Science.gov

Sample records for coastal mediterranean sites

  1. One year of vertical wind profiles measurements at a Mediterranean coastal site of South Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calidonna, Claudia Roberta; Avolio, Elenio; Federico, Stefano; Gullì, Daniel; Lo Feudo, Teresa; Sempreviva, Anna Maria

    2015-04-01

    In order to develop wind farms projects is challenging to site them on coastal areas both onshore and offshore as suitable sites. Developing projects need high quality databases under a wide range of atmospheric conditions or high resolution models that could resolve the effect of the coastal discontinuity in the surface properties. New parametrizations are important and high quality databases are also needed for formulating them. Ground-based remote sensing devices such as lidars have been shown to be functional for studying the evolution of the vertical wind structure coastal atmospheric boundary layer both on- and offshore. Here, we present results from a year of vertical wind profiles, wind speed and direction, monitoring programme at a site located in the Italian Calabria Region, Central Mediterranean, 600m from the Thyrrenian coastline, where a Lidar Doppler, ZephIr (ZephIr ltd) has been operative since July 2013. The lidar monitors wind speed and direction from 10m up to 300m at 10 vertical levels with an average of 10 minutes and it is supported by a metmast providing: Atmospheric Pressure, Solar Radiation, Precipitation, Relative Humidity, Temperature,Wind Speed and Direction at 10m. We present the characterization of wind profiles during one year period according to the time of the day to transition periods night/day/night classified relating the local scale, breeze scale, to the large scale conditions. The dataset is also functional for techniques for short-term prediction of wind for the renewable energy integration in the distribution grids. The site infrastructure is funded within the Project "Infrastructure of High Technology for Environmental and Climate Monitoring" (I-AMICA) (PONa3_00363) by the Italian National Operative Program (PON 2007-2013) and European Regional Development Fund. Real-time data are show on http://www.i-amica.it/i-amica/?page_id=1122.

  2. Trace element levels in mollusks from clean and polluted coastal marine sites in the Mediterranean, Red and North Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herut, Barak; Kress, Nurit; Shefer, Edna; Hornung, Hava

    1999-12-01

    The trace element contamination levels in mollusks were evaluated for different marine coastal sites in the Mediterranean (Israeli coast), Red (Israeli coast) and North (German coast) Seas. Three bivalve species (Mactra corallina, Donax sp, and Mytilus edulis) and two gastropod species (Patella sp.and Cellana rota) were sampled at polluted and relatively clean sites, and their soft tissue analyzed for Hg, Cd, Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe concentrations. Representative samples were screened for organic contaminants [(DDE), polychlorinated biphenyls PCBs and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs)] which exhibited very low concentrations at all sites. In the Red Sea, the gastropod C. rota showed low levels of Hg (below detection limit) and similar Cd concentrations at all the examined sites, while other trace elements (Cu, Zn, Mn, Fe) were slightly enriched at the northern beach stations. Along the Mediterranean coast of Israel, Hg and Zn were enriched in two bivalves (M. corallina and Donax sp.) from Haifa Bay, both species undergoing a long-term decrease in Hg based on previous studies. Significant Cd and Zn enrichment was detected in Patella sp. from the Kishon River estuary at the southern part of Haifa Bay. In general, Patella sp. and Donax sp. specimens from Haifa Bay exhibited higher levels of Cd compared to other sites along the Israeli Mediterranean coast, attributed to the enrichment of Cd in suspended particulate matter. Along the German coast (North Sea) M. edulis exhibited higher concentrations of Hg and Cd at the Elbe and Eider estuaries, but with levels below those found in polluted sites elsewhere.

  3. Temporal evolution of aerosol derived from N2-Raman lidar at a Mediterranean coastal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Xiaoxia; Chazette, Patrick; Totems, Julien

    2016-04-01

    Following the temporal variability of the aerosols in the atmospheric column on coastal areas is challenging. In situ ground-based or integrated column properties are not enough to understand the sea-continent exchange processes and identify the sources of particles. Now classical approach using the synergy between passive (e.g. sunphotometer) and active (e.g. backscatter lidar) instruments gives only a partial view of the aerosol properties, because they could be highly heterogeneous in the lower and middle troposphere. On June-July 2014, an automatic N2-Raman lidar (355 nm) was installed at a coastal site close to Toulon in the South of France. Using the coupling between cross-polarized elastic and N2-Raman channels, various aerosol natures are identified all along the time and against the altitude. Specific regularization algorithms have been tested to improve the aerosol classification. The results of these tests will be presented in terms of sensitivity studies based on the Monte Carlo approach. Selecting the most appropriate inversion method of the lidar profiles, the aerosol types encountered during the field campaign will be presented. We will also discuss their origin and the sea-continent exchanges including the sea breeze effect. We will see that a proper identification of particles passes through analyses coupling satellite observations and air mass trajectory studies. Acknowledgments: The experiments have been funded by the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), and the Centre national de la recherchescientifique (CNRS). We thank Université de Toulon (SeaTech Engineering School) for their hosts. The Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL), Labex IPSL, is also acknowledged for its support in the data simulations and analyses.

  4. Correlation between meteorological conditions and aerosol characteristics at an East-Mediterranean coastal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Metwally, Mossad; Alfaro, Stephane C.

    2013-10-01

    Since May 2011 Microtops sun-photometer measurements aiming to determine the aerosol optical depth (AOD) and its spectral dependence (Ångström exponent, α440/675) are performed routinely at the experimental station of the Port Said (Egypt) University (Lat.: 31.267°, Lon.: 32.26°, alt.: 21 masl). In parallel, an automated weather station is used to monitor the surface meteorological parameters (wind speed and direction, relative humidity, temperature, pressure…). This work uses the first year of original data (971 point measurements) with the double objective of determining the 1) seasonal variability of the aerosol at a site of the Egyptian Mediterranean coast, and 2) the potential correlation linking the aerosol characteristics to the surface meteorological conditions. The 3-modal nature of the statistical distribution of the Ångström exponents measured during the year shows that 3 main types of aerosols can be distinguished. The most frequent observations (54% of all cases) correspond to fine particles associated with the largest (1.41 ± 0.23) α440/675 values. The probability of observing this fine aerosol increases in low wind conditions and when the air masses come either from the south-west, which is to say from the densely populated Nile delta, or from the north, which is to say from the more distant European pollution sources. This strongly suggests an anthropogenic origin for these fine particles. At the opposite side of the size-spectrum, coarse particles associated with the lowest mode of α440/675 (0.48 ± 0.22) predominate in 33% of the observations. The probability of observing them increasing in spring when the dry and strong (> 6 m/s) desert-winds become more frequent suggests that these coarse particles are desert dust released by the wind erosion of arid surfaces. These particles are also responsible for the largest individual and monthly averaged (AOD500 = 0.50, in April) optical depths measured at the experimental site. Finally, by

  5. Response of rare, common and abundant bacterioplankton to anthropogenic perturbations in a Mediterranean coastal site.

    PubMed

    Baltar, Federico; Palovaara, Joakim; Vila-Costa, Maria; Salazar, Guillem; Calvo, Eva; Pelejero, Carles; Marrasé, Cèlia; Gasol, Josep M; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2015-06-01

    Bacterioplankton communities are made up of a small set of abundant taxa and a large number of low-abundant organisms (i.e. 'rare biosphere'). Despite the critical role played by bacteria in marine ecosystems, it remains unknown how this large diversity of organisms are affected by human-induced perturbations, or what controls the responsiveness of rare compared to abundant bacteria. We studied the response of a Mediterranean bacterioplankton community to two anthropogenic perturbations (i.e. nutrient enrichment and/or acidification) in two mesocosm experiments (in winter and summer). Nutrient enrichment increased the relative abundance of some operational taxonomic units (OTUs), e.g. Polaribacter, Tenacibaculum, Rhodobacteraceae and caused a relative decrease in others (e.g. Croceibacter). Interestingly, a synergistic effect of acidification and nutrient enrichment was observed on specific OTUs (e.g. SAR86). We analyzed the OTUs that became abundant at the end of the experiments and whether they belonged to the rare (<0.1% of relative abundance), the common (0.1-1.0% of relative abundance) or the abundant (>1% relative abundance) fractions. Most of the abundant OTUs at the end of the experiments were abundant, or at least common, in the original community of both experiments, suggesting that ecosystem alterations do not necessarily call for rare members to grow.

  6. Metagenomes of Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Díez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L; McMahon, Katherine D; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria.

  7. Metagenomes of Mediterranean Coastal Lagoons

    PubMed Central

    Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Díez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L.; McMahon, Katherine D.; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria. PMID:22778901

  8. Leucine aminopeptidase, beta-glucosidase and alkaline phosphatase activity rates and their significance in nutrient cycles in some coastal Mediterranean sites.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Gabriella

    2010-03-29

    In aquatic microbial ecology, knowledge of the processes involved in the turnover of organic matter is of utmost importance to understand ecosystem functioning. Microorganisms are major players in the cycling of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus) and carbon, thanks to their enzymatic activities (leucine aminopeptidase, LAP, alkaline phosphatase, AP, and beta-glucosidase, beta-GLU) on organic polymers (proteins, organic phosphates and polysaccharides, respectively). Estimates of the decomposition rates of organic polymers are performed using fluorogenic compounds, whose hydrolysis rate allow us to obtain information on the "potential" metabolic activity of the prokaryotic community. This paper refers the enzyme patterns measured during recent oceanographic cruises performed in some coastal Mediterranean sites, not yet fully investigated in terms of microbial biogeochemical processes. Mean enzyme activity rates ranged from 5.24 to 5558.1 nM/h, from 12.68 to 244.73 nM/h and from 0.006 to 9.51 nM/h for LAP, AP and beta-GLU, respectively. The highest LAP and AP activity rates were measured in the Gulf of Milazzo (Tyrrhenian Sea) and in the Straits of Messina, in association with the lowest bacterioplankton abundance; in contrast, the lowest ones were found in the northern Adriatic Sea. beta-GLU was more active in the Straits of Messina. Activity rates were analysed in relation to the main environmental variables. Along the northern Adriatic coastal side affected by the Po river, significant inverse relationships linked LAP and AP with salinity, pointing out that fluvial inputs provided organic substrates for microbial metabolism. Both in the Gulf of Manfredonia and in the Straits of Messina, LAP and AP levels were inversely related with the concentration of nitrate and inorganic phosphorus, respectively. In the Gulf of Milazzo, high cell-specific AP measured in spite of phosphorus availability suggested the role of this enzyme not only in phosphorus, but also in carbon

  9. Effects of photochemical transformations of dissolved organic matter on bacterial metabolism and diversity in three contrasting coastal sites in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea during summer.

    PubMed

    Abboudi, M; Jeffrey, W H; Ghiglione, J-F; Pujo-Pay, M; Oriol, L; Sempéré, R; Charrière, B; Joux, F

    2008-02-01

    The effects of phototransformation of dissolved organic matter (DOM) on bacterial growth, production, respiration, growth efficiency, and diversity were investigated during summer in two lagoons and one oligotrophic coastal water samples from the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea, differing widely in DOM and chromophoric DOM concentrations. Exposure of 0.2-microm filtered waters to full sun radiation for 1 d resulted in small changes in optical properties and concentrations of DOM, and no changes in nitrate, nitrite, and phosphate concentrations. After exposure to sunlight or dark (control) treatments, the water samples were inoculated with the original bacterial community. Phototransformation of DOM had contrasting effects on bacterial production and respiration, depending on the water's origin, resulting in an increase of bacterial growth efficiency for the oligotrophic coastal water sample (120%) and a decrease for the lagoon waters (20 to 40%) relative to that observed in dark treatments. We also observed that bacterial growth on DOM irradiated by full sun resulted in changes in community structure of total and metabolically active bacterial cells for the three locations studied when compared to the bacteria growing on un-irradiated DOM, and that changes were mainly caused by phototransformation of DOM by UV radiation for the eutrophic lagoon and the oligotrophic coastal water and by photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) for the mesoeutrophic lagoon. These initial results indicate that phototransformation of DOM significantly alters both bacterial metabolism and community structure in surface water for a variety of coastal ecosystems in the Mediterranean Sea. Further studies will be necessary to elucidate a more detailed appreciation of potential temporal and spatial variations of the effects measured.

  10. The conservation status and anthropogenic impacts assessments of Mediterranean coastal dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinna, Maria Silvia; Cogoni, Donatella; Fenu, Giuseppe; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2015-12-01

    Mediterranean coastal dunes have been highly modified by human impacts and understanding their conservation status is crucial to preserve these extremely vulnerable habitats. In the present study three different diversity indices elaborated by Grunewald and Schubert (Hdune, a modified version of the Shannon diversity index, Edune, a modified Evenness index, and N, the Naturalness index) were applied in order to assess the conservation status and anthropogenic impacts on Is Arenas dune system (CW Sardinia), one of the widest and most important in the Western Mediterranean Basin. Within the system, two sites with different anthropic disturbance conditions were selected; 25 permanent plots were seasonally monitored and the cover of each vascular plant present was visually estimated. The Hdune values were similar between sites and differences were not significant; Edune showed higher value in the North than in the South site with relevant statistical differences. Moreover a seasonal variation in the indices values was recorded, which could be linked to presence of annual plants rather than the touristic pressure. Instead, the small variability of N index suggests that the application of this index may be an important tool to assess human impact on coastal dunes, but better discriminates between sites with different disturbance degrees. Our results highlight the usefulness of Hdune and Edune indices to assess the conservation status of a Mediterranean coastal dune system, while these indices are less influenced by the human trampling at finer scale (sites within the beach). Spring and summer are the best seasons when the main plant diversity of Mediterranean coastal dune can be captured. The diversity indices applied, although need to be developed through further researches, could be a quickly tool allowing to assess the integrity of the coastal dunes in order to plan management actions of these complex and threatened ecosystems.

  11. Influence of site, season, silvering stage, and length on the parasites of the European eel Anguilla anguilla in two Mediterranean coastal lagoons of the island of Corsica, France using indicator species method.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Jean-José; Quilichini, Yann; Foata, Joséphine; Marchand, Bernard

    2013-08-01

    The parasites of 425 European eels, Anguilla anguilla, were studied between 2009 and 2012 in two Mediterranean coastal lagoons of the island of Corsica, France. An indicator value (IndVal) method was used for analysis, which combines measures of fidelity and specificity. Because of its resilience to detect changes in abundance, IndVal is an effective ecological bioindicator. The IndVal method demonstrated that site, season, silvering stage, and length could influence the occurrence of parasite species in European eel. A randomization test identified ten parasite species as having a significant indicator value for site (lagoons differed principally in salinity: oligohaline to polyhaline for the Biguglia lagoon and polyhaline to euhaline for the Urbino lagoon; the digeneans Bucephalus anguillae and Lecithochirium musculus, the cestodes Bothriocephalus claviceps, Proteocephalus macrocephalus, and larvae of Myzophyllobothrium sp., the nematodes Anguillicoloides crassus, and encysted larvae of Contracaecum sp., the acanthocephalan Acanthocephaloides incrassatus, the monogenean Pseudodactyogyrus anguillae, and the copepod Ergasilus gibbus); one parasite species for the spring season (the acanthocephalan A. incrassatus); six parasite species for silvering stage (yellow, pre-silver, silver; the trematodes B. anguillae and Deropristis inflata, encysted larvae of the nematode Contracaecum sp., the acanthocephalan A. incrassatus, the monogenean P. anguillae, and the copepod E. gibbus); and three parasite species for some of the five length classes (the cestode P. macrocephalus, encysted larvae of the nematode Contracaecum sp., and the monogenean P. anguillae). Data for species composition and infection levels should help to improve the management of parasitism in the populations of European eels.

