956, 1965, 1978, 1984, 1993 and 2003), we revealed that birds with different sensitivity to fragmentation display contrasting responses to landscape dynamics in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. For non-sensitive groups, there was no time-lag in response: the recent degree of isolation best explains their variation in richness, which likely relates to these species’ flexibility to adapt to changes in landscape structure. However, for sensitive bird groups, the 1978 patch area was the best explanatory variable, providing evidence for a 25-year time-lag in response to habitat reduction. Time-lag was more likely in landscapes that encompass large patches, which can support temporarily the presence of some sensitive species, even when habitat cover is relatively low. These landscapes potentially support the most threatened populations and should be priorities for restoration efforts to avoid further species loss. Although time-lags provide an opportunity to counteract the negative consequences of fragmentation, it also reinforces the urgency of restoration actions. Fragmented landscapes will be depleted of biodiversity if landscape structure is only maintained, and not improved. The urgency of restoration action may be even higher in landscapes where habitat loss and fragmentation history is older and where no large fragment remained to act temporarily as a refuge. PMID:26820548

  11. [Response of the ant community to attributes of fragments and vegetation in a northeastern Atlantic Rain Forest area, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Gomes, Juliana P; Iannuzzi, Luciana; Leal, Inara R

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of forest fragmentation on ant richness in a landscape of Atlantic Forest in Northeast Brazil. More specifically, the ant richness was related to the attributes of fragments (area and distance from the fragment central point to the edge), landscape (forest cover surrounding the fragments), and tree community (plant density, richness, and percentage of shade tolerant species). The surveys were carried out in 19 fragments located in Alagoas State from October 2007 to March 2008. Samples were collected through a 300 m transect established in the center of each fragment, where 30 1-m² leaf litter samples were collected at 10 m intervals. A total of 146 ant species was collected, which belonged to 42 genera, 24 tribes and nine subfamilies. The attributes of fragments and landscape did not influence ant richness. On the other hand, tree density explained ca. 23% of ant richness. In relation to functional groups, both density and richness of trees explained the richness of general myrmicines (the whole model explained ca. 42% of the variation in this group) and percentage of shade tolerant trees explained the richness of specialist predator ants (30% for the whole model). These results indicate that ant fauna is more influenced by vegetation integrity than by fragment size, distance to edge or forest cover surrounding fragments.

  12. Fragmentation and management of Ethiopian moist evergreen forest drive compositional shifts of insect communities visiting wild Arabica coffee flowers.

    PubMed

    Berecha, Gezahegn; Aerts, Raf; Muys, Bart; Honnay, Olivier

    2015-02-01

    Coffea arabica is an indigenous understorey shrub of the moist evergreen Afromontane forest of SW Ethiopia. Coffee cultivation here occurs under different forest management intensities, ranging from almost no intervention in the 'forest coffee' system to far-reaching interventions that include the removal of competing shrubs and selective thinning of the upper canopy in the 'semi-forest coffee' system. We investigated whether increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation result in impacts upon potential coffee pollination services through examining shifts in insect communities that visit coffee flowers. Overall, we netted 2,976 insect individuals on C. arabica flowers, belonging to sixteen taxonomic groups, comprising 10 insect orders. Taxonomic richness of the flower-visiting insects significantly decreased and pollinator community changed with increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation. The relative abundance of honey bees significantly increased with increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation, likely resulting from the introduction of bee hives in the most intensively managed forests. The impoverishment of the insect communities through increased forest management intensity and fragmentation potentially decreases the resilience of the coffee production system as pollination increasingly relies on honey bees alone. This may negatively affect coffee productivity in the long term as global pollination services by managed honey bees are expected to decline under current climate change scenarios. Coffee agroforestry management practices should urgently integrate pollinator conservation measures.

  13. Fragmentation and Management of Ethiopian Moist Evergreen Forest Drive Compositional Shifts of Insect Communities Visiting Wild Arabica Coffee Flowers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berecha, Gezahegn; Aerts, Raf; Muys, Bart; Honnay, Olivier

    2015-02-01

    Coffea arabica is an indigenous understorey shrub of the moist evergreen Afromontane forest of SW Ethiopia. Coffee cultivation here occurs under different forest management intensities, ranging from almost no intervention in the `forest coffee' system to far-reaching interventions that include the removal of competing shrubs and selective thinning of the upper canopy in the `semi-forest coffee' system. We investigated whether increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation result in impacts upon potential coffee pollination services through examining shifts in insect communities that visit coffee flowers. Overall, we netted 2,976 insect individuals on C. arabica flowers, belonging to sixteen taxonomic groups, comprising 10 insect orders. Taxonomic richness of the flower-visiting insects significantly decreased and pollinator community changed with increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation. The relative abundance of honey bees significantly increased with increasing forest management intensity and fragmentation, likely resulting from the introduction of bee hives in the most intensively managed forests. The impoverishment of the insect communities through increased forest management intensity and fragmentation potentially decreases the resilience of the coffee production system as pollination increasingly relies on honey bees alone. This may negatively affect coffee productivity in the long term as global pollination services by managed honey bees are expected to decline under current climate change scenarios. Coffee agroforestry management practices should urgently integrate pollinator conservation measures.

  14. Determining coniferous forest cover and forest fragmentation with NOAA-9 advanced very high resolution radiometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ripple, William J.

    1995-01-01

    NOAA-9 satellite data from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) were used in conjunction with Landsat Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data to determine the proportion of closed canopy conifer forest cover in the Cascade Range of Oregon. A closed canopy conifer map, as determined from the MSS, was registered with AVHRR pixels. Regression was used to relate closed canopy conifer forest cover to AVHRR spectral data. A two-variable (band) regression model accounted for more variance in conifer cover than the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI). The spectral signatures of various conifer successional stages were also examined. A map of Oregon was produced showing the proportion of closed canopy conifer cover for each AVHRR pixel. The AVHRR was responsive to both the percentage of closed canopy conifer cover and the successional stage in these temperate coniferous forests in this experiment.

  15. Sleeping Sites and Latrines of Spider Monkeys in Continuous and Fragmented Rainforests: Implications for Seed Dispersal and Forest Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    González-Zamora, Arturo; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Oyama, Ken; Sork, Victoria; Chapman, Colin A.; Stoner, Kathryn E.

    2012-01-01

    Spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) use sites composed of one or more trees for sleeping (sleeping sites and sleeping trees, respectively). Beneath these sites/trees they deposit copious amounts of dung in latrines. This behavior results in a clumped deposition pattern of seeds and nutrients that directly impacts the regeneration of tropical forests. Therefore, information on the density and spatial distribution of sleeping sites and latrines, and the characteristics (i.e., composition and structure) of sleeping trees are needed to improve our understanding of the ecological significance of spider monkeys in influencing forest composition. Moreover, since primate populations are increasingly forced to inhabit fragmented landscapes, it is important to assess if these characteristics differ between continuous and fragmented forests. We assessed this novel information from eight independent spider monkey communities in the Lacandona rainforest, Mexico: four continuous forest sites and four forest fragments. Both the density of sleeping sites and latrines did not differ between forest conditions. Latrines were uniformly distributed across sleeping sites, but the spatial distribution of sleeping sites within the areas was highly variable, being particularly clumped in forest fragments. In fact, the average inter-latrine distances were almost double in continuous forest than in fragments. Latrines were located beneath only a few tree species, and these trees were larger in diameter in continuous than fragmented forests. Because latrines may represent hotspots of seedling recruitment, our results have important ecological and conservation implications. The variation in the spatial distribution of sleeping sites across the forest indicates that spider monkeys likely create a complex seed deposition pattern in space and time. However, the use of a very few tree species for sleeping could contribute to the establishment of specific vegetation associations typical of the

  16. Sleeping sites and latrines of spider monkeys in continuous and fragmented rainforests: implications for seed dispersal and forest regeneration.

    PubMed

    González-Zamora, Arturo; Arroyo-Rodríguez, Víctor; Oyama, Ken; Sork, Victoria; Chapman, Colin A; Stoner, Kathryn E

    2012-01-01

    Spider monkeys (Ateles geoffroyi) use sites composed of one or more trees for sleeping (sleeping sites and sleeping trees, respectively). Beneath these sites/trees they deposit copious amounts of dung in latrines. This behavior results in a clumped deposition pattern of seeds and nutrients that directly impacts the regeneration of tropical forests. Therefore, information on the density and spatial distribution of sleeping sites and latrines, and the characteristics (i.e., composition and structure) of sleeping trees are needed to improve our understanding of the ecological significance of spider monkeys in influencing forest composition. Moreover, since primate populations are increasingly forced to inhabit fragmented landscapes, it is important to assess if these characteristics differ between continuous and fragmented forests. We assessed this novel information from eight independent spider monkey communities in the Lacandona rainforest, Mexico: four continuous forest sites and four forest fragments. Both the density of sleeping sites and latrines did not differ between forest conditions. Latrines were uniformly distributed across sleeping sites, but the spatial distribution of sleeping sites within the areas was highly variable, being particularly clumped in forest fragments. In fact, the average inter-latrine distances were almost double in continuous forest than in fragments. Latrines were located beneath only a few tree species, and these trees were larger in diameter in continuous than fragmented forests. Because latrines may represent hotspots of seedling recruitment, our results have important ecological and conservation implications. The variation in the spatial distribution of sleeping sites across the forest indicates that spider monkeys likely create a complex seed deposition pattern in space and time. However, the use of a very few tree species for sleeping could contribute to the establishment of specific vegetation associations typical of the

  17. Temporal bird community dynamics are strongly affected by landscape fragmentation in a Central American tropical forest region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blandón, A.C.; Perelman, S.B.; Ramírez, M.; López, A.; Javier, O.; Robbins, Chandler S.

    2016-01-01

    Habitat loss and fragmentation are considered the main causes of species extinctions, particularly in tropical ecosystems. The objective of this work was to evaluate the temporal dynamics of tropical bird communities in landscapes with different levels of fragmentation in eastern Guatemala. We evaluated five bird community dynamic parameters for forest specialists and generalists: (1) species extinction, (2) species turnover, (3) number of colonizing species, (4) relative species richness, and (5) a homogeneity index. For each of 24 landscapes, community dynamic parameters were estimated from bird point count data, for the 1998–1999 and 2008–2009 periods, accounting for species’ detection probability. Forest specialists had higher extinction rates and a smaller number of colonizing species in landscapes with higher fragmentation, thus having lower species richness in both time periods. Alternatively, forest generalists elicited a completely different pattern, showing a curvilinear association to forest fragmentation for most parameters. Thus, greater community dynamism for forest generalists was shown in landscapes with intermediate levels of fragmentation. Our study supports general theory regarding the expected negative effects of habitat loss and fragmentation on the temporal dynamics of biotic communities, particularly for forest specialists, providing strong evidence from understudied tropical bird communities.

  18. Habitat fragmentation leads to reduced pollinator visitation, fruit production and recruitment in urban mangrove forests.

    PubMed

    Hermansen, Tyge D; Minchinton, Todd E; Ayre, David J

    2017-09-08

    Mangrove forests worldwide undergo anthropogenic fragmentation that may threaten their existence, and yet there have been few tests of the effects of fragmentation on demographic processes critical for mangrove regeneration. Predicting the effects of habitat fragmentation on mangroves is problematic as pollinators may move more freely across water than terrestrial habitat, and propagules can be widely dispersed by water. Here, within each of two estuaries, we compared pollinator diversity and activity, reproductive effort and output, and rates of recruitment for sets of three large (>1500 trees), medium (300-500) and small (<50) stands. As predicted, most measures of reproductive activity and success were inversely related to stand size with large stands typically producing significantly more and larger fruit, and significantly more seedlings. Most strikingly, we found the effect of fragmentation on the abundance of pollinators (honeybees), the production and quality of fruit and the survival rate of seedlings to be similar, showing significant reduction of recruitment in small stands. This study provides the first rigorous evidence that recruitment of mangroves, like for many terrestrial plants, is negatively impacted by habitat fragmentation. From a management perspective, we argue that in the short term our data imply the importance of conserving the largest possible stands. However, additional work is needed to determine (1) the proportion of recruits within small stands that originate within large stands, (2) how seedling performance varies with fruit size and genotype, and (3) how seedling size and performance vary with the abundance and diversity of pollen.

  19. Efficiency of playback for assessing the occurrence of five bird species in Brazilian Atlantic Forest fragments.

    PubMed

    Boscolo, Danilo; Metzger, Jean Paul; Vielliard, Jacques M E

    2006-12-01

    Playback of bird songs is a useful technique for species detection; however, this method is usually not standardized. We tested playback efficiency for five Atlantic Forest birds (White-browed Warbler Basileuterus leucoblepharus, Giant Antshrike Batara cinerea, Swallow-tailed Manakin Chiroxiphia caudata, Whiteshouldered Fire-eye Pyriglena leucoptera and Surucua Trogon Trogon surrucura) for different time of the day, season of the year and species abundance at the Morro Grande Forest Reserve (South-eastern Brazil) and at thirteen forest fragments in a nearby landscape. Vocalizations were broadcasted monthly at sunrise, noon and sunset, during one year. For B. leucoblepharus, C. caudata and T. surrucura, sunrise and noon were more efficient than sunset. Batara cinerea presented higher efficiency from July to October. Playback expanded the favourable period for avifaunal surveys in tropical forest, usually restricted to early morning in the breeding season. The playback was efficient in detecting the presence of all species when the abundance was not too low. But only B. leucoblepharus and T. surrucura showed abundance values significantly related to this efficiency. The present study provided a precise indication of the best daily and seasonal periods and a confidence interval to maximize the efficiency of playback to detect the occurrence of these forest species.

  20. The effects of forest fragmentation on biodiversity under post-drought conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawrence, A.; Swei, A.

    2016-12-01

    Habitat fragmentation is the greatest threat to wildlife worldwide. Understanding the impact of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity can benefit from theories established in island biogeography. Landscapes surrounded by human development are analogous to oceanic islands in that the size of habitat fragment can determine biodiversity. For terrestrial ecosystems, species traits can influence how they respond to the disturbance of habitat fragmentation. We tested how habitat patch size correlates to species richness and abundance of mammals in northern California in a post-drought environment. Using GIS and Fragstat we established nine forest fragments of varying size, differing minimally in location, topography, climate, and vegetation cover. This allows us to minimize site differences to test the effects of patch size on biodiversity. We used wildlife cameras to estimate richness of medium and large mammals and mark-and-recapture analysis to estimate species richness and abundance of small mammals. We also collected ticks with standard dragging and flagging techniques to determine the relationship between habitat patch size and species richness on Lyme disease risk. Our preliminary results indicate that meso-and-large mammal richness increases significantly with patch area (P=0.024) as well as larval tick density (P=0.035). At the same time, small mammal richness, abundance and diversity peaks in intermediate sized fragments. Further we found invasive species such as house mouse, Norway rat, and black rat only in patches smaller than 50 ha. Our results support the theory that invasive species are better adapted to disturbed areas versus native habitat. The ways in which habitat destruction and fragmentation are acting upon species and communities has critical consequences for conservation, ecosystem services, landscape planning, and many fields of environmental change research.

  1. Habitat Fragmentation can Modulate Drought Effects on the Plant-soil-microbial System in Mediterranean Holm Oak (Quercus ilex) Forests.

    PubMed

    Flores-Rentería, Dulce; Curiel Yuste, Jorge; Rincón, Ana; Brearley, Francis Q; García-Gil, Juan Carlos; Valladares, Fernando

    2015-05-01

    Ecological transformations derived from habitat fragmentation have led to increased threats to above-ground biodiversity. However, the impacts of forest fragmentation on soils and their microbial communities are not well understood. We examined the effects of contrasting fragment sizes on the structure and functioning of soil microbial communities from holm oak forest patches in two bioclimatically different regions of Spain. We used a microcosm approach to simulate the annual summer drought cycle and first autumn rainfall (rewetting), evaluating the functional response of a plant-soil-microbial system. Forest fragment size had a significant effect on physicochemical characteristics and microbial functioning of soils, although the diversity and structure of microbial communities were not affected. The response of our plant-soil-microbial systems to drought was strongly modulated by the bioclimatic conditions and the fragment size from where the soils were obtained. Decreasing fragment size modulated the effects of drought by improving local environmental conditions with higher water and nutrient availability. However, this modulation was stronger for plant-soil-microbial systems built with soils from the northern region (colder and wetter) than for those built with soils from the southern region (warmer and drier) suggesting that the responsiveness of the soil-plant-microbial system to habitat fragmentation was strongly dependent on both the physicochemical characteristics of soils and the historical adaptation of soil microbial communities to specific bioclimatic conditions. This interaction challenges our understanding of future global change scenarios in Mediterranean ecosystems involving drier conditions and increased frequency of forest fragmentation.

  2. Does avian species richness in natural patch mosaics follow the forest fragmentation paradigm?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pavlacky, D.C.; Anderson, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    As one approaches the north-eastern limit of pinyon (Pinus spp.) juniper (Juniperus spp.) vegetation on the Colorado Plateau, USA, woodland patches become increasingly disjunct, grading into sagebrush (Artemisia spp.)-dominated landscapes. Patterns of avian species richness in naturally heterogeneous forests may or may not respond to patch discontinuity in the same manner as bird assemblages in fragmented agricultural systems. We used observational data from naturally patchy woodlands and predictions derived from studies of human-modified agricultural forests to estimate the effects of patch area, shape, isolation and distance to contiguous woodland on avian species richness. We predicted that patterns of species richness in naturally patchy juniper woodlands would differ from those observed in fragmented agricultural systems. Our objectives were to (1) estimate the effect of naturally occurring patch structure on avian species richness with respect to habitat affinity and migratory strategy and (2) assess the concordance of the effects to predictions from agricultural forest systems. We used the analogy between populations and communities to estimate species richness, where species are treated as individuals in the application of traditional capture-recapture theory. Information-theoretic model selection showed that overall species richness was explained primarily by the species area relationship. There was some support for a model with greater complexity than the equilibrium theory of island biogeography where the isolation of large patches resulted in greater species richness. Species richness of woodland-dwelling birds was best explained by the equilibrium hypothesis with partial landscape complementation by open-country species in isolated patches. Species richness within specific migratory strategies showed concomitant increases and no shifts in species composition along the patch area gradient. Our results indicate that many patterns of species richness

  3. Effects of fragmentation and sea-level changes upon frog communities of land-bridge islands off the southeastern coast of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Bittencourt-Silva, Gabriela B; Silva, Hélio R

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the composition of anuran communities of land-bridge islands off the southeastern coast of Brazil. These islands provide natural long-term experiments on the effects of fragmentation in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest (BAF). We hypothesize that Pleistocene sea-level changes, in combination with other abiotic variables such as area and habitat diversity, has affected anuran species richness and community composition on these islands. Data from the literature and collections databases were used to produce species lists for eight land-bridge islands and for the mainland adjacent to the islands. We assess the effects of area, number of breeding habitats and distance to the mainland upon anuran species richness on land-bridge islands. Additionally we use nestedness analysis to quantify the extent to which the species on smaller and less habitat-diverse islands correspond to subsets of those on larger and more diverse ones. We found that area has both direct and indirect effects on anuran species richness on land-bridge islands, irrespective of distance to the mainland. However, on islands with comparable sizes, differences in species richness can be attributed to the number and quality of breeding habitats. Anuran communities on these islands display a nested pattern, possibly caused by selective extinction related to habitat loss. Common lowland pond-breeders were conspicuous by their absence. In the BAF, the conservation of fragments with a high diversity of breeding habitats could compensate for the generally negative effect of small area upon species richness. We suggest that sea-level changes have an important role in shaping composition of anuran species on coastal communities.

  4. Loggers and Forest Fragmentation: Behavioral Models of Road Building in the Amazon Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arima, Eugenio Y.; Walker, Robert T.; Perz, Stephen G.; Caldas, Marcellus

    2005-01-01

    Although a large literature now exists on the drivers of tropical deforestation, less is known about its spatial manifestation. This is a critical shortcoming in our knowledge base since the spatial pattern of land-cover change and forest fragmentation, in particular, strongly affect biodiversity. The purpose of this article is to consider emergent patterns of road networks, the initial proximate cause of fragmentation in tropical forest frontiers. Specifically, we address the road-building processes of loggers who are very active in the Amazon landscape. To this end, we develop an explanation of road expansions, using a positive approach combining a theoretical model of economic behavior with geographic information systems (GIs) software in order to mimic the spatial decisions of road builders. We simulate two types of road extensions commonly found in the Amazon basin in a region: showing the fishbone pattern of fragmentation. Although our simulation results are only partially successful, they call attention to the role of multiple agents in the landscape, the importance of legal and institutional constraints on economic behavior, and the power of GIs as a research tool.

  5. Loggers and Forest Fragmentation: Behavioral Models of Road Building in the Amazon Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arima, Eugenio Y.; Walker, Robert T.; Perz, Stephen G.; Caldas, Marcellus

    2005-01-01

    Although a large literature now exists on the drivers of tropical deforestation, less is known about its spatial manifestation. This is a critical shortcoming in our knowledge base since the spatial pattern of land-cover change and forest fragmentation, in particular, strongly affect biodiversity. The purpose of this article is to consider emergent patterns of road networks, the initial proximate cause of fragmentation in tropical forest frontiers. Specifically, we address the road-building processes of loggers who are very active in the Amazon landscape. To this end, we develop an explanation of road expansions, using a positive approach combining a theoretical model of economic behavior with geographic information systems (GIs) software in order to mimic the spatial decisions of road builders. We simulate two types of road extensions commonly found in the Amazon basin in a region: showing the fishbone pattern of fragmentation. Although our simulation results are only partially successful, they call attention to the role of multiple agents in the landscape, the importance of legal and institutional constraints on economic behavior, and the power of GIs as a research tool.

  6. Higher temporal variability of forest breeding bird communities in fragmented landscapes

    PubMed Central

    Boulinier, Thierry; Nichols, James D.; Hines, James E.; Sauer, John R.; Flather, Curtis H.; Pollock, Kenneth H.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between animal community dynamics and landscape structure has become a priority for biodiversity conservation. In particular, predicting the effects of habitat destruction that confine species to networks of small patches is an important prerequisite to conservation plan development. Theoretical models that predict the occurrence of species in fragmented landscapes, and relationships between stability and diversity do exist. However, reliable empirical investigations of the dynamics of biodiversity have been prevented by differences in species detection probabilities among landscapes. Using long-term data sampled at a large spatial scale in conjunction with a capture-recapture approach, we developed estimates of parameters of community changes over a 22-year period for forest breeding birds in selected areas of the eastern United States. We show that forest fragmentation was associated not only with a reduced number of forest bird species, but also with increased temporal variability in the number of species. This higher temporal variability was associated with higher local extinction and turnover rates. These results have major conservation implications. Moreover, the approach used provides a practical tool for the study of the dynamics of biodiversity. PMID:9636178

  7. An Experimental Test of Competition among Mice, Chipmunks, and Squirrels in Deciduous Forest Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, Jesse L.; Duerr, Shannon; Keesing, Felicia; Killilea, Mary; Vuong, Holly; Ostfeld, Richard S.

    2013-01-01

    Mixed hardwood forests of the northeast United States support a guild of granivorous/omnivorous rodents including gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis), eastern chipmunks (Tamias striatus), and white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus). These species coincide geographically, co-occur locally, and consume similar food resources. Despite their idiosyncratic responses to landscape and patch variables, patch occupancy models suggest that competition may influence their respective distributions and abundances, and accordingly their influence on the rest of the forest community. Experimental studies, however, are wanting. We present the result of a large-scale experiment in which we removed white-footed mice or gray squirrels from small, isolated forest fragments in Dutchess County, New York, and added these mammals to other fragments in order to alter the abundance of these two species. We then used mark–recapture analyses to quantify the population-level and individual-level effects on resident mice, squirrels, and chipmunks. Overall, we found little evidence of competition. There were essentially no within-season numerical responses to changes in the abundance of putative competitors. Moreover, while individual-level responses (apparent survival and capture probability) did vary with competitor densities in some models, these effects were often better explained by site-specific parameters and were restricted to few of the 19 sites we studied. With only weak or nonexistent competition among these three common rodent species, we expect their patterns of habitat occupancy and population dynamics to be largely independent of one another. PMID:23824654

  8. Higher temporal variability of forest breeding bird communities in fragmented landscapes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boulinier, T.; Nichols, J.D.; Hines, J.E.; Sauer, J.R.; Flather, C.H.; Pollock, K.H.

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between animal community dynamics and landscape structure has become a priority for biodiversity conservation. In particular, predicting the effects of habitat destruction that confine species to networks of small patches is an important prerequisite to conservation plan development. Theoretical models that predict the occurrence of species in fragmented landscapes, and relationships between stability and diversity do exist. However, reliable empirical investigations of the dynamics of biodiversity have been prevented by differences in species detection probabilities among landscapes. Using long-term data sampled at a large spatial scale in conjunction with a capture-recapture approach, we developed estimates of parameters of community changes over a 22-year period for forest breeding birds in selected areas of the eastern United States. We show that forest fragmentation was associated not only with a reduced number of forest bird species, but also with increased temporal variability in the number of species. This higher temporal variability was associated with higher local extinction and turnover rates. These results have major conservation implications. Moreover, the approach used provides a practical tool for the study of the dynamics of biodiversity.

