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Sample records for coastal marine water

  1. Suspended marine particulate proteins in coastal and oligotrophic waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bridoux, Maxime C.; Neibauer, Jaqui; Ingalls, Anitra E.; Nunn, Brook L.; Keil, Richard G.

    2015-03-01

    Metaproteomic analyses were performed on suspended sediments collected in one coastal environment (Washington margin, Pacific Ocean, n = 5) and two oligotrophic environments (Atlantic Ocean near BATS, n = 5, and Pacific Ocean near HOTS, n = 5). Using a database of 2.3 million marine proteins developed using the NCBI database, 443 unique peptides were detected from which 363 unique proteins were identified. Samples from the euphotic zone contained on average 2-3x more identifiable proteins than deeper waters (150-1500 m) and these proteins were predominately from photosynthetic organisms. Diatom peptides dominate the spectra of the Washington margin while peptides from cyanobacteria, such as Synechococcus sp. dominated the spectra of both oligotrophic sites. Despite differences in the exact proteins identified at each location, there is good agreement for protein function and cellular location. Proteins in surface waters code for a variety of cellular functions including photosynthesis (24% of detected proteins), energy production (10%), membrane production (9%) and genetic coding and reading (9%), and are split 60-40 between membrane proteins and intracellular cytoplasmic proteins. Sargasso Sea surface waters contain a suite of peptides consistent with proteins involved in circadian rhythms that promote both C and N fixation at night. At depth in the Sargasso Sea, both muscle-derived myosin protein and the muscle-hydrolyzing proteases deseasin MCP-01 and metalloprotease Mcp02 from γ-proteobacteria were observed. Deeper waters contain peptides predominately sourced from γ-proteobacteria (37% of detected proteins) and α-proteobacteria (26%), although peptides from membrane and photosynthetic proteins attributable to phytoplankton were still observed (13%). Relative to surface values, detection frequencies for bacterial membrane proteins and extracellular enzymes rose from 9 to 16 and 2 to 4% respectively below the thermocline and the overall balance between

  2. Recent Trends in Marine Phycotoxins from Australian Coastal Waters

    PubMed Central

    Ajani, Penelope; Harwood, D. Tim; Murray, Shauna A.

    2017-01-01

    Phycotoxins, which are produced by harmful microalgae and bioaccumulate in the marine food web, are of growing concern for Australia. These harmful algae pose a threat to ecosystem and human health, as well as constraining the progress of aquaculture, one of the fastest growing food sectors in the world. With better monitoring, advanced analytical skills and an increase in microalgal expertise, many phycotoxins have been identified in Australian coastal waters in recent years. The most concerning of these toxins are ciguatoxin, paralytic shellfish toxins, okadaic acid and domoic acid, with palytoxin and karlotoxin increasing in significance. The potential for tetrodotoxin, maitotoxin and palytoxin to contaminate seafood is also of concern, warranting future investigation. The largest and most significant toxic bloom in Tasmania in 2012 resulted in an estimated total economic loss of ~AUD$23M, indicating that there is an imperative to improve toxin and organism detection methods, clarify the toxin profiles of species of phytoplankton and carry out both intra- and inter-species toxicity comparisons. Future work also includes the application of rapid, real-time molecular assays for the detection of harmful species and toxin genes. This information, in conjunction with a better understanding of the life histories and ecology of harmful bloom species, may lead to more appropriate management of environmental, health and economic resources. PMID:28208796

  3. Interactions of aquaculture, marine coastal ecosystems, and near-shore waters: A bibliography. Bibliographies and literature of agriculture (Final)

    SciTech Connect

    Hanfman, D.T.; Coleman, D.E.; Tibbitt, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    The bibliography contains selected literature citations on the interactions of aquaculture and marine coastal ecosystems. The focus is on aquaculture effluents and their impact on marine coastal ecosystems and waterways as well as the impact of pollutants on aquaculture development. Factors affecting these issues include domestic and industrial wastes, thermal discharges, acid rain, heavy metals, oil spills, and microbial contamination of marine waters and aquatic species. Coastal zone management, environmenal impact of aquaculture, and water quality issues are also included in the bibliography.

  4. Metabarcoding approach for nonindigenous species surveillance in marine coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Zaiko, Anastasija; Samuiloviene, Aurelija; Ardura, Alba; Garcia-Vazquez, Eva

    2015-11-15

    In this study, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) metabarcoding was applied for the surveillance of plankton communities within the southeastern (SE) Baltic Sea coastal zone. These results were compared with those from routine monitoring survey and morphological analyses. Four of five nonindigenous species found in the samples were identified exclusively by metabarcoding. All of them are considered as invasive in the Baltic Sea with reported impact on the ecosystem and biodiversity. This study indicates that, despite some current limitations, HTS metabarcoding can provide information on the presence of exotic species and advantageously complement conventional approaches, only requiring the same monitoring effort as before. Even in the currently immature status of HTS, this combination of HTS metabarcoding and observational records is recommended in the early detection of marine pests and delivery of the environmental status metrics of nonindigenous species. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Barium in southern california coastal waters: a potential indicator of marine drilling contamination.

    PubMed

    Chow, T J

    1976-07-02

    The present barium content of Southern California coastal waters was determined to be 11 to 22 micrograms per kilogram of seawater. These values may be used as base-line concentrations to monitor marine contamination during future off-shore oil and gas explorations.

  6. Levels of toxic metals in marine organisms collected from Southern California coastal waters.

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, B A; Fay, R C; Walter, R L; Willis, R D; Gutknecht, W F

    1975-01-01

    Emission of toxic trace metals into southern California coastal waters has resulted in the extensive accumulation of the elements within marine sediments. The current study was undertaken to evaluate concentrations of trace metals in bottom-dwelling marine fauna collected from two sampling areas. Analyses carried out on muscle samples of the dover sole (Microstomus pacificus) and the crab (Cancer anthonyi) by proton-induced x-ray emission analysis showed considerable concentrations of arsenic and selenium. Samples of gonads, digestive gland, and muscle from the crab Mursia gaudichaudii analyzed by atomic absorption spectroscopy showed elemental concentrations in muscle similar to the crab Cancer anthonyi and much higher metal levels in gonad and digestive gland. These findings suggest the need for further studies concerning the relationship between emission of metals into the marine environment and their abundance in marine fauna. PMID:1227863

  7. Impact of Stormwater Discharges on Water Quality in Coastal Marine Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Kenneth; Luk, Brenda; Gregorio, Dominic

    2015-09-01

    Marine protected areas worldwide limit harvest to protect sensitive fisheries, but rarely do they address water quality goals that may have equally demonstrable impacts. California has over 500 coastal shoreline miles of marine protected areas designated as Areas of Special Biological Significance (ASBS), but receives untreated wet weather runoff discharges from over 1600 storm drain outfalls. The goal of this study was to assess the extent and magnitude of water quality impacts in ASBS following storm events. A stratified probabilistic design was used for sampling receiving water shorelines near (discharge) and far (non-discharge) from storm drain outfalls. In general, reasonably good water quality exists in California's ASBS following storm events. Many of the target analytes measured did not exceed water quality standards. The post-storm concentrations of most constituents in discharge and non-discharge strata of ASBS were similar. The three potentially problematic parameters identified were total PAH, chromium, and copper.

  8. Marine mammals and debris in coastal waters of British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rob; Ashe, Erin; O'Hara, Patrick D

    2011-06-01

    Entanglement in and ingestion of synthetic marine debris is increasingly recognized worldwide as an important stressor for marine wildlife, including marine mammals. Studying its impact on wildlife populations is complicated by the inherently cryptic nature of the problem. The coastal waters of British Columbia (BC), Canada provide important habitat for marine mammal species, many of which have unfavorable conservation status in the US and Canada. As a priority-setting exercise, we used data from systematic line-transect surveys and spatial modeling methods to map at-sea distribution of debris and 11 marine mammal species in BC waters, and to identify areas of overlap. We estimated abundance of 36,000 (CIs: 23,000-56,600) pieces of marine debris in the region. Areas of overlap were often far removed from urban centers, suggesting that the extent of marine mammal-debris interactions would be underestimated from opportunistic sightings and stranding records, and that high-overlap areas should be prioritized by stranding response networks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Heavy metals in molluscan, crustacean, and other commercially important Chilean marine coastal water species

    SciTech Connect

    Ober, A.G.; Gonzalez, M.; Santa Maria, I.

    1987-03-01

    The work reported here is part of a general program to monitor the marine chemical pollution along the Chilean coast. The present investigation was designated to provide information on the nature and levels of the heavy metals present in the marine species commonly consumed by the population, and to learn whether these levels may constitute a hazard to consumers. The authors report here the typical contents of 10 heavy metals in 12 commercially significant marine species from the Chilean coastal waters (Valparaiso, Concepcion and Puerto Montt). The analyzed species included 7 molluscs, 3 curstacea, and 2 other shellfish species of wide consumption. The metals chosen for analysis were copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, mercury, nickel, antimony, selenium, iron and chromium.

  10. Environmental contamination and marine mammals in coastal waters from Argentina: an overview.

    PubMed

    Marcovecchio, J E; Gerpe, M S; Bastida, R O; Rodríguez, D H; Morón, S G

    1994-09-16

    Environmental contamination become an increasing global problem. Different scientific strategies have been developed in order to assess the impact of pollutants on marine ecosystems. The distribution of toxic contaminants in tissues of different marine mammal species--both cetaceans and pinnipeds--has been studied in many ecosystems, as well as several related ecological processes, like pollutant accumulation or transfer through the food web. A research program directed towards evaluating the occurrence of pollutants in marine mammals from the coastal waters of Argentina (southwestern Atlantic Ocean) has been developed since 1985, and includes the study of heavy metal contents in stranded or incidentally caught animals. The marine mammal species studied during this period were: the seals Otaria flavescens and Arctocephalus australis, and small cetaceans Tursiops gephyreus, Pontoporia blainvillei, Kogia breviceps and Ziphius cavirostris. In most of the cases, high contents of heavy metals (total mercury, cadmium, zinc, and copper) have been recorded. Moreover, liver showed the maximum capability for accumulation of heavy metals in all studied species. The biological and ecological characteristics of each species of the above-mentioned marine mammals (feeding habits, age, migratory pathways, or sex) contributed to the understanding of the metal sources. Considering the results as obtained during the study period it can be assumed that: (1) The global distribution of toxic contaminants also affects the southwestern Atlantic Ocean ecosystems, and (2) Marine mammals could be appropriate bioindicator species in order to assess this kind of environmental problem.

  11. Recommendations on methods for the detection and control of biological pollution in marine coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Olenin, Sergej; Elliott, Michael; Bysveen, Ingrid; Culverhouse, Phil F; Daunys, Darius; Dubelaar, George B J; Gollasch, Stephan; Goulletquer, Philippe; Jelmert, Anders; Kantor, Yuri; Mézeth, Kjersti Bringsvor; Minchin, Dan; Occhipinti-Ambrogi, Anna; Olenina, Irina; Vandekerkhove, Jochen

    2011-12-01

    Adverse effects of invasive alien species (IAS), or biological pollution, is an increasing problem in marine coastal waters, which remains high on the environmental management agenda. All maritime countries need to assess the size of this problem and consider effective mechanisms to prevent introductions, and if necessary and where possible to monitor, contain, control or eradicate the introduced impacting organisms. Despite this, and in contrast to more enclosed water bodies, the openness of marine systems indicates that once species are in an area then eradication is usually impossible. Most institutions in countries are aware of the problem and have sufficient governance in place for management. However, there is still a general lack of commitment and concerted action plans are needed to address this problem. This paper provides recommendations resulting from an international workshop based upon a large amount of experience relating to the assessment and control of biopollution. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Viruses and flagellates sustain apparent richness and reduce biomass accumulation of bacterioplankton in coastal marine waters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rui; Weinbauer, Markus G; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2007-12-01

    To gain a better understanding of the interactions among bacteria, viruses and flagellates in coastal marine ecosystems, we investigated the effect of viral lysis and protistan bacterivory on bacterial abundance, production and diversity [determined by 16S rRNA gene polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE)] in three coastal marine sites with different nutrient supplies in Hong Kong. Six experiments were set up using filtration and dilution methods to develop virus, flagellate and virus+flagellate treatments for natural bacterial populations. All three predation treatments had significant repressing effects on bacterial abundance. Bacterial production was significantly repressed by flagellates and both predators (flagellates and viruses). Bacterial apparent species richness (indicated as the number of DGGE bands) was always significantly higher in the presence of viruses, flagellates and both predators than in the predator-free control. Cluster analysis of the DGGE patterns showed that the effects of viruses and flagellates on bacterial community structure were relatively stochastic while the co-effects of predators caused consistent trends (DGGE always showed the most similar patterns when compared with those of in situ environments) and substantially increased the apparent richness. Overall, we found strong evidence that viral lysis and protist bacterivory act additively to reduce bacterial production and to sustain diversity. This first systematic attempt to study the interactive effects of viruses and flagellates on the diversity and production of bacterial communities in coastal waters suggests that a tight control of bacterioplankton dominants results in relatively stable bacterioplankton communities.

  13. Halogenated phenolic contaminants in the blood of marine mammals from Japanese coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Nomiyama, Kei; Kanbara, Chika; Ochiai, Mari; Eguchi, Akifumi; Mizukawa, Hazuki; Isobe, Tomohiko; Matsuishi, Takashi; Yamada, Tadasu K; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-02-01

    Information on accumulation of halogenated phenolic contaminants in the blood of marine mammal is limited. The present study, we determined the residue levels and patterns of chlorinated and brominated phenolic contaminants (OH-PCBs, OH-PBDEs and bromophenols) in the blood collected from pinnipeds (northern fur seal, spotted seal, Steller sea lion and ribbon seal) and small cetaceans (harbor porpoise and Dall's porpoise) from Japanese coastal waters. Concentrations of PCBs and OH-PCBs found in pinnipeds were the same as in small cetaceans living in the same coastal area. However, significantly lower concentrations of brominated compounds (PBDEs, MeO-PBDEs, OH-PBDEs) were found in the blood of pinnipeds than the levels found in cetacean species which live same area (p < 0.05). This difference of accumulation pattern suggested pinnipeds have an enhanced capability to degrade organobromine compounds relative to cetaceans.

  14. Occurrence of synthetic musk fragrances in marine mammals and sharks from Japanese coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Nakata, Haruhiko

    2005-05-15

    In this study, the occurrence of the polycyclic musk fragrances HHCB (1,3,4,6,7,8-hexahydro-4,6,6,7,8,8-hexamethylcyclopenta[g]-2-benzopyran) and AHTN (7-acetyl-1,1,3,4,4,6-hexamethyltetrahydeonaphthalene) in marine mammals and sharks collected from Japanese coastal waters is reported. HHCB was present in the blubbers of all finless porpoises (Neophocaena phocaenoides) analyzed (n = 8), at levels ranging from 13 to 149 ng/g on a wet weight basis. A fetus sample of finless porpoise contained a notable concentration of HHCB (26 ng/g wet wt), suggesting transplacental transfer of this compound. Among 12 tissues and organs of a finless porpoise analyzed, the highest HHCB concentration was found in blubber, followed by kidney. This indicates that HHCB accumulates in lipid-rich tissues in marine mammals, which is similar to the accumulation profiles of persistent organochlorines, such as PCBs and DDTs. In general, the residue levels of AHTN and nitro musks were low or below the detection limits in finless porpoises, implying either less usage in Japan or high metabolic capacity of these compounds in this animal. HHCB was also found in the livers of five hammerhead sharks (Sphrna lewini) from Japanese coastal waters, at concentrations ranging from 16 to 48 ng/g wet wt. Occurrence of HHCB in higher trophic organisms strongly suggests that it is less degradable in the environment and accumulates in the top predators of marine food chains. This is the first report on the accumulation of synthetic musk fragrances in marine mammals and sharks.

  15. Ecotoxicologically based marine acute water quality criteria for metals intended for protection of coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Durán, I; Beiras, R

    2013-10-01

    Acute water quality criteria (WQC) for the protection of coastal ecosystems are developed on the basis of short-term ecotoxicological data using the most sensitive life stages of representative species from the main taxa of marine water column organisms. A probabilistic approach based on species sensitivity distribution (SSD) curves has been chosen and compared to the WQC obtained applying an assessment factor to the critical toxicity values, i.e. the 'deterministic' approach. The criteria obtained from HC5 values (5th percentile of the SSD) were 1.01 μg/l for Hg, 1.39 μg/l for Cu, 3.83 μg/l for Cd, 25.3 μg/l for Pb and 8.24 μg/l for Zn. Using sensitive early life stages and very sensitive endpoints allowed calculation of WQC for marine coastal ecosystems. These probabilistic WQC, intended to protect 95% of the species in 95% of the cases, were calculated on the basis of a limited ecotoxicological dataset, avoiding the use of large and uncertain assessment factors. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Elevated Accumulation of Parabens and their Metabolites in Marine Mammals from the United States Coastal Waters.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jingchuan; Sasaki, Nozomi; Elangovan, Madhavan; Diamond, Guthrie; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2015-10-20

    The widespread exposure of humans to parabens present in personal care products is well-known. Nevertheless, little is known about the accumulation of parabens in marine organisms. In this study, six parabens and four common metabolites of parabens were measured in 121 tissue samples from eight species of marine mammals collected along the coastal waters of Florida, California, Washington, and Alaska. Methyl paraben (MeP) was the predominant compound found in the majority of the marine mammal tissues analyzed, and the highest concentration found was 865 ng/g (wet weight [wet wt]) in the livers of bottlenose dolphins from Sarasota Bay, FL. 4-Hydroxybenzoic acid (4-HB) was the predominant paraben metabolite found in all tissue samples. The measured concentrations of 4-HB were on the order of hundreds to thousands of ng/g tissue, and these values are some of the highest ever reported in the literature. MeP and 4-HB concentrations showed a significant positive correlation (p < 0.05), which suggested a common source of exposure to these compounds in marine mammals. Trace concentrations of MeP and 4-HB were found in the livers of polar bears from the Chuckchi Sea and Beaufort Sea, which suggested widespread distribution of MeP and 4-HB in the oceanic environment.

  17. Victims or vectors: a survey of marine vertebrate zoonoses from coastal waters of the Northwest Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Bogomolni, Andrea L; Gast, Rebecca J; Ellis, Julie C; Dennett, Mark; Pugliares, Katie R; Lentell, Betty J; Moore, Michael J

    2008-08-19

    Surveillance of zoonotic pathogens in marine birds and mammals in the Northwest Atlantic revealed a diversity of zoonotic agents. We found amplicons to sequences from Brucella spp., Leptospira spp., Giardia spp. and Cryptosporidium spp. in both marine mammals and birds. Avian influenza was detected in a harp seal and a herring gull. Routine aerobic and anaerobic culture showed a broad range of bacteria resistant to multiple antibiotics. Of 1460 isolates, 797 were tested for resistance, and 468 were resistant to one or more anti-microbials. 73% (341/468) were resistant to 1-4 drugs and 27% (128/468) resistant to 5-13 drugs. The high prevalence of resistance suggests that many of these isolates could have been acquired from medical and agricultural sources and inter-microbial gene transfer. Combining birds and mammals, 45% (63/141) of stranded and 8% (2/26) of by-caught animals in this study exhibited histopathological and/or gross pathological findings associated with the presence of these pathogens. Our findings indicate that marine mammals and birds in the Northwest Atlantic are reservoirs for potentially zoonotic pathogens, which they may transmit to beachgoers, fishermen and wildlife health personnel. Conversely, zoonotic pathogens found in marine vertebrates may have been acquired via contamination of coastal waters by sewage, run-off and agricultural and medical waste. In either case these animals are not limited by political boundaries and are therefore important indicators of regional and global ocean health.

  18. Ectoenzyme activity in coastal marine waters: response to temperature and metal ion availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiedenbeck, J. K.; Neino, V.; Allison, S. D.; Martiny, A.

    2009-12-01

    Ectoenzymes in the ocean are vital for the breakdown of complex organic substrates and for the uptake of nutrients by marine organisms. The activity levels of these enzymes affect the turnover rate of nutrient pools within the ocean, and thus have a significant impact on global biogeochemical nutrient cycles. This study measured the activity of extracellular enzymes from seawater samples under different environmental conditions. Samples were collected daily from coastal waters in the subtropical North Pacific (Lat.: 33°). Ambient seawater temperatures were between 18° and 20° C for the duration of the study. The activity response of four enzymes (alkaline phosphatase, β-glucosidase, β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase, and leucine aminopeptidase) was measured over a range of temperatures (4° to 40° C). The optimal temperatures of all four enzymes were above the ambient seawater temperature of the samples: optimal temperatures of β-glucosidase, β-N-acetyl glucosaminidase, and leucine aminopeptidase in the seawater samples were between 28° and 34° C, while alkaline phosphatase activity increased with the temperature over the range tested. Enzymatic activity of alkaline phosphatase was further investigated under several metal ion conditions. Activity was highest in the presence of Co2+ ions, while the availability of other ions (Ca2+ and Mg2+/Zn2+) had a lesser effect. The influence of Co2+ on alkaline phosphatase activity indicates the presence of a Co2+-dependent alkaline phosphatase in coastal marine waters. These results suggest that variations in environmental conditions (such as temperature and ion concentration) have discernable effects on enzyme activity, and thus affect turnover rates of nutrient pools in the ocean.

  19. A novel marine nitrite-oxidizing Nitrospira species from Dutch coastal North Sea water

    PubMed Central

    Haaijer, Suzanne C. M.; Ji, Ke; van Niftrik, Laura; Hoischen, Alexander; Speth, Daan; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Damsté, Jaap S. Sinninghe; Op den Camp, Huub J. M.

    2013-01-01

    Marine microorganisms are important for the global nitrogen cycle, but marine nitrifiers, especially aerobic nitrite oxidizers, remain largely unexplored. To increase the number of cultured representatives of marine nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), a bioreactor cultivation approach was adopted to first enrich nitrifiers and ultimately nitrite oxidizers from Dutch coastal North Sea water. With solely ammonia as the substrate an active nitrifying community consisting of novel marine Nitrosomonas aerobic ammonia oxidizers (ammonia-oxidizing bacteria) and Nitrospina and Nitrospira NOB was obtained which converted a maximum of 2 mmol of ammonia per liter per day. Switching the feed of the culture to nitrite as a sole substrate resulted in a Nitrospira NOB dominated community (approximately 80% of the total microbial community based on fluorescence in situ hybridization and metagenomic data) converting a maximum of 3 mmol of nitrite per liter per day. Phylogenetic analyses based on the 16S rRNA gene indicated that the Nitrospira enriched from the North Sea is a novel Nitrospira species with Nitrospira marina as the next taxonomically described relative (94% 16S rRNA sequence identity). Transmission electron microscopy analysis revealed a cell plan typical for Nitrospira species. The cytoplasm contained electron light particles that might represent glycogen storage. A large periplasmic space was present which was filled with electron dense particles. Nitrospira-targeted polymerase chain reaction analyses demonstrated the presence of the enriched Nitrospira species in a time series of North Sea genomic DNA samples. The availability of this new Nitrospira species enrichment culture facilitates further in-depth studies such as determination of physiological constraints, and comparison to other NOB species. PMID:23515432

  20. Marine bivalve feeding strategy, radiocarbon ages and stable isotopes in Scottish coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Giudice Cappelli, Elena; Austin, William

    2017-04-01

    microhabitats, as all measured bivalve shells are the same age within the ± 2sigma error. Thus, the main conclusion that can be drawn from our results is that stable isotopes measured in marine bivalve shells can be a very useful source of palaeoenvironmental information in coastal and continental shelf waters, while radiocarbon dating of the same shells provides a reliable chronology of environmental change, regardless of vital effects and differences in microhabitats, feeding strategies and sample location.

  1. Marine and terrestrial influence on submarine groundwater discharge in coastal waters connected to a peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibenthal, Miriam; Ptak, Thomas; Massmann, Gudrun; Lennartz, Bernd; Janssen, Manon

    2017-04-01

    Coastal peatlands are characterized by intense interactions between land and sea, comprising both a submarine discharge of fresh groundwater and inundations of the peatland with seawater. Nutrients and salts can influence the biogeochemical processes both in the shallow marine sediments and in the peatland. The determination of flow direction and quantity of groundwater flow are therefore elementary. Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been reported from several locations in the Baltic. The objective of this study is to quantify the exchange of fresh and brackish water across the shoreline in a coastal peatland in Northeastern Germany, and to assess the influence of a peat layer extending into the Baltic Sea. The peatland with a size of 350 ha was previously drained by a dense channel system but is now undergoing the process of renaturation. The peatland is separated from the beach by a dune dike that is not maintained anymore. Below the peatland, a shallow fine sand aquifer differs in depth and is limited downwards by glacial till. Grain size analysis and slug tests indicate a higher hydraulic conductivity in a sand layer near the dune on top of the peat, and a less permeable peat layer on top of the aquifer. Water level and electrical conductivity (EC) are permanently measured in different depths at eight locations in the peatland. The water level in the peatland and the surrounding forest is close to or above ground level. First results indicate a groundwater flow direction towards the sea. Electrical conductivity measurements near the coastline indicate differences between 0.8 to 13 mS/cm in the sediment layers. EC fluctuates partially during storm events depending on the hydraulic gradient and the height and width of dunes.

  2. Photochemical Transformations of the Structural and Optical Properties of Marine Colored Dissolved Organic Material in Coastal Waters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-30

    characterization of CDOM in fresh to marine transition zones in South Florida (with Rod Zika (RSMAS, UM)); 2) set up instrumentation and accumulate water...results from recent ONR-funded cruises at the 2002 Ocean Sciences meeting. APPROACH In collaboration with Dr. Rod Zika and Eliete Zanardi...laboratory in collaboration with Dr. Bob Chen, U. Mass. Boston and Rod Zika , RSMAS. Field studies and sampling of local salt marshes and coastal waters

  3. Characterization of Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium from marine environments in coastal waters of Galicia (Spain).

    PubMed

    Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime; Liebana, Ernesto; Garcia-Migura, Lourdes; Perez-Piñeiro, Pelayo; Saco, Montserrat

    2004-07-01

    Twenty-three Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates from marine environments were characterized by phage typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, plasmid analysis, and antibiotic resistance, and the distribution of the different types in the coastal waters were subsequently analyzed. Five phage types were identified among the isolates (PT41, PT135, PT99, DT104, and DT193). PT135 isolates were exclusively detected during the winter months from 1998 to 2000, whereas DT104 and PT41 isolates were detected exclusively in the summer months from 2000 to 2002. XbaI PFGE analysis revealed 9 PFGE types, and plasmid profiling identified 8 plasmid types (with 1 to 6 plasmids) among the isolates. Only three isolates presented multidrug resistance to antibiotics. Two DT104 isolates were resistant to 8 and 7 antibiotics (profiles ACCeFNaSSuT and ACeFNeSSuT), whereas a PT193 isolate presented resistance to 6 antibiotics (profile ACFSSu). In addition, four PT41 isolates were resistant to a single antibiotic. The detection of multidrug-resistant phage types DT104 and DT193 in shellfish emphasizes the importance of monitoring the presence of Salmonella in routine surveillance of live bivalve molluscs.

  4. Characterization of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium from Marine Environments in Coastal Waters of Galicia (Spain)

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Urtaza, Jaime; Liebana, Ernesto; Garcia-Migura, Lourdes; Perez-Piñeiro, Pelayo; Saco, Montserrat

    2004-01-01

    Twenty-three Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium isolates from marine environments were characterized by phage typing, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) analysis, plasmid analysis, and antibiotic resistance, and the distribution of the different types in the coastal waters were subsequently analyzed. Five phage types were identified among the isolates (PT41, PT135, PT99, DT104, and DT193). PT135 isolates were exclusively detected during the winter months from 1998 to 2000, whereas DT104 and PT41 isolates were detected exclusively in the summer months from 2000 to 2002. XbaI PFGE analysis revealed 9 PFGE types, and plasmid profiling identified 8 plasmid types (with 1 to 6 plasmids) among the isolates. Only three isolates presented multidrug resistance to antibiotics. Two DT104 isolates were resistant to 8 and 7 antibiotics (profiles ACCeFNaSSuT and ACeFNeSSuT), whereas a PT193 isolate presented resistance to 6 antibiotics (profile ACFSSu). In addition, four PT41 isolates were resistant to a single antibiotic. The detection of multidrug-resistant phage types DT104 and DT193 in shellfish emphasizes the importance of monitoring the presence of Salmonella in routine surveillance of live bivalve molluscs. PMID:15240279

  5. Thermal characteristics of a marine microcosm designed to simulate the coastal water environment of the northern Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idso, S. B.; Idso, K. E.

    1982-05-01

    The construction and stocking of a 15 000-liter marine microcosm is described. The microcosm is located outdoors in the arid desert environment of Tempe, Arizona and is an attempt to simulate the coastal water environment of the northern Gulf of California near Puerto Penasco, Mexico. Temperature modulation is achieved by an appropriate area/volume ratio, partial shading of the water surface, and auxiliary solar panel heating. Long-term measurements demonstrate that the system is capable of accurately duplicating the mean monthly temperatures of Puerto Penasco waters throughout the entire year.

  6. Petroleum hydrocarbon concentrations in marine sediments along Nagapattinam - Pondicherry coastal waters, Southeast coast of India.

    PubMed

    Kamalakannan, K; Balakrishnan, S; Sampathkumar, P

    2017-04-15

    In this present study, petroleum hydrocarbons were statistically analyzed in three different coastal sediment cores viz., (N1, P1 and P2) from the Southeast coast of Tamil Nadu, India to examine the viability of PHCs. The significant positive relationship between mud (silt+clay+sand) and PHC unveiled that high specific surface of area of mud content raise the level of PHCs. Cluster analysis was used to discriminate the sediment samples based on their degree of contamination. The present study shows that instead of expensive and destructive PHC chemical methods, magnetic susceptibility is found to be a suitable, cheap and rapid method for detailed study of PHC in marine sediments. This baseline PHCs data can be used for regular ecological monitoring and effective management for the mining and tourism related activities in the coastal ecosystem. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Resolving coastal conflicts using marine spatial planning.

    PubMed

    Tuda, Arthur O; Stevens, Tim F; Rodwell, Lynda D

    2014-01-15

    We applied marine spatial planning (MSP) to manage conflicts in a multi-use coastal area of Kenya. MSP involves several steps which were supported by using geographical information systems (GISs), multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) and optimization. GIS was used in identifying overlapping coastal uses and mapping conflict hotspots. MCDA was used to incorporate the preferences of user groups and managers into a formal decision analysis procedure. Optimization was applied in generating optimal allocation alternatives to competing uses. Through this analysis three important objectives that build a foundation for future planning of Kenya's coastal waters were achieved: 1) engaging competing stakeholders; 2) illustrating how MSP can be adapted to aid decision-making in multi-use coastal regions; and 3) developing a draft coastal use allocation plan. The successful application of MSP to resolve conflicts in coastal regions depends on the level of stakeholder involvement, data availability and the existing knowledge base. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A survey of fish viruses isolated from wild marine fishes from the coastal waters of southern Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wi-Sik; Choi, Shin-Young; Kim, Do-Hyung; Oh, Myung-Joo

    2013-11-01

    A survey was conducted to investigate viral infection in 253 wild marine fishes harvested in the southern coastal area of Korea from 2010 to 2012. The fish that were captured by local anglers were randomly bought and sampled for virus examination. The samples were tested for presence of virus by virus isolation with FHM, FSP, and BF-2 cells and molecular methods (polymerase chain reaction and sequencing). Of the 253 fish sampled, 9 fish were infected with virus. Aquabirnaviruses (ABVs), Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), and Red seabream iridovirus (RSIV) were detected in 7, 1, and 1 fish, respectively. Molecular phylogenies demonstrated the detected viruses (ABV, VHSV, and RSIV) were more closely related to viruses reported of the same type from Korea and Japan than from other countries, suggesting these viruses may be indigenous to Korean and Japanese coastal waters.

  9. Evidence for significant photochemical production of carbon monoxide by particles in coastal and oligotrophic marine waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Huixiang; Zafiriou, Oliver C.

    2009-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) photoproduction from particulate and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) was determined in seawater from open-ocean and coastal areas. In confirmatory tests, poisoned or non-poisoned filtered and unfiltered blue-water samples, were exposed to sunlight. CO photoproduction was 21-42% higher in the unfiltered than in the filtered samples. In a more thorough study utilizing concentrated particles prepared by 0.2-μm cross-flow filtration, samples containing varying levels of particles were irradiated under simulated solar radiation. Their CO photoproduction rates increased linearly with particle concentration factor. Particulate CO production was 11-35% of CDOM-based CO production. On an absorbed-photons basis, the former was 30-108% more efficient than the latter. This study suggests that in both coastal and blue waters these new-found particulate photoprocesses are of similar biogeochemical importance to the well-known CDOM photoproduction term.

  10. Long-term temporal-spatial dynamics of marine coastal water quality in the Tolo Harbor, Hong Kong, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fu-liu; Lam, K C; Dawson, R W; Tao, Shu; Chen, Y D

    2004-01-01

    The long-term temporal and spatial dynamics of marine coastal water quality in Tolo Harbor, Hong Kong were explored. The Harbor is divided into three zones represented as Harbor, Buffer, and Channel Subzones. The time range for the study covers the period from the 1970s to the 1990s. The selected indicators for the comprehensive assessment of water quality consist of physical, chemical and biological aspects, including suspended solids(SS), Secchi disk depth(SD), 5-day biochemical oxygen demand(BOD5), total nitrogen (TN), total phosphorus(TP), faecal coliform, chlorophyll-a(Chl-a), and the number of red tide occurrences. The results indicated the presence of obvious temporal and spatial trends with regard to changes in water quality. Spatially, water quality in the Channel Subzone is the best, while that in the Harbor Subzone is the worst. On a temporal basis, the average trend from bad to good was 1980s > 1990s > 1970s as indicated by most of the selected water quality indicators. Water quality during the late 1980s reached its worst level with the lowest SD, the highest BOD5, TN, TP, Chl-a concentrations, and the number of red tide occurrences. These long-term temporal-spatial water quality trends were also found in other studies of the Tolo Harbor. The large quantity of pollutants produced as a result of increasing population, industrial and commercial actives, and urbanization and industrialization trends in both Shatin and Tai Po seem to be primarily responsible for the changes in marine coastal water quality.

  11. Holocene melt-water variations recorded in Antarctic coastal marine benthic assemblages

    SciTech Connect

    Berkman, P.A.

    1992-03-01

    Climate changes can influence the input of meltwater from the polar ice sheets. In Antarctica, signatures of meltwater input during the Holocene may be recorded in the benthic fossils which exist at similar altitudes above sea level in emerged beaches around the continent Interpreting the fossils as meltwater proxy records would be enhanced by understanding the modern ecology of the species in adjacent marine environments. Characteristics of an extant scallop assemblage in West McMurdo Sound, Antarctica, have been evaluated across a summer meltwater gradient to provide examples of meltwater records that may be contained in proximal scallop fossils. Integrating environmental proxies from coastal benthic assemblages around Antarctica, over ecological and geological time scales, is a necessary step in evaluating the marginal responses of the ice sheets to climate changes during the Holocene.

  12. Marine and Coastal Resources. Global Issues Education Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Amy E.

    At least 70% of the Earth is covered with water. This packet provides background information on eight areas of concern regarding marine and coastal resources. Considered are: (1) "Coastal Resources"; (2) "Mangroves"; (3) "Coral Reefs"; (4) "Ocean Resources"; (5) "Aquaculture"; (6) "Pollution"; (7) "Marine Debris"; and (8) "The Global Commons."…

  13. Marine and Coastal Resources. Global Issues Education Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holm, Amy E.

    At least 70% of the Earth is covered with water. This packet provides background information on eight areas of concern regarding marine and coastal resources. Considered are: (1) "Coastal Resources"; (2) "Mangroves"; (3) "Coral Reefs"; (4) "Ocean Resources"; (5) "Aquaculture"; (6) "Pollution"; (7) "Marine Debris"; and (8) "The Global Commons."…

  14. Movements of a deep-water fish: establishing marine fisheries management boundaries in coastal Arctic waters.

    PubMed

    Hussey, Nigel E; Hedges, Kevin J; Barkley, Amanda N; Treble, Margaret A; Peklova, Iva; Webber, Dale M; Ferguson, Steven H; Yurkowski, David J; Kessel, Steven T; Bedard, Jeannette M; Fisk, Aaron T

    2017-04-01

    in 2014. The community fishery can now develop an open-water fishery in addition to the winter fishery to exploit the TAC, which will ensure the longevity of the fishery under projected climate-change scenarios. Telemetry shows great promise as a tool for understanding deep-water species and for directly informing fisheries management of these ecosystems that are inherently complex to study. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  15. Levels and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in marine fishes from Chinese coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Xia, Chonghuan; Lam, James C W; Wu, Xiaoguo; Sun, Liguang; Xie, Zhouqing; Lam, Paul K S

    2011-01-01

    Concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in yellow croakers (Pseudosciaena crocea) and silver pomfrets (Pampus argenteus) collected from nine coastal cities along the eastern China coastline were investigated. PBDE congeners with mono- to hexa-brominated substitutions were detected in the samples, indicating their ubiquitous distribution in the marine environment of China. The total PBDE concentration averaged 3.04 ng g⁻¹ lipid wt, a level that was relatively lower than in other regions of the world, especially North America where Penta-BDE was extensively used. Geographically, the highest concentration of PBDEs was found in Xiamen, and the PBDE levels in yellow croakers were significantly higher than those in pomfrets in most of the selected cities, a pattern which may be related to the different feeding habits of the two species. The congener profiles of PBDEs were found to be different from the commonly detected pattern in fishes from other regions of the world (i.e., BDE47>BDE99, BDE100>BDE153, BDE154). BDE47 and BDE154 were the predominant congeners in both species, accounting for more than 60% of the total PBDE concentrations. The reasons for the relatively high proportion of BDE154 may be due to the debromination of higher brominated congeners such as BDE183 and BDE209 by these two species.

  16. Algibacter aquaticus sp. nov., a slightly alkaliphilic marine Flavobacterium isolated from coastal surface water.

    PubMed

    Wong, Shu-Kuan; Park, Sanghwa; Lee, Jung-Sook; Lee, Keun Chul; Ogura, Yoshitoshi; Hayashi, Tetsuya; Chiura, Hiroshi Xavier; Yoshizawa, Susumu; Hamasaki, Koji

    2017-07-01

    A rod-shaped, pale yellow-pigmented, aerobic, Gram-staining-negative strain with gliding motility, designated as strain SK-16T, was isolated from the coastal surface water of a semi-enclosed coastal inlet in Misaki, Japan. Analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that SK-16T represented a member of the family Flavobacteriaceae and was closely related to the genus Algibacter, with sequence similarities ranging from 95.9 to 94.3 % to the type strains of species of the genus Algibacter. The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C15 : 0, iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, iso-C15 : 0 G and iso-C15 : 0 3-OH. Major polar lipids were phosphatidylethanolamine, an aminophospholipid and an unidentified phospholipid. The DNA G+C content of SK-16T was 32.3 mol% and MK-6 was the only predominant isoprenoid quinone. On the basis of the results of phenotypic, genotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic studies, it was suggested that SK-16T represents a novel species within the genus Algibacter, with the newly proposed name Algibacteraquaticus. The type strain is SK-16T (=NBRC 110220T=KCTC 32974T).

  17. Heavy metal concentrations in marine green, brown, and red seaweeds from coastal waters of Yemen, the Gulf of Aden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Shwafi, Nabil A.; Rushdi, Ahmed I.

    2008-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the concentration levels of heavy metals in different species of the main three marine algal divisions from the Gulf of Aden coastal waters, Yemen. The divisions included Chlorophyta—green plants ( Halimeda tuna, Rhizoclonium kochiamum, Caldophora koiei, Enteromorpha compressa, and Caulerpa racemosa species), Phaeophyta—brown seaweeds ( Padina boryana, Turbinaria elatensis, Sargassum binderi, Cystoseira myrica, and Sargassum boveanum species), and Rhodophyta—red seaweeds ( Hypnea cornuta, Champia parvula, Galaxaura marginate, Laurencia paniculata, Gracilaria foliifere, and species). The heavy metals, which included cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), chromium (Cr), Iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), and vanadium (V) were measured by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAs). The concentrations of heavy metals in all algal species are in the order of Fe >> Cu > Mn > Cr > Zn > Ni > Pb > Cd > V > Co. The results also showed that the uptake of heavy metals by different marine algal divisions was in the order of Chlorophyta > Phaeophyta > Rhodophyta. These heavy metals were several order of magnitude higher than the concentrations of the same metals in seawater. This indicates that marine alga progressively uptake heavy metals from seawater.

  18. Spatio-temporal variability of hydro-chemical characteristics of coastal waters of Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve (GoMMBR), South India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathiravan, K.; Natesan, Usha; Vishnunath, R.

    2017-03-01

    The intention of this study was to appraise the spatial and temporal variations in the physico-chemical parameters of coastal waters of Rameswaram Island, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve, south India, using multivariate statistical techniques, such as cluster analysis, factor analysis and principal component analysis. Spatio-temporal variations among the physico-chemical parameters are observed in the coastal waters of Gulf of Mannar, especially during northeast and post monsoon seasons. It is inferred that the high loadings of pH, temperature, suspended particulate matter, salinity, dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand, chlorophyll a, nutrient species of nitrogen and phosphorus strongly determine the discrimination of coastal water quality. Results highlight the important role of monsoonal variations to determine the coastal water quality around Rameswaram Island.

  19. Primary production of coral ecosystems in the Vietnamese coastal and adjacent marine waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tac-An, Nguyen; Minh-Thu, Phan; Cherbadji, I. I.; Propp, M. V.; Odintsov, V. S.; Propp, L. H.

    2013-11-01

    Coral reef ecosystems in coastal waters and islands of Vietnam have high primary production. Average gross primary production (GPP) in coral reef waters was 0.39 g C m-2 day-1. GPP of corals ranged from 3.12 to 4.37 g C m-2 day-1. GPP of benthic microalgae in coral reefs ranged from 2 to 10 g C m-2 day-1. GPP of macro-algae was 2.34 g C m-2 day-1. Therefore, the total of GPP of whole coral reef ecosystems could reach 7.85 to 17.10 g C m-2 day-1. Almost all values of the ratio of photosynthesis to respiration in the water bodies are higher than 1, which means these regions are autotrophic systems. Wire variation of GPP in coral reefs was contributed by species abundance of coral and organisms, nutrient supports and environmental characteristics of coral ecosystems. Coral reefs play an important ecological role of biogeochemical cycling of nutrients in waters around the reefs. These results contribute valuable information for the protection, conservation and sustainable exploitation of the natural resources in coral reef ecosystems in Vietnam.

  20. Down Where the Water Is: A Coastal Awareness Activity Book. Marine Bulletin No. 22.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callaghan, Sara S.

    This activity booklet was prepared as part of the Rhode Island Coastal Resources Management Council's public education program. It was designed to inform youngsters about the importance and use of coastal resources. Line-drawn pictures of coastal activities may be employed in a variety of ways to promote discussion and an awareness of the coastal…

  1. Dynamics of marine bacterial community diversity of the coastal waters of the reefs, inlets, and wastewater outfalls of southeast Florida.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Alexandra M; Fleisher, Jay; Sinigalliano, Christopher; White, James R; Lopez, Jose V

    2015-06-01

    Coastal waters adjacent to populated southeast Florida possess different habitats (reefs, oceanic inlets, sewage outfalls) that may affect the composition of their inherent microbiomes. To determine variation according to site, season, and depth, over the course of 1 year, we characterized the bacterioplankton communities within 38 nearshore seawater samples derived from the Florida Area Coastal Environment (FACE) water quality survey. Six distinct coastal locales were profiled - the Port Everglades and Hillsboro Inlets, Hollywood and Broward wastewater outfalls, and associated reef sites using culture-independent, high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 region. More than 227,000 sequences helped describe longitudinal taxonomic profiles of marine bacteria and archaea. There were 4447 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified with a mean OTU count of 5986 OTUs across all sites. Bacterial taxa varied significantly by season and by site using weighted and unweighted Unifrac, but depth was only supported by weighted Unifrac, suggesting a change due to presence/absence of certain OTUs. Abundant microbial taxa across all samples included Synechococcus, Pelagibacteraceae, Bacteroidetes, and various Proteobacteria. Unifrac analysis confirmed significant differences at inlet sites relative to reef and outfalls. Inlet-based bacterioplankton significantly differed in greater abundances of Rhodobacteraceae and Cryomorphaceae, and depletion of SAR406 sequences. This study also found higher counts of Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, and wastewater associated SBR1093 bacteria at the outfall and reef sites compared to inlet sites. This study profiles local bacterioplankton populations in a much broader context, beyond culturing and quantitative PCR, and expands upon the work completed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration FACE program. © 2015 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Dynamics of marine bacterial community diversity of the coastal waters of the reefs, inlets, and wastewater outfalls of southeast Florida

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Alexandra M; Fleisher, Jay; Sinigalliano, Christopher; White, James R; Lopez, Jose V

    2015-01-01

    Coastal waters adjacent to populated southeast Florida possess different habitats (reefs, oceanic inlets, sewage outfalls) that may affect the composition of their inherent microbiomes. To determine variation according to site, season, and depth, over the course of 1 year, we characterized the bacterioplankton communities within 38 nearshore seawater samples derived from the Florida Area Coastal Environment (FACE) water quality survey. Six distinct coastal locales were profiled – the Port Everglades and Hillsboro Inlets, Hollywood and Broward wastewater outfalls, and associated reef sites using culture-independent, high-throughput pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA V4 region. More than 227,000 sequences helped describe longitudinal taxonomic profiles of marine bacteria and archaea. There were 4447 unique operational taxonomic units (OTUs) identified with a mean OTU count of 5986 OTUs across all sites. Bacterial taxa varied significantly by season and by site using weighted and unweighted Unifrac, but depth was only supported by weighted Unifrac, suggesting a change due to presence/absence of certain OTUs. Abundant microbial taxa across all samples included Synechococcus, Pelagibacteraceae, Bacteroidetes, and various Proteobacteria. Unifrac analysis confirmed significant differences at inlet sites relative to reef and outfalls. Inlet-based bacterioplankton significantly differed in greater abundances of Rhodobacteraceae and Cryomorphaceae, and depletion of SAR406 sequences. This study also found higher counts of Firmicutes, Chloroflexi, and wastewater associated SBR1093 bacteria at the outfall and reef sites compared to inlet sites. This study profiles local bacterioplankton populations in a much broader context, beyond culturing and quantitative PCR, and expands upon the work completed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration FACE program. PMID:25740409

  3. Diversity of bacteria in the marine sponge Aplysina fulva in Brazilian coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Hardoim, C C P; Costa, R; Araújo, F V; Hajdu, E; Peixoto, R; Lins, U; Rosado, A S; van Elsas, J D

    2009-05-01

    Microorganisms can account for up to 60% of the fresh weight of marine sponges. Marine sponges have been hypothesized to serve as accumulation spots of particular microbial communities, but it is unknown to what extent these communities are directed by the organism or the site or occur randomly. To address this question, we assessed the composition of specific bacterial communities associated with Aplysina fulva, one of the prevalent sponge species inhabiting Brazilian waters. Specimens of A. fulva and surrounding seawater were collected in triplicate in shallow water at two sites, Caboclo Island and Tartaruga beach, Búzios, Brazil. Total community DNA was extracted from the samples using "direct" and "indirect" approaches. 16S rRNA-based PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) analyses of the total bacterial community and of specific bacterial groups--Pseudomonas and Actinobacteria--revealed that the structure of these assemblages in A. fulva differed drastically from that observed in seawater. The DNA extraction methodology and sampling site were determinative for the composition of actinobacterial communities in A. fulva. However, no such effects could be gleaned from total bacterial and Pseudomonas PCR-DGGE profiles. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene clone libraries constructed from directly and indirectly extracted DNA did not differ significantly with respect to diversity and composition. Altogether, the libraries encompassed 15 bacterial phyla and the candidate division TM7. Clone sequences affiliated with the Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Gamma- and Alphaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Acidobacteria were, in this order, most abundant. The bacterial communities associated with the A. fulva specimens were distinct and differed from those described in studies of sponge-associated microbiota performed with other sponge species.

  4. USGS Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Sam; Gibbons, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies the coasts of the western United States, including Alaska and Hawai‘i. Team scientists conduct research, monitor processes, and develop information about coastal and marine geologic hazards, environmental conditions, habitats, and energy and mineral resources. This information helps managers at all levels of government and in the private sector make informed decisions about the use and protection of national coastal and marine resources.

  5. Location, Location, Location: Management Uses of Marine Benthic Biogeographical Information in Coastal Waters of the Northeastern USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecosystem-based management practices, along with coastal and marine spatial planning, have been adopted as foundational principles for ocean management in the United States. The success of these practices depends in large measure on a solid foundation of biogeographical informati...

  6. On the Response of pH to Inorganic Nutrient Enrichment in Well-Mixed Coastal Marine Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent concerns about declining pH in the surface ocean in response to anthropogenic increases of CO2 in the atmosphere have raised the question of how this declining baseline of oceanic pH might interact with the much larger diel and seasonal variations of pH in coastal marine e...

  7. On the Response of pH to Inorganic Nutrient Enrichment in Well-Mixed Coastal Marine Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent concerns about declining pH in the surface ocean in response to anthropogenic increases of CO2 in the atmosphere have raised the question of how this declining baseline of oceanic pH might interact with the much larger diel and seasonal variations of pH in coastal marine e...

  8. Location, Location, Location: Management Uses of Marine Benthic Biogeographical Information in Coastal Waters of the Northeastern USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ecosystem-based management practices, along with coastal and marine spatial planning, have been adopted as foundational principles for ocean management in the United States. The success of these practices depends in large measure on a solid foundation of biogeographical informati...

  9. Low temporal variation in the intact polar lipid composition of North Sea coastal marine water reveals limited chemotaxonomic value

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandsma, J.; Hopmans, E. C.; Philippart, C. J. M.; Veldhuis, M. J. W.; Schouten, S.; Sinninghe Damsté, J. S.

    2012-03-01

    Temporal variations in the abundance and composition of intact polar lipids (IPLs) in North Sea coastal marine water were assessed over a one-year seasonal cycle, and compared with environmental parameters and the microbial community composition. Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerol (SQDG) was the most abundant IPL class, followed by phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and diacylglyceryl-(N,N,N)-trimethylhomoserine (DGTS) in roughly equal concentrations, and smaller amounts of phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). Although the total concentrations of these IPL classes varied substantially throughout the year, the composition of the IPL pool remained remarkably constant. Statistical analysis yielded negative correlations between IPL concentrations and dissolved inorganic nutrient concentrations, but no changes in the overall planktonic IPL composition due to nutrient limitation were observed. Significant correlations between SQDG, PC, PG and DGTS concentrations and chlorophyll a concentrations and algal abundances indicated that eukaryotic primary producers, in particular Phaeocystis globosa, were the predominant source of IPLs at this site. However, while IPL concentrations in the water were closely tied to total algal abundances, the rapid succession of different algal groups blooming throughout the year resulted in only minor shifts in the IPL composition. Principal component analysis showed that the IPLs were derived from multiple sources, and that no IPL species could be exclusively assigned to a particular algal taxa or (cyano)bacteria. Thus, the most commonly occurring IPLs appear to have limited chemotaxonomic potential, highlighting the need to use targeted assays of more specific biomarker IPLs.

  10. Enhancement of tritium concentrations on uptake by marine biota: experience from UK coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Hunt, G J; Bailey, T A; Jenkinson, S B; Leonard, K S

    2010-03-01

    Concentrations of tritium in sea water and marine biota as reported over the last approximately 10 years from monitoring programmes carried out by this laboratory under contract to the UK Food Standards Agency are reviewed from three areas: near Cardiff; Sellafield; and Hartlepool. Near Cardiff, enhancement of concentration factors (CFs) above an a priori value of approximately 1 have already been studied, and attributed to compounds containing organically bound tritium in local radioactive waste discharges. Further data for Cardiff up to 2006 are reported in this note. Up to 2001, CFs increased to values of more than approximately 7000 in flounders and approximately 4000 in mussels, but have subsequently reduced; this variability could be due to changes in the organic constitution of compounds discharged. Near Sellafield and Hartlepool, enhancements to the tritium concentration factor are observed but they are relatively small compared with those near Cardiff. Near Sellafield, plaice and mussels appear to have a CF for tritium of approximately 10; in some cases concentrations of tritium in winkles are below detection limits and positively measured values indicate a CF of approximately 3. The variation could be due to mechanisms of uptake by the different organisms. Near Hartlepool there were only a few cases where tritium was positively measured. These data give a value of approximately 5 for the CF in plaice (on the basis of two samples); approximately 15 in winkles (eight samples); and > 45 in mussels (two samples). Any differences between the behaviours at Sellafield and Hartlepool would need to be confirmed by improved measurements. Possible causes are the organic composition of the effluent and differences in environmental behaviour and uptake by organisms near the two sites. These potential causes need further investigation. It is emphasised that results from tritium analyses are heavily method dependent; thus comparison with results from other programmes

  11. The diversity and structure of marine protists in the coastal waters of China revealed by morphological observation and 454 pyrosequencing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yun; Song, Shuqun; Chen, Tiantian; Li, Caiwen

    2017-04-01

    Pyrosequencing of the 18S rRNA gene has been widely adopted to study the eukaryotic diversity in various types of environments, and has an advantage over traditional morphology methods in exploring unknown microbial communities. To comprehensively assess the diversity and community composition of marine protists in the coastal waters of China, we applied both morphological observations and high-throughput sequencing of the V2 and V3 regions of 18S rDNA simultaneously to analyze samples collected from the surface layer of the Yellow and East China Seas. Dinoflagellates, diatoms and ciliates were the three dominant protistan groups as revealed by the two methods. Diatoms were the first dominant protistan group in the microscopic observations, with Skeletonema mainly distributed in the nearshore eutrophic waters and Chaetoceros in higher temperature and higher pH waters. The mixotrophic dinoflagellates, Gymnodinium and Gyrodinium, were more competitive in the oligotrophic waters. The pyrosequencing method revealed an extensive diversity of dinoflagellates. Chaetoceros was the only dominant diatom group in the pyrosequencing dataset. Gyrodinium represented the most abundant reads and dominated the offshore oligotrophic protistan community as they were in the microscopic observations. The dominance of parasitic dinoflagellates in the pyrosequencing dataset, which were overlooked in the morphological observations, indicates more attention should be paid to explore the potential role of this group. Both methods provide coherent clustering of samples. Nutrient levels, salinity and pH were the main factors influencing the distribution of protists. This study demonstrates that different primer pairs used in the pyrosequencing will indicate different protistan community structures. A suitable marker may reveal more comprehensive composition of protists and provide valuable information on environmental drivers.

  12. Four new species of Peniculisa Wilson, 1917 (Copepoda: Siphonostomatoida: Pennellidae) parasitic on coastal marine fishes in Japanese waters.

    PubMed

    Uyeno, Daisuke; Nagasawa, Kazuya

    2010-08-01

    Four new species of Peniculisa Wilson, 1917, are described from marine fishes caught in coastal waters of southwestern Japan. Peniculisa elongata n. sp., Peniculisa crassa n. sp., and Peniculisa uchinah n. sp. are distinguishable from Peniculisa furcata ( Krøyer, 1863 ), Peniculisa bellwoodi Boxshall, 1989 , and Peniculisa wilsoni Radhakrishnan, 1977 , in the lack of rami on legs 1 to 4, the lack of leg 5, and the possession of a trunk with prominent anterior shoulders. Peniculisa elongata n. sp. is separated from the remaining 2 known and 3 new congeners, Peniculisa bicaudata Shiino, 1956 , Peniculisa shiinoi Izawa, 1965 , P. crassa n. sp., Peniculisa ohirugi n. sp., and P. uchinah n. sp. by a pair of long, slender caudal processes, a compact cephalothorax, and its trunk with posteroventral lobes projecting posteriorly. Peniculisa crassa n. sp. can be discriminated from them by its pair of short, thick caudal processes, a comparatively large and thick cephalothorax in relation to its body, and its abdominal processes widest at base. Peniculisa uchinah n. sp. is distinguished from all other congeners by the possession of a pair of relatively long, slender, and proportionately long caudal processes, and a long abdominal process widest near the posterior end. Peniculisa ohirugi n. sp. is identified by a pair of long, divergent abdominal processes extending the tip of caudal rami, and by the location of leg 4 on the neck region.

  13. Estuaries and coastal waters need help

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, H.

    1987-11-01

    For years, our marine environments-estuaries, coastal waters, and the open ocean-have been used extensively by coastal communities and industries for the disposal of various wastes. Historically, marine waste disposal has been relatively cheap and has solved some short-term waste-management problems; however, its consequences include a general trend toward environmental degradation, particularly in estuaries and coastal waters. Thus, without protective measures, the next few decades will witness degradation in many estuaries and some coastal waters around the country. The extent of current degradation varies greatly around the country. Although it is difficult to ascertain cause and effect relationships, enough evidence exists to conclude that the pollutants in question include disease-causing microorganisms, oxygen-demanding substances, particulate material, metals, and organic chemicals. Two statutes form the basis of most federal regulatory efforts to combat marine pollution: the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) and the Clean Water Act (CWA). The MPRSA regulates the dumping of wastes in coastal and open-ocean waters, whereas the CWA has jurisdiction over pipeline discharges in all marine waters, wastes dumped in estuaries, and runoff. Many people consider that the passage and implementation of these two acts and their ensuing amendments established a statutory structure sufficient to protect the nation's waters from pollution. However, these provisions have not protected some estuaries and coastal waters from degradation.

  14. Land-based sources of marine pollution: Pesticides, PAHs and phthalates in coastal stream water, and heavy metals in coastal stream sediments in American Samoa.

    PubMed

    Polidoro, Beth A; Comeros-Raynal, Mia T; Cahill, Thomas; Clement, Cassandra

    2017-03-15

    The island nations and territories of the South Pacific are facing a number of pressing environmental concerns, including solid waste management and coastal pollution. Here we provide baseline information on the presence and concentration of heavy metals and selected organic contaminants (pesticides, PAHs, phthalates) in 7 coastal streams and in surface waters adjacent to the Futiga landfill in American Samoa. All sampled stream sediments contained high concentrations of lead, and some of mercury. Several coastal stream waters showed relatively high concentrations of diethyl phthalate and of organophosphate pesticides, above chronic toxicity values for fish and other aquatic organisms. Parathion, which has been banned by the US Environmental Protection Agency since 2006, was detected in several stream sites. Increased monitoring and initiatives to limit non-point source land-based pollution will greatly improve the state of freshwater and coastal resources, as well as reduce risks to human health in American Samoa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Restricted dispersal in a continuously distributed marine species: common bottlenose dolphins Tursiops truncatus in coastal waters of the western North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Rosel, P E; Hansen, L; Hohn, A A

    2009-12-01

    The marine environment provides an opportunity to examine population structure in species with high dispersal capabilities and often no obvious barriers to genetic exchange. In coastal waters of the western North Atlantic, common bottlenose dolphins, Tursiops truncatus, are a highly mobile species with a continuous distribution from New York to Florida. We examine if the highly mobile nature coupled with no obvious geographic barriers to movement in this region result in a large panmictic population. Mitochondrial control region sequences and 18 microsatellite loci indicate dolphins are partitioning the habitat both latitudinally and longitudinally. A minimum of five genetically differentiated populations were identified among 404 samples collected in the range of New Jersey to northern Florida using both genetic marker types, some inhabiting nearshore coastal waters and others utilizing inshore estuarine waters. The genetic results reject the hypothesis of a single stock of coastal bottlenose dolphins put forth after the 1987-1988 epizootic that caused a large-scale die-off of dolphins and suggest instead the disease vector was transferred from one population to the next as a result of seasonal migratory movements of some populations. These coastal Atlantic populations also differ significantly from bottlenose dolphin samples collected in coastal waters of the northern Gulf of Mexico, implying a long-term barrier to movement between the two basins.

  16. Photochemical Transformations of the Structural and Optical Properties of Marine Colored Dissolved Organic Material in Coastal Waters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-09-30

    photochemical processes affecting CDOM, and the resultant changes in its optical properties and molecular composition, in coastal environments...plete a collaboration on FFFF and LC /M S studies w ith R od Z ika’s group at R SM A S. APPROACH In collaboration with Dr. Rod Zika , Eliete...of Mexico coastal and blue water samples were collected on multiple cruises by Dr. Bob Chen, U. Mass. Boston and Rod Zika , RSMAS. Local field studies

  17. Marine sponges as bioindicators of oil and combustion derived PAH in coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Batista, Daniela; Tellini, Karla; Nudi, Adriana H; Massone, Thaís P; Scofield, Arthur de L; Wagener, Angela de L R

    2013-12-01

    The present study evaluates the potential of Hymeniacidon heliophila as bioindicator of PAH contamination. For this, concentration of 33 PAH was determined in organisms from sites with different contamination level including the heavily polluted Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro, and less impacted coastal areas. PAH concentration and typology were determined in sponges collected from different depths and in two different seasons. The brown mussel broadly studied as bioindicator was also sampled from the same sites for comparison. Both species provided similar information on total PAH concentration which is related to site contamination level. Sponges, however, revealed slight tendency to accumulation of combustion-derived PAH in relation to petrogenic compounds. Differences in PAH typology between species may derive from the interspecific variation in particle size ingestion. Different hydrocarbon typologies were observed in sponges from dry and wet season and PAH concentration varied with depth. H. heliophila may be used as an alternative approach to investigate the presence and sources of PAH in estuarine areas.

  18. NUTRIENT CRITERIA TECHNICAL GUIDANCE MANUAL - ESTUARINE AND COASTAL MARINE WATERS, OCTOBER 2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient overenrichment is a major cause of water pollution in the United States. The purpose of this manual is to provide scientifically defensible technical guidance to assist States, authorized Tribes, and other governmental entities in developing numeric nutrient criteria fo...

  19. NUTRIENT CRITERIA TECHNICAL GUIDANCE MANUAL - ESTUARINE AND COASTAL MARINE WATERS, OCTOBER 2001

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nutrient overenrichment is a major cause of water pollution in the United States. The purpose of this manual is to provide scientifically defensible technical guidance to assist States, authorized Tribes, and other governmental entities in developing numeric nutrient criteria fo...

  20. Estrogens from sewage in coastal marine environments.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Shannon; Atkinson, Marlin J; Tarrant, Ann M

    2003-04-01

    Estrogens are ancient molecules that act as hormones in vertebrates and are biologically active in diverse animal phyla. Sewage contains natural and synthetic estrogens that are detectable in streams, rivers, and lakes. There are no studies reporting the distribution of steroidal estrogens in marine environments. We measured estrogens in sewage, injection-well water, and coastal tropical and offshore tropical water in the Pacific Ocean, western Atlantic Ocean, and Caribbean Sea. Concentrations of unconjugated estrone ranged from undetectable (< 40 pg/L) in the open ocean to nearly 2,000 pg/L in Key West, Florida, and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA); estrone concentrations were highest near sources of sewage. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steroid conjugates in seawater samples indicated that polar conjugates comprise one-half to two-thirds of "total estrone" (unconjugated plus conjugated) in Hawaiian coastal samples. Adsorption to basalt gravel and carbonate sand was less than 20% per week and indicates that estrogens can easily leach into the marine environment from septic fields and high-estrogen groundwater. Of 20 sites (n = 129 samples), the mean values from 12 sites were above the threshold concentration for uptake into coral, indicating that there is a net uptake of anthropogenic steroidal estrogen into these environments, with unknown impacts.

  1. Using ERS-2 SAR images for routine observation of marine pollution in European coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Gade, M; Alpers, W

    1999-09-30

    More than 660 synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images acquired over the southern Baltic Sea, the North Sea, and the Gulf of Lion in the Mediterranean Sea by the Second European Remote Sensing Satellite (ERS-2) have been analyzed since December 1996 with respect to radar signatures of marine pollution and other phenomena causing similar signatures. First results of our analysis reveal that the seas are most polluted along the main shipping routes. The sizes of the detected oil spills vary between < 0.1 km2 and > 56 km2. SAR images acquired during descending (morning) and ascending (evening) satellite passes show different percentages of oil pollution, because most of this pollution occurs during night time and is still visible on the SAR images acquired in the morning time. Moreover, we found a higher amount of oil spills on SAR images acquired during summer (April-September) than on SAR images acquired during winter (October-March). We attribute this finding to the higher mean wind speed encountered in all three test areas during winter. By using an ERS-2 SAR image of the North Sea test area we show how the reduction of the normalized radar backscattering cross section (NRCS) by an oil spill depends on wind speed.

  2. Inland and coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouw, Colleen; Greb, Steven

    2012-09-01

    Workshop for Remote Sensing of Coastal and Inland Waters;Madison, Wisconsin, 20-22 June 2012 Coastal and inland water bodies, which have great value for recreation, food supply, commerce, transportation, and human health, have been experiencing external pressure from direct human activities and climate change. Given their societal and economic value, understanding issues of water quality, water quantity, and the impact of environmental change on the ecological and biogeochemical functioning of these water bodies is of interest to a broad range of communities. Remote sensing offers one of the most spatially and temporally comprehensive tools for observing these waters. While there has been some success with remotely observing these water bodies, many challenges still remain, including algorithm performance, atmospheric correction, the relationships between optical properties and biogeochemical parameters, sufficient spatial and spectral resolution, and a lack of uncertainty estimates over the wide range of environmental conditions encountered across these coastal and inland water bodies.

  3. Marine resources. [coastal processes, ice, oceanography, and living marine resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1974-01-01

    Techniques have been developed for defining coastal circulation patterns using sediment as a natural tracer, allowing the formulation of new circulation concepts in some geographical areas and, in general, a better capability for defining the seasonal characteristics of coastal circulation. An analytical technique for measurement of absolute water depth based upon the ratios of two MSS channels has been developed. Suspended sediment has found wide use as a tracer, but a few investigators have reported limited success in measuring the type and amount of sediment quantitatively from ERTS-1 digital data. Significant progress has been made in developing techniques for using ERTS-1 data to locate, identify, and monitor sea and lake ice. Ice features greater than 70 meters in width can be detected, and both arctic and antarctic icebergs have been identified. In the application area of living marine resources, the use of ERTS-1 image-density patterns as a potential indicator of fish school location has been demonstrated for one coastal commercial resource, menhaden. ERTS-1 data have been used to locate ocean current boundaries using ERTS-1 image-density enhancement, and some techniques are under development for measurement of suspended particle concentration and chlorophyll concentration. The interrelationship of water color and surface characteristics (sea state) are also being studied to improve spectral and spatial interpretive techniques.