  12. Seismic noise recored by seafloor observatories at Mediterranean sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Caro, Mariagrazia; Monna, Stephen; Frugoni, Francesco; Beranzoli, Laura; Favali, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean region is an area highly exposed to geo-hazards, such as seismic and volcanic activity. Real-time and continuous monitoring of its coastal areas is needed to ensure rapid warning and mitigate the effects of natural disasters. Seafloor observatories for near-real-time and real-time interactive long-term monitoring of ocean processes which are part of the EMSO (European Multidisciplinary Seafloor and water-column Observatory, www.emso-eu.org) Research Infrastructure, have been deployed in sites of the Mediterranean basin. We present long-term time series acquired by GEOSTAR-class seafloor observatories deployed in four sites of Mediterranean areas: Ionian and Tyrrhenian Seas (deep seafloor Central-Mediterranean sites) and the Marmara Sea and Gulf of Corinth (shallow seafloor Eastern-Mediterranean sites). We generated a reference model of the background seismic noise based on data collected from seismometers installed on board seafloor observatories. We concentrate on interesting and peculiar features of the noise signal in the frequency band 0.003-50 Hz. The main contribution in the short period band >5Hz (<2s) comes from anthropic noise (e.g. shipping noise). In this band we also find a peak around 0.8Hz (1.25s) which appears to be a persistent characteristic of the Mediterranean basins. Seasonal variations (summer-winter) are visible in the microseismic band 0.05-0.5Hz (2-20s). In particular in the Ionian and Tyrrhenian deep seafloor sites we can distinguish the splitting of the DF (Double Frequency peak) in the long period (LPDF) and the short period (SPDF) peaks. Our study shows the presence of the LPDF, well visible at the deep seafloor sites, and seasonal variations of the LPDF and the SPDF amplitudes ratio, suggesting that the SPDF depends on the sea wave regime generated by local winds. For the deep seafloor sites we can also appreciate the contribution of infragravity waves (<0.05Hz). Our observations confirm the dependence of the

  13. Middle to Late Pleistocene coastal deposits of Eivissa (Western Mediterranean): Chronology and evolution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Valle, Laura; Pomar, Francisco; Fornós, Joan J.; Gómez-Pujol, Lluís; Anechitei-Deacu, Valentina; Timar-Gabor, Alida

    2016-04-01

    This study deals with the sedimentary and stratigraphical description of Pleistocene deposits from seven coastal areas of Eivissa (Balearic Islands). Twenty two sedimentary facies have been described involving the succession of eolian, colluvial and edaphic environments. Carbonate sandstones, breccias and silty deposits are the main component of these sequences. Despite the extensive eolian systems outcropping along the coast of Eivissa, there are very few studies performed to chronological framework of these deposits. Luminescence measurements were carried out using an automated RisØ TL/OSL-DA-20 reader in the Luminescence Dating Laboratory of Babes-Bolyai University (Cluj-Napoca, Romania) under low intensity red light. OSL dating of nineteen eolian levels indicate that their deposition took place between the Middle and Late Pleistocene, establishing a paleoclimatic evolution of Eivissa Island since 755 ka to 70 Ka. Eolian activity in the Eivissa Island can be correlated with regression episodes which took place during cold periods associated with different isotopic stages, concretely the MIS 18, 16, 12, 10, 8, 6 and 4. Similar results have been obtained from many sites along the western Mediterranean Sea such as Mallorca (Pomar i Cuerda, 1979; Nielsen et al, 2004; Fornós et al, 2009), Sardinia (Andreucci et al, 2009; Pascucci et al, 2014), Liguria (Pappalardo et al., 2013). Keywords: Eolian dunes, Pleistocene, Climatic evolution, Eivissa. References - Andreucci, S.; Pascucci, V.; Murray, A. S.; Clemmensen, L. B. 2009. Late Pleistocene coastal evolution of San Giovanni di Sinis, west Sardinia (Western Mediterranean). Sedimentary Geology, 216: 104- 116 - Fornós, J.J.; Clemmensen, L.B.; Gómez-Pujol, L.; Murray, A. 2009. Late Pleistocene carbonate aeolianites on Mallorca, Western Mediterranean: a luminescence chronology. Quaternary Science reviews 28: 2697-2709. -Nielsen, K.A.; Clemmensen, L.B.; Fornós, J.J. 2004. Middle Pleistocene magnetostratigraphy and

  14. SAR measurements of coastal features in the NW Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redondo, Jose M.; Martinez Benjamin, Juan Jose; Diez, Margarita; Lopez Gonzalez-Nieto, Pilar

    2013-04-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a useful tool to study both marine water dynamics and its pollution, this is relevant near the coastline, where river pollution may be also important. Oil spills and natural slicks are detected with SAR [1-3] to reveal river and vessel pollution as well as the complex eddy and current interaction in the ocean surface near the coastline. In the framework of the ESA and European Union contracts, more than 1000 SAR images of the North-west Mediterranean Sea area taken between December 1996 and December 2008 are presented using self-similar traces that may be used to parametrize mixing at both limits of the Rossby Deformation Radius scale. Results show the ability to identify different SAR signatures and at the same time provide calibrations for the different local configurations of vortices, spirals, oil spills and tensioactive slicks that eventually allow predicting the behaviour of different tracers and pollutants in the NW Mediterranean Sea. Thanks to different polarization and intensity levels in satellite imagery can be used to distinguish between natural and man-made sea surface features due to their distinct self-similar as a function of spill parameters, environmental conditions and history of both oil release and weather conditions. (Environmental factors determine [4] spreading, drift and weathering of oil on the sea surface - see: Behaviour oil at sea). Detecting the low contrast patches depends also on the speckle noise which always presents in the image. Application of different filters (available for example in several image processing software (Matlab, Envi, IDL) to the radar data decreases noise level and improves the feature detecting in the image [1] Bezerra, M.O., Diez, M., Medeiros, C., Rodriguez, A., Bahia, E., Sanchez-Arcilla, A. and Redondo, J.M. 1998. Study on the influence of waves on coastal diffusion using image analysis. Applied Scientific Research 59, pp.191-204. [2] Carrillo, A., A., Sanchez,, M

  15. Alimini Lakes Project (PAL). Human-environment interaction during the Holocene in Mediterranean coastal wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbo, Andrea; Primavera, Milena; Fiorentino, Girolamo; Simone, Oronzo; Caldara, Massimo; Quarta, Gianluca; Calcagnile, Lucio

    2010-05-01

    A diachronical understanding of the co-evolution of people and Mediterranean wetlands requires the combined study of archaeological and palaeoenvironmental records. By focusing on an extended chronology, and relying on the update of known and new archaeological and palaeonvironmental sequences, PAL investigates how the Alimini Lakes disctrict (Apulia, S Italy) has changed over the past 10ka (the Holocene), a period witnessing great climatic environmental and social change. Holocene climate change is amplified in coastal wetlands, greatly affecting hydrology vegetation and people. Likewise, socio-economical changes (e.g. the introduction of agriculture) play a fundamental role in the shaping of wet landscapes. Under the combined action of environmental and human factors, coastal wetlands are prone to rapid and drastic ecological shifts and constitute ideal locations for developing a geoarchaeological approach. The results of the first year of research are presented here and include (1) the visit, description and GPS positioning of previously and newly discovered archaeological areas (cave and open air sites), (2) sampling of two Holocene sedimentary sequences from the Alimini Lakes disctict, (3) the results of the preliminary analyses (including AMS radiocarbon dating) carried out on the samples. The relocation of new and previously found archaeological sites was necessary to overcome some confusions caused by the contrasting published information. Relocated archaeological sites were normalized in a GIS environment. Two main Pleistocene/Holocene palaeoenvironmental sequences were sampled within the Alimini Lakes district: (1) the Frassanito dune reference sequence, obtained from a portion of the coastal dune (up to 10 m high) bordering the trait of the Adriatic coast situated in front of the Alimini lakes, (2) the ALI G 1 core (9m long) sampled on the W shore of Alimini Grande Lake. The multiproxy study of these sedimentary sequences provides a record of Holocene

  16. Nutrient and phytoplankton analysis of a Mediterranean coastal area.

    PubMed

    Sebastiá, M T; Rodilla, M

    2013-01-01

    Identifying and quantifying the key anthropogenic nutrient input sources are essential to adopting management measures that can target input for maximum effect in controlling the phytoplankton biomass. In this study, three systems characterized by distinctive main nutrient sources were sampled along a Mediterranean coast transect. These sources were groundwater discharge in the Ahuir area, the Serpis river discharge in the Venecia area, and a submarine wastewater outfall 1,900 m from the coast. The study area includes factors considered important in determining a coastal area as a sensitive area: it has significant nutrient sources, tourism is a major source of income in the region, and it includes an area of high water residence time (Venecia area) which is affected by the harbor facilities and by wastewater discharges. We found that in the Ahuir and the submarine wastewater outfall areas, the effects of freshwater inputs were reduced because of a greater water exchange with the oligotrophic Mediterranean waters. On the other hand, in the Venecia area, the highest levels of nutrient concentration and phytoplankton biomass were attributed to the greatest water residence time. In this enclosed area, harmful dinoflagellates were detected (Alexandrium sp. and Dinophysis caudata). If the planned enlargement of the Gandia Harbor proceeds, it may increase the vulnerability of this system and provide the proper conditions of confinement for the dinoflagellate blooms' development. Management measures should first target phosphorus inputs as this is the most potential-limiting nutrient in the Venecia area and comes from a point source that is easier to control. Finally, we recommend that harbor environmental management plans include regular monitoring of water quality in adjacent waters to identify adverse phytoplankton community changes.

  17. Radiological responses of different types of Egyptian Mediterranean coastal sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Gamal, A.; Rashad, M.; Ghatass, Z.

    2010-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify gamma self-absorption correction factors for different types of Egyptian Mediterranean coastal sediments. Self-absorption corrections based on direct transmission through different thicknesses of the most dominant sediment species have been tested against point sources with gamma-ray energies of 241Am, 137Cs and 60Co with 2% uncertainties. Black sand samples from the Rashid branch of the Nile River quantitatively absorbed the low energy of 241Am through a thickness of 5 cm. In decreasing order of gamma energy self-absorption of 241Am, the samples under investigation ranked black sand, Matrouh sand, Sidi Gaber sand, shells, Salloum sand, and clay. Empirical self-absorption correction formulas were also deduced. Chemical analyses such as pH, CaCO 3, total dissolved solids, Ca 2+, Mg 2+, CO 32-, HCO 3- and total Fe 2+ have been carried out for the sediments. The relationships between self absorption corrections and the other chemical parameters of the sediments were also examined.

  18. Cortaderia selloana invasion across a Mediterranean coastal strip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domènech, Roser; Vilà, Montserrat

    2007-11-01

    he invasive success of Cortaderia selloana, an alien perennial grass introduced from South America, was assessed by comparing plant and population performance in ruderal and non-ruderal habitats across a Mediterranean coastal strip. The main habitat differentiation criterion was the absence or presence of visible signs of recent disturbances. Plant functional group richness (i.e. number of plant groups classified as grasses, herbs, shrubs, vines and trees), total plant cover and percentage of bare ground was calculated in each habitat. In addition, soil samples were randomly taken in order to analyse total soil C, total N, CaCO 3, pH and soil texture. Cortaderia selloana populations were characterized by calculating total density, proportion of juvenile plants, plant volume, number of panicles and reproductive effort (i.e. number of panicles/plant volume) and fecundity per unit area (number of panicles per ha). We compared whether population characteristics and plant performance were associated with biotic and abiotic habitat factors. We expected a better performance of C. selloana in ruderal habitats than in non-ruderal habitats. As expected, ruderal habitats had larger and denser C. selloana populations and recruitment was very high (the proportion of juvenile plants was more than 50%). In consequence, in ruderal habitats, on average, plants were smaller, produced fewer panicles, and had a lower reproductive effort. The high percentage of bare ground, low pH and low functional group richness were the best explanatory variables associated to C. selloana invasion success.

  19. Bioremediation of Southern Mediterranean oil polluted sites comes of age.

    PubMed

    Daffonchio, Daniele; Ferrer, Manuel; Mapelli, Francesca; Cherif, Ameur; Lafraya, Alvaro; Malkawi, Hanan I; Yakimov, Michail M; Abdel-Fattah, Yasser R; Blaghen, Mohamed; Golyshin, Peter N; Kalogerakis, Nicolas; Boon, Nico; Magagnini, Mirko; Fava, Fabio

    2013-09-25

    Mediterranean Sea is facing a very high risk of oil pollution due to the high number of oil extractive and refining sites along the basin coasts, and the intense maritime traffic of oil tankers. All the Mediterranean countries have adopted severe regulations for minimizing pollution events and bioremediation feasibility studies for the most urgent polluted sites are undergoing. However, the analysis of the scientific studies applying modern 'meta-omics' technologies that have been performed on marine oil pollution worldwide showed that the Southern Mediterranean side has been neglected by the international research. Most of the studies in the Mediterranean Sea have been done in polluted sites of the Northern side of the basin. Those of the Southern side are poorly studied, despite many of the Southern countries being major oil producers and exporters. The recently EU-funded research project ULIXES has as a major objective to increase the knowledge of the bioremediation potential of sites from the Southern Mediterranean countries. ULIXES is targeting four major polluted sites on the coastlines of Egypt, Jordan, Morocco and Tunisia, including seashore sands, lagoons, and oil refinery polluted sediments. The research is designed to unravel, categorize, catalogue, exploit and manage the diversity and ecology of microorganisms thriving in these polluted sites. Isolation of novel hydrocarbon degrading microbes and a series of state of the art 'meta-omics' technologies are the baseline tools for improving our knowledge on biodegradation capacities mediated by microbes under different environmental settings and for designing novel site-tailored bioremediation approaches. A network of twelve European and Southern Mediterranean partners is cooperating for plugging the existing gap of knowledge for the development of novel bioremediation processes targeting such poorly investigated polluted sites.

  20. Multi-temporal retreat rates along the eastern Mediterranean coastal cliff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, O.; Mushkin, A.

    2012-12-01

    The Israeli coastal cliff extends about 50 km along the eastern Mediterranean shores. The cliff is comprised of late Quaternary eolianites and paleosols and reaches heights of up to 50 meters. In places, time-averaged inland cliff-top retreat rates of up to a few tens of centimeters per year have been measured usually by comparing aerial photos from the last decades. Commonly, these locally constrained retreat rates have been: 1) extrapolated as representative of the entire cliff length, and 2) adopted by hazard-mitigation and planning authorities. Here, we re-evaluate the current understanding of coastal-retreat patterns and rates along Israel's Mediterranean cliff line using a suite of field observations, aerial photography and recently obtained airborne and ground based high resolution LiDAR measurement of cliff morphologies. First, we constrain the decadal-scale retreat rates along the coastal-cliff by comparing the cliff-top location in 1945 and 2004 using aerial photos. We find a statistically significant spatial correlation between: 1) calculated low retreat rates (less than 0.1 m/yr) and field-based criteria indicating overall stability: slope angle of 45 deg. and talus cover along the lower part of the cliff and developed vegetation cover, and 2) high retreat rates and field criteria indicating recent instability: fresh landslide scars and 'hanging' valleys, which provides independent support for the calculated retreat rates. Calculated 60 years average cliff-top retreat rates of less than 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 m/yr along 58%, 77% and 85% of the cliff length, respectively, reveal that extended stretches of the cliff line did not experience detectable retreat in the past 60 years, thus implying relative stability of 50% of Israel's costal cliffs during this time period. Second, we constrain the annual retreat rates using repeat high-resolution ground based LiDAR surveys before and after an extreme winter storm that occurred in Dec. 2010. Locally, storm induced

  1. Nutrient Flux from Mediterranean Coastal Streams: Carpinteria Valley, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, T. H.; Leydecker, A.; Melack, J. M.; Keller, A. A.

    2003-12-01

    Along the southern California coast, near Santa Barbara, California, we are measuring nutrient export from specific land uses and developing a model to predict nutrient export at a watershed scale. The area is characterized by a Mediterranean-like climate and short steep catchments producing flashy runoff. The six land uses include chaparral, avocado orchards, greenhouse agriculture, open-field nurseries, and residential and commercial development. Sampling sites are located on defined drainages or storm drains that collect runoff from relatively homogeneous areas representing each land use. Stream water samples are taken once a week during the rainy season, every two weeks during the dry season and every one to four hours during storms. Samples are analyzed for ammonium, nitrate, phosphate, total dissolved nitrogen and particulate nitrogen and phosphorus. Intensive sampling at the thirteen sites of the study was conducted throughout Water Year (WY) 2002 and 2003. We determine discharge from measurements of stage derived from pressure transducers at all sampling sites. This information is then converted to flux at a high temporal resolution. Wet and dry season sampling has shown that nitrate baseflow concentrations vary over three orders of magnitude, from a few micromoles per liter in undeveloped catchments, to a few 100 æmol/L in agricultural and urban watersheds, to 1000 æmol/L where intensive "greenhouse" agriculture dominates. Nitrate loading ranged from a few moles per hectare per storm at undeveloped and residential sites to hundreds at the greenhouse site. Phosphate concentrations show a similar, but smaller, variation from 1 to 100 æmol/L, although the loading is comparable at 1-100 moles/ha-storm. Stormflow concentrations fluctuate with the storm hydrograph: phosphate increases with flow, while nitrate typically decreases due to dilution from runoff probably from impervious surfaces. Nitrate export patterns indicate a marked difference between land use

  2. Solar pacing of storm surges, coastal flooding and agricultural losses in the Central Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Kaniewski, David; Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Faivre, Sanja; Otto, Thierry; Van Campo, Elise

    2016-04-29

    Storm surges, leading to catastrophic coastal flooding, are amongst the most feared natural hazards due to the high population densities and economic importance of littoral areas. Using the Central Mediterranean Sea as a model system, we provide strong evidence for enhanced periods of storminess leading to coastal flooding during the last 4500 years. We show that long-term correlations can be drawn between storminess and solar activity, acting on cycles of around 2200-yr and 230-yr. We also find that phases of increased storms and coastal flooding have impacted upon mid- to late Holocene agricultural activity on the Adriatic coast. Based on the general trend observed during the second half of the 20(th) century, climate models are predicting a weakening of Mediterranean storminess. By contrast, our new data suggest that a decrease in solar activity will increase and intensify the risk of frequent flooding in coastal areas.

  3. Solar pacing of storm surges, coastal flooding and agricultural losses in the Central Mediterranean

    PubMed Central

    Kaniewski, David; Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Faivre, Sanja; Otto, Thierry; Van Campo, Elise

    2016-01-01

    Storm surges, leading to catastrophic coastal flooding, are amongst the most feared natural hazards due to the high population densities and economic importance of littoral areas. Using the Central Mediterranean Sea as a model system, we provide strong evidence for enhanced periods of storminess leading to coastal flooding during the last 4500 years. We show that long-term correlations can be drawn between storminess and solar activity, acting on cycles of around 2200-yr and 230-yr. We also find that phases of increased storms and coastal flooding have impacted upon mid- to late Holocene agricultural activity on the Adriatic coast. Based on the general trend observed during the second half of the 20th century, climate models are predicting a weakening of Mediterranean storminess. By contrast, our new data suggest that a decrease in solar activity will increase and intensify the risk of frequent flooding in coastal areas. PMID:27126207

  4. Solar pacing of storm surges, coastal flooding and agricultural losses in the Central Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaniewski, David; Marriner, Nick; Morhange, Christophe; Faivre, Sanja; Otto, Thierry; van Campo, Elise

    2016-04-01

    Storm surges, leading to catastrophic coastal flooding, are amongst the most feared natural hazards due to the high population densities and economic importance of littoral areas. Using the Central Mediterranean Sea as a model system, we provide strong evidence for enhanced periods of storminess leading to coastal flooding during the last 4500 years. We show that long-term correlations can be drawn between storminess and solar activity, acting on cycles of around 2200-yr and 230-yr. We also find that phases of increased storms and coastal flooding have impacted upon mid- to late Holocene agricultural activity on the Adriatic coast. Based on the general trend observed during the second half of the 20th century, climate models are predicting a weakening of Mediterranean storminess. By contrast, our new data suggest that a decrease in solar activity will increase and intensify the risk of frequent flooding in coastal areas.

  5. The Mediterranean Coastal Dunes in Egypt: An Endangered Landscape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batanouny, K. H.