  9. Impacts of forest fragmentation on species richness: a hierarchical approach to community modelling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zipkin, Elise F.; DeWan, Amielle; Royle, J. Andrew

    2009-01-01

    1. Species richness is often used as a tool for prioritizing conservation action. One method for predicting richness and other summaries of community structure is to develop species-specific models of occurrence probability based on habitat or landscape characteristics. However, this approach can be challenging for rare or elusive species for which survey data are often sparse. 2. Recent developments have allowed for improved inference about community structure based on species-specific models of occurrence probability, integrated within a hierarchical modelling framework. This framework offers advantages to inference about species richness over typical approaches by accounting for both species-level effects and the aggregated effects of landscape composition on a community as a whole, thus leading to increased precision in estimates of species richness by improving occupancy estimates for all species, including those that were observed infrequently. 3. We developed a hierarchical model to assess the community response of breeding birds in the Hudson River Valley, New York, to habitat fragmentation and analysed the model using a Bayesian approach. 4. The model was designed to estimate species-specific occurrence and the effects of fragment area and edge (as measured through the perimeter and the perimeter/area ratio, P/A), while accounting for imperfect detection of species. 5. We used the fitted model to make predictions of species richness within forest fragments of variable morphology. The model revealed that species richness of the observed bird community was maximized in small forest fragments with a high P/A. However, the number of forest interior species, a subset of the community with high conservation value, was maximized in large fragments with low P/A. 6. Synthesis and applications. Our results demonstrate the importance of understanding the responses of both individual, and groups of species, to environmental heterogeneity while illustrating the utility

  10. Contrasting Patterns of Species Richness and Functional Diversity in Bird Communities of East African Cloud Forest Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Ulrich, Werner; Lens, Luc; Tobias, Joseph A.; Habel, Jan C.

    2016-01-01

    Rapid fragmentation and degradation of large undisturbed habitats constitute major threats to biodiversity. Several studies have shown that populations in small and highly isolated habitat patches are prone to strong environmental and demographic stochasticity and increased risk of extinction. Based on community assembly theory, we predict recent rapid forest fragmentation to cause a decline in species and functional guild richness of forest birds combined with a high species turnover among habitat patches, and well defined dominance structures, if competition is the major driver of community assembly. To test these predictions, we analysed species co-occurrence, nestedness, and competitive strength to infer effects of interspecific competition, habitat structure, and species′ traits on the assembly of bird species communities from 12 cloud forest fragments in southern Kenya. Our results do not point to a single ecological driver of variation in species composition. Interspecific competition does not appear to be a major driver of species segregation in small forest patches, while its relative importance appears to be higher in larger ones, which may be indicative for a generic shift from competition-dominated to colonisation-driven community structure with decreasing fragment size. Functional trait diversity was independent of fragment size after controlling for species richness. As fragmentation effects vary among feeding guilds and habitat generalists, in particular, tend to decline in low quality forest patches, we plead for taking species ecology fully into account when predicting tropical community responses to habitat change. PMID:27855174

  11. Contrasting Patterns of Species Richness and Functional Diversity in Bird Communities of East African Cloud Forest Fragments.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Werner; Lens, Luc; Tobias, Joseph A; Habel, Jan C

    2016-01-01

    Rapid fragmentation and degradation of large undisturbed habitats constitute major threats to biodiversity. Several studies have shown that populations in small and highly isolated habitat patches are prone to strong environmental and demographic stochasticity and increased risk of extinction. Based on community assembly theory, we predict recent rapid forest fragmentation to cause a decline in species and functional guild richness of forest birds combined with a high species turnover among habitat patches, and well defined dominance structures, if competition is the major driver of community assembly. To test these predictions, we analysed species co-occurrence, nestedness, and competitive strength to infer effects of interspecific competition, habitat structure, and species' traits on the assembly of bird species communities from 12 cloud forest fragments in southern Kenya. Our results do not point to a single ecological driver of variation in species composition. Interspecific competition does not appear to be a major driver of species segregation in small forest patches, while its relative importance appears to be higher in larger ones, which may be indicative for a generic shift from competition-dominated to colonisation-driven community structure with decreasing fragment size. Functional trait diversity was independent of fragment size after controlling for species richness. As fragmentation effects vary among feeding guilds and habitat generalists, in particular, tend to decline in low quality forest patches, we plead for taking species ecology fully into account when predicting tropical community responses to habitat change.

  12. Deforestation and fragmentation of natural forests in the upper Changhua watershed, Hainan, China: implications for biodiversity conservation.

    PubMed

    Zhai, De-Li; Cannon, Charles H; Dai, Zhi-Cong; Zhang, Cui-Ping; Xu, Jian-Chu

    2015-01-01

    Hainan, the largest tropical island in China, belongs to the Indo-Burma biodiversity hotspot. The Changhua watershed is a center of endemism for plants and birds and the cradle of Hainan's main rivers. However, this area has experienced recent and ongoing deforestation and habitat fragmentation. To quantify habitat loss and fragmentation of natural forests, as well as the land-cover changes in the Changhua watershed, we analyzed Landsat images obtained in 1988, 1995, and 2005. Land-cover dynamics analysis showed that natural forests increased in area (97,909 to 104,023 ha) from 1988 to 1995 but decreased rapidly to 76,306 ha over the next decade. Rubber plantations increased steadily throughout the study period while pulp plantations rapidly expanded after 1995. Similar patterns of land cover change were observed in protected areas, indicating a lack of enforcement. Natural forests conversion to rubber and pulp plantations has a general negative effect on biodiversity, primarily through habitat fragmentation. The fragmentation analysis showed that natural forests area was reduced and patch number increased, while patch size and connectivity decreased. These land-cover changes threatened local biodiversity, especially island endemic species. Both natural forests losses and fragmentation should be stopped by strict enforcement to prevent further damage. Preserving the remaining natural forests and enforcing the status of protected areas should be a management priority to maximize the watershed's biodiversity conservation value.

  13. Habitat Degradation and Seasonality Affect Physiological Stress Levels of Eulemur collaris in Littoral Forest Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Balestri, Michela; Barresi, Marta; Campera, Marco; Serra, Valentina; Ramanamanjato, Jean Baptiste; Heistermann, Michael; Donati, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The littoral forest on sandy soil is among the most threatened habitats in Madagascar and, as such, it represents a hot-spot within a conservation hot-spot. Assessing the health of the resident lemur fauna is not only critical for the long-term viability of these populations, but also necessary for the future re-habilitation of this unique habitat. Since the Endangered collared brown lemur, Eulemur collaris, is the largest seed disperser of the Malagasy south-eastern littoral forest its survival in this habitat is crucial. In this study we compared fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels, a measure of physiological stress and potential early indicator of population health, between groups of collared brown lemurs living in a degraded forest fragment and groups occurring in a more preserved area. For this, we analysed 279 fecal samples collected year-round from 4 groups of collared brown lemurs using a validated 11-oxoetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay and tested if fGCM levels were influenced by reproductive stages, phenological seasons, sex, and habitat degradation. The lemurs living in the degraded forest had significantly higher fGCM levels than those living in the more preserved area. In particular, the highest fGCM levels were found during the mating season in all animals and in females during gestation in the degraded forest. Since mating and gestation are both occurring during the lean season in the littoral forest, these results likely reflect a combination of ecological and reproductive pressures. Our findings provide a clear indication that habitat degradation has additive effects to the challenges found in the natural habitat. Since increased stress hormone output may have long-term negative effects on population health and reproduction, our data emphasize the need for and may add to the development of effective conservation plans for the species. PMID:25229944

  14. Habitat degradation and seasonality affect physiological stress levels of Eulemur collaris in littoral forest fragments.

    PubMed

    Balestri, Michela; Barresi, Marta; Campera, Marco; Serra, Valentina; Ramanamanjato, Jean Baptiste; Heistermann, Michael; Donati, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    The littoral forest on sandy soil is among the most threatened habitats in Madagascar and, as such, it represents a hot-spot within a conservation hot-spot. Assessing the health of the resident lemur fauna is not only critical for the long-term viability of these populations, but also necessary for the future re-habilitation of this unique habitat. Since the Endangered collared brown lemur, Eulemur collaris, is the largest seed disperser of the Malagasy south-eastern littoral forest its survival in this habitat is crucial. In this study we compared fecal glucocorticoid metabolite (fGCM) levels, a measure of physiological stress and potential early indicator of population health, between groups of collared brown lemurs living in a degraded forest fragment and groups occurring in a more preserved area. For this, we analysed 279 fecal samples collected year-round from 4 groups of collared brown lemurs using a validated 11-oxoetiocholanolone enzyme immunoassay and tested if fGCM levels were influenced by reproductive stages, phenological seasons, sex, and habitat degradation. The lemurs living in the degraded forest had significantly higher fGCM levels than those living in the more preserved area. In particular, the highest fGCM levels were found during the mating season in all animals and in females during gestation in the degraded forest. Since mating and gestation are both occurring during the lean season in the littoral forest, these results likely reflect a combination of ecological and reproductive pressures. Our findings provide a clear indication that habitat degradation has additive effects to the challenges found in the natural habitat. Since increased stress hormone output may have long-term negative effects on population health and reproduction, our data emphasize the need for and may add to the development of effective conservation plans for the species.

  15. Removal rates of native and exotic dung by dung beetles (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae) in a fragmented tropical rain forest.

    PubMed

    Amézquita, Sandra; Favila, Mario E

    2010-04-01

    Many studies have evaluated the effect of forest fragmentation on dung beetle assemblage structure. However, few have analyzed how forest fragmentation affects the processes carried out by these insects in tropical forests where their food sources consist mainly of dung produced by native herbivore mammals. With the conversion of forests to pastures, cattle dung has become an exotic alternative and abundant food for dung beetles. This study compares dung removal rates of native (monkey) and exotic (cow) dung in different-sized fragments of tropical rain forests, during the dry and rainy seasons at the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve. Dung removal rates were affected by season, dung type, and the interaction between resource type and season. During the dry season, the removal rates of monkey dung were somewhat similar than during the rainy season, whereas the removal rates of cow dung were much higher during the rainy season. Dung beetle biomass and species richness were almost three times greater in monkey dung than in cow dung. Monkey dung attracted species belonging to the dweller, roller, and tunneler guilds; cow dung attracted mostly tunnelers. Therefore, the use of exotic dung may result in a biased misconception of the rates of dung removal in tropical forest and an underestimation of dung beetle diversity. This study highlights the importance of working with natural tropical forest resources when attempting to identify realistic tendencies concerning processes in natural habitats and those modified by fragmentation and by other human activities.

  16. Phylogeography of four frog species in forest fragments of northeastern Brazil--a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Carnaval, Ana Carolina O Q

    2002-11-01

    I contrast mitochondrial DNA genealogies based on 612 bp of the cytochrome b gene across four co-distributed species of frogs in Northeastern Brazil. They are Hyla albomarginata, Hyla branneri, Proceratophrys boiei, and Scinax nebulosus. Samples were collected from the core or edge of six rainforest remnants in the states of Pernambuco and Alagoas. Three fragments are located within the humid Atlantic Forest morphoclimatic domain (municipalities of Cabo de Santo Agostinho, Ibateguara, and Jaqueira), two are located in the transition zone between the Atlantic Forest domain and the semi-arid Caatinga (Caruaru and Timbaúba), and one is found within the Caatinga (Brejo da Madre de Deus). Results show that local patterns and levels of genetic diversity are influenced by taxon-specific habitat requirements. Populations of the montane, closed-canopy species P. boiei show strong geographical structure, reflecting barriers to gene flow that predate human-driven habitat destruction. Species occurring along forest edges, such as H. albomarginata and S. nebulosus, show genetic patterns similar to those of P. boiei, but lower levels of genetic divergence. The more generalist Hyla branneri shows no geographic pattern. The data are in agreement with distribution and fossil data gathered for other groups of organisms, suggesting that mesic forests occupied the currently arid Caatinga in the recent past.

  17. Forest fragmentation genetics in a formerly widespread island endemic tree: Vateriopsis seychellarum (Dipterocarpaceae).

    PubMed

    Finger, A; Kettle, C J; Kaiser-Bunbury, C N; Valentin, T; Mougal, J; Ghazoul, J

    2012-05-01

    Habitat fragmentation and changed land use have seriously reduced population size in many tropical forest tree species. Formerly widespread species with limited gene flow may be particularly vulnerable to the negative genetic effects of forest fragmentation and small population size. Vateriopsis seychellarum (Dipterocarpaceae) is a formerly widespread canopy tree of the Seychelles, but is now reduced to 132 adult individuals distributed in eleven sites. Using ten microsatellite loci, a genetic inventory of all adult trees and a sample of 317 progeny, we demonstrate that despite its restricted range, overall genetic diversity was relatively high (H(E) : 0.56). The juvenile cohort, however, had significantly lower allelic richness (adults R(S) : 3.91; juveniles R(S) : 2.83) and observed heterozygosity than adult trees (adults H(O) : 0.62; juveniles H(O) : 0.48). Rare alleles were fewer and kinship between individuals was stronger in juveniles. Significant fine-scale spatial genetic structure was observed in remnant adults, and parentage analysis indicated that more than 90% of sampled progeny disperse <25 m and pollen dispersed <50 m. The molecular data confirmed that two populations were derived entirely from self-fertilized offspring from a single surviving mother tree. These populations produce viable offspring. Despite this extreme genetic bottleneck, self-compatibility may provide V. seychellarum with some resistance to the genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation, at least in the short term. We discuss our findings in the context of other rare and threatened dipterocarp species which are vulnerable to miss-management of genetic resources and population fragmentation. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Mites associated with sugarcane crop and with native trees from adjacent Atlantic forest fragment in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Duarte, Mércia E; Navia, Denise; dos Santos, Lucas R; Rideiqui, Pedro J S; Silva, Edmilson S

    2015-08-01

    In some Brazilian regions the Atlantic forest biome is currently restrict to fragments occurring amid monocultures, as sugarcane crops in the Northeast region. Important influence of forest remnants over mite fauna of permanent crops have been showed, however it has been poorly explored on annual crops. The first step for understanding ecological relationship in an agricultural systems is known its composition. The objective of this study was to investigate the plant-inhabiting mite fauna associated with sugarcane crop (Saccharum officinarum L.) (Poaceae) and caboatã (Cupania oblongifolia Mart.) (Sapindaceae) trees in the state of Alagoas, Brazil. Sugarcane stalks and sugarcane and caboatã apical, middle and basal leaves were sampled. A total of 2565 mites were collected from sugarcane and classified into seven families of Trombidiformes and Mesostigmata orders, with most individuals belonging to the Eriophyidae, Tetranychidae and Tarsonemidae families. Among predatory mites, the Phytoseiidae were the most common. A total of 1878 mites were found on C. oblongifolia and classified into 13 families of Trombidiformes and Mesostigmata orders. The most abundant phytophagous mite family on caboatã was also Eriophyidae. In contrast to sugarcane, Ascidae was the most common predatory mite family observed in caboatã. No phytophagous species were common to both sugarcane and C. oblongifolia. However two predatory mites were shared between host plants. Although mites associated with only one native species in the forest fragment were evaluated in this study, our preliminary results suggest Atlantic forest native vegetation can present an important role in the sugarcane agricultural system as a source of natural enemies.

  19. Factors associated with the seroprevalence of leishmaniasis in dogs living around Atlantic Forest fragments.

    PubMed

    Curi, Nelson Henrique de Almeida; Paschoal, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Massara, Rodrigo Lima; Marcelino, Andreza Pain; Ribeiro, Adriana Aparecida; Passamani, Marcelo; Demétrio, Guilherme Ramos; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis is an important zoonosis in Brazil. However, infection patterns are unknown in some scenarios such as rural settlements around Atlantic Forest fragments. Additionally, controversy remains over risk factors, and most identified patterns of infection in dogs have been found in urban areas. We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey to assess the prevalence of leishmaniasis in dogs through three different serological tests, and interviews with owners to assess features of dogs and households around five Atlantic Forest remnants in southeastern Brazil. We used Generalized Linear Mixed Models and Chi-square tests to detect associations between prevalence and variables that might influence Leishmania infection, and a nearest neighbor dispersion analysis to assess clustering in the spatial distribution of seropositive dogs. Our findings showed an average prevalence of 20% (ranging from 10 to 32%) in dogs. Nearly 40% (ranging from 22 to 55%) of households had at least one seropositive dog. Some individual traits of dogs (height, sterilization, long fur, age class) were found to positively influence the prevalence, while some had negative influence (weight, body score, presence of ectoparasites). Environmental and management features (number of cats in the households, dogs with free-ranging behavior) also entered models as negative associations with seropositivity. Strong and consistent negative (protective) influences of the presence of chickens and pigs in dog seropositivity were detected. Spatial clustering of cases was detected in only one of the five study sites. The results showed that different risk factors than those found in urban areas may drive the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in farm/forest interfaces, and that humans and wildlife risk infection in these areas. Domestic dog population limitation by gonadectomy, legal restriction of dog numbers per household and owner education are of the greatest importance for the

  20. Factors Associated with the Seroprevalence of Leishmaniasis in Dogs Living around Atlantic Forest Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Curi, Nelson Henrique de Almeida; Paschoal, Ana Maria de Oliveira; Massara, Rodrigo Lima; Marcelino, Andreza Pain; Ribeiro, Adriana Aparecida; Passamani, Marcelo; Demétrio, Guilherme Ramos; Chiarello, Adriano Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Canine visceral leishmaniasis is an important zoonosis in Brazil. However, infection patterns are unknown in some scenarios such as rural settlements around Atlantic Forest fragments. Additionally, controversy remains over risk factors, and most identified patterns of infection in dogs have been found in urban areas. We conducted a cross-sectional epidemiological survey to assess the prevalence of leishmaniasis in dogs through three different serological tests, and interviews with owners to assess features of dogs and households around five Atlantic Forest remnants in southeastern Brazil. We used Generalized Linear Mixed Models and Chi-square tests to detect associations between prevalence and variables that might influence Leishmania infection, and a nearest neighbor dispersion analysis to assess clustering in the spatial distribution of seropositive dogs. Our findings showed an average prevalence of 20% (ranging from 10 to 32%) in dogs. Nearly 40% (ranging from 22 to 55%) of households had at least one seropositive dog. Some individual traits of dogs (height, sterilization, long fur, age class) were found to positively influence the prevalence, while some had negative influence (weight, body score, presence of ectoparasites). Environmental and management features (number of cats in the households, dogs with free-ranging behavior) also entered models as negative associations with seropositivity. Strong and consistent negative (protective) influences of the presence of chickens and pigs in dog seropositivity were detected. Spatial clustering of cases was detected in only one of the five study sites. The results showed that different risk factors than those found in urban areas may drive the prevalence of canine leishmaniasis in farm/forest interfaces, and that humans and wildlife risk infection in these areas. Domestic dog population limitation by gonadectomy, legal restriction of dog numbers per household and owner education are of the greatest importance for the

  1. Forest fragmentation reduces parasitism via species loss at multiple trophic levels.

    PubMed

    Fenoglio, Maria Silvina; Srivastava, Diane; Valladares, Graciela; Cagnolo, Luciano; Salvo, Adriana

    2012-11-01

    Although there is accumulating evidence from artificially assembled communities that reductions of species diversity result in diminished ecosystem functioning, it is not yet clear how real-world changes in diversity affect the flow of energy between trophic levels in multi-trophic contexts. In central Argentina, forest fragmentation has led to species loss of plants, herbivore and parasitoid insects, decline in trophic processes (herbivory and parasitism), and food web contraction. Here we examine if and how loss of parasitoid species following fragmentation causes decreased parasitism rates, by analyzing food webs of leaf miners and parasitoids from 19 forest fragments of decreasing size. We asked three questions: Do reductions in parasitoid richness following fragmentation directly or indirectly affect parasitism rate? Are changes in community parasitism rate driven by changes in the parasitism rate of individual leaf miner species, or changes in leaf miner composition, or both? Which traits of species determine the effects of food web change on parasitism rates? We found that habitat loss initiated a bottom-up cascade of extinctions from plants to leaf miners to parasitoids, with reductions in parasitoid richness ultimately driving decreases in parasitism rates. This relationship between parasitoid richness and parasitism depended on changes in the relative abundance (but not occurrence) of leaf miners such that parasitoid-rich fragments were dominated by leaf miner species that supported high rates of parasitism. Surprisingly, we found that only a small subset of species in the food web could account for much of the increase in parasitism with parasitoid richness: lepidopteran miners that attained exceptionally high densities in some fragments and their largely specialist parasitoids. How specialized a parasitoid is, and the relative abundance of leaf miners, had important effects on the diversity-parasitism rate relationship, but not other leaf miner traits

  2. Geospatial characterization of deforestation, fragmentation and forest fires in Telangana state, India: conservation perspective.

    PubMed

    Sudhakar Reddy, C; Vazeed Pasha, S; Jha, C S; Dadhwal, V K

    2015-07-01

    Conservation of biodiversity has been put to the highest priority throughout the world. The process of identifying threatened ecosystems will search for different drivers related to biodiversity loss. The present study aimed to generate spatial information on deforestation and ecological degradation indicators of fragmentation and forest fires using systematic conceptual approach in Telangana state, India. Identification of ecosystems facing increasing vulnerability can help to safeguard the extinctions of species and useful for conservation planning. The technological advancement of satellite remote sensing and Geographical Information System has increased greatly in assessment and monitoring of ecosystem-level changes. The areas of threat were identified by creating grid cells (5 × 5 km) in Geographical Information System (GIS). Deforestation was assessed using multi-source data of 1930, 1960, 1975, 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2013. The forest cover of 40,746 km(2), 29,299 km(2), 18,652 km(2), 18,368 km(2), 18,006 km(2), 17,556 km(2) and 17,520 km(2) was estimated during 1930, 1960, 1975, 1985, 1995, 2005 and 2013, respectively. Historical evaluation of deforestation revealed that major changes had occurred in forests of Telangana and identified 1095 extinct, 397 critically endangered, 523 endangered and 311 vulnerable ecosystem grid cells. The fragmentation analysis has identified 307 ecosystem grid cells under critically endangered status. Forest burnt area information was extracted using AWiFS data of 2005 to 2014. Spatial analysis indicates total fire-affected forest in Telangana as 58.9% in a decadal period. Conservation status has been recorded depending upon values of threat for each grid, which forms the basis for conservation priority hotspots. Of existing forest, 2.1% grids had severe ecosystem collapse and had been included under the category of conservation priority hotspot-I, followed by 27.2% in conservation priority hotspot-II and 51.5% in conservation

  3. Survivorship, development, and fecundity of buck moth (Lepidoptera: Saturniidae) on common tree species in the Gulf Coast urban forest

    Treesearch

    P. J. Martinat; J. D. Solomon; Theodor D. Leininger

    1996-01-01

    Hemileuca maia maia (Drury), the buck moth, is abundant in urban areas of the Gulf Coast region where it defoliates oaks. However, the extent to which the buck moth can survive on other tree species common in the southern urban forest has not been reported. In the laboratory, the authors studied the suitability and acceptability to larvae of 14 common tree species in...

  4. Landscape-level patterns of avian diversity in the Oregon Coast Range

    Treesearch

    Samuel A. Cushman; Kevin McGarigal

    2003-01-01

    We used a comparative mensurative landscape-level experiment to quantify the relative importance of mature forest area and fragmentation and differences among watersheds in influencing avian community diversity in the Oregon Coast Range, USA. Our study design included three large hydrological basins, two levels of fragmentation, and six levels of mature forest area. We...

  5. 4300-Year Old 'Glacier Forests', Southern Coast Mountains, British Columbia and their Global Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, J.

    2014-12-01

    Dendrochronology and radiocarbon dating of in situ and detrital wood have been utilized to date Holocene glacier fluctuations in Garibaldi Provincial Park and at the Pemberton Icefield in the southern Coast Mountains of British Columbia. Fieldwork at over 30 glaciers has been carried out since 2002. The focus of this paper is on wood that has been radiocarbon dated between 4500 and 4000 years ago, which has been found at six glaciers. At four glaciers the wood was washing out from beneath present-day glacier snouts. At Helm Glacier in Garibaldi Park thirteen detrital branches and stumps were recovered, and at West Squamish Glacier at the Pemberton Icefield seven detrital branches, stems, and stumps were sampled. Some of these samples had diameters of up to 40 cm and were up to 250 cm long, and thus are much larger than any living trees near the present treeline. Tree-ring analysis shows that these glaciers advanced into and over mature forests that had grown near present-day glacier margins for at least 135 years (Helm) and 357 years (W Squamish). Evidence for permanent snow and ice patches forming, as well as glaciers advancing beyond present-day extents at this time is found in the central Coast Mountains, Yukon Territory, Arctic Canada, Norway, and the Swiss Alps. Glacier advances of similar age have been reconstructed not only in western Canada, but also in Europe, Asia, South America, New Zealand, and Antarctica indicating the global nature of this event. A peak in ice-rafted debris in the North Atlantic about 4200 years ago may have been the result of reduced solar output, and based on Earth's position in the obliquity cycle glaciers should have started to expand 4000 years ago. These 'glacier forests' thus could provide a probable start date for Neoglaciation.