  4. El Niño Southern Oscillation influences the abundance and movements of a marine top predator in coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Sprogis, Kate R; Christiansen, Fredrik; Wandres, Moritz; Bejder, Lars

    2017-10-08

    Large-scale climate modes such as El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influence population dynamics in many species, including marine top predators. However, few quantitative studies have investigated the influence of large-scale variability on resident marine top predator populations. We examined the effect of climate variability on the abundance and temporary emigration of a resident bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops aduncus) population off Bunbury, Western Australia (WA). This population has been studied intensively over six consecutive years (2007-2013), yielding a robust dataset that captures seasonal variations in both abundance and movement patterns. In WA, ENSO affects the strength of the Leeuwin Current (LC), the dominant oceanographic feature in the region. The strength and variability of the LC affects marine ecosystems and distribution of top predator prey. We investigated the relationship between dolphin abundance and ENSO, Southern Annular Mode, austral season, rainfall, sea surface salinity and sea surface temperature (SST). Linear models indicated that dolphin abundance was significantly affected by ENSO, and that the magnitude of the effect was dependent upon season. Dolphin abundance was lowest during winter 2009, when dolphins had high temporary emigration rates out of the study area. This coincided with the single El Niño event that occurred throughout the study period. Coupled with this event, there was a negative anomaly in SST and an above average rainfall. These conditions may have affected the distribution of dolphin prey, resulting in the temporary emigration of dolphins out of the study area in search of adequate prey. This study demonstrated the local effects of large-scale climatic variations on the short-term response of a resident, coastal delphinid species. With a projected global increase in frequency and intensity of extreme climatic events, resident marine top predators may not only have to contend with increasing coastal

  5. The National Association of Marine Laboratories: a connected web for studying long-term changes in U.S. coastal and marine waters.

    PubMed

    Feller, R J; Karl, D M

    1996-04-01

    Long-term time-series measurements provide data that test specific hypotheses or suggest new avenues of study. Such studies are widely acknowledged as important for differentiating the influence of human activities from natural background variability. Several long-term research or monitoring programs are active in coastal and marine environments around the world and serve as models for development of new studies. The spatial array of U.S. coastal laboratories is suitable for resolving latitudinal trends and for many types of comparative studies. However, establishing a network of coastal laboratories focused on long-term monitoring and research problems presents special challenges in setting research priorities at appropriate scales, in data management, and in coordination of the scientific effort. The National Association of Marine Laboratories (NAML) is uniquely positioned to promote long-term studies among networks of its member institutions. The NAML can play an effective role in publicizing the importance of long-term studies, in providing access to expertise in this type of research, and in promoting its continuance for periods longer than the length of individual scientific careers.

  6. Isolation of Bacteriophages of the Marine Bacterium Beneckea natriegens from Coastal Salt Marshes1

    PubMed Central

    Zachary, Arthur

    1974-01-01

    Bacteriophages of the marine bacterium Beneckea natriegens were isolated from coastal marshes where they were limited to brackish and marine waters. The phages were widely distributed and morphologically diverse in the marshes. Images PMID:4133830

  7. Detection of human fecal contamination by nifH gene quantification of marine waters in the coastal beaches of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Samara Sant'Anna; Sorgine, Marcos Henrique Ferreira; Bianco, Kayo; Pinto, Leonardo Henriques; Barreto, Camila; Albano, Rodolpho Mattos; Cardoso, Alexander Machado; Clementino, Maysa Mandetta

    2016-12-01

    The identification of fecal pollution in aquatic ecosystems is one of the requirements to assess the possible risks to human health. In this report, physicochemical parameters, Escherichia coli enumeration and Methanobrevibacter smithii nifH gene quantification were conducted at 13 marine waters in the coastal beaches of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The pH, turbidity, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and conductivity, carried out by mobile equipment, revealed varied levels due to specific conditions of the beaches. The bioindicators' enumerations were done by defined substrate method, conventional, and real-time PCR. Six marine beach sites (46 %) presenting E. coli levels in compliance with Brazilian water quality guidelines (<2500 MPN/100 mL) showed nifH gene between 5.7 × 10(9) to 9.5 × 10(11) copies. L(-1) revealing poor correlation between the two approaches. To our knowledge, this is the first inquiry in qPCR using nifH gene as a biomarker of human-specific sources of sewage pollution in marine waters in Brazil. In addition, our data suggests that alternative indicator nifH gene could be used, in combination with other markers, for source tracking studies to measure the quality of marine ecosystems thereby contributing to improved microbial risk assessment.

  8. Fluorescent antibody-viability staining and beta-glucuronidase assay as rapid methods for monitoring Escherichia coli viability in coastal marine waters.

    PubMed

    Caruso, G; De Pasquale, F; Mancuso, M; Zampino, D; Crisafi, E

    2006-01-01

    A faecal pollution monitoring of coastal Messina waters was performed by comparing three (microscopic, enzyme, and culture) methods. Evidence of Escherichia coli cells (29.99 to 96.79% of the total enteropathogenic serotypes) retaining their viability into the marine environment was shown. beta-Glucuronidase activity rates suggested that living cells were also metabolically active. Heavily polluted sites were detected, where improperly treated urban wastes were discharged. Significant relationships between microscopic and enzymatic data proved both methods to be suitable alternatives to the culture method for E. coli detection, improving environmental quality assessment.

  9. Aspergillus Sydowii Marine Fungal Bloom in Australian Coastal Waters, Its Metabolites and Potential Impact on Symbiodinium Dinoflagellates

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Aiko; Crombie, Andrew; Lacey, Ernest; Richardson, Anthony J.; Vuong, Daniel; Piggott, Andrew M.; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf

    2016-01-01

    Dust has been widely recognised as an important source of nutrients in the marine environment and as a vector for transporting pathogenic microorganisms. Disturbingly, in the wake of a dust storm event along the eastern Australian coast line in 2009, the Continuous Plankton Recorder collected masses of fungal spores and mycelia (~150,000 spores/m3) forming a floating raft that covered a coastal area equivalent to 25 times the surface of England. Cultured A. sydowii strains exhibited varying metabolite profiles, but all produced sydonic acid, a chemotaxonomic marker for A. sydowii. The Australian marine fungal strains share major metabolites and display comparable metabolic diversity to Australian terrestrial strains and to strains pathogenic to Caribbean coral. Secondary colonisation of the rafts by other fungi, including strains of Cladosporium, Penicillium and other Aspergillus species with distinct secondary metabolite profiles, was also encountered. Our bioassays revealed that the dust-derived marine fungal extracts and known A. sydowii metabolites such as sydowic acid, sydowinol and sydowinin A adversely affect photophysiological performance (Fv/Fm) of the coral reef dinoflagellate endosymbiont Symbiodinium. Different Symbiodinium clades exhibited varying sensitivities, mimicking sensitivity to coral bleaching phenomena. The detection of such large amounts of A. sydowii following this dust storm event has potential implications for the health of coral environments such as the Great Barrier Reef. PMID:26999164

  10. Aspergillus Sydowii Marine Fungal Bloom in Australian Coastal Waters, Its Metabolites and Potential Impact on Symbiodinium Dinoflagellates.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Aiko; Crombie, Andrew; Lacey, Ernest; Richardson, Anthony J; Vuong, Daniel; Piggott, Andrew M; Hallegraeff, Gustaaf

    2016-03-16

    Dust has been widely recognised as an important source of nutrients in the marine environment and as a vector for transporting pathogenic microorganisms. Disturbingly, in the wake of a dust storm event along the eastern Australian coast line in 2009, the Continuous Plankton Recorder collected masses of fungal spores and mycelia (~150,000 spores/m³) forming a floating raft that covered a coastal area equivalent to 25 times the surface of England. Cultured A. sydowii strains exhibited varying metabolite profiles, but all produced sydonic acid, a chemotaxonomic marker for A. sydowii. The Australian marine fungal strains share major metabolites and display comparable metabolic diversity to Australian terrestrial strains and to strains pathogenic to Caribbean coral. Secondary colonisation of the rafts by other fungi, including strains of Cladosporium, Penicillium and other Aspergillus species with distinct secondary metabolite profiles, was also encountered. Our bioassays revealed that the dust-derived marine fungal extracts and known A. sydowii metabolites such as sydowic acid, sydowinol and sydowinin A adversely affect photophysiological performance (Fv/Fm) of the coral reef dinoflagellate endosymbiont Symbiodinium. Different Symbiodinium clades exhibited varying sensitivities, mimicking sensitivity to coral bleaching phenomena. The detection of such large amounts of A. sydowii following this dust storm event has potential implications for the health of coral environments such as the Great Barrier Reef.

  11. Sampling effort of periphytic diatoms for bioassessment research using taxonomic distinctness in marine ecosystems: A case study in coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Lu; Xu, Yuping; Yang, Zhongwen; Xu, Guanjian; Wang, Zheng; Xu, Henglong

    2016-11-15

    The sampling effort for detecting taxonomic distinctness of periphytic diatom communities was studied in coastal waters of the Yellow Sea, northern China, from May to June 2014. Samples with different sizes (microscopy glass slides) were collected at two depths of 1m and 3m. To obtain the communities with dissimilarities of <10%, 2 slide replicates were sufficient for sampling at a depth of 1m, while 4 were required for the those at a depth of 3m. The values of four taxonomic distinctness indices represented a low sensitivity to sample sizes over all exposure period ages: at a coefficient of variation of <10%, 2 and 9 slide replicates were required at a depth of 1m and 3m, respectively. We suggest that the sampling strategy of the diatoms for detecting taxonomic distinctness might be better at 1m than at a deeper layer in coastal waters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Quantifying the risk that marine debris poses to cetaceans in coastal waters of the 4-island region of Maui.

    PubMed

    Currie, Jens J; Stack, Stephanie H; McCordic, Jessica A; Kaufman, Gregory D

    2017-08-15

    Marine debris poses considerable threat to biodiversity and ecosystems and has been identified as a stressor for a variety of marine life. Here we present results from the first study quantifying the amount and type of debris accumulation in Maui leeward waters and relate this to cetacean distribution to identify areas where marine debris may present a higher threat. Transect surveys were conducted within the 4-island region of Maui, Hawai'i from April 1, 2013 to April 15, 2016. Debris was found in all areas of the study region with higher concentrations observed where the Au'au, Kealaikahiki, and Alalakeiki channels converge. The degree of overlap between debris and cetaceans varied among species but was largest for humpback whales, which account for the largest portion of reported entanglements in the 4-island region of Maui. Identifying areas of high debris-cetacean density overlap can facilitate species management and debris removal efforts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The Biogeochemistry of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter in Coastal Waters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    processes controlling the fate and distribution of DOM in coastal waters will allow detailed modeling of the fate of contaminants such as hydrophobic...The Biogeochemistry of Chromophoric Dissolved Organic Matter in Coastal Waters Robert F. Chen Environmental, Coastal and Ocean Sciences University of...coastal waters . Of particular interest is the fate of terrigenous and anthropogenic dissolved organic matter in marine systems. OBJECTIVES 1

  14. Pore water distributions of dissolved copper and copper-complexing ligands in estuarine and coastal marine sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Skrabal, S.A.; Donat, J.R.; Burdige, D.J.

    2000-06-01

    The distributions and seasonal variability of total dissolved Cu (TDCu) and Cu-complexing ligands in sediment pore waters have been investigated at two contrasting sites in the Chesapeake Bay. Two ligand classes, which differ on the basis of the conditional stability constants (K{prime}{sub cond}) of their Cu complexes, were detected at all depths at both sites. For comparison, one pore water profile from a slope station off of the Chesapeake Bay also showed the presence of two ligand classes. Virtually all TDCu fluxing from these sediments is complexed during sediment-water exchange. A relatively small fraction of the TDCu is exchanged as inorganic species, which are widely regarded as the most bioavailable form of Cu. Total ligand concentrations are 15 to >100 times higher in the upper intervals of the pore waters relative to ligand concentrations in the bottom waters of the Chesapeake Bay (30--60 nM), consistent with previous observations of fluxes of these ligands from the sediments to overlying waters. These results suggest that sediments are potentially significant sources of Cu-complexing ligands to the overlying waters of the Chesapeake Bay, and perhaps, other shallow water estuarine and coastal environments. Copper-complexing ligands released from sediment pore waters may play an important role in influencing Cu speciation in overlying waters.

  15. Recent Trends in Marine Phycotoxins from  Australian Coastal Waters.

    PubMed

    Ajani, Penelope; Harwood, D Tim; Murray, Shauna A

    2017-02-09

    Phycotoxins, which are produced by harmful microalgae and bioaccumulate in the  marine food web, are of growing concern for Australia. These harmful algae pose a threat to  ecosystem and human health, as well as constraining the progress of aquaculture, one of the fastest  growing food sectors in the world. With better monitoring, advanced analytical skills and an  increase in microalgal expertise, many phycotoxins have been identified in Australian coastal  waters in recent years. The most concerning of these toxins are ciguatoxin, paralytic shellfish  toxins, okadaic acid and domoic acid, with palytoxin and karlotoxin increasing in significance. The  potential for tetrodotoxin, maitotoxin and palytoxin to contaminate seafood is also of concern,  warranting future investigation. The largest and most significant toxic bloom in Tasmania in 2012  resulted in an estimated total economic loss of~AUD$23M, indicating that there is an imperative to  improve  toxin  and  organism  detection  methods,  clarify  the  toxin  profiles  of  species  of  phytoplankton and carry out both intra- and inter-species toxicity comparisons. Future work also  includes the application of rapid, real-time molecular assays for the detection of harmful species  and toxin genes. This information, in conjunction with a better understanding of the life histories  and  ecology  of  harmful  bloom  species,  may  lead  to  more  appropriate  management  of  environmental, health and economic resources.

  16. Non-proportional bioaccumulation of trace metals and metalloids in the planktonic food web of two Singapore coastal marine inlets with contrasting water residence times.

    PubMed

    Calbet, Albert; Schmoker, Claire; Russo, Francesca; Trottet, Aurore; Mahjoub, Mohamed-Sofiane; Larsen, Ole; Tong, Hor Yee; Drillet, Guillaume

    2016-08-01

    We analyzed the concentrations of trace metals/metalloids (TMs) in the water, sediment and plankton of two semi-enclosed marine coastal inlets located north of Jurong Island and separated by a causeway (SW Singapore; May 2012-April 2013). The west side of the causeway (west station) has residence times of approximately one year, and the east side of the causeway (east station) has residence times of one month. The concentrations of most of the TMs in water and sediment were higher in the west than in the east station. In the water column, most of the TMs were homogeneously distributed or had higher concentrations at the surface. Preliminary evidence suggests that the TMs are primarily derived from aerosol depositions from oil combustion and industry. Analyses of TMs in seston (>0.7μm; mostly phytoplankton) and zooplankton (>100μm) revealed that the seston from the west station had higher concentrations of most TMs; however, the concentrations of TMs in zooplankton were similar at the two stations. Despite the high levels of TMs in water, sediment and seston, the bioaccumulation detected in zooplankton was moderate, suggesting either the presence of effective detoxification mechanisms or/and the inefficient transfer of TMs from primary producers to higher trophic levels as a result of the complexity of marine planktonic food webs. In summary, the TM concentrations in water and seston are not reliable indicators of the bioaccumulation at higher trophic levels of the food web.

  17. Environmental occurrence and ecological risk assessment of organic UV filters in marine organisms from Hong Kong coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Sang, Ziye; Leung, Kelvin Sze-Yin

    2016-10-01

    Organic UV filters, now considered to be emerging contaminants in aquatic ecosystems, are being intensively tracked in environmental waters worldwide. However, their environmental fate and impact of these contaminants on marine organisms remains largely unknown, especially in Asia. This work elucidates the occurrence and the ecological risks of seven UV filters detected in farmed fish, wild mussels and some other wild organisms collected from local mariculture farms in Hong Kong. For all of the organisms, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and octyl dimethyl p-aminobenzoic acid (OD-PABA) were the predominant contaminants with the highest concentrations up to 51.3 and 24.1ng/g (dw), respectively; lower levels were found for benzophenone-8 (BP-8), octocrylene (OC) and benzophenone-3 (BP-3) from marine aquatic environment was carried out. The risk quotient (RQ) values of EHMC and BP-3 were calculated as 3.29 and 2.60, respectively, indicating these two UV filters may pose significant risks to the marine aquatic environment.

  18. Physiological Responses of a Model Marine Diatom to Fast pH Changes: Special Implications of Coastal Water Acidification.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yaping; Beardall, John; Gao, Kunshan

    2015-01-01

    Diatoms and other phytoplankton in coastal waters experience rapid pH changes in milieu due to high biological activities and/or upwelled CO2-rich waters. While CO2 concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) are employed by all diatoms tested to counter low CO2 availability in seawater, little is known how this mechanism responds to fast pH changes. In the present study, the model diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana was acclimated for 20 generations to low pH (7.81) at an elevated CO2 of 1000 μatm (HC) or to high pH (8.18) at ambient CO2 levels of 390 μatm (LC), then its physiological characteristics were investigated as cells were shifted from HC to LC or vice versa. The maximal electron transport rate (ETRmax) in the HC-acclimated cells was immediately reduced by decreased CO2 availability, showing much lower values compared to that of the LC-acclimated cells. However, the cells showed a high capacity to regain their photochemical performance regardless of the growth CO2 levels, with their ETRmax values recovering to initial levels in about 100 min. This result indicates that this diatom might modulate its CCMs quickly to maintain a steady state supply of CO2, which is required for sustaining photosynthesis. In addition, active uptake of CO2 could play a fundamental role during the induction of CCMs under CO2 limitation, since the cells maintained high ETR even when both intracellular and periplasmic carbonic anhydrases were inhibited. It is concluded that efficient regulation of the CCM is one of the key strategies for diatoms to survive in fast changing pH environment, e.g. for the tested species, which is a dominant species in coastal waters where highly fluctuating pH is observed.

  19. Modeling catchment nutrients and sediment loads to inform regional management of water quality in coastal-marine ecosystems: a comparison of two approaches.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G; Wilkinson, Scott N; Pressey, Robert L; Ban, Natalie C; Kool, Johnathan; Brodie, Jon

    2014-12-15

    Human-induced changes in flows of water, nutrients, and sediments have impacts on marine ecosystems. Quantifying these changes to systematically allocate management actions is a priority for many areas worldwide. Modeling nutrient and sediment loads and contributions from subcatchments can inform prioritization of management interventions to mitigate the impacts of land-based pollution on marine ecosystems. Among the catchment models appropriate for large-scale applications, N-SPECT and SedNet have been used to prioritize areas for management of water quality in coastal-marine ecosystems. However, an assessment of their relative performance, parameterization, and utility for regional-scale planning is needed. We examined how these considerations can influence the choice between the two models and the areas identified as priorities for management actions. We assessed their application in selected catchments of the Gulf of California, where managing land-based threats to marine ecosystems is a priority. We found important differences in performance between models. SedNet consistently estimated spatial variations in runoff with higher accuracy than N-SPECT and modeled suspended sediment (TSS) loads mostly within the range of variation in observed loads. N-SPECT overestimated TSS loads by orders of magnitude when using the spatially-distributed sediment delivery ratio (SDR), but outperformed SedNet when using a calibrated SDR. Differences in subcatchments' contribution to pollutant loads were principally due to explicit representation of sediment sinks and particulate nutrients by SedNet. Improving the floodplain extent model, and constraining erosion estimates by local data including gully erosion in SedNet, would improve results of this model and help identify effective management responses. Differences between models in the patterns of modeled pollutant supply were modest, but significantly influenced the prioritization of subcatchments for management.

  20. Marine water from mid-Holocene sea level highstand trapped in a coastal aquifer: Evidence from groundwater isotopes, and environmental significance.

    PubMed

    Lee, Stephen; Currell, Matthew; Cendón, Dioni I

    2016-02-15

    A multi-layered coastal aquifer in southeast Australia was assessed using environmental isotopes, to identify the origins of salinity and its links to palaeo-environmental setting. Spatial distribution of groundwater salinity (electrical conductivity values ranging from 0.395 to 56.1 mS/cm) was examined along the coastline along with geological, isotopic and chemical data. This allowed assessment of different salinity sources and emplacement mechanisms. Molar chloride/bromide ratios range from 619 to 1070 (621 to 705 in samples with EC >15 mS/cm), indicating salts are predominantly marine. Two distinct vertical salinity profiles were observed, one with increasing salinity with depth and another with saline shallow water overlying fresh groundwater. The saline shallow groundwater (EC=45.4 to 55.7 mS/cm) has somewhat marine-like stable isotope ratios (δ(18)O=-2.4 to -1.9 ‰) and radiocarbon activities indicative of middle Holocene emplacement (47.4 to 60.4pMC). This overlies fresher groundwater with late Pleistocene radiocarbon ages and meteoric stable isotopes (δ(18)O=-5.5 to -4.6‰). The configuration suggests surface inundation of the upper sediments by marine water during the mid-Holocene (c. 2-8 kyr BP), when sea level was 1-2m above today's level. Profiles of chloride, stable isotopes, and radiocarbon indicate mixing between this pre-modern marine water and fresh meteoric groundwater to varying degrees around the coastline. Mixing calculations using chloride and stable isotopes show that in addition to fresh-marine water mixing, some salinity is derived from transpiration by halophytic vegetation (e.g. mangroves). The δ(13)C ratios in saline water (-17.6 to -18.4‰) also have vegetation/organic matter signatures, consistent with emplacement by surface inundation and extensive interaction between vegetation and recharging groundwater. Saline shallow groundwater is preserved only in areas where low permeability sediments have slowed subsequent downwards

  1. Remediation of a marine shore tailings deposit and the importance of water-rock interaction on element cycling in the coastal aquifer.

    PubMed

    Dold, Bernhard; Diaby, Nouhou; Spangenberg, Jorge E

    2011-06-01

    We present the study of the geochemical processes associated with the first successful remediation of a marine shore tailings deposit in a coastal desert environment (Bahía de Ite, in the Atacama Desert of Peru). The remediation approach implemented a wetland on top of the oxidized tailings. The site is characterized by a high hydraulic gradient produced by agricultural irrigation on upstream gravel terraces that pushed river water (∼500 mg/L SO(4)) toward the sea and through the tailings deposit. The geochemical and isotopic (δ(2)H(water) and δ(18)O(water), δ(34)S(sulfate), δ(18)O(sulfate)) approach applied here revealed that evaporite horizons (anhydrite and halite) in the gravel terraces are the source of increased concentrations of SO(4), Cl, and Na up to ∼1500 mg/L in the springs at the base of the gravel terraces. Deeper groundwater interacting with underlying marine sequences increased the concentrations of SO(4), Cl, and Na up to 6000 mg/L and increased the alkalinity up to 923 mg/L CaCO(3) eq. in the coastal aquifer. These waters infiltrated into the tailings deposit at the shelf-tailings interface. Nonremediated tailings had a low-pH oxidation zone (pH 1-4) with significant accumulations of efflorescent salts (10-20 cm thick) at the surface because of upward capillary transport of metal cations in the arid climate. Remediated tailings were characterized by neutral pH and reducing conditions (pH ∼7, Eh ∼100 mV). As a result, most bivalent metals such as Cu, Zn, and Ni had very low concentrations (around 0.01 mg/L or below detection limit) because of reduction and sorption processes. In contrast, these reducing conditions increased the mobility of iron from two sources in this system: (1) The originally Fe(III)-rich oxidation zone, where Fe(III) was reduced during the remediation process and formed an Fe(II) plume, and (2) reductive dissolution of Fe(III) oxides present in the original shelf lithology formed an Fe-Mn plume at 10-m depth. These

  2. (210)Po in the marine biota of Korean coastal waters and the effective dose from seafood consumption.

    PubMed

    Kim, S H; Hong, G H; Lee, H M; Cho, B E

    2017-08-01

    The activity concentrations of (210)Po were determined in plankton and selected species of macroalgae, crustaceans, molluscs, and fish from Korean coastal waters to understand (210)Po distribution in these trophic levels and to assess the effective dose of (210)Po from seafood ingested by the average Korean. The activity concentration of (210)Po in macroalgae, mixed plankton, anchovy (whole body), abalone muscle, and abalone viscera was 0.97-1.43, 32-137, 59-392, 2.93 ± 0.86, and 1495 ± 484 Bq kg(-1) (w.w.), respectively. Polonium-210 concentration in the whole flesh of mussel and oyster were 47.8 ± 5.9 and 45.3 ± 7.1 Bq kg(-1) (w.w.), respectively. Polonium-210 concentration in the muscle of the five tested species of fish other than anchovy ranged from 0.51 to 5.56 Bq kg(-1) (w.w.), with the lowest amount in a demersal species. In fish, (210)Po activity concentration was as much as three orders of magnitude higher in viscera than in muscle. The average annual effective (210)Po dose per average Korean adult, who consumes 42.8 kg of seafood a year (excluding anchovy), was estimated to be 94 μSv y(-1), with 42-71% of this attributed to shellfish. Further studies are required to assess the dose of (210)Po from anchovy owing to its high activity concentration and the manner in which anchovy is consumed. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Improved Marine Waters Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazov, Atanas; Yakushev, Evgeniy; Milkova, Tanya; Slabakova, Violeta; Hristova, Ognyana

    2017-04-01

    IMAMO - Improved Marine Waters Monitoring is a project under the Programme BG02: Improved monitoring of marine waters, managed by Bulgarian Ministry of environment and waters and co-financed by the Financial Mechanism of the European Economic Area (EEA FM) 2009 - 2014. Project Beneficiary is the Institute of oceanology - Bulgarian Academy of Sciences with two partners: Norwegian Institute for Water Research and Bulgarian Black Sea Basin Directorate. The Project aims to improve the monitoring capacity and expertise of the organizations responsible for marine waters monitoring in Bulgaria to meet the requirements of EU and national legislation. The main outcomes are to fill the gaps in information from the Initial assessment of the marine environment and to collect data to assess the current ecological status of marine waters including information as a base for revision of ecological targets established by the monitoring programme prepared in 2014 under Art. 11 of MSFD. Project activities are targeted to ensure data for Descriptors 5, 8 and 9. IMAMO aims to increase the institutional capacity of the Bulgarian partners related to the monitoring and assessment of the Black Sea environment. The main outputs are: establishment of real time monitoring and set up of accredited laboratory facilities for marine waters and sediments chemical analysis to ensure the ability of Bulgarian partners to monitor progress of subsequent measures undertaken.

  4. Marine Bacteria from Danish Coastal Waters Show Antifouling Activity against the Marine Fouling Bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. Strain S91 and Zoospores of the Green Alga Ulva australis Independent of Bacteriocidal Activity▿†

    PubMed Central

    Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Harder, Tilmann; Gram, Lone

    2011-01-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if marine bacteria from Danish coastal waters produce antifouling compounds and if antifouling bacteria could be ascribed to specific niches or seasons. We further assess if antibacterial effect is a good proxy for antifouling activity. We isolated 110 bacteria with anti-Vibrio activity from different sample types and locations during a 1-year sampling from Danish coastal waters. The strains were identified as Pseudoalteromonas, Phaeobacter, and Vibrionaceae based on phenotypic tests and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The numbers of bioactive bacteria were significantly higher in warmer than in colder months. While some species were isolated at all sampling locations, others were niche specific. We repeatedly isolated Phaeobacter gallaeciensis at surfaces from one site and Pseudoalteromonas tunicata at two others. Twenty-two strains, representing the major taxonomic groups, different seasons, and isolation strategies, were tested for antiadhesive effect against the marine biofilm-forming bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain S91 and zoospores of the green alga Ulva australis. The antiadhesive effects were assessed by quantifying the number of strain S91 or Ulva spores attaching to a preformed biofilm of each of the 22 strains. The strongest antifouling activity was found in Pseudoalteromonas strains. Biofilms of Pseudoalteromonas piscicida, Pseudoalteromonas tunicata, and Pseudoalteromonas ulvae prevented Pseudoalteromonas S91 from attaching to steel surfaces. P. piscicida killed S91 bacteria in the suspension cultures, whereas P. tunicata and P. ulvae did not; however, they did prevent adhesion by nonbactericidal mechanism(s). Seven Pseudoalteromonas species, including P. piscicida and P. tunicata, reduced the number of settling Ulva zoospores to less than 10% of the number settling on control surfaces. The antifouling alpP gene was detected only in P. tunicata strains (with purple and yellow pigmentation), so

  5. Marine bacteria from Danish coastal waters show antifouling activity against the marine fouling bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain S91 and zoospores of the green alga Ulva australis independent of bacteriocidal activity.

    PubMed

    Bernbom, Nete; Ng, Yoke Yin; Kjelleberg, Staffan; Harder, Tilmann; Gram, Lone

    2011-12-01

    The aims of this study were to determine if marine bacteria from Danish coastal waters produce antifouling compounds and if antifouling bacteria could be ascribed to specific niches or seasons. We further assess if antibacterial effect is a good proxy for antifouling activity. We isolated 110 bacteria with anti-Vibrio activity from different sample types and locations during a 1-year sampling from Danish coastal waters. The strains were identified as Pseudoalteromonas, Phaeobacter, and Vibrionaceae based on phenotypic tests and partial 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity. The numbers of bioactive bacteria were significantly higher in warmer than in colder months. While some species were isolated at all sampling locations, others were niche specific. We repeatedly isolated Phaeobacter gallaeciensis at surfaces from one site and Pseudoalteromonas tunicata at two others. Twenty-two strains, representing the major taxonomic groups, different seasons, and isolation strategies, were tested for antiadhesive effect against the marine biofilm-forming bacterium Pseudoalteromonas sp. strain S91 and zoospores of the green alga Ulva australis. The antiadhesive effects were assessed by quantifying the number of strain S91 or Ulva spores attaching to a preformed biofilm of each of the 22 strains. The strongest antifouling activity was found in Pseudoalteromonas strains. Biofilms of Pseudoalteromonas piscicida, Pseudoalteromonas tunicata, and Pseudoalteromonas ulvae prevented Pseudoalteromonas S91 from attaching to steel surfaces. P. piscicida killed S91 bacteria in the suspension cultures, whereas P. tunicata and P. ulvae did not; however, they did prevent adhesion by nonbactericidal mechanism(s). Seven Pseudoalteromonas species, including P. piscicida and P. tunicata, reduced the number of settling Ulva zoospores to less than 10% of the number settling on control surfaces. The antifouling alpP gene was detected only in P. tunicata strains (with purple and yellow pigmentation), so

  6. Carbohydrate sources in a coastal marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowie, Gregory L.; Hedges, John I.

    1984-10-01

    Individual neutral sugars in sediments, sediment trap materials and major biological sources of a coastal marine environment (Dabob Bay, Washington State) were analyzed by capillary gas chromatography of equilibrated isomeric mixtures. Plankton, bacteria, and vascular plant tissues of different types yielded reproducible and biochemically consistent compositional patterns. These patterns, when expressed in simple parameters, allowed distinctions between marine and terrestrial carbohydrate sources as well as among the major different types of vascular plant tissues. Plankton and bacteria, due to their compositional diversity, were not further distinguishable by carbohydrate compositions alone. Carbohydrate compositions of Dabob Bay sediments and sediment trap materials, interpreted using source-indicator parameters, indicate a predominantly marine origin with increased relative input of terrestrially-derived carbohydrates in winter periods of low phytoplankton productivity. Both plankton and grasses are indicated as major carbohydrate sources during spring. Glucose yield enhancement factors, determined by comparative acid pretreatments, confirm the general predominance of α-cellulose-poor marine polysaccharides and increased levels of α-cellulose-rich vascular plant remains in winter sediment trap samples.

  7. Recreational impacts on the fauna of Australian coastal marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Hardiman, Nigel; Burgin, Shelley

    2010-11-01

    This paper reviews recent research into the ecological impacts of recreation and tourism on coastal marine fauna in Australia. Despite the high and growing importance of water-based recreation to the Australian economy, and the known fragility of many Australian ecosystems, there has been relatively limited research into the effects of marine tourism and recreation, infrastructure and activities, on aquatic resources. In this paper we have reviewed the ecological impacts on fauna that are caused by outdoor recreation (including tourism) in Australian coastal marine ecosystems. We predict that the single most potentially severe impact of recreation may be the introduction and/or dispersal of non-indigenous species of marine organisms by recreational vessels. Such introductions, together with other impacts due to human activities have the potential to increasingly degrade recreation destinations. In response, governments have introduced a wide range of legislative tools (e.g., impact assessment, protected area reservation) to manage the recreational industry. It would appear, however, that these instruments are not always appropriately applied.

  8. 77 FR 53224 - Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard AGENCY: Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey. ACTION: Notice of endorsement of coastal and marine ecological classification... U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Geological Survey, along with NatureServe, worked...

  9. Comparing marine and terrestrial ecosystems: Implications for the design of coastal marine reserves

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, M.H.; Neigel, J.E.; Estes, J.A.; Andelman, S.; Warner, R.R.; Largier, J. L.

    2003-01-01

    Concepts and theory for the design and application of terrestrial reserves is based on our understanding of environmental, ecological, and evolutionary processes responsible for biological diversity and sustainability of terrestrial ecosystems and how humans have influenced these processes. How well this terrestrial-based theory can be applied toward the design and application of reserves in the coastal marine environment depends, in part, on the degree of similarity between these systems. Several marked differences in ecological and evolutionary processes exist between marine and terrestrial ecosystems as ramifications of fundamental differences in their physical environments (i.e., the relative prevalence of air and water) and contemporary patterns of human impacts. Most notably, the great extent and rate of dispersal of nutrients, materials, holoplanktonic organisms, and reproductive propagules of benthic organisms expand scales of connectivity among near-shore communities and ecosystems. Consequently, the "openness" of marine populations, communities, and ecosystems probably has marked influences on their spatial, genetic, and trophic structures and dynamics in ways experienced by only some terrestrial species. Such differences appear to be particularly significant for the kinds of organisms most exploited and targeted for protection in coastal marine ecosystems (fishes and macroinvertebrates). These and other differences imply some unique design criteria and application of reserves in the marine environment. In explaining the implications of these differences for marine reserve design and application, we identify many of the environmental and ecological processes and design criteria necessary for consideration in the development of the analytical approaches developed elsewhere in this Special Issue.

  10. USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2011-01-01

    Extreme storms, sea-level rise, and the health of marine communities are some of the major societal and environmental issues impacting our Nation's marine and coastal realm. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in St. Petersburg, Fla., investigates processes related to these ecosystems and the societal implications of natural hazards and resource sustainability. As one of three centers nationwide conducting research within the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program, the center is integral towards developing an understanding of physical processes that will contribute to rational decisions regarding the use and stewardship of national coastal and marine environments.

  11. Characterization and robust nature of newly isolated oleaginous marine yeast Rhodosporidium spp. from coastal water of Northern China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiuzhen; Cui, Yan; Sen, Biswarup; Ma, Wenmeng; Zheng, Rose Lynn; Liu, Xianhua; Wang, Guangyi

    2017-12-01

    A total of ten marine yeast strains isolated from Bohai Sea, Northern China were identified to be members of three genera Rhodosporidium, Rhodotorula, and Cryptococcus. Two representative strains Rhodosporidium TJUWZ4 and Cryptococcus TJUWZA11 with high lipid content based on Nile red staining method were further characterized. A wide range of culture conditions (C and N sources, pH, temperature, salinity and C/N ratio) were tested to characterize the biomass and lipid production (yield and productivity) of these strains. Results indicated that Rhodosporidium TJUWZ4 was capable of achieving lipid yield up to 44% and 0.09 g/l-h productivity on glucose and peptone medium at pH 4, 20 °C, 30% salinity, and C/N 80. Three fatty acids, namely oleic acid (18:1), palmitic acid (C16:0) and linoleic acid (18:2) were the major intracellular fatty acids, which accounted for 90% of total lipids. With promising features for intracellular lipid accumulation, Rhodosporidium TJUWZ4 is a robust strain with great potentials for application in biodiesel production from renewable feedstocks.

  12. Coastal and Marine Geology Program video and photograph portal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golden, Nadine E.; Ackerman, Seth D.

    2015-01-01

    Search all Coastal and Marine Geology Program imagery by selecting "Explore Data Layers." Or select Pacific, Atlantic, or Gulf Coast to enter the portal by region. Or start with the tutorial then dive in!

  13. PREFACE: MARINE AND COASTAL APPLICATIONS IN LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landscape ecology traditionally has been limited to the study of terrestrial systems; however, the questions and methods defining the science are equally relevant for marine and coastal systems. The reciprocal relationship between spatial pattern and ecological processes and the...

  14. PREFACE: MARINE AND COASTAL APPLICATIONS IN LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Landscape ecology traditionally has been limited to the study of terrestrial systems; however, the questions and methods defining the science are equally relevant for marine and coastal systems. The reciprocal relationship between spatial pattern and ecological processes and the...

  15. 75 FR 51838 - Public Review of Draft Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... and Marine Ecological Classification Standard AGENCY: Department of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey. ACTION: Notice; request for comments on draft Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification... Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS). CMECS provides a means of classifying...

  16. Climate warming and estuarine and marine coastal ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, V.S.

    1994-12-31

    Estuaries are physically controlled, resilient coastal ecosystems harboring environmentally tolerant species in diluted seawater. Marine coastal systems are less stressed physically and contain some environmentally less tolerant species. Both systems are biologically productive and economically significant. Because of their complex structure and function, it is difficult to predict accurately the effects of climate change, but some broad generalizations can be made. If climate warming occurs, it will raise sea-level, heat shallow waters, and modify precipitation, wind, and water circulation patterns. Rapid sea-level rise could cause the loss of salt marshes, mangrove swamps, and coral reefs, thus diminishing the ecological roles of these highly productive systems. Warmer waters could eliminate heat-sensitive species from part of their geographical range while allowing heat-tolerant species to expand their range, depending on their ability to disperse. Most thermally influenced losses of species will probably only be local, but changed distributions may lead to changed community function. It is more difficult to predict the effects of modified precipitation, wind, and water circulation patterns, but changes could affect organisms dependent on such patterns for food production (e.g., in upwelling regions) or for retention in estuaries. Aquacultural and fishery-related enterprises would be affected negatively in some regions and positively in others. 73 refs.

  17. Prevalence of microplastics in Singapore's coastal marine environment.

    PubMed

    Ng, K L; Obbard, J P

    2006-07-01

    Microplastics have been recently identified as marine pollutants of significant concern due to their persistence, ubiquity and potential to act as vectors for the transfer and exposure of persistent organic pollutants to marine organisms. This study documents, for the first time, the presence and abundance of microplastics (>1.6 microm) in Singapore's coastal environment. An optimized sampling protocol for the collection and analysis of microplastics was developed, and beach sediments and seawater (surface microlayer and subsurface layer) samples were collected from nine different locations around the coastline. Low density microplastics were separated from sediments by flotation and polymer types were identified using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry. Synthetic polymer microplastics identified in beach sediments included polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, nylon, polyvinyl alcohol and acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. Microplastics were detected in samples from four out of seven beach environments, with the greatest quantity found in sediments from two popular beaches in the eastern part of Singapore. Polyethylene, polypropylene and polystyrene microplastics were also found in the surface microlayer (50-60 microm) and subsurface layer (1m) of coastal waters. The presence of microplastics in sediments and seawater is likely due to on-going waste disposal practices from industries and recreational activities, and discharge from shipping.

  18. Bioavailability, Bioaccumulation and Biotransformation of arsenic in coral reef organisms surrounding an arsenic-rich marine shallow-water hydrothermal vent system in the coastal waters of Ambitle Island, Papua New Guinea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichler, T.; Wallschläger, D.; Price, R. E.

    2009-12-01

    Marine shallow-water hydrothermal systems are often enriched in biologically toxic elements, thus making them ideal natural analogs for coastal anthropogenic pollution. Here, we report our investigation of the bioavailability, bioaccumulation, and biotransformation of hydrothermally-derived arsenic into several coral reef organisms from the arsenic-rich marine shallow-water hydrothermal system of Tutum Bay, Ambitle Island, in northeastern Papua New Guinea. Hydrothermal venting provided bioavailable As by two major pathways throughout Tutum Bay: 1) easily-exchangeable As from hydrothermally influenced sediments to as far away as 200 m from focused venting, and 2) in surface seawaters, which may allow for biological uptake by phytoplankton and transfer up the food web. The soft coral Clavularia sp., the calcareous algae Halimeda sp., and the tunicate Polycarpa sp. collected from the hydrothermal area each displayed distinctly higher (up to 20 times) total arsenic compared to the control site, with increasing trends while approaching focused hydrothermal venting. Organic and inorganic arsenic species were extracted intact from the tissues of each organism, separated by anion exchange chromatography, and analyzed by inductively-coupled plasma-dynamic reaction cell-mass spectrometry. Overall, speciation patterns for Clavularia were similar for the control site versus the hydrothermal site, although the concentrations were much higher. Elevated concentrations of DMA and cationic forms of arsenic, most likely AB, in Clavularia, both from the control site and from the hydrothermal area suggest its metabolic pathway is not altered due to hydrothermal activity, and is similar to other marine organisms. Arsenic speciation patterns in Polycarpa were also similar for both sites, and suggests uptake of arsenic via food chain, containing neither As(III) nor As(V), but abundant excluded As and DMA. It is unclear if methylation is taking place within this organism or prior to

  19. The Impact of Marine Organic Emissions on Coastal Air Quality of the Western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantt, B.; Meskhidze, N.; Carlton, A. G.

    2009-12-01

    Several studies have shown that organic carbon aerosols (OC) are a major component of aerosols found in the marine boundary layer (MBL). Two distinct sources for these aerosols have been isolated using vertical gradients: 1) water insoluble OC aerosolized through bubble bursting of the organic surface layer, and 2) water soluble OC produced primarily from the oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) to form secondary organic aerosols (SOA). Additionally, these marine-source BVOC can also participate in ozone formation in coastal urban areas with high NOx concentrations. At the present, there has been little work quantifying the impact of marine BVOC emissions on coastal air quality, despite many coastal urban areas having some of the world’s most polluted air. In this work, we examine the impact of marine biogenic emissions to air quality over the Pacific coast of the US. Using the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model Version 4.7, we simulate both marine primary organic aerosols and SOA formed from phytoplankton-emitted isoprene. The CMAQ model simulations are performed for the months of June, July, and August 2005 over a domain including the western US at a horizontal resolution of 12 × 12 km2. A combination of remotely sensed data, laboratory measurements, and model meteorology are used to calculate the marine biogenic emissions, with marine isoprene added offline and primary OC simulated online. Our preliminary results show small increases in the surface concentrations of ozone and particulate matter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) near the coast when marine organic emissions are added. For coastal urban areas like Los Angeles and San Francisco, CA, average ozone concentrations increase ~0.1-0.2%, while PM2.5 concentrations increase up to 3% across much of the Pacific coastline. Organic aerosols with a marine source account for up to 50% (0.15 µg m-3) of the simulated average surface OC concentration over the open ocean, and contribute up

  20. Toward a better guard of coastal water safety-Microbial distribution in coastal water and their facile detection.

    PubMed

    Xie, Yunxuan; Qiu, Ning; Wang, Guangyi

    2017-02-16

    Prosperous development in marine-based tourism has raised increasing concerns over the sanitary quality of coastal waters with potential microbial contamination. The World Health Organization has set stringent standards over a list of pathogenic microorganisms posing potential threats to people with frequent coastal water exposure and has asked for efficient detection procedures for pathogen facile identification. Inspection of survey events regarding the occurrence of marine pathogens in recreational beaches in recent years has reinforced the need for the development of a rapid identification procedure. In this review, we examine the possibility of recruiting uniform molecular assays to identify different marine pathogens and the feasibility of appropriate biomarkers, including enterochelin biosynthetic genes, for general toxicity assays. The focus is not only on bacterial pathogens but also on other groups of infectious pathogens. The ultimate goal is the development of a handy method to more efficiently and rapidly detect marine pathogens.

  1. Larval fish assemblages in a tropical mangrove estuary and adjacent coastal waters: Offshore-inshore flux of marine and estuarine species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ooi, A. L.; Chong, V. C.

    2011-10-01

    A total of 92,934 fish larvae representing 19 families were sampled monthly from the Sangga Kecil estuary (Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve) and adjacent coastal waters from May 2002 to October 2003. Larval fish assemblages were numerically dominated by Gobiidae (50.1%) and Engraulidae (38.4%). Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) revealed that the larval fish assemblages, including their ontogenetic stages, differed between the mangrove estuary and adjacent offshore waters, and that salinity, turbidity and zooplankton food are the major environmental factors structuring the larval fish assemblages. Estuarine preflexion gobiid larvae were ubiquitous in the coastal and estuarine waters. Larval stages of euryhaline species that were spawned in offshore waters, such as Engraulidae and Clupeidae, were largely advected into mangrove areas at the postflexion stages. Larvae of other euryhaline fishes (Sciaenidae, Blenniidae and Cynoglossidae) that may have been spawned inside the estuary were, however, exported to offshore waters. Given that the collective number of juvenile and adult fish families in the Matang estuary was 53, while the number of larval families was only 17, the former is quite disconnected from the existing larval fish population in the estuary.

  2. Seagrasses and the Coastal Marine Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Ronald C.

    1978-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems are the most highly productive in the world. This article discusses seagrasses, major coastal producers, and provides information on their ecology, productivity, position in food chains, and role in sediment stabilization. Recent attempts to restore seagrasses in areas of massive kills are described. (MA)

  3. Seagrasses and the Coastal Marine Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Ronald C.

    1978-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems are the most highly productive in the world. This article discusses seagrasses, major coastal producers, and provides information on their ecology, productivity, position in food chains, and role in sediment stabilization. Recent attempts to restore seagrasses in areas of massive kills are described. (MA)

  4. Improved technique for the measurement of ammonium species to marine and fresh waters and its application to coastal and saltmarsh environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulin, P.; Pelletier, E.

    2004-05-01

    Since elevated nitrogen deposition has been identified as a critical environmental problem of global concerns, sensitive determination methods for ammonia are needed to improve our temporal and spatial resolution of coastal ecosystems. Because of the high variability of physical and chemical proprieties of coastal waters and problems linked to the conservation of samples, the accurate determination of ammonia in estuaries and brackish waters remains an acute analytical problem not entirely solved. We present here an automated application of the fluorometric technique recently published by Holmes et al., (1999) using a transportable microplate fluorescence reader. The proposed technique is simple, rapid, free from amine interferences and salt effects, and can be used in the nanomolar to micromolar range on almost all types of water matrices. Compared to the manual Holmes's method, our protocol offers a simplified sampling procedure with an accurate calibration curve for each sample analysis, and allows an adequate analytical blank determination for each series of measurement. To illustrate the precision and the efficiency of this technique, water samples were collected at many stations on the St. Lawrence Estuary and analysed on board the Coriolis II oceanographic ship. Measurements were also conducted in salt marshes along the south shore of the Estuary. Preliminary results show ammonia concentrations ranging between <0.01 and 4.24 ± 0.01 μ M in the estuarine waters following a distinct concentration pattern related with both indigenous and exogenous sources. Moreover, measurements obtained on reddish turbid waters sampled in salt marshes near Rimouski show an important release of ammonium during tidal flushing. Observed ammonium concentrations varies between 0.74 ± 0.01 μ M at low tide and 10.61 ± 0.08 μ M at high tide. The analytical error remained lower than 1% in spite of strong salinity gradients and high load of particulate matter. Knowing

  5. Sub-kilometer length scales in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blackwell, Shelley M.; Moline, Mark A.; Schaffner, Andrew; Garrison, Thomas; Chang, Grace

    2008-02-01

    Patchiness or spatial variability is ubiquitous in marine systems. With increasing anthropogenic impacts to coastal resources and coastal systems being disproportionately large contributors to ocean productivity, identifying the spatial scales of this patchiness, particularly in coastal waters, is of critical importance to understand coastal ecosystem dynamics. The current work focuses on fine scale structure in three coastal regions. More specifically, we utilize variogram analyses to identify sub-kilometer scales of variability in biological and physical parameters measured by an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV) in the Mid-Atlantic Bight, Monterey Bay, and in San Luis Obispo Bay between 2001 and 2004. Critical scales of variability in density, turbidity, fluorescence, and bioluminescence are examined as a function of depth and distance offshore. Furthermore, the effects of undersampling are assessed using predictive error analysis. Results indicate the presence of scales of variability ranging from 10s to 100s of meters and provide valuable insight for sampling design and resource allocation for future studies.

  6. Marine geology and oceanography of Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan

    SciTech Connect

    Haq, B.U.; Milliman, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    This volume is a collection of papers presented at the first US-Pakistan workshop in marine science held in Karachi, Pakistan, in November 1982. Of the twenty-four contributions in this book, fourteen cover topics specific to the Arabian Sea-coastal Pakistan region. These include six papers on the geology, tectonics, and petroleum potential of Pakistan, four papers on sedimentary processes in the Indus River delta-fan complex, and four papers on the biological oceanography of the Arabian Sea and coastal Pakistan. The additional ten papers are overviews of shelf sedimentation processes, paleoceanography, the marine nutrient cycle, and physical and chemical oceanography.

  7. Methylmercury production in the marine water column

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topping, G.; Davies, I. M.

    1981-03-01

    Although the biosynthesis of methylmercury in sediments is well established1, this is not necessarily the exclusive natural source of methylmercury entering the marine food chain, particularly commercial fish and shellfish species for human consumption. An examination of mercury levels in freshwater fish2, collected from a lake with a history of industrial mercury contamination, suggested that levels in fish are controlled in part by mercury in suspension and it followed that methylation should occur in the water column. Although methylmercury is present in seawater in coastal areas receiving discharges of waste containing either inorganic mercury3 or methylmercury4 there is no evidence that methylmercury is actually formed in the water column. We now present data which demonstrate that inorganic mercury can be methylated in the water column and we compare this production with that known to occur in marine sediments.

  8. Applications of remote sensing for water quality and biological measurements in coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.; Harriss, R. C.

    1979-01-01

    Potential applications of remote sensing technology to the study of coastal marine environments are reviewed, emphasizing water quality and biological measurements. Parameters measurable by airborne or spaceborne remote sensors include particulates, measured by visual or multispectral photography, chlorophyll a, measured by the Ocean Color Scanner or Coastal Zone Color Scanner, temperature distributions, by IR or microwave sensors, and salinity, by means of microwave radiometers. Research projects in which wide area synoptic or repetitive remote sensing can make a major contribution include the study of estuarine and continental shelf sediment transport dynamics, marine pollutant transport, marine phytoplankton dynamics and ocean fronts.

  9. Coastal Capers: A Marine Education Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Lundie; Cox, Vivian Barbee

    As a part of the University of North Carolina Sea Grant Marine Education Manual series, this document is intended to provide elementary grade teachers with activities (or capers) that introduce students to the marine environment. It may also be used with remedial or special education students, and by youth group leaders in such organizations as…

  10. Marine Occupations in the Texas Coastal Zone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKinnerney, Beryl; Clark, Donald L.

    Marine career information is provided, intended for use by high school students, counselors, teachers, and curriculum developers. Material was gathered from a review of occupational publications, including extended use of the "Dictionary of Occupational Titles" (D.O.T.), and from interviews of persons employed in marine occupations in…

  11. Coastal Marine Demonstration of Forecast Information to Mariners for the U.S. East Coast

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    OMB control number 1. REPORT DATE 30 SEP 1999 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-1999 to 00-00-1999 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Coastal Marine...atlantic.hpl.umces.edu/CMDP LONG-TERM GOAL Our long-term goal is to develop the capability to estimate and predict the coastal and estuarine environment and...demonstrate our current capability to estimate and predict the marine environment of Chesapeake Bay and the coastal ocean of the Mid-Atlantic Bight, (2

  12. The coastal marine Tardigrada of the Americas.

    PubMed

    Miller, William R; Perry, Emma S

    2016-06-20

    The Western Hemisphere or the New World, also known as the Americas (North, Central and South America, associated islands and included seas) have historically been divided into two Realms, the Nearctic and Neotropical based on terrestrial biogeography. The coasts of these two terrestrial realms are bordered by six marine realms, 14 marine provinces and 67 marine ecoregions. From current literature, a comprehensive list of the marine tardigrade fauna from the Americas is presented. Data on marine tardigrades were obtained from 385 published Records of the Occurrence (RoO) of a species, their location, tidal zone, and the substrates from which they were reported. Authors' identifications were accepted at face value unless subsequently amended. Thirty genera and 82 species or subspecies are reported from the Americas; 49 species are documented from margins of the terrestrial Nearctic realm (North America) and 48 from terrestrial Neotropical realm (South America) with only 17 species occurring in both. We define cosmopolitan distribution for marine tardigrades as occurring in or on the margins of five of the seven oceans, only two species of marine tardigrade meets this standard. From the Americas 39 species have been described as new to science, 32 species appear restricted to the hemisphere. Taxa were assigned to marine ecoregions based on adjacent geopolitical units (country, states, provinces, etc.) described in published records. Although tardigrades have been reported from all six marine realms, they are only known from 21 of the 67 ecoregions. Most marine tardigrade sampling in the Americas has focused on near shore substrate (sand, mud, barnacles); for some species no substrates have been reported. The west coasts of both continents have little or no data about tardigrade presence.

  13. Sea water in coastal aquifers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooper, Hilton Hammond

    1964-01-01

    Investigations in the coastal part of the Biscayne aquifer, a highly productive aquifer of limestone and sand in the Miami area, Florida, show that the salt-water front is dynamically stable as much as 8 miles seaward of the position computed according to the Ghyben-Herzberg principle. This discrepancy results, at least in part, from the fact that the salt water in the Biscayne aquifer is not static, as explanations of the dynamic balance commonly assume. Cross sections showing lines of equal fresh-water potential indicate that during periods of heavy recharge, the fresh-water head is high enough to cause the fresh water, the salt water, and the zone of diffusion between them to move seaward. When the fresh-water head is low, salt water in the lower part of the aquifer intrudes inland, but some of the diluted sea water in the zone of diffusion continues to flow seaward. Thus, salt water circulates inland from the floor of the sea through the lower part of the aquifer becoming progressively diluted with fresh water to a line along which there is no horizontal component of flow, after which it moves upward and returns to the sea. This cyclic flow is demonstrated by a flow net which is constructed by the use of horizontal gradients determined from the low-head equipotential diagram. The flow net shows that about seven-eights of the total discharge at the shoreline originates as fresh water in inland parts of the aquifer. The remaining one-eighth represents a return of sea water entering the aquifer through the floor of the sea.

  14. Bulk elastic moduli and solute potentials in leaves of freshwater, coastal and marine hydrophytes. Are marine plants more rigid?

    PubMed Central

    Touchette, Brant W.; Marcus, Sarah E.; Adams, Emily C.

    2014-01-01

    Bulk modulus of elasticity (ɛ), depicting the flexibility of plant tissues, is recognized as an important component in maintaining internal water balance. Elevated ɛ and comparatively low osmotic potential (Ψπ) may work in concert to effectively maintain vital cellular water content. This concept, termed the ‘cell water conservation hypothesis’, may foster tolerance for lower soil-water potentials in plants while minimizing cell dehydration and shrinkage. Therefore, the accumulation of solutes in marine plants, causing decreases in Ψπ, play an important role in plant–water relations and likely works with higher ɛ to achieve favourable cell volumes. While it is generally held that plants residing in marine systems have higher leaf tissue ɛ, to our knowledge no study has specifically addressed this notion in aquatic and wetland plants residing in marine and freshwater systems. Therefore, we compared ɛ and Ψπ in leaf tissues of 38 freshwater, coastal and marine plant species using data collected in our laboratory, with additional values from the literature. Overall, 8 of the 10 highest ɛ values were observed in marine plants, and 20 of the lowest 25 ɛ values were recorded in freshwater plants. As expected, marine plants often had lower Ψπ, wherein the majority of marine plants were below −1.0 MPa and the majority of freshwater plants were above −1.0 MPa. While there were no differences among habitat type and symplastic water content (θsym), we did observe higher θsym in shrubs when compared with graminoids, and believe that the comparatively low θsym observed in aquatic grasses may be attributed to their tendency to develop aerenchyma that hold apoplastic water. These results, with few exceptions, support the premise that leaf tissues of plants acclimated to marine environments tend to have higher ɛ and lower Ψπ, and agree with the general tenets of the cell water conservation hypothesis. PMID:24876296

  15. Bulk elastic moduli and solute potentials in leaves of freshwater, coastal and marine hydrophytes. Are marine plants more rigid?

    PubMed

    Touchette, Brant W; Marcus, Sarah E; Adams, Emily C

    2014-03-28

    Bulk modulus of elasticity (ɛ), depicting the flexibility of plant tissues, is recognized as an important component in maintaining internal water balance. Elevated ɛ and comparatively low osmotic potential (Ψπ) may work in concert to effectively maintain vital cellular water content. This concept, termed the 'cell water conservation hypothesis', may foster tolerance for lower soil-water potentials in plants while minimizing cell dehydration and shrinkage. Therefore, the accumulation of solutes in marine plants, causing decreases in Ψπ, play an important role in plant-water relations and likely works with higher ɛ to achieve favourable cell volumes. While it is generally held that plants residing in marine systems have higher leaf tissue ɛ, to our knowledge no study has specifically addressed this notion in aquatic and wetland plants residing in marine and freshwater systems. Therefore, we compared ɛ and Ψπ in leaf tissues of 38 freshwater, coastal and marine plant species using data collected in our laboratory, with additional values from the literature. Overall, 8 of the 10 highest ɛ values were observed in marine plants, and 20 of the lowest 25 ɛ values were recorded in freshwater plants. As expected, marine plants often had lower Ψπ, wherein the majority of marine plants were below -1.0 MPa and the majority of freshwater plants were above -1.0 MPa. While there were no differences among habitat type and symplastic water content (θsym), we did observe higher θsym in shrubs when compared with graminoids, and believe that the comparatively low θsym observed in aquatic grasses may be attributed to their tendency to develop aerenchyma that hold apoplastic water. These results, with few exceptions, support the premise that leaf tissues of plants acclimated to marine environments tend to have higher ɛ and lower Ψπ, and agree with the general tenets of the cell water conservation hypothesis.

  16. Marine water quality under climate change conditions/scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rizzi, Jonathan; Torresan, Silvia; Critto, Andrea; Zabeo, Alex; Brigolin, Daniele; Carniel, Sandro; Pastres, Roberto; Marcomini, Antonio

    2016-04-01

    The increase of sea temperature and the changes in marine currents are generating impacts on coastal waters such as changes in water biogeochemical and physical parameters (e.g. primary production, pH, salinity) leading to progressive degradation of the marine environment. With the main aim of analysing the potential impacts of climate change on coastal water quality, a Regional Risk Assessment (RRA) methodology was developed and applied to coastal marine waters of the North Adriatic (i.e. coastal water bodies of the Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia regions, Italy). RRA integrates the outputs of regional models providing information on macronutrients (i.e. dissolved inorganic nitrogen e reactive phosphorus), dissolved oxygen, pH, salinity and temperature, etc., under future climate change scenarios with site-specific environmental and socio-economic indicators (e.g. biotic index, presence and extension of seagrasses, presence of aquaculture). The presented approach uses Geographic Information Systems to manage, analyse, and visualize data and employs Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis for the integration of stakeholders preferences and experts judgments into the evaluation process. RRA outputs are hazard, exposure, vulnerability, risk and damage maps useful for the identification and prioritization of hot-spot areas and vulnerable targets in the considered region. Therefore, the main aim of this contribution is to apply the RRA methodology to integrate, visualize, and rank according to spatial distribution, physical and chemical data concerning the coastal waters of the North Adriatic Sea in order to predict possible changes of the actual water quality.

  17. Yamadazyma barbieri f.a. sp. nov., an ascomycetous anamorphic yeast isolated from a Mid-Atlantic Ridge hydrothermal site (-2300 m) and marine coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Burgaud, Gaëtan; Coton, Monika; Jacques, Noémie; Debaets, Stella; Maciel, Natália O P; Rosa, Carlos A; Gadanho, Mário; Sampaio, José Paulo; Casaregola, Serge

    2016-09-01

    Two yeast strains that are members of the same species were isolated from different marine habitats, i.e. one from Mid-Atlantic Ridge ocean water samples located in the direct vicinity of black smokers near the Rainbow deep-sea hydrothermal vent and one from Brazilian marine water samples off the Ipanema beach. Strains CLIB 1964T and CLIB 1965 are anamorphic ascomycetous yeasts affiliated to the Yamadazyma clade of Saccharomycetales. Interestingly, these strains were phylogenetically and distinctly positioned into a group of species comprising all species of the genus Yamadazyma isolated from marine habitats including deep-sea hydrothermal vents, i.e.Candida atmosphaerica,C. spencermartinsiae,C. atlantica,C. oceani and C. taylorii. These strains differed significantly in their D1/D2 domain sequences of the LSU rRNA gene from the closely related species mentioned above, by 2.6, 3.0, 3.4, 3.8 and 6.0 %, respectively. Internal transcribed spacer region sequence divergence was also significant and corresponded to 4.6, 4.7, 4.7, 12.0 and 24.7 % with C. atlantica,C. atmosphaerica, C. spencermartinsiae,C. oceani and C. taylorii, respectively. Phenotypically, strains CLIB 1964T and CLIB 1965 could be distinguished from closely related species by their inability to assimilate l-sorbose. CLIB 1964T (=CBS 14301T=UBOCC-A-214001T) is the designated type strain for Yamadazyma barbieri sp. nov. The MycoBank number is MB 815884.

  18. Evaluating the Potential for Marine and Hydrokinetic Devices to Act as Artificial Reefs or Fish Aggregating Devices. Based on Analysis of Surrogates in Tropical, Subtropical, and Temperate U.S. West Coast and Hawaiian Coastal Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, Sharon H.; Hamilton, Christine D.; Spencer, Gregory C.; Ogston, Heather O.

    2015-05-12

    Wave energy converters (WECs) and tidal energy converters (TECs) are only beginning to be deployed along the U.S. West Coast and in Hawai‘i, and a better understanding of their ecological effects on fish, particularly on special-status fish (e.g., threatened and endangered) is needed to facilitate project design and environmental permitting. The structures of WECs and TECs placed on to the seabed, such as anchors and foundations, may function as artificial reefs that attract reef-associated fishes, while the midwater and surface structures, such as mooring lines, buoys, and wave or tidal power devices, may function as fish aggregating devices (FADs), forming the nuclei for groups of fishes. Little is known about the potential for WECs and TECs to function as artificial reefs and FADs in coastal waters of the U.S. West Coast and Hawai‘i. We evaluated these potential ecological interactions by reviewing relevant information about fish associations with surrogate structures, such as artificial reefs, natural reefs, kelps, floating debris, oil and gas platforms, marine debris, anchored FADs deployed to enhance fishing opportunities, net-cages used for mariculture, and piers and docks. Based on our review, we postulate that the structures of WECs and TECs placed on or near the seabed in coastal waters of the U.S. West Coast and Hawai‘i likely will function as small-scale artificial reefs and attract potentially high densities of reef-associated fishes (including special-status rockfish species [Sebastes spp.] along the mainland), and that the midwater and surface structures of WECs placed in the tropical waters of Hawai‘i likely will function as de facto FADs with species assemblages varying by distance from shore and deployment depth. Along the U.S. West Coast, frequent associations with midwater and surface structures may be less likely: juvenile, semipelagic, kelp-associated rockfishes may occur at midwater and surface structures of WECs in coastal waters of

  19. The cost and feasibility of marine coastal restoration.

    PubMed

    Bayraktarov, Elisa; Saunders, Megan I; Abdullah, Sabah; Mills, Morena; Beher, Jutta; Possingham, Hugh P; Mumby, Peter J; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2016-06-01

    Land-use change in the coastal zone has led to worldwide degradation of marine coastal ecosystems and a loss of the goods and services they provide. Restoration is the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or destroyed and is critical for habitats where natural recovery is hindered. Uncertainties about restoration cost and feasibility can impede decisions on whether, what, how, where, and how much to restore. Here, we perform a synthesis of 235 studies with 954 observations from restoration or rehabilitation projects of coral reefs, seagrass, mangroves, salt-marshes, and oyster reefs worldwide, and evaluate cost, survival of restored organisms, project duration, area, and techniques applied. Findings showed that while the median and average reported costs for restoration of one hectare of marine coastal habitat were around US$80000 (2010) and US$1600000 (2010), respectively, the real total costs (median) are likely to be two to four times higher. Coral reefs and seagrass were among the most expensive ecosystems to restore. Mangrove restoration projects were typically the largest and the least expensive per hectare. Most marine coastal restoration projects were conducted in Australia, Europe, and USA, while total restoration costs were significantly (up to 30 times) cheaper in countries with developing economies. Community- or volunteer-based marine restoration projects usually have lower costs. Median survival of restored marine and coastal organisms, often assessed only within the first one to two years after restoration, was highest for saltmarshes (64.8%) and coral reefs (64.5%) and lowest for seagrass (38.0%). However, success rates reported in the scientific literature could be biased towards publishing successes rather than failures. The majority of restoration projects were short-lived and seldom reported monitoring costs. Restoration success depended primarily on the ecosystem, site selection, and techniques

  20. Quantitative PCR Method for Enumeration of Cells of Cryptic Species of the Toxic Marine Dinoflagellate Ostreopsis spp. in Coastal Waters of Japan

    PubMed Central

    Hariganeya, Naohito; Tanimoto, Yuko; Yamaguchi, Haruo; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Tawong, Wittaya; Sakanari, Hiroshi; Yoshimatsu, Takamichi; Sato, Shinya; Preston, Christina M.; Adachi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Monitoring of harmful algal bloom (HAB) species in coastal waters is important for assessment of environmental impacts associated with HABs. Co-occurrence of multiple cryptic species such as toxic dinoflagellate Ostreopsis species make reliable microscopic identification difficult, so the employment of molecular tools is often necessary. Here we developed new qPCR method by which cells of cryptic species can be enumerated based on actual gene number of target species. The qPCR assay targets the LSU rDNA of Ostreopsis spp. from Japan. First, we constructed standard curves with a linearized plasmid containing the target rDNA. We then determined the number of rDNA copies per cell of target species from a single cell isolated from environmental samples using the qPCR assay. Differences in the DNA recovery efficiency was calculated by adding exogenous plasmid to a portion of the sample lysate before and after DNA extraction followed by qPCR. Then, the number of cells of each species was calculated by division of the total number of rDNA copies of each species in the samples by the number of rDNA copies per cell. To test our procedure, we determined the total number of rDNA copies using environmental samples containing no target cells but spiked with cultured cells of several species of Ostreopsis. The numbers estimated by the qPCR method closely approximated total numbers of cells added. Finally, the numbers of cells of target species in environmental samples containing cryptic species were enumerated by the qPCR method and the total numbers also closely approximated the microscopy cell counts. We developed a qPCR method that provides accurate enumeration of each cryptic species in environments. This method is expected to be a powerful tool for monitoring the various HAB species that occur as cryptic species in coastal waters. PMID:23593102

  1. Marine Biodiversity in Japanese Waters

    PubMed Central

    Fujikura, Katsunori; Lindsay, Dhugal; Kitazato, Hiroshi; Nishida, Shuhei; Shirayama, Yoshihisa

    2010-01-01

    To understand marine biodiversity in Japanese waters, we have compiled information on the marine biota in Japanese waters, including the number of described species (species richness), the history of marine biology research in Japan, the state of knowledge, the number of endemic species, the number of identified but undescribed species, the number of known introduced species, and the number of taxonomic experts and identification guides, with consideration of the general ocean environmental background, such as the physical and geological settings. A total of 33,629 species have been reported to occur in Japanese waters. The state of knowledge was extremely variable, with taxa containing many inconspicuous, smaller species tending to be less well known. The total number of identified but undescribed species was at least 121,913. The total number of described species combined with the number of identified but undescribed species reached 155,542. This is the best estimate of the total number of species in Japanese waters and indicates that more than 70% of Japan's marine biodiversity remains un-described. The number of species reported as introduced into Japanese waters was 39. This is the first attempt to estimate species richness for all marine species in Japanese waters. Although its marine biota can be considered relatively well known, at least within the Asian-Pacific region, considering the vast number of different marine environments such as coral reefs, ocean trenches, ice-bound waters, methane seeps, and hydrothermal vents, much work remains to be done. We expect global change to have a tremendous impact on marine biodiversity and ecosystems. Japan is in a particularly suitable geographic situation and has a lot of facilities for conducting marine science research. Japan has an important responsibility to contribute to our understanding of life in the oceans. PMID:20689840

  2. Teacher's Activity Guide to Coastal Awareness. Marine Bulletin No. 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callaghan, Sara S.