    1999-08-01

    The Mediterranean coast in Egypt extends almost 900 km, the major part of which is bordered by sand dunes of different natures and types. Along the coastline between Alexandria and El-Alamein, a distance of some 100 km, the sand dunes represent a particular landscape with special characteristics and features, and consequently plants with particular attributes. In this area, the belt of sand dunes has developed immediately south of the shore and these dunes may rise up to 10 m in height and extend about 0·5-1·5 km inland from the shore. These dunes are famous as a habitat for the fig (Ficus carica L.) cultivation depending on the irregular rainfall. They also represent a landing station and a cross-road for birds such as quail migrating from Europe in the north. In the past, summer resort areas were confined to limited areas with few people, these same areas support the growth of some important plant species, for example, sand binders, medicinal and range plants. For more than two decades, there has been considerable socio-economic change and an open-door policy in the economy of the country has been adopted. One of the consequences of this change is that a great part of the coastal dune belt west of Alexandria till El-Alamein, has been subjected to destruction, due to the continuous construction of summer resort villages. These were built at a distance of about 100 m of the shoreline, extending 400-600 m inland and a breadth of 400 m or more along the shoreline. The area already covered by the dunes is now almost occupied by new buildings, gardens and other infrastructure. The consequences of these human activities are numerous and include impacts on the soil, water resources, the flora and the fauna, migrating birds, trends of the indigenous people, and the cultural environment. The present paper gives a concise environmental setting of the dune belt before the advent of the new activities, and the socio-economic and political attitudes which threaten the dunes

  6. Morphology of Mediterranean coastal sediments and its relation to oil pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Barakat, M.A.K.; Shimy, T.M.; Soliman, M.

    1997-02-01

    This study describes the hazards of marine oil pollution and associated chemicals and wastes and clarifies the importance of reducing oil inputs in coastal and offshore waters. It includes oil spill responses as well as wastes from offshore petroleum operations. This study is carried out mainly in order to clarify the morphological characteristics of the polluted coastal sediments along the Mediterranean shoreline from Marsa Matrouh to El-Arish.

  7. Utilization of a submersible UV fluorometer for monitoring anthropogenic inputs in the Mediterranean coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Tedetti, Marc; Guigue, Catherine; Goutx, Madeleine

    2010-03-01

    We evaluated the performances of a submersible ultraviolet fluorometer (EnviroFlu-HC, TriOS Optical Sensors) dedicated to the real time measurement of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the aquatic media. We conducted calibration experiments and in situ measurements in the coastal Mediterranean Sea. We found that the EnviroFlu-HC was not strictly specific to PAHs, even though it exhibited the highest sensitivity for phenanthrene, but could response to tryptophan-like material as well, and in a much less extent, to humic substances. The sensor signal showed great spatial and temporal variations in clean and polluted sites, with likely a high contribution of PAHs in the harbors, and a high contribution of tryptophan-like and humic-like materials in the sewage effluent. We conclude that the EnviroFlu-HC is a good tool for monitoring anthropogenic inputs in the coastal waters, although its utilization should be combined to other fluorescence measurements to improve the information about the nature of the aromatic compounds detected.

  8. Identification of various laccases induced by anthracene and contribution to its degradation in a Mediterranean coastal pine litter.

    PubMed

    Qasemian, Leila; Guiral, Daniel; Belghazi, Maya; Ferré, Elisée; Gros, Raphaël; Farnet, Anne-Marie

    2011-09-01

    Mediterranean coastal ecosystems are known to be highly subject to natural and anthropic environmental stress. In this study, we examine the effects of anthracene as a common pollutant on the total microbial communities from a Pinus halepensis litter of a typical Mediterranean coastal site (Les Calanques, Marseille). The main objective was to identify the microbial factors leading the resilience of this ecosystem. Two questions were addressed: (i) how lignin-degrading enzymes (Laccase, Lignin-peroxidase and Mn-peroxidase) are affected by the presence of this molecule, (ii) whether the indigenous consortia are involved in its degradation in mesocosms under favorable incubation conditions (25 °C, 60% WHC) and after different time intervals (1 and 3 month(s)). We found a strong increase in laccase production in the presence of anthracene after 3 months, together with anthracene degradation (28%±5). Moreover 9,10-anthraquinone is detected as the product of anthracene oxidation after 3 months. However neither lignin-peroxidase activity nor Mn-peroxidase activity is detected. Laccase proteins directly extracted from litter were sequenced via Nano-LC-MS/MS and reveal twelve different peptide sequences induced by the presence of anthracene in the mesocoms. Our study confirms the major detoxification role of this enzymatic system and highlights the high degradation potential of fungal species inhabiting P. halepensis litter, a factor in the resilience of Mediterranean ecosystems.

  9. Assessing the multidimensionality of coastal erosion risks: public participation and multicriteria analysis in a Mediterranean coastal system.

    PubMed

    Roca, Elisabet; Gamboa, Gonzalo; Tàbara, J David

    2008-04-01

    The complex and multidimensional nature of coastal erosion risks makes it necessary to move away from single-perspective assessment and management methods that have conventionally predominated in coastal management. This article explores the suitability of participatory multicriteria analysis (MCA) for improving the integration of diverse expertises and values and enhancing the social-ecological robustness of the processes that lead to the definition of relevant policy options to deal with those risks. We test this approach in the Mediterranean coastal locality of Lido de Sète in France. Results show that the more adaptive alternatives such as "retreating the shoreline" were preferred by our selected stakeholders to those corresponding to "protecting the shoreline" and the business as usual proposals traditionally put forward by experts and policymakers on these matters. Participative MCA contributed to represent coastal multidimensionality, elicit and integrate different views and preferences, facilitated knowledge exchange, and allowed highlighting existing uncertainties.

  10. Interpretation of coastal sediment quality based on trace metal and PAH analysis, benthic foraminifera, and toxicity tests (Sardinia, Western Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Schintu, Marco; Buosi, Carla; Galgani, François; Marrucci, Alessandro; Marras, Barbara; Ibba, Angelo; Cherchi, Antonietta

    2015-05-15

    An integrated approach for the assessment of coastal sediment quality was utilised in three areas of Sardinia (Western Mediterranean, Italy). Sediments were analysed for trace metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), while benthic foraminifera were used as bioindicators. Furthermore, the embryo-toxicity test was used to provide ecologically relevant information using rapid and cost-effective screening tools. The aim was to evaluate the usefulness of coupling different analytical tools. The results revealed the presence of polluted sediments in areas exposed to petrochemical industries, smelters or military settlements. However, while foraminifera have presented similar indications for chemical analysis of contamination levels in the different areas, the toxicity test exhibited a poor relationship with the contaminants measured individually. The results raise questions concerning the bioavailability of contaminants released by sediments in the water column. Overall, the toxicity rate was significant in many samples in comparison with other sites studied in other Mediterranean regions.

  11. Inconsistencies in coastal dune genesis and development in the western Mediterranean Cabopino Dune system, southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guisado-Pintado, Emilia; Malvárez, Gonzalo; Jackson, Derek; Navas, Fatima

    2016-04-01

    It is generally agreed that a falling sea level regime is required in the long term to establish dunes as distinctive landform features along a coast. Sedimentary (supply) bodies from fluvial, glacial sources or marine platform processes also need to be in place. In most Atlantic-facing coastal dune systems the current morpho-sedimentary structures are usually associated with the period between 18K BP and present when both glacial and riverine sediments emplaced sediments within the active zone of present sea level to help form beaches and dunes. Mediterranean coastal dunes fronted by steep continental shelves, such as in the western Mediterranean coast of southern Spain are, however, not associated with glacial deposits and thus are only present in association with river mouths and/or coastal lagoons. Their development is attributed to very recent sediment supply, which, combined with other forcing factors such as wind and waves, several orders of magnitude below those of north Atlantic systems, explains their limited extent. Some coastal dune fields however, do not seem to respond to this general pattern because of their scale and, more importantly, their origin linked possibly to marine platform processes rather than riverine or lagoonal development. Here, we examine the Cabopino dune system in southern Spain offering a conceptual model of their genesis and development as an "Atlantic" dune system within a Mediterranean setting. This is demonstrated by their scale (the largest in the Spanish Mediterranean) and their morphodynamic link to nearshore and platform processes in the last 18,000 years.

  12. Decreased seasonality and high variability of coastal plankton dynamics in an urban location of the NW Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romero, Estela; Peters, Francesc; Arin, Laura; Guillén, Jorge

    2014-04-01

    Contrary to what happens in open waters, where chlorophyll values and plankton dynamics can be predicted with a reasonable accuracy on an annual basis, biological parameters analyzed for coastal waters often show slight seasonality, and are exposed to numerous and convergent forcing factors that make it difficult to draw clear patterns. On top of this large natural variability, coastal locations subjected to urban sprawl suffer further human impact that may increase the unpredictability of plankton dynamics. Here we present the results of a multi-year time series of monthly samplings carried out in a coastal location by the city of Barcelona (NW Mediterranean) that is highly exposed to anthropogenic disturbances. Our data confirm the existence of complex patterns throughout the year. Freshwater inputs proved to be an important source of nutrients, yet the response of the planktonic organisms was vague and not systematic, contrary to the results of a previous study at a nearby coastal site less affected by human activities. The severity of anthropogenic disruptions was partially masked by the co-occurrence of natural physical phenomena, e.g., waste spills often come with downpours and large river discharge. In the NW Mediterranean, there seems to be a gradient of decreasing predictability on plankton dynamics from offshore to coastal waters with little human influence, where seasonality can be largely modified by local processes but the biological response is systematic and fairly predictable, and finally to urban coastal locations, where the seasonal background is diluted by numerous perturbations and there exists a variable pattern of biological responses. Our study underlines the importance of specific coastal processes in determining the structure and dynamics of the planktonic community, and the need to characterize coastal areas setting aside some of the assumptions valid for open ocean regions (e.g., (1) in the open ocean seasonality dominates annual nutrient

  13. UV filters, ethylhexyl methoxycinnamate, octocrylene and ethylhexyl dimethyl PABA from untreated wastewater in sediment from eastern Mediterranean river transition and coastal zones.

    PubMed

    Amine, Helmieh; Gomez, Elena; Halwani, Jalal; Casellas, Claude; Fenet, Hélène

    2012-11-01

    UVF may occur in the aquatic environment through two principal sources: direct inputs from recreational activities and indirect wastewater- and river-borne inputs. The aim of this study was to obtain a first overview of levels of three UVF (EHMC, OC and OD-PABA) in coastal areas subjected to river inputs, untreated wastewater discharges and dumpsite leachates. We selected three eastern Mediterranean rivers that have been impacted for decades by untreated wastewater release and collected sediment in the coastal zone during the hot and humid seasons. Western Mediterranean sites receiving treated wastewaters were analyzed for comparison. The results gave an overview of sediment contamination under these two contrasted situations representative of Mediterranean coastal areas without bathing activities. The analysis of the three UVF revealed the ubiquity and high point source contamination by EHMC and OC in transition and coastal zones, with levels as high as 128 ng g(-1)d.w. OD-PABA was also frequently detected, but at lower concentrations (coastal bathing zones.

  14. The mediterranean coast of Andalusia (sw spain): the impacts of human coastal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liguori, Vincenzo; Manno, Giorgio; Messina, Enrica; Anfuso, Giorgio; Suffo, Miguel

    2015-04-01

    Spanish coasts, especially the Andalusia Mediterranean one, were affected over time by progressive urbanization and associated construction of defense structures. Such structures protected small coastal sectors but at places triggered processes of coastal erosion and associated degradation of habitats and ecosystems. A correct management of coastal areas must be based on the monitoring of coastal evolution and human pressure. A useful tool to evaluate the level of human anthropization is the estimation of the "Coastal Armouring", e.g. the quantification of coastal defense structures, infrastructures, ports, etc. In this study, available aerial photographs and satellite images from 1956 to 2011 were scanned and geo-referenced and used for the quantitative assessment of coastal human constructions impact on the studied coastal area. The so called coefficient of technogenous impact (K) was used. It results from the relationship between the total length of all maritime structures (groins, moles, seawalls, dikes, channels, etc.) and the entire length of the study coastal section. For this purpose, the Andalusia coast, about 500 km in length, was divided into sections of 1 km. For each one of such sections the technogenous impact was calculated in the 1956 and 2011 documents. The analysis showed that the degree of anthropization in some areas (for example the Port of Montril) has increased considerably, triggering degradation processes in the nearby coastal areas. Results also evidenced as, in many cases, greatest human impacts are linked to the progressive construction of coastal defense. The lack of a general strategy to combat the erosion problem and the urgency in the short term to protect specific parts of the coast led to a reactive approach based initially in the construction of hard structures. Such interventions locally solved erosion problems but gave rise to drowndrift erosion according to the "domino" effect. A more general management plan is needed

  15. Stable isotopes confirm a coastal diet for critically endangered Mediterranean monk seals.

    PubMed

    Karamanlidis, Alexandros A; Curtis, P Jeff; Hirons, Amy C; Psaradellis, Marianna; Dendrinos, Panagiotis; Hopkins, John B

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the ecology and behaviour of endangered species is essential for developing effective management and conservation strategies. We used stable isotope analysis to investigate the foraging behaviour of critically endangered Mediterranean monk seals (Monachus monachus) in Greece. We measured carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios (expressed as δ(13)C and δ(15)N values, respectively) derived from the hair of deceased adult and juvenile seals and the muscle of their known prey to quantify their diets. We tested the hypothesis that monk seals primarily foraged for prey that occupy coastal habitats in Greece. We compared isotope values from seal hair to their coastal and pelagic prey (after correcting all prey for isotopic discrimination) and used these isotopic data and a stable isotope mixing model to estimate the proportion of coastal and pelagic resources consumed by seals. As predicted, we found that seals had similar δ(13)C values as many coastal prey species and higher δ(13)C values than pelagic species; these results, in conjunction with mean dietary estimates (coastal=61 % vs. pelagic=39 %), suggest that seals have a diverse diet comprising prey from multiple trophic levels that primarily occupy the coast. Marine resource managers should consider using the results from this study to inform the future management of coastal habitats in Greece to protect Mediterranean monk seals.

  16. Methods of eutrophication assessment in the context of the water framework directive: Examples from the Eastern Mediterranean coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlidou, Alexandra; Simboura, Nomiki; Rousselaki, Eleni; Tsapakis, Manolis; Pagou, Kalliopi; Drakopoulou, Paraskevi; Assimakopoulou, Georgia; Kontoyiannis, Harilaos; Panayotidis, Panayotis

    2015-10-01

    A set of methodological tools were tested in order to assess the eutrophication quality of selected coastal areas in Eastern Mediterranean Sea, Greece, in the context of the Water Framework Directive under various anthropogenic pressures. Three, five-step tools, namely, TRIX, chlorophyll-a (chl-a) biomass classification scheme, and eutrophication index (E.I.) were applied in oligotrophic waters for (a) the whole water column and (b) the euphotic zone. The relationship among the eutrophication assessment indices and the ecological quality status (EcoQ) assessment indices for benthic macroinvertebrates (BENTIX index) and macroalgae (ecological evaluation index-EEIc) was also explored. Agricultural activities and mariculture are the pressures mostly related to the eutrophication assessment of the selected Greek coastal water bodies. Chl-a proved to be the criterion with the best overall correlation with the EcoQ indices, while TRIX with the lowest. Moreover, among the eutrophication indices, E.I. showed better overall agreement with BENTIX showing that probably it reflects the indirect relation of macroinvertebrates with water eutrophication in a better way. Among the eutrophication indices used, TRIX rather overestimated the eutrophication status of the selected coastal areas. The first stage of eutrophication was reflected more efficiently using E.I. than TRIX, but E.I. seems to be a rather sensitive index. A future modification of the high to good boundary of E.I. may be needed in order to demonstrate the high status of the relatively undisturbed Greek coastal sites.

  17. Organic micropollutants in coastal waters from NW Mediterranean Sea: sources distribution and potential risk.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Avila, Juan; Tauler, Romà; Lacorte, Silvia

    2012-10-01

    This study provides a first estimation on the sources, distribution and risk of organic micropollutants (OMPs) in coastal waters from NW Mediterranean Sea. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, organochlorinated pesticides, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, phthalates and alkylphenols were analyzed by solid phase extraction and gas chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-GC-EI-MS/MS). River waters and wastewater treatment plant effluents discharging to the sea were identified as the main sources of OMPs to coastal waters, with an estimated input amount of around of 25,800 g d(-1). The concentration of ΣOMPs in coastal areas ranged from 17.4 to 8442 ng L(-1), and was the highest in port waters, followed by coastal and river mouth seawaters. A summarized overview of the patterns and sources of OMP contamination on the investigated coastal sea waters of NW Mediterranean Sea, as well as of their geographical distribution was obtained by Principal Component Analysis of the complete data set after its adequate pretreatment. Alkylphenols, bisphenol A and phthalates were the main contributors to ΣOMPs and produced an estimated significant pollution risk for fish, algae and the sensitive mysid shrimp organisms in seawater samples. The combination of GC-MS/MS, chemometrics and risk analysis is proven to be useful for a better control and management of OMP discharges.

  18. Pharmaceuticals, alkylphenols and pesticides in Mediterranean coastal waters: Results from a pilot survey using passive samplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Munaron, Dominique; Tapie, Nathalie; Budzinski, Hélène; Andral, Bruno; Gonzalez, Jean-Louis

    2012-12-01

    21 pharmaceuticals, 6 alkylphenols and 27 hydrophilic pesticides and biocides were investigated using polar organic contaminant integrative samplers (POCIS) during a large-scale study of contamination of French Mediterranean coastal waters. Marine and transitional water-bodies, defined under the EU Water Framework Directive were monitored. Our results show that the French Mediterranean coastal waters were contaminated with a large range of emerging contaminants, detected at low concentrations during the summer season. Caffeine, carbamazepine, theophilline and terbutaline were detected with a detection frequency higher than 83% in the coastal waters sampled, 4-nonylphenol (4-NP), 4-tert-octylphenol (4-OP) and 4-nonylphenol diethoxylate (NP2EO) were detected in all coastal waters sampled, and diuron, terbuthylazine, atrazine, irgarol and simazine were detected in more than 77% of samples. For pharmaceuticals, highest time-weighted average (TWA) concentrations were measured for caffeine and carbamazepine (32 and 12 ng L-1, respectively). For alkylphenols, highest TWA concentrations were measured for 4-nonylphenol mono-ethoxylate and 4-nonylphenol (41 and 33 ng L-1, respectively), and for herbicides and biocides, they were measured for diuron and irgarol (33 and 2.5 ng L-1, respectively). Except for Diana lagoon, lagoons and semi-enclosed bays were the most contaminated areas for herbicides and pharmaceuticals, whilst, for alkylphenols, levels of contamination were similar in lagoons and coastal waters. This study demonstrates the relevance and utility of POCIS as quantitative tool for measuring low concentrations of emerging contaminants in marine waters.