  6. BIOFRAG – a new database for analyzing BIOdiversity responses to forest FRAGmentation

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, Marion; Lefebvre, Veronique; Gardner, Toby A; Arroyo-Rodriguez, Victor; Baeten, Lander; Banks-Leite, Cristina; Barlow, Jos; Betts, Matthew G; Brunet, Joerg; Cerezo, Alexis; Cisneros, Laura M; Collard, Stuart; D'Cruze, Neil; da Silva Motta, Catarina; Duguay, Stephanie; Eggermont, Hilde; Eigenbrod, Felix; Hadley, Adam S; Hanson, Thor R; Hawes, Joseph E; Heartsill Scalley, Tamara; Klingbeil, Brian T; Kolb, Annette; Kormann, Urs; Kumar, Sunil; Lachat, Thibault; Lakeman Fraser, Poppy; Lantschner, Victoria; Laurance, William F; Leal, Inara R; Lens, Luc; Marsh, Charles J; Medina-Rangel, Guido F; Melles, Stephanie; Mezger, Dirk; Oldekop, Johan A; Overal, William L; Owen, Charlotte; Peres, Carlos A; Phalan, Ben; Pidgeon, Anna M; Pilia, Oriana; Possingham, Hugh P; Possingham, Max L; Raheem, Dinarzarde C; Ribeiro, Danilo B; Ribeiro Neto, Jose D; Douglas Robinson, W; Robinson, Richard; Rytwinski, Trina; Scherber, Christoph; Slade, Eleanor M; Somarriba, Eduardo; Stouffer, Philip C; Struebig, Matthew J; Tylianakis, Jason M; Tscharntke, Teja; Tyre, Andrew J; Urbina Cardona, Jose N; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L; Wearn, Oliver; Wells, Konstans; Willig, Michael R; Wood, Eric; Young, Richard P; Bradley, Andrew V; Ewers, Robert M

    2014-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation studies have produced complex results that are challenging to synthesize. Inconsistencies among studies may result from variation in the choice of landscape metrics and response variables, which is often compounded by a lack of key statistical or methodological information. Collating primary datasets on biodiversity responses to fragmentation in a consistent and flexible database permits simple data retrieval for subsequent analyses. We present a relational database that links such field data to taxonomic nomenclature, spatial and temporal plot attributes, and environmental characteristics. Field assessments include measurements of the response(s) (e.g., presence, abundance, ground cover) of one or more species linked to plots in fragments within a partially forested landscape. The database currently holds 9830 unique species recorded in plots of 58 unique landscapes in six of eight realms: mammals 315, birds 1286, herptiles 460, insects 4521, spiders 204, other arthropods 85, gastropods 70, annelids 8, platyhelminthes 4, Onychophora 2, vascular plants 2112, nonvascular plants and lichens 320, and fungi 449. Three landscapes were sampled as long-term time series (>10 years). Seven hundred and eleven species are found in two or more landscapes. Consolidating the substantial amount of primary data available on biodiversity responses to fragmentation in the context of land-use change and natural disturbances is an essential part of understanding the effects of increasing anthropogenic pressures on land. The consistent format of this database facilitates testing of generalizations concerning biologic responses to fragmentation across diverse systems and taxa. It also allows the re-examination of existing datasets with alternative landscape metrics and robust statistical methods, for example, helping to address pseudo-replication problems. The database can thus help researchers in producing broad syntheses of the effects of land use. The database

  7. BIOFRAG - a new database for analyzing BIOdiversity responses to forest FRAGmentation.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Marion; Lefebvre, Veronique; Gardner, Toby A; Arroyo-Rodriguez, Victor; Baeten, Lander; Banks-Leite, Cristina; Barlow, Jos; Betts, Matthew G; Brunet, Joerg; Cerezo, Alexis; Cisneros, Laura M; Collard, Stuart; D'Cruze, Neil; da Silva Motta, Catarina; Duguay, Stephanie; Eggermont, Hilde; Eigenbrod, Felix; Hadley, Adam S; Hanson, Thor R; Hawes, Joseph E; Heartsill Scalley, Tamara; Klingbeil, Brian T; Kolb, Annette; Kormann, Urs; Kumar, Sunil; Lachat, Thibault; Lakeman Fraser, Poppy; Lantschner, Victoria; Laurance, William F; Leal, Inara R; Lens, Luc; Marsh, Charles J; Medina-Rangel, Guido F; Melles, Stephanie; Mezger, Dirk; Oldekop, Johan A; Overal, William L; Owen, Charlotte; Peres, Carlos A; Phalan, Ben; Pidgeon, Anna M; Pilia, Oriana; Possingham, Hugh P; Possingham, Max L; Raheem, Dinarzarde C; Ribeiro, Danilo B; Ribeiro Neto, Jose D; Douglas Robinson, W; Robinson, Richard; Rytwinski, Trina; Scherber, Christoph; Slade, Eleanor M; Somarriba, Eduardo; Stouffer, Philip C; Struebig, Matthew J; Tylianakis, Jason M; Tscharntke, Teja; Tyre, Andrew J; Urbina Cardona, Jose N; Vasconcelos, Heraldo L; Wearn, Oliver; Wells, Konstans; Willig, Michael R; Wood, Eric; Young, Richard P; Bradley, Andrew V; Ewers, Robert M

    2014-05-01

    Habitat fragmentation studies have produced complex results that are challenging to synthesize. Inconsistencies among studies may result from variation in the choice of landscape metrics and response variables, which is often compounded by a lack of key statistical or methodological information. Collating primary datasets on biodiversity responses to fragmentation in a consistent and flexible database permits simple data retrieval for subsequent analyses. We present a relational database that links such field data to taxonomic nomenclature, spatial and temporal plot attributes, and environmental characteristics. Field assessments include measurements of the response(s) (e.g., presence, abundance, ground cover) of one or more species linked to plots in fragments within a partially forested landscape. The database currently holds 9830 unique species recorded in plots of 58 unique landscapes in six of eight realms: mammals 315, birds 1286, herptiles 460, insects 4521, spiders 204, other arthropods 85, gastropods 70, annelids 8, platyhelminthes 4, Onychophora 2, vascular plants 2112, nonvascular plants and lichens 320, and fungi 449. Three landscapes were sampled as long-term time series (>10 years). Seven hundred and eleven species are found in two or more landscapes. Consolidating the substantial amount of primary data available on biodiversity responses to fragmentation in the context of land-use change and natural disturbances is an essential part of understanding the effects of increasing anthropogenic pressures on land. The consistent format of this database facilitates testing of generalizations concerning biologic responses to fragmentation across diverse systems and taxa. It also allows the re-examination of existing datasets with alternative landscape metrics and robust statistical methods, for example, helping to address pseudo-replication problems. The database can thus help researchers in producing broad syntheses of the effects of land use. The database

  8. Behavioral and physiological responses to fruit availability of spider monkeys ranging in a small forest fragment

    PubMed Central

    Rimbach, Rebecca; Link, Andrés; Montes-Rojas, Andrés; Di Fiore, Anthony; Heistermann, Michael; Heymann, Eckhard W

    2014-01-01

    Numerous animal species currently experience habitat loss and fragmentation. This might result in behavioral and dietary adjustments, especially because fruit availability is frequently reduced in fragments. Food scarcity can result in elevated physiological stress levels, and chronic stress often has detrimental effects on individuals. Some animal species exhibit a high degree of fission–fusion dynamics, and theory predicts that these species reduce intragroup feeding competition by modifying their subgroup size according to resource availability. Until now, however, there have been few studies on how species with such fission–fission dynamics adjust their grouping patterns and social behavior in small fragments or on how food availability influences their stress levels. We collected data on fruit availability, feeding behavior, stress hormone levels (measured through fecal glucocorticoid metabolites (FGCM)), subgroup size, and aggression for two groups of brown spider monkeys (Ateles hybridus) in a small forest fragment in Colombia and examined whether fruit availability influences these variables. Contrary to our predictions, spider monkeys ranged in smaller subgroups, had higher FGCM levels and higher aggression rates when fruit availability was high compared to when it was low. The atypical grouping pattern of the study groups seems to be less effective at mitigating contest competition over food resources than more typical fission–fusion patterns. Overall, our findings illustrate that the relationship between resource availability, grouping patterns, aggression rates, and stress levels can be more complex than assumed thus far. Additional studies are needed to investigate the long-term consequences on the health and persistence of spider monkeys in fragmented habitats. PMID:24820229

  9. Bryophytes in fragments of Terra Firme forest on the great curve of the Xingu River, Pará state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pantoja, A C C; Ilkiu-Borges, A L; Tavares-Martins, A C C; Garcia, E T

    2015-08-01

    Microclimatic conditions of tropical forest favour the high richness of bryophytes, which by being sensitive to environmental changes, are important indicators of habitat conditions. The aim of this study was to determine the richness and species composition of the bryophyte flora in fragments of terra firme forest on the great curve of the Xingu River, Pará state, Brazil. The collections were made in August and September 2012 in 14 fragments, in which were installed two plots per fragment, one at the edge and one inside, measuring 10 × 10 m each. The results showed 77 species in 45 genera and 18 families. Lejeunea setiloba Spruce and Marchesinia brachiata (Sw.) Schiffn. are new records for Pará state. The richness families in this study were the ones typically found in tropical forest surveys. A high richness of rare species in comparison to common ones, a pattern usually observed for plants in tropical forests was not reported in this study, probably due to historical fragmentation and disturbance in the area. The richness and species composition were determined mainly by the physiognomic characteristics of the studied forest fragments.

  10. Arthropods on plants in a fragmented Neotropical dry forest: a functional analysis of area loss and edge effects.

    PubMed

    González, Ezequiel; Salvo, Adriana; Valladares, Graciela

    2015-02-01

    Loss and fragmentation of natural ecosystems are widely recognized as the most important threats to biodiversity conservation, with Neotropical dry forests among the most endangered ecosystems. Area and edge effects are major factors in fragmented landscapes. Here, we examine area and edge effects and their interaction, on ensembles of arthropods associated to native vegetation in a fragmented Chaco Serrano forest. We analyzed family richness and community composition of herbivores, predators, and parasitoids on three native plant species in 12 fragments of varying size and at edge/interior positions. We also looked for indicator families by using Indicator Species Analysis. Loss of family richness with the reduction of forest fragment area was observed for the three functional groups, with similar magnitude. Herbivores were richer at the edges without interaction between edge and area effects, whereas predators were not affected by edge/interior position and parasitoid richness showed an interaction between area and position, with a steeper area slope at the edges. Family composition of herbivore, predator, and parasitoid assemblages was also affected by forest area and/or edge/interior situation. We found three indicator families for large remnants and five for edges. Our results support the key role of forest area for conservation of arthropods taxonomic and functional diversity in a highly threatened region, and emphasize the need to understand the interactions between area and edge effects on such diversity.

  11. Hardwood snag fragmentation in a pine-oak forest of southeastern Arkansas

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, M.D.

    1996-12-31

    Because snags are importnat for forest wildlife as breeding, roosting and foraging sites, resource managers who wish to maintain this component in forest stands need to be aware of snag fragmentation rates. Measurements were taken in uneven-aged pine-hardwood standards in southeastern Arkansas to determine fragmentation rates for hardwood snags 2 to 6 yr after stem injection with herbicides. Crown and bole condition of snags were also assessed. Pinus eschinata Mill. and P. taeda L. were the dominant overstory components and were udisturbed. Quercus spp. accounted for 91% of hardwoods greater than 25 cm dbh. Since small diameter snags deteriorated first, snag diameter distributions changed from uneven-sized to even-sized structure as time since mortality increased. Within 3 yr of injection, 57% of snag boles had broken below crown height. Number of wildlife cavities per snag increased with time since mortality. At 6 yr after injection, 44% of residual snags had evidence of wildlife cavities. Less than 50% of hardwoods less then 25 cm dbh were still standing 5 yr after herbicide injection.

  12. Effects of Habitat Structure and Fragmentation on Diversity and Abundance of Primates in Tropical Deciduous Forests in Bolivia

    PubMed Central

    Büntge, Anna B. S.; Herzog, Sebastian K.; Kessler, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Habitat structure and anthropogenic disturbance are known to affect primate diversity and abundance. However, researchers have focused on lowland rain forests, whereas endangered deciduous forests have been neglected. We aimed to investigate the relationships between primate diversity and abundance and habitat parameters in 10 deciduous forest fragments southeast of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. We obtained primate data via line-transect surveys and visual and acoustic observations. In addition, we assessed the vegetation structure (canopy height, understory density), size, isolation time, and surrounding forest area of the fragments. We interpreted our results in the context of the historical distribution data for primates in the area before fragmentation and interviews with local people. We detected 5 of the 8 historically observed primate species: Alouatta caraya, Aotus azarae boliviensis, Callithrix melanura, Callicebus donacophilus, and Cebus libidinosus juruanus. Total species number and detection rates decreased with understory density. Detection rates also negatively correlated with forest areas in the surroundings of a fragment, which may be due to variables not assessed, i.e., fragment shape, distance to nearest town. Observations for Alouatta and Aotus were too few to conduct further statistics. Cebus and Callicebus were present in 90% and 70% of the sites, respectively, and their density did not correlate with any of the habitat variables assessed, signaling high ecological plasticity and adaptability to anthropogenic impact in these species. Detections of Callithrix were higher in areas with low forest strata. Our study provides baseline data for future fragmentation studies in Neotropical dry deciduous forests and sets a base for specific conservation measures. PMID:20949116

  13. Effects of Habitat Structure and Fragmentation on Diversity and Abundance of Primates in Tropical Deciduous Forests in Bolivia.

    PubMed

    Pyritz, Lennart W; Büntge, Anna B S; Herzog, Sebastian K; Kessler, Michael

    2010-10-01

    Habitat structure and anthropogenic disturbance are known to affect primate diversity and abundance. However, researchers have focused on lowland rain forests, whereas endangered deciduous forests have been neglected. We aimed to investigate the relationships between primate diversity and abundance and habitat parameters in 10 deciduous forest fragments southeast of Santa Cruz, Bolivia. We obtained primate data via line-transect surveys and visual and acoustic observations. In addition, we assessed the vegetation structure (canopy height, understory density), size, isolation time, and surrounding forest area of the fragments. We interpreted our results in the context of the historical distribution data for primates in the area before fragmentation and interviews with local people. We detected 5 of the 8 historically observed primate species: Alouatta caraya, Aotus azarae boliviensis, Callithrix melanura, Callicebus donacophilus, and Cebus libidinosus juruanus. Total species number and detection rates decreased with understory density. Detection rates also negatively correlated with forest areas in the surroundings of a fragment, which may be due to variables not assessed, i.e., fragment shape, distance to nearest town. Observations for Alouatta and Aotus were too few to conduct further statistics. Cebus and Callicebus were present in 90% and 70% of the sites, respectively, and their density did not correlate with any of the habitat variables assessed, signaling high ecological plasticity and adaptability to anthropogenic impact in these species. Detections of Callithrix were higher in areas with low forest strata. Our study provides baseline data for future fragmentation studies in Neotropical dry deciduous forests and sets a base for specific conservation measures.

  14. Deforestation and Forest Fragmentation in South Ecuador since the 1970s – Losing a Hotspot of Biodiversity

    PubMed Central

    Tapia-Armijos, María Fernanda; Homeier, Jürgen; Espinosa, Carlos Iván; Leuschner, Christoph; de la Cruz, Marcelino

    2015-01-01

    Deforestation and fragmentation are major components of global change; both are contributing to the rapid loss of tropical forest area with important implications for ecosystem functioning and biodiversity conservation. The forests of South Ecuador are a biological ‘hotspot’ due to their high diversity and endemism levels. We examined the deforestation and fragmentation patterns in this area of high conservation value using aerial photographs and Aster satellite scenes. The registered annual deforestation rates of 0.75% (1976–1989) and 2.86% (1989–2008) for two consecutive survey periods, the decreasing mean patch size and the increasing isolation of the forest fragments show that the area is under severe threat. Approximately 46% of South Ecuador’s original forest cover had been converted by 2008 into pastures and other anthropogenic land cover types. We found that deforestation is more intense at lower elevations (premontane evergreen forest and shrubland) and that the deforestation front currently moves in upslope direction. Improved awareness of the spatial extent, dynamics and patterns of deforestation and forest fragmentation is urgently needed in biologically diverse areas like South Ecuador. PMID:26332681

  15. Forest fragments as barriers to fruit fly dispersal: Anastrepha (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations in orchards and adjacent forest fragments in Puerto Rico.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, David A; Kendra, Paul E; Van Bloem, Skip; Whitmire, Stefanie; Mizell, Russ; Goenaga, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    McPhail-type traps baited with ammonium acetate and putrescine were used to monitor populations of Anastrepha obliqua (Macquart) and Anastrepha suspensa (Loew) in two orchards with hosts of these flies (mango, Mangifera indica L., and carambola, Averrhoa carambola L.), as well as in forest fragments bordering these orchards. Contour maps were constructed to measure population distributions in and around orchards. Our results indicate that Anastrepha populations are focused around host fruit in both space and time, that traps do not draw fruit flies away from hosts, even when placed within 15 m of the host, and that lures continue to function for 6 mo in the field. The contour mapping analyses reveal that populations of fruit flies are focused around ovipositional hosts. Although the trapping system does not have a very long effective sampling range, it is ideal, when used in combination with contour analyses, for assessing fine-scale (on the order of meters) population distributions, including identifying resources around which fly populations are focused or, conversely, assessing the effectiveness of management tools. The results are discussed as they pertain to monitoring and detecting Anastrepha spp. with the McPhail-type trap and ammonium acetate and putrescine baiting system and the dispersal of these flies within Puerto Rico.

  16. Frugivory on Persea lingue in temperate Chilean forests: interactions between fruit availability and habitat fragmentation across multiple spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Vergara, Pablo M; Smith, Cecilia; Delpiano, Cristian A; Orellana, Ignacio; Gho, Dafne; Vazquez, Inao

    2010-12-01

    Habitat degradation and fragmentation are expected to reduce seed dispersal rates by reducing fruit availability as well as the movement and abundance of frugivores. These deleterious impacts may also interact with each other at different spatial scales, leading to nonlinear effects of fruit abundance on seed dispersal. In this study we assessed whether the degradation and fragmentation of southern Chilean forests had the potential to restrict seed dispersal the lingue (Persea lingue) tree, a fleshy-fruited tree species. Of five frugivore bird species, the austral thrush (Turdus falcklandii) and the fire-eyed diucon (Xolmis pyrope) were the only legitimate seed dispersers as well as being the most abundant species visiting lingue trees. The results showed little or no direct effect of habitat fragmentation on seed dispersal estimates, possibly because the assemblage of frugivore birds was comprised habitat-generalist species. Instead, the number of fruits removed per focal tree exhibited an enhanced response to crop size, but only in the more connected fragments. In the fruit-richer fragment networks, there was an increased fragment-size effect on the proportion of fruits removed in comparison to fruit-poor networks in which the fragment size effect was spurious. We suggest that such nonlinear effects are widespread in fragmented forest regions, resulting from the link between the spatial scales over which frugivores sample resources and the spatial heterogeneity in fruiting resources caused by habitat fragmentation and degradation.

  17. Characterizing fragmentation of the collective forests in southern China from multitemporal Landsat imagery: A case study from Kecheng district of Zhejiang province

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Li, M.; Zhu, Z.; Vogelmann, J.E.; Xu, D.; Wen, W.; Liu, A.

    2011-01-01

    Tropical and subtropical forests provide important ecosystem goods and services including carbon sequestration and biodiversity conservation. These forests are facing increasing socioeconomic pressures and are rapidly being degraded and fragmented. This analysis focuses on the rate of change and patterns of fragmentation in a collective forest area in Zhejiang province, China, during the time period 1988–2005. The research consisted of two parts. The first was the development of general land cover maps and the identification of land cover changes by interpreting Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) time series imagery. The second part involved the computation and analysis of forest fragmentation metrics. For this portion of the study, fragmentation statistics were analyzed, and images were developed to depict forest fragmentation patterns and trends. Results revealed that there was a net loss of 7.8% in forest coverage, dropping from 66.8% in 1988 to 59.0% in 2005, primarily caused by agricultural expansion and poor forest management practices. An acceleration of forest fragmentation was also witnessed during the time intervals, which was evidenced by a decreasing trend in interior forest (57.2% in 1988, 55.0% in 1996 and 54.8% in 2005 respectively) coupled with the scales of the selected geospatial metrics. Continued forest loss and fragmentation are closely correlated with the existing political, educational, institutional and economic processes of contemporary China. To unlock the developmental potentials of the collective forests and to effectively mitigate the rate of forest loss and fragmentation, reforms of forest tenure and ecological immigration practices are recognized as a prospective alternative. The produced fragmentation maps further illustrates the importance of assessing landscape change history, especially the spatiotemporal patterns of forest fragments, when developing landscape level plans for biodiversity

  18. Fragmentation effects and genetic diversity of the key semidecidual forest species Metrodorea nigra in Southwestern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Moraes Filho, R M; Bonifácio-Anacleto, F; Alzate-Marin, A L

    2015-04-15

    Studies of genetic diversity in plant species present in the remaining fragments of the Atlantic Forest are very important for understanding their resilience to such a degraded ecosystem. We analyzed the genetic diversity of 3 populations of the high-density understory species Metrodorea nigra St. Hill. (Rutaceae) located in forest remnants in the region of Ribeirão Preto, SP, Brazil (M13-Rib, BSQ-Rib, and FAC-Crav), by using simple sequence repeat (SSR) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers for conservation purposes. A total of 133 polymorphic loci were observed in 136 inter-simple sequence repeat loci (average of 17 per primer). The Nei genetic diversity (HE) was relatively high considering all populations (0.31). The BSQ-Rib population exhibited the highest value (0.27), followed by the M13-Rib (0.26) and FAC-Crav (0.24) populations. The simple sequence repeat markers analyzed showed a high number of alleles (K = 104), with an average of 14.85 alleles per locus. The average observed heterozygosity was 0.516 and the average expected heterozygosity was 0.771, ranging from 0.688 (FAC-Crav) to 0.765 (BSQ-Rib). The fixation indexes showed positive and significant differences from zero for all sample sets, indicating inbreeding, which may have resulted from the species' mating patterns and the barochoric seed dispersal system of M. nigra. Both markers indicated differentiation among populations, with higher values observed for inter-simple sequence repeat markers. No significant differences between juvenile and adult generations in any of the fragments were observed, indicating the resilience of M. nigra to the effects of fragmentation and reduced habitat.

  19. Genetic diversity of Plathymenia reticulata Benth. in fragments of Atlantic Forest in southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Souza, L C; Júnior, A L Silva; Souza, M C; Kunz, S H; Miranda, F D

    2017-09-21

    Studies of genetic diversity in natural populations are important for the definition of conservation strategies, especially in populations reduced by processes of fragmentation and continuous forest extraction. Molecular markers stand out as interesting tools for these studies. The objective of this research was to characterize the diversity and genetic structure of Plathymenia reticulata (Fabaceae), occurring in two fragments of the Montana Semideciduous Forest in the southern of Espírito Santo State, Brazil, using inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers. DNA samples from 149 individuals were analyzed using 10 ISSR primers, generating 156 fragments, of which 101 were polymorphic (64.74%). The individuals sampled were classified into three units: adult trees (A), a mixture of progenies (B), and young regenerating individuals (C). The number of loci used (N = 101) was greater than that established as optimal number (N = 88), indicating precision in analyses. The genetic diversity index of Nei (H' = 0.407) and the Shannon index (I = 0.594) were found to have high genetic diversity. Besides, through the diversity parameters evaluated, it was possible to confirm that in the areas of natural regeneration and progeny mix there is genetic diversity equivalent to that found in adults. The analysis of molecular variance indicated that most of the genetic variation is found within the groups (96.53%). Genetic differentiation among adult trees was low (ΦST = 0.03) indicating that high gene flow rates (Nm = 12.70) are counteracting the effects of genetic drift. The data obtained allowed to evaluate the potential of adult trees as matrices for seed collection and to obtain seedlings with confirmed genetic variability.

  20. Impact of forest fragment size on the population structure of three palm species (Arecaceae) in the Brazilian Atlantic rainforest.

    PubMed

    Portela, Rita de Cássia Quitete; dos Santos, Flavio Antonio Maes

    2014-06-01

    The main threats to natural populations in terrestrial ecosystems have been widly recognized to be the habitat fragmentation and the exploitation of forest products. In this study, we compared the density of the populations and the structure of three tropical palm species, Astrocaryum aculeatissimum, Euterpe edulis and Geonoma schottiana. For this, we selected five forest fragments of different sizes (3 500ha, 2 400ha, 57ha, 21ha and 19ha) where palms were censused in nine 30 x 30m plots. We tracked the palms survival from 2005 to 2007, and recorded all new individuals encountered. Each individual was assigned in one of the five ontogenetic stages: seedling, infant, juvenile, immature and reproductive. The demographic structure of each palm species was analyzed and compared by a generalized linear model (GLM). The analysis was performed per palm species. The forest fragment area and the year of observation were explanatory variables, and the proportion of individuals in each ontogenetic class and palm density were response variables. The total number of individuals (from seedlings to reproductives, of all species) monitored was 6 450 in 2005, 7 268 in 2006, and 8 664 in 2007. The densities of two palm species were not influenced by the size of the fragment, but the population density of A. aculeatissimum was dependent on the size of the fragment: there were more individuals in the bigger than in the smaller forest fragments. The population structure of A. aculeatissimum, E. edulis, and G. schottiana was not altered in the smaller fragments, except the infants of G. schottiana. The main point to be drawn from the results found in this study is that the responses of density and population structure seem not to be dependent on fragment size, except for one species that resulted more abundant in bigger fragments.

  1. Effect of habitat fragmentation on ranging behavior of white-headed langurs in limestone forests in Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Zhonghao; Yuan, Peisong; Huang, Henglian; Tang, Xiaoping; Xu, Weijian; Huang, Chengming; Zhou, Qihai

    2017-07-01

    The critically endangered white-headed langur (Trachypithecus leucocephalus) is confined to fragmented karst forests of southwest Guangxi Province, China. A lack of information on the influence of habitat fragmentation on langur behavior has prevented a comprehensive understanding of their ranging behavior and the development of effective langur conservation strategies. We collected comparative data on time budgets, daily path lengths, home range and diets of four langur groups inhabiting the lightly fragmented Fusui forest (G1, G2) and the more heavily fragmented Chongzuo forest (G3, G4). The aim was to explore the effect of this fragmentation on langur ranging behavior. Our results showed that the Fusui groups spent more time on moving and less time on feeding and playing than the Chongzuo groups. Daily path lengths were 472.4-536.1 m for the Fusui groups and 449.6-480.7 m for the Chongzuo groups, indicating no marked inter-site variation. The Fusui groups occupied much larger home ranges (23.8-33.8 ha) than the Chongzuo groups (14.5-15.8 ha). However, all groups had similar monthly home ranges. Diets significantly differed among langur groups. The Fusui groups consumed more young leaves and had much lower diet diversity compared with the Chongzuo groups. Our findings indicate that habitat fragmentation is one of the crucial determinants of white-headed langur ranging behavior because fragmentation reduces and restricts the home range. Langurs in fragmented habitat adopt an energy conservation strategy characterized by devoting more time to feeding and less time to moving, with a smaller home range and consumption of more plant species. We argue that linking fragmented forests with corridors should be considered a priority in a wider and comprehensive longer term langur population conservation and habitat management strategy.