    This teacher's guide was prepared for use with "Down Where the Water Is: A Coastal Awareness Activity Book," as part of the Rhode Island Coastal Resources Management Council's public education program. Contained are instructions on the use of the Activity Book, page-by-page, with glossaries, activity ideas, resources, places to visit,…

  3. Sources of atmospheric methane from coastal marine wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harriss, R. C.; Sebacher, D. I.; Bartlett, K. B.; Bartlett, D. S.

    1982-01-01

    Biological methanogenesis in wetlands is believed to be one of the major sources of global tropospheric methane. The present paper reports measurements of methane distribution in the soils, sediments, water and vegetation of coastal marine wetlands. Measurements, carried out in the salt marshes Bay Tree Creek in Virginia and Panacea in northwest Florida, reveal methane concentrations in soils and sediments to vary with depth below the surface and with soil temperature. The fluxes of methane from marsh soils to the atmosphere at the soil-air interface are estimated to range from -0.00067 g CH4/sq m per day (methane sink) to 0.024 g CH4/sq m per day, with an average value of 0.0066 g CH4/sq m per day. Data also demonstrate the important role of tidal waters percolating through marsh soils in removing methane from the soils and releasing it to the atmosphere. The information obtained, together with previous studies, provides a framework for the design of a program based on in situ and remote sensing measurements to study the global methane cycle.

  4. Sources of atmospheric methane from coastal marine wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harriss, R. C.; Sebacher, D. I.; Bartlett, K. B.; Bartlett, D. S.

    1982-01-01

    Biological methanogenesis in wetlands is believed to be one of the major sources of global tropospheric methane. The present paper reports measurements of methane distribution in the soils, sediments, water and vegetation of coastal marine wetlands. Measurements, carried out in the salt marshes Bay Tree Creek in Virginia and Panacea in northwest Florida, reveal methane concentrations in soils and sediments to vary with depth below the surface and with soil temperature. The fluxes of methane from marsh soils to the atmosphere at the soil-air interface are estimated to range from -0.00067 g CH4/sq m per day (methane sink) to 0.024 g CH4/sq m per day, with an average value of 0.0066 g CH4/sq m per day. Data also demonstrate the important role of tidal waters percolating through marsh soils in removing methane from the soils and releasing it to the atmosphere. The information obtained, together with previous studies, provides a framework for the design of a program based on in situ and remote sensing measurements to study the global methane cycle.

  5. Impacts of marine debris on wild animals in the coastal area of Korea.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sunwook; Lee, Jongmyoung; Jang, Yong Chang; Kim, Young Jun; Kim, Hee Jong; Han, Donguk; Hong, Sang Hee; Kang, Daeseok; Shim, Won Joon

    2013-01-15

    Over the last decade, marine debris has become a major factor affecting the coastal ecosystem of Korea. This study compiled information regarding how marine debris impacts wildlife in Korea. Cases of marine debris impacting wildlife were collected from experts of various fields and from local participants through an open access website from February 2010 to March 2012. A total of 21 species were affected by marine debris: 18 species of birds, 2 species of mammals, and 1 species of crustacean. Five threatened or protected species were identified: black-faced spoonbill, finless porpoise, water deer, whooper swan, and greater painted snipe. Recreational fishing gears were the types of debris that most frequently impacted wildlife, especially birds. Black tailed gulls were the most vulnerable species to recreational fishing hooks and lines. Although it was preliminary, this study revealed that recreational fishing activities should be prioritized when managing marine debris in Korea. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Microplastics in coastal and marine environments of the western tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Costa, Monica F; Barletta, Mário

    2015-11-01

    Microplastic pollution is a global issue. It is present even in remote and pristine coastal and marine environments, likely causing impacts of unknown scale. Microplastics are primary- and secondary-sourced plastics with diameters of 5 mm or less that are either free in the water column or mixed in sandy and muddy sediments. Since the early 1970s, they have been reported to pollute marine environments; recently, concern has increased as soaring amounts of microplastics in the oceans were detected and because the development of unprecedented processes involving this pollutant at sea is being unveiled. Coastal and marine environments of the western tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic Ocean (WTAO) are contaminated with microplastics at different quantities and from a variety of types. The main environmental compartments (water, sediments and biota) are contaminated, but the consequences are still poorly understood. Rivers and all scales of fishery activities are identified as the most likely sources of this pollutant to coastal waters; however, based on the types of microplastics observed, other maritime operations are also possible sources. Ingestion by marine biota occurs in the vertebrate groups (fish, birds, and turtles) in these environments. In addition, the presence of microplastics in plankton samples from different habitats of estuaries and oceanic islands is confirmed. The connectivity among environmental compartments regarding microplastic pollution is a new research frontier in the region.

  7. Report of the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Modeling Workshop, Pacific Marine Science Center, Santa Cruz, CA, March 22-23, 2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sherwood, Christopher R.

    2006-01-01

    A U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology (CMG) Modeling Workshop was held to discuss the general topic of coastal modeling, defined broadly to include circulation, waves, sediment transport, water quality, ecology, sediment diagenesis, morphology change, and coastal evolution, on scales ranging from seconds and a few centimeters (individual ripples) to centuries (coastal evolution) and thousands of kilometers (tsunami propagation). The workshop was convened at the suggestion of CMG Program Management to improve communication among modelers and model users, assess modeling-related activities being conducted at the three centers (Florida Integrated Science Center, FISC; Pacific Marine Science Center; PMSC; and Woods Hole Science Center; WHSC), and develop goals, strategies, and plans for future modeling activities. The workshop represents a step toward developing a five-year strategic plan, and was timed to provide input for the FY06 prospectus. The workshop was held at the USGS Pacific Marine Science Center in Santa Cruz on March 22-23, 2005.

  8. Mapping of Florida's Coastal and Marine Resources: Setting Priorities Workshop

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robbins, Lisa; Wolfe, Steven; Raabe, Ellen

    2008-01-01

    The importance of mapping habitats and bioregions as a means to improve resource management has become increasingly clear. Large areas of the waters surrounding Florida are unmapped or incompletely mapped, possibly hindering proper management and good decisionmaking. Mapping of these ecosystems is among the top priorities identified by the Florida Oceans and Coastal Council in their Annual Science Research Plan. However, lack of prioritization among the coastal and marine areas and lack of coordination of agency efforts impede efficient, cost-effective mapping. A workshop on Mapping of Florida's Coastal and Marine Resources was sponsored by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), and Southeastern Regional Partnership for Planning and Sustainability (SERPPAS). The workshop was held at the USGS Florida Integrated Science Center (FISC) in St. Petersburg, FL, on February 7-8, 2007. The workshop was designed to provide State, Federal, university, and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) the opportunity to discuss their existing data coverage and create a prioritization of areas for new mapping data in Florida. Specific goals of the workshop were multifold, including to: * provide information to agencies on state-of-the-art technology for collecting data; * inform participants of the ongoing mapping programs in waters off Florida; * present the mapping needs and priorities of the State and Federal agencies and entities operating in Florida; * work with State of Florida agencies to establish an overall priority for areas needing mapping; * initiate discussion of a unified classification of habitat and bioregions; * discuss and examine the need to standardize terminology and data collection/storage so that data, in particular habitat data, can be shared; 9 identify opportunities for partnering and leveraging mapping efforts among agencies and entities; * identify impediments and organizational gaps that hinder collection

  9. Deep Water, Shallow Water: Marine Animal Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Examines the diversity of life in the oceans and ways in which teachers can explore ocean habitats with their students without leaving the classroom. Topic areas considered include: restricted habitats, people and marine habitats, pollution, incidental kills, and the commercial and recreational uses of marine waters. (JN)

  10. Deep Water, Shallow Water: Marine Animal Homes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soltow, Willow

    1984-01-01

    Examines the diversity of life in the oceans and ways in which teachers can explore ocean habitats with their students without leaving the classroom. Topic areas considered include: restricted habitats, people and marine habitats, pollution, incidental kills, and the commercial and recreational uses of marine waters. (JN)

  11. Extending electromagnetic methods to map coastal pore water salinities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenwood, Wm. J.; Kruse, S.; Swarzenski, P.

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of mapping pore water salinity based on surface electromagnetic (EM) methods over land and shallow marine water is examined in a coastal wetland on Tampa Bay, Florida. Forward models predict that useful information on seabed conductivity can be obtained through <1.5 m of saline water, using floating EM-31 and EM-34 instruments from Geonics Ltd. The EM-31 functioned as predicted when compared against resistivity soundings and pore water samples and proved valuable for profiling in otherwise inaccessible terrain due to its relatively small size. Experiments with the EM-34 in marine water, however, did not reproduce the theoretical instrument response. The most effective technique for predicting pore water conductivities based on EM data entailed (1) computing formation factors from resistivity surveys and pore water samples at representative sites and (2) combining these formation factors with onshore and offshore EM-31 readings for broader spatial coverage. This method proved successful for imaging zones of elevated pore water conductivities/ salinities associated with mangrove forests, presumably caused by salt water exclusion by mangrove roots. These zones extend 5 to 10 m seaward from mangrove trunks fringing Tampa Bay. Modeling indicates that EM-31 measurements lack the resolution necessary to image the subtle pore water conductivity variations expected in association with diffuse submarine ground water discharge of fresher water in the marine water of Tampa Bay. The technique has potential for locating high-contrast zones and other pore water salinity anomalies in areas not accessible to conventional marine- or land-based resistivity arrays and hence may be useful for studies of coastal-wetland ecosystems. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  12. Invasion of toxic marine cyanobacteria in to the tsunami affected coastal villages of southern India.

    PubMed

    Muthukumaravel, S; Padmanabhan, V; Boopathidoss, P S; Sadanandane, C; Srinivasan, R; Gunasekaran, K; Sabesan, S; Balaraman, K

    2010-06-01

    This documentation explores the facts about the invasion of marine cyanobacteria in to the tsunami affected coastal villages of Nagapattinam district of Tamilnadu and Karaikkal district of Pondicherry Union Territory (UT) in southern India. Water samples were collected from eight tsunami-hit coastal villages in different open water sources. The collected samples were processed for detecting marine cyanobacterial growth. Totally 110 water samples were processed, three samples were positive for the toxic cyanobacteria, Lyngbya sp., and nine for nontoxic species such as Epithemia sp.,, Johannesbaptistia pellucida, Oscillatoria princeps, Phormidium fragile, Synechocystis sp. Besides posing a public health risk because of the toxic cyanobacteria, the bloom formation by the cyanobacterial species such as Anabaena, Microcystis, Lyngbya, Plectonema, Phormidium contaminated the water bodies and deteriorated the water quality in the tsunami affected villages. The study revealed that another kind of public health risk from the invasion of toxic cyanobacteria to the costal ecosystem during the tsunami. It is necessary, in this context, that the surveillance mechanism, which is geared up during or after natural disasters, should have a provision to monitor the transportation of toxic elements/organisms from marine system to coastal/inland ecosystems and to control such organisms.

  13. Biogeochemical cycling in an organic-rich coastal marine basin. 8. A sulfur isotopic budget balanced by differential diffusion across the sediment-water interface

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chanton, J.P.; Martens, C.S.; Goldhaber, M.B.

    1987-01-01

    The sulfur isotopic composition of the sulfur fluxes occurring in the anoxic marine sediments of Cape Lookout Bight, N.C., U.S.A., was determined, and the result of isotopic mass balance was obtained via the differential diffusion model. Seasonal pore water sulfate ??34S measurements yielded a calculated sulfate input of 0.6%.. Sulfate transported into the sediments via diffusion appeared to be enriched in the lighter isotope because its concentration gradient was steeper, due to the increase in the measured isotopic composition of sulfate with depth. Similarly, the back diffusion of dissolved sulfide towards the sediment-water interface appeared enriched in the heavier isotope. The isotopic composition of this flux was calculated from measurements of the ??34S of dissolved sulfide and was determined to be 15.9%.. The isotopic composition of buried sulfide was determined to be -5.2%. and the detrital sulfur input was estimated to be -6.2%.. An isotope mass balance equation based upon the fluxes at the sediment-water interface successfully predicted the isotopic composition of the buried sulfur flux within 0.5%., thus confirming that isotopes diffuse in response to their individual concentration gradients. ?? 1987.

  14. Restoration of marine coastal ecosystem health as a new goal for integrated catchment management in Tolo Harbor, Hong Kong, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Fu-Liu; Hao, Jun-Yi; Tao, Shu; Dawson, Richard W; Lam, K C; Chen, Yongqin David

    2006-04-01

    This article demonstrates why it is necessary to have the restoration of marine coastal ecosystem health as a new goal for integrated catchment management in the coastal area of Tolo Harbor. The present goal of integrated catchment management (ICM) in the Tolo Harbor is based on water quality objectives. The performance of the ICM plan, the Tolo Harbor Action Plan (THAP), was evaluated using marine coastal ecosystem health indicators including both stress and response indicators. Since the implementation of THAP in 1988, some significant reductions in pollution loading have been observed: reduction of 83% of biological oxygen demand load and 82% of total nitrogen between 1988 and 1999. There has also been an improvement in the health of Tolo Harbor's marine coastal ecosystem as evidenced by trends in physical, chemical, and biological indicators, although reverse fluctuations in some periods exist. However, such improvement can only be considered as the first sign of complete ecosystem health restoration, because ecosystem health covers not only physical, chemical, and biological aspects of an ecosystem, but also ecosystem service functions. The findings support the need to take the restoration and protection of marine coastal ecosystem health as a new goal rather than using water quality objectives. Steps necessary to further improve Tolo Harbor's marine coastal ecosystem health are also discussed.

  15. Tracing biogeochemical subsidies from glacier runoff into Alaska's coastal marine food webs.

    PubMed

    Arimitsu, Mayumi L; Hobson, Keith A; Webber, D'Arcy N; Piatt, John F; Hood, Eran W; Fellman, Jason B

    2017-08-21

    Nearly half of the freshwater discharge into the Gulf of Alaska originates from landscapes draining glacier runoff, but the influence of the influx of riverine organic matter on the trophodynamics of coastal marine food webs is not well understood. We quantified the ecological impact of riverine organic matter subsidies to glacier-marine habitats by developing a multi-trophic level Bayesian three-isotope mixing model. We utilized large gradients in stable (δ(13) C, δ(15) N, δ(2) H) and radiogenic (Δ(14) C) isotopes that trace riverine and marine organic matter sources as they are passed from lower to higher trophic levels in glacial-marine habitats. We also compared isotope ratios between glacial-marine and more oceanic habitats. Based on isotopic measurements of potential baseline sources, ambient water and tissues of marine consumers, estimates of the riverine organic matter source contribution to upper trophic-level species including fish and seabirds ranged from 12-44%. Variability in resource use among similar taxa corresponded to variation in species distribution and life histories. For example, riverine organic matter assimilation by the glacier-nesting seabirds Kittlitz's murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris) was greater than that of the forest-nesting marbled murrelet (B. marmoratus). The particulate and dissolved organic carbon in glacial runoff and near surface coastal waters was aged (12100 to 1500 years BP (14) C-age) but dissolved inorganic carbon and biota in coastal waters were young (530 years BP (14) C-age to modern). Thus terrestrial-derived subsidies in marine food webs were primarily composed of young organic matter sources released from glacier ecosystems and their surrounding watersheds. Stable isotope compositions also revealed a divergence in food web structure between glacial-marine and oceanic sites. This work demonstrates linkages between terrestrial and marine ecosystems, and facilitates a greater understanding of how climate

  16. Effects of Land Use Change on Tropical Coastal Systems are Exacerbated by the Decline of Marine Mega-Herbivores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamers, L. P.; Christianen, M. J.; Govers, L. L.; Kiswara, W.; Bouma, T.; Roelofs, J. G.; Van Katwijk, M. M.

    2011-12-01

    Land use changes in tropical regions such as deforestation, mining activities, and shrimp farming, not only affect freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems, but also have a strong impact on coastal marine ecosystems. The increased influx of sediments and nutrients affects these ecosystems in multiple ways. Seagrass meadows that line coastal marine ecosystems provide important ecosystem services, e.g. sediment trapping, coastal protection and fisheries. Based on studies in East Kalimantan (Indonesia) we have shown that seagrass meadow parameters may provide more reliable indicators of land use change than the sampling of either marine sediments or water quality chemical parameters. Observations of changes in ecosystem functioning are particularly valuable for those areas where flux values are lacking and rapid surveys are needed. Time series of estuarine seagrass transects can show not only the intensity, but also the radius of action of land use change on coastal marine systems. Marine mega-herbivores pose a strong top-down control in seagrass ecosystems. We will provide a conceptual model, based on experimental evidence, to show that the global decline of marine mega-herbivore populations (as a result of large-scale poaching) may decrease the resilience of seagrass systems to increased anthropogenic forcing including land use changes. These outcomes not only urge the need for better regulation of land use change, but also for the establishment of marine protected areas (MPA's) in tropical coastal regions.

  17. Bubble Stripping as a Tool To Reduce High Dissolved CO2 in Coastal Marine Ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Koweek, David A; Mucciarone, David A; Dunbar, Robert B

    2016-04-05

    High dissolved CO2 concentrations in coastal ecosystems are a common occurrence due to a combination of large ecosystem metabolism, shallow water, and long residence times. Many important coastal species may have adapted to this natural variability over time, but eutrophication and ocean acidification may be perturbing the water chemistry beyond the bounds of tolerance for these organisms. We are currently limited in our ability to deal with the geochemical changes unfolding in our coastal ocean. This study helps to address this deficit of solutions by introducing bubble stripping as a novel geochemical engineering approach to reducing high CO2 in coastal marine ecosystems. We use a process-based model to find that air/sea gas exchange rates within a bubbled system are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than within a nonbubbled system. By coupling bubbling-enhanced ventilation to a coastal ecosystem metabolism model, we demonstrate that strategically timed bubble plumes can mitigate exposure to high CO2 under present-day conditions and that exposure mitigation is enhanced in the more acidic conditions predicted by the end of the century. We argue that shallow water CO2 bubble stripping should be considered among the growing list of engineering approaches intended to increase coastal resilience in a changing ocean.

  18. Occurrence and distribution of hydrocarbons in the surface microlayer and subsurface water from the urban coastal marine area off Marseilles, Northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Guigue, Catherine; Tedetti, Marc; Giorgi, Sébastien; Goutx, Madeleine

    2011-12-01

    Aliphatic (AHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in dissolved and particulate material from surface microlayer (SML) and subsurface water (SSW) sampled at nearshore observation stations, sewage effluents and harbour sites from Marseilles coastal area (Northwestern Mediterranean) in 2009 and 2010. Dissolved and particulate AH concentrations ranged 0.05-0.41 and 0.04-4.3 μg l(-1) in the SSW, peaking up to 38 and 1366 μg l(-1) in the SML, respectively. Dissolved and particulate PAHs ranged 1.9-98 and 1.9-21 ng l(-1) in the SSW, amounting up 217 and 1597 ng l(-1) in the SML, respectively. In harbours, hydrocarbons were concentrated in the SML, with enrichment factors reaching 1138 for particulate AHs. Besides episodic dominance of biogenic and pyrogenic inputs, a moderate anthropisation from petrogenic sources dominated suggesting the impact of shipping traffic and surface runoffs on this urbanised area. Rainfalls increased hydrocarbon concentrations by a factor 1.9-11.5 in the dissolved phase.

  19. The concept of biotope in marine ecology and coastal management.

    PubMed

    Olenin, Sergej; Ducrotoy, Jean-Paul

    2006-01-01

    The term "biotope" was introduced by a German scientist, Dahl in 1908 as an addition to the concept of "biocenosis" earlier formulated by Möbius (1877). Initially it determined the physical-chemical conditions of existence of a biocenosis ("the biotope of a biocenosis"). Further, both biotope and biocenosis were respectively considered as abiotic and biotic parts of an ecosystem. This notion ("ecosystem = biotope + biocenosis") became accepted in German, French, Russian and other European "continental" ecological literature. The new interpretation of the term ("biotope = habitat + community") appeared in the United Kingdom in the early 1990s while classifying "marine habitats" of the coastal zone. Since then, this meaning was also used in international European environmental documents. This paper examines the evolution of the biotope notion. It is concluded that the contemporary concept is robust and may be used not only for the classification and mapping but also for functional marine ecology and coastal zone management.

  20. The Marine Realms Information Bank, a coastal and marine digital library at USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marincioni, Fausto; Lightsom, Frances L.; Riall, Rebecca L.; Linck, Guthrie A.; Aldrich, Thomas C.

    2003-01-01

    The Marine Realms Information Bank (MRIB) is a distributed geolibrary of the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program that (1) prioritizes search and display of information by place (location on the Earth's surface), and (2) links information existing in distributed and independent sources. The MRIB aims to provide easy access to knowledge pertaining to the ocean and the associated atmospheric and terrestrial environments to scientists, decision-makers, and the interested members of the public.

  1. Marine kelp: energy resource in the coastal zone

    SciTech Connect

    Ritschard, R.L.; Haven, K.F.

    1980-11-01

    An ocean farm system is described. The analysis of the ocean farm system includes a description of the types of impacts that might occur if large scale operations become available, such as the production of environmental residuals, conflicts with the fishing and shipping industries, and other legal/institutional impacts. A discussion is given of the relationship of the marine biomass concept and coastal zone management plans.

  2. Understanding the distribution of economic benefits from improving coastal and marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Pakalniete, Kristine; Aigars, Juris; Czajkowski, Mikołaj; Strake, Solvita; Zawojska, Ewa; Hanley, Nick

    2017-04-15

    The ecological status of coastal and marine waterbodies world-wide is threatened by multiple stressors, including nutrient inputs from various sources and increasing occurrences of invasive alien species. These stressors impact the environmental quality of the Baltic Sea. Each Baltic Sea country contributes to the stressors and, at the same time, is affected by their negative impacts on water quality. Knowledge about benefits from improvements in coastal and marine waters is key to assessing public support for policies aimed at achieving such changes. We propose a new approach to account for variability in benefits related to differences in socio-demographics of respondents, by using a structural model of discrete choice. Our method allows to incorporate a wide range of socio-demographics as explanatory variables in conditional multinomial logit models without the risk of collinearity; the model is estimated jointly and hence more statistically efficient than the alternative, typically used approaches. We apply this new technique to a study of the preferences of Latvian citizens towards improvements of the coastal and marine environment quality. We find that overall, Latvians are willing to pay for reducing losses of biodiversity, for improving water quality for recreation by reduced eutrophication, and for reducing new occurrences of invasive alien species. However a significant group within the sample seems not to value environmental improvements in the Baltic Sea, and, thus, is unwilling to support costly measures for achieving such improvements. The structural model of discrete choice reveals substantial heterogeneity among Latvians towards changes in the quality of coastal and marine waters of Latvia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hyperspectral Imaging Sensors and the Marine Coastal Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Laurie L.

    2000-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging sensors greatly expand the potential of remote sensing to assess, map, and monitor marine coastal zones. Each pixel in a hyperspectral image contains an entire spectrum of information. As a result, hyperspectral image data can be processed in two very different ways: by image classification techniques, to produce mapped outputs of features in the image on a regional scale; and by use of spectral analysis of the spectral data embedded within each pixel of the image. The latter is particularly useful in marine coastal zones because of the spectral complexity of suspended as well as benthic features found in these environments. Spectral-based analysis of hyperspectral (AVIRIS) imagery was carried out to investigate a marine coastal zone of South Florida, USA. Florida Bay is a phytoplankton-rich estuary characterized by taxonomically distinct phytoplankton assemblages and extensive seagrass beds. End-member spectra were extracted from AVIRIS image data corresponding to ground-truth sample stations and well-known field sites. Spectral libraries were constructed from the AVIRIS end-member spectra and used to classify images using the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm, a spectral-based approach that compares the spectrum, in each pixel of an image with each spectrum in a spectral library. Using this approach different phytoplankton assemblages containing diatoms, cyanobacteria, and green microalgae, as well as benthic community (seagrasses), were mapped.

  4. Coastal marine eutrophication assessment: a review on data analysis.

    PubMed

    Kitsiou, Dimitra; Karydis, Michael

    2011-05-01

    A wide variety of data analysis techniques have been applied for quantitative assessment of coastal marine eutrophication. Indicators for assessing eutrophication and frequency distributions have been used to develop scales for characterizing oligotrophy and eutrophication. Numerical classification has also contributed to the assessment of eutrophic trends by grouping sampling sites of similar trophic conditions. Applications of eutrophication assessment based on Principal Component Analysis and Multidimensional Scaling have also been carried out. In addition, the rapid development of Geographical Information Systems has provided the framework for applications of spatial methods and mapping techniques on eutrophication studies. Satellite data have also contributed to eutrophication assessment especially at large scale. Multiple criteria analysis methods can integrate eutrophication variables together with socio-economic parameters providing a holistic approach particularly useful to policy makers. As the current concept of eutrophication problems is to be examined as part of a coastal management approach, more complex quantitative procedures are needed to provide a platform useful for implementation of environmental policy. The present work reviews methods of data analysis used for the assessment of coastal marine eutrophication. The difficulties in applying these methods on data collected from the marine environment are discussed as well as the future perspectives of spatial and multiple criteria choice methods. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Hyperspectral Imaging Sensors and the Marine Coastal Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Laurie L.

    2000-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging sensors greatly expand the potential of remote sensing to assess, map, and monitor marine coastal zones. Each pixel in a hyperspectral image contains an entire spectrum of information. As a result, hyperspectral image data can be processed in two very different ways: by image classification techniques, to produce mapped outputs of features in the image on a regional scale; and by use of spectral analysis of the spectral data embedded within each pixel of the image. The latter is particularly useful in marine coastal zones because of the spectral complexity of suspended as well as benthic features found in these environments. Spectral-based analysis of hyperspectral (AVIRIS) imagery was carried out to investigate a marine coastal zone of South Florida, USA. Florida Bay is a phytoplankton-rich estuary characterized by taxonomically distinct phytoplankton assemblages and extensive seagrass beds. End-member spectra were extracted from AVIRIS image data corresponding to ground-truth sample stations and well-known field sites. Spectral libraries were constructed from the AVIRIS end-member spectra and used to classify images using the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm, a spectral-based approach that compares the spectrum, in each pixel of an image with each spectrum in a spectral library. Using this approach different phytoplankton assemblages containing diatoms, cyanobacteria, and green microalgae, as well as benthic community (seagrasses), were mapped.

  6. Levoglucosan and phenols in Antarctic marine, coastal and plateau aerosols.

    PubMed

    Zangrando, Roberta; Barbaro, Elena; Vecchiato, Marco; Kehrwald, Natalie M; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2016-02-15

    Due to its isolated location, Antarctica is a natural laboratory for studying atmospheric aerosols and pollution in remote areas. Here, we determined levoglucosan and phenolic compounds (PCs) at diverse Antarctic sites: on the plateau, a coastal station and during an oceanographic cruise. Levoglucosan and PCs reached the Antarctic plateau where they were observed in accumulation mode aerosols (with median levoglucosan concentrations of 6.4 pg m(-3) and 4.1 pg m(-3), and median PC concentrations of 15.0 pg m(-3) and 7.3 pg m(-3)). Aged aerosols arrived at the coastal site through katabatic circulation with the majority of the levoglucosan mass distributed on larger particulates (24.8 pg m(-3)), while PCs were present in fine particles (34.0 pg m(-3)). The low levoglucosan/PC ratios in Antarctic aerosols suggest that biomass burning aerosols only had regional, rather than local, sources. General acid/aldehyde ratios were lower at the coastal site than on the plateau. Levoglucosan and PCs determined during the oceanographic cruise were 37.6 pg m(-3) and 58.5 pg m(-3) respectively. Unlike levoglucosan, which can only be produced by biomass burning, PCs have both biomass burning and other sources. Our comparisons of these two types of compounds across a range of Antarctic marine, coastal, and plateau sites demonstrate that local marine sources dominate Antarctic PC concentrations.

  7. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Anisa; Hamzah, Zaini; Saat, Ahmad; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-01

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 (226Ra), radium-228 (228Ra) and potassium-40 (40K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (Hin), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  8. The Whale Pump: Marine Mammals Enhance Primary Productivity in a Coastal Basin

    PubMed Central

    Roman, Joe; McCarthy, James J.

    2010-01-01

    It is well known that microbes, zooplankton, and fish are important sources of recycled nitrogen in coastal waters, yet marine mammals have largely been ignored or dismissed in this cycle. Using field measurements and population data, we find that marine mammals can enhance primary productivity in their feeding areas by concentrating nitrogen near the surface through the release of flocculent fecal plumes. Whales and seals may be responsible for replenishing 2.3×104 metric tons of N per year in the Gulf of Maine's euphotic zone, more than the input of all rivers combined. This upward “whale pump” played a much larger role before commercial harvest, when marine mammal recycling of nitrogen was likely more than three times atmospheric N input. Even with reduced populations, marine mammals provide an important ecosystem service by sustaining productivity in regions where they occur in high densities. PMID:20949007

  9. Intermittent Noise Induces Physiological Stress in a Coastal Marine Fish

    PubMed Central

    Nichols, Tye A.; Anderson, Todd W.; Širović, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise in the ocean has increased substantially in recent decades, and motorized vessels produce what is likely the most common form of underwater noise pollution. Noise has the potential to induce physiological stress in marine fishes, which may have negative ecological consequences. In this study, physiological effects of increased noise (playback of boat noise recorded in the field) on a coastal marine fish (the giant kelpfish, Heterostichus rostratus) were investigated by measuring the stress responses (cortisol concentration) of fish to increased noise of various temporal dynamics and noise levels. Giant kelpfish exhibited acute stress responses when exposed to intermittent noise, but not to continuous noise or control conditions (playback of recorded natural ambient sound). These results suggest that variability in the acoustic environment may be more important than the period of noise exposure for inducing stress in a marine fish, and provide information regarding noise levels at which physiological responses occur. PMID:26402068

  10. Intermittent Noise Induces Physiological Stress in a Coastal Marine Fish.

    PubMed

    Nichols, Tye A; Anderson, Todd W; Širović, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Anthropogenic noise in the ocean has increased substantially in recent decades, and motorized vessels produce what is likely the most common form of underwater noise pollution. Noise has the potential to induce physiological stress in marine fishes, which may have negative ecological consequences. In this study, physiological effects of increased noise (playback of boat noise recorded in the field) on a coastal marine fish (the giant kelpfish, Heterostichus rostratus) were investigated by measuring the stress responses (cortisol concentration) of fish to increased noise of various temporal dynamics and noise levels. Giant kelpfish exhibited acute stress responses when exposed to intermittent noise, but not to continuous noise or control conditions (playback of recorded natural ambient sound). These results suggest that variability in the acoustic environment may be more important than the period of noise exposure for inducing stress in a marine fish, and provide information regarding noise levels at which physiological responses occur.

  11. Differentiating littering, urban runoff and marine transport as sources of marine debris in coastal and estuarine environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, Kathryn; Denise Hardesty, Britta; Kriwoken, Lorne; Wilcox, Chris

    2017-03-01

    Marine debris is a burgeoning global issue with economic, ecological and aesthetic impacts. While there are many studies now addressing this topic, the influence of urbanisation factors such as local population density, stormwater drains and roads on the distribution of coastal litter remains poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, we carried out standardized surveys at 224 transect surveys at 67 sites in two estuaries and along the open coast in Tasmania, Australia. We explored the relative support for three hypotheses regarding the sources of the debris; direct deposition by beachgoers, transport from surrounding areas via storm water drains and coastal runoff, and onshore transport from the marine system. We found strong support for all three mechanisms, however, onshore transport from the marine reservoir was the most important mechanism. Overall, the three models together explained 45.8 percent of the variation in our observations. Our results also suggest that most debris released into the marine environment is deposited locally, which may be the answer to where all the missing plastic is in the ocean. Furthermore, local interventions are likely to be most effective in reducing land-based inputs into the ocean.

  12. Differentiating littering, urban runoff and marine transport as sources of marine debris in coastal and estuarine environments

    PubMed Central

    Willis, Kathryn; Denise Hardesty, Britta; Kriwoken, Lorne; Wilcox, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Marine debris is a burgeoning global issue with economic, ecological and aesthetic impacts. While there are many studies now addressing this topic, the influence of urbanisation factors such as local population density, stormwater drains and roads on the distribution of coastal litter remains poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, we carried out standardized surveys at 224 transect surveys at 67 sites in two estuaries and along the open coast in Tasmania, Australia. We explored the relative support for three hypotheses regarding the sources of the debris; direct deposition by beachgoers, transport from surrounding areas via storm water drains and coastal runoff, and onshore transport from the marine system. We found strong support for all three mechanisms, however, onshore transport from the marine reservoir was the most important mechanism. Overall, the three models together explained 45.8 percent of the variation in our observations. Our results also suggest that most debris released into the marine environment is deposited locally, which may be the answer to where all the missing plastic is in the ocean. Furthermore, local interventions are likely to be most effective in reducing land-based inputs into the ocean. PMID:28281667

  13. Differentiating littering, urban runoff and marine transport as sources of marine debris in coastal and estuarine environments.

    PubMed

    Willis, Kathryn; Denise Hardesty, Britta; Kriwoken, Lorne; Wilcox, Chris

    2017-03-10

    Marine debris is a burgeoning global issue with economic, ecological and aesthetic impacts. While there are many studies now addressing this topic, the influence of urbanisation factors such as local population density, stormwater drains and roads on the distribution of coastal litter remains poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, we carried out standardized surveys at 224 transect surveys at 67 sites in two estuaries and along the open coast in Tasmania, Australia. We explored the relative support for three hypotheses regarding the sources of the debris; direct deposition by beachgoers, transport from surrounding areas via storm water drains and coastal runoff, and onshore transport from the marine system. We found strong support for all three mechanisms, however, onshore transport from the marine reservoir was the most important mechanism. Overall, the three models together explained 45.8 percent of the variation in our observations. Our results also suggest that most debris released into the marine environment is deposited locally, which may be the answer to where all the missing plastic is in the ocean. Furthermore, local interventions are likely to be most effective in reducing land-based inputs into the ocean.

  14. A Robot for Coastal Marine Studies Under Hostile Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Consi, T. R.

    2012-12-01

    Robots have long been used for scientific exploration of extremely remote environments such as planetary surfaces and the deep ocean. In addition to these physically remote places, there are many environments that are transiently remote in the sense that they are inaccessible to humans for a period of time. Coastal marine environments fall into this category. While quite accessible (and enjoyable) during good weather, the coast can become as remote as the moon when it is impacted by severe storms or hurricanes. For near shore and shallow water marine science unmanned underwater ground vehicles (UUGVs) are the robots of choice for reliable access under a variety of conditions. Ground vehicles are inherently amphibious being able to operate in complex coastal environments that can range from the completely dry beach, through the transiently wet swash zone, into the surf zone and beyond. During storms, UUGVs provide stable sensor platforms resistant to waves and currents by virtue of being locked to the substrate. In such situations free-swimming robots would be swept away. Mobility during storms enables a UUGV to orient itself to optimally resist forces that would dislodge fixed, moored platforms. Mobility can also enable a UUGV to either avoid burial, or unbury itself after a storm. Finally, the ability to submerge provides a great advantage over buoys and surface vehicles which would be smashed by heavy wave action. We have developed a prototype UUGV to enable new science in the surf zone and other shallow water environments. Named LMAR for Lake Michigan Amphibious Robot, it is designed to be deployed from the dry beach, enter the water to perform a near-shore survey, and return to the deployment point for recovery. The body of the robot is a heavy flattened box (base dimensions: 1.07 m X 1.10 m X .393 m, dry weight: ~127 kg, displacement: ~ 45 kg) with a low center of gravity for stability and robust construction to withstand waves and currents. It is topped by a

  15. Baseline monitoring of organic sunscreen compounds along South Carolina's coastal marine environment.

    PubMed

    Bratkovics, Stephanie; Wirth, Edward; Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Pennington, Paul; Sanger, Denise

    2015-12-15

    Organic ultraviolet filters (UV-F) are increasingly being used in personal care products to protect skin and other products from the damaging effects of UV radiation. In this study, marine water was collected monthly for approximately one year from six coastal South Carolina, USA sites and analyzed for the occurrence of seven organic chemicals used as UV filters (avobenzone, dioxybenzone, octocrylene, octinoxate, oxybenzone, padimate-o and sulisobenzone). The results were used to examine the relationship between beach use and the distribution of UV-F compounds along coastal South Carolina, USA. Five of the seven target analytes were detected in seawater along coastal South Carolina during this study. Dioxybenzone and sulisobenzone were not detected. The highest concentrations measured were >3700 ng octocrylene/L and ~2200 ng oxybenzone/L and beach use was greatest at this site; a local beach front park. Patterns in concentrations were assessed based on season and a measure of beach use.

  16. Sunscreen products as emerging pollutants to coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio; Sánchez-Quiles, David; Basterretxea, Gotzon; Benedé, Juan L; Chisvert, Alberto; Salvador, Amparo; Moreno-Garrido, Ignacio; Blasco, Julián

    2013-01-01

    A growing awareness of the risks associated with skin exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation over the past decades has led to increased use of sunscreen cosmetic products leading the introduction of new chemical compounds in the marine environment. Although coastal tourism and recreation are the largest and most rapidly growing activities in the world, the evaluation of sunscreen as source of chemicals to the coastal marine system has not been addressed. Concentrations of chemical UV filters included in the formulation of sunscreens, such as benzophehone 3 (BZ-3), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), TiO₂ and ZnO, are detected in nearshore waters with variable concentrations along the day and mainly concentrated in the surface microlayer (i.e. 53.6-577.5 ng L⁻¹ BZ-3; 51.4-113.4 ng L⁻¹ 4-MBC; 6.9-37.6 µg L⁻¹ Ti; 1.0-3.3 µg L⁻¹ Zn). The presence of these compounds in seawater suggests relevant effects on phytoplankton. Indeed, we provide evidences of the negative effect of sunblocks on the growth of the commonly found marine diatom Chaetoceros gracilis (mean EC₅₀ = 125±71 mg L⁻¹). Dissolution of sunscreens in seawater also releases inorganic nutrients (N, P and Si forms) that can fuel algal growth. In particular, PO₄³⁻ is released by these products in notable amounts (up to 17 µmol PO₄³⁻g⁻¹). We conservatively estimate an increase of up to 100% background PO₄³⁻ concentrations (0.12 µmol L⁻¹ over a background level of 0.06 µmol L⁻¹) in nearshore waters during low water renewal conditions in a populated beach in Majorca island. Our results show that sunscreen products are a significant source of organic and inorganic chemicals that reach the sea with potential ecological consequences on the coastal marine ecosystem.

  17. Sunscreen Products as Emerging Pollutants to Coastal Waters

    PubMed Central

    Tovar-Sánchez, Antonio; Sánchez-Quiles, David; Basterretxea, Gotzon; Benedé, Juan L.; Chisvert, Alberto; Salvador, Amparo; Moreno-Garrido, Ignacio; Blasco, Julián

    2013-01-01

    A growing awareness of the risks associated with skin exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation over the past decades has led to increased use of sunscreen cosmetic products leading the introduction of new chemical compounds in the marine environment. Although coastal tourism and recreation are the largest and most rapidly growing activities in the world, the evaluation of sunscreen as source of chemicals to the coastal marine system has not been addressed. Concentrations of chemical UV filters included in the formulation of sunscreens, such as benzophehone 3 (BZ-3), 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC), TiO2 and ZnO, are detected in nearshore waters with variable concentrations along the day and mainly concentrated in the surface microlayer (i.e. 53.6–577.5 ng L-1 BZ-3; 51.4–113.4 ng L-1 4-MBC; 6.9–37.6 µg L-1 Ti; 1.0–3.3 µg L-1 Zn). The presence of these compounds in seawater suggests relevant effects on phytoplankton. Indeed, we provide evidences of the negative effect of sunblocks on the growth of the commonly found marine diatom Chaetoceros gracilis (mean EC50 = 125±71 mg L-1). Dissolution of sunscreens in seawater also releases inorganic nutrients (N, P and Si forms) that can fuel algal growth. In particular, PO43− is released by these products in notable amounts (up to 17 µmol PO43− g−1). We conservatively estimate an increase of up to 100% background PO43− concentrations (0.12 µmol L-1 over a background level of 0.06 µmol L-1) in nearshore waters during low water renewal conditions in a populated beach in Majorca island. Our results show that sunscreen products are a significant source of organic and inorganic chemicals that reach the sea with potential ecological consequences on the coastal marine ecosystem. PMID:23755233

  18. Spatial distribution of fallout 137Cs in the coastal marine environment of India.

    PubMed

    Jha, S K; Gothankar, S S; Sartandel, S; Pote, M B; Hemalatha, P; Rajan, M P; Vidyasagar, D; Indumati, S P; Shrivastava, R; Puranik, V D

    2012-11-01

    The data on the fallout (137)Cs in the coastal marine environment assume significance in view of massive expansion of nuclear power plants in the Asia-Pacific region and to fulfill the benchmark study required to evaluate the possible impact of the Fukushima radioactive releases in the Asia-Pacific region. Measurements of (137)Cs in sea water, along with salinity and temperature, were carried out at 30 locations covering the coastal area of the Arabian Sea and the Bay of Bengal. For the present study the Indian coastal area is divided in three different regions. The (137)Cs concentration in sea water of the entire Indian coastal region varies from 0.30 to 1.25 Bq m(-3). The data obtained in the present study was compared with the North Indian Ocean data and it was observed that there is a 33% decrease in the Arabian Sea (region I), 50% in the high rainfall coastal area (region II) and 24% in the Bay of Bengal (region III).

  19. Habitat type and nursery function for coastal marine fish species, with emphasis on the Eastern Cape region, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitfield, Alan K.; Pattrick, Paula

    2015-07-01

    A considerable amount of research has been undertaken to document and assess the nursery function of a variety of coastal habitats for marine fish species around the world. Most of these studies have focused on particular habitats and have generally been confined to a limited range of fish species associated with specific nursery areas. In this review we conduct a general assessment of the state of knowledge of coastal habitats in fulfilling the nursery-role concept for marine fishes, with particular emphasis on biotic and abiotic factors that influence nursery value. A primary aim was to synthesize information that can be used to drive sound conservation planning and provide a conceptual framework so that new marine protected areas (MPAs) incorporate the full range of nursery areas that are present within the coastal zone. We also use published data from a coastal section in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa, to highlight the differential use of shallow aquatic habitats by a range of juvenile marine fish species within this region. Although the Eastern Cape case study does not assess the relative growth, food availability or predation in nursery and non-nursery areas within the coastal zone, it does document which habitats are important to the juveniles of dominant marine species within each area. These habitats, which range from intertidal pools, subtidal gulleys and surf zones to estuaries, do appear to perform a key role in the biological success of species assemblages, with the juveniles of particular marine fishes tending to favour specific nursery areas. According to a multivariate analysis of nursery habitat use within this region, marine species using estuaries tend to differ considerably from those using nearshore coastal waters, with a similar pattern likely to occur elsewhere in the world.

  20. Optimal management of a Hawaiian Coastal aquifer with nearshore marine ecological interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Thomas Kaeo; Pongkijvorasin, Sittidaj; Roumasset, James; Amato, Daniel; Burnett, Kimberly

    2010-11-01

    We optimize groundwater management in the presence of marine consequences of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Concern for marine biota increases the optimal steady-state head level of the aquifer. The model is discussed in general terms for any coastal groundwater resource where SGD has a positive impact on valuable nearshore resources. Our application focuses on the Kona Coast of Hawai`i, where SGD is being actively studied and where both nearshore ecology and groundwater resources are serious sociopolitical issues. To incorporate the consequences of water extraction on nearshore resources, we impose a safe minimum standard for the quantity of SGD. Efficient pumping rates fluctuate according to various growth requirements on the keystone marine algae and different assumptions regarding recharge rates. Desalination is required under average recharge conditions and a strict minimum standard and under low recharge conditions regardless of minimum standards of growth.

  1. Methylation of inorganic mercury in polar marine waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehnherr, Igor; St. Louis, Vincent L.; Hintelmann, Holger; Kirk, Jane L.

    2011-05-01

    Monomethylmercury is a neurotoxin that accumulates in marine organisms, with serious implications for human health. The toxin is of particular concern to northern Inuit peoples, for example, whose traditional diets are composed primarily of marine mammals and fish. The ultimate source of monomethylmercury to marine organisms has remained uncertain, although various potential sources have been proposed, including export from coastal and deep-sea sediments and major river systems, atmospheric deposition and water-column production. Here, we report results from incubation experiments in which we added isotopically labelled inorganic mercury and monomethylmercury to seawater samples collected from a range of sites in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago. Monomethylmercury formed from the methylation of inorganic mercury in all samples. Demethylation of monomethylmercury was also observed in water from all sites. We determined steady-state concentrations of monomethylmercury in marine waters by incorporating the rate constants for monomethylmercury formation and degradation derived from these experiments into a numerical model. We estimate that the conversion of inorganic mercury to monomethylmercury in the water column accounts for around 47% (+/-62%, standard deviation) of the monomethylmercury present in polar marine waters, with site-to-site differences in inorganic mercury and monomethylmercury levels accounting for most of the variability. We suggest that water-column methylation of inorganic mercury is a significant source of monomethylmercury in pelagic marine food webs in the Arctic, and possibly in the world's oceans in general.

  2. Invasions and Extinctions Reshape Coastal Marine Food Webs

    PubMed Central

    Byrnes, Jarrett E.; Reynolds, Pamela L.; Stachowicz, John J.

    2007-01-01

    The biodiversity of ecosystems worldwide is changing because of species loss due to human-caused extinctions and species gain through intentional and accidental introductions. Here we show that the combined effect of these two processes is altering the trophic structure of food webs in coastal marine systems. This is because most extinctions (∼70%) occur at high trophic levels (top predators and other carnivores), while most invasions are by species from lower trophic levels (70% macroplanktivores, deposit feeders, and detritivores). These opposing changes thus alter the shape of marine food webs from a trophic pyramid capped by a diverse array of predators and consumers to a shorter, squatter configuration dominated by filter feeders and scavengers. The consequences of the simultaneous loss of diversity at top trophic levels and gain at lower trophic levels is largely unknown. However, current research suggests that a better understanding of how such simultaneous changes in diversity can impact ecosystem function will be required to manage coastal ecosystems and forecast future changes. PMID:17356703

  3. Occurrence and concentration of caffeine in Oregon coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez del Rey, Zoe; Granek, Elise F; Sylvester, Steve

    2012-07-01

    Caffeine, a biologically active drug, is recognized as a contaminant of freshwater and marine systems. We quantified caffeine concentrations in Oregon's coastal ocean to determine whether levels correlated with proximity to caffeine pollution sources. Caffeine was analyzed at 14 coastal locations, stratified between populated areas with sources of caffeine pollution and sparsely populated areas with no major caffeine pollution sources. Caffeine concentrations were measured in major water bodies discharging near sampling locations. Caffeine in seawater ranged from below the reporting limit (8.5 ng/L) to 44.7 ng/L. Caffeine occurrence and concentrations in seawater did not correspond with pollution threats from population density and point and non-point sources, but did correspond with storm event occurrence. Caffeine concentrations in rivers and estuaries draining to the coast ranged from below the reporting limit to 152.2 ng/L. This study establishes the occurrence of caffeine in Oregon's coastal waters, yet relative importance of sources, seasonal variability, and processes affecting caffeine transport into the coastal ocean require further research.

  4. The effect of marine isoprene emissions on secondary organic aerosol and ozone formation in the coastal United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gantt, Brett; Meskhidze, Nicholas; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    The impact of marine isoprene emissions on summertime surface concentrations of isoprene, secondary organic aerosols (SOA), and ozone (O 3) in the coastal areas of the continental United States is studied using the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency regional-scale Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system. Marine isoprene emission rates are based on the following five parameters: laboratory measurements of isoprene production from phytoplankton under a range of light conditions, remotely-sensed chlorophyll- a concentration ([Chl- a]), incoming solar radiation, surface wind speed, and sea-water optical properties. Model simulations show that marine isoprene emissions are sensitive to meteorology and ocean ecosystem productivity, with the highest rates simulated over the Gulf of Mexico. Simulated offshore surface layer marine isoprene concentration is less than 10 ppt and significantly dwarfed by terrestrial emissions over the continental United States. With the isoprene reactions included in this study, the average contribution of marine isoprene to SOA and O 3 concentrations is predicted to be small, up to 0.004 μg m -3 for SOA and 0.2 ppb for O 3 in coastal urban areas. The light-sensitivity of isoprene production from phytoplankton results in a midday maximum for marine isoprene emissions and a corresponding daytime increase in isoprene and O 3 concentrations in coastal locations. The potential impact of the daily variability in [Chl- a] on O 3 and SOA concentrations is simulated in a sensitivity study with [Chl- a] increased and decreased by a factor of five. Our results indicate that marine emissions of isoprene cause minor changes to coastal SOA and O 3 concentrations. Comparison of model simulations with few available measurements shows that the model underestimates marine boundary layer isoprene concentration. This underestimation is likely due to the limitations in current treatment of marine isoprene emission and a coarse spatial

  5. Remote sensing in the coastal and marine environment. Proceedings of the US North Atlantic Regional Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaitzeff, J. B. (Editor); Cornillon, P. (Editor); Aubrey, D. A. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    Presentations were grouped in the following categories: (1) a technical orientation of Earth resources remote sensing including data sources and processing; (2) a review of the present status of remote sensing technology applicable to the coastal and marine environment; (3) a description of data and information needs of selected coastal and marine activities; and (4) an outline of plans for marine monitoring systems for the east coast and a concept for an east coast remote sensing facility. Also discussed were user needs and remote sensing potentials in the areas of coastal processes and management, commercial and recreational fisheries, and marine physical processes.

  6. Is the Coastal Ocean a Source of Mercury to Marine Advective Fog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heim, W. A.; Weiss-Penzias, P. S.; Fernandez, D.; Byington, A.; Bonnema, A.; Beebe, C.; Chiswell, H.; Olson, A.; Coale, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    Marine advective fog is a common feature along the California coast during the summer season. This fog provides an important water source to many endemic fauna and flora. Studies are underway to better understand the chemical makeup of Pacific marine fog as it is an important input to the hydrologic cycle. We report results from our study focused on investigating the potential for coastal ocean upwelling to contribute volatile organic mercury to the overlying atmosphere where it could be incorporated into cloud droplets as monomethyl mercury (MMHg). Preliminary research by this group has indicated that fog water inputs to certain coastal locations may contribute up to 99% of the MMHg flux to land compared to the MMHg flux in rain. Mercury measurements, including total mercury (Hgt), MMHg, elemental mercury (Hg0), and dimethyl mercury (DMHg), were made to unfiltered water collected from depth profiles at 12 stations from Big Sur to Trinidad Head over the California shelf during summer 2014. Profiles of Hgt ranged from 0.3-2.4 pM and were similar to other reported measurements of Hgt for the North Pacific. A large range in concentration was observed for MMHg (10-540 fM) with elevated values generally occurring below the oxycline (>50m). Concentrations of Hg0 were 0.06 to 0.57 pM with elevated concentrations at depth relative to surface values. Depth profiles of DMHg were similar to MMHg and concentrations were measured from 10-295 fM with highest concentrations observed below the oxycline. Surface concentrations of DMHg averaged 40 ± 22 fM. Given the observed profiles for DMHg and the fact that it is sparingly soluble in water, a net flux of DMHg to the atmosphere is likely occurring. Based on these findings and the fact that MMHg and DMHg concentrations in the coastal ocean were highest in the low oxygen zone, we speculate that mercury is methylated in the water column and/or sediments as DMHg and that this water is upwelled seasonally in the coastal zones and

  7. Accumulation of radionuclides in selected marine biota from Manjung coastal area

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, Anisa Hamzah, Zaini; Wood, Ab. Khalik; Saat, Ahmad; Alias, Masitah

    2015-04-29

    Distribution of radionuclides from anthropogenic activities has been intensively studied due to the accumulation of radionuclides in marine ecosystem. Manjung area is affected by rapid population growth and socio-economic development such as heavy industrial activities including coal fired power plant, iron foundries, port development and factories, agricultural runoff, waste and toxic discharge from factories.It has radiological risk and toxic effect when effluent from the industries in the area containing radioactive materials either being transported to the atmosphere and deposited back over the land or by run off to the river and flow into coastal area and being absorbed by marine biota. Radionuclides presence in the marine ecosystem can be adversely affect human health when it enters the food chain. This study is focusing on the radionuclides [thorium (Th), uranium (U), radium-226 ({sup 226}Ra), radium-228 ({sup 228}Ra) and potassium-40 ({sup 40}K)] content in marine biota and sea water from Manjung coastal area. Five species of marine biota including Johnius dussumieri (Ikan Gelama), Pseudorhombus malayanus (Ikan Sebelah), Arius maculatus (Ikan Duri), Portunus pelagicus (Ketam Renjong) and Charybdis natator (Ketam Salib) were collected during rainy and dry seasons. Measurements were carried out using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICPMS). The results show that the concentration of radionuclides varies depends on ecological environment of respective marine biota species. The concentrations and activity concentrations are used for the assessment of potential internal hazard index (H{sub in}), transfer factor (TF), ingestion dose rate (D) and health risk index (HRI) to monitor radiological risk for human consumption.

  8. The role of coastal fog in increased viability of marine microbial aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueker, M.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Weathers, K. C.; Juhl, A. R.; Uriarte, M.

    2011-12-01

    Microbes in the atmosphere (microbial aerosols) play an important role in climate and provide an ecological and biogeochemical connection between oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial environments. Despite the ubiquity of these bacteria (concentration estimates range from 1 x 10^4 to 6 x 10^5 cells m-3), much is still being learned about their source, viability, and interactions with climatic controls. They can be attached to ambient aerosol particles or exist singly in the air. They affect climate by serving as ice, cloud, and fog nucleators, and have the metabolic potential to alter atmospheric chemistry. Fog presence in particular has been shown to greatly increase the deposition of viable microbial aerosols in both urban and coastal environments, but the mechanisms behind this are not fully understood. To address this gap, we examined the diversity of culturable microbial aerosols from a relatively pristine coastal environment in Maine (USA) and determined the effect of fog presence on viability and community composition of microbial aerosols. 16S rRNA sequencing of culturable ocean surface bacteria and depositing microbial aerosols (under clear and foggy conditions) resulted in the detection of 31 bacterial genera, with 5 dominant genera (Vibrio, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, Salinibacterium) making up 66% of all sequences. Seventy-five percent of the viable microbial aerosols falling out under foggy conditions were most similar to GenBank-published sequences detected in marine environments. The fog and ocean surface sequence libraries were significantly more similar in microbial community composition than clear (non-foggy) and ocean surface libraries. These findings support a dual role for fog in enhancing the fallout of viable marine microbial aerosols via increased gravitational settling rates and decreased aerosolization stress on the organisms. The dominant presence of marine bacteria in coastal microbial aerosols provides a strong case for

  9. Freshwater and Nutrient Fluxes to Coastal Waters of Everglades National Park - A Synthesis

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McPherson, Benjamin F.; Torres, Arturo E.

    2006-01-01

    Freshwater in the Everglades and the Big Cypress Swamp drains south and southwest into coastal regions where it mixes with seawater to create the salinity gradients characteristic of productive estuarine and marine systems. Studies in Florida Bay have shown that over the last 100-200 years, salinity and seagrass distributions have fluctuated substantially in response to natural climatic cycles. The timing of this change coincides at least in part with the canal construction and landscape alterations in the Everglades that have altered the quantity, timing, distribution, and quality of surface water that flows south into the coastal waters. Federal and State agencies have undertaken a massive Everglades restoration project that will require changes in water management throughout the Everglades, and this will affect water flows to the coastal region. A major concern involves how changes in water flow could affect salinity and nutrient availability in coastal waters.

  10. Bubble Stripping as a Tool to Reduce High Dissolved CO2 in Coastal Marine Ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koweek, D.; Mucciarone, D. A.; Dunbar, R. B.

    2016-02-01

    High dissolved CO2 concentrations in coastal ecosystems are a common occurrence due to a combination of large ecosystem metabolism and long residence times. Many of the socially, commercially, and recreationally important species may have adapted to this natural variability over time. However, eutrophication and ocean acidification may be perturbing the water chemistry beyond the bounds of tolerance for these organisms. We are currently limited in our ability to deal with the geochemical changes unfolding in our coastal ocean. This study helps to address this deficit of solutions by introducing bubble stripping as a novel geochemical engineering approach to reducing high CO2 in coastal marine ecosystems. We use an empirically validated numerical model to find that air/sea gas exchange rates within a bubbled system are 1-2 orders of magnitude higher than within a non-bubbled system. By coupling bubbling-enhanced ventilation to a coastal ecosystem metabolism model, we demonstrate that strategically timed bubble plumes can mitigate exposure to high CO2 under present-day conditions and that exposure mitigation is enhanced in the more acidic conditions predicted by the end of the century. The Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change emphasizes the need to both adapt to and mitigate the effects of climate change and ocean acidification. We believe shallow water bubble stripping could be one approach for reducing high CO2 conditions in coastal ecosystems and should be added to the growing list of engineering approaches intended to increase coastal resilience in a changing ocean.

  11. Extraintestinal Escherichia coli carrying virulence genes in coastal marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Luna, G M; Vignaroli, C; Rinaldi, C; Pusceddu, A; Nicoletti, L; Gabellini, M; Danovaro, R; Biavasco, F

    2010-09-01

    Despite the recognized potential of long-term survival or even growth of fecal indicators bacteria (FIB) in marine sediments, this compartment is largely ignored by health protection authorities. We conducted a large-scale study over approximately 50 km of the Marche coasts (Adriatic Sea) at depths ranging from 2 to 5 m. Total and fecal coliforms (FC) were counted by culture-based methods. Escherichia coli was also quantified using fluorescence in situ hybridization targeting specific 16S rRNA sequences, which yielded significantly higher abundances than culture-based methods, suggesting the potential importance of viable but nonculturable E. coli cells. Fecal coliforms displayed high abundances at most sites and showed a prevalence of E. coli. FC isolates (n = 113) were identified by API 20E, additional biochemical tests, and internal transcribed spacer-PCR. E. coli strains, representing 96% of isolates, were then characterized for genomic relatedness and phylogenetic group (A, B1, B2, and D) of origin by randomly amplified polymorphic DNA and multiplex-PCR. The results indicated that E. coli displayed a wide genotypic diversity, also among isolates from the same station, and that 44 of the 109 E. coli isolates belonged to groups B2 and D. Further characterization of B2 and D isolates for the presence of 11 virulence factor genes (pap, sfa/foc, afa, eaeA, ibeA, traT, hlyA, stx(1), stx(2), aer, and fyuA) showed that 90% of B2 and 65% of D isolates were positive for at least one of these. Most of the variance of both E. coli abundance and assemblage composition (>62%) was explained by a combination of physical-chemical and trophic variables. These findings indicate that coastal sediments could represent a potential reservoir for commensal and pathogenic E. coli and that E. coli distribution in marine coastal sediments largely depends upon the physical and trophic status of the sediment. We conclude that future sampling designs aimed at monitoring the microbiological

  12. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and polychlorinated biphenyls in a marine foodweb of coastal Florida.

    PubMed

    Johnson-Restrepo, Boris; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Addink, Rudolf; Adams, Douglas H

    2005-11-01

    Nine species of marine fish, including teleost fishes, sharks, and stingrays, and two species of marine mammals (dolphins) collected from Florida coastal waters were analyzed for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) to evaluate biomagnification factors (BMF) of these contaminants in a coastal foodweb. In addition, bottlenose dolphins and bull sharks collected from the Florida coast during the 1990s and the 2000s were analyzed for evaluation of temporal trends in PBDE and PCB levels in coastal ecosystems. Mean concentrations of PBDEs in muscle tissues of teleost fishes ranged from 8.0 ng/g, lipid wt (in silver perch), to 88 ng/g, lipid wt (in hardhead catfish), with an overall mean concentration of 43 +/- 30 ng/g, lipid wt. Mean concentrations of PBDEs in muscle of sharks ranged from 37.8 ng/g, lipid wt, in spiny dogfish to 1630 ng/g, lipid wt, in bull sharks. Mean concentrations of PBDEs in the blubber of bottlenose dolphins and striped dolphins were 1190 +/- 1580 and 660 ng/g, lipid wt, respectively. Tetra-BDE 47 (2,2',4,4'-) was the major congener detected in teleost fishes and dolphin samples, followed by BDE-99, BDE-153, BDE-100, and BDE-154. In contrast, BDE-209 was the most abundant congener in sharks. Concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs in dolphins and sharks were 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than those in lower trophic-level fish species, indicating biomagnification of both of these contaminants in the marine foodweb. Based on the analysis of sharks and dolphins collected over a 10-year period, an exponential increase in the concentrations of PBDEs and PCBs has occurred in these marine predators. The doubling time of PBDE and PCB concentrations was estimated to be 2-3 years for bull sharks and 3-4 years for bottlenose dolphin.

  13. The epipelagic fish community of Beaufort Sea coastal waters, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarvela, L.E.; Thorsteinson, L.K.

    1999-01-01

    A three-year study of epipelagic fishes inhabiting Beaufort Sea coastal waters in Alaska documented spatial and temporal patterns in fish distribution and abundance and examined their relationships to thermohaline features during summer. Significant interannual, seasonal, and geographical differences in surface water temperatures and salinities were observed. In 1990, sea ice was absent and marine conditions prevailed, whereas in 1988 and 1991, heavy pack ice was present and the dissolution of the brackish water mass along the coast proceeded more slowly. Arctic cod, capelin, and liparids were the most abundant marine fishes in the catches, while arctic cisco was the only abundant diadromous freshwater species. Age-0 arctic cod were exceptionally abundant and large in 1990, while age-0 capelin dominated in the other years. The alternating numerical dominances of arctic cod and age-0 capelin may represent differing species' responses to wind-driven oceanographic processes affecting growth and survival. The only captures of age-0 arctic cisco occurred during 1990. Catch patterns indicate they use a broad coastal migratory corridor and tolerate high salinities. As in the oceanographic data, geographical anti temporal patterns were apparent in the fish catch data, but in most cases these patterns were not statistically testable because of excessive zero catches. The negative binomial distribution appeared to be a suitable statistical descriptor of the aggregated catch patterns for the more common species.

  14. North Carolina Marine Education Manual. Connections: Guide to Marine Resources, Living Marine Systems and Coastal Field Trips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, L.; Medlicott, J.

    This collection of teaching and resource materials is designed to help middle school teachers put marine perspectives into their lessons. Materials are organized into three parts. Part 1 describes the preparation and maintenance of brackish water aquariums, marine aquariums, and touch tanks. Activities related to and sources of information on…

  15. Navigating transformations in governance of Chilean marine coastal resources.

    PubMed

    Gelcich, Stefan; Hughes, Terry P; Olsson, Per; Folke, Carl; Defeo, Omar; Fernández, Miriam; Foale, Simon; Gunderson, Lance H; Rodríguez-Sickert, Carlos; Scheffer, Marten; Steneck, Robert S; Castilla, Juan C

    2010-09-28

    Marine ecosystems are in decline. New transformational changes in governance are urgently required to cope with overfishing, pollution, global changes, and other drivers of degradation. Here we explore social, political, and ecological aspects of a transformation in governance of Chile's coastal marine resources, from 1980 to today. Critical elements in the initial preparatory phase of the transformation were (i) recognition of the depletion of resource stocks, (ii) scientific knowledge on the ecology and resilience of targeted species and their role in ecosystem dynamics, and (iii) demonstration-scale experimental trials, building on smaller-scale scientific experiments, which identified new management pathways. The trials improved cooperation among scientists and fishers, integrating knowledge and establishing trust. Political turbulence and resource stock collapse provided a window of opportunity that triggered the transformation, supported by new enabling legislation. Essential elements to navigate this transformation were the ability to network knowledge from the local level to influence the decision-making processes at the national level, and a preexisting social network of fishers that provided political leverage through a national confederation of artisanal fishing collectives. The resultant governance scheme includes a revolutionary national system of marine tenure that allocates user rights and responsibilities to fisher collectives. Although fine tuning is necessary to build resilience of this new regime, this transformation has improved the sustainability of the interconnected social-ecological system. Our analysis of how this transformation unfolded provides insights into how the Chilean system could be further developed and identifies generalized pathways for improved governance of marine resources around the world.