  19. Coastal response to climate change: Mediterranean shorelines during the Last Interglacial (MIS 5)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mauz, Barbara; Fanelli, Fabio; Elmejdoub, Noureddine; Barbieri, Roberto

    2012-10-01

    The response of shorelines to climate change is controlled by fall and rise of the sea level and by the alteration of the coastal environment due to changing fluvial discharge and biological activity. In the Mediterranean this response is complicated by the geographic proximity of the North Atlantic and the African Monsoon climate systems, by a time and space specific interaction of eustatic and water-load components of sea level and by the mid-latitudinal time lag between orbital forcing and terrestrial response. Here, six Mediterranean coastal records are presented which contribute to our understanding of how mid-latitudinal coasts respond to orbital forcing. The sediment sequences show sharp switches between siliciclastic- and carbonate-dominated nearshore environments where carbonate-rich sediments are composed of oolitic grainstones. From modern analogues it is deduced that the oolitic sediments represent a period of relatively high annual sea-surface temperature and lack of fluvial discharge. The warm-arid period was recorded at ˜114 ka on the southeast Iberian coast, at ˜113 ka on the Levant coast, at ˜110 ka on the coast west of the Nile delta and at ˜83 ka on the north Saharan coast. It lasted 10-20 ka in east (Levant coast) and west (Iberian coast) and lasted 40 ka or more in the central-south of the east Mediterranean. Timing and duration of the coastal proxy allow inferring instantaneous and dominant response to external forcing in the east and west and delayed and prolonged response due to dominant regional forcing in the centre of the East Mediterranean. A 9 m eustatic sea-level highstand during MIS 5e is suggested with a start of the subsequent sea-level fall at ˜118 ka while evidence for multiple MIS 5e highstand and a highstand during MIS 5a remain elusive.

  20. Assessment of Eutrophication Quality in Greek Coastal Ecosystem (Eastern Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavlidou, Alexandra; Rousselaki, Eleni; Assimakopoulou, Georgia; Tsapakis, Manolis; Simboura, Nomiki

    2014-05-01

    The Mediterranean Sea has always been considered as one of the most oligotrophic areas in the world, especially in the Eastern part of the Sea. However, eutrophication problems occur in some coastal areas of the Mediterranean (e.g. eastern coasts of Spain, Gulf of Lions, northern Adriatic Sea, Apulian coasts, Saronikos Gulf, Thessaloniki Bay, northern coasts of Greece, etc.). This work is focused on the assessment of the Eutrophication Quality in different coastal areas of Greece affected by various anthropogenic and natural pressures and was performed under the Water Framework Directive. A network of 28 sampling stations was used during two relevant sampling periods, April - May 2012 and March - April 2013, in the framework of the National Monitoring Project of Greece. The Eutrophication assessment method integrates chemical and biological parameters of the water column. A synthetic Eutrophication Index (E.I.) was produced for the greek coastal areas by Primpas et al. quality classification scheme, combining the concentrations of nutrients (phosphate, nitrate, nitrite, ammonia) and chlorophyll-α biomass into a single formula. The E.I. assesses the eutrophication status using a five scale scheme according to the requirements of WFD: (High) less than 0.04; (Good) 0.04-0.38; (moderate) 0.38-0.85; (poor) 0.85-1.51; (bad) >1.51. Nutrient and chlorophyll-a concentrations revealed significant spatial variation among the various coastal areas of Greece influenced by different point and/or diffuse anthropogenic pressures (related to nutrient enrichment), reflecting the level of human-induced impairment where an increase in nutrient loads leads to increased water quality problems. The assessment of E.I showed that during 2012, 32% of the selected coastal areas were characterized as Good, 54% as Moderate and 14% of the selected greek coastal areas were characterized as Poor. During 2012, none of the study areas corresponded to High or Bad eutrophication status. During 2013

  1. Hydrocarbons in coastal sediments from the Mediterranean sea (Gulf of Fos area, France).

    PubMed

    Mille, Gilbert; Asia, Laurence; Guiliano, Michel; Malleret, Laure; Doumenq, Pierre

    2007-05-01

    Sedimentary hydrocarbons have been studied quantitatively and qualitatively in 11 coastal stations located in the Gulf of Fos (French Mediterranean coast). Hydrocarbon levels ranged from 10 to 260 mg kg(-1) sed. dry weight. A new parameter "NAR" (Natural n-alkane ratio) is proposed to evaluate the contribution of terrestrial inputs of hydrocarbons in the sediments. The origins of hydrocarbons are multiple: terrestrial inputs, biogenic, pyrolytic (industry emissions mainly steel and iron industries, ship and road traffic). Generally, the main source of contamination is not petroleum. Several ratios between parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons show that the sources of hydrocarbons in the sediments are generally much more pyrolytic than petrogenic.

  2. Assessment of metal contamination in coastal sediments, seawaters and bivalves of the Mediterranean Sea coast, Egypt.

    PubMed

    El-Sorogy, Abdelbaset S; Attiah, Abdullah

    2015-12-30

    In order to assess metal contamination on the Mediterranean coast of Egypt, 45 sediment samples, seawaters and bivalve specimens were collected from Rosetta coastal area for Mg, Al, K, Fe, Sr, Zn, Pb, Mn, As, Ce, Ni, Cr and Zr analyses by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer. The Enrichment Factor (EF), the Geoaccumulation Index (Igeo) and the Contamination Factor (CF) indicated that the coastal sediments of Rosetta area were severely enriched, strongly polluted with As, Pb and very highly contaminated with As, Pb, Ni, Ce, mostly as a result of anthropogenic inputs. Comparison with other samples from the Arabian Gulf, Red Sea and abroad coasts suggested that the studied samples have higher concentrations of Fe, Pb, As, Zn and Ni. The natural sources of heavy metals in the study area are attributed to weathering and decomposition of mountain ranges of the Sudan and Ethiopia, while the anthropogenic ones are the metals produced from industrial, sewage, irrigation and urban runoff.

  3. Sea-Level Rise Implications for Coastal Protection from Southern Mediterranean to the U.S.A. Atlantic Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Nabil; Williams, Jeffress

    2013-04-01

    This paper presents an assessment of global sea level rise and the need to incorporate projections of rise into management plans for coastal adaptation. It also discusses the performance of a shoreline revetment; M. Ali Seawall, placed to protect the land against flooding and overtopping at coastal site, within Abu Qir Bay, East of Alexandria, Egypt along the Nile Delta coast. The assessment is conducted to examine the adequacy of the seawall under the current and progressive effects of climate change demonstrated by the anticipated sea level rise during this century. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC, 2007) predicts that the Mediterranean will rise 30 cm to 1 meter this century. Coastal zone management of the bay coastline is of utmost significance to the protection of the low agricultural land and the industrial complex located in the rear side of the seawall. Moreover this joint research work highlights the similarity of the nature of current and anticipated coastal zone problems, at several locations around the world, and required adaptation and protection measures. For example many barrier islands in the world such as that in the Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts of the U.S., lowland and deltas such as in Italy and the Nile Delta, and many islands are also experiencing significant levels of erosion and flooding that are exacerbated by sea level rise. Global Climatic Changes: At a global scale, an example of the effects of accelerated climate changes was demonstrated. In recent years, the impacts of natural disasters are more and more severe on coastal lowland areas. With the threats of climate change, sea level rise storm surge, progressive storm and hurricane activities and potential subsidence, the reduction of natural disasters in coastal lowland areas receives increased attention. Yet many of their inhabitants are becoming increasingly vulnerable to flooding, and conversions of land to open ocean. These global changes were recently

  4. Open sea hydrographic forcing of nutrient and phytoplankton dynamics in a Mediterranean coastal ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arin, Laura; Guillén, Jorge; Segura-Noguera, Mariona; Estrada, Marta

    2013-11-01

    The dynamics of inorganic nutrients and phytoplankton was studied along two transects located in the coastal area of Barcelona (NW Mediterranean), from March 2002 to March 2006. Similar seasonal variability patterns were observed in the four annual cycles and in general, the nutrient concentrations were highest in winter and lowest in summer. Two phytoplankton peaks, composed mainly by diatoms and nanoflagellates, were generally detected during the year with the main peak during winter-early spring, linked to different fertilization mechanisms, and a secondary peak generally found in autumn, probably related both to the new availability of nutrients due to the disruption of the thermocline and to freshwater inputs. During the rest of the year, with a stratified water column and low nutrient concentrations, phytoplankton remained at a low abundance and comprised mainly small dinoflagellates, although there was smaller scale variability conditioned by rainfall events and subsequent freshwater discharges. Despite the similarity of the seasonal patterns, there were interannual changes in origin of new nutrient inputs into the coastal zone and in the taxonomic composition of the winter-early spring phytoplankton maxima. The main source of nutrients for the winter-early spring maxima of 2003 and 2004 was river runoff, while fertilization events in the two following winters were mainly due to the intrusion, onto the Barcelona shelf, of intermediate waters in 2005, and of surface offshore waters, which also carried a different phytoplankton community, in 2006. These changes were linked to unusually cold and dry weather in the winters of 2005 and 2006, which resulted in strong vertical mixing and deep water formation events in the NW Mediterranean basin. The overall amount of nutrients provided to the coastal zone by offshore water fertilization was higher (2005) or equal (2006) than that provided by freshwater inputs in 2003 and 2004. Our findings highlight the importance

  5. Exploiting coastal altimetry to improve the surface circulation scheme over the central Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jebri, Fatma; Birol, Florence; Zakardjian, Bruno; Bouffard, Jérome; Sammari, Cherif

    2016-07-01

    This work is the first study exploiting along track altimetry data to observe and monitor coastal ocean features over the transition area between the western and eastern Mediterranean Basins. The relative performances of both the AVISO and the X-TRACK research regional altimetric data sets are compared using in situ observations. Both products are cross validated with tide gauge records. The altimeter-derived geostrophic velocities are also compared with observations from a moored Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler. Results indicate the good potential of satellite altimetry to retrieve dynamic features over the area. However, X-TRACK shows a more homogenous data coverage than AVISO, with longer time series in the 50 km coastal band. The seasonal evolution of the surface circulation is therefore analyzed by conjointly using X-TRACK data and remotely sensed sea surface temperature observations. This combined data set clearly depicts different current regimes and bifurcations, which allows us to propose a new seasonal circulation scheme for the central Mediterranean. The analysis shows variations of the path and temporal behavior of the main circulation features: the Atlantic Tunisian Current, the Atlantic Ionian Stream, the Atlantic Libyan Current, and the Sidra Gyre. The resulting bifurcating veins of these currents are also discussed, and a new current branch is observed for the first time.

  6. Highly diverse recombining populations of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Kévin; Mosser, Thomas; Aujoulat, Fabien; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Monfort, Patrick; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae are ubiquitous to estuarine and marine environments. These two species found in Mediterranean coastal systems can induce infections in humans. Environmental isolates of V. cholerae (n = 109) and V. parahaemolyticus (n = 89) sampled at different dates, stations and water salinities were investigated for virulence genes and by a multilocus sequence-based analysis (MLSA). V. cholerae isolates were all ctxA negative and only one isolate of V. parahaemolyticus displayed trh2 gene. Most Sequence Types (ST) corresponded to unique ST isolated at one date or one station. Frequent recombination events were detected among different pathogenic species, V. parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae, Vibrio mimicus, and Vibrio metoecus. Recombination had a major impact on the diversification of lineages. The genetic diversity assessed by the number of ST/strain was higher in low salinity condition for V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae whereas the frequency of recombination events in V. cholerae was lower in low salinity condition. Mediterranean coastal lagoon systems housed V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus with genetic diversities equivalent to the worldwide diversity described so far. The presence of STs found in human infections as well as the frequency of recombination events in environmental vibrios populations could predict a potential epidemiological risk.

  7. Heterotrophic Bacteria Show Weak Competition for Nitrogen in Mediterranean Coastal Waters (Thau Lagoon) in Autumn.

    PubMed

    Trottet, Aurore; Leboulanger, Christophe; Vidussi, Francesca; Pete, Romain; Bouvy, Marc; Fouilland, Eric

    2016-02-01

    The importance of heterotrophic bacteria relative to phytoplankton in the uptake of ammonium and nitrate was studied in Mediterranean coastal waters (Thau Lagoon) during autumn, when the Mediterranean Sea received the greatest allochthonous nutrient loads. Specific inhibitors and size-fractionation methods were used in combination with isotopic (15)N tracers. NO3 (-) and NH4 (+) uptake was dominated by phytoplankton (60 % on average) during the study period, which included a flood event. Despite lower biomass specific NH4 (+) and NO3 uptake rates, free-living heterotrophic bacteria contributed significantly (>30 %) to total microbial NH4 (+) and NO3 (-) uptake rates in low chlorophyll waters. Under these conditions, heterotrophic bacteria may be responsible for more than 50 % of primary production, using very little freshly produced phytoplankton exudates. In low chlorophyll coastal waters as reported during the present 3-month study, the heterotrophic bacteria seemed to depend to a greater extent on allochthonous N and C substrates than on autochthonous substrates derived from phytoplankton.

  8. Highly diverse recombining populations of Vibrio cholerae and Vibrio parahaemolyticus in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Kévin; Mosser, Thomas; Aujoulat, Fabien; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Monfort, Patrick; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus and Vibrio cholerae are ubiquitous to estuarine and marine environments. These two species found in Mediterranean coastal systems can induce infections in humans. Environmental isolates of V. cholerae (n = 109) and V. parahaemolyticus (n = 89) sampled at different dates, stations and water salinities were investigated for virulence genes and by a multilocus sequence-based analysis (MLSA). V. cholerae isolates were all ctxA negative and only one isolate of V. parahaemolyticus displayed trh2 gene. Most Sequence Types (ST) corresponded to unique ST isolated at one date or one station. Frequent recombination events were detected among different pathogenic species, V. parahaemolyticus, V. cholerae, Vibrio mimicus, and Vibrio metoecus. Recombination had a major impact on the diversification of lineages. The genetic diversity assessed by the number of ST/strain was higher in low salinity condition for V. parahaemolyticus and V. cholerae whereas the frequency of recombination events in V. cholerae was lower in low salinity condition. Mediterranean coastal lagoon systems housed V. cholerae and V. parahaemolyticus with genetic diversities equivalent to the worldwide diversity described so far. The presence of STs found in human infections as well as the frequency of recombination events in environmental vibrios populations could predict a potential epidemiological risk. PMID:26236294

  9. Habitats and plant communities in the Nile Delta of Egypt I. Deltaic Mediterranean coastal habitat.

    PubMed

    Mashaly, I A; El-Habashy, I E; El-Halawany, E F; Omar, G

    2008-11-15

    The present study aims at investigating the vegetation-soil relationships in the Deltaic Mediterranean coastal land of Egypt. The Deltaic coast of the Mediterranean Sea of Egypt can be distinguished into five habitat types, namely: sand dunes, salt marshes, sand sheets, sandy fertile lands and lake shorelines (Manzala, Burullus and Idku). These habitats are categorized into four vegetation groups namely, group A dominated by Rumex pictus, group B codominated by Pancratium maritimum-Cyperus capitatus-Lolium perenne, group C codominated by Arthrocnemum macrostachyum-Atriplex portulacoides-Typha domingensis and group D codominated by Echinochloa stagnina-Typha domingensis-Phragmites australis. One hundred and thirty plant species are recorded in this coast and belonging to 38 families. Out of the recorded species, about 41.54% are annuals, 2.31% biennials and 56.15% perennials. The percentages of the life-form indicated that, therophytes attained the highest representation (43.85%). The floristic analysis revealed that, 55.38% of the recorded species are Mediterranean elements. The ecological amplitudes of the leading species along the gradient of edaphic factors are discussed.

  10. Does anthracene affect microbial activities and organic matter decomposition? A comparative study in Pinus halepensis litters from Mediterranean coastal and inland areas.

    PubMed

    Qasemian, Leila; Guiral, Daniel; Ziarelli, Fabio; Ruaudel, Florence; Farnet, Anne-Marie

    2012-10-01

    The widespread concern about pollution caused by Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) raises the question of how they affect soil microbial communities which are potentially involved in the transformation of these pollutants. Using microcosms, we describe the effect of anthracene, a model PAH, on microbial communities inhabiting a Pinus halepensis litter from both coastal (COS) and inland (INL) Mediterranean sites. The microcosms were incubated over 3 months (25°C, 60% WHC) and the effects of anthracene on microbial activities of both litters were monitored. Different enzyme activities (laccase, cellulase, β-glucosidase and acid phosphatase) and microbial respiration were measured and variations in litter chemical composition over incubation were determined using (13)C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) from both sites. Our results show that lignocellulolytic enzymes increased markedly after a 3-month incubation in COS microcosms, especially in the presence of anthracene, whereas INL microcosms were not similarly affected. These results show that anthracene not only has no toxic effect on the microbial activities tested but actually enhances the lignocellulolytic activities of the fungal communities from coastal litters, demonstrating the detoxification potential and resistance of stressed Mediterranean coastal ecosystems.

  11. Ocean acidification impacts on nitrogen fixation in the coastal western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rees, Andrew P.; Turk-Kubo, Kendra A.; Al-Moosawi, Lisa; Alliouane, Samir; Gazeau, Frédéric; Hogan, Mary E.; Zehr, Jonathan P.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of ocean acidification on nitrogen (N2) fixation rates and on the community composition of N2-fixing microbes (diazotrophs) were examined in coastal waters of the North-Western Mediterranean Sea. Nine experimental mesocosm enclosures of ∼50 m3 each were deployed for 20 days during June-July 2012 in the Bay of Calvi, Corsica, France. Three control mesocosms were maintained under ambient conditions of carbonate chemistry. The remainder were manipulated with CO2 saturated seawater to attain target amendments of pCO2 of 550, 650, 750, 850, 1000 and 1250 μatm. Rates of N2 fixation were elevated up to 10 times relative to control rates (2.00 ± 1.21 nmol L-1d-1) when pCO2 concentrations were >1000 μatm and pHT (total scale) < 7.74. Diazotrophic phylotypes commonly found in oligotrophic marine waters, including the Mediterranean, were not present at the onset of the experiment and therefore, the diazotroph community composition was characterised by amplifying partial nifH genes from the mesocosms. The diazotroph community was comprised primarily of cluster III nifH sequences (which include possible anaerobes), and proteobacterial (α and γ) sequences, in addition to small numbers of filamentous (or pseudo-filamentous) cyanobacterial phylotypes. The implication from this study is that there is some potential for elevated N2 fixation rates in the coastal western Mediterranean before the end of this century as a result of increasing ocean acidification. Observations made of variability in the diazotroph community composition could not be correlated with changes in carbon chemistry, which highlights the complexity of the relationship between ocean acidification and these keystone organisms.