  2. Independent effects of fragmentation on forest songbirds: an organism-based approach.

    PubMed

    Betts, Matthew G; Forbes, Graham J; Diamond, Antony W; Taylor, Philip D

    2006-06-01

    fragmentation effects, particularly in forest mosaics where boundaries between patches and matrix are ambiguous. Our results indicate that manipulating landscape pattern may reduce negative impacts of habitat loss for Ovenbird, but not Blackburnian Warbler. We emphasize that most variance in the occurrence of both species was explained by local scale or landscape composition variables rather than variables reflecting landscape pattern.

  3. How large is large enough for insects? Forest fragmentation effects at three spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribas, C. R.; Sobrinho, T. G.; Schoereder, J. H.; Sperber, C. F.; Lopes-Andrade, C.; Soares, S. M.

    2005-02-01

    Several mechanisms may lead to species loss in fragmented habitats, such as edge and shape effects, loss of habitat and heterogeneity. Ants and crickets were sampled in 18 forest remnants in south-eastern Brazil, to test whether a group of small remnants maintains the same insect species richness as similar sized large remnants, at three spatial scales. We tested hypotheses about alpha and gamma diversity to explain the results. Groups of remnants conserve as many species of ants as a single one. Crickets, however, showed a scale-dependent pattern: at small scales there was no significant or important difference between groups of remnants and a single one, while at the larger scale the group of remnants maintained more species. Alpha diversity (local species richness) was similar in a group of remnants and in a single one, at the three spatial scales, both for ants and crickets. Gamma diversity, however, varied both with taxa (ants and crickets) and spatial scale, which may be linked to insect mobility, remnant isolation, and habitat heterogeneity. Biological characteristics of the organisms involved have to be considered when studying fragmentation effects, as well as spatial scale at which it operates. Mobility of the organisms influences fragmentation effects, and consequently conservation strategies.

  4. Bird communities in two fragments of semideciduous forest in rural São Paulo State.

    PubMed

    Pozza, D D; Pires, J S

    2003-05-01

    A quali-quantitative survey was done in two fragments (75 and 100 ha) of semideciduous forest in rural São Paulo State. The aim was to characterize the bird community according to richness, abundance, and occurrence frequency in these areas. The qualitative survey showed 145 species in the Estação Ecológica de São Carlos-EESCar (Brotas)--and 173 in the Fazenda Santa Cecília-FSC (Patrocínio Paulista), while the quantitative survey showed the presence of 60 and 72 species in EESCar and FSC respectively. The isolation and the lower environmental quality of the EESCar fragment may be responsible for the lower number of species in this area compared to that of FSC. Abundance index value analysis (IPA) showed that both areas have a large number of species with low IPA and few species with intermediate or high IPA compared to the pattern observed in other surveys. At FSC, a larger number of occurrences of species in danger of extinction in São Paulo State was also observed. Apparently, the FSC fragment had better environmental quality for sheltering a larger number of species, including the endangered ones. The study of the community of birds is important in planning management and conservation of natural areas.

  5. Natural canopy bridges effectively mitigate tropical forest fragmentation for arboreal mammals.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Tremaine; Carrasco-Rueda, Farah; Alonso, Alfonso; Kolowski, Joseph; Deichmann, Jessica L

    2017-06-20

    Linear infrastructure development and resulting habitat fragmentation are expanding in Neotropical forests, and arboreal mammals may be disproportionately impacted by these linear habitat clearings. Maintaining canopy connectivity through preservation of connecting branches (i.e. natural canopy bridges) may help mitigate that impact. Using camera traps, we evaluated crossing rates of a pipeline right-of-way in a control area with no bridges and in a test area where 13 bridges were left by the pipeline construction company. Monitoring all canopy crossing points for a year (7,102 canopy camera nights), we confirmed bridge use by 25 mammal species from 12 families. With bridge use beginning immediately after exposure and increasing over time, use rates were over two orders of magnitude higher than on the ground. We also found a positive relationship between a bridge's use rate and the number of species that used it, suggesting well-used bridges benefit multiple species. Data suggest bridge use may be related to a combination of bridge branch connectivity, multiple connections, connectivity to adjacent forest, and foliage cover. Given the high use rate and minimal cost, we recommend all linear infrastructure projects in forests with arboreal mammal populations include canopy bridges.

  6. Associations between forest fragmentation patterns and geneticstructure in Pfrimer’s Parakeet (Pyrrhura pfrimeri), an endangered endemic to central Brazil’s dry forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Haig, Susan M.; Miller, Leonard F.; Bianchi, Carlos; Mullins, Thomas D.

    2012-01-01

    When habitat becomes fragmented, populations of species may become increasingly isolated. In the absence of habitat corridors, genetic structure may develop and populations risk reductions in genetic diversity from increased genetic drift and inbreeding. Deforestation of the Cerrado biome of Brazil, particularly of the dry forests within the Parana˜ River Basin, has incrementally occurred since the 1970s and increased forest fragmentation within the region. We performed landscape genetic analyses of Pfrimer’s parakeet (Pyrrhura pfrimeri), a globally endangered endemic to the region, to determine if forest fragmentation patterns were associated with genetic structuring in this species. We used previously generated satellite imagery that identified the locations of Parana˜ River Basin forest fragments in 1977, 1993/94, and 2008. Behavioral data quantifying the affinity of Pfrimer’s parakeet for forest habitat was used to parameterize empirically derived landscape conductance surfaces. Though genetic structure was observed among Pfrimer’s parakeet populations, no association between genetic and geographic distance was detected. Likewise, least cost path lengths, circuit theorybased resistance distances, and a new measure of least cost path length complexity could not be conclusively associated with genetic structure patterns. Instead, a new quantity that encapsulated connection redundancy from the 1977 forest fragmentation data provided the clearest associations with pairwise genetic differentiation patterns (Jost’s D: r = 0.72, P = 0.006; FST: r = 0.741, P = 0.001). Our analyses suggest a 35-year or more lag between deforestation and its effect on genetic structure. Because 66 % of the Parana˜ River Basin has been deforested since 1977, we expect that genetic structure will increase substantially among Pfrimer’s Parakeet populations in the future, especially if fragmentation continues at its current pace.

  7. Climatic gradients and human development pressure determine spatial patterns of forest fragmentation in the Great Lakes basin, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Currie, W. S.; Hart, S.

    2015-12-01

    Over half of temperate forest area globally has been fragmented or deforested by human activities. Our objective was to gain insight into the combination of climatic, ecological, and social factors that control complex spatial patterns of forest cover and fragmentation at the regional scale. Our study area was the US portion of the land area of the Laurentian Great Lakes basin (USGL basin) of the Upper Midwest, USA, covering ca. 300,000 km2 and home to 25 million people. While this region was historically forested, today there are regional gradients in forest cover as well as complex spatial patterns of agriculture, human settlements, and tree cover. This includes large expanses of fragmented forests in the wildland-urban interface or the forest transition zone. We used structural equation modeling to test models of social and climatic-ecological factors to explain spatial patterns of forest cover and fragmentation. This is a model-driven approach to statistical analysis that is used to test proposed causal "structures" of direct and indirect relationships among variables. It is an innovative approach that makes use of large spatial datasets to test understanding. We assembled numerous spatial data layers at 1 km2 resolution across the USGL basin. We found that 64% to 75% of variance in tree cover and forest connectivity was explained through a relatively simple model combining climatic gradients and human development pressure. Human development pressure was best represented as a measurement model that explained 45% of variance in road density and 87% of housing unit density, while significantly explaining patterns of forest fragmentation. Climate could be represented by a single variable, temperature: where temperature was higher, tree cover and forest connectivity was lower due to human land use. Temperatures did not help to explain patterns of human development as roads and housing, but did affect forest fragmentation through land use as cropland. This suggests

  8. Composition of cavity-nesting bird communities in montane aspen woodland fragments: The roles of landscape context and forest structure

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lawler, J.J.; Edwards, T.C.

    2002-01-01

    We compared cavity-nesting bird communities in aspen (Populus tremuloides) woodland fragments classified on the basis of vegetation structure (tree density) and landscape context (surrounding vegetation). We found very few cavity nesters in fragments predominantly surrounded by forests. Fragments adjacent to meadows contained more species and a greater abundance of cavity nesters. Species richness and abundance were higher in sparsely than in densely treed meadow fragments. Because secondary cavity nesters are often limited by cavity availability, we augmented natural cavities with nest boxes. Although only five boxes contained bird nests, these were all in sparse aspen fragments predominantly surrounded by meadows. However, we found 25 northern flying squirrel (Glaucomys sabrinus) nests in boxes, none of which were in sparse meadow fragments. In addition to high-lighting the importance of landscape context in avian and mammalian habitat relationships, our results suggest that predator or competitor interactions may help structure this cavity-nester community. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2002.

  9. Living in forest fragments reduces group cohesion in diademed sifakas (Propithecus diadema) in eastern Madagascar by reducing food patch size.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Mitchell T

    2007-04-01

    Forest fragmentation is thought to threaten primate populations, yet the mechanisms by which this occurs remain largely unknown. However, fragmentation is known to cause dietary shifts in several primate species, and links between food resource distribution and within-group spatial dynamics are well documented. Thus, fragmentation has the potential to indirectly affect spatial dynamics, and these changes may present additional stresses to fragmented populations. I present the results from a 12-month study of Propithecus diadema at Tsinjoarivo, eastern Madagascar, including two groups in fragments and two in continuous forest. Instantaneous data on activity and spatial position were collected during all-day focal animal follows. Fragment groups had much lower cohesion, being more likely to have no neighbor within 5 and 10 m. For continuous forest groups, cohesion was highest in the rainy season (when food patches are large) and lowest in winter (when the animals rely on small-crowned mistletoes), and the chance of having no neighbor within 5 m was positively correlated with mistletoe consumption. Thus their decreased cohesion in fragment groups is inferred to result from their increased reliance on mistletoes and other small resources, which causes them to spread out among multiple patches. This scenario is consistent with the reduced body mass of subordinate individuals (males and immatures) in fragments, and suggests the occurrence of steeper within-group fitness gradients. Further research is necessary to determine whether these patterns apply to other primates; however, since fragmentation tends to cause the loss of the largest trees, many primates in fragments may lose their largest food resources and undergo similar behavioral shifts.

  10. Effects of patch size and type of coffee matrix on ithomiine butterfly diversity and dispersal in cloud-forest fragments.

    PubMed

    Muriel, Sandra B; Kattan, Gustavo H

    2009-08-01

    Determining the permeability of different types of landscape matrices to animal movement is essential for conserving populations in fragmented landscapes. We evaluated the effects of habitat patch size and matrix type on diversity, isolation, and dispersal of ithomiine butterflies in forest fragments surrounded by coffee agroecosystems in the Colombian Andes. Because ithomiines prefer a shaded understory, we expected the highest diversity and abundance in large fragments surrounded by shade coffee and the lowest in small fragments surrounded by sun coffee. We also thought shade coffee would favor butterfly dispersal and immigration into forest patches. We marked 9675 butterflies of 39 species in 12 forest patches over a year. Microclimate conditions were more similar to the forest interior in the shade-coffee matrix than in the sun-coffee matrix, but patch size and matrix type did not affect species richness and abundance in forest fragments. Furthermore, age structure and temporal recruitment patterns of the butterfly community were similar in all fragments, independent of patch size or matrix type. There were no differences in the numbers of butterflies flying in the matrices at two distances from the forest patch, but their behavior differed. Flight in the sun-coffee matrix was rapid and directional, whereas butterflies in shade-coffee matrix flew slowly. Seven out of 130 recaptured butterflies immigrated into patches in the shade-coffee matrix, and one immigrated into a patch surrounded by sun coffee. Although the shade-coffee matrix facilitated movement in the landscape, sun-coffee matrix was not impermeable to butterflies. Ithomiines exhibited behavioral plasticity in habitat use and high mobility. These traits favor their persistence in heterogeneous landscapes, opening opportunities for their conservation. Understanding the dynamics and resource requirements of different organisms in rural landscapes is critical for identifying management options that

  11. Using remote sensing to assess tsunami-induced impacts on coastal forest ecosystems at the Andaman Sea coast of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roemer, H.; Kaiser, G.; Sterr, H.; Ludwig, R.

    2010-04-01

    The December 2004 tsunami strongly impacted coastal ecosystems along the Andaman Sea coast of Thailand. In this paper tsunami-induced damage of five different coastal forest ecosystems at the Phang-Nga province coast is analysed with a remote sensing driven approach based on multi-date IKONOS imagery. Two change detection algorithms, change vector analysis (CVA) and direct multi-date classification (DMC), are applied and compared regarding their applicability to assess tsunami impacts. The analysis shows that DMC outperforms CVA in terms of accuracy (Kappa values for DMC ranging between 0.947 and 0.950 and between 0.610-0.730 for CVA respectively) and the degree of detail of the created change classes. Results from DMC show that mangroves were the worst damaged among the five forests, with a 55% of directly damaged forest in the study area, followed by casuarina forest and coconut plantation. Additionally this study points out the uncertainties in both methods which are mainly due to a lack of ground truth information for the time between the two acquisition dates of satellite images. The created damage maps help to better understand the way the tsunami impacted coastal forests and give basic information for estimating tsunami sensitivity of coastal forests.

  12. Blow Flies from Forest Fragments Embedded in Different Land Uses: Implications for Selecting Indicators in Forensic Entomology.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Mirian S; Pepinelli, Mateus; de Almeida, Eduardo C; Ochoa-Quintero, Jose M; Roque, Fabio O

    2016-01-01

    Given the general expectation that forest loss can alter biodiversity patterns, we hypothesize that blow fly species abundances differ in a gradient of native vegetation cover. This study was conducted in 17 fragments across different landscapes in central Brazil. Different land cover type proportions were used to represent landscape structure. In total, 2334 specimens of nine species of Calliphoridae were collected. We used principal component analysis (PCA) to reduce dimensionality and multicollinearity of the landscape data. The first component explained 70%, and it represented a gradient of forest-pasture land uses. Alien species showed a wide distribution in different fragments with no clear relationship between the abundance values and the scores of PCA axes, whereas native species occurred only in areas with a predominance of forest cover. Our study revealed that certain native species may be sensitive to forest loss at the landscape scale, and they represent a bioindicator in forensic entomology. © 2015 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  13. Effects of Forest Fragmentation on Genetic Diversity of the Critically Endangered Primate, the Pied Tamarin (Saguinus bicolor): Implications for Conservation.

    PubMed

    Farias, Izeni P; Santos, Wancley G; Gordo, Marcelo; Hrbek, Tomas

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed DNA at 9 microsatellite loci from hair samples of 73 pied tamarins (Saguinus bicolor) located in 3 urban forest fragments and a biological reserve in the city of Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil. The forest fragments had become isolated from the continuous forest 6-15 years prior to the time of sampling. Tests for reduction in population size showed that all groups from the urban forest fragments had undergone genetic bottlenecks. Pied tamarins in this region historically formed one biological population, and the fragments were connected by high levels of gene flow. These results indicate the need to implement a conservation plan that allows for connectivity between the urban fragments, as well as protection from further constriction. Such connectivity could be achieved via the creation and protection of corridors. In addition to the current population trends explained by anthropogenic actions, the species also shows a trend of long-term demographic decline that has resulted in approximately an order of magnitude decrease and began 13 thousand years ago. © The American Genetic Association 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Multimodeling Framework for Predicting Water Quality in Fragmented Agriculture-Forest Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rose, J. B.; Guber, A.; Porter, W. F.; Williams, D.; Tamrakar, S.; Dechen Quinn, A.

    2012-12-01

    Both livestock and wildlife are major contributors of nonpoint pollution of surface water bodies. The interactions among them can substantially increase the chance of contamination especially in fragmented agriculture-forest landscapes, where wildlife (e.g. white tailed deer) can transmit diseases between remote farms. Unfortunately, models currently available for predicting fate and transport of microorganisms in these ecosystems do not account for such interactions. The objectives of this study are to develop and test a multimodeling framework that assesses the risk of microbial contamination of surface water caused by wildlife-livestock interactions in fragmented agriculture-forest ecosystems. The framework consists of a modified Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), KINematic Runoff and EROSion model (KINEROS2) with the add-on module STWIR (Microorganism Transport with Infiltration and Runoff), RAMAS GIS, SIR compartmental model and Quantitative Microbial Risk Assessment model (QMRA). The watershed-scale model SWAT simulates plant biomass growth, wash-off of microorganisms from foliage and soil, overland and in-stream microbial transport, microbial growth, and die-off in foliage and soil. RAMAS GIS model predicts the most probable habitat and subsequent population of white-tailed deer based on land use and crop biomass. KINEROS-STWIR simulates overland transport of microorganisms released from soil, surface applied manure, and fecal deposits during runoff events at high temporal and special resolutions. KINEROS-STWIR and RAMAS GIS provide input for an SIR compartmental model which simulates disease transmission within and between deer groups. This information is used in SWAT model to account for transmission and deposition of pathogens by white tailed deer in stream water, foliage and soil. The QMRA approach extends to microorganisms inactivated in forage and water consumed by deer. Probabilities of deer infections and numbers of infected animals are computed

  15. Integration of ALOS/PALSAR backscatter with a LiDAR-derived canopy height map to quantify forest fragmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, N.; Dubayah, R.; Simard, M.; Fatoyinbo, T. E.

    2011-12-01

    Habitat loss is the main predictor of species extinctions and must be characterized in high-biodiversity ecosystems where land cover change is pervasive. Forests' ability to support viable animal populations is typically modeled as a function of the presence of linkages or corridors, and quantified with fragmentation metrics. In this scenario, small forest patches and linear (e.g. riparian) zones can act as keystone structures. Fine-resolution, all-weather Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data from ALOS/PALSAR is well-suited to resolve forest fragments in tropical sites. This study summarizes a technique for integrating fragmentation metrics from ALOS/PALSAR with vertical structure data from ICESat/GLAS to produce fine-resolution (30 m) forest habitat metrics that capture both local quality (canopy height) as well as spatial context and multi-scale connectivity. We illustrate our approach with backscatter images acquired over the Brazilian Atlantic Forest, a biodiversity hotspot. ALOS/PALSAR 1.1 images acquired over the dry season were calibrated to calculate gamma naught and map forest cover via tresholding. We employ network algorithms to locate dispersal bottlenecks between conservation units. The location of keystone structures is compared against a model that uses coarse (500m) percent tree cover as an input.

  16. Spatial and Temporal Stream Temperature Response to Contemporary Forest Harvesting in the Oregon Coast Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bladon, K. D.; Cook, N. A.; Light, J. T.; Segura, C.; Teply, M.

    2015-12-01

    Historical research at the Alsea Watershed Study (1958-1973), in the Oregon Coast Range, demonstrated that clear-cut harvesting, with complete removal of riparian vegetation, can result in large and dramatic changes in mean daily, maximum daily, diurnal variation, and annual patterns in stream temperature (Ts). This previous research was instrumental in the addition of regulations in the Oregon Forest Practices Act of 1971, necessitating retention of streamside vegetation (riparian management zones) in harvest units to maintain water quality and aquatic habitat. Due to the ecological importance of Ts, preventing or mitigating changes in the thermal regime following land use activities, such as forest harvesting, is a primary focus of contemporary forest watershed management. The Alsea Watershed Study Revisited (2006-Present) has provided a unique opportunity to investigate the Ts responses to contemporary forest harvesting practices and compare these with the impacts from the 1960's harvest. In general, Ts increases from late spring through about mid-July, with peak Ts occuring between about mid-July and mid-August, after which Ts decreases into the fall. During the pre-harvest period (2006-2008; n=244) the June to September mean daily maximum Ts was 13.0°C in Flynn Creek (control) and 12.0°C in Needle Branch (harvested). In the post-harvest period (2010-2012; n=240) the June to September mean daily maximum Ts was 12.4°C in Flynn Creek (control) and 12.0°C in Needle Branch (harvested). Similarly, the difference (Flynn Ck - Needle Branch) in 7 day moving mean of daily maximum Ts decreased from the pre-harvest (1.0°C) to the post-harvest (0.3°C) period, which was principally driven by a decrease in Ts in the control catchment. Longitudinal sampling of Ts within Needle Branch indicated a cooling trend such that the slight increases in post-harvest Ts weren't detectable in downstream, unharvested stream reaches.

  17. Coupled nitrogen and calcium cycling in forests of the Oregon Coast Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perakis, Steven S.; Maguire, Douglas A.; Bullen, Thomas D.; Cromack, Kermit; Waring, Richard H.; Boyle, James R.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a critical limiting nutrient that regulates plant productivity and the cycling of other essential elements in forests. We measured foliar and soil nutrients in 22 young Douglas-fir stands in the Oregon Coast Range to examine patterns of nutrient availability across a gradient of N-poor to N-rich soils. N in surface mineral soil ranged from 0.15 to 1.05% N, and was positively related to a doubling of foliar N across sites. Foliar N in half of the sites exceeded 1.4% N, which is considered above the threshold of N-limitation in coastal Oregon Douglas-fir. Available nitrate increased five-fold across this gradient, whereas exchangeable magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) in soils declined, suggesting that nitrate leaching influences base cation availability more than soil parent material across our sites. Natural abundance strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) of a single site indicated that 97% of available base cations can originate from atmospheric inputs of marine aerosols, with negligible contributions from weathering. Low annual inputs of Ca relative to Douglas-fir growth requirements may explain why foliar Ca concentrations are highly sensitive to variations in soil Ca across our sites. Natural abundance calcium isotopes (I'44Ca) in exchangeable and acid leachable pools of surface soil measured at a single site showed 1 per mil depletion relative to deep soil, suggesting strong Ca recycling to meet tree demands. Overall, the biogeochemical response of these Douglas-fir forests to gradients in soil N is similar to changes associated with chronic N deposition in more polluted temperate regions, and raises the possibility that Ca may be deficient on excessively N-rich sites. We conclude that wide gradients in soil N can drive non-linear changes in base-cation biogeochemistry, particularly as forests cross a threshold from N-limitation to N-saturation. The most acute changes may occur in forests where base cations are derived principally from atmospheric

  18. Coupled nitrogen and calcium cycles in forests of the Oregon Coast Range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Perakis, S.S.; Maguire, D.A.; Bullen, T.D.; Cromack, K.; Waring, R.H.; Boyle, J.R.

    2006-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) is a critical limiting nutrient that regulates plant productivity and the cycling of other essential elements in forests. We measured foliar and soil nutrients in 22 young Douglas-fir stands in the Oregon Coast Range to examine patterns of nutrient availability across a gradient of N-poor to N-rich soils. N in surface mineral soil ranged from 0.15 to 1.05% N, and was positively related to a doubling of foliar N across sites. Foliar N in half of the sites exceeded 1.4% N, which is considered above the threshold of N-limitation in coastal Oregon Douglas-fir. Available nitrate increased five-fold across this gradient, whereas exchangeable magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) in soils declined, suggesting that nitrate leaching influences base cation availability more than soil parent material across our sites. Natural abundance strontium isotopes (87Sr/86Sr) of a single site indicated that 97% of available base cations can originate from atmospheric inputs of marine aerosols, with negligible contributions from weathering. Low annual inputs of Ca relative to Douglas-fir growth requirements may explain why foliar Ca concentrations are highly sensitive to variations in soil Ca across our sites. Natural abundance calcium isotopes (??44Ca) in exchangeable and acid leachable pools of surface soil measured at a single site showed 1 per mil depletion relative to deep soil, suggesting strong Ca recycling to meet tree demands. Overall, the biogeochemical response of these Douglas-fir forests to gradients in soil N is similar to changes associated with chronic N deposition in more polluted temperate regions, and raises the possibility that Ca may be deficient on excessively N-rich sites. We conclude that wide gradients in soil N can drive non-linear changes in base-cation biogeochemistry, particularly as forests cross a threshold from N-limitation to N-saturation. The most acute changes may occur in forests where base cations are derived principally from atmospheric

  19. Yeast communities in two Atlantic rain Forest fragments in Southeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pimenta, Raphael S.; Alves, Priscila D. D.; Almeida, Gabriel M. F.; Silva, Juliana F.M; Morais, Paula B.; Corrêa Jr., Ary; Rosa, Carlos A.

    2009-01-01

    We studied the yeast communities associated with fruits, mushrooms, tree exudates, and flies of the genus Drosophila, in two Atlantic Rain Forest fragments in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 456 samples were collected from Rio Doce State Park and 142 from Ecological Station of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. From these samples, 608 yeast isolates were obtained, belonging to 71 different species. Among the yeasts isolated from Rio Doce State Park, 17 isolates were recovered from fruits, 12 from mushrooms, 13 from tree exudates, and 299 from Drosophila spp. In the Ecological Station of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 24 isolates were recovered from fruits and 243 from Drosophila spp. Distinct communities of yeast were observed in Drosophila flies, fruits, mushrooms and tree exudates. The highest number of yeast species was recovered from Drosophila flies suggesting that flies are the natural vectors of these microorganisms. PMID:24031324

  20. Yeast communities in two Atlantic rain Forest fragments in Southeast Brazil.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Raphael S; Alves, Priscila D D; Almeida, Gabriel M F; Silva, Juliana F M; Morais, Paula B; Corrêa, Ary; Rosa, Carlos A

    2009-01-01

    We studied the yeast communities associated with fruits, mushrooms, tree exudates, and flies of the genus Drosophila, in two Atlantic Rain Forest fragments in state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. A total of 456 samples were collected from Rio Doce State Park and 142 from Ecological Station of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. From these samples, 608 yeast isolates were obtained, belonging to 71 different species. Among the yeasts isolated from Rio Doce State Park, 17 isolates were recovered from fruits, 12 from mushrooms, 13 from tree exudates, and 299 from Drosophila spp. In the Ecological Station of Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 24 isolates were recovered from fruits and 243 from Drosophila spp. Distinct communities of yeast were observed in Drosophila flies, fruits, mushrooms and tree exudates. The highest number of yeast species was recovered from Drosophila flies suggesting that flies are the natural vectors of these microorganisms.