  16. Navigating transformations in governance of Chilean marine coastal resources

    PubMed Central

    Gelcich, Stefan; Hughes, Terry P.; Olsson, Per; Folke, Carl; Defeo, Omar; Fernández, Miriam; Foale, Simon; Gunderson, Lance H.; Rodríguez-Sickert, Carlos; Scheffer, Marten; Steneck, Robert S.; Castilla, Juan C.

    2010-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are in decline. New transformational changes in governance are urgently required to cope with overfishing, pollution, global changes, and other drivers of degradation. Here we explore social, political, and ecological aspects of a transformation in governance of Chile's coastal marine resources, from 1980 to today. Critical elements in the initial preparatory phase of the transformation were (i) recognition of the depletion of resource stocks, (ii) scientific knowledge on the ecology and resilience of targeted species and their role in ecosystem dynamics, and (iii) demonstration-scale experimental trials, building on smaller-scale scientific experiments, which identified new management pathways. The trials improved cooperation among scientists and fishers, integrating knowledge and establishing trust. Political turbulence and resource stock collapse provided a window of opportunity that triggered the transformation, supported by new enabling legislation. Essential elements to navigate this transformation were the ability to network knowledge from the local level to influence the decision-making processes at the national level, and a preexisting social network of fishers that provided political leverage through a national confederation of artisanal fishing collectives. The resultant governance scheme includes a revolutionary national system of marine tenure that allocates user rights and responsibilities to fisher collectives. Although fine tuning is necessary to build resilience of this new regime, this transformation has improved the sustainability of the interconnected social–ecological system. Our analysis of how this transformation unfolded provides insights into how the Chilean system could be further developed and identifies generalized pathways for improved governance of marine resources around the world. PMID:20837530

  17. Air-Water Gas Transfer in Coastal Waters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-07

    OBJECTIVES In interdisciplinary field experiments the influence of wind forcing, short wind waves, and surfactants on the air-sea gas transfer in coastal...Physicochemical surface conditions ranged from coastal waters with high surfactant concentrations to very clean, deep blue waters close to the Bermuda islands...research project are only the beginning of a new interdisciplinary research area that merges chemistry , applied optics, fluid mechanics, and image

  18. Downscaling and extrapolating dynamic seasonal marine forecasts for coastal ocean users

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanhatalo, Jarno; Hobday, Alistair J.; Little, L. Richard; Spillman, Claire M.

    2016-04-01

    Marine weather and climate forecasts are essential in planning strategies and activities on a range of temporal and spatial scales. However, seasonal dynamical forecast models, that provide forecasts in monthly scale, often have low offshore resolution and limited information for inshore coastal areas. Hence, there is increasing demand for methods capable of fine scale seasonal forecasts covering coastal waters. Here, we have developed a method to combine observational data with dynamical forecasts from POAMA (Predictive Ocean Atmosphere Model for Australia; Australian Bureau of Meteorology) in order to produce seasonal downscaled, corrected forecasts, extrapolated to include inshore regions that POAMA does not cover. We demonstrate the method in forecasting the monthly sea surface temperature anomalies in the Great Australian Bight (GAB) region. The resolution of POAMA in the GAB is approximately 2° × 1° (lon. × lat.) and the resolution of our downscaled forecast is approximately 1° × 0.25°. We use data and model hindcasts for the period 1994-2010 for forecast validation. The predictive performance of our statistical downscaling model improves on the original POAMA forecast. Additionally, this statistical downscaling model extrapolates forecasts to coastal regions not covered by POAMA and its forecasts are probabilistic which allows straightforward assessment of uncertainty in downscaling and prediction. A range of marine users will benefit from access to downscaled and nearshore forecasts at seasonal timescales.

  19. Changes in the water quality conditions of Kuwait's marine waters: Long term impacts of nutrient enrichment.

    PubMed

    Devlin, M J; Massoud, M S; Hamid, S A; Al-Zaidan, A; Al-Sarawi, H; Al-Enezi, M; Al-Ghofran, L; Smith, A J; Barry, J; Stentiford, G D; Morris, S; da Silva, E T; Lyons, B P

    2015-11-30

    This work analyses a 30 year water quality data set collated from chemical analyses of Kuwait's marine waters. Spatial patterns across six sites in Kuwait Bay and seven sites located in the Arabian Gulf are explored and discussed in terms of the changing influences associated with point and diffuse sources. Statistical modelling demonstrated significant increases for dissolved nutrients over the time period. Kuwait marine waters have been subject to inputs from urban development, untreated sewage discharges and decreasing river flow from the Shatt al-Arab River. Chlorophyll biomass showed a small but significant reduction; the high sewage content of the coastal waters from sewage discharges likely favouring the presence of smaller phytoplankton taxa. This detailed assessment of temporal data of the impacts of sewage inputs into Kuwait's coastal waters establishes an important baseline permitting future assessments to be made as sewage is upgraded, and the river continues to be extracted upstream.

  20. 75 FR 5765 - NOAA Coastal and Marine Habitat Restoration Project Supplemental Funding

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-04

    ... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration RIN 0648-ZC05 NOAA Coastal and Marine Habitat Restoration... Marine Habitat Restoration Projects. SUMMARY: The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) publishes this... were set aside specifically to manage and mitigate risks to the original habitat restoration...

  1. Resilience to climate change in coastal marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Joanna R; Leslie, Heather M

    2013-01-01

    Ecological resilience to climate change is a combination of resistance to increasingly frequent and severe disturbances, capacity for recovery and self-organization, and ability to adapt to new conditions. Here, we focus on three broad categories of ecological properties that underlie resilience: diversity, connectivity, and adaptive capacity. Diversity increases the variety of responses to disturbance and the likelihood that species can compensate for one another. Connectivity among species, populations, and ecosystems enhances capacity for recovery by providing sources of propagules, nutrients, and biological legacies. Adaptive capacity includes a combination of phenotypic plasticity, species range shifts, and microevolution. We discuss empirical evidence for how these ecological and evolutionary mechanisms contribute to the resilience of coastal marine ecosystems following climate change-related disturbances, and how resource managers can apply this information to sustain these systems and the ecosystem services they provide.

  2. Marine reserves help coastal ecosystems cope with extreme weather.

    PubMed

    Olds, Andrew D; Pitt, Kylie A; Maxwell, Paul S; Babcock, Russell C; Rissik, David; Connolly, Rod M

    2014-10-01

    Natural ecosystems have experienced widespread degradation due to human activities. Consequently, enhancing resilience has become a primary objective for conservation. Nature reserves are a favored management tool, but we need clearer empirical tests of whether they can impart resilience. Catastrophic flooding in early 2011 impacted coastal ecosystems across eastern Australia. We demonstrate that marine reserves enhanced the capacity of coral reefs to withstand flood impacts. Reserve reefs resisted the impact of perturbation, whilst fished reefs did not. Changes on fished reefs were correlated with the magnitude of flood impact, whereas variation on reserve reefs was related to ecological variables. Herbivory and coral recruitment are critical ecological processes that underpin reef resilience, and were greater in reserves and further enhanced on reserve reefs near mangroves. The capacity of reserves to mitigate external disturbances and promote ecological resilience will be critical to resisting an increased frequency of climate-related disturbance. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. A coastal and marine digital library at USGS

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lightsom, Fran

    2003-01-01

    The Marine Realms Information Bank (MRIB) is a distributed geolibrary [NRC, 1999] from the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), whose purpose is to classify, integrate, and facilitate access to Earth systems science information about ocean, lake, and coastal environments. Core MRIB services are: (1) the search and display of information holdings by place and subject, and (2) linking of information assets that exist in remote physical locations. The design of the MRIB features a classification system to integrate information from remotely maintained sources. This centralized catalogue organizes information using 12 criteria: locations, geologic time, physiographic features, biota, disciplines, research methods, hot topics, project names, agency names, authors, content type, and file type. For many of these fields, MRIB has developed classification hierarchies.

  4. Baseline hydrocarbon levels in New Zealand coastal and marine avifauna.

    PubMed

    McConnell, H M; Gartrell, B D; Chilvers, B L; Finlayson, S T; Bridgen, P C E; Morgan, K J

    2015-05-15

    The external effects of oil on wildlife can be obvious and acute. Internal effects are more difficult to detect and can occur without any external signs. To quantify internal effects from oil ingestion by wildlife during an oil spill, baseline levels of ubiquitous hydrocarbon fractions, like polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), need to be established. With these baseline values the extent of impact from exposure during a spill can be determined. This research represents the first investigation of baseline levels for 22 PAHs in New Zealand coastal and marine avian wildlife. Eighty-five liver samples were tested from 18 species. PAHs were identified in 98% of livers sampled with concentrations ranging from 0 to 1341.6 ng/g lipid wt or on wet wt basis, 0 to 29.5 ng/g. Overall, concentrations were low relative to other globally reported avian values. PAH concentration variability was linked with species foraging habitat and migratory patterns.

  5. The effects of precipitation, river discharge, land use and coastal circulation on water quality in coastal Maine

    PubMed Central

    Tilburg, Charles E.; Jordan, Linda M.; Carlson, Amy E.; Zeeman, Stephan I.; Yund, Philip O.

    2015-01-01

    Faecal pollution in stormwater, wastewater and direct run-off can carry zoonotic pathogens to streams, rivers and the ocean, reduce water quality, and affect both recreational and commercial fishing areas of the coastal ocean. Typically, the closure of beaches and commercial fishing areas is governed by the testing for the presence of faecal bacteria, which requires an 18–24 h period for sample incubation. As water quality can change during this testing period, the need for accurate and timely predictions of coastal water quality has become acute. In this study, we: (i) examine the relationship between water quality, precipitation and river discharge at several locations within the Gulf of Maine, and (ii) use multiple linear regression models based on readily obtainable hydrometeorological measurements to predict water quality events at five coastal locations. Analysis of a 12 year dataset revealed that high river discharge and/or precipitation events can lead to reduced water quality; however, the use of only these two parameters to predict water quality can result in a number of errors. Analysis of a higher frequency, 2 year study using multiple linear regression models revealed that precipitation, salinity, river discharge, winds, seasonality and coastal circulation correlate with variations in water quality. Although there has been extensive development of regression models for freshwater, this is one of the first attempts to create a mechanistic model to predict water quality in coastal marine waters. Model performance is similar to that of efforts in other regions, which have incorporated models into water resource managers' decisions, indicating that the use of a mechanistic model in coastal Maine is feasible. PMID:26587258

  6. The effects of precipitation, river discharge, land use and coastal circulation on water quality in coastal Maine.

    PubMed

    Tilburg, Charles E; Jordan, Linda M; Carlson, Amy E; Zeeman, Stephan I; Yund, Philip O

    2015-07-01

    Faecal pollution in stormwater, wastewater and direct run-off can carry zoonotic pathogens to streams, rivers and the ocean, reduce water quality, and affect both recreational and commercial fishing areas of the coastal ocean. Typically, the closure of beaches and commercial fishing areas is governed by the testing for the presence of faecal bacteria, which requires an 18-24 h period for sample incubation. As water quality can change during this testing period, the need for accurate and timely predictions of coastal water quality has become acute. In this study, we: (i) examine the relationship between water quality, precipitation and river discharge at several locations within the Gulf of Maine, and (ii) use multiple linear regression models based on readily obtainable hydrometeorological measurements to predict water quality events at five coastal locations. Analysis of a 12 year dataset revealed that high river discharge and/or precipitation events can lead to reduced water quality; however, the use of only these two parameters to predict water quality can result in a number of errors. Analysis of a higher frequency, 2 year study using multiple linear regression models revealed that precipitation, salinity, river discharge, winds, seasonality and coastal circulation correlate with variations in water quality. Although there has been extensive development of regression models for freshwater, this is one of the first attempts to create a mechanistic model to predict water quality in coastal marine waters. Model performance is similar to that of efforts in other regions, which have incorporated models into water resource managers' decisions, indicating that the use of a mechanistic model in coastal Maine is feasible.

  7. Sources, impacts and trends of pharmaceuticals in the marine and coastal environment

    PubMed Central

    Gaw, Sally; Thomas, Kevin V.; Hutchinson, Thomas H.

    2014-01-01

    There has been a significant investment in research to define exposures and potential hazards of pharmaceuticals in freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems. A substantial number of integrated environmental risk assessments have been developed in Europe, North America and many other regions for these situations. In contrast, comparatively few empirical studies have been conducted for human and veterinary pharmaceuticals that are likely to enter coastal and marine ecosystems. This is a critical knowledge gap given the significant increase in coastal human populations around the globe and the growth of coastal megacities, together with the increasing importance of coastal aquaculture around the world. There is increasing evidence that pharmaceuticals are present and are impacting on marine and coastal environments. This paper reviews the sources, impacts and concentrations of pharmaceuticals in marine and coastal environments to identify knowledge gaps and suggests focused case studies as a priority for future research. PMID:25405962

  8. Sources, impacts and trends of pharmaceuticals in the marine and coastal environment.

    PubMed

    Gaw, Sally; Thomas, Kevin V; Hutchinson, Thomas H

    2014-11-19

    There has been a significant investment in research to define exposures and potential hazards of pharmaceuticals in freshwater and terrestrial ecosystems. A substantial number of integrated environmental risk assessments have been developed in Europe, North America and many other regions for these situations. In contrast, comparatively few empirical studies have been conducted for human and veterinary pharmaceuticals that are likely to enter coastal and marine ecosystems. This is a critical knowledge gap given the significant increase in coastal human populations around the globe and the growth of coastal megacities, together with the increasing importance of coastal aquaculture around the world. There is increasing evidence that pharmaceuticals are present and are impacting on marine and coastal environments. This paper reviews the sources, impacts and concentrations of pharmaceuticals in marine and coastal environments to identify knowledge gaps and suggests focused case studies as a priority for future research.

  9. Studies of the DOM aqueous extracts from coastal marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakellariadou, F.

    2012-04-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) represents a major exchangeable organic pool playing an outstanding role in the ocean carbon cycle. It has a complex chemical structure made up of a wide range of organic molecules. The composition of DOM depends on the sources proximity and the exposure to any sort of degradation mechanism. The coloured (or chromophoric) dissolved organic matter (CDOM), representing the optically active fraction of DOM, consists of aromatic rings able to absorb light in the visible and UV regions (Kirk, 1994) and fluorophoric molecules that emit light. The main fluorophoric moieties of CDOM are humic material with a blue fluorescence and protein material with an ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence (Mopper and Schultz, 1993). Dissolved organic matter interacts with pollutants either by enhancing their bioavailability or by influencing their transportation to the soluble phase. In addition, DOM affects the remineralisation of carbon and its preservation in marine sediments. Referring to its origin, it can be terrestrial, freshwater or marine one. Fluorescence spectroscopy is a technique widely applied for the identification and characterization of organic matter, being fast, simple, non-destructive and sensitive. In addition, the fluorescence analysis for the physico-chemical characterization of organic matter requires a small amount of aqueous sample at a low concentration, in comparison with the large sample volumes needed for conventional techniques. At the present study coastal sediment samples were collected from Messiniakos gulf in the south western Peloponnese in South Greece. Messiniakos gulf has a seabed dominated by very abrupt inclinations reaching depths of more than 1000m. All samples, according to their grain size, are classified as fine clayey silt. Dissolved organic matter was extracted under gentle extraction conditions (4 mM CaCl2 solution). The various classes of organic components present at the DOM aqueous extracts were characterised by

  10. Floating Marine Debris in waters of the Mexican Central Pacific.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Torres, Evelyn R; Ortega-Ortiz, Christian D; Silva-Iñiguez, Lidia; Nene-Preciado, Alejandro; Orozco, Ernesto Torres

    2017-02-15

    The presence of marine debris has been reported recently in several oceans basins; there is very little information available for Mexican Pacific coasts, however. This research examined the composition, possible sources, distribution, and density of Floating Marine Debris (FMD) during nine research surveys conducted during 2010-2012 in the Mexican Central Pacific (MCP). Of 1820 floating objects recorded, 80% were plastic items. Sources of FMD were determined using key objects, which indicated that the most were related to the presence of the industrial harbor and of a growing fishing industry in the study area. Densities were relatively high, ranging from 40 to 2440objects/km(2); the highest densities were recorded in autumn. FMD were distributed near coastal regions, mainly in Jalisco, influenced by river outflow and surface currents. Our results seem to follow worldwide trends and highlight the need for further studies on potential ecological impacts within coastal waters of the MCP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Mapping Marine Macroalgae In Case 2 Waters Using CHRIS PROBA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhl, Florian; Oppelt, Natascha; Bartsch, Inka

    2013-12-01

    Marine macroalgae fulfil an important role in coastal ecosystems providing food and habitat for wildlife. The impacts of climate change and increasing human encroachment exert significant pressures on coastal ecosystems. Monitoring of marine macroalgae communities provides information on the state of habitats and their structural changes. At landscape scale airborne remote sensing became an acknowledged tool to monitor coastal vegetation; for an operational use of macroalgae mapping, however, satellite remote sensing has significant advantages. In this paper, we therefore analyse the performance of three approaches to assess sublitoral macroalgae communities in the turbid coastal waters around the island of Helgoland (North Sea, Germany) using CHRIS/Proba and EnMAP-like data. A Slope Based Index Classification, which has already been successfully applied in Helgolands intertidal zone during low tide, performed best; it was able to map the presence of sublitoral macroalgae with high accuracy (>80%) for both sensors. However successful detection of macroalgae was only achievable in water depths up to 2m.

  12. Scaling analysis of biogeochemical parameters in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zongo, Sylvie; Schmitt, François

    2010-05-01

    Monitoring data are very useful for rapidly providing quality controlled measurements of many environmental aquatic, and thus understanding the spatio-temporal structure which governs the dynamics. We consider here the long time biogeochemical time series from automatic continuous monitoring. These biogeochemical time series from in Eastern English Channel: coastal waters, estuarine waters and river waters. In the first analysis, we consider data from the MAREL system (Automatic monitoring network): MAREL Carnot buoy that is situated in the coastal waters of Boulogne-sur-mer with data from the Honfleur MAREL buoy (an estuarine station in the bay of Seine). Marel system is based on the deployment of data buoys having marine water analysis capabilities on an automated mode. It is equipped with high performance technologies for water analysis and real time data transmission and record many parameters at fixed locations: temperature, dissolved Oxygen (DO), pH, chlorophyll a (Chla), salinity with high frequency resolution (10 or 20 minutes). We consider also the data from Wimereux river off Boulogne-sur mer. Two sets of data were recorded in the river Wimereux in downstream and upstream using a temperature, dissolved oxygen, turbidity and salinity sensors. This monitoring provided an approach of spatial temporal functional dynamism, with these two zones: the first is represented by downstream related to hydrodynamic marine; the second is related to the upstream flow waters. All these time series reveal large fluctuations at many time scales. The large number of data provided by the sensors enables the estimation of Fourier spectral analysis, in order to consider the dominant frequencies associated to the dynamics. This shows the impact of turbulence and of the tidal cycle on the high variability of these parameters. These spectra show quite nice scaling regimes which are compared to the one of temperature, as a reference turbulent passive scalar.

  13. Integrating digital information for coastal and marine sciences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Marincioni, Fausto; Lightsom, Frances L.; Riall, Rebecca L.; Linck, Guthrie A.; Aldrich, Thomas C.; Caruso, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    A pilot distributed geolibrary, the Marine Realms Information Bank (MRIB), was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey Coastal and Marine Geology Program and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, to classify, integrate, and facilitate access to scientific information about oceans, coasts, and lakes. The MRIB is composed of a categorization scheme, a metadata database, and a specialized software backend, capable of drawing together information from remote sources without modifying their original format or content. Twelve facets are used to classify information: location, geologic time, feature type, biota, discipline, research method, hot topics, project, agency, author, content type, and file type. The MRIB approach allows easy and flexible organization of large or growing document collections for which centralized repositories would be impractical. Geographic searching based on the gazetteer and map interface is the centerpiece of the MRIB distributed geolibrary. The MRIB is one of a very few digital libraries that employ georeferencing -- a fundamentally different way to structure information from the traditional author/title/subject/keyword approach employed by most digital libraries. Lessons learned in developing the MRIB will be useful as other digital libraries confront the challenges of georeferencing.

  14. Bacterial diversity in oil-polluted marine coastal sediments.

    PubMed

    Acosta-González, Alejandro; Marqués, Silvia

    2016-04-01

    Marine environments harbour a persistent microbial seed which can be shaped by changes of the environmental conditions such as contamination by petroleum components. Oil spills, together with small but continuous discharges of oil from transportation and recreational activities, are important sources of hydrocarbon pollution within the marine realm. Consequently, prokaryotic communities have become well pre-adapted toward oil pollution, and many microorganisms that are exposed to its presence develop an active degradative response. The natural attenuation of oil pollutants, as has been demonstrated in many sites, is modulated according to the intrinsic environmental properties such as the availability of terminal electron acceptors and elemental nutrients, together with the degree of pollution and the type of hydrocarbon fractions present. Whilst dynamics in the bacterial communities in the aerobic zones of coastal sediments are well characterized and the key players in hydrocarbon biodegradation have been identified, the subtidal ecology of the anaerobic community is still not well understood. However, current data suggest common patterns of response in these ecosystems.

  15. The composition of nucleation and Aitken modes particles during coastal nucleation events: evidence for marine secondary organic contribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaattovaara, P.; Huttunen, P. E.; Yoon, Y. J.; Joutsensaari, J.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.; O'Dowd, C. D.; Laaksonen, A.

    2006-04-01

    being significant contributors to the nucleation mode processes, accelerate the growth of freshly nucleated particles and increase their survival probability to CCN and even larger radiatively active particle sizes. The results give new insights to the coastal/marine particle formation, growth, and properties. The marine biota driven secondary organic contributions to coastal/marine particle formation and composition can be anticipated in other species specific biologically active oceans and fresh-waters areas around the world and thus, they may be significant also to the global radiative bugdet, atmosphere-biosphere feedbacks, and climate change.

  16. Marine oil spill risk mapping for accidental pollution and its application in a coastal city.

    PubMed

    Lan, Dongdong; Liang, Bin; Bao, Chenguang; Ma, Minghui; Xu, Yan; Yu, Chunyan

    2015-07-15

    Accidental marine oil spill pollution can result in severe environmental, ecological, economic and other consequences. This paper discussed the model of Marine Oil Spill Risk Mapping (MOSRM), which was constructed as follows: (1) proposing a marine oil spill risk system based on the typical marine oil spill pollution accidents and prevailing risk theories; (2) identifying suitable indexes that are supported by quantitative sub-indexes; (3) constructing the risk measuring models according to the actual interactions between the factors in the risk system; and (4) assessing marine oil spill risk on coastal city scale with GIS to map the overall risk. The case study of accidental marine oil spill pollution in the coastal area of Dalian, China was used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the model. The coastal areas of Dalian were divided into three zones with risk degrees of high, medium, and low. And detailed countermeasures were proposed for specific risk zones.

  17. Water upwelling due to differential coastal heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chubarenko, I.; Demchenko, N.

    2009-04-01

    Day heating / night cooling in coastal zone of large water bodies causes a specific water-exchange between coastal and off-shore regions. Experiments in 5m-long laboratory tank with inclined 2m-portion of the bottom (A=0.1, water depth in deep part D=15-20 cm) are reported, demonstrating a structure of fields of temperature and water currents under conditions of heating from the surface. In shallow regions at the top of incline, water temperature rises faster, so that horizontal temperature gradient between top and deep parts of the tank is established in some tens of minutes. The shape of the horizontal temperature profile at the surface is self-similar, with nearly constant temperature difference between top and deep parts (for fixed heat flux and bottom slope). Off-shore transport of warmer coastal waters is established in near-surface layer, with maximum of the current not at the surface, but obviously (1-3 cm) below it. The return (on-shore) flow is formed immediately below the off-shore flow, with its thickness twice larger and the speed twice smaller than that of the on-shore flow. Maximum speed of the return flow is observed at the depth of about 0.4 D. Further down, no significant currents were registered. This two-layered basin-wide exchange causes water upwelling along the inclined portion of the bottom. Simple analytical model is developed in order to explain the observed results. Using several analytic expressions for the dependency of water temperature from depth, time and horizontal co-ordinate, we analyze the field of the horizontal pressure gradient. For logarithmic and linear vertical temperature profiles, the horizontal pressure gradient in the basin has its maximum at the depth of about 0.4 D, what is in full agreement with the laboratory experiments. Thus, an upwelling along the inclined part of the bottom is caused by the basin-wide exchange of convective nature, where the driving element is the on-shore flow, arising due to thermally

  18. Groundwater Modeling in Coastal Arid Regions Under the Influence of Marine Saltwater Intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, Marc; Kolditz, Olaf; Grundmann, Jens; Liedl, Rudolf

    2010-05-01

    The optimization of an aquifer's "safe yield", especially within agriculturally used regions, is one of the fundamental tasks for nowaday's groundwater management. Due to the limited water ressources in arid regions, conflict of interests arise that need to be evaluated using scenario analysis and multicriterial optimization approaches. In the context of the government-financed research project "International Water Research Alliance Saxony" (IWAS), the groundwater quality for near-coastal, agriculturally used areas is investigated under the influence of marine saltwater intrusion. Within the near-coastal areas of the study region, i.e. the Batinah plains of Northern Oman, an increasing agricultural development could be observed during the recent decades. Simultaneously, a constant lowering of the groundwater table was registered, which is primarily due to the uncontrolled and unsupervised mining of the aquifers for the local agricultural irrigation. Intensively decreased groundwater levels, however, cause an inversion of the hydraulic gradient which is naturally aligned towards the coast. This, in turn,leads to an intrusion of marine saltwater flowing inland, endangering the productivity of farms near the coast. Utilizing the modeling software package OpenGeoSys, which has been developed and constantly enhanced by the Department of Environmental Informatics at the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research Leipzig (UFZ; Kolditz et al., 2008), a three-dimensional, density-dependent model including groundwater flow and mass transport is currently being built up. The model, comprehending three selected coastal wadis of interest, shall be used to investigate different management scenarios. The main focus of the groundwater modelling are the optimization of well positions and pumping schemes as well as the coupling with a surface runoff model, which is also used for the determination of the groundwater recharge due to wadi runoff downstream of retention dams. Based on

  19. Pharmaceuticals, alkylphenols and pesticides in Mediterranean coastal waters: Results from a pilot survey using passive samplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munaron, Dominique; Tapie, Nathalie; Budzinski, Hélène; Andral, Bruno; Gonzalez, Jean-Louis

    2012-12-01

    21 pharmaceuticals, 6 alkylphenols and 27 hydrophilic pesticides and biocides were investigated using polar organic contaminant integrative samplers (POCIS) during a large-scale study of contamination of French Mediterranean coastal waters. Marine and transitional water-bodies, defined under the EU Water Framework Directive were monitored. Our results show that the French Mediterranean coastal waters were contaminated with a large range of emerging contaminants, detected at low concentrations during the summer season. Caffeine, carbamazepine, theophilline and terbutaline were detected with a detection frequency higher than 83% in the coastal waters sampled, 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-OP) and 4-nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO) were detected in all coastal waters sampled, and diuron, terbuthylazine, atrazine, irgarol and simazine were detected in more than 77% of samples. For pharmaceuticals, highest time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations were measured for caffeine and carbamazepine (32 and 12 ng L-1, respectively). For alkylphenols, highest TWA concentrations were measured for 4-nonylphenol mono-ethoxylate and 4-nonylphenol (41 and 33 ng L-1, respectively), and for herbicides and biocides, they were measured for diuron and irgarol (33 and 2.5 ng L-1, respectively). Except for Diana lagoon, lagoons and semi-enclosed bays were the most contaminated areas for herbicides and pharmaceuticals, whilst, for alkylphenols, levels of contamination were similar in lagoons and coastal waters. This study demonstrates the relevance and utility of POCIS as quantitative tool for measuring low concentrations of emerging contaminants in marine waters.

  20. Environmental control on aerobic methane oxidation in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinle, Lea; Maltby, Johanna; Engbersen, Nadine; Zopfi, Jakob; Bange, Hermann; Elvert, Marcus; Hinrichs, Kai-Uwe; Kock, Annette; Lehmann, Moritz; Treude, Tina; Niemann, Helge

    2016-04-01

    Large quantities of methane are produced in anoxic sediments of continental margins and may be liberated to the overlying water column, where some of it is consumed by aerobic methane oxidizing bacteria (MOB). Aerobic methane oxidation (MOx) in the water column is consequently the final sink for methane before its release to the atmosphere, where it acts as a potent greenhouse gas. In the context of the ocean's contribution to atmospheric methane, coastal seas are particularly important accounting >75% of global methane emission from marine systems. Coastal oceans are highly dynamic, in particular with regard to the variability of methane and oxygen concentrations as well as temperature and salinity, all of which are potential key environmental factors controlling MOx. To determine important environmental controls on the activity of MOBs in coastal seas, we conducted a two-year time-series study with measurements of physicochemical water column parameters, MOx activity and the composition of the MOB community in a coastal inlet in the Baltic Sea (Boknis Eck Time Series Station, Eckernförde Bay - E-Bay). In addition, we investigated the influence of temperature and oxygen on MOx during controlled laboratory experiments. In E-Bay, hypoxia developed in bottom waters towards the end of the stratification period. Constant methane liberation from sediments resulted in bottom water methane accumulations and supersaturation (with respect to the atmospheric equilibrium) in surface waters. Here, we will discuss the factors impacting MOx the most, which were (i) perturbations of the water column (ii) temperature and (iii) oxygen concentration. (i) Perturbations of the water column caused by storm events or seasonal mixing led to a decrease in MOx, probably caused by replacement of stagnant water with a high standing stock of MOB by 'new' waters with a lower abundance of methanotrophs. b) An increase in temperature generally led to higher MOx rates. c) Even though methane was

  1. Current status and future prospects for the assessment of marine and coastal ecosystem services: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Liquete, Camino; Piroddi, Chiara; Drakou, Evangelia G; Gurney, Leigh; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Charef, Aymen; Egoh, Benis

    2013-01-01

    Research on ecosystem services has grown exponentially during the last decade. Most of the studies have focused on assessing and mapping terrestrial ecosystem services highlighting a knowledge gap on marine and coastal ecosystem services (MCES) and an urgent need to assess them. We reviewed and summarized existing scientific literature related to MCES with the aim of extracting and classifying indicators used to assess and map them. We found 145 papers that specifically assessed marine and coastal ecosystem services from which we extracted 476 indicators. Food provision, in particular fisheries, was the most extensively analyzed MCES while water purification and coastal protection were the most frequently studied regulating and maintenance services. Also recreation and tourism under the cultural services was relatively well assessed. We highlight knowledge gaps regarding the availability of indicators that measure the capacity, flow or benefit derived from each ecosystem service. The majority of the case studies was found in mangroves and coastal wetlands and was mainly concentrated in Europe and North America. Our systematic review highlighted the need of an improved ecosystem service classification for marine and coastal systems, which is herein proposed with definitions and links to previous classifications. This review summarizes the state of available information related to ecosystem services associated with marine and coastal ecosystems. The cataloging of MCES indicators and the integrated classification of MCES provided in this paper establish a background that can facilitate the planning and integration of future assessments. The final goal is to establish a consistent structure and populate it with information able to support the implementation of biodiversity conservation policies.

  2. Current Status and Future Prospects for the Assessment of Marine and Coastal Ecosystem Services: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Liquete, Camino; Piroddi, Chiara; Drakou, Evangelia G.; Gurney, Leigh; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Charef, Aymen; Egoh, Benis

    2013-01-01

    Background Research on ecosystem services has grown exponentially during the last decade. Most of the studies have focused on assessing and mapping terrestrial ecosystem services highlighting a knowledge gap on marine and coastal ecosystem services (MCES) and an urgent need to assess them. Methodology/Principal Findings We reviewed and summarized existing scientific literature related to MCES with the aim of extracting and classifying indicators used to assess and map them. We found 145 papers that specifically assessed marine and coastal ecosystem services from which we extracted 476 indicators. Food provision, in particular fisheries, was the most extensively analyzed MCES while water purification and coastal protection were the most frequently studied regulating and maintenance services. Also recreation and tourism under the cultural services was relatively well assessed. We highlight knowledge gaps regarding the availability of indicators that measure the capacity, flow or benefit derived from each ecosystem service. The majority of the case studies was found in mangroves and coastal wetlands and was mainly concentrated in Europe and North America. Our systematic review highlighted the need of an improved ecosystem service classification for marine and coastal systems, which is herein proposed with definitions and links to previous classifications. Conclusions/Significance This review summarizes the state of available information related to ecosystem services associated with marine and coastal ecosystems. The cataloging of MCES indicators and the integrated classification of MCES provided in this paper establish a background that can facilitate the planning and integration of future assessments. The final goal is to establish a consistent structure and populate it with information able to support the implementation of biodiversity conservation policies. PMID:23844080

  3. Contributions of Participatory Modeling to Development and Support of Coastal and Marine Management Plans

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of participatory modeling- at various scales- to assist in developing shared visions, understanding the decision landscape, identifying and selecting management options, and monitoring outcomes will be explored in the context of coastal and marine planning, ecosystem ser...

  4. Contributions of Participatory Modeling to Development and Support of Coastal and Marine Management Plans

    EPA Science Inventory

    The role of participatory modeling- at various scales- to assist in developing shared visions, understanding the decision landscape, identifying and selecting management options, and monitoring outcomes will be explored in the context of coastal and marine planning, ecosystem ser...

  5. Using Lagrangian Coherent Structures to understand coastal water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fiorentino, L. A.; Olascoaga, M. J.; Reniers, A.; Feng, Z.; Beron-Vera, F. J.; MacMahan, J. H.

    2012-09-01

    The accumulation of pollutants near the shoreline can result in low quality coastal water with negative effects on human health. To understand the role of mixing by tidal flows in coastal water quality we study the nearshore Lagrangian circulation. Specifically, we reveal Lagrangian Coherent Structures (LCSs), i.e., distinguished material curves which shape global mixing patterns and thus act as skeletons of the Lagrangian circulation. This is done using the recently developed geodesic theory of transport barriers. Particular focus is placed on Hobie Beach, a recreational subtropical marine beach located in Virginia Key, Miami, Florida. According to studies of water quality, Hobie Beach is characterized by high microbial levels. Possible sources of pollution in Hobie Beach include human bather shedding, dog fecal matter, runoff, and sand efflux at high tides. Consistent with the patterns formed by satellite-tracked drifter trajectories, the LCSs extracted from simulated currents reveal a Lagrangian circulation favoring the retention near the shoreline of pollutants released along the shoreline, which can help explain the low quality water registered at Hobie Beach.

  6. Dispersal kernel estimation: A comparison of empirical and modelled particle dispersion in a coastal marine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hrycik, Janelle M.; Chassé, Joël; Ruddick, Barry R.; Taggart, Christopher T.

    2013-11-01

    Early life-stage dispersal influences recruitment and is of significance in explaining the distribution and connectivity of marine species. Motivations for quantifying dispersal range from biodiversity conservation to the design of marine reserves and the mitigation of species invasions. Here we compare estimates of real particle dispersion in a coastal marine environment with similar estimates provided by hydrodynamic modelling. We do so by using a system of magnetically attractive particles (MAPs) and a magnetic-collector array that provides measures of Lagrangian dispersion based on the time-integration of MAPs dispersing through the array. MAPs released as a point source in a coastal marine location dispersed through the collector array over a 5-7 d period. A virtual release and observed (real-time) environmental conditions were used in a high-resolution three-dimensional hydrodynamic model to estimate the dispersal of virtual particles (VPs). The number of MAPs captured throughout the collector array and the number of VPs that passed through each corresponding model location were enumerated and compared. Although VP dispersal reflected several aspects of the observed MAP dispersal, the comparisons demonstrated model sensitivity to the small-scale (random-walk) particle diffusivity parameter (Kp). The one-dimensional dispersal kernel for the MAPs had an e-folding scale estimate in the range of 5.19-11.44 km, while those from the model simulations were comparable at 1.89-6.52 km, and also demonstrated sensitivity to Kp. Variations among comparisons are related to the value of Kp used in modelling and are postulated to be related to MAP losses from the water column and (or) shear dispersion acting on the MAPs; a process that is constrained in the model. Our demonstration indicates a promising new way of 1) quantitatively and empirically estimating the dispersal kernel in aquatic systems, and 2) quantitatively assessing and (or) improving regional hydrodynamic

  7. Measuring mercury in coastal fog water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balcerak, Ernie

    2012-04-01

    Mercury, a heavy metal neurotoxin, accumulates in sea life, in some cases reaching levels that make seafood unsafe for humans to eat. How mercury gets into aquatic organisms is debated, but part of the pathway could include mercury carried in precipitation, including rain, snow, and fog. The contribution of mercury in fog water in particular is not well known, especially in foggy coastal areas such as coastal California. To learn more, Weiss-Penzias et al. measured total mercury and monomethyl mercury concentrations in fog water and rainwater samples taken from four locations around Monterey Bay, California, during spring and summer 2011. They found that the mean monomethyl mercury concentrations in their fog water samples were about 34 times higher than the mean concentrations in their rainwater samples. Therefore, the authors believe that fog is an important, previously unrecognized source of mercury to coastal ecosystems. They also explored potential sources of mercury, finding that biotically formed monomethyl mercury from oceanic upwelling may contribute to monomethyl mercury in fog. (Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1029/2011GL050324, 2012)

  8. USING SPARROW MODEL RESULTS TO ASSIST WITH COASTAL WATER ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Coastal Assessment (NCA) has proposed a national strategy for research and monitoring in support of coastal water assessment that involves three tiers: Problem Characterization (Tier 1), involving probabilistic surveys to document broad-scale response properties; D...

  9. USING SPARROW MODEL RESULTS TO ASSIST WITH COASTAL WATER ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Coastal Assessment (NCA) has proposed a national strategy for research and monitoring in support of coastal water assessment that involves three tiers: Problem Characterization (Tier 1), involving probabilistic surveys to document broad-scale response properties; D...

  10. 15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. 921.4... provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. (a... affecting the state's coastal zone, must be undertaken in a manner consistent to the maximum extent...

  11. 15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. 921.4... provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. (a... affecting the state's coastal zone, must be undertaken in a manner consistent to the maximum extent...

  12. 15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. 921.4... provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. (a... affecting the state's coastal zone, must be undertaken in a manner consistent to the maximum extent...

  13. 15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. 921.4... provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. (a... affecting the state's coastal zone, must be undertaken in a manner consistent to the maximum extent...

  14. 15 CFR 921.4 - Relationship to other provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. 921.4... provisions of the Coastal Zone Management Act, and to the Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act. (a... affecting the state's coastal zone, must be undertaken in a manner consistent to the maximum extent...

  15. Short-term degradation of terrestrial DOM in the coastal ocean: Implications for nutrient subsidies and marine microbial community structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliver, A. A.; Tank, S. E.; Kellogg, C.

    2015-12-01

    The export of riverine dissolved organic matter (DOM) to the coastal ocean provides an important link between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. The coastal temperate rainforests of British Columbia contain extensive freshwater networks that export significant amounts of water and DOM to the ocean, representing significant cross-system hydrologic and biogeochemical linkages. To better understand the importance of these linkages and implications for ecosystem structure and function, we used an experimental approach to investigate the role of microbial and photodegradation transformations of DOM exported from small coastal catchments to the marine environment. At two time periods (August 2014, March 2015), stream water from the outlets of two coastal watersheds was filtered (<0.2 μm), and treated with microbial inoculums from across a salinity gradient (i.e., freshwater, estuarine, and marine). Treatments were incubated in the ocean under light and dark conditions for 8 days. At 0, 3 and 8 days, samples were analyzed for DOC, TDN, DIN, and DON. Changes in DOM composition were determined with optical characterization techniques such as absorbance (SUVA, S, Sr) and fluorescence (EEM). Microbial community response was measured using cell counts and DNA/RNA amplicon sequencing to determine changes in bacterial abundance and community composition. General patterns indicated that microbial communities from the high salinity treatment (i.e. most marine) were the most effective at utilizing freshwater DOM, especially under light conditions. In some treatments, DOM appeared as a potential source of inorganic nitrogen with corresponding shifts in microbial community composition. Incubations using inoculum from low and mid salinity levels demonstrated smaller changes, indicating that DOM exported from these streams may not be extensively utilized until exposed to higher salinity environments further from stream outlets. These results suggest a role for terrestrial sourced

  16. Climate change impacts on U.S. coastal and marine ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scavia, Donald; Field, John C.; Boesch, Donald F.; Buddemeier, Robert W.; Burkett, Virginia; Cayan, Daniel R.; Fogarty, Michael; Harwell, Mark A.; Howarth, Robert W.; Mason, Curt; Reed, Denise J.; Royer, Thomas C.; Sallenger, Asbury H.; Titus, James G.

    2002-01-01

    Increases in concentrations of greenhouse gases projected for the 21st century are expected to lead to increased mean global air and ocean temperatures. The National Assessment of Potential Consequences of Climate Variability and Change (NAST 2001) was based on a series of regional and sector assessments. This paper is a summary of the coastal and marine resources sector review of potential impacts on shorelines, estuaries, coastal wetlands, coral reefs, and ocean margin ecosystems. The assessment considered the impacts of several key drivers of climate change: sea level change; alterations in precipitation patterns and subsequent delivery of freshwater, nutrients, and sediment; increased ocean temperature; alterations in circulation patterns; changes in frequency and intensity of coastal storms; and increased levels of atmospheric CO2. Increasing rates of sea-level rise and intensity and frequency of coastal storms and hurricanes over the next decades will increase threats to shorelines, wetlands, and coastal development. Estuarine productivity will change in response to alteration in the timing and amount of freshwater, nutrients, and sediment delivery. Higher water temperatures and changes in freshwater delivery will alter estuarine stratification, residence time, and eutrophication. Increased ocean temperatures are expected to increase coral bleaching and higher CO2 levels may reduce coral calcification, making it more difficult for corals to recover from other disturbances, and inhibiting poleward shifts. Ocean warming is expected to cause poleward shifts in the ranges of many other organisms, including commercial species, and these shifts may have secondary effects on their predators and prey. Although these potential impacts of climate change and variability will vary from system to system, it is important to recognize that they will be superimposed upon, and in many cases intensify, other ecosystem stresses (pollution, harvesting, habitat destruction

  17. Pathogenic Human Viruses in Coastal Waters

    PubMed Central

    Griffin, Dale W.; Donaldson, Kim A.; Paul, John H.; Rose, Joan B.

    2003-01-01

    This review addresses both historical and recent investigations into viral contamination of marine waters. With the relatively recent emergence of molecular biology-based assays, a number of investigations have shown that pathogenic viruses are prevalent in marine waters being impacted by sewage. Research has shown that this group of fecal-oral viral pathogens (enteroviruses, hepatitis A viruses, Norwalk viruses, reoviruses, adenoviruses, rotaviruses, etc.) can cause a broad range of asymptomatic to severe gastrointestinal, respiratory, and eye, nose, ear, and skin infections in people exposed through recreational use of the water. The viruses and the nucleic acid signature survive for an extended period in the marine environment. One of the primary concerns of public health officials is the relationship between the presence of pathogens and the recreational risk to human health in polluted marine environments. While a number of studies have attempted to address this issue, the relationship is still poorly understood. A contributing factor to our lack of progress in the field has been the lack of sensitive methods to detect the broad range of both bacterial and viral pathogens. The application of new and advanced molecular methods will continue to contribute to our current state of knowledge in this emerging and important field. PMID:12525429

  18. Pathogenic human viruses in coastal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffin, Dale W.; Donaldson, Kim A.; Paul, J.H.; Rose, Joan B.

    2003-01-01

    This review addresses both historical and recent investigations into viral contamination of marine waters. With the relatively recent emergence of molecular biology-based assays, a number of investigations have shown that pathogenic viruses are prevalent in marine waters being impacted by sewage. Research has shown that this group of fecal-oral viral pathogens (enteroviruses, hepatitis A viruses, Norwalk viruses, reoviruses, adenoviruses, rotaviruses, etc.) can cause a broad range of asymptomatic to severe gastrointestinal, respiratory, and eye, nose, ear, and skin infections in people exposed through recreational use of the water. The viruses and the nucleic acid signature survive for an extended period in the marine environment. One of the primary concerns of public health officials is the relationship between the presence of pathogens and the recreational risk to human health in polluted marine environments. While a number of studies have attempted to address this issue, the relationship is still poorly understood. A contributing factor to our lack of progress in the field has been the lack of sensitive methods to detect the broad range of both bacterial and viral pathogens. The application of new and advanced molecular methods will continue to contribute to our current state of knowledge in this emerging and

  19. Estimation of turbidity in coastal waters using satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulshreshtha, Anuj; Shanmugam, Palanisamy

    2016-05-01

    The assessment of water clarity of any regional water body is particularly important from ecological and water quality perspectives, especially in the regions which are highly influenced by sediment run-off and seasonal fluctuations in turbidity. The ocean colour remote sensing has played a significant role in monitoring the turbidity level in marine and inland water bodies. However, algorithms to accurately estimate the turbidity in such optically complex waters are scarce or limited by high level of uncertainty due to various issues. The present study proposes a simple, two band algorithm to estimate turbidity in both turbid and clear waters. It was found that the band ratio of remote sensing reflectance (Rrs(670)/Rrs(670)+Rrs(555)) represents the proxy of TSS (Total suspended sediment) and therefore, positively correlates to turbidity. The new algorithm is based on the assumption that light reflected in these two vital bands contains the essential information regarding the total suspended matter in the water column. The statistical results showed that the percent mean relative error between the predicted turbidity and the measured turbidity was within +/-20%. To further demonstrate the robustness of the present algorithm, the spatial grid contours for the measured and the predicted turbidity was generated for the month of January 2014, August 2013 and May 2012 for the coastal waters in Bay of Bengal (Point Calimere, located in the southeast coast of India). The close consistency between the predicted and measured turbidity spatial patterns revealed that the present algorithm can be applied with high confidence to predict turbidity in both coastal and inland waters.

  20. Coastal and Estuarine Waters: Light Behavior. Coastal and Estuarine Waters: Optical Sensors and Remote Sensing.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article summarizes the use of remote sensing techniques and technology to monitor coastal and estuarine waters. These waters are rich in mineral particles stirred up from the seabed by tides and waves and dissolved organic matter transported by rivers. The majority of the li...

  1. Coastal and Estuarine Waters: Light Behavior. Coastal and Estuarine Waters: Optical Sensors and Remote Sensing.

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article summarizes the use of remote sensing techniques and technology to monitor coastal and estuarine waters. These waters are rich in mineral particles stirred up from the seabed by tides and waves and dissolved organic matter transported by rivers. The majority of the li...

  2. Coastal water monitoring using a vertical profiler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong Guk; Seo, Seongbong; Park, Young-Gyu; Min, Hong Sik

    2017-04-01

    Using a profiler system, the Aqualog, composed of a moored wire and a carrier in which a CTD was installed, we have been monitoring coastal water in Korea since August 2016. With this monitoring system, we were able to observe rapid warming of surface water that resulted in large damage to fish farms. The profiles showed that the warming was associated with low salinity water due to the fresh water discharge from the Yangtze River. We also observed change in water properties due to a typhoon. Along the Korean coast there are many aquafarms, which are becoming more vulnerable to environmental change. With the data from the profiler we would be able to help the aquafarms to sustain.

  3. Coastal groundwater/surface-water interactions: a Great Lakes case study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neff, Brian P.; Haack, Sheridan K.; Rosenberry, Donald O.; Savino, Jacqueline F.; Lundstrom, Scott C.

    2006-01-01

    Key similarities exist between marine and Great Lakes coastal environments. Water and nutrient fluxes across lakebeds in the Great Lakes are influenced by seiche and wind set-up and set-down, analogous to tidal influence in marine settings. Groundwater/surface-water interactions also commonly involve a saline-fresh water interface, although in the Great-Lakes cases, it is groundwater that is commonly saline and surface water that is fresh. Evapotranspiration also affects nearshore hydrology in both settings. Interactions between groundwater and surface water have recently been identified as an important component of ecological processes in the Great Lakes. Water withdrawals and the reversal of the groundwater/surface water seepage gradient are also common to many coastal areas around the Great Lakes. As compared to surface water, regional groundwater that discharges to western Lake Erie from Michigan is highly mineralized. Studies conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey at Erie State Game Area in southeastern Michigan, describe groundwater flow dynamics and chemistry, shallow lake-water chemistry, and fish and invertebrate communities. Results presented here provide an overview of recent progress of ongoing interdisciplinary studies of Great Lakes nearshore systems and describe a conceptual model that identifies relations among geologic, hydrologic, chemical, and biological processes in the coastal habitats of Lake Erie. This conceptual model is based on analysis of hydraulic head in piezometers at the study site and chemical analysis of deep and shallow coastal groundwater.

  4. St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center's Core Archive Portal

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reich, Chris; Streubert, Matt; Dwyer, Brendan; Godbout, Meg; Muslic, Adis; Umberger, Dan

    2012-01-01

    This Web site contains information on rock cores archived at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC). Archived cores consist of 3- to 4-inch-diameter coral cores, 1- to 2-inch-diameter rock cores, and a few unlabeled loose coral and rock samples. This document - and specifically the archive Web site portal - is intended to be a 'living' document that will be updated continually as additional cores are collected and archived. This document may also contain future references and links to a catalog of sediment cores. Sediment cores will include vibracores, pushcores, and other loose sediment samples collected for research purposes. This document will: (1) serve as a database for locating core material currently archived at the USGS SPCMSC facility; (2) provide a protocol for entry of new core material into the archive system; and, (3) set the procedures necessary for checking out core material for scientific purposes. Core material may be loaned to other governmental agencies, academia, or non-governmental organizations at the discretion of the USGS SPCMSC curator.

  5. An integrated approach to manage coastal ecosystems and prevent marine pollution effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcelli, Marco; Bonamano, Simone; Carli, Filippo Maria; Giovacchini, Monica; Madonia, Alice; Mancini, Emanuele; Molino, Chiara; Piermattei, Viviana; Manfredi Frattarelli, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    This work focuses an integrated approach based on Sea-Use-Map (SUM), backed by a permanent monitoring system (C-CEMS-Civitavecchia Coastal Environmental Monitoring System). This tool supports the management of the marine coastal area, contributing substantially to ecosystem benefits evaluation and to minimize pollution impacts. Within the Blue Growth strategy, the protection of marine ecosystems is considered a priority for the sustainable growth of marine and maritime sectors. To face this issue, the European MSP and MSFD directives (2014/89/EU; 2008/56/EC) strongly promote the adoption of an ecosystem-based approach, paying particular attention to the support of monitoring networks that use L-TER (long-term ecological research) observations and integrate multi-disciplinary data sets. Although not largely used in Europe yet, the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI), developed in 1979 by NOAA (and promoted by IMO in 2010), can be considered an excellent example of ecosystem-based approach to reduce the environmental consequences of an oil spill event in a coastal area. SUM is an ecosystem oriented cartographic tool specifically designed to support the sustainable management of the coastal areas, such as the selection of the best sites for the introduction of new uses or the identification of the coastal areas subjected to potential impacts. It also enables a rapid evaluation of the benefits produced by marine areas as well as of their anthropogenic disturbance. SUM integrates C-CEMS dataset, geomorphological and ecological features and knowledge on the coastal and maritime space uses. The SUM appliance allowed to obtain relevant operational results in the Civitavecchia coastal area (Latium, Italy), characterized by high variability of marine and coastal environments, historical heritage and affected by the presence of a big harbour, relevant industrial infrastructures, and touristic features. In particular, the valuation of marine ecosystem services based on

  6. Ecological impacts of ocean acidification in coastal marine environments (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harley, C.; Crim, R.; Gooding, R.; Nienhuis, S.; Tang, E.

    2010-12-01

    Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations are driving rapid and potentially unprecedented reductions in pH and carbonate ion availability in coastal marine environments. This process, known as ocean acidification (OA), has far-reaching implications for the performance and survival of marine organisms, particularly those with calcified shells and skeletons. Here, we highlight the ways in which OA impacts plants and animals in a coastal benthic food web, with an emphasis on what we know and what we don’t know about the ways in which the responses of individual organisms will scale up to long-term changes in community structure. Our system of interest is the rocky shore benthic community that is broadly represented from Alaska through California. Ecologically important species include producers (micro- and macro-algae), grazers (urchins and gastropods), filter feeders (mussels), and predators (sea stars). Although the direct effects of OA on coastal phytoplankton and kelps remain poorly understood, it appears as though elevated CO2 will increase the doubling rate of benthic diatoms. Small changes in food supply, however, may pale in comparison to the direct effects of OA on heavily calcified grazers and filter feeders. Sea urchin and mussel growth are both reduced by increased CO2 in the lab, and decadal-scale reductions in pH are associated with reduced turban snail growth in the field. Although adult abalone growth appears to be unaffected by CO2, larval development is impaired and larval survival is significantly reduced in acidified conditions. In contrast to the negative effects of OA on heavily calcified herbivores and filter feeders, lightly calcified sea stars actually grow faster when CO2 is experimentally increased. The acidification-induced changes described here are likely to result in substantial shifts in the benthic ecosystem. Increasing predation pressure may further reduce the abundance of grazers and filter feeders that are already suffering

  7. Bioconcentration of TNT and RDX in coastal marine biota.

    PubMed

    Ballentine, Mark; Tobias, Craig; Vlahos, Penny; Smith, Richard; Cooper, Christopher

    2015-05-01

    The bioconcentration factor (BCF) was measured for 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) and hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) in seven different marine species of varying trophic levels. Time series and concentration gradient treatments were used for water column and tissue concentrations of TNT, RDX, and their environmentally important derivatives 2-amino-4,6-dintrotoluene (2-ADNT) and 4-amino-2,6-dinitrotoluene (4-ADNT). BCF values ranged from 0.0031 to 484.5 mL g(-1) for TNT and 0.023 to 54.83 mL g(-1) for RDX. The use of log K ow value as an indicator was evaluated by adding marine data from this study to previously published data. For the munitions in this study, log K ow value was a good indicator in the marine environment. The initial uptake and elimination rates of TNT and RDX for Fucus vesiculosus were 1.79 and 0.24 h(-1) for TNT and 0.50 and 0.0035 h(-1) for RDX respectively. Biotransformation was observed in all biota for both TNT and RDX. Biotransformation of TNT favored 4-ADNT over 2-ADNT at ratios of 2:1 for F. vesiculosus and 3:1 for Mytilus edulis. Although RDX derivatives were measureable, the ratios of RDX derivatives were variable with no detectable trend. Previous approaches for measuring BCF in freshwater systems compare favorably with these experiments with marine biota, yet significant gaps on the ultimate fate of munitions within the biota exist that may be overcome with the use stable isotope-labeled munitions substrates.

  8. Best Practices in Marine and Coastal Science Education: Lessons Learned from a National Estuarine Research Reserve.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Janice D.

    The Jacques Cousteau National Estuarine Research Reserve (JC NERR) program has successfully capitalized on human fascination with the ocean by using the marine environment to develop interest and capability in science. The Institute of Marine & Coastal Sciences, as the managing agency of the JC NERR, makes its faculty, staff resources, and…

  9. Geophysical surveys for monitoring coastal salt water intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loperte, A.; Satriani, A.; Simoniello, T.; Imbrenda, V.; Lapenna, V.

    2009-04-01

    Geophysical surveys have been exploited in a coastal forest reserve, at the mouth of the river Bradano in South Italy (Basilicata, southern Italy, N 40°22', E 16°51'), to investigate the subsurface saltwater contamination. Forest Reserve of Metapontum is a wood of artificial formation planted to protect fruit and vegetable cultivations from salt sea-wind; in particular it is constituted by a back dune pine forest mainly composed of Aleppo Pine trees (Pinus halepensis) and domestic pine trees (Pinus pinea). Two separate geophysical field campaigns, one executed in 2006 and a second executed in 2008, were performed in the forest reserve; in particular, electrical resistivity tomographies, resistivity and ground penetrating radar maps were elaborated and analyzed. In addition, chemical and physical analyses on soil and waters samples were performed in order to confirm and integrate geophysical data. The analyses carried out allowed an accurate characterization of salt intrusion phenomenon: the spatial extension and depth of the saline wedge were estimated. Primary and secondary salinity of the Metapontum forest reserve soil occurred because of high water-table and the evapo-transpiration rate which was much higher than the rainfall rate; these, of course, are linked to natural factors such as climate, natural drainage patterns, topographic features, geological structure and distance to the sea. Naturally, since poor land management, like the construction of river dams, indiscriminate extraction of inert from riverbeds that subtract supplies sedimentary, the alteration of the natural water balance, plays an important role in this process. The obtained results highlighted that integrated geophysical surveys gave a precious contribute for better evaluating marine intrusion wedge in coastal aquifers and providing a rapid, non-invasive and low cost tool for coastal monitoring.

  10. Input of urban nitrogen to coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorensen, L. L.; Barthelmie, R.; Pryor, S.; Bilde, M.; Ingemansson, O.

    2003-04-01

    The project described is a pilot study to make first estimates of the contribution of urban emissions to nitrogen (N) deposition to coastal waters. The overall objective is to estimate the transport and deposition of N gases emitted in the city of Copenhagen to the coastal waters of the Øresund. Traffic emissions are increasingly recognised as a source of nitrogen gases which contribute to urban pollution affecting human health and visibility by contributing both reduced and oxidised forms of nitrogen where co-emitted pollutants (such as ammonia NH3 and nitric acid HNO3) may react to increase the aerosol burden. While net agricultural emissions of NH3 are larger, they are mainly concentrated in spring and summer whereas urban emissions are a year-round phenomena and in winter mixed layer depths are lower concentrating pollutants in the boundary-layer. First estimates are that emissions from Copenhagen are up to 2.5% of Denmark's total NH3 emissions. Detailed NH3 measurements are being conducted on the Chemistry Building at Copenhagen University using Risø's Wet Effluent Diffusion Denuders which have very low detection limits (~0.1 ppb) and provide good time resolution (~ minutes). The measurements indicate a strong correlation between NH3 and nitrogen oxides (NOx), with diurnal emission patterns strongly indicative of traffic emissions. Measurements are also being conducted at Barseback approximately 20 km from Copenhagen across the Øresund. Measurements from a mast installed just outside (2 km) of Copenhagen harbour are being used to characterise the wind and turbulence conditions of the Øresund. The presence of the city can be detected in the turbulence intensity. Sector average turbulence intensity at 10 m height is up to 17% in easterly sectors and around 10% from overwater directions. This implies that the presence of Copenhagen increases turbulence potentially increasing deposition to coast waters. The data collected will be used to provide first

  11. Seasonal oscillations in water exchange between aquifers and the coastal ocean.

    PubMed

    Michael, Holly A; Mulligan, Ann E; Harvey, Charles F

    2005-08-25

    Ground water of both terrestrial and marine origin flows into coastal surface waters as submarine groundwater discharge, and constitutes an important source of nutrients, contaminants and trace elements to the coastal ocean. Large saline discharges have been observed by direct measurements and inferred from geochemical tracers, but sufficient seawater inflow has not been observed to balance this outflow. Geochemical tracers also suggest a time lag between changes in submarine groundwater discharge rates and the seasonal oscillations of inland recharge that drive groundwater flow towards the coast. Here we use measurements of hydraulic gradients and offshore fluxes taken at Waquoit Bay, Massachusetts, together with a modelling study of a generalized coastal groundwater system to show that a shift in the freshwater-saltwater interface-controlled by seasonal changes in water table elevation-can explain large saline discharges that lag inland recharge cycles. We find that sea water is drawn into aquifers as the freshwater-saltwater interface moves landward during winter, and discharges back into coastal waters as the interface moves seaward in summer. Our results demonstrate the connection between the seasonal hydrologic cycle inland and the saline groundwater system in coastal aquifers, and suggest a potentially important seasonality in the chemical loading of coastal waters.

  12. Remote sensing for water quality and biological measurements in coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.; Harriss, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Recent remote sensing experiments in the United States' coastal waters indicate that certain biological and water quality parameters have distinctive spectral characteristics. Data outputs from remote sensors, to date, include: (1) high resolution measurements to determine concentrations and distributions of total suspended particulates, temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a, and phytoplankton color group associations from airborne and/or satellite platforms, and (2) low resolution measurements of total suspended solids, temperature, ocean color, and possibly chlorophyll from satellite platforms. A summary of platforms, sensors and parameters measured is given. Remote sensing, especially when combined with conventional oceanographic research methods, can be useful in such high priority research areas as estuarine and continental shelf sediment transport dynamics, transport and fate of marine pollutants, marine phytoplankton dynamics, and ocean fronts.

  13. Remote sensing for water quality and biological measurements in coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.; Harriss, R. C.

    1980-01-01

    Recent remote sensing experiments in the United States' coastal waters indicate that certain biological and water quality parameters have distinctive spectral characteristics. Data outputs from remote sensors, to date, include: (1) high resolution measurements to determine concentrations and distributions of total suspended particulates, temperature, salinity, chlorophyll a, and phytoplankton color group associations from airborne and/or satellite platforms, and (2) low resolution measurements of total suspended solids, temperature, ocean color, and possibly chlorophyll from satellite platforms. A summary of platforms, sensors and parameters measured is given. Remote sensing, especially when combined with conventional oceanographic research methods, can be useful in such high priority research areas as estuarine and continental shelf sediment transport dynamics, transport and fate of marine pollutants, marine phytoplankton dynamics, and ocean fronts.

  14. Speciated mercury at marine, coastal, and inland sites in New England - Part 1: Temporal variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, H.; Talbot, R.

    2012-06-01

    A comprehensive analysis was conducted using long-term continuous measurements of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM), and particulate phase mercury (HgP) at coastal (Thompson Farm, denoted as TF), marine (Appledore Island, denoted as AI), and elevated inland (Pac Monadnock, denoted as PM) sites from the AIRMAP Observatories in southern New Hampshire, USA. Decreasing trends in background Hg0 were identified in the 7.5- and 5.5-yr records at TF and PM with decline rates of 3.3 parts per quadrillion by volume (ppqv) yr-1 and 6.3 ppqv yr-1, respectively. Common characteristics at these sites were the reproducible annual cycle of Hg0 with its maximum in winter-spring and minimum in fall, comprised of a positive trend in the warm season (spring - early fall) and a negative one in the cool season (late fall - winter). Year-to-year variability was observed in the warm season decline in Hg0 at TF varying from a minimum total (complete) seasonal loss of 43 ppqv in 2009 to a maximum of 92 ppqv in 2005, whereas variability remained small at AI and PM. The coastal site TF differed from the other two sites with its exceptionally low levels (as low as below 50 ppqv) in the nocturnal inversion layer possibly due to dissolution in dew water. Measurements of Hg0 at PM exhibited the smallest diurnal to annual variability among the three environments, where peak levels rarely exceeded 250 ppqv and the minimum was typically 100 ppqv. It should be noted that summertime diurnal patterns at TF and AI were opposite in phase indicating strong sink(s) for Hg0 during the day in the marine boundary layer, which was consistent with the hypothesis of Hg0 oxidation by halogen radicals there. Mixing ratios of RGM in the coastal and marine boundary layers reached annual maxima in spring and minima in fall, whereas at PM levels were generally below the limit of detection (LOD) except in spring. RGM levels at AI were higher than at TF and PM indicating a stronger source

  15. The kelp highway hypothesis: marine ecology, the coastal migration theory, and the peopling of the Americas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erlandson, Jon M.; Graham, Michael H.; Bourque, Bruce J.; Corbett, Debra; Estes, James A.; Steneck, Robert S.

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a collaborative effort between archaeologists and marine ecologists, we discuss the role kelp forest ecosystems may have played in facilitating the movement of maritime peoples from Asia to the Americas near the end of the Pleistocene. Growing in cool nearshore waters along rocky coastlines, kelp forests offer some of the most productive habitats on earth, with high primary productivity, magnified secondary productivity, and three-dimensional habitat supporting a diverse array of marine organisms. Today, extensive kelp forests are found around the North Pacific from Japan to Baja California. After a break in the tropicswhere nearshore mangrove forests and coral reefs are highly productivekelp forests are also found along the Andean Coast of South America. These Pacific Rim kelp forests support or shelter a wealth of shellfish, fish, marine mammals, seabirds, and seaweeds, resources heavily used historically by coastal peoples. By about 16,000 years ago, the North Pacific Coast offered a linear migration route, essentially unobstructed and entirely at sea level, from northeast Asia into the Americas. Recent reconstructions suggest that rising sea levels early in the postglacial created a highly convoluted and island-rich coast along Beringia's southern shore, conditions highly favorable to maritime hunter-gatherers. Along with the terrestrial resources available in adjacent landscapes, kelp forests and other nearshore habitats sheltered similar suites of food resources that required minimal adaptive adjustments for migrating coastal peoples. With reduced wave energy, holdfasts for boats, and productive fishing, these linear kelp forest ecosystems may have provided a kind of kelp highway for early maritime peoples colonizing the New World.

  16. Shifting sources of productivity in the coastal marine tropics during the Cenozoic era.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Geerat J

    2011-08-07

    Changes in the rates and sources of marine primary production over time are difficult to document owing to the absence of direct estimates of past productivity. Here, I use the maximum body sizes of the largest species in each of 23 tropical shallow-water marine molluscan guilds (groups of species with similar habits and trophic roles) to trace the relative importance of planktonic and benthic primary productivity from the Eocene (55 Ma) onwards. The largest members of guilds are least constrained in exploiting resources and therefore reflect the availability and accessibility of those resources most accurately. Maximum sizes of suspension-feeders and predators increased by a factor of 2.3 and 4.0, respectively, whereas those in four out of five herbivorous guilds declined. I interpret these patterns, which are discernible throughout the coastal tropics, to mean that primary production in the Eocene marine tropics was concentrated on the seafloor, as is the case today on offshore reefs and islands, and that the Miocene to the recent interval witnessed a dramatic increase in planktonic productivity along continental margins. The rise in planktonic fertility is best explained by an increase in nutrient supply from the land associated with intense global tectonic activity and more vigorous ocean mixing owing to cooling.