  12. Variability of Mediterranean aerosols properties at three regional background sites in the western Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicard, Michaël.; Totems, Julien; Barragan, Rubén.; Dulac, François; Mallet, Marc; Comerón, Adolfo; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Augustin, Patrick; Chazette, Patrick; Léon, Jean-François; Olmo-Reyes, Francisco José; Renard, Jean-Baptiste; Rocadenbosch, Francesc

    2014-10-01

    In the framework of the project ChArMEx (the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment, http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/), the variability of aerosol optical, microphysical and radiative properties is examined in three regional background sites on a southwest - northeast (SW-NE) straight line in the middle of the western Mediterranean Basin (WMB). The three sites are on the northward transport pathway of African dust: - Ersa, Corsica Island, France (43.00ºN, 9.36ºW, 80 m a.s.l), - Palma de Mallorca, Mallorca Island, Spain (39.55ºN, 2.62ºE, 10 m a.s.l) and - Alborán, Alboran Island, Spain (35.94ºN, 3.04ºW, 15 m a.s.l). AERONET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) sun-photometer products are mainly used. A preliminary analysis shows that at Ersa and Palma sites the annual aerosol optical depth (AOD) has a similar trend with a peak around 0.2 in July. The winter/spring AOD is lower in Palma than in Ersa, while it is reverse in summer/autumn. The aerosol particle size distribution (and the coarse mode fraction) shows clearly the SW-NE gradient with a decreasing coarse mode peak (and a decreasing coarse mode fraction from 0.5 - 0.35 - 0.2 in July) along the axis Alborán - Palma de Mallorca - Ersa. In addition to the seasonal and annual variability analysis, the analysis of AERONET products is completed with a large variety of ground-based and sounding balloons remote sensing and in situ instruments during the Special Observation Period (SOP) of the ADRIMED campaign in June 2013. The second part of the presentation will focus on the comparison of the observations at Palma de Mallorca and Ersa of the same long-range transported airmasses. The observations include lidar vertical profiles, balloon borne OPC (Optical Particle Counter) and MSG/SEVIRI AOD, among others.

  13. Occurrence of the Atlantic blue crab Callinectes sapidus Rathbun, 1896 in two Mediterranean coastal habitats: Temporary visitor or permanent resident?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancinelli, Giorgio; Carrozzo, Leonardo; Costantini, Maria Letizia; Rossi, Loreto; Marini, Gabriele; Pinna, Maurizio

    2013-12-01

    Coastal habitats worldwide are threatened by invasive alien species (IAS) that can alter community and ecosystem processes. Invasions are of particular concern for the Mediterranean Sea, and IAS-related descriptors of good ecological status have been recently proposed in European reference regulations.

  14. Feasibility of growing olives on selected sites along coastal Texas

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five sites along the Texas coastline (Seadrift, Galveston, Brazoria, Santa Fe, and Orange) were evaluated for feasibility of growing olives in these areas. In addition, two non-coastal sites (Carrizo Springs and Weslaco) were also included in the study for comparative purposes. Flowering and fruit ...

  15. Dynamics and fates of trace metals chronically input in a Mediterranean coastal zone impacted by a large urban area.

    PubMed

    Oursel, B; Garnier, C; Durrieu, G; Mounier, S; Omanović, D; Lucas, Y

    2013-04-15

    Quantification and characterization of chronic inputs of trace metals and organic carbon in a coastal Mediterranean area (the city of Marseille) during the dry season was carried out. The 625 km(2) watershed includes two small coastal rivers whose waters are mixed with treated wastewater (TWW) just before their outlet into the sea. Dissolved and particulate Cu, Pb, Cd, Zn, Co, Ni and organic carbon concentrations in the rivers were comparable to those in other Mediterranean coastal areas, whereas at the outlet, 2- to 18-fold higher concentrations reflected the impact of the TWW. A non-conservative behavior observed for most of the studied metals in the mixing zone was validated by a remobilization experiment performed in the laboratory. The results showed that sorption/desorption processes could occur with slow kinetics with respect to the mixing time in the plume, indicating non-equilibrium in the dissolved/particulate metal distribution. Thus, a sample filtration immediately after sampling is strictly required.

  16. Characterization and evolution of the sediments of a Mediterranean coastal lagoon located next to a former mining area.

    PubMed

    García, Gregorio; Muñoz-Vera, Ana

    2015-11-15

    Coastal lagoons are ecosystems that are relatively enclosed water bodies under the influence of both the terrestrial and the marine environment, being vulnerable to human impacts. Human activities, such as mining extraction, are significant anthropogenic coastal stressors that can negatively affect ecosystems and communities. In light of the above, the objective of this research is to examine the influence of metal mining activities on the composition of sediments of a Mediterranean coastal lagoon, named Mar Menor. This paper presents a comprehensive characterization for grain size, mineralogy, geochemistry and organic matter of sediments of this coastal lagoon, investigating their variation along space and time. Sedimentation dynamics are ruling clearly the grain size predominant in each area of the Mar Menor coastal lagoon, determining the existence of entrainment, transport and sedimentation areas. For minerals, elements and organic matter, sedimentation dynamics are also determining their distribution.

  17. Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in coastal areas: lessons learned from applications in Liguria, NW Mediterranean.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovere, A.; Casella, E.; Pedroncini, A.; Mucerino, L.; Casella, M.; Cusati, L. A.; Vacchi, M.; Ferrari, M.; Firpo, M.

    2014-12-01

    In 2013 we started to apply small UAVs to the study of coastal areas in Liguria, NW Mediterranean Sea. In this region monitoring coastal evolution and the impact of sea storms is a primary administrative need, as a large part of the economic income derives from summer tourism. In two years, we accumulated almost 200 hours of flight with two different UAVs, a professional-grade Mikrokopter Okto and a consumer-grade Phantom DJI. We used photogrammetric and orthorectification techniques to obtain Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) and orthophotos of different beaches in the region. Data from UAVs allowed us to answer several questions. What is the accuracy of DEMs obtained from UAVs in low-relief areas such as beaches? What are the problems encountered in the photogrammetric procedure near the shoreline? Are the results obtained with consumer-grade UAVs comparable to those obtained with professional-grade ones? Aside from these technical questions, we used the data obtained from UAVs for different local studies aimed at giving management tools to the local administrations. We used the cloudpoint obtained from DEMs and the orthophotos to set up a runup modelling chain, to detect short-term changes in the coastal zone, and to give a first estimate of the debris deposited on the beach after a major storm. As stated by Watts et al., 2012 (Remote Sensing 4, 1671-1692) the application of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles and photogrammetry techniques in earth sciences is flourishing, and has the potential to revolutionize the study of geomorphology. Surely, UAVs opened new research perspectives for our group, which has been actively working on coastal changes in Liguria for almost 25 years.

  18. Resource Partitioning Among Planktivorous Fish Larvae and Fry in a Mediterranean Coastal Lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gisbert, E.; Cardona, L.; Castelló, F.

    1996-12-01

    Resource partioning among the planktivorous stages of eight fish species occurring in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon was studied. Five species were migratory mullets that spawned in the sea ( Liza ramada, L. aurata, L. saliens, Chelon labrosusand Mugil cephalus), while the other three species were resident and spawned in the lagoon ( Atherina boyeri, Cyprinus carpioand Gambusia holbrooki). Mullet fry exhibited similar diets, based on the consumption of zooplanktonic Crustacea such as copepods and cladocerans, although adult chironomids were also important. Gambusia holbrookiand A. boyerifed on small prey such as copepod nauplii, copepodites and rotifers, while C. carpioconsumed larger prey preferentially (cladocerans and copepods). According to the trophic overlap and niche width results, seven species pairs could be competing in the estuary, although further experimental evidence is still required.

  19. Integrated onshore-offshore investigation of a Mediterranean layered coastal aquifer.

    PubMed

    Lofi, Johanna; Pezard, Philippe; Bouchette, Frédéric; Raynal, Olivier; Sabatier, Pierre; Denchik, Nataliya; Levannier, Arnaud; Dezileau, Laurent; Certain, Raphaël

    2013-01-01

    Most of the Mediterranean coastal porous aquifers are intensively exploited. Because of climatic and anthropogenic effects, understanding the physical and geological controls on groundwater distribution and flow dynamics in such aquifers is crucial. This study presents the results of a structural investigation of a system located along the coastline of the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean). A key aspect of this study relies on an onshore-offshore integrated approach combining outcrops, seismic profiles, and borehole data analysis. This multidisciplinary approach provides constraints on pore-fluid salinity distribution and stratigraphic organization, which are crucial in assessing the modes of groundwater/seawater exchanges. Onshore, Lower Pliocene deposits dip gently seaward. They are unconformably overlain by Holocene clays in the lagoons. Offshore the Pliocene deposits either outcrop at the seabed or are buried below nonconsolidated sands infilling paleo-valleys. Beneath the lido, the groundwater salinity distribution consists of salty pore water, overlying fresher pore water. Active circulation of groundwater masses is inferred from the geophysical results. In particular, offshore outcrops and paleo-valleys may play an important role in salt water intrusion.

  20. Mesozooplankton stable isotope composition in Cyprus coastal waters and comparison with the Aegean Sea (eastern Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannides, Cecelia C. S.; Zervoudaki, Soultana; Frangoulis, Constantin; Lange, Manfred A.

    2015-03-01

    Here we use bulk and amino acid-specific stable nitrogen (N) isotope analysis (AA-CSIA) to evaluate seasonal and regional change in mesozooplankton dynamics for the first time in coastal waters of the eastern Mediterranean. Cyprus mesozooplankton δ15N values were significantly higher in late winter (2.3‰) than in summer (1.2‰), and in all cases were less than the δ15N values of mesozooplankton in the northeast Aegean Sea (NEA; 3.4‰). AA-CSIA indicates that these differences can primarily be attributed to seasonal and regional change in mesozooplankton community trophic structure, with overall trophic position increasing by 0.2-0.3 in winter as compared to summer around Cyprus, and trophic position higher in the NEA than in Cyprus by 0.3-0.6. Such differences are most likely related to the larger contribution of carnivorous mesozooplankton observed in winter around Cyprus and in the NEA. Overall, our findings indicate change in bulk mesozooplankton δ15N value in the eastern Mediterranean is primarily driven by change in community trophic position, rather than variability in δ15N value at the base of the food web.

  1. Multidisciplinary oil spill modeling to protect coastal communities and the environment of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alves, Tiago M.; Kokinou, Eleni; Zodiatis, George; Radhakrishnan, Hari; Panagiotakis, Costas; Lardner, Robin

    2016-11-01

    We present new mathematical and geological models to assist civil protection authorities in the mitigation of potential oil spill accidents in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Oil spill simulations for 19 existing offshore wells were carried out based on novel and high resolution bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, and geomorphological data. The simulations show a trend for east and northeast movement of oil spills into the Levantine Basin, affecting the coastal areas of Israel, Lebanon and Syria. Oil slicks will reach the coast in 1 to 20 days, driven by the action of the winds, currents and waves. By applying a qualitative analysis, seabed morphology is for the first time related to the direction of the oil slick expansion, as it is able to alter the movement of sea currents. Specifically, the direction of the major axis of the oil spills, in most of the cases examined, is oriented according to the prevailing azimuth of bathymetric features. This work suggests that oil spills in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea should be mitigated in the very few hours after their onset, and before wind and currents disperse them. We explain that protocols should be prioritized between neighboring countries to mitigate any oil spills.

  2. Nutrients and trace metals in the northwestern Mediterranean under coastal upwelling conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Sayed, Mohamed A.; Aminot, Alain; Kerouel, Roger

    1994-04-01

    Salinity, temperature, turbidity, nutrients and iron, manganese and copper were measured in 50 surface water samples collected from the Rhoˆne river and river plume, the Gulf of Lions and along a vertical profile in the open northwestern Mediterranean. The data obtained bring new information on the distribution of nutrients and trace metals in the northwestern Mediterranean under wind induced coastal upwelling. Persistent northwesterly winds lead to complex physical processes such as upwelling along the northwestern coast of the Gulf, local eddies and oscillating currents. These processes result in the redistribution of dissolved and particulate components, enriched in the upwelling water, throughout the water column. The effect of nutrient-enriched upwelling water on the primary production of the Gulf is expected to be of secondary importance relative to the river input. In addition to the enhanced wind transport of metal-rich continental dust, the effect of upwelling of the sub-thermocline water and particularly the nepheloid layer has been demonstrated. The behaviour of Fe, Mn and Cu in the mixed water appears to be governed by the common estuarine processes particularly the liquid-solid exchange. Great estuarine reactivity was exhibited by Cu and Mn.

  3. Multidisciplinary oil spill modeling to protect coastal communities and the environment of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Alves, Tiago M.; Kokinou, Eleni; Zodiatis, George; Radhakrishnan, Hari; Panagiotakis, Costas; Lardner, Robin

    2016-01-01

    We present new mathematical and geological models to assist civil protection authorities in the mitigation of potential oil spill accidents in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Oil spill simulations for 19 existing offshore wells were carried out based on novel and high resolution bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, and geomorphological data. The simulations show a trend for east and northeast movement of oil spills into the Levantine Basin, affecting the coastal areas of Israel, Lebanon and Syria. Oil slicks will reach the coast in 1 to 20 days, driven by the action of the winds, currents and waves. By applying a qualitative analysis, seabed morphology is for the first time related to the direction of the oil slick expansion, as it is able to alter the movement of sea currents. Specifically, the direction of the major axis of the oil spills, in most of the cases examined, is oriented according to the prevailing azimuth of bathymetric features. This work suggests that oil spills in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea should be mitigated in the very few hours after their onset, and before wind and currents disperse them. We explain that protocols should be prioritized between neighboring countries to mitigate any oil spills. PMID:27830742

  4. Holocene coastal notches in the Mediterranean region: Indicators of palaeoseismic clustering?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulton, S. J.; Stewart, I. S.

    2015-05-01

    Marine tidal notches are developed by bioerosion in the intertidal zones of rocky coasts, but a combination of sea-level change and crustal movements can result in them being raised above or submerged below the water line. For that reason, the present-day elevation of these former shorelines relative to the mean sea level has long been used to quantify relative coastal uplift and subsidence in tectonically active areas, assuming that the sea-level (eustatic) change component is known. Along the microtidal Mediterranean littoral, it is generally assumed that notches develop during relative stillstands of sea level, when tectonic and eustatic trends are in unison, and that discrete notch levels record abrupt shoreline changes caused by local seismic displacements. Recently, however, a climatic model for notch formation has been proposed, in which stable periods of Holocene climate favour enhanced erosion; in this competing model, the rate of sea-level rise is lower than the tectonic uplift rate and individual notches are not specific seismic indicators. Because marine notches are widely used as geomorphic markers of tectonic, and in some cases palaeoseismic, movements, a reappraisal of the geological significance of these strandlines is warranted. In this paper, we explore the two conflicting notch models using a database of Eastern Mediterranean palaeoshorelines. Although we conclude that the spatial and temporal distribution of the notches supports a dominantly tectonic control on notch genesis as a result of earthquake clustering, we highlight how the diachronous timing of notch development tempers their value as tectonic markers.

  5. Multidisciplinary oil spill modeling to protect coastal communities and the environment of the Eastern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Alves, Tiago M; Kokinou, Eleni; Zodiatis, George; Radhakrishnan, Hari; Panagiotakis, Costas; Lardner, Robin

    2016-11-10

    We present new mathematical and geological models to assist civil protection authorities in the mitigation of potential oil spill accidents in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. Oil spill simulations for 19 existing offshore wells were carried out based on novel and high resolution bathymetric, meteorological, oceanographic, and geomorphological data. The simulations show a trend for east and northeast movement of oil spills into the Levantine Basin, affecting the coastal areas of Israel, Lebanon and Syria. Oil slicks will reach the coast in 1 to 20 days, driven by the action of the winds, currents and waves. By applying a qualitative analysis, seabed morphology is for the first time related to the direction of the oil slick expansion, as it is able to alter the movement of sea currents. Specifically, the direction of the major axis of the oil spills, in most of the cases examined, is oriented according to the prevailing azimuth of bathymetric features. This work suggests that oil spills in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea should be mitigated in the very few hours after their onset, and before wind and currents disperse them. We explain that protocols should be prioritized between neighboring countries to mitigate any oil spills.

  6. A rapid decision-making method for the evaluation of pollution-sensitive coastal areas in the Mediterranean sea.

    PubMed

    Angelidis, Michael O; Kamizoulis, George

    2005-06-01

    Places of natural beauty and/or cultural value in the Mediterranean Sea are presenting adverse effects due to pollution. These environmental threats caused by point and nonpoint sources are mainly the reason why these areas represent "pollution-sensitive areas," where the risk of deterioration is immediate. However, the risk will decrease and eventually disappear if protective measures are applied. In the present article, a multicriteria decision-making method is proposed for the prioritization of the Mediterranean sensitive coastal areas, taking into consideration criteria of pollution risk such as impact on human health, aquatic ecosystems, and socioeconomic value of the area. Weighting factors were then attributed to the different criteria according to their regional priorities, and a total pollution risk score was calculated for every sensitive area. However, some sensitive areas are more vulnerable than others because of their natural characteristics. Therefore, the total pollution risk score was then multiplied by a vulnerability weighting factor and a Total Sensitivity Score was calculated for every sensitive area. With this method, Mediterranean sensitive areas in coastal zones can be ranked on a priority list and then categorized according to their "sensitivity," in a way that decision-makers can select the most urgent cases to direct their attention for the effective protection of the Mediterranean marine environment. The method is rapid and practicable and has already been used with existing data and information in several Mediterranean countries.