  1. Assessment of organochlorine pesticide residues in Atlantic Rain Forest fragments, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Quinete, Natalia Soares; de Oliveira, Elba dos Santos; Fernandes, Daniella R; Avelar, Andre de Souza; Santelli, Ricardo Erthal

    2011-12-01

    A superficial water quality survey in a watershed of the Paraíba do Sul River, the main water supply for the most populated cities of southeastern Brazil, was held in order to assess the impact of the expansion of agricultural activity in the near border of the Atlantic Rain Forest. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of priority organochlorine pollutants in soils and superficial waters of Atlantic rainforest fragments in Teresópolis, Rio de Janeiro State. Soil sample preparations were compared by using ultrasound, microwave assisted extraction and Soxhlet extraction. Recoveries of matrix spiked samples ranged from 70 to 130%. Analysis of a certified soil material showed recoveries ranging from 71 to 234%. Although low concentrations of organochlorine residues were found in water and soil samples, this area is of environmental importance and concern, thus demanding a monitoring program of its compartments.

  2. Better Few than Hungry: Flexible Feeding Ecology of Collared Lemurs Eulemur collaris in Littoral Forest Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Donati, Giuseppe; Kesch, Kristina; Ndremifidy, Kelard; Schmidt, Stacey L.; Ramanamanjato, Jean-Baptiste; Borgognini-Tarli, Silvana M.; Ganzhorn, Joerg U.

    2011-01-01

    Background Frugivorous primates are known to encounter many problems to cope with habitat degradation, due to the fluctuating spatial and temporal distribution of their food resources. Since lemur communities evolved strategies to deal with periods of food scarcity, these primates are expected to be naturally adapted to fluctuating ecological conditions and to tolerate a certain degree of habitat changes. However, behavioral and ecological strategies adopted by frugivorous lemurs to survive in secondary habitats have been little investigated. Here, we compared the behavioral ecology of collared lemurs (Eulemur collaris) in a degraded fragment of littoral forest of south-east Madagascar, Mandena, with that of their conspecifics in a more intact habitat, Sainte Luce. Methodology/Principal Findings Lemur groups in Mandena and in Sainte Luce were censused in 2004/2007 and in 2000, respectively. Data were collected via instantaneous sampling on five lemur groups totaling 1,698 observation hours. The Shannon index was used to determine dietary diversity and nutritional analyses were conducted to assess food quality. All feeding trees were identified and measured, and ranging areas determined via the minimum convex polygon. In the degraded area lemurs were able to modify several aspects of their feeding strategies by decreasing group size and by increasing feeding time, ranging areas, and number of feeding trees. The above strategies were apparently able to counteract a clear reduction in both food quality and size of feeding trees. Conclusions/Significance Our findings indicate that collared lemurs in littoral forest fragments modified their behavior to cope with the pressures of fluctuating resource availability. The observed flexibility is likely to be an adaptation to Malagasy rainforests, which are known to undergo periods of fruit scarcity and low productivity. These results should be carefully considered when relocating lemurs or when selecting suitable areas for

  3. Deagrarianisation and forest revegetation in a biodiversity hotspot on the Wild Coast, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Shackleton, Ross; Shackleton, Charlie; Shackleton, Sheona; Gambiza, James

    2014-01-01

    Deagraianisation is a worldwide phenomenon with widespread social, ecological and economic effects yet with little consensus on the local or higher level causes. There have been contested views on the causes and consequences of deagrarianisation on South Africa's Wild Coast, which is an international biodiversity hotspot. Using GIS, household interviews and ecological sampling, we compared the perspectives of current and former cultivators as to why some have abandoned farming, whilst also tracking the uses and woody plant cover and composition of fields abandoned at different periods. The GIS analysis showed that field abandonment had been ongoing over several decades, with a decline from 12.5 % field cover in 1961 to 2.7 % in 2009. The area of forests and woodlands almost doubled in the corresponding period. There was a distinct peak in field abandonment during the time of political transition at the national level in the early 1990 s. This political change led to a decrease in government support for livestock farming, which in turn resulted in reduced animal draught power at the household and community level, and hence reduced cropping. The study showed it is largely the wealthier households that have remained in arable agriculture and that the poorer households have abandoned farming. The abandoned fields show a distinct trend of increasing woody biomass and species richness with length of time since abandonment, with approximately three woody plant species added per decade. Most local respondents dislike the increases in forest and woodland extent and density because of anxiety about wild animals causing harm to crops and even humans, and the loss of an agricultural identity to livelihoods and the landscape.

  4. Deagrarianisation and Forest Revegetation in a Biodiversity Hotspot on the Wild Coast, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Shackleton, Ross; Shackleton, Charlie; Shackleton, Sheona; Gambiza, James

    2013-01-01

    Deagraianisation is a worldwide phenomenon with widespread social, ecological and economic effects yet with little consensus on the local or higher level causes. There have been contested views on the causes and consequences of deagrarianisation on South Africa’s Wild Coast, which is an international biodiversity hotspot. Using GIS, household interviews and ecological sampling, we compared the perspectives of current and former cultivators as to why some have abandoned farming, whilst also tracking the uses and woody plant cover and composition of fields abandoned at different periods. The GIS analysis showed that field abandonment had been ongoing over several decades, with a decline from 12.5 % field cover in 1961 to 2.7 % in 2009. The area of forests and woodlands almost doubled in the corresponding period. There was a distinct peak in field abandonment during the time of political transition at the national level in the early 1990s. This political change led to a decrease in government support for livestock farming, which in turn resulted in reduced animal draught power at the household and community level, and hence reduced cropping. The study showed it is largely the wealthier households that have remained in arable agriculture and that the poorer households have abandoned farming. The abandoned fields show a distinct trend of increasing woody biomass and species richness with length of time since abandonment, with approximately three woody plant species added per decade. Most local respondents dislike the increases in forest and woodland extent and density because of anxiety about wild animals causing harm to crops and even humans, and the loss of an agricultural identity to livelihoods and the landscape. PMID:24155911

  5. Deagrarianisation and forest revegetation in a biodiversity hotspot on the Wild Coast, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Shackleton, Ross; Shackleton, Charlie; Shackleton, Sheona; Gambiza, James

    2013-01-01

    Deagraianisation is a worldwide phenomenon with widespread social, ecological and economic effects yet with little consensus on the local or higher level causes. There have been contested views on the causes and consequences of deagrarianisation on South Africa's Wild Coast, which is an international biodiversity hotspot. Using GIS, household interviews and ecological sampling, we compared the perspectives of current and former cultivators as to why some have abandoned farming, whilst also tracking the uses and woody plant cover and composition of fields abandoned at different periods. The GIS analysis showed that field abandonment had been ongoing over several decades, with a decline from 12.5 % field cover in 1961 to 2.7 % in 2009. The area of forests and woodlands almost doubled in the corresponding period. There was a distinct peak in field abandonment during the time of political transition at the national level in the early 1990s. This political change led to a decrease in government support for livestock farming, which in turn resulted in reduced animal draught power at the household and community level, and hence reduced cropping. The study showed it is largely the wealthier households that have remained in arable agriculture and that the poorer households have abandoned farming. The abandoned fields show a distinct trend of increasing woody biomass and species richness with length of time since abandonment, with approximately three woody plant species added per decade. Most local respondents dislike the increases in forest and woodland extent and density because of anxiety about wild animals causing harm to crops and even humans, and the loss of an agricultural identity to livelihoods and the landscape.

  6. Landscape genetic analyses reveal fine-scale effects of forest fragmentation in an insular tropical bird.

    PubMed

    Khimoun, Aurélie; Peterman, William; Eraud, Cyril; Faivre, Bruno; Navarro, Nicolas; Garnier, Stéphane

    2017-07-20

    Within the framework of landscape genetics, resistance surface modelling is particularly relevant to explicitly test competing hypotheses about landscape effects on gene flow. To investigate how fragmentation of tropical forest affects population connectivity in a forest specialist bird species, we optimized resistance surfaces without a priori specification, using least-cost (LCP) or resistance (IBR) distances. We implemented a two-step procedure in order (i) to objectively define the landscape thematic resolution (level of detail in classification scheme to describe landscape variables) and spatial extent (area within the landscape boundaries) and then (ii) to test the relative role of several landscape features (elevation, roads, land cover) in genetic differentiation in the Plumbeous Warbler (Setophaga plumbea). We detected a small-scale reduction of gene flow mainly driven by land cover, with a negative impact of the nonforest matrix on landscape functional connectivity. However, matrix components did not equally constrain gene flow, as their conductivity increased with increasing structural similarity with forest habitat: urban areas and meadows had the highest resistance values whereas agricultural areas had intermediate resistance values. Our results revealed a higher performance of IBR compared to LCP in explaining gene flow, reflecting suboptimal movements across this human-modified landscape, challenging the common use of LCP to design habitat corridors and advocating for a broader use of circuit theory modelling. Finally, our results emphasize the need for an objective definition of landscape scales (landscape extent and thematic resolution) and highlight potential pitfalls associated with parameterization of resistance surfaces. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Role of storms and forest practices in sedimentation of an Oregon Coast Range lake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richardson, K.; Hatten, J. A.; Wheatcroft, R. A.; Guerrero, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The design of better management practices in forested watersheds to face climate change and the associated increase in the frequency of extreme events requires a better understanding of watershed responses to extreme events in the past and also under management regimes. One of the most sensitive watershed processes affected is sediment yield. Lake sediments record events which occur in a watershed and provide an opportunity to examine the interaction of storms and forest management practices in the layers of the stratigraphy. We hypothesize that timber harvesting and road building since the 1900s has resulted in increases in sedimentation; however, the passage of the Oregon Forest Practices Act (OFPA) in 1972 has led to a decrease in sedimentation. Sediment cores were taken at Loon Lake in the Oregon Coast Range. The 32-m deep lake captures sediment from a catchment highly impacted by recent land use and episodic Pacific storms. We can use sedimentological tools to measure changes in sediment production as motivated by extreme floods before settlement, during a major timber harvesting period, and after installation of forestry Best Management Practices. Quantification of changes in particle size and elemental composition (C, N, C/N) throughout the cores can elucidate changes in watershed response to extreme events, as can changes in layer thickness. Age control in the cores is being established by Cesium-137 and radiocarbon dating. Given the instrumental meteorological data and decadal climate reconstructions, we will disentangle climate driven signals from changes in land use practices. The sediment shows distinct laminations and varying thickness of layers throughout the cores. Background deposition is composed of thin layers (<0.5 cm) of fine silts and clays, punctuated by thicker layers (3-25 cm) every 10 to 75 cm. These thick layers consist of distinctly textured units, generally fining upward. We interpret the thick layers in Loon Lake to be deposited by

  8. A Framework to Predict the Impacts of Shale Gas Infrastructures on the Forest Fragmentation of an Agroforest Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racicot, Alexandre; Babin-Roussel, Véronique; Dauphinais, Jean-François; Joly, Jean-Sébastien; Noël, Pascal; Lavoie, Claude

    2014-05-01

    We propose a framework to facilitate the evaluation of the impacts of shale gas infrastructures (well pads, roads, and pipelines) on land cover features, especially with regards to forest fragmentation. We used a geographic information system and realistic development scenarios largely inspired by the PA (United States) experience, but adapted to a region of QC (Canada) with an already fragmented forest cover and a high gas potential. The scenario with the greatest impact results from development limited by regulatory constraints only, with no access to private roads for connecting well pads to the public road network. The scenario with the lowest impact additionally integrates ecological constraints (deer yards, maple woodlots, and wetlands). Overall the differences between these two scenarios are relatively minor, with <1 % of the forest cover lost in each case. However, large areas of core forests would be lost in both scenarios and the number of forest patches would increase by 13-21 % due to fragmentation. The pipeline network would have a much greater footprint on the land cover than access roads. Using data acquired since the beginning of the shale gas industry, we show that it is possible, within a reasonable time frame, to produce a robust assessment of the impacts of shale gas extraction. The framework we propose could easily be applied to other contexts or jurisdictions.

  9. Functional traits variation explains the distribution of Aextoxicon punctatum (Aextoxicaceae) in pronounced moisture gradients within fog-dependent forest fragments.

    PubMed

    Salgado-Negret, Beatriz; Canessa, Rafaella; Valladares, Fernando; Armesto, Juan J; Pérez, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Climate change and fragmentation are major threats to world forests. Understanding how functional traits related to drought tolerance change across small-scale, pronounced moisture gradients in fragmented forests is important to predict species' responses to these threats. In the case of Aextoxicon punctatum, a dominant canopy tree in fog-dependent rain forest patches in semiarid Chile, we explored how the magnitude, variability and correlation patterns of leaf and xylem vessel traits and hydraulic conductivity varied across soil moisture (SM) gradients established within and among forest patches of different size, which are associated with differences in tree establishment and mortality patterns. Leaf traits varied across soil-moisture gradients produced by fog interception. Trees growing at drier leeward edges showed higher leaf mass per area, trichome and stomatal density than trees from the wetter core and windward zones. In contrast, xylem vessel traits (vessels diameter and density) did not vary producing loss of hydraulic conductivity at drier leeward edges. We also detected higher levels of phenotypic integration and variability at leeward edges. The ability of A. punctatum to modify leaf traits in response to differences in SM availability established over short distances (<500 m) facilitates its persistence in contrasting microhabitats within forest patches. However, xylem anatomy showed limited plasticity, which increases cavitation risk at leeward edges. Greater patch fragmentation, together with fluctuations in irradiance and SM in small patches, could result in higher risk of drought-related tree mortality, with profound impacts on hydrological balances at the ecosystem scale.

  10. A framework to predict the impacts of shale gas infrastructures on the forest fragmentation of an agroforest region.

    PubMed

    Racicot, Alexandre; Babin-Roussel, Véronique; Dauphinais, Jean-François; Joly, Jean-Sébastien; Noël, Pascal; Lavoie, Claude

    2014-05-01

    We propose a framework to facilitate the evaluation of the impacts of shale gas infrastructures (well pads, roads, and pipelines) on land cover features, especially with regards to forest fragmentation. We used a geographic information system and realistic development scenarios largely inspired by the PA (United States) experience, but adapted to a region of QC (Canada) with an already fragmented forest cover and a high gas potential. The scenario with the greatest impact results from development limited by regulatory constraints only, with no access to private roads for connecting well pads to the public road network. The scenario with the lowest impact additionally integrates ecological constraints (deer yards, maple woodlots, and wetlands). Overall the differences between these two scenarios are relatively minor, with <1 % of the forest cover lost in each case. However, large areas of core forests would be lost in both scenarios and the number of forest patches would increase by 13-21 % due to fragmentation. The pipeline network would have a much greater footprint on the land cover than access roads. Using data acquired since the beginning of the shale gas industry, we show that it is possible, within a reasonable time frame, to produce a robust assessment of the impacts of shale gas extraction. The framework we propose could easily be applied to other contexts or jurisdictions.

  11. Functional traits variation explains the distribution of Aextoxicon punctatum (Aextoxicaceae) in pronounced moisture gradients within fog-dependent forest fragments

    PubMed Central

    Salgado-Negret, Beatriz; Canessa, Rafaella; Valladares, Fernando; Armesto, Juan J.; Pérez, Fernanda

    2015-01-01

    Climate change and fragmentation are major threats to world forests. Understanding how functional traits related to drought tolerance change across small-scale, pronounced moisture gradients in fragmented forests is important to predict species’ responses to these threats. In the case of Aextoxicon punctatum, a dominant canopy tree in fog-dependent rain forest patches in semiarid Chile, we explored how the magnitude, variability and correlation patterns of leaf and xylem vessel traits and hydraulic conductivity varied across soil moisture (SM) gradients established within and among forest patches of different size, which are associated with differences in tree establishment and mortality patterns. Leaf traits varied across soil-moisture gradients produced by fog interception. Trees growing at drier leeward edges showed higher leaf mass per area, trichome and stomatal density than trees from the wetter core and windward zones. In contrast, xylem vessel traits (vessels diameter and density) did not vary producing loss of hydraulic conductivity at drier leeward edges. We also detected higher levels of phenotypic integration and variability at leeward edges. The ability of A. punctatum to modify leaf traits in response to differences in SM availability established over short distances (<500 m) facilitates its persistence in contrasting microhabitats within forest patches. However, xylem anatomy showed limited plasticity, which increases cavitation risk at leeward edges. Greater patch fragmentation, together with fluctuations in irradiance and SM in small patches, could result in higher risk of drought-related tree mortality, with profound impacts on hydrological balances at the ecosystem scale. PMID:26257746

  12. Low functional richness and redundancy of a predator assemblage in native forest fragments of Chiloe island, Chile.

    PubMed

    Farias, Ariel A; Jaksic, Fabian M

    2011-07-01

    1. Changes in land use and habitat fragmentation are major drivers of global change, and studying their effects on biodiversity constitutes a major research programme. However, biodiversity is a multifaceted concept, with a functional component linking species richness to ecosystem function. Currently, the interaction between functional and taxonomic components of biodiversity under realistic scenarios of habitat degradation is poorly understood. 2. The expected functional richness (FR)-species richness relationship (FRSR) is positive, and attenuated for functional redundancy in species-rich assemblages. Further, environmental filters are expected to flatten that association by sorting species with similar traits. Thus, analysing FRSR can inform about the response of biodiversity to environmental gradients and habitat fragmentation, and its expected functional consequences. 3. Top predators affect ecosystem functioning through prey consumption and are particularly vulnerable to changes in land use and habitat fragmentation, being good indicators of ecosystem health and suitable models for assessing the effects of habitat fragmentation on their FR. 4. Thus, this study analyses the functional redundancy of a vertebrate predator assemblage at temperate forest fragments in a rural landscape of Chiloe island (Chile), testing the existence of environmental filters by contrasting an empirically derived FRSR against those predicted from null models, and testing the association between biodiversity components and the structure of forest fragments. 5. Overall, contrasts against null models indicate that regional factors determine low levels of FR and redundancy for the vertebrate predator assemblage studied, while recorded linear FRSR indicates proportional responses of the two biodiversity components to the structure of forest fragments. Further, most species were positively associated with either fragment size or shape complexity, which are highly correlated. This, and the

  13. Implications of Fine-Grained Habitat Fragmentation and Road Mortality for Jaguar Conservation in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cullen, Laury; Stanton, Jessica C; Lima, Fernando; Uezu, Alexandre; Perilli, Miriam L L; Akçakaya, H Reşit

    2016-01-01

    Jaguar (Panthera onca) populations in the Upper Paraná River, in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest region, live in a landscape that includes highly fragmented areas as well as relatively intact ones. We developed a model of jaguar habitat suitability in this region, and based on this habitat model, we developed a spatially structured metapopulation model of the jaguar populations in this area to analyze their viability, the potential impact of road mortality on the populations' persistence, and the interaction between road mortality and habitat fragmentation. In more highly fragmented populations, density of jaguars per unit area is lower and density of roads per jaguar is higher. The populations with the most fragmented habitat were predicted to have much lower persistence in the next 100 years when the model included no dispersal, indicating that the persistence of these populations are dependent to a large extent on dispersal from other populations. This, in turn, indicates that the interaction between road mortality and habitat fragmentation may lead to source-sink dynamics, whereby populations with highly fragmented habitat are maintained only by dispersal from populations with less fragmented habitat. This study demonstrates the utility of linking habitat and demographic models in assessing impacts on species living in fragmented landscapes.

  14. Implications of Fine-Grained Habitat Fragmentation and Road Mortality for Jaguar Conservation in the Atlantic Forest, Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Cullen, Laury; Stanton, Jessica C.; Lima, Fernando; Uezu, Alexandre; Perilli, Miriam L. L.; Akçakaya, H. Reşit

    2016-01-01

    Jaguar (Panthera onca) populations in the Upper Paraná River, in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest region, live in a landscape that includes highly fragmented areas as well as relatively intact ones. We developed a model of jaguar habitat suitability in this region, and based on this habitat model, we developed a spatially structured metapopulation model of the jaguar populations in this area to analyze their viability, the potential impact of road mortality on the populations' persistence, and the interaction between road mortality and habitat fragmentation. In more highly fragmented populations, density of jaguars per unit area is lower and density of roads per jaguar is higher. The populations with the most fragmented habitat were predicted to have much lower persistence in the next 100 years when the model included no dispersal, indicating that the persistence of these populations are dependent to a large extent on dispersal from other populations. This, in turn, indicates that the interaction between road mortality and habitat fragmentation may lead to source-sink dynamics, whereby populations with highly fragmented habitat are maintained only by dispersal from populations with less fragmented habitat. This study demonstrates the utility of linking habitat and demographic models in assessing impacts on species living in fragmented landscapes. PMID:27973584

  15. Hurricane Mitch: Landscape Analysis of Damaged Forest Resources of the Bay Islands and Caribbean Coast of Honduras

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Doyle, Thomas W.; Michot, Thomas C.; Roetker, Fred; Sullivan, Jason; Melder, Marcus; Handley, Benjamin; Balmat, Jeff

    2002-01-01

    The advent of analog and digital video has provided amateur photographers with professional-like technology to capture dynamic images with ease and clarity. Videography is also rapidly changing traditional business and scientific applications. In the natural sciences, camcorders are being used largely to record timely observations of plant and animal behavior or consequence of some catastrophic event. Spectacular video of dynamic events such as hurricanes, volcanic eruptions and wildfire document the active process and aftermath. Scientists can analyze video images to quantify aspects of a given event, behavior, or response, temporally and spatially. In this study we demonstrate the simple use of an aerial application of videography to record the spatial extent and damage expression of mangrove forest in the Bay Islands and mainland coast of northern Honduras from wind damage following Hurricane Mitch (1998). In this study, we conducted a video overflight of coastal forests of the Bay Islands and mainland coast of northern Honduras 14 months after impact by Hurricane Mitch (1998). Coastal areas were identified where damage was evident and described relative to damage extent to forest cover, windfall orientation, and height of downed trees. The variability and spatial extent of impact on coastal forest resources is related to reconstructed wind profiles based on model simulations of Mitch's path, strength, and circulation during landfall.

  16. Forest fire ash impact on micro- and macroalgae in the receiving waters of the east coast of South Korea.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyun-Woung; Sidharthan, M; Young, Kim Shin

    2002-01-01

    Mountain forest fire ash flushed into the eastern coastal waters of South Korea is known to contain cadmium as one of its significant constituents. To study its impact, two representatives of the micro- and macroalgal communities, Ulva pertusa and Nannochloropsis oculata, were exposed to the concentration range of Cd indicated from the forest fire localities. At low concentrations of 0.224-0.448 mg L(-1), a 20% reduction in growth rate of N. oculata was observed. Chlorophyll a pigment concentration was proportionate to the growth reduction while at higher concentrations (1.792 mg L(-1)) pigments were completely leached. In the macrophyte U. pertusa, a similar trend of pigment leaching was observed. Bioaccumulation factors obtained for these rapidly growing algal species revealed excessive bioconcentration of Cd. Variations in the concentration of Cd among the samples collected along the Korean coast clearly indicated the additional source of metal influx from the forest fires.

  17. Monitoring for ozone injury in West Coast (Oregon, Washington, California) forests in 1998.

    Treesearch

    Sally Campbell; Gretchen Smith; Pat Temple; John Pronos; Regina Rochefort; Chris. Andersen

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, forest vegetation was monitored for ozone injury on permanent plots in two Sierra Nevada national forests in California, at three locations in Mount Rainier National Park in Washington, and at 68 forest health monitoring (FHM) locations throughout Washington, Oregon, and California. This was the first year that extensive monitoring of forest vegetation for...

  18. Family Forest Ownerships with 10+ Acres in the Pacific Coast region, 2011-2013

    Treesearch

    Brett J. Butler; Sarah M. Butler

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Forest Service, Forest Inventory and Analysis program conducts the National Woodland Owner Survey in order to better understand: who owns America's forests, why they own it, what they have done with it in the past, and what they intend to do with it in the future. This document summarizes data on family forest ownerships with 10+ acres in the Pacific...

  19. Quantifying habitat requirements of tree-living species in fragmented boreal forests with Bayesian methods.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Håkan; O'Hara, Robert B; Jonsson, Bengt Gunnar

    2009-10-01

    Quantitative conservation objectives require detailed consideration of the habitat requirements of target species. Tree-living bryophytes, lichens, and fungi are a critical and declining biodiversity component of boreal forests. To understand their requirements, Bayesian methods were used to analyze the relationships between the occurrence of individual species and habitat factors at the tree and the stand scale in a naturally fragmented boreal forest landscape. The importance of unexplained between-stand variation in occurrence of species was estimated, and the ability of derived models to predict species' occurrence was tested. The occurrence of species was affected by quality of individual trees. Furthermore, the relationships between occurrence of species at the tree level and size and shape of stands indicated edge effects, implying that some species were restricted to interior habitats of large, regular stands. Yet for the habitat factors studied, requirements of many species appeared similar. Species occurrence also varied between stands; most of the seemingly suitable trees in some stands were unoccupied. The models captured most variation in species occurrence at tree level. They also successfully accounted for between-stand variation in species occurrence, thus providing realistic simulations of stand-level occupancy of species. Important unexplained between-stand variation in species occurrence warns against a simplified view that only local habitat factors influence species' occurrence. Apparently, similar stands will host populations of different sizes due to historical, spatial, and stochastic factors. Thus, habitat suitability cannot be assessed simply by population sizes, and stands lacking a species may still provide suitable habitat and merit protection.