  17. Shifting sources of productivity in the coastal marine tropics during the Cenozoic era

    PubMed Central

    Vermeij, Geerat J.

    2011-01-01

    Changes in the rates and sources of marine primary production over time are difficult to document owing to the absence of direct estimates of past productivity. Here, I use the maximum body sizes of the largest species in each of 23 tropical shallow-water marine molluscan guilds (groups of species with similar habits and trophic roles) to trace the relative importance of planktonic and benthic primary productivity from the Eocene (55 Ma) onwards. The largest members of guilds are least constrained in exploiting resources and therefore reflect the availability and accessibility of those resources most accurately. Maximum sizes of suspension-feeders and predators increased by a factor of 2.3 and 4.0, respectively, whereas those in four out of five herbivorous guilds declined. I interpret these patterns, which are discernible throughout the coastal tropics, to mean that primary production in the Eocene marine tropics was concentrated on the seafloor, as is the case today on offshore reefs and islands, and that the Miocene to the recent interval witnessed a dramatic increase in planktonic productivity along continental margins. The rise in planktonic fertility is best explained by an increase in nutrient supply from the land associated with intense global tectonic activity and more vigorous ocean mixing owing to cooling. PMID:21177688

  18. University of Alaska Coastal Marine Institute annual report number 5, fiscal year 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Alexander, V.

    1998-12-18

    The University of Alaska Coastal Marine Institute (CMI) was created by a cooperative agreement between the University of Alaska and the Minerals Management Service (MMS) in June 1993 and the first full funding cycle began late in (federal) fiscal year 1994. CMI is pleased to present this 1998 Annual Report for studies ongoing in Oct 1997--Sep 1998. Only abstracts and study products for ongoing projects are included here. They include: An Economic Assessment of the Marine Biotechnology; Kachemak Bay Experimental and Monitoring Studies; Historical Changes in Trace Metals and Hydrocarbons in the Inner Shelf Sediments; Beaufort Sea: Prior and Subsequent to Petroleum-Related Industrial Developments; Physical-Biological Numerical Modeling on Alaskan Arctic Shelves; Defining Habitats for Juvenile Flatfishes in Southcentral Alaska; Relationship of Diet to Habitat Preferences of Juvenile Flatfishes, Phase 1; Subsistence Economies and North Slope Oil Development; Wind Field Representations and Their Effect on Shelf Circulation Models: A Case Study in the Chukchi Sea; Interaction between Marine Humic Matter and Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Lower Cook Inlet and Port Valdez, Alaska; Correction Factor for Ringed Seal Surveys in Northern Alaska; Feeding Ecology of Maturing Sockeye Salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) in Nearshore Waters of the Kodiak Archipelago; and Circulation, Thermohaline Structure, and Cross-Shelf Transport in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea.

  19. TNT Degradation by Natural Microbial Assemblages at Frontal Boundaries Between Water Masses in Coastal Ecosystems (ER-2124)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-06-20

    the Marine Environment, Vol. 2. Academic Press, Orlando. Peale, J ., M. Scalzi, T . Fowler , M.T. Montgomery, T.J. Boyd, and J . G. Mueller. 2015...Between Water Masses in Coastal Ecosystems (ER-2124) June 20, 2017 Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Michael T . MonTgoMery ThoMas J ...Natural Microbial Assemblages at Frontal Boundaries Between Water Masses in Coastal Ecosystems (ER-2124) Michael T . Montgomery, Thomas J . Boyd, and

  20. Percentage of microbeads in pelagic microplastics within Japanese coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Atsuhiko

    2016-09-15

    To compare the quantity of microbeads with the quantity of pelagic microplastics potentially degraded in the marine environment, samples were collected in coastal waters of Japan using neuston nets. Pelagic spherical microbeads were collected in the size range below 0.8mm at 9 of the 26 stations surveyed. The number of pelagic microbeads smaller than 0.8mm accounted for 9.7% of all microplastics collected at these 9 stations. This relatively large percentage results from a decrease in the abundance of microplastics smaller than 0.8mm in the upper ocean, as well as the regular loading of new microbeads from land areas, in this size range. In general, microbeads in personal care and cosmetic products are not always spherical, but rather are often a variety of irregular shapes. It is thus likely that this percentage is a conservative estimate, because of the irregular shapes of the remaining pelagic microbeads.

  1. Passive microwave sensing of coastal area waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, B. M.

    1980-01-01

    A technique to remotely measure sea-surface temperature and salinity was demonstrated during the 1970's with a dual-frequency microwave radiometer system developed at the NASA Langley Research Center. Accuracies in temperature of 1 C and 1 part per thousand in salinity were obtained using state-of-the-art radiometers. Several aircraft programs for the measurement of coastal area waters demonstrating the application of the microwave radiometer system are discussed. Improvements of the microwave radiometer system during the 1980's and the design and development of new radiometer systems at other frequencies are outlined and related to potential applications.

  2. The Seasonality of California Coastal Marine Layer Clouds from a New Satellite-Derived Dataset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, R. E.; Gershunov, A.; Iacobellis, S.; Cayan, D. R.

    2013-12-01

    Low coastal stratiform clouds (typically stratus and fog), referred to here as marine layer clouds (MLCs), are a persistent seasonal feature of coastal California (CA). We have created a novel record of MLC spatial extent for CA and the near-shore waters utilizing NASA/NOAA Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). The low cloud satellite retrieval is optimized and validated against coastal airport cloud observations and is shown to be of excellent quality. The record spans 17 summers and is rich in its spatial (4 km) and temporal (half hourly day and night) resolution. This new data provides a detailed record of MLC variability on diurnal, intra-seasonal, and interannual time scales since 1997. The data reveal that MLC in the Southern California Bight has a greater inland and offshore diurnal movement than the MLC in central and northern CA. Differences also emerge in the seasonality of cloudiness. Seasonal peak MLC cover along the southern California coast is part of a tongue of high early summer cloud cover that extends to the southwest, while peak MLC in later summer along central and northern California is a pattern that occurs broadly in the offshore California region. The data indicates there is interesting differences in seasonal variability that operate diurnally over southern CA and central and northern CA coastal regions. These climatological tendencies are overlain by considerable spatial and temporal variation from synoptic to interannual time scales, which are also under investigation. Satellite retrieval findings are supported by airport cloud observations since 1950. Focusing first on the intricate structure of the seasonal cycle, we then begin to describe and quantify synoptic weather and large scale climatic controls on the finely resolved space-time variability of MLCs.

  3. High resolution numerical wave propagation in coastal area : benefits in assessment of the marine submersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorville, Jean-François; Cayol, Claude; Palany, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    Many numerical models based on equation of action conservation (N = E/σ) enables the simulation of sea states (WAM, WW3,...). They allow through parametric equations to define sources and sinks of wave energy (E(f,σ)) in spectral form. Statistics of the sea states can be predicted at medium or long term as the significant wave height, the wave pic direction, mean wave period, etc. Those predictions are better if initials and boundaries conditions together with 10m wind field are well defined. Basically the more homogeneous the marine area bathymetry is the more accurate the prediction will be. Météo-France for French West Indies and French Guiana (MF-DIRAG) is in charge of the safety of persons and goods tries to improve knowledge and capacity to evaluate the sea state at the coast and the marine submersion height using among other statistical methods (as return periods) and numerical simulations. The area of responsibility is large and includes different territory, type of coast and sea wave climate. Up today most part of the daily simulations were done for large areas and with large meshes (10km). The needs of more accurate values in the assessment of the marine submersion pushed to develop new strategies to estimate the level of the sea water on the coast line and therefore characterize the marine submersion hazard. Since 2013 new data are available to enhance the capacity to simulate the mechanical process at the coast. High resolution DEM Litto 3D for Guadeloupe and Martinique coasts with grid-spacing of 5m up to 5km of the coast are free of use. The study presents the methodology applied at MF-DIRAG in study mode to evaluate effects of wave breaking on coastline. The method is based on wave simulation downscaling form the Atlantic basin to the coastal area using MF-WAM to an sub kilometric unstructured WW3 or SWAN depending to the domain studied. At the final step a non-hydrostatic wave flow as SWASH is used on the coast completed by an analytical method

  4. Coastal Residents Ocean Literacy about Seawater Desalination and its Impacts on Marine Ecosystems in the Monterey Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faraola, S.; Heck, N.; Mirza Ordshahi, B.; Paytan, A.; Petersen, K. L.; Haddad, B.; Potts, D. C.

    2016-12-01

    The current lack of available freshwater in California has brought about the consideration of utilizing seawater desalination to provide a consistent drinking water source for local residents of coastal areas. Public literacy about this technology and its impacts on the ocean is vital to making informed policy decisions about marine resources and ecosystems, which may empower local communities to become more involved stewards of the ocean. Our study evaluates public literacy about seawater desalination and its impacts on the ocean. Data was collected using a questionnaire-based survey from a randomly selected sample of residents and marine stakeholders in coastal communities around Monterey Bay. The study explored (1) self-assessed and accurate knowledge about marine impacts from seawater desalination and (2) what shapes public literacy concerning pertinent ocean issues in communities near a National Marine Sanctuary. Our findings show to what extent the public is prepared to engage in meaningful discussions about marine issues and seawater desalination and if an understanding of the ocean shapes perceptions on saltwater desalination.

  5. Halogen radicals contribute to photooxidation in coastal and estuarine waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, Kimberly M.; Mitch, William A.

    2016-05-01

    Although halogen radicals are recognized to form as products of hydroxyl radical (•OH) scavenging by halides, their contribution to the phototransformation of marine organic compounds has received little attention. We demonstrate that, relative to freshwater conditions, seawater halides can increase photodegradation rates of domoic acid, a marine algal toxin, and dimethyl sulfide, a volatile precursor to cloud condensation nuclei, up to fivefold. Using synthetic seawater solutions, we show that the increased photodegradation is specific to dissolved organic matter (DOM) and halides, rather than other seawater salt constituents (e.g., carbonates) or photoactive species (e.g., iron and nitrate). Experiments in synthetic and natural coastal and estuarine water samples demonstrate that the halide-specific increase in photodegradation could be attributed to photochemically generated halogen radicals rather than other photoproduced reactive intermediates [e.g., excited-state triplet DOM (3DOM*), reactive oxygen species]. Computational kinetic modeling indicates that seawater halogen radical concentrations are two to three orders of magnitude greater than freshwater •OH concentrations and sufficient to account for the observed halide-specific increase in photodegradation. Dark •OH generation by gamma radiolysis demonstrates that halogen radical production via •OH scavenging by halides is insufficient to explain the observed effect. Using sensitizer models for DOM chromophores, we show that halogen radicals are formed predominantly by direct oxidation of Cl- and Br- by 3DOM*, an •OH-independent pathway. Our results indicate that halogen radicals significantly contribute to the phototransformation of algal products in coastal or estuarine surface waters.

  6. Halogen radicals contribute to photooxidation in coastal and estuarine waters

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Kimberly M.; Mitch, William A.

    2016-01-01

    Although halogen radicals are recognized to form as products of hydroxyl radical (•OH) scavenging by halides, their contribution to the phototransformation of marine organic compounds has received little attention. We demonstrate that, relative to freshwater conditions, seawater halides can increase photodegradation rates of domoic acid, a marine algal toxin, and dimethyl sulfide, a volatile precursor to cloud condensation nuclei, up to fivefold. Using synthetic seawater solutions, we show that the increased photodegradation is specific to dissolved organic matter (DOM) and halides, rather than other seawater salt constituents (e.g., carbonates) or photoactive species (e.g., iron and nitrate). Experiments in synthetic and natural coastal and estuarine water samples demonstrate that the halide-specific increase in photodegradation could be attributed to photochemically generated halogen radicals rather than other photoproduced reactive intermediates [e.g., excited-state triplet DOM (3DOM*), reactive oxygen species]. Computational kinetic modeling indicates that seawater halogen radical concentrations are two to three orders of magnitude greater than freshwater •OH concentrations and sufficient to account for the observed halide-specific increase in photodegradation. Dark •OH generation by gamma radiolysis demonstrates that halogen radical production via •OH scavenging by halides is insufficient to explain the observed effect. Using sensitizer models for DOM chromophores, we show that halogen radicals are formed predominantly by direct oxidation of Cl− and Br− by 3DOM*, an •OH-independent pathway. Our results indicate that halogen radicals significantly contribute to the phototransformation of algal products in coastal or estuarine surface waters. PMID:27162335

  7. Marine pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Albaiges, J. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers the following topics: Transport of marine pollutants; Transformation of pollutants in the marine environment; Biological effects of marine pollutants; Sources and transport of oil pollutants in the Persian Gulf; Trace metals and hydrocarbons in Syrian coastal waters; and Techniques for analysis of trace pollutants.

  8. Photolytic Release of Dissolved Vanadium and Copper from Resuspended Coastal Marine Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skrabal, S. A.; Hammaker, S. N.; McBurney, A. W.; Avery, G. B., Jr.; Kieber, R. J.; Mead, R. N.

    2016-02-01

    Sunlight photolysis engenders release of dissolved vanadium (V), copper (Cu), and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from a wide variety of resuspendable coastal marine sediments. Net photoreleases after 6 h of simulated sunlight were as high as 12 nM for Cu and as high as 15 nM for V. Release of Cu significantly correlated with sediment Cu. Photoreleased Cu (but not V) correlated with sediment Fe content, suggesting that photoreduction of Fe oxide carrier phases may be an important photoproduction mechanism for Cu. Longer term experiments showed continued release of metals that were not immediately readsorbed back onto sediments after 24 h of irradiation suggesting that photoproduced metals persist in the dissolved phase and are not immediately scavenged onto particles. Experiments utilizing differing total suspended sediment (TSS) levels show that, although higher TSS causes more photoproduction of Cu and V, the amount produced per mass of sediment is greatest at the lowest TSS. Vanadium photoproduction increased in Macondo oil-amended sediments compared to controls after a one-month incubation period suggesting that the oil may be a source of this metal to the water column. These results imply that photoproduction is an unrecognized source of the micronutrient metals Cu and V to coastal waters.

  9. A novel approach to model exposure of coastal-marine ecosystems to riverine flood plumes based on remote sensing techniques.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Romero, Jorge G; Devlin, Michelle; Teixeira da Silva, Eduardo; Petus, Caroline; Ban, Natalie C; Pressey, Robert L; Kool, Johnathan; Roberts, Jason J; Cerdeira-Estrada, Sergio; Wenger, Amelia S; Brodie, Jon

    2013-04-15

    Increased loads of land-based pollutants are a major threat to coastal-marine ecosystems. Identifying the affected marine areas and the scale of influence on ecosystems is critical to assess the impacts of degraded water quality and to inform planning for catchment management and marine conservation. Studies using remotely-sensed data have contributed to our understanding of the occurrence and influence of river plumes, and to our ability to assess exposure of marine ecosystems to land-based pollutants. However, refinement of plume modeling techniques is required to improve risk assessments. We developed a novel, complementary, approach to model exposure of coastal-marine ecosystems to land-based pollutants. We used supervised classification of MODIS-Aqua true-color satellite imagery to map the extent of plumes and to qualitatively assess the dispersal of pollutants in plumes. We used the Great Barrier Reef (GBR), the world's largest coral reef system, to test our approach. We combined frequency of plume occurrence with spatially distributed loads (based on a cost-distance function) to create maps of exposure to suspended sediment and dissolved inorganic nitrogen. We then compared annual exposure maps (2007-2011) to assess inter-annual variability in the exposure of coral reefs and seagrass beds to these pollutants. We found this method useful to map plumes and qualitatively assess exposure to land-based pollutants. We observed inter-annual variation in exposure of ecosystems to pollutants in the GBR, stressing the need to incorporate a temporal component into plume exposure/risk models. Our study contributes to our understanding of plume spatial-temporal dynamics of the GBR and offers a method that can also be applied to monitor exposure of coastal-marine ecosystems to plumes and explore their ecological influences.

  10. Conservation hotspots for marine turtle nesting in the United States based on coastal development.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Mariana M P B; Gredzens, Christian; Bateman, Brooke L; Boettcher, Ruth; Ceriani, Simona A; Godfrey, Matthew H; Helmers, David; Ingram, Dianne K; Kamrowski, Ruth L; Pate, Michelle; Pressey, Robert L; Radeloff, Volker C

    2016-12-01

    Coastal areas provide nesting habitat for marine turtles that is critical for the persistence of their populations. However, many coastal areas are highly affected by coastal development, which affects the reproductive success of marine turtles. Knowing the extent to which nesting areas are exposed to these threats is essential to guide management initiatives. This information is particularly important for coastal areas with both high nesting density and dense human development, a combination that is common in the United States. We assessed the extent to which nesting areas of the loggerhead (Caretta caretta), the green (Chelonia mydas), the Kemp's ridley (Lepidochelys kempii), and leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea) in the continental United States are exposed to coastal development and identified conservation hotspots that currently have high reproductive importance and either face high exposure to coastal development (needing intervention), or have low exposure to coastal development, and are good candidates for continued and future protection. Night-time light, housing, and population density were used as proxies for coastal development and human disturbance. About 81.6% of nesting areas were exposed to housing and human population, and 97.8% were exposed to light pollution. Further, most (>65%) of the very high- and high-density nesting areas for each species/subpopulation, except for the Kemp's ridley, were exposed to coastal development. Forty-nine nesting sites were selected as conservation hotspots; of those high-density nesting sites, 49% were sites with no/low exposure to coastal development and the other 51% were exposed to high-density coastal development. Conservation strategies need to account for ~66.8% of all marine turtle nesting areas being on private land and for nesting sites being exposed to large numbers of seasonal residents. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  11. Remote Sensing of Coastal and Inland Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Keukelaere, L.; Sterckx, S.; Adriaensen, S.; Knaeps, E.

    2016-02-01

    The new generation of satellites (e.g. Landsat 8, HyspIRI, Sentinel 2 and Sentinel 3 …) contain sensors that enable monitoring at increased spatial and/or spectral resolution. This opens a wide range of new opportunities, amongst others improved observation of coastal and inland waters. Algorithms for the pre-processing of these images and the derivation of Level 2 products for these waters need to take into account the specific nature of these environments, with adjacency effects of the nearby land and complex interactions of the optially active substances with varying degrees of turbidity. Here a new atmospheric correction algorithm, OPERA, is presented which can deal with these highly complex environments and which is sensor generic. OPERA accounts for the contribution of adjacency effects and provides surface reflectances for both land and water targets. OPERA is extended with a level 2 water algorithm providing TSM and turbidity estimates for a wide variety of water types. The algorithm is based on a multi wavelength switching approach using shorter wavelengths in low turbid waters and long NIR and SWIR wavelengths for highly and extremely turbid waters. Results are shown for Landsat-8, Sentinel-2 and MERIS for a variety of scenes, validated with field aeronet and turbidity data.

  12. Microplastics in coastal sediments from Southern Portuguese shelf waters.

    PubMed

    Frias, J P G L; Gago, J; Otero, V; Sobral, P

    2016-03-01

    Microplastics are well-documented pollutants in the marine environment that result from fragmentation of larger plastic items. Due to their long chemical chains, they can remain in the environment for long periods of time. It is estimated that the vast majority (80%) of marine litter derives from land sources and that 70% will sink and remain at the bottom of the ocean. Microplastics that result from fragmentation of larger pieces of plastic are common to be found in beaches and in the water surface. The most common microplastics are pellets, fragments and fibres. This work provides original data of the presence of microplastics in coastal sediments from Southern Portuguese shelf waters, reporting on microplastic concentration and polymer types. Microplastic particles were found in nearly 56% of sediment samples, accounting a total of 31 particles in 27 samples. The vast majority were microfibers (25), identified as rayon fibres, and fragments (6) identified as polypropylene, through infrared spectroscopy (μ-FTIR). The concentration and polymer type data is consistent with other relevant studies and reports worldwide.

  13. Effects of dredged sediment disposal on the coastal marine macrobenthic assemblage in Southern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Angonesi, L G; Bemvenuti, C E; Gandra, M S

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the deposition impact of dredged material from Patos lagoon estuary on a benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage structure in an adjacent coastal marine area. Nine sampling stations were chosen at random in the disposal area, and nine others in the same way in an adjacent control area. Samples were collected at a 19 m depth before sediment disposal (11 July 2000), during dredging and disposal operations (25 Oct. 2000), and three months thereafter (24 Aug. 2001). Statistical analysis indicated that sampling periods presented similar characteristics in both the control and disposal sites. Disposal of dredged sediment from Patos lagoon had no detectable detrimental effects upon macrobenthic faunal assemblage at the dumping site. This result is attributed both to adaptation of resident biota to dynamic sedimentary conditions and to the fine estuarine sediment dredged, the dispersion of which in the water column might have minimized sediment deposition and consequent damage to the benthic fauna.

  14. Abatement vs. treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems.

    PubMed

    Roebeling, P C; Cunha, M C; Arroja, L; van Grieken, M E

    2015-01-01

    Marine ecosystems are affected by water pollution originating from coastal catchments. The delivery of water pollutants can be reduced through water pollution abatement as well as water pollution treatment. Hence, sustainable economic development of coastal regions requires balancing of the marginal costs from water pollution abatement and/or treatment and the associated marginal benefits from marine resource appreciation. Water pollution delivery reduction costs are, however, not equal across abatement and treatment options. In this paper, an optimal control approach is developed and applied to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment for efficient diffuse source water pollution management in terrestrial-marine systems. For the case of diffuse source dissolved inorganic nitrogen water pollution in the Tully-Murray region, Queensland, Australia, (agricultural) water pollution abatement cost, (wetland) water pollution treatment cost and marine benefit functions are determined to explore welfare maximizing rates of water pollution abatement and/or treatment. Considering partial (wetland) treatment costs and positive water quality improvement benefits, results show that welfare gains can be obtained, primarily, through diffuse source water pollution abatement (improved agricultural management practices) and, to a minor extent, through diffuse source water pollution treatment (wetland restoration).

  15. Marine debris ingestion by coastal dolphins: what drives differences between sympatric species?

    PubMed

    Di Beneditto, Ana Paula Madeira; Ramos, Renata Maria Arruda

    2014-06-15

    This study compared marine debris ingestion of the coastal dolphins Pontoporia blainvillei and Sotalia guianensis in a sympatric area in Atlantic Ocean. Among the 89 stomach contents samples of P. blainvillei, 14 (15.7%) contained marine debris. For S. guianensis, 77 stomach contents samples were analyzed and only one of which (1.30%) contained marine debris. The debris recovered was plastic material: nylon yarns and flexible plastics. Differences in feeding habits between the coastal dolphins were found to drive their differences regarding marine debris ingestion. The feeding activity of P. blainvillei is mainly near the sea bottom, which increases its chances of ingesting debris deposited on the seabed. In contrast, S. guianensis has a near-surface feeding habit. In the study area, the seabed is the main zone of accumulation of debris, and species with some degree of association with the sea bottom may be local bioindicators of marine debris pollution.

  16. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in...

  17. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in...

  18. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in...

  19. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in...

  20. 40 CFR 227.31 - Applicable marine water quality criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Applicable marine water quality... § 227.31 Applicable marine water quality criteria. Applicable marine water quality criteria means the criteria given for marine waters in the EPA publication “Quality Criteria for Water” as published in...

  1. Following the flow of ornithogenic nutrients through the Arctic marine coastal food webs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmudczyńska-Skarbek, Katarzyna; Balazy, Piotr

    2017-04-01

    Arctic colonial seabirds are recognized as effective fertilizers of terrestrial ecosystems by delivering marine-origin nutrients to the vicinities of their nesting sites. A proportion of this ornithogenic matter is then thought to return to the sea and, concentrated within a smaller area, locally provides additional nutrients for the nearshore marine communities. The aim of this study was to assess the presence and impact of local ornithogenic enrichment on two important elements of the Arctic coastal food web: (1) the planktonic pathway originating in the surface water, and (2) the benthic pathway based on benthic primary production. We sampled two areas in Isfjorden (Spitsbergen): one located below a coastal mixed breeding colony of guillemots and kittiwakes, and a control area not influenced by the colony. Slightly higher nitrogen stable isotope ratios (δ15N) were found in particulate organic matter suspended in the surface water (POM), sedimentary organic matter (SOM) from outside the zone of dense kelp forest, and the predatory/scavenging whelks Buccinum sp. collected below the seabird colony (the components recognized as following the planktonic path). In contrast, no ornithogenic isotopic enrichment was detected in the herbivorous gastropod Margarites helicinus or in SOM from the kelp zone (benthic path). The data are compatible with those obtained from the same location a year before, showing δ15N enrichment in predatory/scavenging hermit crabs Pagurus pubescens below the seabird, and no such changes in kelps Saccharina latissima or their presumed consumers, sea urchins Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis (Zmudczyńska-Skarbek et al., 2015a). The results suggest that, in the conditions of periodic, short-term pulses of ornithogenic nutrient inputs to the local marine environment, which typify the short High Arctic summer, planktonic organisms are the initial organisms to incorporate these nutrients before transfer to the benthic food web via pelagic

  2. How marine submersions can be recorded in coastal marshes not bounded by a coarse sediment barrier?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumann, J.; Chaumillon, E.; Schneider, J. L.; Schmidt, S.; Jorissen, F.; Bonnin, J.

    2016-12-01

    Sediments are key archives for evidencing storm or tsunami-related past marine floods and estimation of their return periods. Sediment records of marine flood usually consist of a grain size anomaly, related to the onshore transport of coarse sediments from the eroded barrier to the back barrier area. Given a large number of coasts are not bounded by a barrier and are particularly vulnerable to marine submersion, the question arises of whether sedimentary investigations of past marine flood may be successfully conducted in such coastal lowlands. The SW coast of France that was widely submerged after recent and historical well-documented storm surges is a nice place to address this question. Cores were sampled in two estuarine coastal marshes, respectively bounded by a sediment barrier moderately exposed to waves, and by a dyke fronting an estuary meander. The sediment chronology was constrained by radio-isotopic dating and multi-proxies analyses were conducted (grain size and XRF measurements, foraminifera and marine shells identification and observations). Surprisingly, foraminifera are found in almost all the backshore sediment successions of the two marshes. Their abnormal presence, in coastal areas isolated from the sea since many centuries, attested by their lower abundance compared to marine environments and the abrasion of their tests, is interpreted as the result of marine submersions. Contrasted sediment records of marine submersions are observed: in the barrier-bounded marsh, they include sand, marine shell debris and a mix of foraminifera species whereas in the dyke-bounded marsh, they only include abraded mono specific foraminifera tests without any grain size change. We conclude that sediment record of marine submersions can be identified in sheltered coast where sediment barrier is absent. Those studies should be generalized given the significant number of such coastal environments.

  3. Effect of ecological group classification schemes on performance of the AMBI benthic index in US coastal waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    The AZTI Marine Biotic Index (AMBI) requires less geographically-specific calibration than other benthic indices, but has not performed as well in US coastal waters as it has in the European waters for which it was originally developed. Here we examine the extent of improvement i...

  4. Effect of ecological group classification schemes on performance of the AMBI benthic index in US coastal waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    The AZTI Marine Biotic Index (AMBI) requires less geographically-specific calibration than other benthic indices, but has not performed as well in US coastal waters as it has in the European waters for which it was originally developed. Here we examine the extent of improvement i...

  5. Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resource management, appendices G to J. [in southeastern Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Important data were compiled for use with the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) remote sensing project in coastal zone land use and marine resources management, and include analyses and projections of population characteristics, formulation of soil loss prediction techniques, and sources and quantity analyses of air and water effluents.

  6. Environmental application of remote sensing methods to coastal zone land use and marine resource management, Appendices A to E. [in southeastern Virginia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Important data were compiled for use with the Richmond-Cape Henry Environmental Laboratory (RICHEL) remote sensing project in coastal zone land use and marine resources management, and include RICHEL climatological data and sources, a land use inventory, topographic and soil maps, and gaging records for RICHEL surface waters.

  7. Assessment of Metal Toxicity in Marine Ecosystems: Comparative Toxicity Potentials for Nine Cationic Metals in Coastal Seawater.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yan; Rosenbaum, Ralph K; Hauschild, Michael Z

    2016-01-05

    This study is a first attempt to develop globally applicable and spatially differentiated marine comparative toxicity potentials (CTPs) or ecotoxicity characterization factors for metals in coastal seawater for use in life cycle assessment. The toxicity potentials are based exclusively on marine ecotoxicity data and take account of metal speciation and bioavailability. CTPs were developed for nine cationic metals (Cd, Cr(III), Co, Cu(II), Fe(III), Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in 64 large marine ecosystems (LMEs) covering all coastal waters in the world. The results showed that the CTP of a specific metal varies 3-4 orders of magnitude across LMEs, largely due to different seawater residence times. Therefore, the highest toxicity potential for metals was found in the LMEs with the longest seawater residence times. Across metals, the highest CTPs were observed for Cd, Pb, and Zn. At the concentration levels occurring in coastal seawaters, Fe acts not as a toxic agent but as an essential nutrient and thus has CTPs of zero.

  8. Hydrogeologic setting and potential for denitrification in ground water, coastal plain of southern Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krantz, David E.; Powars, David S.

    2000-01-01

    The types and distribution of Coastal Plain sediments in the Patuxent River Basin may contribute to relatively low concentrations of nitrate (typically less than 1 milligram per liter) in stream base flow because of the chemical reduction of dissolved nitrate (denitrification) in ground water. Water chemistry data from synoptic stream base-flow surveys in the Patuxent River Basin show higher dissolved nitrate concentrations in the Piedmont than in the Coastal Plain section of the watershed. Stream base flow reflects closely the chemistry of ground water discharging from the surficial (unconfined) aquifer to the stream. Because land use in the sampled subbasins is virtually the same in each section, differences in the physical and geochemical characteristics of the surficial aquifer may explain the observed differences in water chemistry. One possible cause of lower nitrate concentrations in the Coastal Plain is denitrification within marine sediments that contain chemically reduced compounds. During denitrification, the oxygen atoms on the nitrate (N03-) molecule are transferred to a reduced compound and N gas is produced. Organic carbon and ferrous iron (Fe2+), derived from the dissolution of minerals such as pyrite (FeS2) and glauconite (an iron aluminosilicate clay), can act as reducing substrates; these reduced chemical species are common in the marine and estuarine deposits in Southern Maryland. The spatial distribution of geologic units and their lithology (sediment type) has been used to create a map of the potential for denitrification of ground water in the surficial aquifer of the Coastal Plain in Southern Maryland.

  9. Diagenesis of conifer needles in a coastal marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedges, John I.; Weliky, K.

    1989-10-01

    Physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles were isolated from different horizons of a sediment core from a coastal marine bay (Dabob Bay, Washington State, U.S.A.) and from nearby trees and forest litter. Green fir, hemlock and cedar needles were all characterized by glucose-rich aldose mixtures (~30% of tissue carbon), the production of vanillyl and cinnamyl CuO-derived phenols (~8% of tissue carbon) and the presence of both pinitol and myo-inositol (1-2% of tissue carbon). Needles from forest litter were enriched in lignin phenols and non-glucose aldoses and depleted in glucose and cyclitols. The sediment core contained an average of 10 mg/1 of physically intact fir, hemlock and cedar needles, which occurred in similar relative abundances and accounted for less than 1% of the total nonwoody gymnosperm tissue. Compared to the green and litter counterparts, all sedimentary needles were greatly depleted in cyclitols, glucose and p-coumaric acid and enriched in vanillyl phenol precursors. The degree of elevation of vanillyl phenol yield from the degraded needles was used to estimate minimal carbon losses from the samples, which ranged from near 40% for needle litter to almost 70% for the deepest (~100 years old) sedimentary fir/hemlock samples. Although downcore increases in carbon loss and refractory organic components indicated in situ diagenesis, the bulk of overall degradation occurred either on land or during the first 10-20 years after deposition. Atomic C/N ratios of degraded needles were lower than for green counterparts, but nitrogen was lost overall. These relative changes indicate the following stability series: vanillyl phenols > N > ferulic acid, p-hydroxy phenols, most aldoses and bulk tissue > glucose and p-coumaric acid > cyclitols (near 100% loss). Vanillic acid to vanillin ratios, (Ad/Al)v, of the green fir and hemlock needles were unusually high (0.36-0.38) and decreased downcore. Diagenesis also decreased the cinnamyl/vanillyl phenol ratio

  10. Spatiotemporal drivers of energy expenditure in a coastal marine fish.

    PubMed

    Brownscombe, Jacob W; Cooke, Steven J; Danylchuk, Andy J

    2017-03-01

    Animal behavior and energy expenditure often vary significantly across the landscape, and quantifying energy expenditure over space and time provides mechanistic insight into ecological dynamics. Yet, spatiotemporal variability in energy expenditure has rarely been explored in fully aquatic species such as fish. Our objective was to quantify spatially explicit energy expenditure for a tropical marine teleost fish, bonefish (Albula vulpes), to examine how bonefish energetics vary across landscape features and temporal factors. Using a swim tunnel respirometer, we calibrated acoustic accelerometer transmitters implanted in bonefish to estimate their metabolic rates and energy expenditure, and applied this technology in situ using a fine-scale telemetry system on a heterogeneous reef flat in Puerto Rico. Bonefish energy expenditure varied most among habitats, with significant interactions between habitat and temporal factors (i.e., diel period, tide state, season). The energy expenditure was generally highest in shallow water habitats (i.e., seagrass and reef crest). Variation in activity levels was the main driver of these differences in energy expenditure, which in shallow, nearshore habitats is likely related to foraging. Bonefish moderate energy expenditure across seasonal fluctuations in temperature, by selectively using shallow nearshore habitats at moderate water temperatures that correspond with their scope for activity. Quantifying how animals expend energy in association with environmental and ecological factors can provide important insight into behavioral ecology, with implications for bioenergetics models.

  11. Water Quality Modeling System for Coastal Archipelagos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tuomi, L.; Miettunen, E.; Lukkari, K.; Puttonen, I.; Ropponen, J.; Tikka, K.; Piiparinen, J.; Lignell, R.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal seas are encountering pressures from eutrophication, fishing, ship emissions and coastal construction. Sustainable development and use of these areas require science-based guidance with high quality data and efficient tools. Our study area, the Archipelago Sea, is located in the northern part of the semi-enclosed and brackish water Baltic Sea. It is a shallow, topographically heterogeneous and eutrophic sub-basin, covered with thousands of small islands and islets. The catchment area is 8950 km2and has ca. 500 000 inhabitants. We are developing a modeling system that can be used by local authorities and in ministry level decision making to evaluate the environmental impacts that may result from decisions and changes made both in the watershed and in the coastal areas. The modeling system consists of 3D hydrodynamic model COHERENS and water quality model FICOS, both applied to the area with high spatial resolution. Models use river discharge and nutrient loading data supplied by watershed model VEMALA and include loading from multiple point sources located in the Archipelago Sea. An easy-to-use interface made specifically to answer the end-user needs, includes possibility to modify the nutrient loadings and perform model simulations to selected areas and time periods. To ensure the quality and performance of the modeling system, comprehensive measurement dataset including hydrographic, nutrient, chlorophyll-a and bottom sediment data, was gathered based on monitoring and research campaigns previously carried out in the Archipelago Sea. Verification showed that hydrodynamic model was able to simulate surface temperature and salinity fields and their seasonal variation with good accuracy in this complex area. However, the dynamics of the deeper layers need to be improved, especially in areas that have sharp bathymetric gradients. The preliminary analysis of the water quality model results showed that the model was able to reproduce the basic characteristics of

  12. Contribution of hydrolysis in the abiotic attenuation of RDX and HMX in coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Monteil-Rivera, Fanny; Paquet, Louise; Giroux, Romain; Hawari, Jalal

    2008-01-01

    Sinking of military ships, dumping of munitions during the two World Wars, and military training have resulted in the undersea deposition of numerous unexploded ordnances (UXOs). Leaching of energetic compounds such as hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) and octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine (HMX) from these UXOs may cause adverse ecological effects so that the long-term fate of these chemicals in the sea should be known. The present study assesses the contribution of alkaline hydrolysis into the natural attenuation of RDX and HMX in coastal waters. Alkaline hydrolysis rates were shown to be unaffected by the presence of sodium chloride, the most common component in marine waters. Kinetic parameters (E(a), ln A, k(2)) quantified for the alkaline hydrolysis of RDX and HMX in deionized water (30-50 degrees C, pH 10-12) agreed relatively well with abiotic degradation rates determined in sterilized natural coastal waters (50 and 60 degrees C, variable salinity) even if the latter were generally slightly faster than the former. Furthermore, similar products (HCHO, NO(2)(-), O(2)NNHCH(2)NHCHO) were obtained on alkaline hydrolysis in deionized water and abiotic degradation in coastal waters. These two findings suggested that degradation of nitramines in sterilized natural coastal waters, away from light, was mainly governed by alkaline hydrolysis. Kinetic calculations using the present parameters showed that alkaline hydrolysis of RDX and HMX in marine waters at 10 degrees C would respectively take 112 +/- 10 and 2408 +/- 217 yr to be completed (99.0%). We concluded that under natural conditions hydrolysis should not contribute significantly to the natural attenuation of HMX in coastal waters whereas it could play an active role in the natural attenuation of RDX.

  13. Occurrence and antibiotic susceptibility profiles of Burkholderia cepacia complex in coastal marine environment.

    PubMed

    Maravić, Ana; Skočibušić, Mirjana; Sprung, Matilda; Samanić, Ivica; Puizina, Jasna; Pavela-Vrančić, Maja

    2012-01-01

    During an environmental study of bacterial resistance to antibiotics in coastal waters of the Kaštela Bay, Adriatic Sea, Croatia, 47 Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) isolates were recovered from seawater and mussel (Mytilus galloprovincialis) samples. All isolates showed multiple antibiotic resistance. Among the isolates, two Burkholderia cenocepacia isolates produced chromosomally encoded TEM-116 extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL). Analysis of outer membrane proteins revealed that decreased expression of a 36-kDa protein could be associated with a high level of β-lactam resistance in both isolates. Phenotypic study of efflux system also indicated an over-expression of Resistance-Nodulation-Cell Division (RND) efflux-mediated mechanism in one of the isolates. This study demonstrated the presence of Bcc in seawater and M. galloprovincialis, which gives evidence that coastal marine environment, including mussels, could be considered as a reservoir for Bcc species. Detection of ESBL-encoding genes indicates the potential role of these bacteria in the maintenance and dispersion of antibiotic resistance genes.

  14. Interactions between Zn and bacteria in marine tropical coastal sediments.

    PubMed

    Pringault, Olivier; Viret, Héléna; Duran, Robert

    2012-03-01

    The main goals of this study were (1) to examine the effects of zinc on the microbial community structure of anthropogenically impacted sediments in a tropical coastal ecosystem and (2) to determine whether these microbial benthic communities may enhance the adsorption of zinc. The interactions between zinc and bacteria in tropical sediments were studied in sediment microcosms amended with 2.5 mg L⁻¹ of Zn in the water phase and incubated for 8 days under different environmental conditions, oxic/anoxic and glucose addition. At the end of incubation, microbial structure was assessed by molecular fingerprints (T-RFLP) analysis and Zn speciation in the sediment was determined by sequential extraction. In the three studied sediments, Zn spiking resulted in only slight changes in bacterial community structure. In contrast, the addition of low concentrations of glucose (5 mM) strongly modified the bacterial community structure: <20% of similarity with the initial structure concomitant with a strong diminution of the specific richness. Overall, these results suggest that highly labile organic matter has a larger impact on microbial structure than heavy metal. These weak impacts of Zn on bacteria diversity might be partly explained by (1) the strong adsorption of Zn in the presence of bacteria and/or (2) the incorporation of Zn into a nonbioavailable fraction. Nevertheless, Zn spiking resulted in significant changes in nutrient cycles, suggesting that bacterial metabolisms were impacted by the heavy metal. This led to an increase in nutrient supplies to the water column, potentially enhancing eutrophication in a nutrient-limited, oligotrophic ecosystem.

  15. Hypernatremia in Dice snakes (Natrix tessellata) from a coastal population: implications for osmoregulation in marine snake prototypes.

    PubMed

    Brischoux, François; Kornilev, Yurii V

    2014-01-01

    The widespread relationship between salt excreting structures (e.g., salt glands) and marine life strongly suggests that the ability to regulate salt balance has been crucial during the transition to marine life in tetrapods. Elevated natremia (plasma sodium) recorded in several marine snakes species suggests that the development of a tolerance toward hypernatremia, in addition to salt gland development, has been a critical feature in the evolution of marine snakes. However, data from intermediate stage (species lacking salt glands but occasionally using salty environments) are lacking to draw a comprehensive picture of the evolution of an euryhaline physiology in these organisms. In this study, we assessed natremia of free-ranging Dice snakes (Natrix tessellata, a predominantly fresh water natricine lacking salt glands) from a coastal population in Bulgaria. Our results show that coastal N. tessellata can display hypernatremia (up to 195.5 mmol x l(-1)) without any apparent effect on several physiological and behavioural traits (e.g., hematocrit, body condition, foraging). More generally, a review of natremia in species situated along a continuum of habitat use between fresh- and seawater shows that snake species display a concomitant tolerance toward hypernatremia, even in species lacking salt glands. Collectively, these data suggest that a physiological tolerance toward hypernatremia has been critical during the evolution of an euryhaline physiology, and may well have preceded the evolution of salt glands.

  16. Hypernatremia in Dice Snakes (Natrix tessellata) from a Coastal Population: Implications for Osmoregulation in Marine Snake Prototypes

    PubMed Central

    Brischoux, François; Kornilev, Yurii V.

    2014-01-01

    The widespread relationship between salt excreting structures (e.g., salt glands) and marine life strongly suggests that the ability to regulate salt balance has been crucial during the transition to marine life in tetrapods. Elevated natremia (plasma sodium) recorded in several marine snakes species suggests that the development of a tolerance toward hypernatremia, in addition to salt gland development, has been a critical feature in the evolution of marine snakes. However, data from intermediate stage (species lacking salt glands but occasionally using salty environments) are lacking to draw a comprehensive picture of the evolution of an euryhaline physiology in these organisms. In this study, we assessed natremia of free-ranging Dice snakes (Natrix tessellata, a predominantly fresh water natricine lacking salt glands) from a coastal population in Bulgaria. Our results show that coastal N. tessellata can display hypernatremia (up to 195.5 mmol.l−1) without any apparent effect on several physiological and behavioural traits (e.g., hematocrit, body condition, foraging). More generally, a review of natremia in species situated along a continuum of habitat use between fresh- and seawater shows that snake species display a concomitant tolerance toward hypernatremia, even in species lacking salt glands. Collectively, these data suggest that a physiological tolerance toward hypernatremia has been critical during the evolution of an euryhaline physiology, and may well have preceded the evolution of salt glands. PMID:24658047

  17. CLASSIFYING COASTAL WATERS:CURRENT NECESSITY AND HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal ecosystems are ecologically and commercially valuable, productive habitats that are experiencing escalating compromises of their structural and functional integrity. The Clean Water Act (USC 1972) requires identification of impaired water bodies and determination of the c...

  18. CLASSIFYING COASTAL WATERS:CURRENT NECESSITY AND HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal ecosystems are ecologically and commercially valuable, productive habitats that are experiencing escalating compromises of their structural and functional integrity. The Clean Water Act (USC 1972) requires identification of impaired water bodies and determination of the c...

  19. Can Humic Water Discharge Counteract Eutrophication in Coastal Waters?

    PubMed Central

    Andersson, Agneta; Jurgensone, Iveta; Rowe, Owen F.; Simonelli, Paolo; Bignert, Anders; Lundberg, Erik; Karlsson, Jan

    2013-01-01

    A common and established view is that increased inputs of nutrients to the sea, for example via river flooding, will cause eutrophication and phytoplankton blooms in coastal areas. We here show that this concept may be questioned in certain scenarios. Climate change has been predicted to cause increased inflow of freshwater to coastal areas in northern Europe. River waters in these areas are often brown from the presence of high concentrations of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon (humic carbon), in addition to nitrogen and phosphorus. In this study we investigated whether increased inputs of humic carbon can change the structure and production of the pelagic food web in the recipient seawater. In a mesocosm experiment unfiltered seawater from the northern Baltic Sea was fertilized with inorganic nutrients and humic carbon (CNP), and only with inorganic nutrients (NP). The system responded differently to the humic carbon addition. In NP treatments bacterial, phytoplankton and zooplankton production increased and the systems turned net autotrophic, whereas the CNP-treatment only bacterial and zooplankton production increased driving the system to net heterotrophy. The size-structure of the food web showed large variations in the different treatments. In the enriched NP treatments the phytoplankton community was dominated by filamentous >20 µm algae, while in the CNP treatments the phytoplankton was dominated by picocyanobacteria <5 µm. Our results suggest that climate change scenarios, resulting in increased humic-rich river inflow, may counteract eutrophication in coastal waters, leading to a promotion of the microbial food web and other heterotrophic organisms, driving the recipient coastal waters to net-heterotrophy. PMID:23637807

  20. Can humic water discharge counteract eutrophication in coastal waters?

    PubMed

    Andersson, Agneta; Jurgensone, Iveta; Rowe, Owen F; Simonelli, Paolo; Bignert, Anders; Lundberg, Erik; Karlsson, Jan

    2013-01-01

    A common and established view is that increased inputs of nutrients to the sea, for example via river flooding, will cause eutrophication and phytoplankton blooms in coastal areas. We here show that this concept may be questioned in certain scenarios. Climate change has been predicted to cause increased inflow of freshwater to coastal areas in northern Europe. River waters in these areas are often brown from the presence of high concentrations of allochthonous dissolved organic carbon (humic carbon), in addition to nitrogen and phosphorus. In this study we investigated whether increased inputs of humic carbon can change the structure and production of the pelagic food web in the recipient seawater. In a mesocosm experiment unfiltered seawater from the northern Baltic Sea was fertilized with inorganic nutrients and humic carbon (CNP), and only with inorganic nutrients (NP). The system responded differently to the humic carbon addition. In NP treatments bacterial, phytoplankton and zooplankton production increased and the systems turned net autotrophic, whereas the CNP-treatment only bacterial and zooplankton production increased driving the system to net heterotrophy. The size-structure of the food web showed large variations in the different treatments. In the enriched NP treatments the phytoplankton community was dominated by filamentous >20 µm algae, while in the CNP treatments the phytoplankton was dominated by picocyanobacteria <5 µm. Our results suggest that climate change scenarios, resulting in increased humic-rich river inflow, may counteract eutrophication in coastal waters, leading to a promotion of the microbial food web and other heterotrophic organisms, driving the recipient coastal waters to net-heterotrophy.

  1. The hidden seasonality of the rare biosphere in coastal marine bacterioplankton.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Sáez, Laura; Díaz-Pérez, Laura; Morán, Xosé Anxelu G

    2015-10-01

    Rare microbial taxa are increasingly recognized to play key ecological roles, but knowledge of their spatio-temporal dynamics is lacking. In a time-series study in coastal waters, we detected 83 bacterial lineages with significant seasonality, including environmentally relevant taxa where little ecological information was available. For example, Verrucomicrobia had recurrent maxima in summer, while the Flavobacteria NS4, NS5 and NS2b clades had contrasting seasonal niches. Among the seasonal taxa, only 4 were abundant and persistent, 20 cycled between rare and abundant and, remarkably, most of them (59) were always rare (contributing < 1% of total reads). We thus demonstrate that seasonal patterns in marine bacterioplankton are largely driven by lineages that never sustain abundant populations. A fewer number of rare taxa (20) also produced episodic 'blooms', and these events were highly synchronized, mostly occurring on a single month. The recurrent seasonal growth and loss of rare bacteria opens new perspectives on the temporal dynamics of the rare biosphere, hitherto mainly characterized by dormancy and episodes of 'boom and bust', as envisioned by the seed-bank hypothesis. The predictable patterns of seasonal reoccurrence are relevant for understanding the ecology of rare bacteria, which may include key players for the functioning of marine ecosystems. © 2015 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Regional Jurassic geologic framework of Alabama coastal waters area and adjacent Federal waters area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mink, R.M.; Bearden, B.L.; Mancini, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    To date, numerous Jurassic hydrocarbon fields and pools have been discovered in the Cotton Valley Group, Haynesville Formation, Smackover Formation and Norphlet Formation in the tri-state area of Mississippi, Alabama and Florida, and in Alabama State coastal waters and adjacent Federal waters area. Petroleum traps are basement highs, salt anticlines, faulted salt anticlines and extensional faults associated with salt movement. Reservoirs include continental and marine sandstones, limestones and dolostones. Hydrocarbon types are oil, condensate and natural gas. The onshore stratigraphic and structural information can be used to establish a regional geologic framework for the Jurassic for the State coastal waters and adjacent Federal waters areas. Evaluation of the geologic information along with the hydrocarbon data from the tri-state area indicates that at least three Jurassic hydrocarbon trends (oil, oil and gas condensate, and deep natural gas) can be identified onshore. These onshore hydrocarbon trends can be projected into the Mobile area in the Central Gulf of Mexico and into the Pensacola, Destin Dome and Apalachicola areas in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico. Substantial reserves of natural gas are expected to be present in Alabama State waters and the northern portion of the Mobile area. Significant accumulations of oil and gas condensate may be encountered in the Pensacola, Destin Dome, and Apalachicola areas. ?? 1989.

  3. Towards environmental management of water turbidity within open coastal waters of the Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Rachael K; Ridd, Peter V; Whinney, James C; Larcombe, Piers; Neil, David T

    2013-09-15

    Water turbidity and suspended sediment concentration (SSC) are commonly used as part of marine monitoring and water quality plans. Current management plans utilise threshold SSC values derived from mean-annual turbidity concentrations. Little published work documents typical ranges of turbidity for reefs within open coastal waters. Here, time-series turbidity measurements from 61 sites in the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) and Moreton Bay, Australia, are presented as turbidity exceedance curves and derivatives. This contributes to the understanding of turbidity and SSC in the context of environmental management in open-coastal reef environments. Exceedance results indicate strong spatial and temporal variability in water turbidity across inter/intraregional scales. The highest turbidity across 61 sites, at 50% exceedance (T50) is 15.3 NTU and at 90% exceedance (T90) 4.1 NTU. Mean/median turbidity comparisons show strong differences between the two, consistent with a strongly skewed turbidity regime. Results may contribute towards promoting refinement of water quality management protocols.

  4. NASA Airborne Missions in Support of Coastal Ecosystems and Water Quality Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, L. S.; Hooker, S. B.; Kudela, R. M.; Russell, P. B.; Morrow, J. H.; Palacios, S. L.; Myers, J. S.; Livingston, J. M.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Knobelspiesse, K. D.; Redemann, J.; Clinton, N. E.; Torres-Perez, J. L.; Negrey, K.

    2016-02-01

    Worldwide, coastal marine ecosystems are exposed to land-based sources of pollution and sedimentation from anthropogenic activities including agriculture and coastal development. Ocean color products from satellite sensors provide information on chlorophyll (phytoplankton pigment), sediments, and colored dissolved organic material. Further, ship-based in-water measurements and emerging airborne measurements provide in situ data for the vicarious calibration of current and next generation satellite ocean color sensors and to validate the algorithms that use the remotely sensed observations. Recent NASA airborne missions over Monterey Bay, CA, have demonstrated novel above- and in-water measurement capabilities supporting a combined airborne sensor approach (imaging spectrometer, microradiometers, and a sun photometer). The results characterize coastal atmospheric and aquatic properties of seasonal algal blooms through an end-to-end assessment of image acquisition, atmospheric correction, algorithm application, plus sea-truth observations from state-of-the-art instrument systems.

  5. Acidification of subsurface coastal waters enhanced by eutrophication

    EPA Science Inventory

    Uptake of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere has acidified the surface ocean by ~0.1 pH units and driven down the carbonate saturation state. Ocean acidification is a threat to marine ecosystems and may alter key biogeochemical cycles. Coastal oceans have also b...

  6. Acidification of subsurface coastal waters enhanced by eutrophication

    EPA Science Inventory

    Uptake of fossil-fuel carbon dioxide (CO2) from the atmosphere has acidified the surface ocean by ~0.1 pH units and driven down the carbonate saturation state. Ocean acidification is a threat to marine ecosystems and may alter key biogeochemical cycles. Coastal oceans have also b...

  7. Nitrogen inputs from agriculture: towards better assessments of eutrophication status in marine waters.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Jesper H; Fossing, Henrik; Hansen, Jens W; Manscher, Ole H; Murray, Ciarán; Petersen, Ditte L J

    2014-11-01

    Nutrient enrichment of coastal marine waters caused by losses of nitrate (NO(3)(-)) from agriculture is an increasing global problem. In the European Union, the Nitrates Directive (ND) of 1991 was meant to be a cornerstone in reducing eutrophication effects in coastal waters downstream from intensively farmed catchments. Although reductions in losses of nitrate have been attained, very few Member States have yet been able to reduce eutrophication effects caused by inputs of NO(3)(-) from agriculture. We report trends in concentrations of NO(3)(-) and chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) in Danish coastal and open marine waters during the period from 1996 to 2011 together with an assessment of eutrophication status based on multiple indicators (e.g. nutrient concentrations, Chl-a, submerged aquatic vegetation and benthic macroinvertebrates). Despite decreasing concentrations of both NO(3)(-)and Chl-a, Danish coastal waters are not yet to be classified as 'unaffected by eutrophication'. In order to improve future pan-European evaluations of the effectiveness of the ND, we argue for the added value of including indicators and assessment principles from other European Directives, i.e. the Water Framework Directive and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive.

  8. Survival of Candida albicans in tropical marine and fresh waters.

    PubMed Central

    Valdes-Collazo, L; Schultz, A J; Hazen, T C

    1987-01-01

    A survey of Candida albicans indicated that the organism was present at all sites sampled in a rain forest stream and in near-shore coastal waters of Puerto Rico. In the rain forest watershed no relationship existed between densities of fecal coliforms and densities of C. albicans. At two pristine sites in the rain forest watershed both C. albicans and Escherichia coli survived in diffusion chambers for extended periods of time. In near-shore coastal waters C. albicans and E. coli survival times in diffusion chambers were enhanced by effluent from a rum distillery. The rum distillery effluent had a greater effect on E. coli than on C. albicans survival in the diffusion chambers. These studies show that neither E. coli nor C. albicans organisms are good indicators of recent fecal contamination in tropical waters. It further demonstrates that pristine freshwater environments and marine waters receiving organic loading in the tropics can support densities of C. albicans which may be a health hazard. Images PMID:3310885

  9. Above-Water Radiometry in Shallow Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooker, Stanford B.; Zibordi, Giuseppe; Berthon, Jean-François; Brown, James W.

    2004-07-01

    Above- and in-water radiometric data were collected from two coastal platforms: a small boat and an oceanographic tower. The above-water data were processed with and without a correction for bidirectional effects (Q02 and S95, respectively). An intercomparison of water-leaving radiances over a wide range of environmental conditions showed (a) total uncertainties across the blue-green domain were to within 4%, (b) a convergence of the Q02 method with the in-water method (average Q02 intercomparisons were to within 4%), and (c) chlorophyll a concentrations derived from Q02 reflectances and the OC4V4 (Ocean Color 4 Version 4) algorithm agreed with independent high-performance liquid-chromatography determinations to within approximately 32%.

  10. Massive marine methane emissions from near-shore shallow coastal areas

    PubMed Central

    Borges, Alberto V.; Champenois, Willy; Gypens, Nathalie; Delille, Bruno; Harlay, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas contributing to climate warming. The open ocean is a minor source of methane to the atmosphere. We report intense methane emissions from the near-shore southern region of the North Sea characterized by the presence of extensive areas with gassy sediments. The average flux intensities (~130 μmol m−2 d−1) are one order of magnitude higher than values characteristic of continental shelves (~30 μmol m−2 d−1) and three orders of magnitude higher than values characteristic of the open ocean (~0.4 μmol m−2 d−1). The high methane concentrations (up to 1,128 nmol L−1) that sustain these fluxes are related to the shallow and well-mixed water column that allows an efficient transfer of methane from the seafloor to surface waters. This differs from deeper and stratified seep areas where there is a large decrease of methane between bottom and surface by microbial oxidation or physical transport. Shallow well-mixed continental shelves represent about 33% of the total continental shelf area, so that marine coastal methane emissions are probably under-estimated. Near-shore and shallow seep areas are hot spots of methane emission, and our data also suggest that emissions could increase in response to warming of surface waters. PMID:27283125

  11. Massive marine methane emissions from near-shore shallow coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, Alberto V.; Champenois, Willy; Gypens, Nathalie; Delille, Bruno; Harlay, Jérôme

    2016-06-01

    Methane is the second most important greenhouse gas contributing to climate warming. The open ocean is a minor source of methane to the atmosphere. We report intense methane emissions from the near-shore southern region of the North Sea characterized by the presence of extensive areas with gassy sediments. The average flux intensities (~130 μmol m‑2 d‑1) are one order of magnitude higher than values characteristic of continental shelves (~30 μmol m‑2 d‑1) and three orders of magnitude higher than values characteristic of the open ocean (~0.4 μmol m‑2 d‑1). The high methane concentrations (up to 1,128 nmol L‑1) that sustain these fluxes are related to the shallow and well-mixed water column that allows an efficient transfer of methane from the seafloor to surface waters. This differs from deeper and stratified seep areas where there is a large decrease of methane between bottom and surface by microbial oxidation or physical transport. Shallow well-mixed continental shelves represent about 33% of the total continental shelf area, so that marine coastal methane emissions are probably under-estimated. Near-shore and shallow seep areas are hot spots of methane emission, and our data also suggest that emissions could increase in response to warming of surface waters.

  12. [Identification of marine and coastal biodiversity conservation priorities in Costa Rica].

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Juan José; Herrera, Bernal; Corrales, Lenin; Asch, Jenny; Paaby, Pía

    2011-06-01

    Costa Rica is recognized as one of the most diverse countries in species and ecosystems, in their terrestrial realm as well as in the marine. Besides this relevance, the country presents a delay on conservation and management of marine and coastal biodiversity, with respect to terrestrial. For 2006, the marine protected surface was 5,208.8 km2, with 331.5 km of coastline, in 20 protected areas. The country has made progress on the conservation priority sites identification for terrestrial and freshwater biodiversity, with few efforts on marine planning. This research presents the analysis and results of the gap identification process, for marine and coastal biodiversity conservation in the protected areas system of Costa Rica. The analysis was built with the spatial information available on the presence and distribution of coastal and marine biodiversity, the establishment of the conservation goals and a threat analysis over the ecological integrity of this biodiversity. The selection of high-priority sites was carried out using spatial optimization techniques and the superposition over the current shape of marine protected areas, in order to identify representation gaps. A total of 19,076 km2 of conservation gaps were indentified, with 1,323 km2 in the Caribbean and 17,753 km2 in the Pacific. Recommendations are aimed at planning and strengthening the marine protected areas system, using the gaps identified as a framework. It is expected that the results of this study would be the scientific base needed for planning and sustainable use of marine biodiversity in the country.

  13. Screening for Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia Virus in Marine Fish along the Norwegian Coastal Line

    PubMed Central

    Sandlund, Nina; Gjerset, Britt; Bergh, Øivind; Modahl, Ingebjørg; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Johansen, Renate

    2014-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infects a wide range of marine fish species. To study the occurrence of VHSV in wild marine fish populations in Norwegian coastal waters and fjord systems a total of 1927 fish from 39 different species were sampled through 5 research cruises conducted in 2009 to 2011. In total, VHSV was detected by rRT-PCR in twelve samples originating from Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), whiting (Merlangius merlangus) and silvery pout (Gadiculus argenteus). All fish tested positive in gills while four herring and one silvery pout also tested positive in internal organs. Successful virus isolation in cell culture was only obtained from one pooled Atlantic herring sample which shows that today's PCR methodology have a much higher sensitivity than cell culture for detection of VHSV. Sequencing revealed that the positive samples belonged to VHSV genotype Ib and phylogenetic analysis shows that the isolate from Atlantic herring and silvery pout are closely related. All positive fish were sampled in the same area in the northern county of Finnmark. This is the first detection of VHSV in Atlantic herring this far north, and to our knowledge the first detection of VHSV in silvery pout. However, low prevalence of VHSV genotype Ib in Atlantic herring and other wild marine fish are well known in other parts of Europe. Earlier there have been a few reports of disease outbreaks in farmed rainbow trout with VHSV of genotype Ib, and our results show that there is a possibility of transfer of VHSV from wild to farmed fish along the Norwegian coast line. The impact of VHSV on wild fish is not well documented. PMID:25248078

  14. Screening for viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus in marine fish along the Norwegian coastal line.

    PubMed

    Sandlund, Nina; Gjerset, Britt; Bergh, Øivind; Modahl, Ingebjørg; Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Johansen, Renate

    2014-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV) infects a wide range of marine fish species. To study the occurrence of VHSV in wild marine fish populations in Norwegian coastal waters and fjord systems a total of 1927 fish from 39 different species were sampled through 5 research cruises conducted in 2009 to 2011. In total, VHSV was detected by rRT-PCR in twelve samples originating from Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus), haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus), whiting (Merlangius merlangus) and silvery pout (Gadiculus argenteus). All fish tested positive in gills while four herring and one silvery pout also tested positive in internal organs. Successful virus isolation in cell culture was only obtained from one pooled Atlantic herring sample which shows that today's PCR methodology have a much higher sensitivity than cell culture for detection of VHSV. Sequencing revealed that the positive samples belonged to VHSV genotype Ib and phylogenetic analysis shows that the isolate from Atlantic herring and silvery pout are closely related. All positive fish were sampled in the same area in the northern county of Finnmark. This is the first detection of VHSV in Atlantic herring this far north, and to our knowledge the first detection of VHSV in silvery pout. However, low prevalence of VHSV genotype Ib in Atlantic herring and other wild marine fish are well known in other parts of Europe. Earlier there have been a few reports of disease outbreaks in farmed rainbow trout with VHSV of genotype Ib, and our results show that there is a possibility of transfer of VHSV from wild to farmed fish along the Norwegian coast line. The impact of VHSV on wild fish is not well documented.

  15. The vertical turbulence structure of the coastal marine atmospheric boundary layer

    SciTech Connect

    Tjernstroem, M.; Smedman, A.S. )

    1993-03-15

    The vertical turbulence structure in the marine atmosphere along a shoreline has been investigated using data from tower and aircraft measurements performed along the Baltic coast in the southeast of Sweden. Two properties make the Baltic Sea particularly interesting. It is surrounded by land in all directions within moderate advection distances, and it features a significant annual lag in sea surface temperature as compared with inland surface temperature. The present data were collected mostly during spring or early summer, when the water is cool, i.e., with a stably or neutrally stratified marine boundary layer usually capped by an inversion. Substantial daytime heating over the land area results in a considerable horizontal thermal contrast. Measurements were made on a small island, on a tower with a good sea fetch, and with an airborne instrument package. The profile data from the aircraft is from 25 slant soundings performed in connection to low level boundary layer flights. The results from the profiles are extracted through filtering techniques on individual time (space) series (individual profiles), applying different normalization and finally averaging over all or over groups of profiles. The land-based data are from a low tower situated on the shoreline of a small island with a wide sector of unobstructed sea fetch. Several factors are found that add to the apparent complexity of the coastal marine environment: the state of the sea appears to have a major impact on the turbulence structure of the surface layer, jet-shaped wind speed profiles were very common at the top of the boundary layer (in about 50% of the cases) and distinct layers with increased turbulence were frequently found well above the boundary layer (in about 80% of the cases). The present paper will concentrate on a description of the experiment, the analysis methods, and a general description of the boundary layer turbulence structure over the Baltic Sea. 40 refs., 16 figs., 2 tabs.

  16. Coupling of fog and marine microbial content in the near-shore coastal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueker, M. E.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Weathers, K. C.; Juhl, A. R.; Uriarte, M.

    2011-09-01

    Microbes in the atmosphere (microbial aerosols) play an important role in climate and provide an ecological and biogeochemical connection between oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial environments. However, the sources and environmental factors controlling the concentration, diversity, transport, and viability of microbial aerosols are poorly understood. This study examined culturable microbial aerosols from a coastal environment in Maine (USA) and determined the effect of onshore wind speed and fog presence on deposition rate, source, and community composition. During fog events with low onshore winds (< 2 m s-1) the near-shore deposition of microbial aerosols (microbial fallout) decreased with increasing wind speeds, whereas microbial fallout rates under clear conditions and comparable low wind speeds showed no wind speed dependence. Mean aerosol particle size also increased with onshore wind speed when fog was present, indicating increased shoreward transport of larger aerosol particles. 16S rRNA sequencing of culturable ocean surface bacteria and microbial aerosols deposited onshore resulted in the detection of 31 bacterial genera, with 5 dominant genera (Vibrio, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, Salinibacterium) making up 66% of all sequences. The microbial aerosol sequence library, as with libraries found in other coastal/marine aerosol studies, was dominated at the phylum level by Proteobacteria, with additional representation from Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Seventy-five percent of the viable microbial aerosols falling out under foggy conditions were most similar to GenBank-published sequences detected in marine environments. Using a 97% similarity cut-off, ocean surface and fog sequence libraries shared eight operational taxonomic units (OTU's) in total, three of which were the most dominant OTU's in the library, representing large fractions of the ocean (28%) and fog (21%) libraries. The fog and ocean surface libraries were

  17. Coupling of fog and marine microbial content in the near-shore coastal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueker, M. E.; O'Mullan, G. D.; Weathers, K. C.; Juhl, A. R.; Uriarte, M.