  7. Rapid inundation estimates using coastal amplification laws in the western Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailler, Audrey; Loevenbruck, Anne; Hébert, Hélène

    2014-05-01

    Numerical tsunami propagation and inundation models are well developed and have now reached an impressive level of accuracy, especially in locations such as harbors where the tsunami waves are mostly amplified. In the framework of tsunami warning under real-time operational conditions, the main obstacle for the routine use of such numerical simulations remains the slowness of the numerical computation, which is strengthened when detailed grids are required for the precise modeling of the coastline response of an individual harbor. Thus only tsunami offshore propagation modeling tools using a single sparse bathymetric computation grid are presently included within the French Tsunami Warning Center (CENALT), providing rapid estimation of tsunami warning at western Mediterranean and NE Atlantic basins scale. We present here a preliminary work that performs quick estimates of the inundation at individual harbors from these high sea forecasting tsunami simulations. The method involves an empirical correction based on theoretical amplification laws (either Green's or Synolakis laws). The main limitation is that its application to a given coastal area would require a large database of previous observations, in order to define the empirical parameters of the correction equation. As no such data (i.e., historical tide gage records of significant tsunamis) are available for the western Mediterranean and NE Atlantic basins, we use a set of synthetic mareograms, calculated for both fake events and well-known historical tsunamigenic earthquakes in the area. This synthetic dataset is obtained through accurate numerical tsunami propagation and inundation modeling by using several nested bathymetric grids of increasingly fine resolution close to the shores (down to a grid cell size of 3m in some Mediterranean harbors). Non linear shallow water tsunami modeling performed on a single 2' coarse bathymetric grid are compared to the values given by time-consuming nested grids

  8. Quantification of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Cantet, Franck; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Caro, Audrey; Le Mennec, Cécile; Monteil, Caroline; Quéméré, Catherine; Jolivet-Gougeon, Anne; Colwell, Rita R; Monfort, Patrick

    2013-10-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus and Vibrio cholerae are human pathogens. Little is known about these Vibrio spp. in the coastal lagoons of France. The purpose of this study was to investigate their incidence in water, shellfish and sediment of three French Mediterranean coastal lagoons using the most probable number-polymerase chain reaction (MPN-PCR). In summer, the total number of V. parahaemolyticus in water, sediment, mussels and clams collected from the three lagoons varied from 1 to >1.1 × 10³ MPN/l, 0.09 to 1.1 × 10³ MPN/ml, 9 to 210 MPN/g and 1.5 to 2.1 MPN/g, respectively. In winter, all samples except mussels contained V. parahaemolyticus, but at very low concentrations. Pathogenic (tdh- or trh2-positive) V. parahaemolyticus were present in water, sediment and shellfish samples collected from these lagoons. The number of V. vulnificus in water, sediment and shellfish samples ranged from 1 to 1.1 × 10³ MPN/l, 0.07 to 110 MPN/ml and 0.04 to 15 MPN/g, respectively, during summer. V. vulnificus was not detected during winter. V. cholerae was rarely detected in water and sediment during summer. In summary, results of this study highlight the finding that the three human pathogenic Vibrio spp. are present in the lagoons and constitute a potential public health hazard.

  9. Mediterranean coastal resources management: The example of the island of Corsica

    SciTech Connect

    Pasqualini, V.; Pergent-Martini, C.; Pergent, G.

    1997-06-01

    To undertake an inventory of the resources around the Mediterranean coasts necessarily involves a study of the distribution of the Posidonia oceanica meadows because of the major role they play (from ecological, economic and sedimentary points of view) in maintaining the equilibrium of the coastal environment. Paradoxically, the available data regarding the assemblages are rare, and only deal with a small part of the Corsican coastline, although the coastal areas constitute one of the major assets of the island with regard to economic development. To make good this lack, a cartographical survey has been undertaken for the whole of the Corsican coastline (about 950 km). Because of the relatively wide bathymetric range of Posidonia oceanica (0 to 40 m depth), two techniques have been used jointly : airborne remote sensing and side scan sonar. The results obtained confirm the extensiveness of these meadows with regard to the area covered (more than 60 000 ha). In addition, the maximum bathymetric range of the Posidonia oceanica meadow (lower limit) is unusually deep, with an average maximum depth of more than 35 m. Comparison of the present results with the available data on the distribution of the main meadows worldwide confirms the exceptionally wide range of this species around the Corsican coastline.

  10. The Temporal Dynamics of Coastal Phytoplankton and Bacterioplankton in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Raveh, Ofrat; David, Niv; Rilov, Gil; Rahav, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    This study considers variability in phytoplankton and heterotrophic bacterial abundances and production rates, in one of the most oligotrophic marine regions in the world–the Levantine Basin. The temporal dynamics of these planktonic groups were studied in the coastal waters of the southeastern Mediterranean Sea approximately every two weeks for a total of two years. Heterotrophic bacteria were abundant mostly during late summer and midwinter, and were positively correlated with bacterial production and with N2 fixation. Based on size fractionating, picophytoplankton was abundant during the summer, whereas nano-microphytoplankton predominated during the winter and early spring, which were also evident in the size-fractionated primary production rates. Autotrophic abundance and production correlated negatively with temperature, but did not correlate with inorganic nutrients. Furthermore, a comparison of our results with results from the open Levantine Basin demonstrates that autotrophic and heterotrophic production, as well as N2 fixation rates, are considerably higher in the coastal habitat than in the open sea, while nutrient levels or cell abundance are not different. These findings have important ecological implications for food web dynamics and for biological carbon sequestration in this understudied region. PMID:26474399

  11. Rapid inundation estimates using coastal amplification laws in the Western Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gailler, Audrey; Hébert, Hélène; Schindelé, François

    2016-04-01

    Numerical tsunami propagation and inundation models are well developed and have now reached an impressive level of accuracy, especially in locations such as harbors where the tsunami waves are mostly amplified. In the framework of tsunami warning under real-time operational conditions, the main obstacle for the routine use of such numerical simulations remains the slowness of the numerical computation, which is strengthened when detailed grids are required for the precise modeling of the coastline response of an individual harbor. Thus only tsunami offshore propagation modeling tools using a single sparse bathymetric computation grid are presently included within the French Tsunami Warning Center (CENALT), providing rapid estimation of tsunami impact at Western Mediterranean and NE Atlantic basins scale. We present here a work that performs quick estimates of the coastal impact at individual harbors from these high sea forecasting tsunami simulations. The method involves an empirical correction based on the Green's theoretical amplification law. The main limitation is that its application to a given coastal area would require a large database of previous observations, in order to define the empirical parameters of the correction equation. As no tide gage records of significant tsunamis are available for the Western Mediterranean French coasts, we use a set of points of interest distributed along these coasts, where maximum water heights are calculated for both fake events and well-known historical tsunamigenic earthquakes in the area. This synthetic dataset is obtained through accurate numerical tsunami propagation and inundation modeling by using several nested bathymetric grids of increasingly fine resolution close to the shores. Non linear shallow water tsunami modeling performed on a single 2' coarse bathymetric grid are compared to the values given by time-consuming nested grids simulations, in order to check to which extent the simple approach based on the

  12. How climate change threats water resource: the case of the Thau coastal lagoon (Mediterranean Sea, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Jeunesse, Isabelle; Sellami, Haykel; Cirelli, Claudia

    2014-05-01

    The latest reports of the intergovernmental panel on climate change explained that the Mediterranean regions are especially vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. These latest are expected to have strong impacts on the management of water resources and on regional economies. The aim of this paper is to discuss impacts of climate changes on the Thau case study in relation to the evolution of water balance, water uses and adaptation to climate change. The Thau coastal lagoon is located in the Mediterranean coast in south of France in the Languedoc-Roussillon Region. Economic activities are diverse from shellfish farming, fertilizers industries to agriculture and tourism. However, tourism and shellfish farming are of major importance for local economy. If tourism is mainly turned to the Sea coast, shellfishes grow within the lagoon and rely on water quality. Previous studies have demonstrated the link between the coastal lagoon water quality and inputs of freshwater from the catchment. Thus, changes in rainfalls, runoff and water balance would not only affect water uses but also water quality. Climate changes projections are presented following the implementation of 4 downscaled climatic models. Impacts on water balance are modelled with SWAT (Soil Water Assessment Tool) for 2041-2070 compared to the 1971-2000 reference period. The decrease of precipitations and water balance will impact discharges and thus decrease the freshwater inputs to the coastal lagoon. A study of water uses conducted in interactions with stakeholders within the Thau area has permitted to assess both current and evolution of water uses. It has revealed local water resources are depleting while water demand is increasing and is planned to continue to increase in the really near future. To prevent water scarcity events, mainly due to the climate change context, the Regional authorities have connected the catchment to the Rhône river to import water. The conclusion of this study is while

  13. DEVELOPMENT OF THE COASTAL INTENSIVE SITE NETWORK (CISNET)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have joined in partnership to establish pilot sites for the development of a network known as the Coastal Intensive Sit...

  14. Mediterranean dunes on the go: Evidence from a short term study on coastal herbaceous vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prisco, Irene; Stanisci, Angela; Acosta, Alicia T. R.

    2016-12-01

    Detailed monitoring studies on permanent sites are a promising tool for an accurate evaluation of short, medium or long term vegetation dynamics. This work aims to evaluate short-term changes in coastal dune herbaceous plant species and EU Habitats through a multi-temporal analysis using permanent vegetation transects. In particular, (I) we analyze changes in species richness of coastal habitats; (II) we identify changes in plant cover of selected focal plants; and (III) we relate the changes to selected climatic variables and erosion/accretion processes. We selected one of the Italian's peninsula best preserved coastal dune areas (ca. 50 km along the Adriatic sea) with a relatively homogeneous coastal zonation and low anthropic pressure but with different erosion/accretion processes. We explored changes in richness over time using generalized linear models (GLMs). We identified different ecological guilds: focal, ruderal and alien plant species and investigated temporal trends in these guilds' species richness. We also applied GLMs to determine how plant cover of the most important focal species have changed over time. Overall, in this study we observed that the influence of climatic variables was relatively small. However, we found remarkable different trends in response to erosion/accretion processes both at community and at species level. Thus, our results highlight the importance of coastal dynamics in preserving not only coastal vegetation zonation, but also species richness and focal species cover. Moreover, we identified the dune grasslands as the most sensitive habitat for detecting the influence of climatic variables throughout a short term monitoring survey. Information from this study provides useful insights for detecting changes in vegetation, for establishing habitat protection priorities and for improving conservation efforts for these fragile ecosystems.

  15. The San Niccolo' experimental area for studying the hydrology of coastal Mediterranean peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetto, Rudy; Barbagli, Alessio; Sabbatini, Tiziana; Silvestri, Nicola; Bonari, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    Starting from 1930, a large part of the Massaciuccoli Lake coastal area (Tuscany, Italy) has been drained for agricultural purposes by a complex network of artificial drains and pumping stations. In the drained areas, peat soils, with values of organic matter up to 50% in some cases, are largely present (Pistocchi et al., 2012). As a consequence of the human impact, environmental problems arose in the last 50 years: i. the eutrophication status of the Massaciuccoli lake caused by nutrient enrichment (N, P) in surface- and ground-water (Rossetto et al., 2010a); ii. the subsidence (2-3 m in 70 years) of the lake bordering areas due to soil compaction and mineralization (Rossetto et al., 2010b). As a potential solution to improve water quality and to decrease soil organic matter mineralization, a rewetted pilot experimental area of 15 ha with phyto-treatment functionalities has been set up. This pilot, adequately instrumented, now constitutes an open field lab to conduct research on the hydrology of coastal Mediterranean peatlands. Site investigation was performed and data on stratigraphy (from top on average: 1/2 m thick peat layer, 1/3 m organic matter-rich silt, 1/3 m stiff blue-gray clay, up to 30 m thick sand layer) and water (ground- and surface-water) quantity and quality were gathered and related to both local and regional groundwater flows. The inferred hydrological conceptual model revealed the pilot is set in a regional discharge area and the ground-water dependent nature of the agro-ecosystem, with mixing of waters with different origins. The site has been divided in three different phyto-treatment systems: a constructed wetland system, internally and externally banked in order to force water flow to a convoluted pattern where Phragmites australis L. and Thypha angustifolia L. constitute the sparse natural vegetation; a vegetation filter system based on the plantation of seven different no-food crops managed according to a periodic cutting and biomass

  16. Impact of climate change on phytoplankton dynamics in an oligotrophic Mediterranean coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goffart, A.; Legendre, L.; Hecq, J. H.

    2003-04-01

    A long-term phytoplankton study was initiated in 1979 in an oligotrophic coastal station of the Western Mediterranean, at one fixed station. The sampling station (42^o34'85N, 08^o43'60E) is situated near the coast, in the northern part of the Bay of Calvi (Western Corsica, France). Purposes of the study are to establish baseline data on phytoplankton population in relation with water masses characteristics, and to determine patterns and trends in phytoplankton populations. Observations of the development of the winter-spring phytoplankton bloom in the Bay of Calvi evidenced a drastic reduction of phytoplankton biomass and biodiversity over the last two decades. Between 1979 and 1998, the monthly averaged chlorophyll α concentrations at 1 m decreased by about 80% during February, March and April. Simultaneously, major changes to hydrodynamic conditions include warmer water, overall decrease of salinity at 10 m depth, longer periods of bright sunshine and lower wind stress. The changes in environmental conditions were large enough to reduce nutrient replenishment of the surface layer prior to the usual period of phytoplankton growth. Decreasing Si availability led to Si limitation, which caused a reduction in diatom abundance. This resulted in the disappearance of the diatom-dominated pulses and in lower phytoplankton biomass and was accompanied by a shift toward non-siliceous phytoplankton (Goffart et al., 2002). Other, associated changes in benthos assemblages are presented. Relationships between phytoplankton fluctuations and NAO index are examined. Reference Goffart A., Hecq J.H., Legendre L. (2002). Changes in the development of the winter-spring phytoplankton bloom in the Bay of Calvi (Northwestern Mediterranean) over the last two decades: a response to the changing climate? Marine Ecology Progress Series, 236: 45-60.

  17. Evolution of a Mediterranean Coastal Zone: Human Impacts on the Marine Environment of Cape Creus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloret, Josep; Riera, Victòria

    2008-12-01

    This study presents an integrated analysis of the evolution of the marine environment and the human uses in Cape Creus, a Mediterranean coastal area where intense commercial fisheries and recreational uses have coexisted over the last fifty years. The investigation synthesizes the documented impacts of human activities on the marine environment of Cap de Creus and integrates them with new data. In particular, the evolution of vulnerable, exploited species is used to evaluate the fishing impacts. The effects of area protection through the establishment of a marine reserve in the late 1990s and the potential climate change impacts are also considered. The evolution of the human uses is marked by the increasing socioeconomic importance of recreational activities (which affect species and habitats) in detriment to artisanal and red coral fisheries (which principally affect at a species level). Overall, populations of sedentary, vulnerable exploited species, hard sessile benthic invertebrates, and ecologically fragile habitats, such as seagrass meadows, the coralligenous and infralittoral algal assemblages have been the most negatively impacted by anthropogenic activities. Albeit human uses currently constitute the largest negative impact on the marine environment of Cap de Creus, climate change is emerging as a key factor that could have considerable implications for the marine environment and tourism activities. The establishment of the marine reserve appears to have had little socioeconomic impact, but there is some evidence that it had some positive biological effects on sedentary, littoral fishes. Results demonstrate that the declaration of a marine reserve alone does not guarantee the sustainability of marine resources and habitats but should be accompanied with an integrated coastal management plan.

  18. Evolution of a Mediterranean coastal zone: human impacts on the marine environment of Cape Creus.

    PubMed

    Lloret, Josep; Riera, Victòria

    2008-12-01

    This study presents an integrated analysis of the evolution of the marine environment and the human uses in Cape Creus, a Mediterranean coastal area where intense commercial fisheries and recreational uses have coexisted over the last fifty years. The investigation synthesizes the documented impacts of human activities on the marine environment of Cap de Creus and integrates them with new data. In particular, the evolution of vulnerable, exploited species is used to evaluate the fishing impacts. The effects of area protection through the establishment of a marine reserve in the late 1990s and the potential climate change impacts are also considered. The evolution of the human uses is marked by the increasing socioeconomic importance of recreational activities (which affect species and habitats) in detriment to artisanal and red coral fisheries (which principally affect at a species level). Overall, populations of sedentary, vulnerable exploited species, hard sessile benthic invertebrates, and ecologically fragile habitats, such as seagrass meadows, the coralligenous and infralittoral algal assemblages have been the most negatively impacted by anthropogenic activities. Albeit human uses currently constitute the largest negative impact on the marine environment of Cap de Creus, climate change is emerging as a key factor that could have considerable implications for the marine environment and tourism activities. The establishment of the marine reserve appears to have had little socioeconomic impact, but there is some evidence that it had some positive biological effects on sedentary, littoral fishes. Results demonstrate that the declaration of a marine reserve alone does not guarantee the sustainability of marine resources and habitats but should be accompanied with an integrated coastal management plan.

  19. Observations of ambient monoterpenes at a costal site in the East Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzitzikalaki, Evaggelia; Kalivitis, Nikolaos; Kouvarakis, Giorgos; Kanakidou, Maria; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos

    2015-04-01

    Observations of ambient monoterpenes at a costal site in the East Mediterranean Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOCs) affect the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere since they react with hydroxyl radicals, nitrate radicals and ozone, and participate in ozone formation in the presence of sufficient amounts of nitrogen oxides. Moreover, BVOC oxidation products contribute to new particle formation and growth processes. While isoprene is emitted in the largest amount among BVOCs into the atmosphere, monoterpenes are also important for atmospheric chemistry. Tree species are responsible of the most BVOC emissions to the atmosphere but little is known about the contribution of shrub and long-range transport to the ambient BVOC concentrations. In the Mediterranean region monoterpene measurements are scarce and are limited in temporal and ecosystem coverage (forested areas). The present study presents long- term measurements of monoterpenes at a remote coastal site without tree vegetation under typical phrygana vegetation of Crete island in Greece. Measurements took place (35° 20' N, 25° 40' E, 250m a.s.l) on the north east side of the island of Crete at the Finokalia monitoring station of the University of Crete (http://finokalia.chemistry.uoc.gr). Two intensive campaigns took place, one during spring (13/03-08/04/2014) and one during summer(19/06 - 04/08/2014). During each campaign diurnal cycles were measured collecting 9 samples per day(every two hours). In addition, one diurnal cycle per week has been measured since 13/10/2014. Off-line sampling took place in adsorption tubes, using stainless steel cartridges filled with Tenax TA for one hour at 200 ml/min flow rate. Samples were stored at 40C and analyzed within two days. The samples were after desorption by a Thermal Desorber were analyzed by a GC-FID system. The most abundant monoterpenes were found to be Δ3-carene and limonene.Highest concentrations were observed during autumn when a clear diurnal cycle

  20. Phthalate metabolites in the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) from Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Fourgous, C; Chevreuil, M; Alliot, F; Amilhat, E; Faliex, E; Paris-Palacios, S; Teil, M J; Goutte, A

    2016-11-01

    The levels and fate of phthalate metabolites have been poorly evaluated in fish, despite their potential ecotoxicological impacts. The present study aims to characterize the levels of phthalate metabolites in muscle tissue of yellow eels (Anguilla anguilla) from two coastal Mediterranean lagoons, during three sampling periods. Nine phthalate metabolites were detected in >70% of the samples. Slightly higher levels of phthalate metabolites were detected in March and June compared to October, suggesting possible seasonal variations in environmental release and/or phthalate metabolization process by eels. The large sample size (N=117) made it possible to explore correlations between phthalate metabolites' levels and individual parameters, such as body length, age, body condition and hepatic histo-pathologies. Body length and estimated age poorly correlated with phthalate metabolites, suggesting that eels did not accumulate phthalates during growth, contrary to persistent compounds. Eels presented different grades of hepatic fibrosis and lipidosis. A negative correlation was found between the severity of these pathologies in the liver and the sum of phthalate metabolites levels, supporting the hypothesis that eels with damaged liver are less able to metabolize xenobiotics.