  20. Variation in dietary breadth among groups of black howler monkeys is not associated with the vegetation attributes of forest fragments.

    PubMed

    Dias, Pedro Américo D; Rangel-Negrín, Ariadna; Coyohua-Fuentes, Alejandro; Canales-Espinosa, Domingo

    2014-12-01

    Habitat disturbance alters vegetation structure and composition. For example, in forest fragments, the rate of secondary plant species recruitment and mortality in species typical of old-growth forests are higher. For many arboreal primates, movement between fragments is infrequent and difficult, thus the dietary breadth of herbivorous primates that live in fragments is expected to change. It is likely that the ability of howler monkeys (Alouatta spp.) to live in a large array of habitat types is related to their ability to exploit a broad set of both difficult to digest and high energy resources. However, if small fragments have fewer trees and plant species, food selection by howler monkeys could be limited, which would undermine their persistence. To address this question, we compared the dietary breadth of 14 groups of Yucatán black howler monkeys (Alouatta pigra) living in different fragments, and hypothesized that dietary breadth should be associated to the vegetation attributes of the habitat. We characterized the vegetation structure and composition in each fragment and collected a total of 3,747 focal hr on the feeding behavior of 60 adult individuals. Dietary diversity, both in terms of the rate of plant species used as food sources (plant species used per unit of time) and percentage of ingested food from the top five plant species with overall highest ingestion rate, was not related to vegetation attributes but rather associated with the degree of folivory, such that higher folivory led to more diverse diets. Groups living in fragments with higher tree density used a larger number of trees as food sources. Therefore, black howler monkeys living in small fragments with disturbed vegetation continued to preserve diet diversity, confirming that dietary diversification is an important goal in the foraging strategy of howler monkeys. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Comparison of Drosophilidae (Diptera) assemblages from two highland Araucaria Forest fragments, with and without environmental conservation policies.

    PubMed

    Cavasini, R; Buschini, M L T; Machado, L P B; Mateus, R P

    2014-11-01

    Flies from the Drosophilidae family are model organisms for biological studies and are often suggested as bioindicators of environmental quality. The Araucaria Forest, one of Atlantic Forest phyto-physiognomy, displays a highly fragmented distribution due to the expansion of agriculture and urbanization. Thus, this work aimed to evaluate and compare the drosophilid assemblages from two highland Araucaria Forest fragments, one a conservation unit (PMA - Parque Municipal das Araucárias) and the other a private property without any conservational policy (FBL - Fazenda Brandalise), in space and time, using species abundances and richness, ecological indexes and Neotropical and exotic species proportions as parameters to establish the level of environmental quality of these fragments. Our results showed that the observed diversity in PMA (H' = 2.221) was approximately 40% higher than in FBL (H' = 1.592). This could be due to higher preservation quality and habitat diversity in PMA, indicating the importance of conservation units. However, richness were similar for these areas, with PMA (Dmg = 6.602) only 8% higher than FBL (Dmg = 6.128), which suggest that the larger distance from city limits and the larger size of FBL forested area could be compensating the higher disturbance caused by antrophic extractive exploitation of this fragment. This points out that, besides the quality of presevertion, the size and/or connection with other fragments should be considered for areas destined for biodiversity conservation. In general, both areas presented similar drosophilid assemblages, and the expressive abundance of both Neotropical species (mostly of the subgroup willistoni) and the exotic species D. kikkawai suggests that these areas are in intermediate stages of conservation.

  2. Initial response of small ground-dwelling mammals to forest alternative buffers along headwater streams in the Washington Coast Range, USA

    Treesearch

    Randall J. Wilk; Martin G. Raphael; Christopher S. Nations; Jeffrey D. Ricklefs

    2010-01-01

    We assessed the short-term effects of alternative designs of forested buffer treatments along headwater streams on small ground-dwelling mammals in managed forests in western Washington, USA. Over three summers (one pretreatment and two posttreatment), we trapped 19 mammalian species along 23 streams in the northern Coast Range. We compared faunal communities in...

  3. Environmental drivers of Ixodes ricinus abundance in forest fragments of rural European landscapes.

    PubMed

    Ehrmann, Steffen; Liira, Jaan; Gärtner, Stefanie; Hansen, Karin; Brunet, Jörg; Cousins, Sara A O; Deconchat, Marc; Decocq, Guillaume; De Frenne, Pieter; De Smedt, Pallieter; Diekmann, Martin; Gallet-Moron, Emilie; Kolb, Annette; Lenoir, Jonathan; Lindgren, Jessica; Naaf, Tobias; Paal, Taavi; Valdés, Alicia; Verheyen, Kris; Wulf, Monika; Scherer-Lorenzen, Michael

    2017-09-06

    The castor bean tick (Ixodes ricinus) transmits infectious diseases such as Lyme borreliosis, which constitutes an important ecosystem disservice. Despite many local studies, a comprehensive understanding of the key drivers of tick abundance at the continental scale is still lacking. We analyze a large set of environmental factors as potential drivers of I. ricinus abundance. Our multi-scale study was carried out in deciduous forest fragments dispersed within two contrasting rural landscapes of eight regions, along a macroclimatic gradient stretching from southern France to central Sweden and Estonia. We surveyed the abundance of I. ricinus, plant community composition, forest structure and soil properties and compiled data on landscape structure, macroclimate and habitat properties. We used linear mixed models to analyze patterns and derived the relative importance of the significant drivers. Many drivers had, on their own, either a moderate or small explanatory value for the abundance of I. ricinus, but combined they explained a substantial part of variation. This emphasizes the complex ecology of I. ricinus and the relevance of environmental factors for tick abundance. Macroclimate only explained a small fraction of variation, while properties of macro- and microhabitat, which buffer macroclimate, had a considerable impact on tick abundance. The amount of forest and the composition of the surrounding rural landscape were additionally important drivers of tick abundance. Functional (dispersules) and structural (density of tree and shrub layers) properties of the habitat patch played an important role. Various diversity metrics had only a small relative importance. Ontogenetic tick stages showed pronounced differences in their response. The abundance of nymphs and adults is explained by the preceding stage with a positive relationship, indicating a cumulative effect of drivers. Our findings suggest that the ecosystem disservices of tick-borne diseases, via the

  4. Very small relict populations suggest high extinction debt of gingers in primary forest fragments of a tropical city.

    PubMed

    Niissalo, Matti A; Leong-Škorničková, Jana; Khew, Gillian S; Webb, Edward L

    2017-01-01

    Tropical plant communities in fragmented forests are likely to experience an extinction debt, i.e., the habitat cannot support as many species as are present due to reduced habitat size and connectivity. There are few estimates of the number of species that represent extinction debt, and the number of extinctions over time has rarely been recorded. We recorded population sizes to assess threats and extinctions in gingers (sensu Zingiberales) in fragmented rainforest in Singapore, ca. 200 yr after fragmentation began. We surveyed extant diversity and population sizes of gingers and used the results to estimate species survival. We critically assessed historic specimens to estimate initial extinctions and extinctions realized in present habitats. We recorded 23 species, including five species previously presumed nationally extinct and four species omitted from the national checklist. The revised extinction rate is much lower than previously reported (12 vs. 37%). Most gingers have very small populations or miniscule ranges, implying that extinction debt has not been paid off. Ginger diversity remains high, but the number of species at immediate risk of extinction outnumber recorded extinctions. Although tropical forest fragments remain arks of plant diversity for a long time, extinction debt may be prevalent in all plant groups in Singapore. Slow relaxation of extinction debt should be explicitly identified as a conservation challenge and opportunity. For conserving plant diversity in tropical fragments, relaxation must be reversed through restoration of degraded landscapes and, where feasible, targeted ex situ conservation and planting. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  5. Effects of forest fragmentation on the seedling recruitment of a tropical herb: assessing seed vs. safe-site limitation.

    PubMed

    Uriarte, María; Bruna, Emilio M; Rubim, Paulo; Anciães, Marina; Jonckheere, Inge

    2010-05-01

    Studies simultaneously evaluating the importance of safe-site and seed limitation for plant establishment are rare, particularly in human-modified landscapes. We used spatially explicit neighborhood models together with data from 10 0.5-ha mapped census plots in a fragmented landscape spanning 1000 km2 to (1) evaluate the relative importance of seed production, dispersal, and safe-site limitation for the recruitment of the understory herb Heliconia acuminata; and (2) determine how these processes differ between fragments and continuous forests. Our analyses demonstrated a large degree of variation in seed production, dispersal, and establishment among and within the 10 study plots. Seed production limitation was strong but only at small spatial scales. Average dispersal distance was less than 4 m, leading to severe dispersal limitation at most sites. Overall, safe-site limitation was the most important constraint on seedling establishment. Fragmentation led to a more heterogeneous light environment with negative consequences for seedling establishment but had little effect on seed production or dispersal. These results suggest that the effects of fragmentation on abiotic processes may be more important than the disruption of biotic interactions in driving biodiversity loss in tropical forests, at least for some functional groups. These effects may be common when the matrix surrounding fragments contains enough tree cover to enable movement of dispersers and pollinators.

  6. Mechanisms Driving Galling Success in a Fragmented Landscape: Synergy of Habitat and Top-Down Factors along Temperate Forest Edges.

    PubMed

    Kelch, Nina-S; Neves, Frederico S; Fernandes, G Wilson; Wirth, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Edge effects play key roles in the anthropogenic transformation of forested ecosystems and their biota, and are therefore a prime field of contemporary fragmentation research. We present the first empirical study to address edge effects on the population level of a widespread galling herbivore in a temperate deciduous forest. By analyzing edge effects on abundance and trophic interactions of beech gall midge (Mikiola fagi Htg.), we found 30% higher gall abundance in the edge habitat as well as lower mortality rates due to decreased top-down control, especially by parasitoids. Two GLM models with similar explanatory power (58%) identified habitat specific traits (such as canopy closure and altitude) and parasitism as the best predictors of gall abundance. Further analyses revealed a crucial influence of light exposure (46%) on top-down control by the parasitoid complex. Guided by a conceptual framework synthesizing the key factors driving gall density, we conclude that forest edge proliferation of M. fagi is due to a complex interplay of abiotic changes and trophic control mechanisms. Most prominently, it is caused by the microclimatic regime in forest edges, acting alone or in synergistic concert with top-down pressure by parasitoids. Contrary to the prevailing notion that specialists are edge-sensitive, this turns M. fagi into a winner species in fragmented temperate beech forests. In view of the increasing proportion of edge habitats and the documented benefits from edge microclimate, we call for investigations exploring the pest status of this galling insect and the modulators of its biological control.

  7. Domestic dogs in a fragmented landscape in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest: abundance, habitat use and caring by owners.

    PubMed

    Torres, P C; Prado, P I

    2010-11-01

    This study aimed at estimating the population size and attitudes of residents towards caring for domestic dogs, through questionnaire surveys, as well as the frequency of these animals in different habitats (anthropic and forest patch), using scent stations. The study was conducted in a severely fragmented area of the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. A large number of unrestricted dogs was recorded, averaging 6.2 ind/km². These dogs have owners and are regularly fed. Dog records decreased from the anthropogenic matrix to the forest patch edge, which suggests that dogs act as an edge effect on forest patches. Encounters between domestic dog and wild animals can still be frequent in severely fragmented landscapes, mainly at the forest edges. However the fact that most dogs have an owner and are more frequent in the anthropic habitat suggests that their putative effects are less severe than expected for a carnivore of such abundance, but the reinforcement of responsible ownership is needed to further ameliorate such effects.

  8. Feather mites (Acari, Astigmata) associated with birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Northeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silva, H M; Hernandes, F A; Pichorim, M

    2015-08-01

    The present study reports associations between feather mites (Astigmata) and birds in an Atlantic Forest fragment in Rio Grande do Norte state, in Brazil. In the laboratory, mites were collected through visual examination of freshly killed birds. Overall, 172 individuals from 38 bird species were examined, between October 2011 and July 2012. The prevalence of feather mites was 80.8%, corresponding to 139 infested individuals distributed into 30 species and 15 families of hosts. Fifteen feather mite taxa could be identified to the species level, sixteen to the genus level and three to the subfamily level, distributed into the families Analgidae, Proctophyllodidae, Psoroptoididae, Pteronyssidae, Xolalgidae, Trouessartiidae, Falculiferidae and Gabuciniidae. Hitherto unknown associations between feather mites and birds were recorded for eleven taxa identified to the species level, and nine taxa were recorded for the first time in Brazil. The number of new geographic records, as well as the hitherto unknown mite-host associations, supports the high estimates of diversity for feather mites of Brazil and show the need for research to increase knowledge of plumicole mites in the Neotropical region.

  9. Change and fragmentation trends of Zhanjiang mangrove forests in southern China using multi-temporal Landsat imagery (1977-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, M. S.; Mao, L. J.; Shen, W. J.; Liu, S. Q.; Wei, A. S.

    2013-09-01

    Mangrove forests, which are found in saline coastal environments around the tropical and subtropical latitudes, are among the most productive terrestrial ecosystems in the world and provide valuable ecological and societal goods and services. The objective of this work was to characterize the spatio-temporal changes in mangrove distribution and fragmentation patterns in the Zhanjiang National Mangrove Forest Nature Reserve, Guangdong province of Southern China, from 1977 through 2010. In addition, a major goal was to assess the socio-economic drivers contributing to the chronic changes taking place within and around the mangrove reserve. Land use and land cover data sets were generated for the reserve for multiple years via unsupervised classification using Landsat time series images. Mangrove fragmentation patterns were then assessed with a fragmentation model. Results revealed that the mangrove spatial extent decreased sharply during the period from 1977 to 1991 due to deforestation caused by diverse development programs, particularly shrimp farming. Afterwards, there was a continuous increase in mangrove extent from 1991 to 2010 due to afforestation and conservation efforts. The mangrove fragmentation trends depicted by the fragmentation model had a high degree of correlation with the observed areal changes. Additionally, the recorded dynamics of the local biodiversity (mainly birds) were consistent with the mangrove ecosystem fragmentation trends over time, and different fragmentation components, including interior, perforated and edge, had distinct impacts on the local mangrove-dependent biodiversity. The most effective way to protect and expand the current mangroves include the following: (1) establishment of mangrove natural reserves, (2) forceful implementation of regulations, (3) establishment of educational programs related to mangrove management, (4) deepening international exchanges and cooperation and (5) increasing the transparency of the project

  10. Dynamic anthropogenic edge effects on the distribution and diversity of fungi in fragmented old-growth forests.

    PubMed

    Ruete, Alejandro; Snäll, Tord; Jönsson, Mari

    2016-07-01

    Diversity patterns and dynamics at forest edges are not well understood. We disentangle the relative importance of edge-effect variables on spatio-temporal patterns in species richness and occupancy of deadwood-dwelling fungi in fragmented old-growth forests. We related richness and log occupancy by 10 old-growth forest indicator fungi and by two common fungi to log conditions in natural and anthropogenic edge habitats of 31 old-growth Picea abies forest stands in central Sweden. We compared edge-to-interior gradients (100 m) to the forest interior (beyond 100 m), and we analyzed stand-level changes after 10 yr. Both richness and occupancy of logs by indicator species was negatively related to adjacent young clear-cut edges, but this effect decreased with increasing clear-cut age. The occupancy of logs by indicator species also increased with increasing distance to the natural edges. In contrast, the occupancy of logs by common species was positively related or unrelated to distance to clear-cut edges regardless of the edge age, and this was partly explained by fungal specificity to substrate quality. Stand-level mean richness and mean occupancy of logs did not change for indicator or common species over a decade. By illustrating the importance of spatial and temporal dimensions of edge effects, we extend the general understanding of the distribution and diversity of substrate-confined fungi in fragmented old-growth forests. Our results highlight the importance of longer forest rotation times adjacent to small protected areas and forest set-asides, where it may take more than 50 yr for indicator species richness levels to recover to occupancy levels observed in the forest interior. Also, non-simultaneous clear-cutting of surrounding productive forests in a way that reduces the edge effect over time (i.e., dynamic buffers) may increase the effective core area of small forest set-asides and improve their performance on protecting species of special concern for

  11. Forest cover changes in the Oregon Coast Range from 1939 to 1993.

    Treesearch

    Rebecca S.H. Kennedy; Thomas A. Spies

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the shifts over time in the distribution and amount of forest vegetation types in relation to forest management and environmental conditions is critical for many policy and ecological questions. Our objective was to assess the influences of ownership and environment on changes !n forest vegetation from post-settlement historical to recent times in the...

  12. Bat-fruit interactions are more specialized in shaded-coffee plantations than in tropical mountain cloud forest fragments.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Montero, Jesús R; Saldaña-Vázquez, Romeo A; Galindo-González, Jorge; Sosa, Vinicio J

    2015-01-01

    Forest disturbance causes specialization of plant-frugivore networks and jeopardizes mutualistic interactions through reduction of ecological redundancy. To evaluate how simplification of a forest into an agroecosystem affects plant-disperser mutualistic interactions, we compared bat-fruit interaction indexes of specialization in tropical montane cloud forest fragments (TMCF) and shaded-coffee plantations (SCP). Bat-fruit interactions were surveyed by collection of bat fecal samples. Bat-fruit interactions were more specialized in SCP (mean H2 ' = 0.55) compared to TMCF fragments (mean H2 ' = 0.27), and were negatively correlated to bat abundance in SCP (R = -0.35). The number of shared plant species was higher in the TMCF fragments (mean = 1) compared to the SCP (mean = 0.51) and this was positively correlated to the abundance of frugivorous bats (R= 0.79). The higher specialization in SCP could be explained by lower bat abundance and lower diet overlap among bats. Coffee farmers and conservation policy makers must increase the proportion of land assigned to TMCF within agroecosystem landscapes in order to conserve frugivorous bats and their invaluable seed dispersal service.

  13. Bat-Fruit Interactions Are More Specialized in Shaded-Coffee Plantations than in Tropical Mountain Cloud Forest Fragments

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Montero, Jesús R.; Saldaña-Vázquez, Romeo A.; Galindo-González, Jorge; Sosa, Vinicio J.

    2015-01-01

    Forest disturbance causes specialization of plant-frugivore networks and jeopardizes mutualistic interactions through reduction of ecological redundancy. To evaluate how simplification of a forest into an agroecosystem affects plant-disperser mutualistic interactions, we compared bat-fruit interaction indexes of specialization in tropical montane cloud forest fragments (TMCF) and shaded-coffee plantations (SCP). Bat-fruit interactions were surveyed by collection of bat fecal samples. Bat-fruit interactions were more specialized in SCP (mean H2 ' = 0.55) compared to TMCF fragments (mean H2 ' = 0.27), and were negatively correlated to bat abundance in SCP (R = -0.35). The number of shared plant species was higher in the TMCF fragments (mean = 1) compared to the SCP (mean = 0.51) and this was positively correlated to the abundance of frugivorous bats (R= 0.79). The higher specialization in SCP could be explained by lower bat abundance and lower diet overlap among bats. Coffee farmers and conservation policy makers must increase the proportion of land assigned to TMCF within agroecosystem landscapes in order to conserve frugivorous bats and their invaluable seed dispersal service. PMID:25992550

  14. Population density, sex ratio, body size and fluctuating asymmetry of Ceroglossus chilensis (Carabidae) in the fragmented Maulino forest and surrounding pine plantations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henríquez, Paula; Donoso, Denise S.; Grez, Audrey A.

    2009-11-01

    Habitat fragmentation results in new environmental conditions that may stress resident populations. Such stress may be reflected in demographical or morphological changes in the individuals inhabiting those landscapes. This study evaluates the effects of fragmentation of the Maulino forest on population density, sex ratio, body size, and fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of the endemic carabid Ceroglossus chilensis. Individuals of C. chilensis were collected during 2006 in five locations at Los Queules National Reserve (continuous forest), in five forest fragments and in five areas of surrounding pine plantations (matrix). In each location, once a season, 40 pitfall traps (20 in the centre, 20 in the edge), were opened for 72 h. Population density of C. chilensis was higher in the small fragments than in the pine matrix, with intermediate densities in the continuous forest; sex ratio did not differ significantly from 1:1 in the three habitats. Individuals from the centre of fragments were smaller than those from the centre of continuous forest, and FA did not vary significantly among habitats. These results suggest that small forest fragments maintain dense populations of C. chilensis and therefore they must be considered in conservation strategies. Although the decrease of the body size suggests that small remnants should be connected by managing the structure of the surrounding matrix, facilitating the dispersion of this carabid across the landscape and avoiding possible antagonistic interactions inside small fragments.

  15. Edge-interior differences in the species richness and abundance of drosophilids in a semideciduous forest fragment.

    PubMed

    Penariol, Leiza V; Madi-Ravazzi, Lilian

    2013-12-01

    Habitat fragmentation is the main cause of biodiversity loss, as remnant fragments are exposed to negative influences that include edge effects, prevention of migration, declines in effective population sizes, loss of genetic variability and invasion of exotic species. The Drosophilidae (Diptera), especially species of the genus Drosophila, which are highly sensitive to environmental variation, have been used as bioindicators. A twelve-month field study was conducted to evaluate the abundance and richness of drosophilids in an edge-interior transect in a fragment of semideciduous forest in São Paulo State, Brazil. One objective of the study was to evaluate the applied methodology with respect to its potential use in future studies addressing the monitoring and conservation of threatened areas. The species abundance along the transect showed a clear gradient, with species associated with disturbed environments, such as Drosophila simulans, Scaptodrosophila latifasciaeformis and Zaprionus indianus, being collected at the fragment edge and the species D. willistoni and D. mediostriata being found in the fragment's interior. Replacement of these species occurred at approximately 60 meters from the edge, which may be a reflection of edge effects on species abundance and richness because the species found within the habitat fragment are more sensitive to variations in temperature and humidity than those sampled near the edge. The results support the use of this methodology in studies on environmental impacts.

  16. Snake richness in urban forest fragments from Niterói and surroundings, state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Citeli, Nathalie; Hamdan, Breno

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background The Atlantic Forest is a hotspot for biodiversity, an area which houses high species richness and endemism, but with high level of threat. With reference to the herpetofauna, until recently there has been no detailed information regarding diversity of snakes recorded in the Atlantic Forest, the number of endemic species and their distribution ranges. While these basic data were missing, large areas of original forest have continued to be lost to increased urbanization and human population, representing a severe threat to the biodiversity. New information We recorded 28 snake species in our study area. Dipsadidae was the richest family with 14 species, followed by Colubridae (eight species), Boidae (two species), Viperidae (two species), and Anomalepididae, Elapidae and Typhlopidae (one species each). Most species were forest inhabitants (61%), of which 13 are endemic to the Atlantic Forest. There were no clearly defined species clusters regarding species composition. None of the species recorded in Niterói are listed as threatened in the Brazilian Redlist. However, most of them are strongly associated with forested areas and, perhaps, are not adapted to live in small fragments. Thus, more initiatives should be implemented to evaluate the true conservation status of these species in order to better protect them. PMID:26929711

  17. Snake richness in urban forest fragments from Niterói and surroundings, state of Rio de Janeiro, southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Citeli, Nathalie; Hamdan, Breno; Guedes, Thais

    2016-01-01

    The Atlantic Forest is a hotspot for biodiversity, an area which houses high species richness and endemism, but with high level of threat. With reference to the herpetofauna, until recently there has been no detailed information regarding diversity of snakes recorded in the Atlantic Forest, the number of endemic species and their distribution ranges. While these basic data were missing, large areas of original forest have continued to be lost to increased urbanization and human population, representing a severe threat to the biodiversity. We recorded 28 snake species in our study area. Dipsadidae was the richest family with 14 species, followed by Colubridae (eight species), Boidae (two species), Viperidae (two species), and Anomalepididae, Elapidae and Typhlopidae (one species each). Most species were forest inhabitants (61%), of which 13 are endemic to the Atlantic Forest. There were no clearly defined species clusters regarding species composition. None of the species recorded in Niterói are listed as threatened in the Brazilian Redlist. However, most of them are strongly associated with forested areas and, perhaps, are not adapted to live in small fragments. Thus, more initiatives should be implemented to evaluate the true conservation status of these species in order to better protect them.

  18. EFFECTS OF HYDROGEOMORPHIC REGION, WATERSHED STORAGE, AND FOREST FRAGMENTATION ON WATERSHED EXPORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Turbidity was highest for South Shore streams overall, but exhibited a significant HGM x storage x fragmentation effect, with highest levels observed in South Shore low storage/high fragmentation watersheds.

  19. Increased autumn rainfall disrupts predator-prey interactions in fragmented boreal forests.

    PubMed

    Terraube, Julien; Villers, Alexandre; Poudré, Léo; Varjonen, Rauno; Korpimäki, Erkki

    2017-04-01

    There is a pressing need to understand how changing climate interacts with land-use change to affect predator-prey interactions in fragmented landscapes. This is particularly true in boreal ecosystems facing fast climate change and intensification in forestry practices. Here, we investigated the relative influence of autumn climate and habitat quality on the food-storing behaviour of a generalist predator, the pygmy owl, using a unique data set of 15 850 prey items recorded in western Finland over 12 years. Our results highlighted strong effects of autumn climate (number of days with rainfall and with temperature <0 °C) on food-store composition. Increasing frequency of days with precipitation in autumn triggered a decrease in (i) total prey biomass stored, (ii) the number of bank voles (main prey) stored, and (iii) the scaled mass index of pygmy owls. Increasing proportions of old spruce forests strengthened the functional response of owls to variations in vole abundance and were more prone to switch from main prey to alternative prey (passerine birds) depending on local climate conditions. High-quality habitat may allow pygmy owls to buffer negative effects of inclement weather and cyclic variation in vole abundance. Additionally, our results evidenced sex-specific trends in body condition, as the scaled mass index of smaller males increased while the scaled mass index of larger females decreased over the study period, probably due to sex-specific foraging strategies and energy requirements. Long-term temporal stability in local vole abundance refutes the hypothesis of climate-driven change in vole abundance and suggests that rainier autumns could reduce the vulnerability of small mammals to predation by pygmy owls. As small rodents are key prey species for many predators in northern ecosystems, our findings raise concern about the impact of global change on boreal food webs through changes in main prey vulnerability. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Effects of logging, hunting, and forest fragment size on physiological stress levels of two sympatric ateline primates in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Rimbach, Rebecca; Link, Andrés; Heistermann, Michael; Gómez-Posada, Carolina; Galvis, Nelson; Heymann, Eckhard W.