    2012-02-01

    Microbes in the atmosphere (microbial aerosols) play an important role in climate and provide an ecological and biogeochemical connection between oceanic, atmospheric, and terrestrial environments. However, the sources and environmental factors controlling the concentration, diversity, transport, and viability of microbial aerosols are poorly understood. This study examined culturable microbial aerosols from a coastal environment in Maine (USA) and determined the effect of onshore wind speed and fog presence on deposition rate, source, and community composition. During fog events with low onshore winds (<2 m s-1) the near-shore deposition of microbial aerosols (microbial fallout) decreased with increasing wind speeds, whereas microbial fallout rates under clear conditions and comparable low wind speeds showed no wind speed dependence. Mean aerosol particle size also increased with onshore wind speed when fog was present, indicating increased shoreward transport of larger aerosol particles. 16S rRNA sequencing of culturable ocean surface bacteria and microbial aerosols deposited onshore resulted in the detection of 31 bacterial genera, with 5 dominant genera (Vibrio, Bacillus, Pseudoalteromonas, Psychrobacter, Salinibacterium) making up 66 % of all sequences. The sequence library from microbial aerosol isolates, as with libraries found in other coastal/marine aerosol studies, was dominated at the phylum level by Proteobacteria, with additional representation from Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Seventy-five percent of the culturable microbial aerosols falling out under foggy conditions were most similar to GenBank-published sequences detected in marine environments. Using a 97 % similarity cut-off, sequence libraries from ocean surface and fog isolates shared eight operational taxonomic units (OTU's) in total, three of which were the most dominant OTU's in the library, representing large fractions of the ocean (28 %) and fog (21 %) libraries. The fog

  18. The Marine Realms Information Bank family of digital libraries: access to free online information for coastal and marine science

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lightsom, Frances L.; Allwardt, Alan O.

    2007-01-01

    Searching the World Wide Web for reliable information about specific topics or locations can be frustrating: too many hits, too little relevance. A well-designed digital library, offering a carefully selected collection of online resources, is an attractive alternative to web search engines. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) provides three digital libraries for coastal and marine science to serve the needs of a diverse audience--scientists, public servants, educators, and the public.

  19. Directory of Facilities. Development Activities in the Marine Environment of the Coastal Plains Region.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Philip G.

    Described in this directory are marine activities on the coasts of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, and the adjacent offshore area, known administratively as the Coastal Plains Region. The facilities for each state are described within these categories: educational institutions, state agencies, federal agencies, and industrial…

  20. Colwellia agarivorans sp. nov., an agar-digesting marine bacterium isolated from coastal seawater

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel Gram-stain-negative, facultatively anaerobic, yellowish and agar-digesting marine bacterium, designated strain QM50**T, was isolated from coastal seawater in an aquaculture site near Qingdao, China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rDNA sequences revealed that the novel isolate represented...

  1. Multispectral change vector analysis for monitoring coastal marine environments

    SciTech Connect

    Michalek, J.L.; Wagner, T.W.; Luczkovich, J.J.; Stoffle, R.W. Michigan Environmental Research Inst., Ann Arbor )

    1993-03-01

    This paper investigates the utility of multispectral Landsat Thematic Mapper satellite data for documenting changes to a Caribbean coastal zone using the change vector analysis processing technique. The area of study was the coastal region near the village of Buen Hombre on the north coast of the Dominican Republic. The change vector analysis techniques uses any number of spectral bands from multidate satellite data to produce change images that yield information about both the magnitude and direction of differences in pixel values (which are proportional to radiance). The final products were created by appending color-coded change pixels onto a black-and-white base map. The advantages and limitations of the technique for coastal inventories are discussed. 9 refs.

  2. Examining the Role of Quinone Moieties in the Photochemistry of Colored Dissolved Organic Matter in Coastal Waters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-09-30

    CDOM, and the resultant changes in its optical properties and molecular composition, particularly in coastal environments. OBJECTIVES CDOM is...capacity of surface waters, the growth of marine biota, and the production of volatile gases that impact climate . The identity of the key structural...flow fractionation and LC/MSn techniques have shown differences between marine and freshwater DOM due to structural changes associated with

  3. Biogeochemical Insights into B-Vitamins in the Coastal Marine Sediments of San Pedro Basin, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monteverde, D.; Berelson, W.; Baronas, J. J.; Sanudo-Wilhelmy, S. A.

    2015-12-01

    Coastal marine sediments support a high abundance of mircoorganisms which play key roles in the cycling of nutrients, trace metals, and carbon, yet little is known about many of the cofactors essential for their growth, such as the B-vitamins. The suite of B-vitamins (B1, B2, B6, B7, B12) are essential across all domains of life for both primary and secondary metabolism. Therefore, studying sediment concentrations of B-vitamins can provide a biochemical link between microbial processes and sediment geochemistry. Here we present B-vitamin pore water concentrations from suboxic sediment cores collected in September 2014 from San Pedro Basin, a silled, low oxygen, ~900 m deep coastal basin in the California Borderlands. We compare the B-vitamin concentrations (measured via LCMS) to a set of geochemical profiles including dissolved Fe (65-160 μM), dissolved Mn (30-300 nM), TCO2, solid phase organic carbon, and δ13C. Our results show high concentrations (0.8-3nM) of biotin (B7), commonly used for CO2 fixation as a cofactor in carboxylase enzymes. Thiamin (B1) concentrations were elevated (20-700nM), consistent with previous pore water measurements showing sediments could be a source of B1 to the ocean. Cobalamin (B12), a cofactor required for methyl transfers in methanogens, was also detected in pore waters (~4-40pM). The flavins (riboflavin [B2] and flavin mononucleotide[FMN]), molecules utilized in external electron transfer, showed a distinct increase with depth (10-90nM). Interestingly, the flavin profiles showed an inverse trend to dissolved Fe (Fe decreases with depth) providing a potential link to culture experiments which have shown extracellular flavin release to be a common trait in some metal reducers. As some of the first B-vitamin measurements made in marine sediments, these results illustrate the complex interaction between the microbial community and surrounding geochemical environment and provide exciting avenues for future research.

  4. Non-energy resources, Connecticut and Rhode Island coastal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Neff, N.F.; Lewis, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    Cores collected from Long Island Sound, Connecticut, were used to establish control on the geologic framework of the area. Lithologic and stratigraphic analyses verified the presence of the following units: (1) Cretaceous coastal plain, (2) Pleistocene glacial till, (3) late Pleistocene glacial lake, (4) late Pleistocene glacial outwash, and (5) Holocene fluvial, estuarine and marine deposits. Cores collected in Block Island Sound, Rhode Island, were obtained from inferred, relict shoreline features and were analyzed for heavy mineral content. Concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 3.4%; no significant downcore changes were found. The results indicated that surficial sediments in areas of high-velocity tidal flow yield greater amounts of heavy minerals than do inferred placer deposits. During the second phase of the program of study, Connecticut and Rhode Island pooled resources to develop a study plan for the comprehensive quantification of all non-energy resources in the adjacent waters of the states. A literature and data survey was conducted to assess the occurrence, extent, and accessibility of these resources. Sand and gravel and heavy minerals were found in concentrations offering potential for resource exploitation. Constraints on exploitation include (1) water depth restrictions for the protection of shellfish beds and public beaches, (2) fishing activities, (3) military, commercial, and fishing vessel traffic, (4) seafloor cable routes and (5) dump sites. Deposits composed of Pleistocene glacial sediments and/or Holocene marine sediments in regions of little or no user conflict were identified as sites potentially suitable for resource exploitation. The study plan stated additional data needs (geophysical profiling and vibracore sampling) at these sites. Subsequent to these recommendations, high-resolution seismic profiles and sidescan sonographs were obtained from these sites. Seismic stratigraphic analyses confirm the presence of extensive deposits of

  5. Holocene environmental conditions in South Georgia - a multi-proxy study on a coastal marine record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Sonja; Jivcov, Sandra; Groten, Sonja; Viehberg, Finn; Rethemeyer, Janet; Melles, Martin

    2014-05-01

    The Holocene environmental history of the sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia so far has been reconstructed from lake sediments, peat records and geomorphological observations. The data available indicate a postglacial ice retreat, which reached the coastal areas around the early Holocene. Climate reconstructions for the Holocene, on the other hand, provide a more complex picture, which may partly result from the influence of local effects. We present preliminary results of a multi-proxy study on a sediment core recovered in early 2013 from a coastal marine inlet (Little Jason Lagoon) in Cumberland West Bay. The results include elemental data (high resolution XRF-scans, total organic carbon (TOC), nitrogen, and sulphur, lipid biomarkers, and macrofossil data. The sediment core comprises a c. 11m long sequence, which contains a complete record of postglacial sedimentation in the inlet. Its base is formed by a diamicton, indicating a former glaciation of the site, which is overlain by well-stratified sediments passing over into more massive muds in the upper past. A radiocarbon age from the organic-rich sediments above the diamicton provides a first estimate of 9700 14C years BP for a minimum age of ice retreat. We use the elemental data to infer changes in clastic input (e.g., K/Ti ratios), productivity (TOC) and water salinity (Cl counts) in the course of the Holocene. While Little Jason Lagoon has a connection to the sea today (sill depth c. 1 m), a decrease in Cl counts downcore points to fresher conditions in the early part of the record. This could be an indicator for changing relative sea level and/or changes in the amounts of freshwater inflow from the catchment. Macroscopic plant remains and lipid biomarkers (n-alkanes, n-fatty acids and sterols) provide information on the terrestrial vegetation in the catchment and its changes through time as well as on the influence of marine conditions in the lagoon. We suggest that the record from Little Jason Lagoon

  6. [Characteristics of Pahs pollution in sediments from Leizhou coastal marine area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-Rong; Sun, Sheng-Li; Ke, Sheng

    2012-04-01

    Leizhou coastal marine area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay represented open coastal area and half-closed bay, respectively. This study discussed the differences of PAHs concentration levels, spatial distribution and sources in sediments from these three marine areas. The results showed that detected ratios of 15 PAHs were 100%, and major compounds were 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs, especialy Phe, Fla, Pry and Bbf; Sigma PAHs concentration was Leizhou < Shenzhen < Liusha. In spatial distribution, PAHs concentrations were the east < the south < the west in Leizhou; the inside > the outside, and the aquaculture > the non-aquaculture in Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay. It suggested that large-scale mariculture inside bay played an important role in PAHs pollution and might make it serious. Oil, fossil fuels and biomass burning were the dominant sources of PAHs in sediments from Leizhou coastal area, Liusha Bay and Shenzhen Bay.

  7. Application of space remote sensing technology to living marine resources in coastal zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes a compilation of new Landsat satellite remote sensing techniques for treatment of Coastal Zone Living Marine Resource problems. The techniques have been developed over the past three to five years using optimized digital analysis procedures and evaluated in limited coastal areas of the United States. However, most of the techniques are directly applicable to other areas of the world, particularly in those areas where Landsat satellite data are available. Each technique presented herein has been documented and published separately as a NASA report within the last three years. The data required to substantiate the conclusion that 'significant new space remote sensing techniques are now available for the treatment of Coastal Zone Living Marine Resource problems' are contained within these reports and are referenced herein.

  8. Application of space remote sensing technology to living marine resources in coastal zones

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes a compilation of new Landsat satellite remote sensing techniques for treatment of Coastal Zone Living Marine Resource problems. The techniques have been developed over the past three to five years using optimized digital analysis procedures and evaluated in limited coastal areas of the United States. However, most of the techniques are directly applicable to other areas of the world, particularly in those areas where Landsat satellite data are available. Each technique presented herein has been documented and published separately as a NASA report within the last three years. The data required to substantiate the conclusion that 'significant new space remote sensing techniques are now available for the treatment of Coastal Zone Living Marine Resource problems' are contained within these reports and are referenced herein.

  9. West Adriatic Coastal Water Excursions into the East Adriatic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-15

    than twoweeks, theWAC eddies and filaments grew freely and had enough time to reach middle east Adriatic waters. Navy Coastal Ocean Model (NCOM...simplified channel model suggests that the presence of the escarpment is a critical factor for producing cross-basin exchange of the coastal current following

  10. A Citizen's Guide to Coastal Water Resource Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Jim; Miller, Todd

    More people than ever are using coastal waters for recreation and business activities and living along the shores. This puts more pressure on natural resources and creates more conflicts between the people using the resources. This guidebook is designed to help citizens develop an understanding of how coastal management works. Four chapters in…

  11. Remote estimation of in water constituents in coastal waters using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioannou, Ioannis; Gilerson, Alexander; Ondrusek, Michael E.; Hlaing, Soe; Foster, Robert; El-Habashi, Ahmed; Bastani, Kaveh; Ahmed, Samir

    2014-10-01

    Remote estimations of oceanic constituents from optical reflectance spectra in coastal waters are challenging because of the complexity of the water composition as well as difficulties in estimation of water leaving radiance in several bands possibly due to inadequacy of current atmospheric correction schemes. This work focuses on development of a multiband inversion algorithm that combines remote sensing reflectance measurements at several wavelengths in the blue, green and red for retrievals of the absorption coefficients of phytoplankton, color dissolved organic matter and nonalgal particulates at 443nm as well as the particulate backscatter coefficient at 443nm. The algorithm was developed, using neural networks (NN), and was designed to use as input measurements on ocean color bands matching those of the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). The NN is trained on a simulated data set generated through a biooptical model for a broad range of typical coastal water parameters. The NN was evaluated using several statistical indicators, initially on the simulated data-set, as well as on field data from the NASA bio-Optical Marine Algorithm Data set, NOMAD, and data from our own field campaigns in the Chesapeake Bay which represent well the range of water optical properties as well as chlorophyll concentrations in coastal regions. The algorithm was also finally applied on a satellite - in situ databases that were assembled for the Chesapeake Bay region using MODIS and VIIRS satellite data. These databases were created using in-situ chlorophyll concentrations routinely measured in different locations throughout Chesapeake Bay and satellite reflectance overpass data that coexist in time with these in-situ measurements. NN application on this data-sets suggests that the blue (412 and 443nm) satellite bands are erroneous. The NN which was assessed for retrievals from VIIRS using only the 486, 551 and 671 bands showed that retrievals that omitted the 671 nm

  12. Application of Hyperspectral Remote Sensing Techniques to Evaluate Water Quality in Turbid Coastal Waters of South Carolina.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, K. A.; Ryan, K.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal and inland waters represent a diverse set of resources that support natural habitat and provide valuable ecosystem services to the human population. Conventional techniques to monitor water quality using in situ sensors and laboratory analysis of water samples can be very time- and cost-intensive. Alternatively, remote sensing techniques offer better spatial coverage and temporal resolution to accurately characterize the dynamic and unique water quality parameters. Existing remote sensing ocean color products, such as the water quality proxy chlorophyll-a, are based on ocean derived bio-optical models that are primarily calibrated in Case 1 type waters. These traditional models fail to work when applied in turbid (Case 2 type), coastal waters due to spectral interference from other associated color producing agents such as colored dissolved organic matter and suspended sediments. In this work, we introduce a novel technique for the predictive modeling of chlorophyll-a using a multivariate-based approach applied to in situ hyperspectral radiometric data collected from the coastal waters of Long Bay, South Carolina. This method uses a partial least-squares regression model to identify prominent wavelengths that are more sensitive to chlorophyll-a relative to other associated color-producing agents. The new model was able to explain 80% of the observed chlorophyll-a variability in Long Bay with RMSE = 2.03 μg/L. This approach capitalizes on the spectral advantage gained from current and future hyperspectral sensors, thus providing a more robust predicting model. This enhanced mode of water quality monitoring in marine environments will provide insight to point-sources and problem areas that may contribute to a decline in water quality. The utility of this tool is in its versatility to a diverse set of coastal waters and its use by coastal and fisheries managers with regard to recreation, regulation, economic and public health purposes.

  13. Simultaneous Retrieval of Aerosol and Marine Parameters in Coastal Areas Using a Coupled Atmosphere-Ocean Radiative Transfer Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Yongzhen; Li, Wei; Stamnes, Knut; Stamnes, Jakob J.; Sorensen, Kai

    2015-12-01

    Simultaneous retrieval of aerosol and marine parameters using inverse techniques based on a coupled atmosphere-ocean radiative transfer model (CRTM) and optimal estimation can yield considerably improved retrieval accuracy based on radiances measured by MERIS, MODIS, and future instruments like OLCI compared with traditional methods. As an example, we discuss simultaneous retrieval in a Norwegian coastal environment from MERIS and MODIS data using a one-step nonlinear optimal estimation method instead of the traditional two-step look up table approach. To increase retrieval speed without loss of accuracy we replace the forward CRTM by a radial basis function neural network. Five parameters are obtained from the retrieval: aerosol optical depth, aerosol bimodal fraction, chlorophyll concentration, absorption by colored dissolved organic matter, and backscattering coefficient. The water leaving radiance is provided as a by-product. We demonstrate the accuracy of this simultaneous retrieval approach through a comparison with match-ups from a Norwegian coastal area.

  14. Cyclobacterium halophilum sp. nov., a marine bacterium isolated from a coastal-marine wetland.

    PubMed

    Shahinpei, Azadeh; Amoozegar, Mohammad Ali; Sepahy, Abbas Akhavan; Schumann, Peter; Ventosa, Antonio

    2014-03-01

    A novel Gram-stain-negative, slightly halophilic bacterium, designated strain GASx41(T), was isolated from soil of the coastal-marine wetland Gomishan in Iran. Cells of strain GASx41(T) were curved, ring-like or horseshoe-shaped rods and non-motile. Strain GASx41(T) was strictly aerobic, and catalase- and oxidase-positive. The strain was able to grow at NaCl concentrations of 1-10% (w/v), with optimum growth occurring at 2.5-3% (w/v) NaCl. The optimum temperature and pH for growth were 25-30 °C and pH 7.5-8.0. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, strain GASx41(T) was shown to belong to the genus Cyclobacterium within the phylum Bacteroidetes and showed closest phylogenetic similarity to 'Cyclobacterium jeungdonense' HMD3055 (98.0%). The DNA G+C content of strain GASx41(T) was 48.1 mol%. The major cellular fatty acids of strain GASx41(T) were iso-C15 : 0, summed feature 4 (iso-C15 : 0 2-OH and/or C16 : 1ω7c), anteiso-C15 : 0 2-OH, anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C17 : 0 3-OH, and its polar lipid pattern consisted of phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylcholine and 12 unknown lipids. The only quinone present was menaquinone 7 (MK-7). All these features confirmed the placement of isolate GASx41(T) within the genus Cyclobacterium. On the basis of evidence from this study, a novel species of the genus Cyclobacterium, Cyclobacterium halophilum sp. nov., is proposed, with strain GASx41(T) ( = IBRC-M 10761(T) = CECT 8341(T)) as the type strain.

  15. Predicting Effects of Coastal Acidification on Marine Bivalve Populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) is increasing in the oceans and causing changes in seawater pH commonly described as ocean or coastal acidification. It is now well-established that, when reproduced in laboratory experiments, these increases in pCO2 can reduce survi...

  16. Predicting Effects of Coastal Acidification on Marine Bivalve Populations

    EPA Science Inventory

    The partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) is increasing in the oceans and causing changes in seawater pH commonly described as ocean or coastal acidification. It is now well-established that, when reproduced in laboratory experiments, these increases in pCO2 can reduce survi...

  17. North Carolina Marine Education Manual, Unit Three: Coastal Ecology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauldin, Lundie; Frankenberg, Dirk

    Two dozen activities on the ecology of coastal areas, with special emphasis on North Carolina's coastline, comprise this manual for junior high school science teachers. Provided are a table correlating these lessons with state curriculum guidelines, and a summary of the unit's goals and behavioral objectives. Among the topics included are coastal…

  18. North Carolina Marine Education Manual, Unit Four: Coastal Beginnings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mauldin, Lundie, Ed.; And Others

    Presented are simulations, puzzles, class discussions, crafts and other activities designed to introduce the past cultures of North Carolina's coastal peoples to elementary and secondary students. The manual is one of several produced by North Carolina teachers and university faculty under the "Man and the Seacoast" project with Sea…

  19. Climate change impacts on marine water quality: The case study of the Northern Adriatic sea.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, J; Torresan, S; Critto, A; Zabeo, A; Brigolin, D; Carniel, S; Pastres, R; Marcomini, A

    2016-01-30

    Climate change is posing additional pressures on coastal ecosystems due to variations in water biogeochemical and physico-chemical parameters (e.g., pH, salinity) leading to aquatic ecosystem degradation. With the main aim of analyzing the potential impacts of climate change on marine water quality, a Regional Risk Assessment methodology was developed and applied to coastal marine waters of the North Adriatic. It integrates the outputs of regional biogeochemical and physico-chemical models considering future climate change scenarios (i.e., years 2070 and 2100) with site-specific environmental and socio-economic indicators. Results showed that salinity and temperature will be the main drivers of changes, together with macronutrients, especially in the area of the Po' river delta. The final outputs are exposure, susceptibility and risk maps supporting the communication of the potential consequences of climate change on water quality to decision makers and stakeholders and provide a basis for the definition of adaptation and management strategies.

  20. Development Strategy for Effective Sampling to Detect Possible Nutrient Fluxes in Oligotrophic Coastal Reef Waters in the Caribbean

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-01-01

    Corredor, J. Morrel, Dong Shan Ko, R.G. Zika , Christopher Mooers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER N/A 5d...fluxes in oligotrophic coastal reef waters in the Caribbean WG Mendoza and RG Zika , Division of Marine and Atmospheric Chemistry, Rosenstiel School

  1. Ecotoxicological evaluation of the risk posed by bisphenol A, triclosan, and 4-nonylphenol in coastal waters using early life stages of marine organisms (Isochrysis galbana, Mytilus galloprovincialis, Paracentrotus lividus, and Acartia clausi).

    PubMed

    Tato, Tania; Salgueiro-González, Noelia; León, Víctor M; González, Sergio; Beiras, Ricardo

    2017-09-23

    This study assessed the environmental risk on coastal ecosystems posed by three phenolic compounds of special environmental and human health concern used in plastics and household products: bisphenol A (BPA), triclosan (TCS) and 4-nonylphenol (4-NP). These three chemicals are among the organic contaminants most frequently detected in wastewater. The most toxic compound tested was 4-NP, with 10% effective concentration at 11.1 μg L(-1) for Isochrysis galbana, 110.5 μg L(-1) for Mytilus galloprovincialis, 53.8 μg L(-1) for Paracentrotus lividus, and 29.0 μg L(-1) for Acartia clausi, followed by TCS (14.6 μg L(-1) for I. galbana, 149.8 μg L(-1) for M. galloprovincialis, 129.9 μg L(-1) for P. lividus, and 64.8 μg L(-1) for A. clausi). For all species tested, BPA was the less toxic chemical, with toxicity thresholds ranging between 400 and 1200 μg L(-1) except for A. clausi nauplii (186 μg L(-1)). The relatively narrow range of variation in toxicity considering the broad physiological differences among the biological models used point at non-selective mechanisms of toxicity for these aromatic organics. Microalgae, the main primary producers in pelagic ecosystems, showed particularly high susceptibility to the chemicals tested. When the toxicity thresholds experimentally obtained were compared to the maximum environmental concentrations reported in coastal waters, the risk quotients obtained correspond to very low or low risk for BPA and TCS, and from low to high for 4-NP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Hydrocarbons in seawater, sediment, and oyster from the Omani coastal waters

    SciTech Connect

    Badawy, M.I.; Al-Harthy, F. )

    1991-09-01

    Over half of the world crude oil supply is transported from the Arabian Gulf area via tankers through the narrow Strait of Hormuz, which forms the northern boundary of the Sultanate of Oman. Generally, crude oil tanker traffic off the coast of Oman is relatively heavy and all the vessels entering the Gulf to load at various terminals pass by the coastal line of Oman. The present work plays an essential part on the Omani marine monitoring program. The purpose of this program was to establish baseline levels of selected heavy metals, chlorinated and petroleum hydrocarbons in some marine species. This study aims to assess hydrocarbons in seawater, sediment and rocky oysters from the different sites along Omani coastal waters.

  3. Water resources of Lincoln County coastal area, Oregon

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frank, F.J.; Laenen, Antonius

    1976-01-01

    Water supplies for all municipalities in Lincoln County currently (1975) are obtained from surface-water sources. Because of rapid economic development of the coastal area, it is expected that additional water will be needed in the future. Additional water can be supplied (1) by reservoirs on major streams; (2) by the expansion, in some locations, of present surface-water facilities on small streams; and (3) locally, by an additional small volume of supplemental water from ground-water sources.

  4. Megacities and large urban agglomerations in the coastal zone: interactions between atmosphere, land, and marine ecosystems.

    PubMed

    von Glasow, Roland; Jickells, Tim D; Baklanov, Alexander; Carmichael, Gregory R; Church, Tom M; Gallardo, Laura; Hughes, Claire; Kanakidou, Maria; Liss, Peter S; Mee, Laurence; Raine, Robin; Ramachandran, Purvaja; Ramesh, R; Sundseth, Kyrre; Tsunogai, Urumu; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Zhu, Tong

    2013-02-01

    Megacities are not only important drivers for socio-economic development but also sources of environmental challenges. Many megacities and large urban agglomerations are located in the coastal zone where land, atmosphere, and ocean meet, posing multiple environmental challenges which we consider here. The atmospheric flow around megacities is complicated by urban heat island effects and topographic flows and sea breezes and influences air pollution and human health. The outflow of polluted air over the ocean perturbs biogeochemical processes. Contaminant inputs can damage downstream coastal zone ecosystem function and resources including fisheries, induce harmful algal blooms and feedback to the atmosphere via marine emissions. The scale of influence of megacities in the coastal zone is hundreds to thousands of kilometers in the atmosphere and tens to hundreds of kilometers in the ocean. We list research needs to further our understanding of coastal megacities with the ultimate aim to improve their environmental management.

  5. Phytoplankton Communities in Louisiana coastal waters and the continental shelf

    EPA Science Inventory

    Louisiana coastal waters and the adjacent continental shelf receive large freshwater and nutrient inputs from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers, creating favorable conditions for increased phytoplankton productivity. To examine inshore-offshore patterns in phytoplankton comm...

  6. Phytoplankton Communities in Louisiana coastal waters and the continental shelf

    EPA Science Inventory

    Louisiana coastal waters and the adjacent continental shelf receive large freshwater and nutrient inputs from the Mississippi and Atchafalaya Rivers, creating favorable conditions for increased phytoplankton productivity. To examine inshore-offshore patterns in phytoplankton comm...

  7. Proceedings of the fourth international conference on remote sensing for marine and coastal environments. Technology and applications: Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    1997-06-01

    The conference proceedings contain papers which focus on the application of remote sensing technology and geographic information systems to solve problems in marine and coastal environments. Sixty-nine papers were selected for the database from Volume 1 of the proceedings. The topics included in the proceedings are: natural resource management, coastal hazards, oceanographic applications, mapping and charting, data access, coastal ocean color, radar satellites/coastal radars, underwater remote sensing, and new sensors and systems. Subtopics of papers in Volume 1 include: oil spills and marine pollution; Florida ecosystems; air-sea interaction and sea ice; living resources; optics and models; hyperspectral sensors and applications; and charting and mapping.

  8. Carbon budgets and potential blue carbon stores in Scotland's coastal and marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howe, John; austin, william

    2016-04-01

    The role of marine ecosystems in storing blue carbon has increasingly become a topic of interest to both scientists and politicians. This is the first multidisciplinary study to assess Scotland's marine blue carbon stores, using GIS to collate habitat information based on existing data. Relevant scientific information on primary habitats for carbon uptake and storage has been reviewed, and quantitative rates of production and storage were obtained. Habitats reviewed include kelp, phytoplankton, saltmarshes, biogenic reefs (including maerl), marine sediments (coastal and shelf), and postglacial geological sediments. Each habitat has been individually assessed for any specific threats to its carbon sequestration ability. Here we present an ecosystem-scale inventory of the key rates and ultimate sequestration capacity of each habitat. Coastal and offshore sediments are the main repositories for carbon in Scotland's marine environment. Habitat-forming species on the coast (seagrasses, saltmarsh, bivalve beds, coralline algae), are highly productive but their contribution to the overall carbon budget is very small because of the limited extent of each habitat. This study highlights the importance of marine carbon stores in global carbon cycles, and the implications of climate change on the ability of marine ecosystems to sequester carbon.

  9. Biogeochemical classification of South Florida's estuarine and coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Briceño, Henry O; Boyer, Joseph N; Castro, Joffre; Harlem, Peter

    2013-10-15

    South Florida's watersheds have endured a century of urban and agricultural development and disruption of their hydrology. Spatial characterization of South Florida's estuarine and coastal waters is important to Everglades' restoration programs. We applied Factor Analysis and Hierarchical Clustering of water quality data in tandem to characterize and spatially subdivide South Florida's coastal and estuarine waters. Segmentation rendered forty-four biogeochemically distinct water bodies whose spatial distribution is closely linked to geomorphology, circulation, benthic community pattern, and to water management. This segmentation has been adopted with minor changes by federal and state environmental agencies to derive numeric nutrient criteria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Remote Sensing and Prediction of the Coastal Marine Boundary Layer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-09-30

    CIMMS LES model and the efforts are concentrating on debugging and testing the fidelity of formulation of each process by contrasting solutions with...explicit and bulk microphysics. 5. COAMPS, equipped with the CIMMS bulk drizzle scheme, is able to produce breakup of marine stratocumulus for

  11. Isotopic compositions of tropical East African flora and their potential as source indicators of organic matter in coastal marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muzuka, Alfred N. N.

    1999-04-01

    significant difference in the isotopic compositions between the two groups. In the savannah environment, where a contribution from the C 4 types of plants might be substantial, the δ13C value for a terrestrial end member needs to be established prior to evaluation of the terrestrially derived organic matter in the marine environment. Owing to a significant contribution of sea grasses to the total organic matter preserved in coastal marine sediments, the stable isotopes of organic C seem to have a limited applicability as source indicators in the East African coastal waters. Furthermore, the results indicate that N stable isotopes seem to have a limited applicability as source indicators in coastal waters of East Africa. However, more work needs to be conducted to determine the terrestrial and sea grass end member values for the coastal areas.

  12. Organization of marine phenology data in support of planning and conservation in ocean and coastal ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, Kathryn A.; Fornwall, Mark D.; Weltzin, Jake F.; Griffis, R.B.

    2014-01-01

    Among the many effects of climate change is its influence on the phenology of biota. In marine and coastal ecosystems, phenological shifts have been documented for multiple life forms; however, biological data related to marine species' phenology remain difficult to access and is under-used. We conducted an assessment of potential sources of biological data for marine species and their availability for use in phenological analyses and assessments. Our evaluations showed that data potentially related to understanding marine species' phenology are available through online resources of governmental, academic, and non-governmental organizations, but appropriate datasets are often difficult to discover and access, presenting opportunities for scientific infrastructure improvement. The developing Federal Marine Data Architecture when fully implemented will improve data flow and standardization for marine data within major federal repositories and provide an archival repository for collaborating academic and public data contributors. Another opportunity, largely untapped, is the engagement of citizen scientists in standardized collection of marine phenology data and contribution of these data to established data flows. Use of metadata with marine phenology related keywords could improve discovery and access to appropriate datasets. When data originators choose to self-publish, publication of research datasets with a digital object identifier, linked to metadata, will also improve subsequent discovery and access. Phenological changes in the marine environment will affect human economics, food systems, and recreation. No one source of data will be sufficient to understand these changes. The collective attention of marine data collectors is needed—whether with an agency, an educational institution, or a citizen scientist group—toward adopting the data management processes and standards needed to ensure availability of sufficient and useable marine data to understand

  13. Self-similar distribution of oil spills in European coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redondo, Jose M; Platonov, Alexei K

    2009-01-01

    Marine pollution has been highlighted thanks to the advances in detection techniques as well as increasing coverage of catastrophes (e.g. the oil tankers Amoco Cadiz, Exxon Valdez, Erika, and Prestige) and of smaller oil spills from ships. The new satellite based sensors SAR and ASAR and new methods of oil spill detection and analysis coupled with self-similar statistical techniques allow surveys of environmental pollution monitoring large areas of the ocean. We present a statistical analysis of more than 700 SAR images obtained during 1996-2000, also comparing the detected small pollution events with the historical databases of great marine accidents during 1966-2004 in European coastal waters. We show that the statistical distribution of the number of oil spills as a function of their size corresponds to Zipf's law, and that the common small spills are comparable to the large accidents due to the high frequency of the smaller pollution events. Marine pollution from tankers and ships, which has been detected as oil spills between 0.01 and 100 km2, follows the marine transit routes. Multi-fractal methods are used to distinguish between natural slicks and spills, in order to estimate the oil spill index in European coastal waters, and in particular, the north-western Mediterranean Sea, which, due to the influence of local winds, shows optimal conditions for oil spill detection.

  14. Coastal Water Protection the Navy Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hura, Myron; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This article describes procedures taken by the U.S. Navy to minimize the environmental import and pollution in harbors and coastal areas resulting from ships, aircraft and shore-based Navel operations. (SL)

  15. Coastal Water Protection the Navy Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hura, Myron; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This article describes procedures taken by the U.S. Navy to minimize the environmental import and pollution in harbors and coastal areas resulting from ships, aircraft and shore-based Navel operations. (SL)

  16. Origins and distribution of saline ground waters in the Floridan Aquifer in coastal southwest Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steinkampf, W.C.

    1982-01-01

    Twenty-three ground-water samples from the Floridan aquifer in coastal southwest Florida show that water quality deteriorates to the south and west. The waters grade from a fresh calcium magnesium bicarbonate sulfate type to a very saline sodium magnesium chloride type downgradient. Bromide-chloride and specific conductance ratios indicate that dilution of marine-like ground water is a signigicant mechanism in the evolution of the different water types found. Calcium, magnesium , and bicarbonate concentrations occur within a relatively narrow range and are primarily a function of mineral equilibria. Magnesium and strontium concentration distributions suggest several mineral-water interactions, including aragonite inversion, incongruent solution of magnesium calcite to a lower magnesian form, and dedolomitization. Sulfate concentrations increase downgradient and evince gypsum-anhydrite solution, particularly in the fresher waters. The extent to which each factor affects dissolved specie concentrations is a function of the location of the water in the flow system. (USGS)

  17. Microplastics in mussels along the coastal waters of China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiana; Qu, Xiaoyun; Su, Lei; Zhang, Weiwei; Yang, Dongqi; Kolandhasamy, Prabhu; Li, Daoji; Shi, Huahong

    2016-07-01

    Microplastic has been confirmed as an emerging pollutant in marine environments. One of the primary environmental risks of microplastics is their bioavailability for aquatic organisms. Bivalves are of particular interest because their extensive filter-feeding activity exposes them directly to microplastics present in the water column. In the present study, we investigated microplastic pollution in mussels (Mytilus edulis) from 22 sites along 12,400 mile coastlines of China in 2015. The number of total microplastics varied from 0.9 to 4.6 items/g and from 1.5 to 7.6 items/individual. M. edulis contained more microplastics (2.7 items/g) in wild groups than that (1.6 items/g) in farmed groups. The abundance of microplastics was 3.3 items/g in mussels from the areas with intensive human activities and significantly higher than that (1.6 items/g) with less human activities. The most common microplastics were fibers, followed by fragments. The proportion of microplastics less than 250 μm in size arranged from 17% to 79% of the total microplastics. Diatom was distinguished from microplastics in mussels for the first time using Scanning Electron Microscope. Our results suggested that the numbers of microplastic kept within a relatively narrow range in mussels and were closely related to the contamination of the environments. We proposed that mussels could be used as a potential bioindicator of microplastic pollution of the coastal environment.

  18. INCREASE: Innovation and Networking for the integration of Coastal Radars into European mArine SErvices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mader, Julien; Rubio, Anna; Asensio Igoa, Jose Luis; Corgnati, Lorenzo; Mantovani, Carlo; Griffa, Annalisa; Gorringe, Patrick; Alba, Marco; Novellino, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    High Frequency radar (HFR) is a land-based remote sensing instrument offering a unique insight to coastal ocean variability, by providing synoptic, high frequency and high resolution data at the ocean atmosphere interface. HFRs have become invaluable tools in the field of operational oceanography for measuring surface currents, waves and winds, with direct applications in different sectors and an unprecedented potential for the integrated management of the coastal zone. To further the use of HFRs into the Copernicus Marine environment monitoring service, CMEMS, is becoming crucial to ensure the improved management of several related key issues such as Marine Safety, Marine Resources, Coastal & Marine Environment, Weather, Climate & Seasonal Forecast. In this context, INCREASE (Innovation and Networking for the integration of Coastal Radars into European mArine SErvices) project aims to set the necessary developments towards the integration of the existing European HFR operational systems into the CMEMS, following five main objectives: (i) Define and implement a common data and metadata model for HFR real-time data; (ii) Provide HFR quality controlled real-time surface currents and key derived products; (iii) Set the basis for the management of historical data and methodologies for advanced delayed mode quality-control techniques; (iv) Advance the use of HFR data for improving CMEMS numerical modelling systems; and (v) Enable an HFR European operational node to ensure the link with operational CMEMS. In cooperation with other ongoing initiatives (like the EuroGOOS HFR Task Team and the European project JERICO_NEXT), INCREASE has already set up the data management infrastructure to manage and make discoverable and accessible near real time data from 30 systems in Europe. This paper presents the achieved results and available products and features.

  19. Residue profiles of brodifacoum in coastal marine species following an island rodent eradication.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Bryce M; Fisher, Penny; Beaven, Brent

    2015-03-01

    The second-generation anticoagulant rodenticide brodifacoum is an effective tool for the eradication of invasive rodents from islands and fenced sanctuaries, for biodiversity restoration. However, broadcast application of brodifacoum bait on islands may expose non-target wildlife in coastal marine environments to brodifacoum, with subsequent secondary exposure risk for humans if such marine wildlife is harvested for consumption. We report a case study of monitoring selected marine species following aerial application of brodifacoum bait in August 2011 to eradicate Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus) from Ulva Island, New Zealand. Residual concentrations of brodifacoum were detected in 3 of 10 species of coastal fish or shellfish sampled 43-176d after bait application commenced. Residual brodifacoum concentrations were found in liver, but not muscle tissue, of 2 of 24 samples of blue cod (0.026 and 0.092 µg/g; Parapercis colias) captured live then euthanized for tissue sampling. Residual brodifacoum concentrations were also found in whole-body samples of 4 of 24 mussels (range=0.001-0.022 µg/g, n=4; Mytilus edulis) and 4 of 24 limpets (range=0.001-0.016 µg/g, n=4; Cellana ornata). Measured residue concentrations in all three species were assessed as unlikely to have eventually caused mortality of the sampled individuals. We also conducted a literature review and determined that in eleven previous accounts of residue examination of coastal marine species following aerial applications of brodifacoum bait, including our results from Ulva Island, the overall rate of residue detection was 5.6% for marine invertebrates (11 of 196 samples tested) and 3.1% for fish (2 of 65 samples tested). Furthermore, our results from Ulva Island are the first known detection of brodifacoum residue in fish liver following an aerial application of brodifacoum bait. Although our findings confirm the potential for coastal marine wildlife to be exposed to brodifacoum following island rodent

  20. Marine and Coastal Geology in Europe, with Special Attention to the United Kingdom and Israel,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-09-04

    AD-Ai 46 4?? MARINE AND COASTAL GEOLOGY IN EUROPE WITH SPECIALii ATTENTION TO THE UNITED KINGDOM AND ISRAEL(U) OFFICE OF NAVAL RESEARCH LONDON...tRIVI AiD COASAL GDOLOGY IN EUROPE, WITH SPECIAL ATTENTION "T ?O THE UNITED KINGDOM AND ISRAEL These are not good times in Europe for research in...waves- arou" the UK for coastal engineer, " o lwnnpUrposes. The Taunton research staff also has .: b*d a, lug - history of studies of the, dynamics of

  1. Modelling accumulation of marine plastics in the coastal zone; what are the dominant physical processes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Critchell, Kay; Lambrechts, Jonathan

    2016-03-01

    Anthropogenic marine debris, mainly of plastic origin, is accumulating in estuarine and coastal environments around the world causing damage to fauna, flora and habitats. Plastics also have the potential to accumulate in the food web, as well as causing economic losses to tourism and sea-going industries. If we are to manage this increasing threat, we must first understand where debris is accumulating and why these locations are different to others that do not accumulate large amounts of marine debris. This paper demonstrates an advection-diffusion model that includes beaching, settling, resuspension/re-floating, degradation and topographic effects on the wind in nearshore waters to quantify the relative importance of these physical processes governing plastic debris accumulation. The aim of this paper is to prioritise research that will improve modelling outputs in the future. We have found that the physical characteristic of the source location has by far the largest effect on the fate of the debris. The diffusivity, used to parameterise the sub-grid scale movements, and the relationship between debris resuspension/re-floating from beaches and the wind shadow created by high islands also has a dramatic impact on the modelling results. The rate of degradation of macroplastics into microplastics also have a large influence in the result of the modelling. The other processes presented (settling, wind drift velocity) also help determine the fate of debris, but to a lesser degree. These findings may help prioritise research on physical processes that affect plastic accumulation, leading to more accurate modelling, and subsequently management in the future.

  2. Mollusk-isotope records of Plio-Pleistocene marine paleoclimate, U. S. Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain

    SciTech Connect

    Krantz, D.E. )

    1990-08-01

    Stable oxygen and carbon isotope profiles from fossil scallop shells provide detailed paleoenvironmental information for the Pliocene and early Pleistocene of the Middle Atlantic Coastal Plain. Scallop specimens were collected from strata which represent at least five major marine transgressions. Minimum and maximum paleotemperatures were calculated from the {delta}{sup 18}O ranges recorded in each shell profile, after adjusting for changes in seawater {delta}{sup 18}O related to changes in global ice volume. Paleotemperature ranges from each stratigraphic unit were compared with modern conditions on the shelves of the Middle and South Atlantic Bight, and with paleotemperatures estimated by Hazel (1971b, 1988) from the ostracode faunas. The mollusk-isotope records indicate that the marine climate of the Atlantic Shelf was mild temperate during the deposition of the Sunken Meadow Member of the Yorktown Formation in the early Pliocene. The climate became warm temperate during the middle and late Pliocene transgressions which deposited the Rushmere, Morgarts Beach and Moore House Members of the Yorktown Formation and the Chowan River Formation. During the deposition of the James City Formation in the early Pleistocene, temperatures returned to a mild temperate climate similar to that of the modern Virginia Bight shelf. The character of the isotope profiles indicates that hydrographic conditions were generally stable and similar to those of the modern Middle Atlantic Bight. The {delta}{sup 13}C profiles of most of the shells show trends suggestive of spring phytoplankton blooms and summer water-column stratification. Anomalies in several profiles are interpreted as reduced salinity events, probably related to river discharge, which most commonly occur in the spring. There is no convincing evidence in the shell profiles for upwelling.

  3. Citizens' guides to ocean and coastal law: Guide to laws regulating coastal water pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-01-01

    The pamphlet is intended to help citizens, like those participating in water quality monitoring programs, who want to understand the complex nature of state, federal, and local laws that apply to the chief sources of coastal water pollution: point source pollution--pollution discharged from pipes which require state and federal permits; and nonpoint source pollution--generally unregulated runoff from agricultural operations and urban land uses, timber harvesting (silviculture), and construction activities. The pamphlet explains the legal standards and penalties established by coastal water quality laws so that citizens can better participate in the implementation and enforcement of these laws.

  4. Marine habitat mapping, classification and monitoring in the coastal North Sea: Scientific vs. stakeholder interests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hass, H. Christian; Mielck, Finn; Papenmeier, Svenja; Fiorentino, Dario

    2016-04-01

    Producing detailed maps of the seafloor that include both, water depth and simple textural characteristics has always been a challenge to scientists. In this context, marine habitat maps are an essential tool to comprehend the complexity, the spatial distribution and the ecological status of different seafloor types. The increasing need for more detail demands additional information on the texture of the sediment, bedforms and information on benthic sessile life. For long time, taking samples and videos/photographs followed by interpolation over larger distances was the only feasible way to gain information about sedimentary features such as grain-size distribution and bedforms. While ground truthing is still necessary, swath systems such as multibeam echo sounders (MBES) and sidescan sonars (SSS), as well as single beam acoustic ground discrimination systems (AGDS) became available to map the seafloor area-wide (MBES, SSS), fast and in great detail. Where area-wide measurements are impossible or unavailable point measurements are interpolated, classified and modeled. To keep pace with environmental change in the highly dynamic coastal areas of the North Sea (here: German Bight) monitoring that utilizes all of the mentioned techniques is a necessity. Since monitoring of larger areas is quite expensive, concepts for monitoring strategies were developed in scientific projects such as "WIMO" ("Scientific monitoring concepts for the German Bight, SE North Sea"). While instrumentation becomes better and better and interdisciplinary methods are being developed, the gap between basic scientific interests and stakeholder needs often seem to move in opposite directions. There are two main tendencies: the need to better understand nature systems (for theoretical purposes) and the one to simplify nature (for applied purposes). Science trends to resolve the most detail in highest precision employing soft gradients and/or fuzzy borders instead of crisp demarcations and

  5. Petroleum oil and mercury pollution from shipwrecks in Norwegian coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Ndungu, Kuria; Beylich, Björnar A; Staalstrøm, André; Øxnevad, Sigurd; Berge, John A; Braaten, Hans Fredrik Veiteberg; Schaanning, Morten; Bergstrøm, Rune

    2017-03-28

    Worldwide there are tens of thousands of sunken shipwrecks lying on the coastal seabed. These potentially polluting wrecks (PPW) are estimated to hold 3-25milliont of oil. Other hazardous cargo in PPW includes ordnance, chemicals and radioactive waste. Here, we present and discuss studies on mercury (Hg) and oil pollution in coastal marine sediment caused by two of the >2100 documented PPW in Norwegian marine waters. The German World War II (WWII) submarine (U-864) lies at about 150m below the sea surface, near the Norwegian North Sea island of Fedje. The submarine is estimated to have been carrying 67t of elemental Hg, some of which has leaked on to surrounding sediment. The total Hg concentration in bottom surface sediment within a 200m radius of the wreckage decreases from 100g/kgd.w. at the wreckage hotspot to about 1mg/kgd.w. at 100m from the hotspot. The second wreck is a German WWII cargo ship (Nordvard), that lies at a depth of ca. 30m near the Norwegian harbor of Moss. Oil leakage from Nordvard has contaminated the bottom coastal sediment with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The findings from this study provide useful insight to coastal administration authorities involved in assessing and remediating wreck-borne pollution from any of the tens of thousands of sunken shipwrecks.

  6. Human recreational exposure to antibiotic resistant bacteria in coastal bathing waters.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Anne F C; Zhang, Lihong; Balfour, Andrew J; Garside, Ruth; Gaze, William H

    2015-09-01

    Infections caused by antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB) are associated with poor health outcomes and are recognised globally as a serious health problem. Much research has been conducted on the transmission of ARB to humans. Yet the role the natural environment plays in the spread of ARB and antibiotic resistance genes is not well understood. Antibiotic resistant bacteria have been detected in natural aquatic environments, and ingestion of seawater during water sports is one route by which many people could be directly exposed. The aim was to estimate the prevalence of resistance to one clinically important class of antibiotics (third-generation cephalosporins (3GCs)) amongst Escherichia coli in coastal surface waters in England and Wales. Prevalence data was used to quantify ingestion of 3GC-resistant E. coli (3GCREC) by people participating in water sports in designated coastal bathing waters. A further aim was to use this value to derive a population-level estimate of exposure to these bacteria during recreational use of coastal waters in 2012. The prevalence of 3GC-resistance amongst E. coli isolated from coastal surface waters was estimated using culture-based methods. This was combined with the density of E. coli reported in designated coastal bathing waters along with estimations of the volumes of water ingested during various water sports reported in the literature to calculate the mean number of 3GCREC ingested during different water sports. 0.12% of E. coli isolated from surface waters were resistant to 3GCs. This value was used to estimate that in England and Wales over 6.3 million water sport sessions occurred in 2012 that resulted in the ingestion of at least one 3GCREC. Despite the low prevalence of resistance to 3GCs amongst E. coli in surface waters, there is an identifiable human exposure risk for water users, which varies with the type of water sport undertaken. The relative importance of this exposure is likely to be greater in areas where a

  7. Evolution of a Mediterranean coastal zone: human impacts on the marine environment of Cape Creus.

    PubMed

    Lloret, Josep; Riera, Victòria

    2008-12-01

    This study presents an integrated analysis of the evolution of the marine environment and the human uses in Cape Creus, a Mediterranean coastal area where intense commercial fisheries and recreational uses have coexisted over the last fifty years. The investigation synthesizes the documented impacts of human activities on the marine environment of Cap de Creus and integrates them with new data. In particular, the evolution of vulnerable, exploited species is used to evaluate the fishing impacts. The effects of area protection through the establishment of a marine reserve in the late 1990s and the potential climate change impacts are also considered. The evolution of the human uses is marked by the increasing socioeconomic importance of recreational activities (which affect species and habitats) in detriment to artisanal and red coral fisheries (which principally affect at a species level). Overall, populations of sedentary, vulnerable exploited species, hard sessile benthic invertebrates, and ecologically fragile habitats, such as seagrass meadows, the coralligenous and infralittoral algal assemblages have been the most negatively impacted by anthropogenic activities. Albeit human uses currently constitute the largest negative impact on the marine environment of Cap de Creus, climate change is emerging as a key factor that could have considerable implications for the marine environment and tourism activities. The establishment of the marine reserve appears to have had little socioeconomic impact, but there is some evidence that it had some positive biological effects on sedentary, littoral fishes. Results demonstrate that the declaration of a marine reserve alone does not guarantee the sustainability of marine resources and habitats but should be accompanied with an integrated coastal management plan.

  8. Evolution of a Mediterranean Coastal Zone: Human Impacts on the Marine Environment of Cape Creus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloret, Josep; Riera, Victòria

    2008-12-01

    This study presents an integrated analysis of the evolution of the marine environment and the human uses in Cape Creus, a Mediterranean coastal area where intense commercial fisheries and recreational uses have coexisted over the last fifty years. The investigation synthesizes the documented impacts of human activities on the marine environment of Cap de Creus and integrates them with new data. In particular, the evolution of vulnerable, exploited species is used to evaluate the fishing impacts. The effects of area protection through the establishment of a marine reserve in the late 1990s and the potential climate change impacts are also considered. The evolution of the human uses is marked by the increasing socioeconomic importance of recreational activities (which affect species and habitats) in detriment to artisanal and red coral fisheries (which principally affect at a species level). Overall, populations of sedentary, vulnerable exploited species, hard sessile benthic invertebrates, and ecologically fragile habitats, such as seagrass meadows, the coralligenous and infralittoral algal assemblages have been the most negatively impacted by anthropogenic activities. Albeit human uses currently constitute the largest negative impact on the marine environment of Cap de Creus, climate change is emerging as a key factor that could have considerable implications for the marine environment and tourism activities. The establishment of the marine reserve appears to have had little socioeconomic impact, but there is some evidence that it had some positive biological effects on sedentary, littoral fishes. Results demonstrate that the declaration of a marine reserve alone does not guarantee the sustainability of marine resources and habitats but should be accompanied with an integrated coastal management plan.

  9. Remote sensing and in situ observations of marine slicks associated with inhomogeneous coastal currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermakov, S.; Kapustin, I.; Sergievskaya, I.

    2011-11-01

    Field observations co-located and simultaneous with satellite radar imagery of biogenic slick bands on the sea surface aimed to study relation between slicks and marine stream currents were carried out in the coastal zone of the Black Sea. Measurements of the current velocities at different depths were performed using an acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) and surface floats. Samples of surfactant films inside/outside slick bands were collected from the water surface with nets. The sampled films were reconstructed in laboratory conditions and measurements of the damping coefficient of gravity-capillary waves and the surface tension were carried out using an original parametric wave method. It is obtained that the banded slicks are characterized by enhanced concentration of surfactants due to their compression by convergent current components. The slicks are revealed to be oriented along the stream currents and are located in the zones of current shears. Small convergent transverse velocity components are observed near slick boundaries and are responsible for slick formation in stream shear currents. Different examples of slicks formed by stream shear current are described. Results of a case study of two streams of different directions merging and forming a banded slick in a shear zone with convergent transverse current components are presented. Another case study is when a flow below a thermocline coming to the shore meets a bottom slope and a vertical current occurs resulting in horizontal divergence and convergence on the surface.

  10. Ubiquitous dissolved inorganic carbon assimilation by marine bacteria in the Pacific Northwest coastal ocean as determined by stable isotope probing.

    PubMed

    DeLorenzo, Suzanne; Bräuer, Suzanna L; Edgmont, Chelsea A; Herfort, Lydie; Tebo, Bradley M; Zuber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In order to identify bacteria that assimilate dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the northeast Pacific Ocean, stable isotope probing (SIP) experiments were conducted on water collected from 3 different sites off the Oregon and Washington coasts in May 2010, and one site off the Oregon Coast in September 2008 and March 2009. Samples were incubated in the dark with 2 mM (13)C-NaHCO(3), doubling the average concentration of DIC typically found in the ocean. Our results revealed a surprising diversity of marine bacteria actively assimilating DIC in the dark within the Pacific Northwest coastal waters, indicating that DIC fixation is relevant for the metabolism of different marine bacterial lineages, including putatively heterotrophic taxa. Furthermore, dark DIC-assimilating assemblages were widespread among diverse bacterial classes. Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes dominated the active DIC-assimilating communities across the samples. Actinobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia were also implicated in DIC assimilation. Alteromonadales and Oceanospirillales contributed significantly to the DIC-assimilating Gammaproteobacteria within May 2010 clone libraries. 16S rRNA gene sequences related to the sulfur-oxidizing symbionts Arctic96BD-19 were observed in all active DIC assimilating clone libraries. Among the Alphaproteobacteria, clones related to the ubiquitous SAR11 clade were found actively assimilating DIC in all samples. Although not a dominant contributor to our active clone libraries, Betaproteobacteria, when identified, were predominantly comprised of Burkholderia. DIC-assimilating bacteria among Deltaproteobacteria included members of the SAR324 cluster. Our research suggests that DIC assimilation is ubiquitous among many bacterial groups in the coastal waters of the Pacific Northwest marine environment and may represent a significant metabolic process.

  11. Ubiquitous Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Assimilation by Marine Bacteria in the Pacific Northwest Coastal Ocean as Determined by Stable Isotope Probing

    PubMed Central

    DeLorenzo, Suzanne; Bräuer, Suzanna L.; Edgmont, Chelsea A.; Herfort, Lydie; Tebo, Bradley M.; Zuber, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In order to identify bacteria that assimilate dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the northeast Pacific Ocean, stable isotope probing (SIP) experiments were conducted on water collected from 3 different sites off the Oregon and Washington coasts in May 2010, and one site off the Oregon Coast in September 2008 and March 2009. Samples were incubated in the dark with 2 mM 13C-NaHCO3, doubling the average concentration of DIC typically found in the ocean. Our results revealed a surprising diversity of marine bacteria actively assimilating DIC in the dark within the Pacific Northwest coastal waters, indicating that DIC fixation is relevant for the metabolism of different marine bacterial lineages, including putatively heterotrophic taxa. Furthermore, dark DIC-assimilating assemblages were widespread among diverse bacterial classes. Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes dominated the active DIC-assimilating communities across the samples. Actinobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Deltaproteobacteria, Planctomycetes, and Verrucomicrobia were also implicated in DIC assimilation. Alteromonadales and Oceanospirillales contributed significantly to the DIC-assimilating Gammaproteobacteria within May 2010 clone libraries. 16S rRNA gene sequences related to the sulfur-oxidizing symbionts Arctic96BD-19 were observed in all active DIC assimilating clone libraries. Among the Alphaproteobacteria, clones related to the ubiquitous SAR11 clade were found actively assimilating DIC in all samples. Although not a dominant contributor to our active clone libraries, Betaproteobacteria, when identified, were predominantly comprised of Burkholderia. DIC-assimilating bacteria among Deltaproteobacteria included members of the SAR324 cluster. Our research suggests that DIC assimilation is ubiquitous among many bacterial groups in the coastal waters of the Pacific Northwest marine environment and may represent a significant metabolic process. PMID:23056406

  12. Marine water quality monitoring: a review.

    PubMed

    Karydis, Michael; Kitsiou, Dimitra

    2013-12-15

    Marine water quality monitoring is performed for compliance with regulatory issues, trend detection, model validation and assessment of the effectiveness of adopted policies. As the end users are managers and policy makers, the objectives should be of practical interest and the answers should reduce the uncertainty concerning environmental impact, supporting planning and decision making. Simple and clearcut answers on environmental issues require synthesis of the field information using statistics, simulation models and multiple criteria analysis (MCA). Statistics is easy to apply whereas simulation models enable researchers to forecast future trends as well as test different scenarios. MCA allows the co-estimation of socio-economic variables providing a compromise between scientists' and policy makers' priorities. In addition, stakeholders and the public have the right to know and participate. This article reviews marine water quality monitoring principles, design and data analysis procedures. A brief review of international conventions of regional seas is also included. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Review on Toxic and Harmful Algae in Greek Coastal Waters (E. Mediterranean Sea)

    PubMed Central

    Ignatiades, Lydia; Gotsis-Skretas, Olympia

    2010-01-01

    The Greek coastal waters are subjected to harmful algal bloom (HAB) phenomena due to the occurrence of species characterized as toxic (TX), potentially toxic (PT), and non-toxic, high biomass (HB) producers causing harm at multiple levels. The total number of (TX), (PT) and (HB) algae reported in this work are 61, but only 16 species have been associated with the occurrence of important HABs causing damage in the marine biota and the water quality. These phenomena are sporadic in time, space and recurrence of the causative species, and are related to the anthropogenically-induced eutrophication conditions prevailing in the investigated areas. PMID:22069623

  14. Metabolic regulation of amino acid uptake in marine waters

    SciTech Connect

    Kirchman, D.L.; Hodson, R.E.

    1986-03-01

    To determine the relationships among the processes of uptake, intracellular pool formation, and incorporation of amino acids into protein, the authors measured the uptake of dipeptides and free amino acids by bacterial assemblages in estuarine and coastal waters of the southeast US. The dipeptide phenylalanyl-phenylalanine (phe-phe) lowered V/sub max/ of phenylalanine uptake when the turnover rate of phenylalanine was relatively high. When the turnover rate was relatively low, phe-phe either had no effect or increased V/sub max/ of phenylalanine uptake. An analytical model was developed and tested to measure the turnover time of the intracellular pool of phenylalanine. The results suggested that the size of the intracellular pool is regulated, which precludes high assimilation rates of both phenylalanine and phe-phe. In waters with relatively low phenylalanine turnover rates, bacterial assemblages appear to have a greater capacity to assimilate phenylalanine and phe-phe simultaneously. Marine bacterial assemblages do not substantially increase the apparent respiration of amino acids when concentrations increase. The authors conclude that sustained increases in uptake rates and mineralization by marine bacterial assemblages in response to an increase in the concentrations of dissolved organic nitrogen is determined by the rate of protein synthesis.

  15. Marine aerosol as a possible source for endotoxins in coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Lang-Yona, Naama; Lehahn, Yoav; Herut, Barak; Burshtein, Noa; Rudich, Yinon

    2014-11-15

    Marine aerosols, that are very common in the highly populated coastal cities and communities, may contain biological constituents. Some of this biological fraction of marine aerosols, such as cyanobacteria and plankton debris, may influence human health by inflammation and allergic reactions when inhaled. In this study we identify and compare sources for endotoxins sampled on filters in an on-shore and more-inland site. Filter analysis included endotoxin content, total bacteria, gram-negative bacteria and cyanobacteria genome concentrations as well as ion content in order to identify possible sources for the endotoxins. Satellite images of chlorophyll-a levels and back trajectory analysis were used to further study the cyanobacteria blooms in the sea, close to the trajectory of the sampled air. The highest endotoxin concentrations found in the shoreline site were during winter (3.23±0.17 EU/m(3)), together with the highest cyanobacteria genome (1065.5 genome/m(3)). The elevated endotoxin concentrations were significantly correlated with cyanobacterial levels scaled to the presence of marine aerosol (r=0.90), as well as to chlorophyll-a (r=0.96). Filters sampled further inland showed lower and non-significant correlation between endotoxin and cyanobacteria (r=0.70, P value=0.19), suggesting decrease in marine-originated endotoxin, with possible contributions from other sources of gram-negative non-cyanobacteria. We conclude that marine cyanobacteria may be a dominant contributor to elevated endotoxin levels in coastal areas.

  16. Measuring Coastal Boating Noise to Assess Potential Impacts on Marine Life

    SciTech Connect

    Matzner, Shari; Jones, Mark E.

    2011-07-01

    Article requested for submission in Sea Technology Magazine describing the Underwater Noise From Small Boats. An Overlooked Component of the Acoustic Environment in Coastal Areas. Underwater noise and its effects on marine life deserve attention as human activity in the marine environment increases. Noise can affect fish and marine mammals in ways that are physiological, as in auditory threshold shifts, and behavioral, as in changes in foraging habits. One anthropogenic source of underwater noise that has received little attention to date is recreational boating. Coastal areas and archipelago regions, which play a crucial role in the marine ecosystem, are often subject to high levels of boat traffic. In order to better understand the noise produced by a small powerboat, a test was conducted in Sequim Bay, Washington, using an instrumented research vessel and multiple acoustic sensors. The broadband noise and narrowband peak levels were observed from two different locations while the boat was operated under various conditions. The results, combined with background noise levels, sound propagation and local boat traffic patterns, can provide a picture of the total boating noise to which marine life may be subjected.

  17. Coastal marine basins as records of continental palaeoenvironments (Gulf of Guinea and Iullemmeden cretaceous and tertiary basins)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rat, P.; Lang, J.; Alzouma, K.; Dikouma, M.; Johnson, A.; Laurin, B.; Mathey, B.; Pascal, A.

    Deposits in nearshore marine basins provide data about the adjacent emerged lands. Examples are taken from the Togo coastal basin, on an ocean margin, and the Iullemmeden intracratonic basin (Niger). A continental landscape is fossilized by the onlapping layers of the transgressions: an eroded crystalline basement (Togo) or a broad and complex alluvial plain (Iullemmeden). Clastics, trapped in the marine deposits, provide information on the source area. Two types of information can be obtained from the sands: the nature of the parent rocks, and the environment at the time of genesis, storage and transportation (tectonic and climatic stability or change). The significance of clays is more complex; they can be formed or modified in the marine environment. However their elastic or chemical components originate from biochemical weathering and provide information on climate, morphology, vegetation cover and drainage of the emerged lands. In the Iullemmeden basin, the important change between Maastrichtian and Paleocene probably reflects a change to a drier climate in accordance with a slight shift of the equator to the south. The properties of marine waters are dependent on climate and morphology of the emergent lands which determines runoff. These properties may be inferred from the analysis of the clastic/carbonate conflict and indicators of salinity (mangrove). In conclusion, the Togo and Iullemmeden basins were located downstream of tectonically quiecent, large continental areas of gentle relief. Transgressions were migrations of a broad littoral system upon very flat continental surfaces caused by erosion or river-dominated deposition.

  18. Distribution Analysis of Hydrogenases in Surface Waters of Marine and Freshwater Environments

    PubMed Central

    Barz, Martin; Beimgraben, Christian; Staller, Torsten; Germer, Frauke; Opitz, Friederike; Marquardt, Claudia; Schwarz, Christoph; Gutekunst, Kirstin; Vanselow, Klaus Heinrich; Schmitz, Ruth; LaRoche, Julie; Schulz, Rüdiger; Appel, Jens

    2010-01-01

    Background Surface waters of aquatic environments have been shown to both evolve and consume hydrogen and the ocean is estimated to be the principal natural source. In some marine habitats, H2 evolution and uptake are clearly due to biological activity, while contributions of abiotic sources must be considered in others. Until now the only known biological process involved in H2 metabolism in marine environments is nitrogen fixation. Principal Findings We analyzed marine and freshwater environments for the presence and distribution of genes of all known hydrogenases, the enzymes involved in biological hydrogen turnover. The total genomes and the available marine metagenome datasets were searched for hydrogenase sequences. Furthermore, we isolated DNA from samples from the North Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea, North Sea, Baltic Sea, and two fresh water lakes and amplified and sequenced part of the gene encoding the bidirectional NAD(P)-linked hydrogenase. In 21% of all marine heterotrophic bacterial genomes from surface waters, one or several hydrogenase genes were found, with the membrane-bound H2 uptake hydrogenase being the most widespread. A clear bias of hydrogenases to environments with terrestrial influence was found. This is exemplified by the cyanobacterial bidirectional NAD(P)-linked hydrogenase that was found in freshwater and coastal areas but not in the open ocean. Significance This study shows that hydrogenases are surprisingly abundant in marine environments. Due to its ecological distribution the primary function of the bidirectional NAD(P)-linked hydrogenase seems to be fermentative hydrogen evolution. Moreover, our data suggests that marine surface waters could be an interesting source of oxygen-resistant uptake hydrogenases. The respective genes occur in coastal as well as open ocean habitats and we presume that they are used as additional energy scavenging devices in otherwise nutrient limited environments. The membrane-bound H2-evolving

  19. Decoding Size Distribution Patterns in Marine and Transitional Water Phytoplankton: From Community to Species Level

    PubMed Central

    Roselli, Leonilde; Basset, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of phytoplankton community assembly is a fundamental issue of aquatic ecology. Here, we use field data from transitional (e.g. coastal lagoons) and coastal water environments to decode patterns of phytoplankton size distribution into organization and adaptive mechanisms. Transitional waters are characterized by higher resource availability and shallower well-mixed water column than coastal marine environments. Differences in physico-chemical regime between the two environments have been hypothesized to exert contrasting selective pressures on phytoplankton cell morphology (size and shape). We tested the hypothesis focusing on resource availability (nutrients and light) and mixed layer depth as ecological axes that define ecological niches of phytoplankton. We report fundamental differences in size distributions of marine and freshwater diatoms, with transitional water phytoplankton significantly smaller and with higher surface to volume ratio than marine species. Here, we hypothesize that mixing condition affecting size-dependent sinking may drive phytoplankton size and shape distributions. The interplay between shallow mixed layer depth and frequent and complete mixing of transitional waters may likely increase the competitive advantage of small phytoplankton limiting large cell fitness. The nutrient regime appears to explain the size distribution within both marine and transitional water environments, while it seem does not explain the pattern observed across the two environments. In addition, difference in light availability across the two environments appear do not explain the occurrence of asymmetric size distribution at each hierarchical level. We hypothesize that such competitive equilibria and adaptive strategies in resource exploitation may drive by organism’s behavior which exploring patch resources in transitional and marine phytoplankton communities. PMID:25974052

  20. Decoding size distribution patterns in marine and transitional water phytoplankton: from community to species level.

    PubMed

    Roselli, Leonilde; Basset, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms of phytoplankton community assembly is a fundamental issue of aquatic ecology. Here, we use field data from transitional (e.g. coastal lagoons) and coastal water environments to decode patterns of phytoplankton size distribution into organization and adaptive mechanisms. Transitional waters are characterized by higher resource availability and shallower well-mixed water column than coastal marine environments. Differences in physico-chemical regime between the two environments have been hypothesized to exert contrasting selective pressures on phytoplankton cell morphology (size and shape). We tested the hypothesis focusing on resource availability (nutrients and light) and mixed layer depth as ecological axes that define ecological niches of phytoplankton. We report fundamental differences in size distributions of marine and freshwater diatoms, with transitional water phytoplankton significantly smaller and with higher surface to volume ratio than marine species. Here, we hypothesize that mixing condition affecting size-dependent sinking may drive phytoplankton size and shape distributions. The interplay between shallow mixed layer depth and frequent and complete mixing of transitional waters may likely increase the competitive advantage of small phytoplankton limiting large cell fitness. The nutrient regime appears to explain the size distribution within both marine and transitional water environments, while it seem does not explain the pattern observed across the two environments. In addition, difference in light availability across the two environments appear do not explain the occurrence of asymmetric size distribution at each hierarchical level. We hypothesize that such competitive equilibria and adaptive strategies in resource exploitation may drive by organism's behavior which exploring patch resources in transitional and marine phytoplankton communities.