  1. Human impacts on land cover and water balances in a coastal Mediterranean county.

    PubMed

    Bellot, Juan; Bonet, Andreu; Peña, Juan; Sánchez, Juan Rafael

    2007-03-01

    We analyzed the effects of changes in land cover on the water balance in Spain's Marina Baixa County, on the Mediterranean coast. To reveal how different land management strategies have affected the area's environment, four municipalities within the same catchment were studied: Benidorm, Callosa d'en Sarrià, Beniardà, and Guadalest. In the municipalities of Callosa and Benidorm, the proportion of the area covered by woodland declined by 4.2% and 30.2%, respectively, and woodland was replaced by agriculture and urban development. The abandonment of farmland produced a 17% increase in the proportion of the area covered by vegetation in Guadalest and Beniardá, where frequent forest fires have exacerbated a decrease in the area of pine woodland. Tourism development in Benidorm has been accompanied by an increase in the transportation infrastructure and by an expansion of areas with an impermeable surface, with the lowest level of infiltration into the aquifer system. These changes have generated a net water deficit in Callosa and Benidorm of more than 6 Mm(3)/year, creating a high demand for water imported from other municipalities (Guadalest and Beniardá) or from outside of the county to maintain the sustainability of the current water management strategies. The Marina Baixa case study is representative of many of the world's coastal areas that are undergoing rapid urban development based on an inappropriate understanding of human progress based mainly on economic development and thus provides insights into water management in other areas.

  2. Factors shaping bacterial phylogenetic and functional diversity in coastal waters of the NW Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boras, Julia A.; Vaqué, Dolors; Maynou, Francesc; Sà, Elisabet L.; Weinbauer, Markus G.; Sala, Maria Montserrat

    2015-03-01

    To evaluate the main factors shaping bacterioplankton phylogenetic and functional diversity in marine coastal waters, we carried out a two-year study based on a monthly sampling in Blanes Bay (NW Mediterranean). We expected the key factors driving bacterial diversity to be (1) temperature and nutrient concentration, together with chlorophyll a concentration as an indicator of phytoplankton biomass and, hence, a carbon source for bacteria (here called bottom-up factors), and (2) top-down pressure (virus- and protist-mediated mortality of bacteria). Phylogenetic diversity was analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of 16S rRNA. Functional diversity was assessed by using monomeric carbon sources in Biolog EcoPlates and by determining the activity of six extracellular enzymes. Our results indicate that the bacterial phylogenetic and functional diversity in this coastal system is shaped mainly by bottom-up factors. A dendrogram analysis of the DGGE banding patterns revealed three main sample clusters. Two clusters differed significantly in temperature, nitrate and chlorophyll a concentration, and the third was characterized by the highest losses of bacterial production due to viral lysis detected over the whole study period. Protistan grazing had no effect on bacterial functional diversity, since there were no correlations between protist-mediated mortality (PMM) and extracellular enzyme activities, and utilization of only two out of the 31 carbon sources (N-acetyl-D-glucosamine and α-cyclodextrin) was correlated with PMM. In contrast, virus-mediated mortality correlated with changes in the percentage of use of four carbon sources, and also with specific leu-aminopeptidase and β-glucosidase activity. This suggests that viral lysate provides a pool of labile carbon sources, presumably including amino acids and glucose, which may inhibit proteolytic and glucosidic activity. Our results indicate that bottom-up factors play a more important role than

  3. Modeling coastal aquifers in a Mediterranean area: the example of Taranto gulf (southern Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Filippis, Giovanna; Giudici, Mauro; Negri, Sergio; Margiotta, Stefano; Cattaneo, Laura; Vassena, Chiara

    2015-04-01

    Water resources stored in coastal aquifers are of strategic relevance for several regions throughout the world and in particular in the Mediterranean basin. They are extremely important in areas characterized by heavy urbanization, active industrial or touristic systems, where the need for fresh water is very acute and, sometimes, they are the only water resources available. This in turn can lead to the phenomenon of seawater intrusion because of aquifer overexploitation to satisfy the demand of an increasing population in coastal plains. Furthermore, karstic aquifers are well known for their specific vulnerability to natural and human-induced contamination, due to their particular characteristics such as thin soils, point recharge in dolines and swallow holes and increased hydraulic conductivity. Within this framework, the Taranto gulf is an example of paramount importance. In fact the presence of a wide industrial area close to the city of Taranto and the numerous maritime and military activities in the harbor area favored the increase of population density in the XX century. Moreover, they constitute factors of great concern for the protection of groundwater quality and quantity, in particular for the presence of the highly-vulnerable basins of Mar Piccolo and Mar Grande. In this area, groundwater resources are stored in a karst multilayered aquifer, which is very complex from the hydrostratigraphic point of view. Furthermore, the presence of highly water-demanding activities makes the seawater intrusion phenomenon very serious, especially along the coastline. In order to characterize the groundwater dynamic in the study area, we discuss the hydraulic relationships between the different hydrostratigraphic units and between the sea and the aquifer system by developing a numerical groundwater model to test and refine the preliminary conceptual model and estimate the most uncertain hydraulic parameters. To achieve these objectives, we used different data-sets to

  4. PAHs and n-alkanes in Mediterranean coastal marine sediments: aquaculture as a significant point source.

    PubMed

    Tsapakis, Manolis; Dakanali, Eva; Stephanou, Euripides G; Karakassis, Ioannis

    2010-04-01

    The occurrence of polycyclic aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons in fish feed, sediment trap material and marine sediments was examined at two fish farms in the eastern Mediterranean. The average (min-max) concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in fish feed and particulate effluents were 316 (287-351) ng g(-1) DW and 487 (475-499) ng g(-1) DW, respectively. Lower PAH levels were determined in the underlying marine sediments. In the surface sediments under the farms (0 m distance from the edge of the cages) and in the immediate vicinity, the concentration levels of n-alkanes and PAHs were significantly higher than in the surrounding sediments in both sites. PAHs and n-alkanes individual component profiles of fish feed and sinking material were similar with the corresponding profiles of the sediment samples collected in the immediate vicinity around the cages. On a daily basis, the average PAH sedimentation fluxes under the cages was 24.4 microg m(-2) d(-1), which is considerably higher compared with the observed PAH sedimentary fluxes in the open eastern Mediterranean. Our results imply that fish farming is a significant source of these persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the marine environment and therefore a likely change in the scale of production might introduce new sources of environmental risk. Further work is required in order to develop an appropriate monitoring system for the sustainable development of the aquaculture sector.

  5. Mediterranean Coastal Sand Dune Vegetation: Influence of Natural and Anthropogenic Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciccarelli, Daniela

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess the conservation status of coastal dune systems in Tuscany (Italy). Emphasis was given to the presence and abundance of plant communities identified as habitat in accordance with the Directive 92/43/EEC. Twenty transects perpendicular to the shoreline were randomly positioned on the whole coastal area (30 km in length) in order to sample the full spectrum of plant communities. Vegetation zonation and relationships with the most frequent disturbance factors in the study area—beach cleaning, coastline erosion, presence of paths and roads, bathing settlements and trampling—were investigated through principal coordinate analysis and canonical correspondence analysis. Natural factors, such as distance from the sea and total length, were also considered. Differences in the conservation status of the sites were found, ranging from the total disappearance of the foredune habitats to the presence of the complete psammophilous (sand-loving) plant communities. Erosion, trampling, and paths were found to be closely correlated with degradation and habitat loss. Furthermore, the overall plant species diversity of dunes was measured with NHDune, a modified version of the Shannon index; while the incidence of invasive taxa was calculated using N, a naturalness index. However, these diversity indices proved to be a weaker bioindicator of ecosystem integrity than habitat composition along transects. A possible strategy for the conservation and management of these coastal areas could be to protect the foredunes from erosion and limit trampling through the installation of footbridges or the use of appropriate fences.

  6. Mediterranean coastal sand dune vegetation: influence of natural and anthropogenic factors.

    PubMed

    Ciccarelli, Daniela

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the present work was to assess the conservation status of coastal dune systems in Tuscany (Italy). Emphasis was given to the presence and abundance of plant communities identified as habitat in accordance with the Directive 92/43/EEC. Twenty transects perpendicular to the shoreline were randomly positioned on the whole coastal area (30 km in length) in order to sample the full spectrum of plant communities. Vegetation zonation and relationships with the most frequent disturbance factors in the study area-beach cleaning, coastline erosion, presence of paths and roads, bathing settlements and trampling-were investigated through principal coordinate analysis and canonical correspondence analysis. Natural factors, such as distance from the sea and total length, were also considered. Differences in the conservation status of the sites were found, ranging from the total disappearance of the foredune habitats to the presence of the complete psammophilous (sand-loving) plant communities. Erosion, trampling, and paths were found to be closely correlated with degradation and habitat loss. Furthermore, the overall plant species diversity of dunes was measured with NHDune, a modified version of the Shannon index; while the incidence of invasive taxa was calculated using N, a naturalness index. However, these diversity indices proved to be a weaker bioindicator of ecosystem integrity than habitat composition along transects. A possible strategy for the conservation and management of these coastal areas could be to protect the foredunes from erosion and limit trampling through the installation of footbridges or the use of appropriate fences.

  7. Preliminary results of a four-dimensional data assimilation technique at a Mediterranean coastal area, Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avolio, E.; Federico, S.; Sempreviva, A. M.; Calidonna, C. R.; de Leo, L.; Bellecci, C.

    2010-09-01

    A four-dimensional data assimilation (FDDA) scheme based on a Newtonian relaxation (or "nudging") was tested using observational asynoptic data available at a coastal site in the Central Mediterranean peninsula of Calabria, in South Italy. Since nudging is performed toward observations, the technique is referred to as "observational data assimilation (ODA)" and it was incorporated into a tailored version of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS). This version of RAMS was run at high spatial horizontal resolution (1km), with the purpose of investigating the improvements of the model performance obtained by the assimilation. Wind profiler, sodar and surface meteorological station measurements were considered. In particular, we assimilated vertical wind profiles from the sodar and wind profiler, and wind, temperature and specific humidity from the surface meteorological station. All instruments are installed and operated routinely at the experimental field of the ISAC/CNR-CRATI located at 600 m from the Tyrrhenian coastline. A second station, located few kilometres to the NE of the experimental field, is considered as independent verification. The RAMS meteorological fields, simulated with and without data assimilation, were evaluated and compared for selected case studies in the summer 2008; several experiments were performed for each case (assimilation for the entire simulation time, and for different time windows). The results show that the assimilation of wind and/or temperature data, both throughout the simulation time (continuous FDDA) and for a 12h time window (forecasting configuration), produces improvements of the model performance. Improvements are substantial (50% error reduction) in the case of continuous FDDA, while they are reduced in the case of forecasting configuration (5% to 20% error reduction, depending on cases). The obtained meteorological fields are finalised as input into air quality and agro-meteorological models, and also for

  8. Rapid Proliferation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio cholerae during Freshwater Flash Floods in French Mediterranean Coastal Lagoons

    PubMed Central

    Esteves, Kevin; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Mosser, Thomas; Rodier, Claire; Tournoud, Marie-George; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Colwell, Rita R.

    2015-01-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio cholerae of the non-O1/non-O139 serotype are present in coastal lagoons of southern France. In these Mediterranean regions, the rivers have long low-flow periods followed by short-duration or flash floods during and after heavy intense rainstorms, particularly at the end of the summer and in autumn. These floods bring large volumes of freshwater into the lagoons, reducing their salinity. Water temperatures recorded during sampling (15 to 24°C) were favorable for the presence and multiplication of vibrios. In autumn 2011, before heavy rainfalls and flash floods, salinities ranged from 31.4 to 36.1‰ and concentrations of V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, and V. cholerae varied from 0 to 1.5 × 103 most probable number (MPN)/liter, 0.7 to 2.1 × 103 MPN/liter, and 0 to 93 MPN/liter, respectively. Following heavy rainstorms that generated severe flash flooding and heavy discharge of freshwater, salinity decreased, reaching 2.2 to 16.4‰ within 15 days, depending on the site, with a concomitant increase in Vibrio concentration to ca. 104 MPN/liter. The highest concentrations were reached with salinities between 10 and 20‰ for V. parahaemolyticus, 10 and 15‰ for V. vulnificus, and 5 and 12‰ for V. cholerae. Thus, an abrupt decrease in salinity caused by heavy rainfall and major flooding favored growth of human-pathogenic Vibrio spp. and their proliferation in the Languedocian lagoons. Based on these results, it is recommended that temperature and salinity monitoring be done to predict the presence of these Vibrio spp. in shellfish-harvesting areas of the lagoons. PMID:26319881

  9. Rapid proliferation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio cholerae during freshwater flash floods in French Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Esteves, Kevin; Hervio-Heath, Dominique; Mosser, Thomas; Rodier, Claire; Tournoud, Marie-George; Jumas-Bilak, Estelle; Colwell, Rita R; Monfort, Patrick

    2015-11-01

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus, Vibrio vulnificus, and Vibrio cholerae of the non-O1/non-O139 serotype are present in coastal lagoons of southern France. In these Mediterranean regions, the rivers have long low-flow periods followed by short-duration or flash floods during and after heavy intense rainstorms, particularly at the end of the summer and in autumn. These floods bring large volumes of freshwater into the lagoons, reducing their salinity. Water temperatures recorded during sampling (15 to 24°C) were favorable for the presence and multiplication of vibrios. In autumn 2011, before heavy rainfalls and flash floods, salinities ranged from 31.4 to 36.1‰ and concentrations of V. parahaemolyticus, V. vulnificus, and V. cholerae varied from 0 to 1.5 × 10(3) most probable number (MPN)/liter, 0.7 to 2.1 × 10(3) MPN/liter, and 0 to 93 MPN/liter, respectively. Following heavy rainstorms that generated severe flash flooding and heavy discharge of freshwater, salinity decreased, reaching 2.2 to 16.4‰ within 15 days, depending on the site, with a concomitant increase in Vibrio concentration to ca. 10(4) MPN/liter. The highest concentrations were reached with salinities between 10 and 20‰ for V. parahaemolyticus, 10 and 15‰ for V. vulnificus, and 5 and 12‰ for V. cholerae. Thus, an abrupt decrease in salinity caused by heavy rainfall and major flooding favored growth of human-pathogenic Vibrio spp. and their proliferation in the Languedocian lagoons. Based on these results, it is recommended that temperature and salinity monitoring be done to predict the presence of these Vibrio spp. in shellfish-harvesting areas of the lagoons.

  10. Observations of alkylamines at a costal site in the East Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzitzikalaki, Evaggelia; Kieloaho, Antti-Jussi; Hellén, Heidi; Hakola, Hannele; Kalivitis, Nikolaos; Kouvarakis, Giorgos; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Mihalopoulos, Nikolaos; Kanakidou, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Amines are reactive volatile base in the atmosphere and play a key role in new particle formation. Due to their height reactivity, concentration measurements are scare and mostly concentrated within short period of time. The present study provided the first long- term measurements of alkylamines in the Eastern Mediterranean. Measurements took place at a remote coastal site on the north east side of the island of Crete at the Finokalia monitoring station of the University of Crete (finokalia.chemistry.uoc.gr; 35°20΄N, 25°40΄E, 250m a.s.l.) from January 2013 to December 2015. The samples were collected in glass fiber filters impregnated with phosphoric acid that trap gas-phase amines as salt. Samples were subsequently transported to the lab where they were stored in refrigeration until the analysis that took place in a Liquid Chromatography Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer (TSQ Quantum, Thermo Finnigan). The alkylamines that were detected were ethylamine (EA), dimethylamine (DMA), trimethylamine (TMA), propylamine (PA), diethylamine (DEA) and triethylamine (TEA). DMA & EA and TMA & PA were handled as pairs as they couldn't be separated. The most abundant amines were found to be DMA & EA, whereas BA and TMA were under the detection limits. The highest concentrations for DMA & EA and DEA were observed during summer, while for TMA & PA no clear annual cycle was found. The results are analyzed together with observations of new particle formation at the Finokalia station to estimate possible links of alkylamines to the formation of atmospheric particles in the area. This work has been partially supported by the European FP7 collaborative project BACCHUS (Impact of Biogenic versus Anthropogenic emissions on Clouds and Climate: towards a Holistic UnderStanding).

  11. Ecological data in Integrated Coastal Zone Management: case study of Posidonia oceanica meadows along the Corsican coastline (Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Pergent-Martini, Christine; Pasqualini, Vanina; Ferrat, Lila; Pergent, Gérard

    2006-12-01

    Integrated Coastal Zone Management (ICZM) contributes towards maximizing the benefits provided by the coastal zone and minimizing conflicts and the harmful effects of activities upon each other. The coastal zone includes highly productive and biologically diverse ecosystems, but ecological data (including structure and processes) seem to be neglected. The purpose of this article is to present a case study of Posidonia oceanica meadows (seagrass beds) along the Corsican coastline (Mediterranean Sea) in order to exemplify the usefulness of ecological data to Integrated Costal Management programs. We will try to determine how the use of organisms could be enhanced. These investigations show the undoubted success of the Corsican Posidonia oceanica protection program, with a detailed description of the ICZM that precisely presents each component (e.g., mapping, assessment of water quality, implementation of a system to aid decision-making concerning the installation of new aquaculture units). This experience on the Corsican coasts could be used as an example in order to transfer to other locations in the Mediterranean Sea and/or to other target species.