    2013-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation and anthropogenic disturbances are of major concern to the conservation of endangered species because of their potentially negative impact on animal populations. Both processes can impose physiological stress (i.e. increased glucocorticoid output) on animals, and chronically elevated stress levels can have detrimental effects on the long-term viability of animal populations. Here, we investigated the effect of fragment size and human impact (logging and hunting pressure) on glucocorticoid levels of two sympatric Neotropical primates, the red howler monkey (Alouatta seniculus) and the critically endangered brown spider monkey (Ateles hybridus). These two species have been reported to contrast strongly in their ability to cope with anthropogenic disturbances. We collected faecal samples from eight spider monkey groups and 31 howler monkey groups, living in seven and 10 different forest fragments in Colombia, respectively. We measured faecal glucocorticoid metabolite (FGCM) levels in both species using previously validated methods. Surprisingly, fragment size did not influence FGCM levels in either species. Spider monkeys showed elevated FGCMs in fragments with the highest level of human impact, whereas we did not find this effect in howler monkeys. This suggests that the two species differ in their physiological responsiveness to anthropogenic changes, further emphasizing why brown spider monkeys are at higher extinction risk than red howler monkeys. If these anthropogenic disturbances persist in the long term, elevated FGCM levels can potentially lead to a state of chronic stress, which might limit the future viability of populations. We propose that FGCM measurements should be used as a tool to monitor populations living in disturbed areas and to assess the success of conservation strategies, such as corridors connecting forest fragments. PMID:27293615

  1. Tropical forests and fragmentation: A case of South Garo Hills, Meghalaya, North East India

    Treesearch

    Ashish Kumar; Bruce Marcot; Rohitkumar Patel

    2017-01-01

    This study presents an ecological assessment of tropical forests at stand and landscape levels to provide knowledge, tools and, indicators to evaluate specific diversity patterns and related ecological processes happening in these tropical forest conditions; and for monitoring landscape changes for managing forest and wildlife resources of Jhum (shifting cultivation)...

  2. Temporal Changes in Forest Contexts at Multiple Extents: Three Decades of Fragmentation in the Gran Chaco (1979-2010), Central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Frate, Ludovico; Acosta, Alicia T R; Cabido, Marcelo; Hoyos, Laura; Carranza, Maria Laura

    2015-01-01

    The context in which a forest exists strongly influences its function and sustainability. Unveiling the multi-scale nature of forest fragmentation context is crucial to understand how human activities affect the spatial patterns of forests across a range of scales. However, this issue remains almost unexplored in subtropical ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed temporal changes (1979-2010) in forest contexts in the Argentinean dry Chaco at multiple extents. We classified forests over the last three decades based on forest context amount (Pf) and structural connectivity (Pff), which were measured using a moving window approach fixed at eight different extents (from local, ~ 6 ha, to regional, ~ 8300 ha). Specific multi-scale forest context profiles (for the years 1979 and 2010) were defined by projecting Pf vs. Pff mean values and were compared across spatial extents. The distributions of Pf across scales were described by scalograms and their shapes over time were compared. The amount of agricultural land and rangelands across the scales were also analyzed. The dry Chaco has undergone an intensive process of fragmentation, resulting in a shift from landscapes dominated by forests with gaps of rangelands to landscapes where small forest patches are embedded in agricultural lands. Multi-scale fragmentation analysis depicted landscapes in which local exploitation, which perforates forest cover, occurs alongside extensive forest clearings, reducing forests to small and isolated patches surrounded by agricultural lands. In addition, the temporal diminution of Pf's variability along with the increment of the mean slope of the Pf 's scalograms, indicate a simplification of the spatial pattern of forest over time. The observed changes have most likely been the result of the interplay between human activities and environmental constraints, which have shaped the spatial patterns of forests across scales. Based on our results, strategies for the conservation and sustainable

  3. The influence of habitat fragmentation on helminth communities in rodent populations from a Brazilian Mountain Atlantic Forest.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, T S; Simões, R O; Luque, J L F; Maldonado, A; Gentile, R

    2016-07-01

    The influence of habitat structure on helminth communities of three sigomdontinae rodent species (Akodon cursor, A. montensis and Oligoryzomys nigripes) was investigated in forest fragments within an agricultural landscape in south-eastern Brazil. This is a pionner study correlating the occurrence of helminth species of rodent hosts with microhabitat characteristics. Rodents were collected from 12 fragments and in a continuous conserved area. Up to 13 nematode, three cestode and two trematode species were identified, and habitat fragmentation was found to have more influence on the helminth composition of O. nigripes compared to the other two rodent species. Fragmentation appeared to limit the development of some helminths' life cycles, e.g. with some species such as Trichofreitasia lenti, Protospirura numidica, Cysticercus fasciolaris and Avellaria sp., occurring mostly in areas with less anthropic impact. However, fragmentation did not seem to affect the life cycles of other dominant helminths, such as the trematode Canaania obesa, the nematodes Stilestrongylus lanfrediae, S. eta and S. aculeata, and the cestode Rodentolepis akodontis. The helminth community structure followed a nested pattern of distribution in A. montensis and O. nigripes. Stilestrongylus lanfrediae seemed to be more associated with dense understorey, C. obesa with open canopy and dense understorey, and Guerrerostrongylus zetta with organic matter on the ground. Their presence in each area may be explained by aspects of their life cycles that take place in the external environment outside the host.

  4. Hunting and use of terrestrial fauna used by Caiçaras from the Atlantic Forest coast (Brazil)

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The Brazilian Atlantic Forest is considered one of the hotspots for conservation, comprising remnants of rain forest along the eastern Brazilian coast. Its native inhabitants in the Southeastern coast include the Caiçaras (descendants from Amerindians and European colonizers), with a deep knowledge on the natural resources used for their livelihood. Methods We studied the use of the terrestrial fauna in three Caiçara communities, through open-ended interviews with 116 native residents. Data were checked through systematic observations and collection of zoological material. Results The dependence on the terrestrial fauna by Caiçaras is especially for food and medicine. The main species used are Didelphis spp., Dasyprocta azarae, Dasypus novemcinctus, and small birds (several species of Turdidae). Contrasting with a high dependency on terrestrial fauna resources by native Amazonians, the Caiçaras do not show a constant dependency on these resources. Nevertheless, the occasional hunting of native animals represents a complimentary source of animal protein. Conclusion Indigenous or local knowledge on native resources is important in order to promote local development in a sustainable way, and can help to conserve biodiversity, particularly if the resource is sporadically used and not commercially exploited. PMID:19930595

  5. Mechanisms Driving Galling Success in a Fragmented Landscape: Synergy of Habitat and Top-Down Factors along Temperate Forest Edges

    PubMed Central

    Kelch, Nina-S.; Neves, Frederico S.; Fernandes, G. Wilson

    2016-01-01

    Edge effects play key roles in the anthropogenic transformation of forested ecosystems and their biota, and are therefore a prime field of contemporary fragmentation research. We present the first empirical study to address edge effects on the population level of a widespread galling herbivore in a temperate deciduous forest. By analyzing edge effects on abundance and trophic interactions of beech gall midge (Mikiola fagi Htg.), we found 30% higher gall abundance in the edge habitat as well as lower mortality rates due to decreased top-down control, especially by parasitoids. Two GLM models with similar explanatory power (58%) identified habitat specific traits (such as canopy closure and altitude) and parasitism as the best predictors of gall abundance. Further analyses revealed a crucial influence of light exposure (46%) on top-down control by the parasitoid complex. Guided by a conceptual framework synthesizing the key factors driving gall density, we conclude that forest edge proliferation of M. fagi is due to a complex interplay of abiotic changes and trophic control mechanisms. Most prominently, it is caused by the microclimatic regime in forest edges, acting alone or in synergistic concert with top-down pressure by parasitoids. Contrary to the prevailing notion that specialists are edge-sensitive, this turns M. fagi into a winner species in fragmented temperate beech forests. In view of the increasing proportion of edge habitats and the documented benefits from edge microclimate, we call for investigations exploring the pest status of this galling insect and the modulators of its biological control. PMID:27310599

  6. ROLE OF RED ALDER IN NITROGEN LOSSES FROM FORESTED WATERSHEDS IN THE OREGON COAST RANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variations in plant community composition across the landscape may have strong impacts on nutrient losses from small forested watersheds. One extreme example of this impact is the role of the nitrogen-fixing tree, red alder, in the biogeochemistry of forested watersheds in the P...

  7. Characterizing the Status (Disturbed, Hybrid or Novel) of Swamp Forest Fragments in a Caribbean Ramsar Wetland: The Impact of Anthropogenic Degradation and Invasive Plant Species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prospere, Kurt; McLaren, Kurt P.; Wilson, Byron

    2016-10-01

    The last remaining Amazonian-type swamp forest fragments in Black River Lower Morass, Jamaica, have been subjected to a myriad of anthropogenic disturbances, compounded by the establishment and spread of several invasive plant species. We established 44 permanent sample plots (covering 3.92 ha) across 10 of these swamp forest fragments and sampled all non-woody plants and all trees ≥2 cm DBH found in the plots. These data were used to (1) identify thresholds of hybridity and novelty, (2) derive several diversity and structural descriptors used to characterize the swamp forest fragments and (3) identify possible indicators of anthropogenic degradation. These were incorporated into a framework and used to determine the status of the swamp forest fragments so that appropriate management and conservation measures can be implemented. We recorded 43 woody plant species (9 endemic, 28 native and 4 non-native) and 21 non-tree species. The composition and structure of all the patches differed significantly due to the impact of the herbaceous invasive plant Alpinia allughas, the presence and diversity of other non-native plants, and differing intensities of anthropogenic disturbance (e.g., burning, cutting and harvesting of non-timber forest products). We ranked forest patches along a continuum representing deviations from a historical proxy (least disturbed) swamp forest to those with dramatically altered structural and floristic attributes (=novel swamp forests). Only one fragment overrun with A. allughas was classified as novel. If effective conservation and management does not come to the BRLM, the remaining swamp forest fragments appear doomed to further degradation and will soon disappear altogether.

  8. Characterizing the Status (Disturbed, Hybrid or Novel) of Swamp Forest Fragments in a Caribbean Ramsar Wetland: The Impact of Anthropogenic Degradation and Invasive Plant Species.

    PubMed

    Prospere, Kurt; McLaren, Kurt P; Wilson, Byron

    2016-10-01

    The last remaining Amazonian-type swamp forest fragments in Black River Lower Morass, Jamaica, have been subjected to a myriad of anthropogenic disturbances, compounded by the establishment and spread of several invasive plant species. We established 44 permanent sample plots (covering 3.92 ha) across 10 of these swamp forest fragments and sampled all non-woody plants and all trees ≥2 cm DBH found in the plots. These data were used to (1) identify thresholds of hybridity and novelty, (2) derive several diversity and structural descriptors used to characterize the swamp forest fragments and (3) identify possible indicators of anthropogenic degradation. These were incorporated into a framework and used to determine the status of the swamp forest fragments so that appropriate management and conservation measures can be implemented. We recorded 43 woody plant species (9 endemic, 28 native and 4 non-native) and 21 non-tree species. The composition and structure of all the patches differed significantly due to the impact of the herbaceous invasive plant Alpinia allughas, the presence and diversity of other non-native plants, and differing intensities of anthropogenic disturbance (e.g., burning, cutting and harvesting of non-timber forest products). We ranked forest patches along a continuum representing deviations from a historical proxy (least disturbed) swamp forest to those with dramatically altered structural and floristic attributes (=novel swamp forests). Only one fragment overrun with A. allughas was classified as novel. If effective conservation and management does not come to the BRLM, the remaining swamp forest fragments appear doomed to further degradation and will soon disappear altogether.

  9. Presettlement and modern disturbance regimes in coast redwood forests: Implications for the conservation of old-growth stands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorimer, Craig G.; Porter, Daniel J.; Madej, Mary Ann; Stuart, John D.; Veirs, Stephen D.; Norman, Steven P.; O'Hara, Kevin L.; Libby, William J.

    2009-01-01

    Coast redwood (Sequoia sempervirens), a western North American conifer of ancient lineage, has a paradoxical combination of late-successional characteristics and strong adaptations to disturbance. Despite its shade tolerance and heavy dominance of the canopy on many sites, redwood saplings are uncommon in upland old-growth stands. Information needed to ensure the conservation of old-growth redwood forests has been limited. In this review paper, we integrate evidence on redwood biology with data on the historic and modern disturbance regimes to help clarify the degree to which key attributes of redwood forests may have been dependent upon periodic disturbance. Available evidence suggests that episodes of fire, flooding, and slope failure prior to European settlement were frequent but predominantly of low to moderate severity and extent, resulting in broadly uneven-aged forests. The majority of fires prior to European settlement were apparently of human origin. Frequency and severity of the major disturbance agents have been radically changed in modern times. Fires have been largely excluded, and flooding has been altered in ways that have often been detrimental to old-growth redwoods on alluvial terraces. However, because of the apparent anthropogenic origin of most presettlement fires, the long-term evolutionary role of fire for coast redwood is ecologically ambiguous. With fire exclusion, redwood possibly could be displaced to some extent on upland sites by increasing abundance of fire-sensitive competitors. Alternatively, redwood may be able to maintain dominance by vegetative sprouting and new seedling establishment on root-wad mounds, fallen logs, and on soil exposed by slope failure. Future research priorities are suggested that will help resolve some of the current ambiguities.

  10. Forest Vegetation Monitoring Protocol for National Parks in the North Coast and Cascades Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodward, Andrea; Hutten, Karen M.; Boetsch, John R.; Acker, Steven A.; Rochefort, Regina M.; Bivin, Mignonne M.; Kurth, Laurie L.

    2009-01-01

    Plant communities are the foundation for terrestrial trophic webs and animal habitat, and their structure and species composition are an integrated result of biological and physical drivers (Gates, 1993). Additionally, they have a major role in geologic, geomorphologic and soil development processes (Jenny, 1941; Stevens and Walker, 1970). Throughout most of the Pacific Northwest, environmental conditions support coniferous forests as the dominant vegetation type. In the face of anthropogenic climate change, forests have a global role as potential sinks for atmospheric carbon (Goodale and others, 2002). Consequently, knowledge of the status of forests in the three large parks of the NCCN [that is, Mount Rainier (MORA), North Cascades (NOCA), and Olympic (OLYM) National Parks] is fundamental to understanding the condition of Pacific Northwest ecosystems. Diverse climate and soil properties across the Pacific Northwest result in a variety of forest types (Franklin and Dyrness, 1973; Franklin and others, 1988; Henderson and others, 1989, 1992). The mountainous terrain of Mount Rainier, North Cascades, and Olympic National Parks create steep elevational and precipitation gradients within and among the parks: collectively, these parks span from sea level to more than 4,200 m; and include areas with precipitation from 90 to more than 500 cm. The resulting forests range from coastal rainforests with dense understories and massive trees draped with epiphytes; to areas with drought-adapted Ponderosa pines; to high-elevation subalpine fir forests interspersed with meadows just below treeline (table 1). These forests, in turn, are the foundation for other biotic communities constituting Pacific Northwest ecosystems.

  11. Characterization of environmental quality of forest fragments changes in Jundiaí-Mirim river basin-Brazil using the Markov Chain model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasimoto Fengler, Felipe; Leite de Moraes, Jener Fernando; Irio Ribeiro, Admilson; Peche Filho, Afonso; Araujo de Medeiros, Gerson; Baldin Damame, Desirée; Márcia Longo, Regina

    2015-04-01

    In Brazil is common practice the concurrency of large urban centers water catchment in distant sites. There's no policy to preserve strategic springs in the urban territory. Thus, rural areas, located in the surrounds of municipals, usually provide water and others environment services to the population that reside on cities. The Jundiaí-Mirim river basin, located in the most urbanized state in Brazil, São Paulo, composes an interesting example of this situation. It is located in a rural area near large urban centers, with large industrial parks, near the capital of state. As result of expansion of the cities on its surrounds their lands have had a historic of monetary valorization, making its territories attractive to the housing market. Consequently, the region has an intense process of urbanization that resulted in an increasing environmental disturbance in the areas of natural vegetation. In the other hand, the watershed is the principal water supplier of Jundiaí city, and houses forest remaining of an important Biome in Brazil, the Atlantic Rain Forest. Given the need to preserve its water production capacity and the forest remnants there, this study modeled the environmental quality of forest fragments through indicators of disturbance and evaluated the changes that occur between 1972 and 2013 using the Markov Chain model. The environment quality was determined by nine indicators of environmental disturbance (distance of urban areas, roads, edge land use, size, distance of others forest fragments, land capacity of use, watershed forest cover, number of forest fragments in the watersheds, shape of the forest fragment), obtained by techniques of Geoprocessing, and integrated by Multicriteria Analysis. The Markov Chain model showed a constant tendency of deteriorating in natural vegetation environmental quality, attributed to the intense process of occupation of the river basin. The results showed a historical trend of transformation in forest fragments with

  12. BIOFRAG - a new database for analyzing BIOdiversity responses to forest FRAGmentation

    Treesearch

    M. Pfeifer; Tamara Heartsill Scalley

    2014-01-01

    Habitat fragmentation studies have produced complex results that are challenging to synthesize. Inconsistencies among studies may result from variation in the choice of landscape metrics and response variables, which is often compounded by a lack of key statistical or methodological information. Collating primary datasets on biodiversity responses to fragmentation in a...

  13. The composition of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities in the roots of a ruderal forb is not related to the forest fragmentation process.

    PubMed

    Grilli, Gabriel; Urcelay, Carlos; Galetto, Leonardo; Davison, John; Vasar, Martti; Saks, Ülle; Jairus, Teele; Öpik, Maarja

    2015-08-01

    Land-use changes and forest fragmentation have strong impact on biodiversity. However, little is known about the influence of new landscape configurations on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) community composition. We used 454 pyrosequencing to assess AMF diversity in plant roots from a fragmented forest. We detected 59 virtual taxa (VT; phylogenetically defined operational taxonomic units) of AMF - including 10 new VT - in the roots of Euphorbia acerensis. AMF communities were mainly composed of members of family Glomeraceae and were similar throughout the fragmented landscape, despite variation in forest fragment size (i.e. small, medium and large) and isolation (i.e. varying pairwise distances). AMF communities in forest fragments were phylogenetically clustered compared with the global, but not regional and local AMF taxon pools. This indicates that non-random community assembly processes possibly related to dispersal limitation at a large scale, rather than habitat filtering or biotic interactions, may be important in structuring the AMF communities. In this system, forest fragmentation did not appear to influence AMF community composition in the roots of the ruderal plant. Whether this is true for AMF communities in soil and the roots of other ecological groups of host plants or in other habitats deserves further study.

  14. Forest fragmentation and Red-cockaded Woodpecker population: an analysis at intermediate scale

    Treesearch

    D. Craig Rudolph; Richard N. Conner

    1994-01-01

    The Red-cockaded Woodpecker population on the Sam Houston National Forest in Texas was surveyed during 1988. The 128 active clusters present make this population one of the largest in existence. Pine stand ages varied considerably across the forest. Correlation analysis indicated that stand area in excess of 60 yr of age is positively correlated with measures of...

  15. Distance from edge determines fruit-feeding butterfly community diversity in afrotropical forest fragments.

    PubMed

    Bossart, J L; Opuni-Frimpong, E

    2009-02-01

    We studied the impact of forest edges on the fruit-feeding butterfly communities of three forest remnants in Ghana, West Africa. Community diversity was assessed using traps baited with fermenting banana. Two 200-m, edge-to-interior transects of five traps each were established in each forest. Sampling spanned 1 yr for a total of 180-210 trap days per site and resulted in 2,634 specimens and 56 species. We found significant support for an effect of forest edge on butterfly diversity. The impact of distance from edge on point estimates of diversity, i.e., total trap captures, weighted species richness, and Simpson's diversity, was unique to each forest. Multivariate analyses, which integrated species composition along with relative abundance and richness, uncovered two broad community types, interior communities (those 100, 150, and 200 m distant from the edge) and exterior communities (edge communities and those 50 m distant), indicating that edge habitat generally extends at least 50 m into the forest. However, effects of edges on community diversity were still detected as far as 100 m into the forest. Three species relatively tolerant of forest degradation emerged as indicators of edge habitat. No species were indicative of core habitat.

  16. TRANSITIONS IN FOREST FRAGMENTATION: IMPLICATIONS FOR RESTORATION OPPORTUNITIES AT REGIONAL SCALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Where the potential natural vegetation is continuous forest (e.g., eastern US), a region can be divided into smaller units (e.g., counties, watersheds), and a graph of the proportion of forest in the largest patch versus the proportion in anthropogenic cover can be used as an ind...

  17. Pathogenicity variation in two west coast forest Phytophthoras, Phytophthora nemorosa and P. pseudosyringae, to bay laurel

    Treesearch

    R.E. Linzer; M. Garbelotto

    2008-01-01

    Two recently described pathogenic oomycetes, Phytophthora nemorosa and P. pseudosyringae, have overlapping host and geographic ranges in California and Oregon forests with P. ramorum, causal agent of ?sudden oak death? disease. Preliminary genetic evidence indicates P. nemorosa and P....

  18. Heterozygote excess through life history stages in Cestrum miradorense Francey (Solanaceae), an endemic shrub in a fragmented cloud forest habitat.

    PubMed

    Reyes-Zepeda, F; González-Astorga, J; Montaña, C

    2013-01-01

    Comparisons of genetic diversity and population genetic structure among different life history stages provide important information on the effect of the different forces and micro-evolutionary processes that mould diversity and genetic structure after fragmentation. Here we assessed genetic diversity and population genetic structure using 32 allozymic loci in adults, seeds, seedlings and juveniles of eight populations of the micro-endemic shrub Cestrum miradorense in a highly fragmented cloud forest in central-eastern Mexico. We expected that due to its long history or rarity, this species may have endured the negative effects of fragmentation and would show moderate to high levels of genetic diversity. High genetic diversity (H(e) = 0.445 ± 0.03), heterozygote excess (F(IT) = -0.478 ± 0.034, F(IS) = -0.578 ± 0.023) and low population differentiation (F(ST) = 0.064 ± 0.011) were found. Seeds had higher genetic diversity (H(e) = 0.467 ± 0.05) than the later stages (overall mean for adults, seedlings and juveniles H(e) = 0.438 ± 0.08). High gene flow was observed despite the fact that the fragmentation process began more than 100 years ago. We conclude that the high genetic diversity was the result of natural selection, which favours heterozygote excess in all stages, coupled with a combination of a reproductive system and seed/pollen dispersal mechanisms that favour gene flow.

  19. Debris flows through different forest age classes in the central Oregon Coast Range

    Treesearch

    C. L. May

    2002-01-01

    Abstract - Debris flows in the Pacific Northwest can play a major role in routing sediment and wood stored on hillslopes and in first- through third-order channels and delivering it to higher-order channels. Field surveys following a large regional storm event investigated 53 debris flows in the central Oregon Coast Range to determine relationships among debris flow...

  20. Initial estimates of hurricane Katrina impacts of Mississippi gulf coast forest resources

    Treesearch

    Patrick A. Glass; Sonja N. Oswalt

    2007-01-01

    Hurricane Katrina pummeled the Gulf Coast of Mississippi on August 29, 2005. The eye wall of the storm passed directly over Hancock and Pearl River Counties. Harrison, Jackson, Stone, and George Counties on the windward side of the hurricane's path sustained severe damage before the storm's strength dissipated as it moved farther inland (fig. 1).

  1. Precommercial Stocking Control of Coast Redwood at Caspar Creek, Jackson Demonstration State Forest

    Treesearch

    James Lindquist

    2007-01-01

    Regeneration of coast redwood by stump sprouting often results in a stand condition that is very dense. A precommercial thinning of redwood sprouts allows managers to select trees and spacing that can best utilize the productivity of the site. The study of five thinning treatments with an unthinned control was initiated on a 19-year old third growth stand. Treatments...

  2. Functional decay in tree community within tropical fragmented landscapes: Effects of landscape-scale forest cover.

    PubMed

    Rocha-Santos, Larissa; Benchimol, Maíra; Mayfield, Margaret M; Faria, Deborah; Pessoa, Michaele S; Talora, Daniela C; Mariano-Neto, Eduardo; Cazetta, Eliana

    2017-01-01

    As tropical rainforests are cleared, forest remnants are increasingly isolated within agricultural landscapes. Understanding how forest loss impacts on species diversity can, therefore, contribute to identifying the minimum amount of habitat required for biodiversity maintenance in human-modified landscapes. Here, we evaluate how the amount of forest cover, at the landscape scale, affects patterns of species richness, abundance, key functional traits and common taxonomic families of adult trees in twenty Brazilian Atlantic rainforest landscapes. We found that as forest cover decreases, both tree community richness and abundance decline, without exhibiting a threshold. At the family-level, species richness and abundance of the Myrtaceae and Sapotaceae were also negatively impacted by the percent forest remaining at the landscape scale. For functional traits, we found a reduction in shade-tolerant, animal-dispersed and small-seeded species following a decrease in the amount of forest retained in landscapes. These results suggest that the amount of forest in a landscape is driving non-random losses in phylogenetic and functional tree diversity in Brazil's remaining Atlantic rainforests. Our study highlights potential restraints on the conservation value of Atlantic rainforest remnants in deforested landscapes in the future.