  1. U.S. Geological Survey coastal and marine geology research; recent highlights and achievements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Williams, S. Jeffress; Barnes, Peter W.; Prager, Ellen J.

    2000-01-01

    The USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program has large-scale national and regional research projects that focus on environmental quality, geologic hazards, natural resources, and information transfer. This Circular highlights recent scientific findings of the program, which play a vital role in the USGS endeavor to understand human interactions with the natural environment and to determine how the fundamental geologic processes controlling the Earth work. The scientific knowledge acquired through USGS research and monitoring is critically needed by planners, government agencies, and the public. Effective communication of the results of this research will enable the USGS Coastal and Marine Geology Program to play an integral part in assisting the Nation in responding the pressing Earth science challenges of the 21st century.

  2. An overview of marine biodiversity in United States waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fautin, Daphne G.; Delton, Penelope; Incze, Lewis S.; Leong, Jo-Ann C.; Pautzke, Clarence; Rosenberg, Andrew A.; Sandifer, Paul; Sedberry, George R.; Tunnell, John W.; Abbott, Isabella; Brainard, Russell E.; Brodeur, Melissa; Eldredge, Lucius G.; Feldman, Michael; Moretzsohn, Fabio; Vroom, Peter S.; Wainstein, Michelle; Wolff, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Marine biodiversity of the United States (U.S.) is extensively documented, but data assembled by the United States National Committee for the Census of Marine Life demonstrate that even the most complete taxonomic inventories are based on records scattered in space and time. The best-known taxa are those of commercial importance. Body size is directly correlated with knowledge of a species, and knowledge also diminishes with distance from shore and depth. Measures of biodiversity other than species diversity, such as ecosystem and genetic diversity, are poorly documented. Threats to marine biodiversity in the U.S. are the same as those for most of the world: overexploitation of living resources; reduced water quality; coastal development; shipping; invasive species; rising temperature and concentrations of carbon dioxide in the surface ocean, and other changes that may be consequences of global change, including shifting currents; increased number and size of hypoxic or anoxic areas; and increased number and duration of harmful algal blooms. More information must be obtained through field and laboratory research and monitoring that involve innovative sampling techniques (such as genetics and acoustics), but data that already exist must be made accessible. And all data must have a temporal component so trends can be identified. As data are compiled, techniques must be developed to make certain that scales are compatible, to combine and reconcile data collected for various purposes with disparate gear, and to automate taxonomic changes. Information on biotic and abiotic elements of the environment must be interactively linked. Impediments to assembling existing data and collecting new data on marine biodiversity include logistical problems as well as shortages in finances and taxonomic expertise.

  3. An overview of marine biodiversity in United States waters.

    PubMed

    Fautin, Daphne; Dalton, Penelope; Incze, Lewis S; Leong, Jo-Ann C; Pautzke, Clarence; Rosenberg, Andrew; Sandifer, Paul; Sedberry, George; Tunnell, John W; Abbott, Isabella; Brainard, Russell E; Brodeur, Melissa; Eldredge, Lucius G; Feldman, Michael; Moretzsohn, Fabio; Vroom, Peter S; Wainstein, Michelle; Wolff, Nicholas

    2010-08-02

    Marine biodiversity of the United States (U.S.) is extensively documented, but data assembled by the United States National Committee for the Census of Marine Life demonstrate that even the most complete taxonomic inventories are based on records scattered in space and time. The best-known taxa are those of commercial importance. Body size is directly correlated with knowledge of a species, and knowledge also diminishes with distance from shore and depth. Measures of biodiversity other than species diversity, such as ecosystem and genetic diversity, are poorly documented. Threats to marine biodiversity in the U.S. are the same as those for most of the world: overexploitation of living resources; reduced water quality; coastal development; shipping; invasive species; rising temperature and concentrations of carbon dioxide in the surface ocean, and other changes that may be consequences of global change, including shifting currents; increased number and size of hypoxic or anoxic areas; and increased number and duration of harmful algal blooms. More information must be obtained through field and laboratory research and monitoring that involve innovative sampling techniques (such as genetics and acoustics), but data that already exist must be made accessible. And all data must have a temporal component so trends can be identified. As data are compiled, techniques must be developed to make certain that scales are compatible, to combine and reconcile data collected for various purposes with disparate gear, and to automate taxonomic changes. Information on biotic and abiotic elements of the environment must be interactively linked. Impediments to assembling existing data and collecting new data on marine biodiversity include logistical problems as well as shortages in finances and taxonomic expertise.

  4. An Overview of Marine Biodiversity in United States Waters

    PubMed Central

    Fautin, Daphne; Dalton, Penelope; Incze, Lewis S.; Leong, Jo-Ann C.; Pautzke, Clarence; Rosenberg, Andrew; Sandifer, Paul; Sedberry, George; Tunnell, John W.; Abbott, Isabella; Brainard, Russell E.; Brodeur, Melissa; Eldredge, Lucius G.; Feldman, Michael; Moretzsohn, Fabio; Vroom, Peter S.; Wainstein, Michelle; Wolff, Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Marine biodiversity of the United States (U.S.) is extensively documented, but data assembled by the United States National Committee for the Census of Marine Life demonstrate that even the most complete taxonomic inventories are based on records scattered in space and time. The best-known taxa are those of commercial importance. Body size is directly correlated with knowledge of a species, and knowledge also diminishes with distance from shore and depth. Measures of biodiversity other than species diversity, such as ecosystem and genetic diversity, are poorly documented. Threats to marine biodiversity in the U.S. are the same as those for most of the world: overexploitation of living resources; reduced water quality; coastal development; shipping; invasive species; rising temperature and concentrations of carbon dioxide in the surface ocean, and other changes that may be consequences of global change, including shifting currents; increased number and size of hypoxic or anoxic areas; and increased number and duration of harmful algal blooms. More information must be obtained through field and laboratory research and monitoring that involve innovative sampling techniques (such as genetics and acoustics), but data that already exist must be made accessible. And all data must have a temporal component so trends can be identified. As data are compiled, techniques must be developed to make certain that scales are compatible, to combine and reconcile data collected for various purposes with disparate gear, and to automate taxonomic changes. Information on biotic and abiotic elements of the environment must be interactively linked. Impediments to assembling existing data and collecting new data on marine biodiversity include logistical problems as well as shortages in finances and taxonomic expertise. PMID:20689852

  5. Coastal Marsh Sediments from Bodega Harbor: Archives of Environmental Changes at the Terrestrial-Marine Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rademacher, L. K.; Rong, Y.; Hill, T. M.; Hiromoto, C.; Fisher, A.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal marsh sediments provide an important archive of environmental changes at the terrestrial-marine interface. Over the last century, humans have significantly altered the coastal environment near Bodega Bay, California, through changes in hydrology, sediment sources, and the dominant ecosystem. Previous investigations of recent coastal marsh sediments (< 50 years) suggest that physical barriers, such as roads, which limit the connection between Bodega Bay and the marshes, alters biogeochemical cycling (including carbon storage) in the coastal environment. The present study extends the record of changes in biogeochemical cycling in the coastal marshes back more than 100 years (approximately 90 cm) through the use of grain size analysis, C and N isotopes, and age dating. Sediments were analyzed for grain size distribution, the amount of carbon and nitrogen, and the stable isotopes of carbon and nitrogen in 1 cm intervals throughout the core. In addition, a subset of eight samples was analyzed for sediment age using a combination of Pb-210 and Cs-137 techniques. Sediments from >40 cm and <55 cm depth have a higher percentage of fine-grained sediment (>2%). In addition, these sediments also contain higher levels of total organic carbon and nitrogen, higher C:N ratios, we well as heavier carbon and nitrogen isotopic signatures. The sediments likely correspond to a pre-1900 depositional environment based on Pb-210 dates, when development in the region was increasing. These results suggest a stronger influence of the marine environment during that time. Interestingly, smaller transitions in sediment properties toward what appears to reflect a more marine environment also occur near the top of the core (<10 cm depth) and near the bottom of the core (>75 cm depth). Although these transitions are less pronounced, the significant shift in sediment properties suggests a less stable environment with greater communication between the terrestrial and marine environments

  6. Dinoflagellate species and organic facies evidence of marine transgression and regression in the atlantic coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Habib, D.; Miller, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    Palynological evidence is used to date and interpret depositional environments of sediments of Campanian, Maestrichtian and early Danian ages cored in three wells from South Carolina and Georgia. The evidence is usefil for distinguishing environments which lithofacies evidence indicates a range from nonmarine to coastal to inner neritic shallow shelf. Numerous dinoflagellate species and an organic facies defined abundant amoprphous debris (amorphous debris facies) distinguish shallow shelf sediments deposited during marine transgression. The nearshore amorphous debris facies of late Campanian age consists of heterogenous assemblages dominated by Palaeohystrichophora infusorioides Deflandre or Hystrichosphaerina varians (May). The farther offshore amorphous debris facies of late early Maestrichtian to late Maestrichtian age consists of heterogenous assemblages dominated by Glaphyrocysta retiintexta (Cookson) and/or Areoligera medusettiformis (Wetzel). The larger number of dinoflagellate species in the offshore facies represents the maximum transgression detected in the investigated interval. A multiple occurrence datum defined by the combination of first appearance, klast appearances and sole occurrence of dinoflagellate species at the base of each interval distinguished by the amorphous debris facies provides the first evidence of marine transgression. Relatively small organic residues consisting of intertinite and few or no palynomorphs define the inertinite facies in nonmarine deltaic and in coastal (lagoonal, tidal flat, interdistributary bary) sediments. Dinocyt{star, open}s are absent in the nonmarine sediments and are represented by few species and few specimens in the coastal inertinite faceis. A third organic facies (vascular tissue facies) is defined by the abundance of land plant tissue. Sporomorph species, including those of the Normapolles pollen group and of pteridophyte spores, comprise a large proportion of the total palynomorph flora in the

  7. Progress in marine science supported by European joint coastal observation systems: The JERICO-RI research infrastructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puillat, I.; Farcy, P.; Durand, D.; Karlson, B.; Petihakis, G.; Seppälä, J.; Sparnocchia, S.

    2016-10-01

    Coastal systems are of the most productive ones although they are the most impacted by direct pressures from human activities. These ecosystems exhibit a high level of complexity with many different and interconnected processes operating at various spatial and temporal scales and providing a range of ecosystem services. Coastal observations are tremendous importance in order to understand those complex marine processes. Moreover, they support the use and further development of coastal ocean numerical models, including physical models and coupled physical-biogeochemical models. Coastal data have also many applications in the domain of coastal engineering such as for instance in the design of a coastal structure, or in the prevention of extreme events (e.g. flooding). As a consequence, the number of marine observing systems has quickly increased around European coastal seas, under the pressure of both monitoring requirements and marine research. Present demands for such observing systems include reliable, high-quality and comprehensive observations of key environmental parameters, automated platforms and sensors systems for continuous observations, as well as autonomy over long time periods. In-situ data collected can be combined with remote sensing and/or models to detect, understand and/or forecast the most crucial coastal processes over extensive areas within the various marine environments.

  8. Selective transport of microplastics and mesoplastics by drifting in coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Isobe, Atsuhiko; Kubo, Kenta; Tamura, Yuka; Kako, Shin'ichio; Nakashima, Etsuko; Fujii, Naoki

    2014-12-15

    The quantity and size distributions of small plastic fragments in the Seto Inland Sea, Japan were investigated using field surveys and a numerical particle-tracking model. The model was used to interpret the distributions of small plastic fragments and the possible transport processes in coastal waters. Of note, the size and quantity of mesoplastics (approximately >5mm) gradually increased close to the coast irrespective of the existence of river mouths, which probably act as a major source of anthropogenic marine debris. Additionally, microplastics were more dominant as we moved further offshore. The numerical model reproduced the near-shore trapping of mesoplastics, suggesting that mesoplastics are selectively conveyed onshore by a combination of Stokes drift and terminal velocity, dependent on fragment sizes. It is suggested that mesoplastics washed ashore on beaches degrade into microplastics, and that the microplastics, which are free from near-shore trapping, are thereafter spread offshore in coastal waters.

  9. The impacts of climate change in coastal marine systems.

    PubMed

    Harley, Christopher D G; Randall Hughes, A; Hultgren, Kristin M; Miner, Benjamin G; Sorte, Cascade J B; Thornber, Carol S; Rodriguez, Laura F; Tomanek, Lars; Williams, Susan L

    2006-02-01

    Anthropogenically induced global climate change has profound implications for marine ecosystems and the economic and social systems that depend upon them. The relationship between temperature and individual performance is reasonably well understood, and much climate-related research has focused on potential shifts in distribution and abundance driven directly by temperature. However, recent work has revealed that both abiotic changes and biological responses in the ocean will be substantially more complex. For example, changes in ocean chemistry may be more important than changes in temperature for the performance and survival of many organisms. Ocean circulation, which drives larval transport, will also change, with important consequences for population dynamics. Furthermore, climatic impacts on one or a few 'leverage species' may result in sweeping community-level changes. Finally, synergistic effects between climate and other anthropogenic variables, particularly fishing pressure, will likely exacerbate climate-induced changes. Efforts to manage and conserve living marine systems in the face of climate change will require improvements to the existing predictive framework. Key directions for future research include identifying key demographic transitions that influence population dynamics, predicting changes in the community-level impacts of ecologically dominant species, incorporating populations' ability to evolve (adapt), and understanding the scales over which climate will change and living systems will respond.

  10. Mineralization of RDX-derived nitrogen to N2 via denitrification in coastal marine sediments.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard W; Tobias, Craig; Vlahos, Penny; Cooper, Christopher; Ballentine, Mark; Ariyarathna, Thivanka; Fallis, Stephen; Groshens, Thomas J

    2015-02-17

    Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is a common constituent of military explosives. Despite RDX contamination at numerous U.S. military facilities and its mobility to aquatic systems, the fate of RDX in marine systems remains largely unknown. Here, we provide RDX mineralization pathways and rates in seawater and sediments, highlighting for the first time the importance of the denitrification pathway in determining the fate of RDX-derived N. (15)N nitro group labeled RDX ((15)N-[RDX], 50 atom %) was spiked into a mesocosm simulating shallow marine conditions of coastal Long Island Sound, and the (15)N enrichment of N2 (δ(15)N2) was monitored via gas bench isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GB-IRMS) for 21 days. The (15)N tracer data were used to model RDX mineralization within the context of the broader coastal marine N cycle using a multicompartment time-stepping model. Estimates of RDX mineralization rates based on the production and gas transfer of (15)N2O and (15)N2 ranged from 0.8 to 10.3 μmol d(-1). After 22 days, 11% of the added RDX had undergone mineralization, and 29% of the total removed RDX-N was identified as N2. These results demonstrate the important consideration of sediment microbial communities in management strategies addressing cleanup of contaminated coastal sites by military explosives.

  11. Multiple Stressors: Lessons from Louisiana Coastal Waters (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabalais, N. N.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal Louisiana is a Mississippi River-dominated landscape driven by the long-term (millennia) and short-term (decades to hundreds of years) changes in materials flux, nature and human activities. The results are a highly productive coastal landscape and nearshore coastal waters that support rich natural and non-renewable resources. The ecosystem and socio-economic systems are intimately linked. Several factors have led to the demise of many of the healthy features of this coastal system, including long-term changes in the landscape of the Mississippi River basin watershed, alterations to the structure and flow of the Mississippi River and its tributaries, coastal landscape alterations leading to loss of productive marshes and protective barrier islands, increases in nitrogen and phosphorus loads to the coastal ocean and their detrimental effects, and reduction in the sediments delivered by the river. Increases in population and extraction of living resources and oil and gas reserves continue to drive many actions taken in the coastal landscape and waters. As a result, Louisiana is in a state of major disrepair (to be charitable) and needs thoughtful consideration of restoration actions taken in the river basin and within the coastal landscape. The first thought is to cause no further harm. The second is to proceed acknowledging that human and natural forces (particularly climate change, rising sea level and changing global economies) must be taken into account. Thirdly, a broader consideration of the river basin and coastal landscapes, their interconnectivity, and ecosystem health and social welfare must be taken into account.

  12. Overview of the Marine Railway No. 2 from the water's ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Overview of the Marine Railway No. 2 from the water's edge to Facility 233 - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Marine Railway No. 2, Near intersection of Avenue G & Third Street, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  13. Chlorophyll-a and nutrient distribution of Pahang coastal waters during southwest monsoon using satellite images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaari, F.; Mustapha, M. A.; Ali, M. M.; Lihan, T.

    2013-11-01

    The relationship of nutrients and phytoplankton chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) is a basis for understanding eutrophication in a coastal marine ecosystem. This study was conducted to determined Chl-a and nutrient distribution during the southwest monsoon in the coastal water of Pahang, Malaysia. Data of Chl-a from Level 1A data (1 km spatial resolution) were processed to monthly composites Level 3 of Aqua MODIS data from January 2006 to December 2011 to get climatological images. Distribution of Chl-a was described by the spatial map using satellite image of the ocean color properties. While nutrient distribution were explained using kriging technique and mapped using ArcGIS. Chl-a was higher near coastal area and lower towards off shore area due to the terrestrial influence especially from river discharge and aquaculture activity. High value of nitrate, ammonia and phosphate in Pahang coastal area during the southwest monsoon indicates influence of terrestrial discharge especially from river outflow and aquaculture. Distribution of Chl-a along the Pahang coastal area was influenced by nutrient.

  14. Toxic pressure of herbicides on microalgae in Dutch estuarine and coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booij, Petra; Sjollema, Sascha B.; van der Geest, Harm G.; Leonards, Pim E. G.; Lamoree, Marja H.; de Voogt, W. Pim; Admiraal, Wim; Laane, Remi W. P. M.; Vethaak, A. Dick

    2015-08-01

    For several decades now, there has been an increase in the sources and types of chemicals in estuarine and coastal waters as a consequence of anthropogenic activities. This has led to considerable concern about the effects of these chemicals on the marine food chain. The fact is that estuarine and coastal waters are the most productive ecosystems with high primary production by microalgae. The toxic pressure of specific phytotoxic chemicals now poses a major threat to these ecosystems. In a previous study, six herbicides (atrazine, diuron, irgarol, isoproturon, terbutryn and terbutylazine) were identified as the main contaminants affecting photosynthesis in marine microalgae. The purpose of this study is to investigate the toxic pressure of these herbicides in the Dutch estuarine and coastal waters in relation to the effective photosystem II efficiency (ΦPSII) in microalgae. Temporal and spatial variations in the concentrations of these herbicides were analyzed based on monitoring data. Additionally, a field study was carried out in which chemical analysis of water was performed and also a toxicity assessment using the Pulse Amplitude Modulation (PAM) fluorometry assay that measures ΦPSII. The toxic pressure on ΦPSII in microalgae has decreased with 55-82% from 2003 to 2012, with the Western Scheldt estuary showing the highest toxic pressure. By combining toxicity data from the PAM assay with chemical analysis of herbicide concentrations, we have identified diuron and terbutylazine as the main contributors to the toxic pressure on microalgae. Although direct effects are not expected, the toxic pressure is close to the 10% effect level in the PAM assay. A compliance check with the current environmental legislation of the European Union revealed that the quality standards are not sufficient to protect marine microalgae.

  15. NASA COAST and OCEANIA Airborne Missions Support Ecosystem and Water Quality Research in the Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guild, L. S.; Kudela, R. M.; Hooker, S. B.; Morrow, J. H.; Russell, P. B.; Palacios, S. L.; Livingston, J. M.; Negrey, K.; Torres-Perez, J. L.; Broughton, J.

    2014-12-01

    NASA has a continuing requirement to collect high-quality in situ data for the vicarious calibration of current and next generation ocean color satellite sensors and to validate the algorithms that use the remotely sensed observations. Recent NASA airborne missions over Monterey Bay, CA, have demonstrated novel above- and in-water measurement capabilities supporting a combined airborne sensor approach (imaging spectrometer, microradiometers, and a sun photometer). The results characterize coastal atmospheric and aquatic properties through an end-to-end assessment of image acquisition, atmospheric correction, algorithm application, plus sea-truth observations from state-of-the-art instrument systems. The primary goal is to demonstrate the following in support of calibration and validation exercises for satellite coastal ocean color products: 1) the utility of a multi-sensor airborne instrument suite to assess the bio-optical properties of coastal California, including water quality; and 2) the importance of contemporaneous atmospheric measurements to improve atmospheric correction in the coastal zone. The imaging spectrometer (Headwall) is optimized in the blue spectral domain to emphasize remote sensing of marine and freshwater ecosystems. The novel airborne instrument, Coastal Airborne In-situ Radiometers (C-AIR) provides measurements of apparent optical properties with high dynamic range and fidelity for deriving exact water leaving radiances at the land-ocean boundary, including radiometrically shallow aquatic ecosystems. Simultaneous measurements supporting empirical atmospheric correction of image data are accomplished using the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14). Flight operations are presented for the instrument payloads using the CIRPAS Twin Otter flown over Monterey Bay during the seasonal fall algal bloom in 2011 (COAST) and 2013 (OCEANIA) to support bio-optical measurements of phytoplankton for coastal zone research.

  16. Surface water and groundwater interactions in coastal wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ling; Xin, Pei; Shen, Chengji

    2014-05-01

    Salt marshes are an important wetland system in the upper intertidal zone, interfacing the land and coastal water. Dominated by salt-tolerant plants, these wetlands provide essential eco-environmental services for maintaining coastal biodiversity. They also act as sediment traps and help stabilize the coastline. While they play an active role in moderating greenhouse gas emissions, these wetlands have become increasingly vulnerable to the impact of global climate change. Salt marshes are a complex hydrological system characterized by strong, dynamic interactions between surface water and groundwater, which underpin the wetland's eco-functionality. Bordered with coastal water, the marsh system undergoes cycles of inundation and exposure driven by the tide. This leads to dynamic, complex pore-water flow and solute transport in the marsh soil. Pore-water circulations occur at different spatial and temporal scales with strong link to the marsh topography. These circulations control solute transport between the marsh soil and the tidal creek, and ultimately affect the overall nutrient exchange between the marsh and coastal water. The pore-water flows also dictate the soil aeration conditions, which in turn affect marsh plant growth. This talk presents results and findings from recent numerical and experimental studies, focusing on the pore-water flow behaviour in the marsh soil under the influence of tides and density-gradients.

  17. Documenting the density of subtidal marine debris across multiple marine and coastal habitats.

    PubMed

    Smith, Stephen D A; Edgar, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    Marine debris is recognised globally as a key threatening process to marine life, but efforts to address the issue are hampered by the lack of data for many marine habitats. By developing standardised protocols and providing training in their application, we worked with >300 volunteer divers from 11 underwater research groups to document the scale of the subtidal marine debris problem at 120 sites across >1000 km of the coast of NSW, Australia. Sampling consisted of replicated 25×5 m transects in which all debris was identified, counted, and, where appropriate, removed. Sites ranged from estuarine settings adjacent to major population centres, to offshore islands within marine parks. Estuaries and embayments were consistently found to be the most contaminated habitats. Fishing-related items (and especially monofilament and braided fishing line) were most prevalent at the majority of sites, although food and drink items were important contributors at sites adjacent to population centres. The results identified damaging interactions between marine debris and marine biota at some key locations, highlighting the need for management intervention to ensure habitat sustainability. This study reinforces the important contribution that volunteers can make to assessing conservation issues requiring broad-scale data collection. In this case, citizen scientists delivered data that will inform, and help to prioritise, management approaches at both statewide and local scales. These initial data also provide an important baseline for longer-term, volunteer-based monitoring programs.

  18. Documenting the Density of Subtidal Marine Debris across Multiple Marine and Coastal Habitats

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephen D. A.; Edgar, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    Marine debris is recognised globally as a key threatening process to marine life, but efforts to address the issue are hampered by the lack of data for many marine habitats. By developing standardised protocols and providing training in their application, we worked with >300 volunteer divers from 11 underwater research groups to document the scale of the subtidal marine debris problem at 120 sites across >1000 km of the coast of NSW, Australia. Sampling consisted of replicated 25×5 m transects in which all debris was identified, counted, and, where appropriate, removed. Sites ranged from estuarine settings adjacent to major population centres, to offshore islands within marine parks. Estuaries and embayments were consistently found to be the most contaminated habitats. Fishing-related items (and especially monofilament and braided fishing line) were most prevalent at the majority of sites, although food and drink items were important contributors at sites adjacent to population centres. The results identified damaging interactions between marine debris and marine biota at some key locations, highlighting the need for management intervention to ensure habitat sustainability. This study reinforces the important contribution that volunteers can make to assessing conservation issues requiring broad-scale data collection. In this case, citizen scientists delivered data that will inform, and help to prioritise, management approaches at both statewide and local scales. These initial data also provide an important baseline for longer-term, volunteer-based monitoring programs. PMID:24743690

  19. MarineMap: Web-Based Technology for Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClintock, W.; Ferdana, Z.; Merrifield, M.; Steinback, C.; Marinemap Consortium

    2010-12-01

    Science, technology and stakeholder engagement are at the heart of marine spatial planning (MSP). Yet, most stakeholders are not scientists or technologists. MarineMap (http://northcoast.marinemap.org) is a web-based decision support tool developed specifically for use by non-technical stakeholders in marine protected area (MPA) planning. However, MarineMap has been developed so that it may be extended to virtually any MSP project where there is a need for (a) visualization and analysis of geospatial data, (b) siting prospective use areas (e.g., for wind or wave energy sites, MPAs, transportation routes), (c) collaboration and communication amongst stakeholders, and (d) transparency of the process to the public. MarineMap is extremely well documented, is based on free and open source technologies and, therefore, may be implemented by anyone without licensing fees. Furthermore, the underlying technologies are extremely flexible and extensible, making it ideal for incorporating new models (e.g., tradeoff analyses, cumulative impacts, etc.) as they are identified for specific MSP projects. We will demonstrate how MarineMap has been developed for MPA planning in California, human impact assessment and MSP on the West Coast, energy and conservation planning in Oregon, and explain how interested parties may access MarineMap's source code and contribute to development.

  20. Are Sediments a Source of Fukushima Radiocesium for Marine Fauna in Coastal Japan?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Fisher, N. S.; Baumann, Z.

    2016-02-01

    The Fukushima nuclear power plant accident in 2011 resulted in the largest accidental release of artificial radionuclides into the world's oceans. Among the fission products released in large quantities, 137Cs has the greatest potential for long-term impacts on marine biota and human consumers of seafood. In particular, some species of bottom fish near Fukushima were very contaminated and had higher radiocesium (134Cs and 137Cs) levels than pelagic fish in the same area, sometimes exceeding Japanese safety limits >4 years after the accident. Benthic invertebrates, many being prey items for bottom fish, show the same slow decrease in radiocesium as sediments, suggesting that contaminated sediment could be a source of radiocesium for benthic fauna. We evaluated the binding of 137Cs to sediments (Kd found to be 44-60 ml g-1) and found that bioturbation by the polychaete Nereis succinea greatly increased the initial release rate of Cs to overlying seawater. We also assessed the bioavailability of dissolved and sediment-bound Cs for deposit-feeding polychaetes, and its subsequent transfer to crabs and fish, and measured the influence of water temperature on Cs accumulation in fish. Assimilation efficiency (AE) of ingested 137Cs ranged from 16% in polychaetes ingesting sediments to 79% in fish ingesting worms. Efflux rate constants ranged from 5% d-1 for killifish to 40% d-1 for polychaetes. Animal absorption and retention of dissolved 137Cs were also measured. These parameters are used to model radiocesium bioaccumulation and trophic transfer in benthic food chains. Our results are consistent with the idea that sediments can be an important source of Cs for benthic food chains and help explain why some species of bottom fish remained more contaminated than pelagic fish in Japanese coastal waters.

  1. Predicting Effects of Coastal Acidification on Marine Bivalve ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) is increasing in the oceans and causing changes in seawater pH commonly described as ocean or coastal acidification. It is now well-established that, when reproduced in laboratory experiments, these increases in pCO2 can reduce survival and growth of early life stage bivalves. However, the effects that these impairments would have on whole populations of bivalves are unknown. In this study, these laboratory responses were incorporated into field-parameterized population models to assess population-level sensitivities to acidification for two northeast bivalve species with different life histories: Mercenaria mercenaria (hard clam) and Argopecten irradians (bay scallop). The resulting models permitted translation of laboratory pCO2 response functions into population-level responses to examine population sensitivity to future pCO2 changes. Preliminary results from our models indicate that if the current M. mercenaria negative population growth rate was attributed to the effects of pCO2 on early life stages, the population would decline at a rate of 50% per ten years at 420 microatmospheres (µatm) pCO2. If the current population growth rate was attributed to other additive factors (e.g., harvest, harmful algal blooms), M. mercenaria populations were predicted to decline at a rate of 50% per ten years at the preliminary estimate of 1010 µatm pCO2. The estimated population growth rate was positive for A. irradians,

  2. Impact of Ibrahim River on the spatial variation of coastal marine sediment characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghsoub, Myriam; Fakhri, Milad; Courp, Thierry; Khalaf, Gaby; Buscail, Roselyne; Ludwig, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    In the aim to evaluate the impact of Ibrahim River on the environmental status of its coastal marine zone, sedimentological (grain size composition), geochemical (organic carbon, total nitrogen, total carbon, organic matter, calcium carbonate, organic and inorganic phosphate) biochemical (chlorophyll-a, pheopigments) and biological parameters (macro-invertebrates) of the sediment were analyzed and interpreted. Three sampling campaigns were executed using the scientific vessel CANA-CNRS on 26-4-2016, 20-6-2016 and 29-7-2016 successively. The samples were collected according to a middle horizontal transectat three different depths (10, 20, and 30 m).The grain size composition of the sediment was mainly composed of fine sand. The obtained values of organic matter ranged between 32 and 54 mg/g. The total nitrogen was between 0.006 and 0.014%. The percentage of calcium carbonate fluctuated between 20 and 30%. This situation may be attributed to the decomposition and the sinking of the shells and some aquatic organism such as Coccolithophores, foraminifers, gastropods and bivalves. Calcium carbonate may also have terrestrial origin related to the carbonated adjacent land and may be exported to the coastal area with the river inputs. The sediment of the studied area was richer in pheopigments (between 0.8 and 3 μg/g) than in chlorophyll-a (less than 0.4 μg/g) witnessing the presence of degraded material due to the high hydrodynamic conditions. Furthermore, the low values of chlorophyll-a witnessed the oligotrophy of the zone. The concentrations of total phosphate ranged between 97 and 148 μg/g. The dominance of the inorganic phosphate at all sampling points indicates that phosphorus is available for the producers, and that the studied area is less contaminated with anthropogenic discharges. This research project reveals the presence of gastropods, crustaceans and some polychaetes along the five studied stations. These groups are generally found in sandy bottoms

  3. Assessment of acidification and eutrophication in the coastal waters of Bolinao, Pangasinan, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagumen, M. C. T.; San Diego-McGlone, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    Ocean acidification is becoming a global concern due to its potential effects on marine resources. In coastal areas, an emerging problem is ocean acidicification due to eutrophication resulting from human activities. The coastal water of Bolinao, Pangasinan, Philippines has become eutrophic due to increased nutrient loading from unconsumed fish feeds in fish cages. Mariculture is a big industry in Bolinao. In over a decade, the area has experienced decreased oxygen levels leading to hypoxia, fish kills, and algal blooms. The decomposition of organic matter from unconsumed fish feeds results not only to high nutrient buildup but also increased CO2 and acidity in the area. Nutrients (ammonia, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate and silicate), total alkalinity (TA), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), pH, dissolved oxygen (DO), aragonite saturation state (Ωarg) and partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) were measured to determine the combined effect of acidification and eutrophication in Bolinao. Monitoring results have shown an increase in nutrients by 30% to 70% in over a decade. Stratified water during rainy season have resulted in low DO (<5.5) and acidic water (<7.5) with high pCO2 level (>900 μatm). Shallow stations with poor water circulation have shown undersaturated aragonite state (< 2.0) and high pCO2 levels of 800 matm. The eutrophic and acidified coastal waters of Bolinao are already affecting the seagrass and coral reef ecosystems in the area.

  4. Evidence of microplastics in samples of zooplankton from Portuguese coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Frias, J P G L; Otero, V; Sobral, P

    2014-04-01

    Records of high concentrations of plastic and microplastic marine debris floating in the ocean have led to investigate the presence of microplastics in samples of zooplankton from Portuguese coastal waters. Zooplankton samples collected at four offshore sites, in surveys conducted between 2002 and 2008, with three different sampling methods, were used in this preliminary study. A total of 152 samples were processed and microplastics were identified in 93 of them, corresponding to 61% of the total. Costa Vicentina, followed by Lisboa, were the regions with higher microplastic concentrations (0.036 and 0.033 no. m⁻³) and abundances (0.07 and 0.06 cm³ m⁻³), respectively. Microplastic: zooplankton ratios were also higher in these two regions, which is probably related to the proximity of densely populated areas and inputs from the Tejo and Sado river estuaries. Microplastics polymers were identified using Micro Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectroscopy (μ-FTIR), as polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP) and polyacrylates (PA). The present work is the first report on the composition of microplastic particles collected with plankton nets in Portuguese coastal waters. Plankton surveys from regular monitoring campaigns conducted worldwide may be used to monitor plastic particles in the oceans and constitute an important and low cost tool to address marine litter within the scope of the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (2008/56/EC).

  5. Human influences on water quality in Great Lakes coastal wetlands.

    PubMed

    Morrice, John A; Danz, Nicholas P; Regal, Ronald R; Kelly, John R; Niemi, Gerald J; Reavie, Euan D; Hollenhorst, Tom; Axler, Richard P; Trebitz, Anett S; Cotter, Anne M; Peterson, Gregory S

    2008-03-01

    A better understanding of relationships between human activities and water chemistry is needed to identify and manage sources of anthropogenic stress in Great Lakes coastal wetlands. The objective of the study described in this article was to characterize relationships between water chemistry and multiple classes of human activity (agriculture, population and development, point source pollution, and atmospheric deposition). We also evaluated the influence of geomorphology and biogeographic factors on stressor-water quality relationships. We collected water chemistry data from 98 coastal wetlands distributed along the United States shoreline of the Laurentian Great Lakes and GIS-based stressor data from the associated drainage basin to examine stressor-water quality relationships. The sampling captured broad ranges (1.5-2 orders of magnitude) in total phosphorus (TP), total nitrogen (TN), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), total suspended solids (TSS), chlorophyll a (Chl a), and chloride; concentrations were strongly correlated with stressor metrics. Hierarchical partitioning and all-subsets regression analyses were used to evaluate the independent influence of different stressor classes on water quality and to identify best predictive models. Results showed that all categories of stress influenced water quality and that the relative influence of different classes of disturbance varied among water quality parameters. Chloride exhibited the strongest relationships with stressors followed in order by TN, Chl a, TP, TSS, and DIN. In general, coarse scale classification of wetlands by morphology (three wetland classes: riverine, protected, open coastal) and biogeography (two ecoprovinces: Eastern Broadleaf Forest [EBF] and Laurentian Mixed Forest [LMF]) did not improve predictive models. This study provides strong evidence of the link between water chemistry and human stress in Great Lakes coastal wetlands and can be used to inform management efforts to improve water

  6. Magnetic properties of marine magnetotactic bacteria in a seasonally stratified coastal pond (Salt Pond, MA, USA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskowitz, Bruce M.; Bazylinski, Dennis A.; Egli, Ramon; Frankel, Richard B.; Edwards, Katrina J.

    2008-07-01

    Magnetic properties of suspended material in the water columns of freshwater and marine environments provide snapshots of magnetic biomineralization that have yet to be affected by the eventual time-integration and early diagenetic effects that occur after sediment deposition. Here, we report on the magnetism, geochemistry and geobiology of uncultured magnetite- and greigite-producing magnetotactic bacteria (MB) and magnetically responsive protists (MRP) in Salt Pond (Falmouth, MA, USA), a small coastal, marine basin (~5 m deep) that becomes chemically stratified during the summer months. At this time, strong inverse O2 and H2S concentration gradients form in the water column and a well-defined oxic-anoxic interface (OAI) is established at a water depth of about 3.5 m. At least four morphological types of MB, both magnetite and greigite producers, and several species of magnetically responsive protists are found associated with the OAI and the lower sulphidic hypolimnion. Magnetic properties of filtered water were determined through the water column across the OAI and were consistent with the occurrence of magnetite- and greigite-producing MB at different depths. Sharp peaks in anhysteretic remanent magnetization (ARM) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) and single-domain (SD) values of ARM/SIRM occur within the OAI corresponding to high concentrations of MB and MRP with magnetically derived cell densities of 104-106 ml-1. Low-temperature (<300 K) remanence indicated that while only magnetite producers inhabit the OAI, both magnetite and greigite producers inhabit the sulphidic hypolimnion below the OAI. Magnetic measurements also show that the amount of Fe sequestered in magnetite magnetosomes within the OAI is no more than 3.3 per cent of the total available dissolved Fe(II) in the water column. However, below the OAI, magnetic minerals constitute a much larger fraction of the total dissolved Fe(II) ranging from 13.6 to 32.2 per cent depending

  7. Relationship between organic pollution and the occurrence of toxic Phytoplankton species in the Lebanese coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Rahman Hassoun, Abed

    2017-04-01

    Aiming to evaluate the effects of organic pollution, environmental parameters and phytoplankton community were monitored during a two-year period (from April 2010 till March 2012) in the central coast of Lebanon in the Levantine Sub-basin. Data were collected for hydrological (temperature and salinity), chemical (nitrites, nitrates and phosphates), and biological (chlorophyll-a and phytoplankton populations) parameters. Our results show that temperature follows its normal seasonal and annual cycles, usually noted in the Lebanese coastal waters. Salinity presents spatial and temporal variations with low values (19.07 - 39.6) in the areas affected by continental inputs. Significant fluctuations (P < 0.05) of nutrients, Chl-a concentrations and density of total phytoplanktonic cells were observed between the sites and through the years. Moreover, a perturbation of the natural phytoplanktonic succession and an occurrence of toxic or potentially harmful algae were noticed in the polluted sites, reflecting the influence of wastewater effluents on the coastal seawater equilibrium and thus on the Lebanese marine biodiversity. This study sheds the light on the current environmental condition of few coastal areas which could facilitate the management of their pollution sources. Keywords: Organic pollution, phytoplankton community, toxic algae, coastal water quality, Lebanon, Mediterranean Sea.

  8. A review of the influence of biogeography, riverine linkages, and marine connectivity on fish assemblages in evolving lagoons and lakes of coastal southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Alan K; Weerts, Steven P; Weyl, Olaf L F

    2017-09-01

    The Holocene evolution of eight South African coastal lakes and lagoons is examined and related to changes in fish composition over that period. Historical and current connectivity with riverine and marine environments are the primary determinants of present-day fish assemblages in these systems. A small and remarkably consistent group of relict estuarine species have persisted in these coastal lakes and lagoons. The loss or reduction of connectivity with the sea has impacted on the diversity of marine fishes in all eight study systems, with no marine fishes occurring in those water bodies where connectivity has been completely broken (e.g. Sibaya, Groenvlei). In systems that have retained tenuous linkages with the sea (e.g., Verlorenvlei, Wilderness lakes), elements of the marine fish assemblage have persisted, especially the presence of facultative catadromous species. Freshwater fish diversity in coastal lakes and lagoons is a function of historical and present biogeography and salinity. From a freshwater biogeography perspective, the inflowing rivers of the four temperate systems reviewed here contain three or fewer native freshwater fishes, while the subtropical lakes that are fed by river systems contain up to 40 freshwater fish species. Thus, the significantly higher fish species diversity in subtropical versus temperate coastal lakes and lagoons comes as no surprise. Fish species diversity has been increased further in some systems (e.g., Groenvlei) by alien fish introductions. However, the impacts of fish introductions and translocations have not been studied in the coastal lakes and lagoons of South Africa. In these closed systems, it is probable that predation impacts on small estuarine fishes are significant. The recent alien fish introductions is an example of the growing threats to these systems during the Anthropocene, a period when human activities have had significant negative impacts and show potential to match the changes recorded during the

  9. An evaluation of ocean color model estimates of marine primary productivity in coastal and pelagic regions across the globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saba, V. S.; Friedrichs, M. A. M.; Antoine, D.; Armstrong, R. A.; Asanuma, I.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Ciotti, A. M.; Dowell, M.; Hoepffner, N.; Hyde, K. J. W.; Ishizaka, J.; Kameda, T.; Marra, J.; Mélin, F.; Morel, A.; O'Reilly, J.; Scardi, M.; Smith, W. O., Jr.; Smyth, T. J.; Tang, S.; Uitz, J.; Waters, K.; Westberry, T. K.

    2011-02-01

    Nearly half of the earth's photosynthetically fixed carbon derives from the oceans. To determine global and region specific rates, we rely on models that estimate marine net primary productivity (NPP) thus it is essential that these models are evaluated to determine their accuracy. Here we assessed the skill of 21 ocean color models by comparing their estimates of depth-integrated NPP to 1156 in situ 14C measurements encompassing ten marine regions including the Sargasso Sea, pelagic North Atlantic, coastal Northeast Atlantic, Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Arabian Sea, subtropical North Pacific, Ross Sea, West Antarctic Peninsula, and the Antarctic Polar Frontal Zone. Average model skill, as determined by root-mean square difference calculations, was lowest in the Black and Mediterranean Seas, highest in the pelagic North Atlantic and the Antarctic Polar Frontal Zone, and intermediate in the other six regions. The maximum fraction of model skill that may be attributable to uncertainties in both the input variables and in situ NPP measurements was nearly 72%. On average, the simplest depth/wavelength integrated models performed no worse than the more complex depth/wavelength resolved models. Ocean color models were not highly challenged in extreme conditions of surface chlorophyll-a and sea surface temperature, nor in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll waters. Water column depth was the primary influence on ocean color model performance such that average skill was significantly higher at depths greater than 250 m, suggesting that ocean color models are more challenged in Case-2 waters (coastal) than in Case-1 (pelagic) waters. Given that in situ chlorophyll-a data was used as input data, algorithm improvement is required to eliminate the poor performance of ocean color NPP models in Case-2 waters that are close to coastlines. Finally, ocean color chlorophyll-a algorithms are challenged by optically complex Case-2 waters, thus using satellite-derived chlorophyll-a to

  10. An evaluation of ocean color model estimates of marine primary productivity in coastal and pelagic regions across the globe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saba, V. S.; Friedrichs, M. A. M.; Antoine, D.; Armstrong, R. A.; Asanuma, I.; Behrenfeld, M. J.; Ciotti, A. M.; Dowell, M.; Hoepffner, N.; Hyde, K. J. W.; Ishizaka, J.; Kameda, T.; Marra, J.; Mélin, F.; Morel, A.; O'Reilly, J.; Scardi, M.; Smith, W. O., Jr.; Smyth, T. J.; Tang, S.; Uitz, J.; Waters, K.; Westberry, T. K.

    2010-09-01

    Nearly half of the earth's photosynthetically fixed carbon derives from the oceans. To determine global and region specific rates, we rely on models that estimate marine net primary productivity (NPP) thus it is essential that these models are evaluated to determine their accuracy. Here we assessed the skill of 21 ocean color models by comparing their estimates of depth-integrated NPP to 1156 in situ 14C measurements encompassing ten marine regions including the Sargasso Sea, pelagic North Atlantic, coastal Northeast Atlantic, Black Sea, Mediterranean Sea, Arabian Sea, subtropical North Pacific, Ross Sea, West Antarctic Peninsula, and the Antarctic Polar Frontal Zone. Average model skill, as determined by root-mean square difference calculations, was lowest in the Black and Mediterranean Seas, highest in the pelagic North Atlantic and the Antarctic Polar Frontal Zone, and intermediate in the other six regions. The maximum fraction of model skill that may be attributable to uncertainties in both the input variables and in situ NPP measurements, was nearly 72%. Contrary to prior studies, ocean color models were not highly challenged in extreme conditions of surface chlorophyll-a and sea surface temperature, nor in high-nitrate low-chlorophyll waters. On average, the simplest depth/wavelength integrated models performed no worse than the more complex depth/wavelength resolved models. Water column depth (distance to coastlines) was the primary influence on ocean color model performance such that average skill was significantly higher at depths greater than 250 m, suggesting that ocean color models are more challenged in Case-2 waters (coastal) than in Case-1 (pelagic) waters. Given that in situ chlorophyll-a data was used as input data, algorithm improvement is required to eliminate the poor performance of ocean color models in Case-2 waters that are close to coastlines. Finally, ocean color chlorophyll-a algorithms are challenged by optically complex Case-2 waters

  11. Different Bacterial Communities Involved in Peptide Decomposition between Normoxic and Hypoxic Coastal Waters

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Shuting; Wawrik, Boris; Liu, Zhanfei

    2017-01-01

    Proteins and peptides are key components of the labile dissolved organic matter pool in marine environments. Knowing which types of bacteria metabolize peptides can inform the factors that govern peptide decomposition and further carbon and nitrogen remineralization in marine environments. A 13C-labeled tetrapeptide, alanine-valine-phenylalanine-alanine (AVFA), was added to both surface (normoxic) and bottom (hypoxic) seawater from a coastal station in the northern Gulf of Mexico for a 2-day incubation experiment, and bacteria that incorporated the peptide were identified using DNA stable isotope probing (SIP). The decomposition rate of AVFA in the bottom hypoxic seawater (0.018–0.035 μM h-1) was twice as fast as that in the surface normoxic seawater (0.011–0.017 μM h-1). SIP experiments indicated that incorporation of 13C was highest among the Flavobacteria, Sphingobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Acidimicrobiia, Verrucomicrobiae, Cyanobacteria, and Actinobacteria in surface waters. In contrast, highest 13C-enrichment was mainly observed in several Alphaproteobacteria (Thalassococcus, Rhodobacteraceae, Ruegeria) and Gammaproteobacteria genera (Colwellia, Balneatrix, Thalassomonas) in the bottom water. These data suggest that a more diverse group of both oligotrophic and copiotrophic bacteria may be involved in metabolizing labile organic matter such as peptides in normoxic coastal waters, and several copiotrophic genera belonging to Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria and known to be widely distributed may contribute to faster peptide decomposition in the hypoxic waters. PMID:28326069

  12. Comparison of the Seasonal Variations of Synechococcus Assemblage Structures in Estuarine Waters and Coastal Waters of Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Xiaomin; Vidyarathna, Nayani K.; Palenik, Brian; Lee, Puiyin

    2015-01-01

    Seasonal variation in the phylogenetic composition of Synechococcus assemblages in estuarine and coastal waters of Hong Kong was examined through pyrosequencing of the rpoC1 gene. Sixteen samples were collected in 2009 from two stations representing estuarine and ocean-influenced coastal waters, respectively. Synechococcus abundance in coastal waters gradually increased from 3.6 × 103 cells ml−1 in March, reaching a peak value of 5.7 × 105 cells ml−1 in July, and then gradually decreased to 9.3 × 103 cells ml−1 in December. The changes in Synechococcus abundance in estuarine waters followed a pattern similar to that in coastal waters, whereas its composition shifted from being dominated by phycoerythrin-rich (PE-type) strains in winter to phycocyanin-only (PC-type) strains in summer owing to the increase in freshwater discharge from the Pearl River and higher water temperature. The high abundance of PC-type Synechococcus was composed of subcluster 5.2 marine Synechococcus, freshwater Synechococcus (F-PC), and Cyanobium. The Synechococcus assemblage in the coastal waters, on the other hand, was dominated by marine PE-type Synechococcus, with subcluster 5.1 clades II and VI as the major lineages from April to September, when the summer monsoon prevailed. Besides these two clades, clade III cooccurred with clade V at relatively high abundance in summer. During winter, the Synechococcus assemblage compositions at the two sites were similar and were dominated by subcluster 5.1 clades II and IX and an undescribed clade (represented by Synechococcus sp. strain miyav). Clade IX Synechococcus was a relatively ubiquitous PE-type Synechococcus found at both sites, and our study demonstrates that some strains of the clade have the ability to deal with large variation of salinity in subtropical estuarine environments. Our study suggests that changes in seawater temperature and salinity caused by the seasonal variation of monsoonal forcing are two major determinants of

  13. 76 FR 46753 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Coastal Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ..., California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) and harbor seals (Phoca vitulina). Specified Activities Since... MMPA. Numbers of California sea lions and harbor seals, the species that may be subject to harassment... projects that as many as 20 coastal displays per year may be conducted in, or adjacent to, MBNMS...

  14. Eutrophication and macroalgal blooms in temperate and tropical coastal waters: nutrient enrichment experiments with Ulva spp.

    PubMed Central

    Teichberg, Mirta; Fox, Sophia E; Olsen, Ylva S; Valiela, Ivan; Martinetto, Paulina; Iribarne, Oscar; Muto, Elizabeti Yuriko; Petti, Monica A V; Corbisier, Thaïs N; Soto-Jiménez, Martín; Páez-Osuna, Federico; Castro, Paula; Freitas, Helena; Zitelli, Andreina; Cardinaletti, Massimo; Tagliapietra, Davide

    2010-01-01

    Receiving coastal waters and estuaries are among the most nutrient-enriched environments on earth, and one of the symptoms of the resulting eutrophication is the proliferation of opportunistic, fast-growing marine seaweeds. Here, we used a widespread macroalga often involved in blooms, Ulva spp., to investigate how supply of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P), the two main potential growth-limiting nutrients, influence macroalgal growth in temperate and tropical coastal waters ranging from low- to high-nutrient supplies. We carried out N and P enrichment field experiments on Ulva spp. in seven coastal systems, with one of these systems represented by three different subestuaries, for a total of nine sites. We showed that rate of growth of Ulva spp. was directly correlated to annual dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) concentrations, where growth increased with increasing DIN concentration. Internal N pools of macroalgal fronds were also linked to increased DIN supply, and algal growth rates were tightly coupled to these internal N pools. The increases in DIN appeared to be related to greater inputs of wastewater to these coastal waters as indicated by high δ15N signatures of the algae as DIN increased. N and P enrichment experiments showed that rate of macroalgal growth was controlled by supply of DIN where ambient DIN concentrations were low, and by P where DIN concentrations were higher, regardless of latitude or geographic setting. These results suggest that understanding the basis for macroalgal blooms, and management of these harmful phenomena, will require information as to nutrient sources, and actions to reduce supply of N and P in coastal waters concerned.

  15. Multiple stressors, nonlinear effects and the implications of climate change impacts on marine coastal ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Hewitt, Judi E; Ellis, Joanne I; Thrush, Simon F

    2016-08-01

    Global climate change will undoubtedly be a pressure on coastal marine ecosystems, affecting not only species distributions and physiology but also ecosystem functioning. In the coastal zone, the environmental variables that may drive ecological responses to climate change include temperature, wave energy, upwelling events and freshwater inputs, and all act and interact at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. To date, we have a poor understanding of how climate-related environmental changes may affect coastal marine ecosystems or which environmental variables are likely to produce priority effects. Here we use time series data (17 years) of coastal benthic macrofauna to investigate responses to a range of climate-influenced variables including sea-surface temperature, southern oscillation indices (SOI, Z4), wind-wave exposure, freshwater inputs and rainfall. We investigate responses from the abundances of individual species to abundances of functional traits and test whether species that are near the edge of their tolerance to another stressor (in this case sedimentation) may exhibit stronger responses. The responses we observed were all nonlinear and some exhibited thresholds. While temperature was most frequently an important predictor, wave exposure and ENSO-related variables were also frequently important and most ecological variables responded to interactions between environmental variables. There were also indications that species sensitive to another stressor responded more strongly to weaker climate-related environmental change at the stressed site than the unstressed site. The observed interactions between climate variables, effects on key species or functional traits, and synergistic effects of additional anthropogenic stressors have important implications for understanding and predicting the ecological consequences of climate change to coastal ecosystems.

  16. Characterizing storm water dispersion and dilution from small coastal streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Leonel; Siegel, David A.; McWilliams, James C.; Uchiyama, Yusuke; Jones, Charles

    2016-06-01

    Characterizing the dispersion and dilution of storm water from small coastal creeks is important for understanding the importance of land-derived subsidies to nearby ecosystems and the management of anthropogenic pollutants. In Southern California, creek runoff is episodic, intense, and short-lived while the plumes are buoyant, all of which make the field sampling of freshwater plumes challenging. Numerical modeling offers a viable way to characterize these systems. The dilution and dispersion of freshwater from two creeks that discharge into the Santa Barbara Channel, California is investigated using Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) simulations with a horizontal resolution of 100 m. Tight coupling is found among precipitation, hydrologic discharge, wind forcing, and submesoscale flow structures which all contribute to plume evolution. During flooding, plumes are narrow and attached to the coast, due to downwelling/onshore wind forcing and intense vorticity filaments lying parallel to the shelf. As the storm passes, the winds typically shift to offshore/upwelling favorable conditions and the plume is advected offshore which enhances its dilution. Plumes reach the bottom nearshore while they form thin layers a few meters thick offshore. Dilution field of passive tracers released with the runoff is strongly anisotropic with stronger cross-shelf gradients than along-shelf. Dispersion analysis of statistical moments of the passive tracer distribution results in scale-dependent diffusivities consistent with the particle-pair analysis of Romero et al. Model validation, the roles of submesoscale processes, and wind forcing on plume evolution and application to ecological issues and marine resource management are discussed.

  17. The inorganic carbon distribution in Irish coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Triona; Cave, Rachel; McGovern, Evin; Kivimae, Caroline

    2014-05-01

    Despite their relatively small surface area, coastal and shelf waters play a crucial role in the global climate through their influence on major biogeochemical cycles. Due to growing concern about ocean acidification as a result of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations, measurements of inorganic carbon parameters (dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), total alkalinity (TA), pH and pCO2) have been made with increasing regularity over the past two decades. While it is clear that open ocean surface waters are acidifying at a fairly uniform rate ( -0.02 pH units per decade), less is known about changes in coastal waters due to the high complexity and spatial variability in these regions. Large spatial and temporal variability in coastal CO2 parameters is mainly due to nutrient inputs, biological activity, upwelling and riverine inputs of alkalinity and inorganic and organic carbon. The inorganic carbon system in Irish coastal waters is presented here, gathered from 9 surveys around the Irish coastline between 2009 and 2013. There are striking contrasts in the CO2 system between different areas, largely attributed to the bedrock composition of the nearby rivers. Freshwater end-member concentrations of TA, calculated from TA-salinity relationships in outer estuarine and nearshore coastal water, were supported by riverine TA data from the Irish Environmental Protection Agency. A large portion of Ireland is covered with limestone bedrock and as a result, many of the rivers have extremely high TA (>5000μmol/kg) due to the carbonate mineral content of the underlying bedrock. While such high TA has resulted in elevated pH and calcium carbonate saturation states in some coastal waters, (e.g. Galway Bay and Dublin Bay), the high TA in other areas was accompanied by particularly high DIC (e.g. River Shannon on the west coast), resulting in lower pH and aragonite/calcite saturation states and even CO2 degassing in the Shannon estuary. Due to non-limestone lithology in many parts

  18. Global learning for local solutions: Reducing vulnerability of marine-dependent coastal communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salim, S. S.; Paytan, A.

    2016-12-01

    The project `Global learning for local solutions: Reducing vulnerability of marine-dependent coastal communities' (GULLS) falls within the Belmont Forum and G8 Research Councils Initiative on Multilateral Research Funding. Participants include teams from nine countries: Australia, Brazil, India, Madagascar, Mozambique, New Zealand, South Africa, the United Kingdom and the United States of America. The project focuses on five regional `hotspots' of climate and social change, defined as fast-warming marine areas and areas experiencing social tensions as a result of change: south-east Australia, Brazil, India, South Africa, and the Mozambique Channel and adjacent countries of Mozambique and Madagascar. These areas require most urgent attention and serve as valuable case studies for wider applications. The project aims to assist coastal communities and other stakeholders dependent on marine resources to adapt to climate change and variability through an integrated and trans-disciplinary approach. Combining best available global knowledge with local knowledge and conditions, it is exploring adaptation options and approaches to strengthen resilience at local and community levels, with a focus on options for reconciling the needs for food security with long-term sustainability and conservation. The project will also contribute to capacity development and empowering fishing communities and other fisheries-dependent stakeholders.A standardized vulnerability assessment framework is being developed that will be used to integrate results from natural, social and economic studies in order to identify needs and options for strengthening management and existing policies. Structured comparisons between the hot-spots will assist global efforts for adaptation and strengthening resilience in marine and coastal social-ecological systems.

  19. Natural and Human Impacts on the Coastal Environment of Taiwan Recorded in Marine Sediments During the last century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, H.; Chen, Z.; Huh, C.; Chen, K.; Lin, Y.; Hsu, F.

    2012-12-01

    Located at tropical-to-subtropical region on the Pacific rim, Taiwan has very high erosion rate due to steep topography and heavy rainfall especially typhoons. The high sedimentation rates in Taiwan Strait allow us to retrieve high-resolution marine records which reveal natural changes and human impacts on the coastal environment of Taiwan over the past 100 years. Five gravity and box cores well dated by 210Pb and 137Cs methods were analyzed for elemental concentrations in the acid-leachable phase, total organic carbon (TOC), δ13CTOC, δ13C and δ18O of carbonates. The results show that: (1) Positive correlation between TOC and typhoon rainfall since 1940 indicate that decline of vegetation coverage resulted in intensification of soil erosion. The δ13CTOC values illustrate that the organic carbon in the sediments was originated mainly from land input. (2) The δ18O difference between foraminiferal shells and carbonate grains can be used for rainfall reconstruction. (3) The Ca concentrations mainly from carbonates in the sediments were decreased since AD 1940, reflecting changes in sedimentary source and ocean acidfication. As development of the land use, more and more soil erosion caused depletion of authigenic marine sediments in the coast region. Ocean acidification led to less carbonate formation in seawater. (4) Since 1920, Pb concentration rapidly increased and peaked at ~1970 as Pb input from gasoline usage. Pb concentration dropped from 1970 to 1975 perhaps due to unleaded gasoline replacement. (5) In the nearshore environment, heavy metals such as Mn, Cu and Pb in the acid-leachable phase of the sediments strongly increased from 1950 to 1965 then kept relatively high level, reflecting heavy metal contamination from industrial source. The human impact on the coastal region of Taiwan not only caused changes in marine sediments and ocean water, but also disturbed the marine ecosystem. This study has been funded by NSC-100-3113-E-002-009: Study of CO2 capture

  20. Assessment of marine debris in beaches or seawaters around the China Seas and coastal provinces.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Changchun; Liu, Xu; Wang, Zhengwen; Yang, Tiantian; Shi, Linna; Wang, Linlin; You, Suwen; Li, Min; Zhang, Cuicui

    2016-02-01

    Compared with United States of America (USA), Brazil, Chile, Australia, limited attention has been paid to marine debris research in China and few studies have attempted to quantify the abundance and mass of marine debris. In this study, firstly the general status and sources of marine debris in China were assessed in the time period between 2007 and 2014, and secondly marine debris situation was evaluated in three China Sea Areas (the North China Sea, the East China Sea and the South China Sea) from 2009 to 2013, and finally marine debris conditions and sources were analyzed in beaches or seawaters around some coastal provinces of China during 2007-2013. Based on above analysis, the primary conclusions were as follows: (1) The mean number and weight densities of beached marine debris (BMD) and submerged marine debris (SMD) were 4.30, 0.13items/100m(2) and 133.80, 22.60g/100m(2) in China from 2007 to 2014, respectively. The average number density of the large size FMD (LOSFMD) was 0.0024items/100m(2) and that of the small and medium size FMD (SMSFMD) was 0.30items/100m(2), and the mean weight density of the SMSFMD was 1.40g/100m(2) from 2008 to 2014. The SMD and FMD densities were at the low level and the BMD density was at the high level in China. (2) The marine debris primarily was comprised of plastic, Styrofoam, wood, glass, rubber, fabric/fiber and metal, which included almost all major categories of marine debris. (3) Sources of BMD and FMD were as follows: the first source was coastal/recreational activities, followed by other disposal sources, navigation/fishing activities and the activities related smoking, and the least source being those associated with medical/sanitary activities, while the source of SMD remained unknown. (4) The mean number and weight densities of BMD were the biggest in the North China Sea, while those of FMD and SMD were the highest in the northern South China Sea. The results of this study were beneficial to the establishment of

  1. Proceedings of the fourth international conference on remote sensing for marine and coastal environments. Technology and applications: Volume II

    SciTech Connect

    1997-08-01

    The conference proceedings contain papers which focus on the application of remote sensing technology and geographic information systems to solve problems in marine and coastal environments. Thirty-one papers were selected for the database from Volume 2 of the proceedings. The topics included in the proceedings are: natural resource management, coastal hazards, oceanographic applications, mapping and charting, data access, coastal ocean color, radar satellites/coastal radars, underwater remote sensing, and new sensors and systems. Subtopics of papers in Volume 2 include: optics and models; air-sea interactions and sea ice; sensors and information systems; hyperspectral sensors and applications; charting and mapping; and color imagery.

  2. The California Seafloor and Coastal Mapping Program – Providing science and geospatial data for California's State Waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Samuel Y.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Golden, Nadine; Dartnell, Peter; Hartwell, Stephen; Cochran, Susan; Watt, Janet

    2017-01-01

    The California Seafloor and Coastal Mapping Program (CSCMP) is a collaborative effort to develop comprehensive bathymetric, geologic, and habitat maps and data for California's State Waters. CSCMP began in 2007 when the California Ocean Protection Council (OPC) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) allocated funding for high-resolution bathymetric mapping, largely to support the California Marine Life Protection Act and to update nautical charts. Collaboration and support from the U.S. Geological Survey and other partners has led to development and dissemination of one of the world's largest seafloor-mapping datasets. CSCMP provides essential science and data for ocean and coastal management, stimulates and enables research, and raises public education and awareness of coastal and ocean issues. Specific applications include:•Delineation and designation of marine protected areas•Characterization and modeling of benthic habitats and ecosystems•Updating nautical charts•Earthquake hazard assessments•Tsunami hazard assessments•Planning offshore infrastructure•Providing baselines for monitoring change•Input to models of sediment transport, coastal erosion, and coastal flooding•Regional sediment management•Understanding coastal aquifers•Providing geospatial data for emergency response

  3. Distribution of dissolved silver in marine waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barriada, J. L.; Achterberg, E. P.; Tappin, A.; Truscott, J.

    2003-04-01

    Silver is one of the most toxic heavy metals, surpassed only by mercury [1-3]. Monitoring of dissolved silver concentrations in natural waters is therefore of great importance. The determination of dissolved silver in waters is not without challenges, because of its low (picomolar) concentrations. Consequently, there are only a few reported studies in marine waters, which have been performed in USA [4-6] and Japan [7]. The analytical techniques used in the reported studies for the determination of silver in seawater were Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (GFAAS) after solvent extraction [2,4,5], and Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) after solvent extraction or solid phase extraction [7,8]. In this contribution, we will present an optimised Magnetic Sector (MS) ICP-MS technique for the determination of dissolved silver in marine waters. The MS-ICP-MS method used anion exchange column to preconcentrate silver from saline waters, and to remove the saline matrix. The ICP-MS method has been used successfully to determine total dissolved silver in estuarine and oceanic samples. Bibliography 1. H. T. Ratte, Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 1999, 18: p. 89-108. 2. R. T. Herrin, A. W. Andren and D. E. Armstrong, Environ. Sci. Technol. 2001, 35: 1953-1958. 3. D. E. Schildkraut, P. T. Dao, J. P. Twist, A. T. Davis and K. A. Robillard, Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 1998, 17: 642-649. 4. E. Breuer, S. A. Sanudo-Wilhelmy and R. C. Aller, Estuaries. 1999, 22:603-615. 5. A. R. Flegal, S. A. Sanudowilhelmy and G. M. Scelfo, Mar. Chem. 1995, 49: 315-320. 6. S. N. Luoma, Y. B. Ho and G. W. Bryan, Mar. Pollut. Bull. 1995, 31: 44-54. 7. Y. Zhang, H. Amakawa and Y. Nozaki, Mar. Chem. 2001, 75: 151-163. 8. L. Yang and R. E. Sturgeon, J. Anal. At. Spectrom. 2002, 17: 88-93.

  4. Shallow Water Marine UXO Detection Survey, United States Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    U.S. Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejuene , North Carolina, ESTCP Project No. MM-200935, February. This page left blank intentionally. A-1...UXO Detection Survey United States Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina April 2011 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Shallow Water Marine UXO Detection Survey United States Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, North Carolina 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER

  5. State of knowledge of coastal and marine biodiversity of Indian Ocean countries.

    PubMed

    Wafar, Mohideen; Venkataraman, Krishnamurthy; Ingole, Baban; Ajmal Khan, Syed; Lokabharathi, Ponnapakkam

    2011-01-31

    The Indian Ocean (IO) extends over 30% of the global ocean area and is rimmed by 36 littoral and 11 hinterland nations sustaining about 30% of the world's population. The landlocked character of the ocean along its northern boundary and the resultant seasonally reversing wind and sea surface circulation patterns are features unique to the IO. The IO also accounts for 30% of the global coral reef cover, 40,000 km² of mangroves,some of the world's largest estuaries, and 9 large marine ecosystems. Numerous expeditions and institutional efforts in the last two centuries have contributed greatly to our knowledge of coastal and marine biodiversity within the IO. The current inventory, as seen from the Ocean Biogeographic Information System, stands at 34,989 species, but the status of knowledge is not uniform among countries. Lack of human, institutional, and technical capabilities in some IO countries is the main cause for the heterogeneous level of growth in our understanding of the biodiversity of the IO. The gaps in knowledge extend to several smaller taxa and to large parts of the shelf and deep-sea ecosystems, including seamounts. Habitat loss, uncontrolled developmental activities in the coastal zone, over extraction of resources, and coastal pollution are serious constraints on maintenance of highly diverse biota, especially in countries like those of the IO, where environmental regulations are weak.