  3. Functional decay in tree community within tropical fragmented landscapes: Effects of landscape-scale forest cover

    PubMed Central

    Benchimol, Maíra; Mayfield, Margaret M.; Faria, Deborah; Pessoa, Michaele S.; Talora, Daniela C.; Mariano-Neto, Eduardo; Cazetta, Eliana

    2017-01-01

    As tropical rainforests are cleared, forest remnants are increasingly isolated within agricultural landscapes. Understanding how forest loss impacts on species diversity can, therefore, contribute to identifying the minimum amount of habitat required for biodiversity maintenance in human-modified landscapes. Here, we evaluate how the amount of forest cover, at the landscape scale, affects patterns of species richness, abundance, key functional traits and common taxonomic families of adult trees in twenty Brazilian Atlantic rainforest landscapes. We found that as forest cover decreases, both tree community richness and abundance decline, without exhibiting a threshold. At the family-level, species richness and abundance of the Myrtaceae and Sapotaceae were also negatively impacted by the percent forest remaining at the landscape scale. For functional traits, we found a reduction in shade-tolerant, animal-dispersed and small-seeded species following a decrease in the amount of forest retained in landscapes. These results suggest that the amount of forest in a landscape is driving non-random losses in phylogenetic and functional tree diversity in Brazil’s remaining Atlantic rainforests. Our study highlights potential restraints on the conservation value of Atlantic rainforest remnants in deforested landscapes in the future. PMID:28403166

  4. [Establishment and development of Tabebuia rosea (Bignoniaceae) seedlings in a semideciduous tropical forest under management, Pacific coast of Mexico].

    PubMed

    Santacruz, Antonio Mora; Valdez Herández, Juan Ignacio; Angeles Pérez, Gregorio; Musálem Santiago, Miguel Angel; Vaquera Huerta, Humberto

    2006-12-01

    We evaluated the effect of soil "scarification" and vegetation clearing treatments on the natural regeneration and initial development of Tabebuia rosea (Bertold) DC. seedlings in a moderate sized semideciduous tropical forest subjected to wood harvesting on the coast of Jalisco, Mexico. The treatments were applied under "seed" trees, and the number of germinated seedlings and their development were evaluated for nine months. Soil "scarification" promoted seed germination and initial seedling development, while the control of the competing vegetation increased the seedling growth and reduced their mortality. These results should be taken into account for the natural regeneration of this species, after clearing, to improve wood production, and should be incorporated into the silvicultural techniques currently developed in the region.

  5. An approach to study the effect of harvest and wildfire on watershed hydrology and sediment yield in a coast redwood forest

    Treesearch

    Christopher G. Surfleet; Arne Skaugset; Brian Dietterick

    2012-01-01

    The Little Creek watershed, within California State Polytechnic University’s Swanton Pacific Ranch, is the location of a paired and nested watershed study to investigate the watershed effects of coast redwood forest management. Streamflow, suspended sediment, and stream turbidity have been collected during storms at two locations on the North Fork Little Creek and at...

  6. Foliar uptake of fog in the coast redwood ecosystem: a novel drought-alleviation strategy shared by most redwood forest plants

    Treesearch

    Emily Limm; Kevin Simonin; Tod. Dawson

    2012-01-01

    Fog inundates the coast redwood forests of northern California frequently during the summer months (May to September) when rainfall is largely absent (Azevedo and Morgan 1974, Byers 1953, Oberlander 1956). This maritime fog modifies otherwise warm and dry summer climate by increasing humidity, decreasing the air temperature, reducing solar radiation, and...

  7. Mating patterns and pollinator mobility are critical traits in forest fragmentation genetics

    PubMed Central

    Breed, M F; Ottewell, K M; Gardner, M G; Marklund, M H K; Dormontt, E E; Lowe, A J

    2015-01-01

    Most woody plants are animal-pollinated, but the global problem of habitat fragmentation is changing the pollination dynamics. Consequently, the genetic diversity and fitness of the progeny of animal-pollinated woody plants sired in fragmented landscapes tend to decline due to shifts in plant-mating patterns (for example, reduced outcrossing rate, pollen diversity). However, the magnitude of this mating-pattern shift should theoretically be a function of pollinator mobility. We first test this hypothesis by exploring the mating patterns of three ecologically divergent eucalypts sampled across a habitat fragmentation gradient in southern Australia. We demonstrate increased selfing and decreased pollen diversity with increased fragmentation for two small-insect-pollinated eucalypts, but no such relationship for the mobile-bird-pollinated eucalypt. In a meta-analysis, we then show that fragmentation generally does increase selfing rates and decrease pollen diversity, and that more mobile pollinators tended to dampen these mating-pattern shifts. Together, our findings support the premise that variation in pollinator form contributes to the diversity of mating-pattern responses to habitat fragmentation. PMID:24002239

  8. Mating patterns and pollinator mobility are critical traits in forest fragmentation genetics.

    PubMed

    Breed, M F; Ottewell, K M; Gardner, M G; Marklund, M H K; Dormontt, E E; Lowe, A J

    2015-08-01

    Most woody plants are animal-pollinated, but the global problem of habitat fragmentation is changing the pollination dynamics. Consequently, the genetic diversity and fitness of the progeny of animal-pollinated woody plants sired in fragmented landscapes tend to decline due to shifts in plant-mating patterns (for example, reduced outcrossing rate, pollen diversity). However, the magnitude of this mating-pattern shift should theoretically be a function of pollinator mobility. We first test this hypothesis by exploring the mating patterns of three ecologically divergent eucalypts sampled across a habitat fragmentation gradient in southern Australia. We demonstrate increased selfing and decreased pollen diversity with increased fragmentation for two small-insect-pollinated eucalypts, but no such relationship for the mobile-bird-pollinated eucalypt. In a meta-analysis, we then show that fragmentation generally does increase selfing rates and decrease pollen diversity, and that more mobile pollinators tended to dampen these mating-pattern shifts. Together, our findings support the premise that variation in pollinator form contributes to the diversity of mating-pattern responses to habitat fragmentation.

  9. Fate of added nitrate and ammonium-nitrogen entering a Louisiana gulf coast swamp forest

    SciTech Connect

    Lindau, C.W.; De Laune, R.D.; Jones, G.L.

    1988-03-01

    Added /sup 15/N labeled inorganic nitrogen was used to determine the significance of nitrification-denitrification in flooded swamp soil in removing nitrogen. Nitrogen-15 labeled (NH/sub 2/)/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ and KNO/sub 3/ were added to replicated plots in a swamp forest receiving agricultural runoff. Nitrous oxide and N/sub 2/ fluxes were measured and maximum fluxes were estimated at 24g N/m/sup 2/ x yr and 110 g N/m/sup 2/ x yr, respectively. The capacity of the swamp forest to remove large quantities of nitrogen via nitrification-denitrification processes was demonstrated.

  10. Parasitic infections of three Mexican howler monkey groups (Alouatta palliata mexicana) living in forest fragments in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cristóbal-Azkarate, Jurgi; Hervier, Blanca; Vegas-Carrillo, Sira; Osorio-Sarabia, David; Rodríguez-Luna, Ernesto; Veà, Joaquim J

    2010-07-01

    In order to better understand how patterns of parasitism in howler monkeys are affected by forest fragmentation, we carried out a 1 year survey of gastrointestinal parasites in fecal samples from three groups of Mexican howler monkeys inhabiting different forest fragments in the Los Tuxtlas Biosphere Reserve, Mexico. The study groups were chosen because the conditions in which they lived suggested a potentially negative gradient for parasite richness and a positive gradient for levels of parasitism. We report for the first time the presence of Entamoeba coli in Alouatta palliata mexicana and of hookworms (Family Ancylostomidae) in A. palliata. A reduction in home range size and an increase in disturbance was associated with a loss of parasite richness, which in general was high. Parasite prevalence and the proportion of contaminated samples in which each parasite taxon was present was also high in general and there were no differences between groups. A factor related to the generally high levels of parasitism in our study groups could be the high humidity in the study area, because this favors the survival of parasitic free forms and increases the chances of infection. This would also account for the tendency towards higher levels of parasitism observed in the rainy season. Finally we did not find a pattern relating sex and parasitism.

  11. Different pollinator assemblages ensure reproductive success of Cleisostoma linearilobatum (Orchidaceae) in fragmented holy hill forest and traditional tea garden.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xiang; Liu, Qiang; Han, Jessie Yc; Gao, JiangYun

    2016-02-24

    Orchids are generally recognized to have specialist pollination systems and low fruit set is often thought to be characteristic of the family. In this study, we investigated the reproductive ecology of Cleisostoma linearilobatum, an epiphytic tropical orchid, in a holy hill forest fragment and a traditional tea garden in SW China using comparable methods. C. linearilobatum is self-compatible and dependent on insects for pollination. Fruit production in natural conditions was both pollinator- and resource-limited. However, the natural fruit set remained stable over multiple years at both sites. Pollination observations showed that C. linearilobatum has a generalized pollination system and seven insect species were observed as legitimate pollinators. Although the visit frequencies of different pollinators were different in the two sites, the pollinator assemblages ensured reproductive success of C. linearilobatum in both study sites over multiple years. The results partly explain why C. linearilobatum is so successful in the area, and also suggest that holy hill forest fragments and traditional tea gardens in Xishuangbanna are important in preserving orchids, especially those with generalist pollination.

  12. Different pollinator assemblages ensure reproductive success of Cleisostoma linearilobatum (Orchidaceae) in fragmented holy hill forest and traditional tea garden

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiang; Liu, Qiang; Han, Jessie Yc; Gao, JiangYun

    2016-01-01

    Orchids are generally recognized to have specialist pollination systems and low fruit set is often thought to be characteristic of the family. In this study, we investigated the reproductive ecology of Cleisostoma linearilobatum, an epiphytic tropical orchid, in a holy hill forest fragment and a traditional tea garden in SW China using comparable methods. C. linearilobatum is self-compatible and dependent on insects for pollination. Fruit production in natural conditions was both pollinator- and resource-limited. However, the natural fruit set remained stable over multiple years at both sites. Pollination observations showed that C. linearilobatum has a generalized pollination system and seven insect species were observed as legitimate pollinators. Although the visit frequencies of different pollinators were different in the two sites, the pollinator assemblages ensured reproductive success of C. linearilobatum in both study sites over multiple years. The results partly explain why C. linearilobatum is so successful in the area, and also suggest that holy hill forest fragments and traditional tea gardens in Xishuangbanna are important in preserving orchids, especially those with generalist pollination. PMID:26907369

  13. [Polymorphism of the cytochrome b gene fragment of mitochondrial DNA of chum salmon Oncorhynchus keta (Walbaum) from the Ola River (northern coast of the Sea of Okhotsk)].

    PubMed

    Bachevskaia, L T; Pereverzeva, V V

    2010-01-01

    Sequencing of 395 bp long fragments of cytochrome b gene occupying the 15396-15790 bp positions of mtDNA, the data on the structure and variability of the studied region in chum salmon from the Ola River (northern coast of the Sea of Okhtosk) were obtained for the first time. Nine haplotype variants and four protein modifications were obtained. The medial net was built reflecting the variability and phylogenetic relationships of haplotypes in the gene pool of the studied population of the chum salmon from the Ola River. Comparative analysis of the published and original data showed that the Ola chum salmon differs from the Canadian salmon ninth genotypically (in structure of cytochrome b gene) and in the amino acid sequence of the studied site of the enzyme.

  14. From the forest to the sea and back again: Biogeochemistry in the Oregon Coast Range

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variations in plant community composition across the landscape can influence nutrient retention and loss at the watershed scale. A striking example of plant species influence is the role of N2-fixing red alder (Alnus rubra) in the biogeochemistry of Pacific Northwest forests. A...

  15. Stand Dynamics of Coast Redwood/Tanoak Forests Following Tanoak Decline

    Treesearch

    Kristen M. Waring; Kevin L. O' Hara

    2007-01-01

    Current threats to North American forests increasingly include exotic tree pathogens that cause extensive mortality. In California, tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus) mortality has increased rapidly since 1995, due to Phytophthora ramorum, believed to be an introduced pathogen. Tanoak frequently grows as a major component of redwood...

  16. From the forest to the sea and back again: Biogeochemistry in the Oregon Coast Range

    EPA Science Inventory

    Variations in plant community composition across the landscape can influence nutrient retention and loss at the watershed scale. A striking example of plant species influence is the role of N2-fixing red alder (Alnus rubra) in the biogeochemistry of Pacific Northwest forests. A...

  17. Wildlife habitats of the north coast of California: new techniques for extensive forest inventory.

    Treesearch

    Janet L. Ohmann

    1992-01-01

    A study was undertaken to develop methods for extensive inventory and analysis of wildlife habitats. The objective was to provide information about amounts and conditions of wildlife habitats from extensive, sample based inventories so that wildlife can be better considered in forest planning and policy decisions at the regional scale. The new analytical approach...

  18. Forest-stressing climate factors on the US West Coast as simulated by CMIP5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupp, D. E.; Buotte, P.; Hicke, J. A.; Law, B. E.; Mote, P.; Sharp, D.; Zhenlin, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The rate of forest mortality has increased significantly in western North America since the 1970s. Causes include insect attacks, fire, and soil water deficit, all of which are interdependent. We first identify climate factors that stress forests by reducing photosynthesis and hydraulic conductance, and by promoting bark beetle infestation and wildfire. Examples of such factors may be two consecutive years of extreme summer precipitation deficit, or prolonged vapor pressure deficit exceeding some threshold. Second, we quantify the frequency and magnitude of these climate factors in 20th and 21st century climates, as simulated by global climate models (GCMs) in Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5), of Washington, Oregon, and California in the western US. Both ';raw' (i.e., original spatial resolution) and statistically downscaled simulations are considered, the latter generated using the Multivariate Adaptive Constructed Analogs (MACA) method. CMIP5 models that most faithfully reproduce the observed historical statistics of these climate factors are identified. Furthermore, significant changes in the statistics between the 20th and 21st centuries are reported. A subsequent task will be to use a selected subset of MACA-downscaled CMIP5 simulations to force the Community Land Model, version 4.5 (CLM 4.5). CLM 4.5 will be modified to better simulate forest mortality and to couple CLM with an economic model. The ultimate goal of this study is to understand the interactions and the feedbacks by which the market and the forest ecosystem influence each other.

  19. Influencing factors on vegetative cogongrass spread into pine forests on the Mississippi gulf coast

    Treesearch

    Jon D. Prevost; Donald L. Grebner; Jeanne C. Jones; Stephen C. Grado; Keith L. Belli; John D. Byrd

    2010-01-01

    Cogongrass [Imperata cylindrical (L.) Beauv.] is an invasive species that is spreading throughout forested ecosystems across the Southeastern United States. A field experiment was conducted in Hancock County, MS to determine if mid-rotation mechanical disturbance increased the rate of growth and spread of roadside cogongrass patches into adjacent...

  20. Mass movement response to forest management in the central Oregon coast ranges.

    Treesearch

    Stuart Gresswell; David Heller; Douglas N. Swanston

    1979-01-01

    Timber management activities have clearly accelerated the number and frequency of soil mass movements on the Mapleton District , Siuslaw National Forest as a result of the November 29-December 1, 1975 storm. Exclusive of roads, clearcutting is the most damaging activity.

  1. Plethodontid salamander population ecology in managed forest headwaters in the Oregon coast range

    Treesearch

    Matthew R. Kluber; Deanna H. Olson

    2013-01-01

    We examined temporal and spatial patterns of terrestrial amphibian species abundances and individual movements in western Oregon managed headwater forest stands using artifi cial cover object (ACO) arrays. Using mark-recapture methods, we estimated the eff ects of species and seasonality on apparent survival rates and recapture probabilities. We captured, marked, and...

  2. Forest structure and litter production of naturally re-generated white mangrove Avicennia marina in sub-tropical estuarine coast.

    PubMed

    Abu Hena, M K; Sidik, B Japar; Idris, M H; Nesarul, M H; Aysha, A; Islam, M S; Nazmul, H

    2015-09-01

    The present work deals with plant structure, phenology, litter production and decomposition of mangrove Avicennia marina in the newly re-generated mangrove forest in sub-tropical coast. The natural generation in this accreted coastal land of mono-specific A. marina forest stand was prominent, with 45% seedlings and 32% saplings. Peak flowering and fruiting were noticed in May and August, respectively. Reproductive components contribute countable percent into the total litter production during the peak flowering (60%) and fruiting (86%) season. The percentage of leaf litter fall fluctuated throughout the year and contributed 13-99% (73% in average) of the total litter production of 11.53 tones ha(-1)'yr(-1). The total litter production differed with season and influenced by local climate, pore water salinity and phenology of the mangrove. The naturally generated young (7 years) A. marina with 1.8 m height produced more leaf litter as compared to similar tree height elsewhere. Decomposition rate was related to season, with higher litter loss during rainy season which could help cycling nutrients and support estuarine food web by supplying organic matter into the sub-tropical coastal environment.

  3. Secondary seed dispersal by dung beetles in an Amazonian forest fragment of Colombia: influence of dung type and edge effect.

    PubMed

    Santos-Heredia, Carolina; Andresen, Ellen; Stevenson, Pablo

    2011-12-01

    Seeds of many plant species are secondarily dispersed by dung beetles, but the outcome of this interaction is highly context-specific. Little is known about how certain anthropogenic disturbances affect this plant-animal interaction. The aims of this study were to assess the effect of dung type on secondary dispersal by dung beetles in a forest fragment, and to determine whether this interaction is affected by edge effects. Using pitfall traps, we captured dung beetles attracted to dung of 2 frugivorous mammals: woolly monkeys and howler monkeys. We found differences between both dung beetle assemblages, but these differences were not consistent in time. Using seeds surrounded by both dung types, we carried out a field experiment using seeds of 2 plant species. We found that the probability of secondary dispersal by dung beetles was higher for seeds placed in woolly monkey dung. Finally, we carried out a field experiment using plastic beads as seed mimics to assess edge effects. We found that secondary seed dispersal by dung beetles was negatively affected by edges. The disruption of plant-animal interactions along anthropogenic forest edges could have long-term negative effects on forest dynamics by affecting processes of regeneration.

  4. Geochemical Characterization of Moisture Sources Supplying a Forested Ecosystem in an Unchanneled Hillslope in the Northern California Coast Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Druhan, J. L.; Dietrich, W. E.; Conrad, M. E.; Dawson, T. E.; Fung, I.; Depaolo, D. J.

    2008-12-01

    Coastal California annually experiences periods of nearly 6 months without rain, yet dense coniferous forests commonly develop on steep hillslopes mantled with thin soil. Much of the coast range is underlain by marine sandstones and mudstones that are intensely fractured in the near-surface environment. We hypothesize that the coniferous forest might meet its transpiration water demands not just from the thin soil layer, but supplemented by residual winter moisture residing in the underlying fractured rock. This "rock moisture" is undocumented and difficult to measure directly. In order to explore this and other hypotheses, an intensive monitoring program was initiated on a 2600 m2 unchanneled valley (mean slope 25 degrees) developed mostly on vertically bedded mudstones that drains into Elder Creek at the Angelo Coast Range Reserve. Annual precipitation averages 216 cm per year and falls almost entirely between October and April. Six wells were drilled, some extending nearly 30 m below the surface, and numerous soil moisture monitoring stations were established. In parallel with this effort, a water chemistry sampling program was initiated to identify chemical tracers of water sources and pathways. Preliminary aqueous geochemical samples have been collected in February and July, 2008 and include groundwater, surface water from Elder Creek, moisture samples from the upper 10 cm of soil and from cores taken at depths up to 1.9 m into the underlying saprolite, and xylem moisture from four Douglas-firs spaced along the drainage path. Sulfate, calcium and strontium analyzed in groundwater and stream samples show a general increase in concentration with distance from the top of the drainage basin to the creek. A temporal variation is also observed, with increased concentrations in dry summer samples relative to wet winter samples. Stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen analyzed in all groundwater, stream, soil moisture and xylem waters fall within a range of -70 to - 40

  5. A compendium of forest growth and yield simulators for the Pacific coast states

    Treesearch

    Martin W. Ritchie

    1999-01-01

    This manuscript provides information needed for the user to access current information about forest growth and yield simulators. Ultimately, the best source of information for any simulator is the user’s guide and the sage advice of those who built the simulator. In some instances, these people are easy to find and are willing to provide all the support for the program...

  6. Pollinator limitation and the effect of breeding systems on plant reproduction in forest fragments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, K. Geetha; Davidar, Priya

    2010-03-01

    Reproduction of plants in fragmented habitats may be limited because of lower diversity or abundance of pollinators, and/or variation in local plant density. We assessed natural fruit set and pollinator limitation in ten species of woody plants in natural and restored fragments in the Pondicherry region of southern India, to see whether breeding system of plants (self-compatible and self-incompatible) affected fruit set. We tested whether the number of flowering individuals in the fragments affected the fruit set and further examined the adult and sapling densities of self-compatible (SC) and self-incompatible (SI) species. We measured the natural level of fruit set and pollinator limitation (calculated as the difference in fruit set between hand cross-pollinated and naturally pollinated flowers). Our results demonstrate that there was a higher level of pollinator limitation and hence lower levels of natural fruit set in self-incompatible species as compared to self-compatible species. However, the hand cross-pollinated flowers in SC and SI species produced similar levels of fruit set, further indicating that lower fruit set was due to pollinator limitation and not due to lack of cross-compatible individuals in the fragments. There was no significant relation between number of flowering individuals and the levels of natural fruit set, except for two species Derris ovalifolia, Ixora pavetta. In these species the natural fruit set decreased with increasing population size, again indicating pollinator limitation. The adult and sapling densities in self-compatible species were significantly higher than in self-incompatible species. These findings indicate that the low reproductive output in self-incompatible species may eventually lead to lower population sizes. Restoration of pollinator services along with plant species in fragmented habitats is important for the long-term conservation of biodiversity.

  7. Temporal Changes in Forest Contexts at Multiple Extents: Three Decades of Fragmentation in the Gran Chaco (1979-2010), Central Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Frate, Ludovico; Acosta, Alicia T. R.; Cabido, Marcelo; Hoyos, Laura; Carranza, Maria Laura

    2015-01-01

    The context in which a forest exists strongly influences its function and sustainability. Unveiling the multi-scale nature of forest fragmentation context is crucial to understand how human activities affect the spatial patterns of forests across a range of scales. However, this issue remains almost unexplored in subtropical ecosystems. In this study, we analyzed temporal changes (1979–2010) in forest contexts in the Argentinean dry Chaco at multiple extents. We classified forests over the last three decades based on forest context amount (Pf) and structural connectivity (Pff), which were measured using a moving window approach fixed at eight different extents (from local, ~ 6 ha, to regional, ~ 8300 ha). Specific multi-scale forest context profiles (for the years 1979 and 2010) were defined by projecting Pf vs. Pff mean values and were compared across spatial extents. The distributions of Pf across scales were described by scalograms and their shapes over time were compared. The amount of agricultural land and rangelands across the scales were also analyzed. The dry Chaco has undergone an intensive process of fragmentation, resulting in a shift from landscapes dominated by forests with gaps of rangelands to landscapes where small forest patches are embedded in agricultural lands. Multi-scale fragmentation analysis depicted landscapes in which local exploitation, which perforates forest cover, occurs alongside extensive forest clearings, reducing forests to small and isolated patches surrounded by agricultural lands. In addition, the temporal diminution of Pf’s variability along with the increment of the mean slope of the Pf ‘s scalograms, indicate a simplification of the spatial pattern of forest over time. The observed changes have most likely been the result of the interplay between human activities and environmental constraints, which have shaped the spatial patterns of forests across scales. Based on our results, strategies for the conservation and

  8. [Detection of anti-Lassa antibodies in the Western Forest area of the Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Akoua-Koffi, C; Ter Meulen, J; Legros, D; Akran, V; Aïdara, M; Nahounou, N; Dogbo, P; Ehouman, A

    2006-10-01

    Lassa fever is an African viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) known to be endemic in a number of West African countries including Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Liberia and Guinea. Despite having common borders with Liberia and Guinea, Côte d'Ivoire has never reported any cases of Lassa fever. In March 2000, as part of a research project on VHF--mainly yellow fever, Lassa fever and Ebola fever--in Guinea and Cote d'Ivoire, an exploratory survey was conducted to assess knowledge about VHF and immunological status against Lassa virus among forest workers in the Duekoue and Guiglo regions. One hundred and sixty-three male forest workers were interviewed using a questionnaire designed to assess risk factors for VHF exposure and personal medical history over the last 12 months. Detection of IgG antibodies against Lassa virus was performed by immunofluorescence assay with Lassa virus antigens from the Josiah and Las/AV strains. The overall prevalence of IgG antibodies was 26% (42/161). Among the Lassa IgG positive subjects, 38.5% were loggers including 20% that were positive at a serum dilution of 1/40 and 46.7% were national park workers or forest rangers including 69% that were positive at a dilution of 1/40 and more. Forty-one percent of subjects had heard of VHF including 14% who attributed it to animals and 2% who attributed it to plants. Contact with rodents was frequent and more than 50% of subjects had either eaten or skinned rodents. Although the prevalence of anti-Lassa IgG antibodies seemed high in the study population, no conclusion can be about level of exposure to Lassa virus.

  9. Seasonal variation of volatile organic compounds exchange above a periurban Holm oak forest on the Mediterranean coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savi, Flavia; Juráň, Stanislav; Fares, Silvano

    2015-04-01

    Bi-directional exchanges of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) were investigated on a Mediterranean Holm oak forest in Castelporziano presidential estate, a peri-urb