  6. Developing an optimal sampling design. A case study in a coastal marine ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Kitsiou, D; Tsirtsis, G; Karydis, M

    2001-09-01

    The development of a sampling design for optimising sampling site locations collected from a coastal marine environment has been the purpose of the present work; application of statistical analysis and spatial autocorrelation methods have been carried out. The dataset included data collected from 34 sampling sites spaced out in the Strait of Lesbos, Greece, arranged in a 1 x 1 NM grid. The coastal shallow ecosystem was subdivided into three zones, an inner one (7 stations), a middle one (16 stations) and an offshore zone (11 stations). The standard error of the chlorophyll-a concentrations in each zone has been used as the criterion for the sampling design optimisation, resulting into reallocation of the sampling sites into the three zones. The positions of the reallocated stations have been assessed by estimation of the spatial heterogeneity and anisotropy of chlorophyll-a concentrations using variograms. Study of the variance of the initial dataset of the inner zone taking into account spatial heterogeneity, revealed two different sub-areas and therefore, the number of the inner stations has been reassessed. The proposed methodology eliminates the number of sampling sites and maximises the information of spatial data from marine ecosystems. It is described as a step-by-step procedure and could be widely applied in sampling design concerning coastal pollution problems.

  7. Unified classical formula for non-cohesive total-load sediment transport in marine coastal zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khorram, Saeed; Ergil, Mustafa

    2016-11-01

    This paper proposes the concept of a significant transport rate, in coastal environments that contains different spatial and temporal scales and multiple interacting forces (e.g., waves, tides, wave-current, and wind density currents) as well as, the complex physical processes of total-load sediment which is not easy to calculate for practical needs due to restricted range of applicability. The present study develops a unified classical formula for non-cohesive total-load sediment transport in marine coastal zones by using dimensional analysis and self-similarity concepts where a set of independent variables considered. A dataset of total-load collected at both field observation stations and from the laboratory flume conditions and the six well-known relevant formulas were used to evaluate the predictive capability of the proposed formula. Since the results show that, the new formula is in good agreement with both field and flume data sets measures, the authors are suggesting the use of it for the sediment-carrying capacity predictions of total-load sediment transport in marine coastal zones.

  8. Discovery of a living coral reef in the coastal waters of Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pohl, Thomas; Al-Muqdadi, Sameh W.; Ali, Malik H.; Fawzi, Nadia Al-Mudaffar; Ehrlich, Hermann; Merkel, Broder

    2014-03-01

    Until now, it has been well-established that coral complex in the Arabian/Persian Gulf only exist in the coastal regions of Bahrain, Iran, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates and it was thought that there are no coral reefs in Iraq. However, here for the first time we show the existence of a living 28 km2 large coral reef in this country. These corals are adapted to one of the most extreme coral-bearing environments on earth: the seawater temperature in this area ranges between 14 and 34°C. The discovery of the unique coral reef oasis in the turbid coastal waters of Iraq will stimulate the interest of governmental agencies, environmental organizations, as well as of the international scientific community working on the fundamental understanding of coral marine ecosystems and global climate today.

  9. Classifying risk zones by the impacts of oil spills in the coastal waters of Thailand.

    PubMed

    Singkran, Nuanchan

    2013-05-15

    Risk zones that could be subject to the impacts of oil spills were identified at a national scale across the 23 coastal provinces of Thailand based on the average percentage risk of critical variables, including frequency of oil spill incidents, number of ports, number of local boats, number of foreign boats, and presence of important resources (i.e., protection area, conservation area, marine park, mangrove, aquaculture, coral reef, seagrass, seagull, seabird, sea turtle, dugong, dolphin, whale, guitar fish, and shark). Risks at the local scale were determined based on the frequency of simulated oil slicks hitting the coast and/or important resources. Four zones with varied risk magnitudes (low, moderate, high, and very high) were mapped to guide the preparation of effective plans to minimize oil spill incidents and impacts in coastal waters. Risk maps with sufficient information could be used to improve regulations related to shipping and vessel navigation in local and regional seas.

  10. Discovery of a living coral reef in the coastal waters of Iraq

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Thomas; Al-Muqdadi, Sameh W.; Ali, Malik H.; Fawzi, Nadia Al-Mudaffar; Ehrlich, Hermann; Merkel, Broder

    2014-01-01

    Until now, it has been well-established that coral complex in the Arabian/Persian Gulf only exist in the coastal regions of Bahrain, Iran, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates and it was thought that there are no coral reefs in Iraq. However, here for the first time we show the existence of a living 28 km2 large coral reef in this country. These corals are adapted to one of the most extreme coral-bearing environments on earth: the seawater temperature in this area ranges between 14 and 34°C. The discovery of the unique coral reef oasis in the turbid coastal waters of Iraq will stimulate the interest of governmental agencies, environmental organizations, as well as of the international scientific community working on the fundamental understanding of coral marine ecosystems and global climate today. PMID:24603901

  11. Discovery of a living coral reef in the coastal waters of Iraq.

    PubMed

    Pohl, Thomas; Al-Muqdadi, Sameh W; Ali, Malik H; Fawzi, Nadia Al-Mudaffar; Ehrlich, Hermann; Merkel, Broder

    2014-03-06

    Until now, it has been well-established that coral complex in the Arabian/Persian Gulf only exist in the coastal regions of Bahrain, Iran, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates and it was thought that there are no coral reefs in Iraq. However, here for the first time we show the existence of a living 28 km(2) large coral reef in this country. These corals are adapted to one of the most extreme coral-bearing environments on earth: the seawater temperature in this area ranges between 14 and 34°C. The discovery of the unique coral reef oasis in the turbid coastal waters of Iraq will stimulate the interest of governmental agencies, environmental organizations, as well as of the international scientific community working on the fundamental understanding of coral marine ecosystems and global climate today.

  12. Biotic variation in coastal water bodies in Sussex, England: Implications for saline lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, Chris B.; Vina-Herbon, Cristina; Metcalfe, Daniel J.

    2005-12-01

    Coastal water bodies are a heterogeneous resource typified by high spatial and temporal variability and threatened by anthropogenic impacts. This includes saline lagoons, which support a specialist biota and are a priority habitat for nature conservation. This paper describes the biotic variation in coastal water bodies in Sussex, England, in order to characterise the distinctiveness of the saline lagoon community and elucidate environmental factors that determine its distribution. Twenty-eight coastal water bodies were surveyed for their aquatic flora and invertebrate fauna and a suite of exploratory environmental variables compiled. Ordination and cluster analyses were used to examine patterns in community composition and relate these to environmental parameters. Biotic variation in the coastal water body resource was high. Salinity was the main environmental parameter explaining the regional distribution of taxa; freshwater and saline assemblages were evident and related to sea water ingress. Freshwater sites were indicated by the plant Myriophyllum spicatum and gastropod mollusc Lymnaea peregra, while more saline communities supported marine and brackish water taxa, notably a range of chlorophytic algae and the bivalve mollusc Cerastoderma glaucum. Site community differences were also related to bank slope and parameters describing habitat heterogeneity. A saline lagoon community was discerned within the matrix of biotic variation consisting of specialist lagoonal species with associated typically euryhaline taxa. For fauna, the latter were the molluscs Abra tenuis and Hydrobia ulvae, and the crustaceans Corophium volutator and Palaemonetes varians, and for flora they were the algae Ulva lactuca, Chaetomorpha mediterranea, Cladophora spp. and Enteromorpha intestinalis. One non-native polychaete species, Ficopomatus enigmaticus, also strongly influenced community structure within the lagoonal resource. The community was not well defined as specialist and

  13. Metabolism of a nitrogen-enriched coastal marine lagoon during the summertime

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howarth, Robert W.; Hayn, Melanie; Marino, Roxanne M.; Ganju, Neil; Foreman, Kenneth H.; McGlathery, Karen; Giblin, Anne E.; Berg, Peter; Walker, Jeffrey D.

    2014-01-01

    We measured metabolism rates in a shallow, nitrogen-enriched coastal marine ecosystem on Cape Cod (MA, USA) during seven summers using an open-water diel oxygen method. We compared two basins, one directly receiving most of the nitrogen (N) load (“Snug Harbor”) and another further removed from the N load and better flushed (“Outer Harbor”). Both dissolved oxygen and pH varied greatly over the day, increasing in daylight and decreasing at night. The more N-enriched basin frequently went hypoxic during the night, and the pH in both basins was low (compared to standard seawater) when the oxygen levels were low, due to elevated carbon dioxide. Day-to-day variation in gross primary production (GPP) was high and linked in part to variation in light. Whole-ecosystem respiration tended to track this short-term variation in GPP, suggesting that respiration by the primary producers often dominated whole-system respiration. GPP was higher in the more N-loaded Snug Harbor. Seagrasses covered over 60 % of the area of the better-flushed, Outer Harbor throughout our study and were the major contributors to GPP there. Seagrasses covered 20 % of the area in Snug Harbor for the first 5 years of our study, and their contribution to GPP was relatively small. The seagrasses in Snug Harbor died off completely in the 6th year, but GPP remained high then and in the subsequent year. Overall, rates of phytoplankton GPP were relatively low, suggesting that benthic micro- and macro-algae may be the dominant primary producers in Snug Harbor in most years. Net ecosystem production in both Snug Harbor and the Outer Harbor was variable from year to year, showing net heterotrophy in some years and net autotrophy in others, with a trend towards increasing autotrophy over the 7 years reported here.

  14. Vertical activity distribution of dissimilatory nitrate reduction in coastal marine sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrendt, A.; de Beer, D.; Stief, P.

    2013-11-01

    The relative importance of two dissimilatory nitrate reduction pathways, denitrification (DEN) and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA), was investigated in intact sediment cores from five different coastal marine field sites (Dorum, Aarhus Bight, Mississippi Delta, Limfjord and Janssand). The vertical distribution of DEN activity was examined using the acetylene inhibition technique combined with N2O microsensor measurements, whereas NH4+ production via DNRA was measured with a recently developed gel probe-stable isotope technique. At all field sites, dissimilatory nitrate reduction was clearly dominated by DEN (59-131% of the total NO3- reduced) rather than by DNRA, irrespective of the sedimentary inventories of electron donors such as organic carbon, sulfide, and iron. Highest ammonium production via DNRA, accounting for up to 8.9% of the total NO3- reduced, was found at a site with very high concentrations of total sulfide and NH4+ within and below the layer in which NO3- reduction occurred. Sediment from two field sites, one with low and one with high DNRA activity in the core incubations, was also used for slurry incubations. Now, in both sediments high DNRA activity was detected accounting for 37-77% of the total NO3- reduced. These contradictory results might be explained by enhanced NO3- availability for DNRA bacteria in the sediment slurries compared to the core-incubated sediments in which diffusion of NO3- from the water column may only reach DEN bacteria, but not DNRA bacteria. The true partitioning of dissimilatory nitrate reduction between DNRA and DEN may thus lie in between the values found in whole core (underestimation of DNRA) and slurry incubations (overestimation of DNRA).

  15. Regulatory Assistance, Stakeholder Outreach, and Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning Activities in Support of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Geerlofs, Simon H.; Copping, Andrea E.; Van Cleve, Frances B.; Blake, Kara M.; Hanna, Luke A.

    2011-09-01

    This fiscal year 2011 progress report summarizes activities carried out under DOE Water Power Task 2.1.7, Permitting and Planning. Activities under Task 2.1.7 address the concerns of a wide range of stakeholders with an interest in the development of the marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy industry, including regulatory and resource management agencies, tribes, nongovernmental organizations, and industry.

  16. REPRODUCTIVE PERIODICITIES OF MARINE ANIMALS OF TROPICAL MIDDLE EAST WATERS.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    AQUATIC ANIMALS, REPRODUCTION(PHYSIOLOGY), MARINE BIOLOGY, BIOLOGICAL RHYTHMS, ECHINODERMATA , MOLLUSCA, CRUSTACEA, PERIODIC VARIATIONS, SEA WATER, TEMPERATURE, INLAND WATERWAYS, RED SEA, MIDDLE EAST.

  17. Comparison of bacterial communities on limnic versus coastal marine particles reveals profound differences in colonization.

    PubMed

    Bižić-Ionescu, Mina; Zeder, Michael; Ionescu, Danny; Orlić, Sandi; Fuchs, Bernhard M; Grossart, Hans-Peter; Amann, Rudolf

    2015-10-01

    Marine and limnic particles are hotspots of organic matter mineralization significantly affecting biogeochemical element cycling. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization and pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA genes were combined to investigate bacterial diversity and community composition on limnic and coastal marine particles > 5 and > 10 μm respectively. Limnic particles were more abundant (average: 1 × 10(7) l(-1)), smaller in size (average areas: 471 versus 2050 μm(2)) and more densely colonized (average densities: 7.3 versus 3.6 cells 100 μm(-2)) than marine ones. Limnic particle-associated (PA) bacteria harboured Alphaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria, and unlike previously suggested sizeable populations of Gammaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Marine particles were colonized by Planctomycetes and Betaproteobacteria additionally to Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Gammaproteobacteria. Large differences in individual particle colonization could be detected. High-throughput sequencing revealed a significant overlap of PA and free-living (FL) bacteria highlighting an underestimated connectivity between both fractions. PA bacteria were in 14/21 cases more diverse than FL bacteria, reflecting a high heterogeneity in the particle microenvironment. We propose that a ratio of Chao 1 indices of PA/FL < 1 indicates the presence of rather homogeneously colonized particles. The identification of different bacterial families enriched on either limnic or marine particles demonstrates that, despite the seemingly similar ecological niches, PA communities of both environments differ substantially. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Mixing of Marine and Terrestrial Sources of Strontium in Coastal Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryan, Saskia; Crowley, Quentin; Deegan, Eileen; Snoeck, Christophe

    2017-04-01

    87Sr/86Sr from bulk soils, soil extracts and plant material have been used to investigate and quantify the extent of marine-derived Sr in the terrestrial biosphere. Samples were collected along coastal transects and 87Sr/86Sr biosphere values (plant and soil) converge to marine values with increasing proximity to the coast. R2values indicate highly significant trends in certain regions. The National Soils Database (NSDB), TELLUS and TELLUS Border datasets, all of which are geochemical surveys have been employed to further test the extent of marine elemental contribution. Collectively these data cover all of Ireland and Northern Ireland, with varying degrees of sampling density. A strong spatial correlation exists between the Chemical Index of Alteration (CIA; (Al2O3-(CaO*+Na2O)-K2O)) in topsoil (CIA <60; 27% n = 11651) and areas of blanket peat. The enrichment of Ca and Na in these regions would suggest a significant marine geochemical contribution. Topsoil CIA can therefore be used to identify areas likely to feature significant marine inputs and identify regions where the 87Sr/86Sr budget may deviate from bedrock values.

  19. Linking integrated water resources management and integrated coastal zone management.

    PubMed

    Rasch, P S; Ipsen, N; Malmgren-Hansen, A; Mogensen, B

    2005-01-01

    Some of the world's most valuable aquatic ecosystems such as deltas, lagoons and estuaries are located in the coastal zone. However, the coastal zone and its aquatic ecosystems are in many places under environmental stress from human activities. About 50% of the human population lives within 200 km of the coastline, and the population density is increasing every day. In addition, the majority of urban centres are located in the coastal zone. It is commonly known that there are important linkages between the activities in the upstream river basins and the environment conditions in the downstream coastal zones. Changes in river flows, e.g. caused by irrigation, hydropower and water supply, have changed salinity in estuaries and lagoons. Land use changes, such as intensified agricultural activities and urban and industrial development, cause increasing loads of nutrients and a variety of chemicals resulting in considerable adverse impacts in the coastal zones. It is recognised that the solution to such problems calls for an integrated approach. Therefore, the terms Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) and Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) are increasingly in focus on the international agenda. Unfortunately, the concepts of IWRM and ICZM are mostly being developed independently from each other by separate management bodies using their own individual approaches and tools. The present paper describes how modelling tools can be used to link IWRM and ICZM. It draws a line from the traditional sectoral use of models for the Istanbul Master Planning and assessment of the water quality and ecological impact in the Bosphorus Strait and the Black Sea 10 years ago, to the most recent use of models in a Water Framework Directive (WFD) context for one of the selected Pilot River Basins in Denmark used for testing of the WFD Guidance Documents.

  20. New Sequence Types and Multidrug Resistance among Pathogenic Escherichia coli Isolates from Coastal Marine Sediments

    PubMed Central

    Luna, G. M.; Rinaldi, C.; Di Cesare, A.; Danovaro, R.; Biavasco, F.

    2012-01-01

    The spread of antibiotic-resistant microorganisms is widely recognized, but data about their sources, presence, and significance in marine environments are still limited. We examined 109 Escherichia coli strains from coastal marine sediments carrying virulence genes for antibiotic susceptibility, specific resistance genes, prevalence of class 1 and 2 integrons, and sequence type. Antibiotic resistance was found in 35% of strains, and multiple resistances were found in 14%; the resistances detected most frequently were against tetracycline (28%), ampicillin (16.5%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (13%), and streptomycin (7%). The highest prevalence of resistant strains was in phylogenetic group A, whereas phylogroup B2 exhibited a significantly lower frequency than all the other groups. Sixty percent of multiresistant strains harbored class 1 or 2 integrase genes, and about 50% carried resistance genes (particularly dfrA and aadA) linked to a class 1 integron. Multilocus sequence typing of 14 selected strains identified eight different types characteristic of extraintestinal pathogens and three new allelic combinations. Our data suggest that coastal marine sediment may be a suitable environment for the survival of pathogenic and antimicrobial-resistant E. coli strains capable of contributing to resistance spread via integrons among benthic bacteria, and they highlight a role for these strains in the emergence of new virulent genotypes. PMID:22447595

  1. Coastal erosion as a source of mercury into the marine environment along the Polish Baltic shore.

    PubMed

    Bełdowska, Magdalena; Jędruch, Agnieszka; Łęczyński, Leszek; Saniewska, Dominika; Kwasigroch, Urszula

    2016-08-01

    The climate changes in recent years in the southern Baltic have been resulting in an increased frequency of natural extreme phenomena (i.e. storms, floods) and intensification of abrasion processes, which leads to introduction of large amounts of sedimentary deposits into the marine environment. The aim of this study was to determine the mercury load introduced to the Baltic Sea with deposits crumbling off the cliffs-parts of the coast that are the most exposed to abrasion. The studies were carried out close to five cliffs located on the Polish coast in the years 2011-2014. The results show that coastal erosion could be an important Hg source into the marine environment. This process is the third most important route, after riverine and precipitation input, by which Hg may enter the Gulf of Gdańsk. In the Hg budget in the gulf, the load caused by erosion (14.3 kg a(-1)) accounted for 80 % of the wet deposition and was 50 % higher than the amount of mercury introduced with dry deposition. Although the Hg concentration in the cliff deposits was similar to the natural background, due to their large mass, this problem could be significant. In addition, the preliminary studies on the impact of coastal erosion on the Hg level in the marine ecosystem have shown that this process may be one of the Hg sources into the trophic chain.

  2. Mapping water quality and substrate cover in optically complex coastal and reef waters: an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Phinn, S R; Dekker, A G; Brando, V E; Roelfsema, C M

    2005-01-01

    Sustainable management of coastal and coral reef environments requires regular collection of accurate information on recognized ecosystem health indicators. Satellite image data and derived maps of water column and substrate biophysical properties provide an opportunity to develop baseline mapping and monitoring programs for coastal and coral reef ecosystem health indicators. A significant challenge for satellite image data in coastal and coral reef water bodies is the mixture of both clear and turbid waters. A new approach is presented in this paper to enable production of water quality and substrate cover type maps, linked to a field based coastal ecosystem health indicator monitoring program, for use in turbid to clear coastal and coral reef waters. An optimized optical domain method was applied to map selected water quality (Secchi depth, Kd PAR, tripton, CDOM) and substrate cover type (seagrass, algae, sand) parameters. The approach is demonstrated using commercially available Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper image data over a coastal embayment exhibiting the range of substrate cover types and water quality conditions commonly found in sub-tropical and tropical coastal environments. Spatially extensive and quantitative maps of selected water quality and substrate cover parameters were produced for the study site. These map products were refined by interactions with management agencies to suit the information requirements of their monitoring and management programs.

  3. 77 FR 31537 - Taking and Importing Marine Mammals; Taking Marine Mammals Incidental to Coastal Commercial...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-29

    ... sight and sound of commercial fireworks. Fireworks displays are limited in duration by MBNMS... year and, as a result, marine mammals will be exposed to elevated levels of sound as well as increased... six of these species are likely to be present in the acute impact area (the area where sound, light...

  4. Metal concentrations and mobility in marine sediment and groundwater in coastal reclamation areas: a case study in Shenzhen, China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kouping; Jiao, Jiu J

    2008-02-01

    The concentrations of metals in the buried marine sediment and groundwater were differently affected by land reclamation. Nine metals (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) in sediment and coastal groundwater from reclamation areas in Shenzhen were examined. The gradually decreased concentrations (V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn) in sediment and relatively higher concentrations (V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu and Cd) in groundwater within reclamation areas were observed. The increase of V, Cr, Mn, Ni, Cu and Cd concentrations in groundwater within reclamation areas subsequently after land reclamation should be resulted from the mobilization of these metals accumulated in the sediment. These metals appear to be easily mobilized from solid phase to solution phase after reclamation. The physico-chemical changes such as reduction in pH and salinity in water environment induced by land reclamation appear to be responsible for metal mobility in the sediment-groundwater system.

  5. A multidisciplinary approach for the characterization of the coastal marine ecosystems of Monte Di Procida (Campania, Italy).

    PubMed

    Mangoni, Olga; Aiello, Giuseppe; Balbi, Simona; Barra, Diana; Bolinesi, Francesco; Donadio, Carlo; Ferrara, Luciano; Guida, Marco; Parisi, Roberta; Pennetta, Micla; Trifuoggi, Marco; Arienzo, Michele

    2016-11-15

    A multidisciplinary survey was carried out on the quality of water and sediments of a coastal protected marine area, embedded between the inputs from Bagnoli steel plant to the south and a sewage plant, Volturno River and Regi Lagni channel to the north. The study integrated chemical-sedimentological data with biological and ecotoxicological analyses to assess anthropogenic pressures and natural variability. Data reveal marked differences in anthropogenic pollution between southeastern and northwestern zone, with the north affected by both inorganic and organic flows and the south influenced by levels of As, Pb and Zn in the sediments above law limits, deriving from inputs of the Bagnoli brownfield site. Meiobenthic data revealed at south higher relative abundance of sensitive species to pollution and environmental stress to the south, i.e. Lobatula lobatula and Rosalina bradyi, whereas to the north relative abundance of stress tolerant Quinqueloculina lata, Quinqueloculina pygmaea and Cribroelphidium cuvilleri were determined. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. Hydrogeology, water quality, and microbial assessment of a coastal alluvial aquifer in western Saudi Arabia: potential use of coastal wadi aquifers for desalination water supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Missimer, Thomas M.; Hoppe-Jones, Christiane; Jadoon, Khan Z.; Li, Dong; Al-Mashharawi, Samir K.

    2014-12-01

    Wadi alluvial aquifers located along coastal areas of the Middle East have been assumed to be suitable sources of feed water for seawater reverse osmosis facilities based on high productivity, connectedness to the sea for recharge, and the occurrence of seawater with chemistry similar to that in the adjacent Red Sea. An investigation of the intersection of Wadi Wasimi with the Red Sea in western Saudi Arabia has revealed that the associated predominantly unconfined alluvial aquifer divides into two sand-and-gravel aquifers at the coast, each with high productivity (transmissivity = 42,000 m2/day). This aquifer system becomes confined near the coast and contains hypersaline water. The hydrogeology of Wadi Wasimi shows that two of the assumptions are incorrect in that the aquifer is not well connected to the sea because of confinement by very low hydraulic conductivity terrigenous and marine muds and the aquifer contains hypersaline water as a result of a hydraulic connection to a coastal sabkha. A supplemental study shows that the aquifer system contains a diverse microbial community composed of predominantly of Proteobacteria with accompanying high percentages of Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria and Deltaproteobacteria.

  7. Gradients in microbial methanol uptake: productive coastal upwelling waters to oligotrophic gyres in the Atlantic Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Joanna L; Sargeant, Stephanie; Nightingale, Philip D; Colin Murrell, J

    2013-01-01

    Methanol biogeochemistry and its importance as a carbon source in seawater is relatively unexplored. We report the first microbial methanol carbon assimilation rates (k) in productive coastal upwelling waters of up to 0.117±0.002 d−1 (∼10 nmol l−1 d−1). On average, coastal upwelling waters were 11 times greater than open ocean northern temperate (NT) waters, eight times greater than gyre waters and four times greater than equatorial upwelling (EU) waters; suggesting that all upwelling waters upon reaching the surface (⩽20 m), contain a microbial population that uses a relatively high amount of carbon (0.3–10 nmol l−1 d−1), derived from methanol, to support their growth. In open ocean Atlantic regions, microbial uptake of methanol into biomass was significantly lower, ranging between 0.04–0.68 nmol l−1 d−1. Microbes in the Mauritanian coastal upwelling used up to 57% of the total methanol for assimilation of the carbon into cells, compared with an average of 12% in the EU, and 1% in NT and gyre waters. Several methylotrophic bacterial species were identified from open ocean Atlantic waters using PCR amplification of mxaF encoding methanol dehydrogenase, the key enzyme in bacterial methanol oxidation. These included Methylophaga sp., Burkholderiales sp., Methylococcaceae sp., Ancylobacter aquaticus, Paracoccus denitrificans, Methylophilus methylotrophus, Methylobacterium oryzae, Hyphomicrobium sp. and Methylosulfonomonas methylovora. Statistically significant correlations for upwelling waters between methanol uptake into cells and both chlorophyll a concentrations and methanol oxidation rates suggest that remotely sensed chlorophyll a images, in these productive areas, could be used to derive total methanol biological loss rates, a useful tool for atmospheric and marine climatically active gas modellers, and air–sea exchange scientists. PMID:23178665

  8. Gradients in microbial methanol uptake: productive coastal upwelling waters to oligotrophic gyres in the Atlantic Ocean.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Joanna L; Sargeant, Stephanie; Nightingale, Philip D; Colin Murrell, J

    2013-03-01

    Methanol biogeochemistry and its importance as a carbon source in seawater is relatively unexplored. We report the first microbial methanol carbon assimilation rates (k) in productive coastal upwelling waters of up to 0.117±0.002 d(-1) (~10 nmol l(-1 )d(-1)). On average, coastal upwelling waters were 11 times greater than open ocean northern temperate (NT) waters, eight times greater than gyre waters and four times greater than equatorial upwelling (EU) waters; suggesting that all upwelling waters upon reaching the surface (≤20 m), contain a microbial population that uses a relatively high amount of carbon (0.3-10 nmol l(-1 )d(-1)), derived from methanol, to support their growth. In open ocean Atlantic regions, microbial uptake of methanol into biomass was significantly lower, ranging between 0.04-0.68 nmol l(-1 )d(-1). Microbes in the Mauritanian coastal upwelling used up to 57% of the total methanol for assimilation of the carbon into cells, compared with an average of 12% in the EU, and 1% in NT and gyre waters. Several methylotrophic bacterial species were identified from open ocean Atlantic waters using PCR amplification of mxaF encoding methanol dehydrogenase, the key enzyme in bacterial methanol oxidation. These included Methylophaga sp., Burkholderiales sp., Methylococcaceae sp., Ancylobacter aquaticus, Paracoccus denitrificans, Methylophilus methylotrophus, Methylobacterium oryzae, Hyphomicrobium sp. and Methylosulfonomonas methylovora. Statistically significant correlations for upwelling waters between methanol uptake into cells and both chlorophyll a concentrations and methanol oxidation rates suggest that remotely sensed chlorophyll a images, in these productive areas, could be used to derive total methanol biological loss rates, a useful tool for atmospheric and marine climatically active gas modellers, and air-sea exchange scientists.

  9. CLASSIFYING COASTAL WATERS: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVE AND CURRENT FOCUS ON AQUATIC STRESSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal ecosystems are ecologically and commercially productive habitats that are experiencing significant impacts associated with accelerated population growth in coastal zones. The Clean Water Act requires identification of impaired water bodies and determination of the causes ...

  10. Phytoplankton community composition in nearshore coastal waters of Louisiana

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phytoplankton community compositions within near-shore coastal and estuarine waters of Louisiana were characterized by relative abundance, biovolume, and taxonomic identification to genus and species when possible. The range of total nitrogen was 0.5 to 1.3 mg L-1 and total phos...

  11. The use of satellites in environmental monitoring of coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Philpot, W.; Klemas, V.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of using satellites in an operational system for monitoring the type, concentration, location, drift, and dispersion of pollutants in coastal waters is evaluated. Visible, microwave, and thermal infrared sensing are considered. Targets to be detected include photosynthetic pigments, iron acid waste, and sewage sludge.

  12. Phosphorus in drainage waters of the Atlantic Coastal Plain

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The Atlantic Coastal Plain region has had a long history of experimental and applied efforts to exclude phosphorus (P) from drainage waters. Early research focusing upon the chemical controls of soil and sediment P has given way to field studies aimed at refining our understanding of hydrologic path...

  13. Phytoplankton community composition in nearshore coastal waters of Louisiana

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phytoplankton community compositions within near-shore coastal and estuarine waters of Louisiana were characterized by relative abundance, biovolume, and taxonomic identification to genus and species when possible. The range of total nitrogen was 0.5 to 1.3 mg L-1 and total phos...

  14. Low mercury levels in marine fish from estuarine and coastal environments in southern China.

    PubMed

    Pan, Ke; Chan, Heidi; Tam, Yin Ki; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2014-02-01

    This study is the first comprehensive evaluation of total Hg and methylmercury (MeHg) concentrations in wild marine fish from an estuarine and a coastal ecosystem in southern China. A total of 571 fish from 54 different species were examined. Our results showed that the Hg levels were generally low in the fish, and the Hg levels were below 30 ng g(-1) (wet weight) for 82% of the samples, which may be related to the reduced size of the fish and altered food web structure due to overfishing. Decreased coastal wetland coverage and different carbon sources may be responsible for the habitat-specific Hg concentrations. The degree of biomagnification was relatively low in the two systems.

  15. Natural trace metal concentrations in estuarine and coastal marine sediments of the southeastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Windom, H.L.; Schropp, S.J.; Calder, F.D.; Ryan, J.D.; Smith, R.G. Jr.; Burney, L.C.; Lewis, F.G.; Rawlinson, C.H.

    1989-03-01

    Over 450 sediment samples from estuarine and coastal marine areas of the southeastern US remote from contaminant sources were analyzed for trace metals. Although these sediments are compositionally diverse, As, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, and Zn concentrations covary significantly with aluminum, suggesting that natural aluminosilicate minerals are the dominant natural metal bearing phases. Cd and Hg do not covary with aluminum apparently due to the importance of the contribution of natural organic phases to their concentration in sediments. It is suggested that the covariance of metals with aluminum provides a useful basis for identification and comparison of anthropogenic inputs to southeastern US coastal/estuarine sediments. By use of this approach sediments from the Savannah River, Biscayne Bay, and Pensacola Bay are compared.

  16. Derivation of a water quality guideline for aluminium in marine waters.

    PubMed

    Golding, Lisa A; Angel, Brad M; Batley, Graeme E; Apte, Simon C; Krassoi, Rick; Doyle, Chris J

    2015-01-01

    Metal risk assessment of industrialized harbors and coastal marine waters requires the application of robust water quality guidelines to determine the likelihood of biological impacts. Currently there is no such guideline available for aluminium in marine waters. A water quality guideline of 24 µg total Al/L has been developed for aluminium in marine waters based on chronic 10% inhibition or effect concentrations (IC10 or EC10) and no-observed-effect concentrations (NOECs) from 11 species (2 literature values and 9 species tested including temperate and tropical species) representing 6 taxonomic groups. The 3 most sensitive species tested were a diatom Ceratoneis closterium (formerly Nitzschia closterium; IC10 = 18 µg Al/L, 72-h growth rate inhibition) < mussel Mytilus edulis plannulatus (EC10 = 250 µg Al/L, 72-h embryo development) < oyster Saccostrea echinata (EC10 = 410 µg Al/L, 48-h embryo development). Toxicity to these species was the result of the dissolved aluminium forms of aluminate (Al(OH4 (-) ) and aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3 (0) ) although both dissolved, and particulate aluminium contributed to toxicity in the diatom Minutocellus polymorphus and green alga Dunaliella tertiolecta. In contrast, aluminium toxicity to the green flagellate alga Tetraselmis sp. was the result of particulate aluminium only. Four species, a brown macroalga (Hormosira banksii), sea urchin embryo (Heliocidaris tuberculata), and 2 juvenile fish species (Lates calcarifer and Acanthochromis polyacanthus), were not adversely affected at the highest test concentration used. © 2014 SETAC.

  17. Coastal wetland response to sea level rise in a marine and fluvial estuarine system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alizad, K.; Hagen, S. C.; Morris, J. T.; Bilskie, M. V.; Passeri, D. L.; Medeiros, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal wetlands are at the risk of losing their productivity under increasing rates of sea level rise (SLR). Studies show that under extreme enough stressors, salt marshes will not have time to establish an equilibrium and may migrate landward (Donnelly and Bertness 2001; Warren and Niering 1993) or become open water. In order to investigate salt marsh productivity under SLR scenarios, an integrated hydrodynamic-marsh model was incorporated to dynamically couple physics and biology. The hydrodynamic model calculates mean high water (MHW) and mean low water (MLW) within the river and tidal creeks by analysis of simulated tidal constituents. The response of MHW and MLW is nonlinear due to local changes in the salt marsh platform elevation and biomass productivity. Spatially-varying MHW and MLW are utilized in a biologic model that is a two-dimensional application of the Marsh Equilibrium Model (Morris et al. 2002) to capture the effects of the hydrodynamics on biomass productivity and accretion. Including accurate marsh table elevations into the model is crucial to obtain accurate biomass productivity results. A lidar-derived Digital Elevation Model (DEM) is corrected by incorporating Real Time Kinematic (RTK) surveying elevation data. Additionally, salt marshes continually adapt themselves to reach an equilibrium, in which there are ideal ranges of relative SLR and depth of inundation to increase biomass productivity (Morris et al. 2002). The inputs of the model are updated using the biomass productivity results at each coupling time step to capture the interaction between the marsh and hydrodynamic models. The hydro-marsh model is used to assess the effects of four projections of SLR (Parris et al., 2012) on salt marsh productivity for the year 2100 for the marine dominated Grand Bay, MS estuary and the fluvial dominated Apalachicola, FL estuary. The results show higher productivity under a low SLR scenario and less productivity under the intermediate low SLR

  18. Acidification of subsurface coastal waters enhanced by eutrophication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Wei-Jun; Hu, Xinping; Huang, Wei-Jen; Murrell, Michael C.; Lehrter, John C.; Lohrenz, Steven E.; Chou, Wen-Chen; Zhai, Weidong; Hollibaugh, James T.; Wang, Yongchen; Zhao, Pingsan; Guo, Xianghui; Gundersen, Kjell; Dai, Minhan; Gong, Gwo-Ching

    2011-11-01

    Human inputs of nutrients to coastal waters can lead to the excessive production of algae, a process known as eutrophication. Microbial consumption of this organic matter lowers oxygen levels in the water. In addition, the carbon dioxide produced during microbial respiration increases acidity. The dissolution of atmospheric carbon dioxide in ocean waters also raises acidity, a process known as ocean acidification. Here, we assess the combined impact of eutrophication and ocean acidification on acidity in the coastal ocean, using data collected in the northern Gulf of Mexico and the East China Sea--two regions heavily influenced by nutrient-laden rivers. We show that eutrophication in these waters is associated with the development of hypoxia and the acidification of subsurface waters, as expected. Model simulations, using data collected from the northern Gulf of Mexico, however, suggest that the drop in pH since pre-industrial times is greater than that expected from eutrophication and ocean acidification alone. We attribute the additional drop in pH--of 0.05 units--to a reduction in the ability of these carbon dioxide-rich waters to buffer changes in pH. We suggest that eutrophication could increase the susceptibility of coastal waters to ocean acidification.

  19. Offshore Stratigraphic Controls on Salt-Water Intrusion in Los Angeles Area Coastal Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, B. D.; Ponti, D. J.; Ehman, K. D.; Tinsley, J. C.; Reichard, E. G.

    2002-12-01

    Ground water is a major component of the water supply for the ~10 million residents of Los Angeles County. Ground water pumping, linked to population growth since the early 1900's, caused water levels to decline, reversed seaward hydraulic gradients in some coastal aquifers, and resulted in salt water intrusion. United States Geological Survey geologists and hydrologists are working cooperatively with local water agencies to (1) understand and model the process of salt-water intrusion in this siliciclastic, structurally complex basin, and (2) identify potential pathways for the salt-water intrusion. We collected over 2000 trackline-km of single- and multi-channel intermediate- and high-resolution seismic-reflection profiles (60 to 5000 Hz) from the Los Angeles/Long Beach Harbor complex and the adjacent San Pedro shelf to develop a 3-dimensional stratigraphic model of the coastal aquifer system. These data define stratal geometries, paleo-channels, and fault traces in the offshore that are potential pathways of salt-water intrusion. The offshore seismic-reflection profiles correlate with onshore geophysical and borehole data collected from four nearby drill sites that were cored continuously to depths ranging to 400 meters. These core holes provide detailed 1-dimensional reference sections that furnish stratigraphic, age, and facies control for the seismic-reflection profiles. The coastal aquifer system is described using sequence stratigraphic concepts as units deposited during eustatic sea level fluctuations during the Pleistocene to Recent. Seismic-reflection profiles identify sequence boundaries, and hence aquifer and aquitard units, by the truncation and onlap of reflectors. If and where the sequences crop out on the sea floor provides a potential pathway for intrusion. The youngest unit, the Gaspur aquifer, is intruded with salt water and consists of at least two flat-lying sequences, each marked by basal gravelly sands deposited by the ancestral Los Angeles

  20. Biogeochemical processes and buffering capacity concurrently affect acidification in a seasonally hypoxic coastal marine basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagens, M.; Slomp, C. P.; Meysman, F. J. R.; Seitaj, D.; Harlay, J.; Borges, A. V.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2014-11-01

    Coastal areas are impacted by multiple natural and anthropogenic processes and experience stronger pH fluctuations than the open ocean. These variations can weaken or intensify the ocean acidification signal induced by increasing atmospheric pCO2. The development of eutrophication-induced hypoxia intensifies coastal acidification, since the CO2 produced during respiration decreases the buffering capacity of the hypoxic bottom water. To assess the combined ecosystem impacts of acidification and hypoxia, we quantified the seasonal variation in pH and oxygen dynamics in the water column of a seasonally stratified coastal basin (Lake Grevelingen, the Netherlands). Monthly water column chemistry measurements were complemented with estimates of primary production and respiration using O2 light-dark incubations, in addition to sediment-water fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA). The resulting dataset was used to set up a proton budget on a seasonal scale. Temperature-induced seasonal stratification combined with a high community respiration was responsible for the depletion of oxygen in the bottom water in summer. The surface water showed strong seasonal variation in process rates (primary production, CO2 air-sea exchange), but relatively small seasonal pH fluctuations (0.46 units on the total hydrogen ion scale). In contrast, the bottom water showed less seasonality in biogeochemical rates (respiration, sediment-water exchange), but stronger pH fluctuations (0.60 units). This marked difference in pH dynamics could be attributed to a substantial reduction in the acid-base buffering capacity of the hypoxic bottom water in the summer period. Our results highlight the importance of acid-base buffering in the pH dynamics of coastal systems and illustrate the increasing vulnerability of hypoxic, CO2-rich waters to any acidifying process.

  1. Biogeochemical processes and buffering capacity concurrently affect acidification in a seasonally hypoxic coastal marine basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagens, M.; Slomp, C. P.; Meysman, F. J. R.; Seitaj, D.; Harlay, J.; Borges, A. V.; Middelburg, J. J.

    2015-03-01

    Coastal areas are impacted by multiple natural and anthropogenic processes and experience stronger pH fluctuations than the open ocean. These variations can weaken or intensify the ocean acidification signal induced by increasing atmospheric pCO2. The development of eutrophication-induced hypoxia intensifies coastal acidification, since the CO2 produced during respiration decreases the buffering capacity in any hypoxic bottom water. To assess the combined ecosystem impacts of acidification and hypoxia, we quantified the seasonal variation in pH and oxygen dynamics in the water column of a seasonally stratified coastal basin (Lake Grevelingen, the Netherlands). Monthly water-column chemistry measurements were complemented with estimates of primary production and respiration using O2 light-dark incubations, in addition to sediment-water fluxes of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and total alkalinity (TA). The resulting data set was used to set up a proton budget on a seasonal scale. Temperature-induced seasonal stratification combined with a high community respiration was responsible for the depletion of oxygen in the bottom water in summer. The surface water showed strong seasonal variation in process rates (primary production, CO2 air-sea exchange), but relatively small seasonal pH fluctuations (0.46 units on the total hydrogen ion scale). In contrast, the bottom water showed less seasonality in biogeochemical rates (respiration, sediment-water exchange), but stronger pH fluctuations (0.60 units). This marked difference in pH dynamics could be attributed to a substantial reduction in the acid-base buffering capacity of the hypoxic bottom water in the summer period. Our results highlight the importance of acid-base buffering in the pH dynamics of coastal systems and illustrate the increasing vulnerability of hypoxic, CO2-rich waters to any acidifying process.

  2. Marine benthic habitat mapping of Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, with an evaluation of the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard III

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Trusel, Luke D.; Cochrane, Guy R.; Etherington, Lisa L.; Powell, Ross D.; Mayer, Larry A.

    2010-01-01

    Seafloor geology and potential benthic habitats were mapped in Muir Inlet, Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska, using multibeam sonar, ground-truth information, and geological interpretations. Muir Inlet is a recently deglaciated fjord that is under the influence of glacial and paraglacial marine processes. High glacially derived sediment and meltwater fluxes, slope instabilities, and variable bathymetry result in a highly dynamic estuarine environment and benthic ecosystem. We characterize the fjord seafloor and potential benthic habitats using the Coastal and Marine Ecological Classification Standard (CMECS) recently developed by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and NatureServe. Substrates within Muir Inlet are dominated by mud, derived from the high glacial debris flux. Water-column characteristics are derived from a combination of conductivity temperature depth (CTD) measurements and circulation-model results. We also present modern glaciomarine sediment accumulation data from quantitative differential bathymetry. These data show Muir Inlet is divided into two contrasting environments: a dynamic upper fjord and a relatively static lower fjord. The accompanying maps represent the first publicly available high-resolution bathymetric surveys of Muir Inlet. The results of these analyses serve as a test of the CMECS and as a baseline for continued mapping and correlations among seafloor substrate, benthic habitats, and glaciomarine processes.

  3. Evolution of a Man-Made Plume in Coastal Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmaus, Karen L.; Bowles, Jeff; Woodruff, Dana L.; Donato, Tim; Rhea, William J.; Snyder, W. A.; Korwan, Daniel R.; Miller, Lee M.; Petrie, Gregg M.; Maxwell, Adam R.; Hibler, Lyle F.

    2006-12-19

    The ability to understand the biogeophysical parameters that create ocean color in coastal waters is fundamental to the ability to exploit remote sensing for coastal applications. This article describes an experiment in which a controlled quantity of a single inorganic material with known absorption and scattering properties was released into a coastal environment. The plume experiment was conducted in conjunction with a Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) field collection campaign in and around Sequim Bay on the Strait of Juan de Fuca in Washington State. The objective of the field campaign was to identify and characterize features in the near shore environment from the standpoint of quantifying environmental parameters to improve operational planning in littoral regions. The aerial component of the mission involved imagery acquisitions from the NRL's PHILLS hyperspectral sensor, and two commercial IR cameras. Coincident satellite data was obtained from commercial sources. Ground truth activities included atmospheric profiles, ground, surface water, and in-water spectral measurements, panels for radiometric calibration, water column water optics, water samples and profiles from support vessels, in-situ tide and weather measurements, and beach and intertidal transects and surveys (via scientific dive teams). This field collection campaign provided a unique opportunity for a multisensor data collection effort in littoral regions, to identify and characterize features from multiple platforms (satellite, aerial, water surface and subsurface) and sensors. Data from this mission is being used as input to both radiative transfer and ocean transport models, for characterizing the water column and the near-shore, and quantitatively estimating circulation and transport in coastal environments.

  4. How does EPA help to improve fisheries, marine life, and coastal communities?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has several roles in protecting and restoring coastal habitats and communities – through policy, regulation, assistance, and research. The agency’s mandates and actions promote clean air and clean water, control uses and disposal of toxic ...

  5. How does EPA help to improve fisheries, marine life, and coastal communities?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has several roles in protecting and restoring coastal habitats and communities – through policy, regulation, assistance, and research. The agency’s mandates and actions promote clean air and clean water, control uses and disposal of toxic ...

  6. Generation of enterococci bacteria in a coastal saltwater marsh and its impact on surf zone water quality.

    PubMed

    Grant, S B; Sanders, B F; Boehm, A B; Redman, J A; Kim, J H; Mrse, R D; Chu, A K; Gouldin, M; McGee, C D; Gardiner, N A; Jones, B H; Svejkovsky, J; Leipzig, G V; Brown, A

    2001-06-15

    Elevated levels of enterococci bacteria, an indicator of fecal pollution, are routinely detected in the surf zone at Huntington State and City Beaches in southern California. A multidisciplinary study was carried out to identify sources of enterococci bacteria landward of the coastline. We find that enterococci bacteria are present at high concentrations in urban runoff, bird feces, marsh sediments, and on marine vegetation. Surprisingly, urban runoff appears to have relatively little impact on surf zone water quality because of the long time required for this water to travel from its source to the ocean. On the other hand, enterococci bacteria generated in a tidal saltwater marsh located near the beach significantly impact surf zone water quality. This study identifies a potential tradeoff between restoring coastal wetlands and protecting beach water quality and calls into question the use of ocean bathing water standards based on enterococci at locations near coastal wetlands.

  7. A review of strategies to monitor water and sediment quality for a sustainability assessment of marine environment.

    PubMed

    Tavakoly Sany, Seyedeh Belin; Hashim, Rosli; Rezayi, Majid; Salleh, Aishah; Safari, Omid

    2014-01-01

    The basic aim of this work is (1) to review and present practically operational requirements for a sustainability assessment of marine environment, such as describing the monitoring process, research approaches, objectives, guidelines, and indicators and (2) to illustrate how physico-chemical and biological indicators can be practically applied, to assess water and sediment quality in marine and coastal environment. These indicators should meet defined criteria for practical usefulness, e.g. they should be simple to understand and apply to managers and scientists with different educational backgrounds. This review aimed to encapsulate that variability, recognizing that meaningful guidance should be flexible enough to accommodate the widely differing characteristics of marine ecosystems.

  8. Overview of the Coastal Marine Discovery Service: data discovery, visualization, and understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, E. M.; Mattmann, C. A.; Cinquini, L.; O'Brien, F. J.; Resneck, G.; Siegrist, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Many resources available for coastal ocean research and management remain underutilized. Typically, the emphasis in the past has been on increasing access and usability of remote sensing satellite products from NASA data centers. Significant progress has been made in this regard although access and discovery mechanisms still remain disjointed. Less attention has been paid to discovery and usability to ocean in situ records and circulation model products, because typically these are organized and maintained on a smaller regional level such as a university or smaller division of a larger national agency. The NASA Coastal Marine Discovery Service, a NASA ACCESS funded activity, focuses on improving discovery of these regional coastal ocean web services and data portals, including databases for satellite imagery, in situ and field measurements, ocean circulation models, and GIS coverages as a few examples. Beyond resource discovery, the CMDS integrated system (http://cmds.jpl.nasa.gov) leverages open source technology for unifying coastal ocean data within the framework on a GIS web client, the Easy GIS Net Viewer. In sum, CMDS consists of an online catalog of coastal resources that allows users to quickly discover the availability of data for their region of interest, physical parameter of interest or specific regional project of interest, or any combination of these. After discovery, data can be transparently linked to Netviewer client to view, overlay and interrogate products, and make GIS-like queries on the data layers to investigate statistical relationships. In this presentation, we will review the CMDS system, it architecture and resource harvesting approach, and more importantly demonstrate real world use of cases of data exploration, visualization and ultimately understanding.

  9. USGS St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center--Research activities in the U.S. Virgin Islands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cimitile, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center in Florida investigates earth-science processes related to coastal and marine environments as well as to societal implications of natural hazards, resource sustainability, and environmental change. The Center is conducting ongoing research in and around the U.S. Virgin Islands that is providing baseline information for resource management and for assessing the health of and environmental changes to vital ecosystems such as coral reefs. In particular, projects are improving the understanding of coral health, advancing the ability to forecast future changes in coral reef ecosystems, and acquiring topographic data for use in inventorying, monitoring, and conserving coastal and marine environments.

  10. Monitoring ship noise to assess the impact of coastal developments on marine mammals.

    PubMed

    Merchant, Nathan D; Pirotta, Enrico; Barton, Tim R; Thompson, Paul M

    2014-01-15

    The potential impacts of underwater noise on marine mammals are widely recognised, but uncertainty over variability in baseline noise levels often constrains efforts to manage these impacts. This paper characterises natural and anthropogenic contributors to underwater noise at two sites in the Moray Firth Special Area of Conservation, an important marine mammal habitat that may be exposed to increased shipping activity from proposed offshore energy developments. We aimed to establish a pre-development baseline, and to develop ship noise monitoring methods using Automatic Identification System (AIS) and time-lapse video to record trends in noise levels and shipping activity. Our results detail the noise levels currently experienced by a locally protected bottlenose dolphin population, explore the relationship between broadband sound exposure levels and the indicators proposed in response to the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive, and provide a ship noise assessment toolkit which can be applied in other coastal marine environments. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. Swimmer illness associated with marine water exposure and water quality indicators: impact of widely used assumptions.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Benjamin F; Schiff, Kenneth C; Griffith, John F; Gruber, Joshua S; Yau, Vincent; Wright, Catherine C; Wade, Timothy J; Burns, Susan; Hayes, Jacqueline M; McGee, Charles; Gold, Mark; Cao, Yiping; Weisberg, Stephen B; Colford, John M

    2013-11-01

    Studies of health risks associated with recreational water exposure require investigators to make choices about water quality indicator averaging techniques, exposure definitions, follow-up periods, and model specifications; however, investigators seldom describe the impact of these choices on reported results. Our objectives are to report illness risk from swimming at a marine beach affected by nonpoint sources of urban runoff, measure associations between fecal indicator bacteria levels and subsequent illness among swimmers, and investigate the sensitivity of results to a range of exposure and outcome definitions. In 2009, we enrolled 5674 people in a prospective cohort at Malibu Beach, a coastal marine beach in California, and measured daily health symptoms 10-19 days later. Concurrent water quality samples were analyzed for indicator bacteria using culture and molecular methods. We compared illness risk between nonswimmers and swimmers, and among swimmers exposed to various levels of fecal indicator bacteria. Diarrhea was more common among swimmers than nonswimmers (adjusted odds ratio = 1.88 [95% confidence interval = 1.09-3.24]) within 3 days of the beach visit. Water quality was generally good (fecal indicator bacteria levels exceeded water quality guidelines for only 7% of study samples). Fecal indicator bacteria levels were not consistently associated with swimmer illness. Sensitivity analyses demonstrated that overall inference was not substantially affected by the choice of exposure and outcome definitions. This study suggests that the 3 days following a beach visit may be the most relevant period for health outcome measurement in recreational water studies. Under the water quality conditions observed in this study, fecal indicator bacteria levels were not associated with swimmer illness.

  12. Outbreak conditions for Cochlodinium polykrikoides blooms in the southern coastal waters of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, Moon Ock; Choi, Jae Hoon; Park, Il Heum

    2010-08-01

    We conducted field observations to investigate the cause of Cochlodinium polykrikoides blooms in the Korean Southern Coastal Waters (KSCW), and also analyzed information on marine environmental factors obtained from the National Fisheries and Development Institute (NFRDI), from 1995 to 2008. Long-term tidal currents revealed a two-layered flow with the upper current flowing toward Boddolbada located between Narodo and Nammyeon, and the lower current out of the bay. Water temperatures were higher at the north than at the south of the bay, whereas salinities exhibited the reverse trend. C. polykrikoides blooms occurred at a water temperature of approximately 25.0-26.0 degrees C and a salinity of approximately 31.00 in the seas neighboring Narodo Islands. The outbreak of C. polykrikoides blooms in the seas neighboring Narodo Islands in summer was influenced by thermohaline fronts observed between the KSCW and Tsushima Warm Current (TWC).

  13. On the disposal of contaminated milk in coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Elliott, A J; Wilkins, B T; Mansfield, P

    2001-10-01

    Estimates have been made of the reduction in dissolved oxygen levels in coastal waters that would result from the disposal of contaminated milk following a radiological accident. Two contrasting sites were chosen: the Bristol Channel near Hinkley Point and the coast of Cumbria near Sellafield. The results suggest that the dilution would be sufficiently strong near Hinkley Point, due to vigorous tidal mixing, that the impact on the DO levels of the coastal waters would be negligible. However, at both Sellafield and Heysham the disposal of milk could result in a reduction of the DO by 1-2 mg l(-1). In contrast to shallow estuarine waters, the recovery of oxygen levels due to the effects of re-aeration through surface gas exchange is unlikely to be significant due to the depth of the coastal waters. However, the recovery of the dissolved oxygen levels to ambient conditions following the completion of the discharge would occur on a time scale of about 17 days due to mixing of the DO deficit plume into the surrounding waters.

  14. Studying ground water under Delmarva coastal bays using electrical resistivity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manheim, Frank T.; Krantz, David E.; Bratton, John F.

    2004-01-01

    Fresh ground water is widely distributed in subsurface sediments below the coastal bays of the Delmarva Peninsula (Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia). These conditions were revealed by nearly 300 km of streamer resistivity surveys, utilizing a towed multichannel cable system. Zones of high resistivity displayed by inversion modeling were confirmed by vibradrilling investigations to correspond to fresh ground water occurrences. Fresh water lenses extended from a few hundred meters up to 2 km from shore. Along the western margins of coastal bays in areas associated with fine-grained surficial sediments, high-resistivity layers were widespread and were especially pronounced near tidal creeks. Fresh ground water layers were less common along the eastern barrier-bar margins of the bays, where sediments were typically sandy. Mid-bay areas in Chincoteague Bay, Maryland, did not show evidence of fresh water. Indian River Bay, Delaware, showed complex subsurface salinity relationships, including an area with possible hypersaline brines. The new streamer resistivity system paired with vibradrilling in these investigations provides a powerful approach to recovering information required for extension of hydrologic modeling of shallow coastal aquifer systems into offshore areas.

  15. Marine and estuarine protection: Programs and activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    The booklet describes: the mission of the current problems and threats to the coastal and marine waters of the US; the Office of Marine and Estuarine Protection of EPA; EPA's ocean dumping and plastics programs; EPA's point source control activities; near-coastal waters activities; and associated federal legislation.

  16. Analytical characterization of selective benthic flux components in estuarine and coastal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    King, Jeffrey N.

    2011-01-01

    Benthic flux is the rate of flow across the bed of a water body, per unit area of bed. It is forced by component mechanisms, which interact. For example, pressure gradients across the bed, forced by tide, surface gravity waves, density gradients, bed–current interaction, turbulence, and terrestrial hydraulic gradients, drive an advective benthic flux of water and constituents between estuarine and coastal waters, and surficial aquifers. Other mechanisms also force benthic flux, such as chemical gradients, bioturbation, and dispersion. A suite of component mechanisms force a total benthic flux at any given location, where each member of the suite contributes a component benthic flux. Currently, the types and characteristics of component interactions are not fully understood. For example, components may interact linearly or nonlinearly, and the interaction may be constructive or destructive. Benthic flux is a surface water–groundwater interaction process. Its discharge component to a marine water body is referred to, in some literature, as submarine groundwater discharge. Benthic flux is important in characterizing water and constituent budgets of estuarine and coastal systems. Analytical models to characterize selective benthic flux components are reviewed. Specifically, these mechanisms are for the component associated with the groundwater tidal prism, and forced by surface gravity wave setup, surface gravity waves on a plane bed, and the terrestrial hydraulic gradient. Analytical models are applied to the Indian River Lagoon, Florida; Great South Bay, New York; and the South Atlantic Bight in South Carolina and portions of North Carolina.

  17. Integrated assessment of heavy metal pollution in the surface sediments of the Laizhou Bay and the coastal waters of the Zhangzi Island, China: comparison among typical marine sediment quality indices.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Wen; Gao, Xuelu

    2014-01-01

    The total concentrations and chemical forms of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the surface sediments of the Laizhou Bay and the surrounding marine area of the Zhangzi Island (hereafter referred to as Zhangzi Island for short) were obtained and multiple indices and guidelines were applied to assess their contamination and ecological risks. The sedimentary conditions were fine in both of the two studied areas according to the marine sediment quality of China. Whereas the probable effects level guideline suggested that Ni might cause adverse biological effects to occur frequently in some sites. All indices used suggested that Cd posed the highest environmental risk in both the Laizhou Bay and the Zhangzi Island, though Cd may unlikely be harmful to human and ecological health due to the very low total concentrations. The enrichment factor (EF) showed that a substantial portion of Cr was delivered from anthropogenic sources, whereas the risk assessment code (RAC) indicated that most Cr was in an inactive state that it may not have any adverse effect either. Moreover, the results of EF and geoaccumulation index were consistent with the trend of the total metal concentrations except for Cd, while the results of RAC and potential ecological risk factor did not follow the same trend of their corresponding total metal concentrations. We also evaluated the effects of using different indices to assess the environmental impact of these heavy metals.

  18. Integrated Assessment of Heavy Metal Pollution in the Surface Sediments of the Laizhou Bay and the Coastal Waters of the Zhangzi Island, China: Comparison among Typical Marine Sediment Quality Indices

    PubMed Central

    Zhuang, Wen; Gao, Xuelu

    2014-01-01

    The total concentrations and chemical forms of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in the surface sediments of the Laizhou Bay and the surrounding marine area of the Zhangzi Island (hereafter referred to as Zhangzi Island for short) were obtained and multiple indices and guidelines were applied to assess their contamination and ecological risks. The sedimentary conditions were fine in both of the two studied areas according to the marine sediment quality of China. Whereas the probable effects level guideline suggested that Ni might cause adverse biological effects to occur frequently in some sites. All indices used suggested that Cd posed the highest environmental risk in both the Laizhou Bay and the Zhangzi Island, though Cd may unlikely be harmful to human and ecological health due to the very low total concentrations. The enrichment factor (EF) showed that a substantial portion of Cr was delivered from anthropogenic sources, whereas the risk assessment code (RAC) indicated that most Cr was in an inactive state that it may not have any adverse effect either. Moreover, the results of EF and geoaccumulation index were consistent with the trend of the total metal concentrations except for Cd, while the results of RAC and potential ecological risk factor did not follow the same trend of their corresponding total metal concentrations. We also evaluated the effects of using different indices to assess the environmental impact of these heavy metals. PMID:24709993

  19. Evaluation of WRF Planetary Boundary Layer Schemes over the Coastal Waters of Southern New England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sienkiewicz, Matthew J.

    Winds, temperatures and moisture in the planetary boundary layer (PBL) are often difficult for operational models to predict given the relatively sparse observations and that most model PBL parameterizations were developed over inland locations. Coastal marine layer forecasts are important for the forecasting of severe storms and wind energy resources in the highly populated coastal marine environment of the Northeast U.S. (NEUS). Mesoscale models are known to have large biases in wind speeds and temperatures at these lower levels over coastal waters. The goal of this project is to evaluate the performance of six PBL schemes in the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF-ARW) model version 3.4.1 in the coastal marine environment of the NEUS. This study region, stretching from the south shore of Long Island out to Cape Cod is an ideal location for an offshore wind energy grid based on such factors as regional energy demand, water depth, and available wind resource. Verification of six WRF PBL schemes (two non-local, first-order schemes and four local, TKE-order schemes) was performed using a dataset of observations at multiple levels from the Cape Wind tower in Nantucket Sound from 2003 to 2011, as well as surrounding NDBC and ASOS stations. A series of 30-hour WRF runs were conducted for 90 randomly selected days between 2003 and 2011, with initial and boundary conditions supplied by the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR). All schemes generally displayed negative wind speed biases over the water. The cool season displayed the largest negative biases as well as a shear profile indicative of an over-mixed boundary layer. It is hypothesized that errors in the model SST field in Nantucket Sound aided in the too-stable (unstable) model MABL structures during the warm (cool) seasons and the resultant under-mixed (over-mixed) wind shear profiles. Additional model verification from three Long-EZ aircraft flights during the Improving the Mapping and Prediction of

  20. NASA COAST and OCEANIA Airborne Missions in Support of Ecosystem and Water Quality Research in the Coastal Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guild, Liane S.; Hooker, Stanford B.; Kudela, Raphael; Morrow, John; Russell, Philip; Myers, Jeffrey; Dunagan, Stephen; Palacios, Sherry; Livingston, John; Negrey, Kendra; hide

    2015-01-01

    Worldwide, coastal marine ecosystems are exposed to land-based sources of pollution and sedimentation from anthropogenic activities including agriculture and coastal development. Ocean color products from satellite sensors provide information on chlorophyll (phytoplankton pigment), sediments, and colored dissolved organic material. Further, ship-based in-water measurements and emerging airborne measurements provide in situ data for the vicarious calibration of current and next generation satellite ocean color sensors and to validate the algorithms that use the remotely sensed observations. Recent NASA airborne missions over Monterey Bay, CA, have demonstrated novel above- and in-water measurement capabilities supporting a combined airborne sensor approach (imaging spectrometer, microradiometers, and a sun photometer). The results characterize coastal atmospheric and aquatic properties through an end-to-end assessment of image acquisition, atmospheric correction, algorithm application, plus sea-truth observations from state-of-the-art instrument systems. The primary goal of the airborne missions was to demonstrate the following in support of calibration and validation exercises for satellite coastal ocean color products: 1) the utility of a multi-sensor airborne instrument suite to assess the bio-optical properties of coastal California, including water quality; and 2) the importance of contemporaneous atmospheric measurements to improve atmospheric correction in the coastal zone. Utilizing an imaging spectrometer optimized in the blue to green spectral domain enables higher signal for detection of the relatively dark radiance measurements from marine and freshwater ecosystem features. The novel airborne instrument, Coastal Airborne In-situ Radiometers (C-AIR) provides measurements of apparent optical properties with high dynamic range and fidelity for deriving exact water leaving radiances at the land-ocean boundary, including radiometrically shallow aquatic

  1. Comparing Stable Water Isotope Variation in Atmospheric Moisture Observed over Coastal Water and Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, C. T.; Rambo, J. P.; Welp, L. R.; Bible, K.; Hollinger, D. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Stable oxygen (δ18O) and hydrogen (δD) isotopologues of atmospheric moisture are strongly influenced by large-scale synoptic weather cycles, surface evapotranspiration and boundary layer mixing. Atmospheric water isotope variation has been shown to empirically relate to relative humidity (Rh) of near surface moisture, and to a less degree, air temperature. Continuous δ18O and δD measurements are becoming more available, providing new opportunities to investigate processes that control isotope variability. This study shows the comparison of δ18O and δD measured at a continental location and over coastal waters for 3 seasons (spring to fall, 2014). The surface moisture isotope measurements were made using two LGR spectroscopy water vapor isotope analyzers (Los Gatos Research Inc.), one operated in an old-growth coniferous forest at Wind River field station, WA (45.8205°N, 121.9519°W), and another sampling marine air over seawater at the Scripps Pier in San Diego, CA (32.8654°N, 117.2536°W), USA. Isotope variations were measured at 1Hz and data were reported as hourly averages with an overall accuracy of ±0.1‰ for δ18O, ±0.5‰ for δ2H. Day-to-day variations in δ18O and δD are shown strongly influenced by synoptic weather events at both locations. Boundary layer mixing between surface moisture and the dry air entrained from the free troposphere exerts a midday maximum and a consistent diel pattern in deuterium excess (dx). At the forest site, surface moisture also interacts with leaf water through transpiration during the day and re-equilibration at night. The latter occurs by retro-diffusion of atmospheric H2O molecules into leaf intercellular space, which becomes intensified as Rh increaes after nightfall, and continues until sunrise, to counter-balance the evaporative isotopic enrichment in leaf water on a daily basis. These vegetation effects lead to negative dx values consistently observed at nighttime in this continental location that were not

  2. Ecology of coliphages in southern California coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Reyes, V C; Jiang, S C

    2010-08-01

    This study aims to investigate the ecology of coliphages, an important microbial pollution indicator. Specifically, our experiments address (i) the ability of environmental Escherichia coli (E. coli) to serve as hosts for coliphage replication, and (ii) the temporal and spatial distribution of coliphages in coastal waters. Water samples from three locations in California's Newport Bay watershed were tested for the presence of coliphages every 2 weeks for an entire year. A total of nine E. coli strains isolated from various sources served as hosts for coliphage detection. Coliphage occurrence was significantly different between freshwater, estuarine and coastal locations and correlated with water temperature, salinity and rainfall in the watershed. The coliphages isolated on the environmental hosts had a broad host-range relative to the coliphages isolated on an E. coli strain from sewage and a US EPA recommended strain for coliphage detection. Coliphage occurrence was related to the temperature, rainfall and salinity within the bay. The adaptation to a broad host-range may enable the proliferation of coliphages in the aquatic environment. Understanding the seasonal variation of phages is useful for establishing a background level of coliphage presence in coastal waters. The broad host-range of coliphages isolated on the environmental E. coli host calls for i