  12. MBAS (Methylene Blue Active Substances) and LAS (Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonates) in Mediterranean coastal aerosols: Sources and transport processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becagli, S.; Ghedini, C.; Peeters, S.; Rottiers, A.; Traversi, R.; Udisti, R.; Chiari, M.; Jalba, A.; Despiau, S.; Dayan, U.; Temara, A.

    2011-12-01

    Methylene Blue Active Substances (MBAS) and Linear Alkylbenzene Sulphonates (LAS) concentrations, together with organic carbon and ions were measured in atmospheric coastal aerosols in the NW Mediterranean Basin. Previous studies have suggested that the presence of surfactants in coastal aerosols may result in vegetation damage without specifically detecting or quantifying these surfactants. Coastal aerosols were collected at a remote site (Porquerolles Island-Var, France) and at a more anthropised site (San Rossore National Park-Tuscany, Italy). The chemical data were interpreted according to a comprehensive local meteorological analysis aiming to decipher the airborne source and transport processes of these classes of compounds. The LAS concentration (anthropogenic surfactants) was measured in the samples using LC-MS/MS, a specific analytical method. The values were compared with the MBAS concentration, determined by a non-specific analytical method. At Porquerolles, the MBAS concentration (103 ± 93 ng m -3) in the summer samples was significantly higher than in the winter samples. In contrast, LAS concentrations were rarely greater than in the blank filters. At San Rossore, the mean annual MBAS concentration (887 ± 473 ng m -3 in PM10) contributed about 10% to the total atmospheric particulate organic matter. LAS mean concentration in these same aerosol samples was 11.5 ± 10.5 ng m -3. A similar MBAS (529 ± 454 ng m -3) - LAS (7.1 ± 4.1 ng m -3 LAS) ratio of ˜75 was measured in the fine (PM2.5) aerosol fraction. No linear correlation was found between MBAS and LAS concentrations. At San Rossore site the variation of LAS concentrations was studied on a daily basis over a year. The LAS concentrations in the coarse fraction (PM10-2.5) were higher during strong sea storm conditions, characterized by strong air flow coming from the sea sector. These events, occurring with more intensity in winter, promoted the formation of primary marine aerosols containing LAS

  13. Back-trajectory analysis of African dust outbreaks at a coastal city in southern Spain: Selection of starting heights and assessment of African and concurrent Mediterranean contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabello, M.; Orza, J. A. G.; Dueñas, C.; Liger, E.; Gordo, E.; Cañete, S.

    2016-09-01

    The present study uses a back-trajectory analysis at multiple heights for better interpretation of the impact of the African dust outbreaks in the coastal Mediterranean city of Málaga (Spain), the southernmost large city in Europe. Throughout a 3-year period, 363 days were identified as dusty days by atmospheric transport models. During these events, PM10, SO2, O3, temperature, AOD and Ångström exponent showed statistically significant differences compared to days with no African dust. It was found that under African dust events, the study site was influenced by Mediterranean air masses at the lowermost heights and by Atlantic advections at high altitudes, while African air masses mostly reached Málaga at intermediate levels. Specifically, the lowest heights at which air masses reached the study site after having resided over Africa are confined into the 1000-2000 m range. The decoupling between the lowest heights and the ones for dust transport may explain the presence of aged air masses at the time of the African outbreak. Additionally, with the aim of studying the influence of the air mass origin and history on air quality, a new procedure based on Principal component analysis (PCA) is proposed to determine which altitudes are best suited as starting points for back-trajectory calculations, as they maximize the differences in residence time over different areas. Its application to Málaga identifies three altitudes (750, 2250 and 4500 m) and a subsequent analysis of back-trajectories for African dust days provided the main source areas over Africa as well as further insight on the Mediterranean contribution.

  14. Quantification of water, salt and nutrient exchange processes at the mouth of a Mediterranean coastal lagoon.

    PubMed

    Sylaios, Georgios K; Tsihrintzis, Vassilios A; Akratos, Christos; Haralambidou, Kiriaki

    2006-08-01

    Vassova lagoon is a typical Mediterranean (small, shallow, micro-tidal, well-mixed) coastal lagoon, receiving limited seasonal freshwater inflows from direct precipitation and underground seepage. An intensive study was carried out in order to quantify the mechanisms responsible for the intra-tidal and residual transport of water, salt, nutrients and chlorophyll at the mouth of this lagoon and to assess the lagoon's flushing behavior. Results indicated that although the system is micro-tidal, tidal effects appeared to be the dominant factor for the longitudinal distribution of physical and chemical parameters, while the associated residual flow is also important and serves as a baseline measure of overall circulation. However, analysis of the net longitudinal currents and fluxes of water, salt and nutrients revealed the importance of non-tidal effects (wind effect and precipitation incidents) in the mean tidal transport. It is shown that the Eulerian residual currents transported water and its properties inwards under southern winds, while a seaward transport was induced during precipitation incidents and northern winds. The Stokes drift effect was found an order of magnitude lower than the Eulerian current, directed towards the lagoon, proving the partially-progressive nature of the tide. Nutrients and chlorophyll-alpha loads are exported from the lagoon to the open sea during the ebb phase of the autumn and winter tidal cycles, associated with the inflow of nutrient-rich freshwater, seeped through the surrounding drainage canal. The reverse transport occurs in spring and early summer, when nutrients enter the lagoon during the flood tidal phase, from the nutrient-rich upper layer of the stratified adjacent sea. Application of a tidal prism model shows that Vassova lagoon has a mean flushing time of 7.5 days, ranging between 4 to 18 days, affected inversely by the tidal oscillation.

  15. Lead sources and transfer in the coastal Mediterranean: evidence from stable lead isotopes in marine particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alleman, L. Y.; Hamelin, B.; Véron, A. J.; Miquel, J.-C.; Heussner, S.

    Time series of settling and suspended particles have been collected by sediment traps and in situ pumps respectively, under contrasted hydrographic conditions in the Gulf of Lions and the Ligurian Sea, northwestern Mediterranean. Lead concentrations measured in sediment trap samples vary from 41±7 ppm in the Ligurian Sea to 58±10 ppm in the Gulf of Lions. These concentrations, 2-10 times lower than those measured previously in the Gulf of Lions, reflect the reduction of lead fallout from gasoline during the last decade. While atmospheric lead still originates mainly from anthropogenic emissions (automotive and industrial exhausts), stable lead isotopes demonstrate that anthropogenic and lithogenic lead are in similar proportions in the marine particles from the northwestern Mediterranean. Sequential extraction analyses performed on trap samples suggest that the isotopic variations can be explained by a three-component mixing between anthropogenic, natural soluble, and natural refractory sources. In the suspended particulate matter from the Gulf of Lions, lead concentrations range from 0.2 to 30 ng/ l, with isotopic compositions comparable to those of the settling particles ( 206Pb/ 207Pb from 1.165 to 1.178). This indicates a common origin in these two types of particles, probably mainly controlled by the Rhône River discharge and by resuspension processes on the continental shelf. By contrast, lead concentrations are lower in the suspended matter samples from the Ligurian Sea (0.5 to 1.7 ng/ l). In this case, the isotopic signature (1.165±0.002) is in equilibrium with the dissolved fraction, as previously found in other oligotrophic sites in the open ocean, where the suspended particles are mainly of biological origin and lead essentially authigenic in these particles.

  16. Hydrocarbon pollution in the sediment from the Jarzouna-Bizerte coastal area of Tunisia (Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Zrafi-Nouira, I; Khedir-Ghenim, Z; Zrafi, F; Bahri, R; Cheraeif, I; Rouabhia, M; Saidane-Mosbahi, D

    2008-06-01

    This study investigated the presence and origin of hydrocarbon pollution in industrial waste water sediments found near the Jarzouna (Bizerte, Tunisia) oil refinery. Analyses of surface sediments (layer 1) and deep sediments (layer 2) showed that Total Hydrocarbon (TH) concentrations ranged from 602 +/- 7.638 microg/g in layer-1 to 1270 +/- 2.176 microg/g in layer-2. The results suggest that the deeper the sediment, the higher the level of total hydrocarbon found. The sedimentary Non Aromatic Hydrocarbon (NAH) and Aromatic Hydrocarbon (AH) concentrations ranged from 66.22 +/- 1.516 to 211.82 +/- 10.670 microg/g for NAH, and from 13.84 +/- 0.180 to 115.60 +/- 2.479 microg/g for AH. The high variability of these concentrations was associated with the location of the sediment collection sites. Aliphatic biomarker analysis revealed petroleum contamination close to the refinery rejection site, and biogenic sources further away. Petroleum contamination may be associated with increased industrial activity in the area of Jarzouna-Bizerte in the Mediterranean Sea.

  17. Innovation Technologies and Applications for Coastal Archaeological sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Iorio, A.; Biliouris, D.; Guzinski, R.; Hansen, L. B.; Bagni, M.

    2015-04-01

    Innovation Technologies and Applications for Coastal Archaeological sites project (ITACA) aims to develop and test a management system for underwater archaeological sites in coastal regions. The discovering and monitoring service will use innovative satellite remote sensing techniques combined with image processing algorithms. The project will develop a set of applications integrated in a system pursuing the following objectives: - Search and location of ancient ship wrecks; - Monitoring of ship wrecks, ruins and historical artefacts that are now submerged; - Integration of resulting search and monitoring data with on-site data into a management tool for underwater sites; - Demonstration of the system's suitability for a service. High resolution synthetic aperture radar (TerraSAR-X, Cosmo-SkyMed) and multispectral satellite data (WorldView) will be combined to derive the relative bathymetry of the bottom of the sea up to the depth of 50 meters. The resulting data fusion will be processed using shape detection algorithms specific for archaeological items. The new algorithms, the physical modelling and the computational capabilities will be integrated into the Web-GIS, together with data recorded from surface (2D and 3D modelling) and from underwater surveys. Additional specific archaeological layers will be included into the WebGIS to facilitate the object identification through shape detection techniques and mapping. The system will be verified and validated through an extensive onground (sea) campaign carried out with both cutting edge technologies (side-scan sonar, multi beam echo sounder) and traditional means (professional scuba divers) in two test sites in Italy and Greece. The project is leaded by Planetek Hellas E.P.E. and include ALMA Sistemi sas for the "shape detection" and dissemination tasks, DHI-GRAS and Kell Srl for multispectral and SAR bathymetry. The complete consortium is composed by eleven partners and the project Kick-Off has been held in

  18. Remote sensing /Nimbus-7 CZCS/ analysis of phytoplankton distribution in coastal waters of the Gulf of Lions /northwestern Mediterranean/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caraux, D.; Austin, R. W.

    1982-01-01

    The distribution of phytoplankton in the northwestern Mediterranean was studied using the experimental satellite Nimbus 7, which is equipped with a coastal zone color scanner (CZCS). The most characteristic boundaries of this biomass and its variations throughout the year of 1979 were also investigated by treating the CZCS data, collected through different channels with defined wavelengths, with a computer. Using specially adapted algorithms, characteristic features such as mesoscale cyclonic eddy, out-flow of freshwater from the Rhone river, and coastal upwelling were revealed. It is confirmed that the biomass of phytoplankton is a good indicator for the mesoscale distribution of water masses, and that the remote sensing in the visible spectrum can permit the study of frontal boundaries in the sea.

  19. Atmospheric near-surface nitrate at coastal Antarctic sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenbach, D.; Legrand, M.; Fischer, H.; Pichlmayer, F.; Wolff, E. W.

    1998-05-01

    Records of atmospheric nitrate were obtained by year-round aerosol sampling at Neumayer and Dumont D'Urville stations, located in the Atlantic and Pacific sector of coastal Antarctica, respectively. Where possible, evaluation of the nitrate records is mainly based on concurrently measured radioisotopes (10Be, 7Be, 210Pb) as well as δ15N in nitrate nitrogen. Observations made at these (and two other coastal Antarctic sites [Savoie et al., 1993]) reveal a uniform nitrate background near 10 ng m-3 persisting throughout coastal Antarctica between approximately April and June. The dominant seasonal nitrate maximum, which occurred between spring and midsummer and ranged from 20 to 70 ng m-3, tended to increase with latitude. An estimate based on Neumayer mineral dust concentrations suggests that an average of less than 5% of the observed atmospheric nitrate load may be associated with continental tropospheric sources, while a separate estimate based on 210Pb records implies a much higher proportion of up to 60%. Stratospheric nitrate influx rates seen at coastal sites, deduced from Neumayer 10Be/7Be records for stratospheric air mass intrusions and from tritium for the sedimentation of polar stratospheric clouds (PSC), exceed the theoretical stratospheric odd nitrogen production rate from N2O oxidation by almost a factor of 5 and are found to be in close agreement with the observed surface nitrate flux, implying again that the continental source contribution is relatively unimportant. Consideration of nitrate reemission from near-surface snow layers reveals a minor effect of this flux on the global Antarctic troposphere but possibly a substantial influence on the nitrate load of a persistent surface inversion layer. Evaluation of the mean seasonal nitrate pattern, based on concurrent 10Be, 210Pb, and δ15N records at Neumayer and on tritium in precipitation at Halley, suggests that the period of significant enhancement above the background mainly reflects inputs of

  20. Defining a conceptual model for the coastal aquifers of Mediterranean islands, an example from Corsica (France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santoni, Sebastien; Garel, Emilie; Huneau, Frederic

    2016-04-01

    A hydrochemical and isotope study was conducted to identify the flow paths, the recharge areas and the geochemical processes governing the evolution of groundwater in a Mediterranean carbonate coastal aquifer. The study is expected to improve the hydrogeological conceptual model based on environmental tracer investigations tools to characterise and quantify the aquifer system of Bonifacio. The groundwater resource represents the unique drinking water resource of the southern Corsica and the region faces a high pressures over the groundwater resource during the touristic period (2,000,000 tourists per year). A well-documented description of the geology and structure of this basin was the starting point for a detailed hydrogeochemical and isotopic study at the aquifer scale. A hydrochemical (physico-chemical parameters, major ions) and isotope (δ2H, δ18O, 3H) survey of rainwater and groundwater has been carried out monthly during almost two years. A local meteoric water line has been defined and marine, terrestrial and anthropogenic influences on the recharge water hydrochemistry have been described. Preferential recharge during autumn/winter of rainfall is observed and a depletion in the isotopic signature for some groundwater samples suggests a recharge in higher altitude from the surrounding granites. A modification of the input signal during infiltration through the unsaturated zone appears and the groundwater hydrochemistry displays differential variations in time and space, with the presence of inertial water bodies in the lower aquifer mainly. In this context, CFCs (CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113) and SF6 were used to evaluate groundwater residence time. CFCs have been relevant despite the presence of a deep unsaturated zone and the computed rate of groundwater renewal is pluriannual to multi-decadal. Natural SF6 was found in granites and has been used as a direct tracer of groundwater origin, highlighting its role in the aquifer lateral recharge. Strontium

  1. Hydrodynamic modelling of coastal seas: the role of tidal dynamics in the Messina Strait, Western Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cucco, Andrea; Quattrocchi, Giovanni; Olita, Antonio; Fazioli, Leopoldo; Ribotti, Alberto; Sinerchia, Matteo; Tedesco, Costanza; Sorgente, Roberto

    2016-07-01

    This work explores the importance of considering tidal dynamics when modelling the general circulation in the Messina Strait, a narrow passage connecting the Tyrrhenian and the Ionian subbasins in the Western Mediterranean Sea. The tides and the induced water circulation in this Strait are among the most intense oceanographic processes in the Mediterranean Sea. The quantification of these effects can be particularly relevant for operational oceanographic systems aimed to provide short-term predictions of the main hydrodynamics in the Western Mediterranean subbasins. A numerical approach based on the use of a high-resolution hydrodynamic model was followed to reproduce the tides propagation and the wind-induced and thermohaline water circulation within the Strait and in surrounding areas. A set of numerical simulations was carried out to quantify the role of the Strait dynamics on the larger-scale water circulation. The obtained results confirmed the importance of a correct representation of the hydrodynamics in the Messina Strait even when focusing on predicting the water circulation in the external sea traits. In fact, model results show that tidal dynamics deeply impact the reproduction of the instantaneous and residual circulation pattern, waters thermohaline properties and transport dynamics both inside the Messina Strait and in the surrounding coastal and open waters.

  2. Changes in soils and vegetation in a Mediterranean coastal salt marsh impacted by human activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Álvarez-Rogel, J.; Jiménez-Cárceles, F. J.; Roca, M. J.; Ortiz, R.

    2007-07-01

    This paper reports changes in vegetation distribution and species cover in relation to soil factors and hydrology in a semiarid Mediterranean salt marsh adjacent to the Mar Menor saline lagoon. Species cover, soil salinity, and the groundwater level were monitored between 1991 and 1993 and between 2002 and 2004, and total organic carbon, total nitrogen, total phosphorus, nitrates, ammonium and exchangeable phosphorus were measured in the soils in both study periods. In addition, three soil profiles were described in August 1992 and August 2004. The results indicate an elevation of the water table throughout the 13-year period, which was attributable to water flowing from areas with intensive agriculture. Flooding increased and soil salinity dropped in the most saline sites and increased in the least saline ones. The morphology of the soil profiles reflected the increase in flooding periods, due to the appearance of a greyer matrix in the deeper horizons and a more diffuse pattern of Fe mottles. Following these environmental changes, Sarcocornia fruticosa, Phragmites australis and Juncus maritimus strongly expanded at the wettest sites, which led to the disappearance of the original zonation pattern. The cover of Limonium delicatulum, in turn, decreased with the increase in moisture but increased following the increase in salinity. Changes in soil nutrients were only very evident in the sandy soils of the beach, probably due to the influence of organic debris deposited on the shoreline by the storms and due to the strong increase in the colonisation of this habitat by perennial species. According to the results obtained, control measures are needed in order to preserve habitat diversity in this and other salt marshes of this area. Monitoring of the vegetation distribution could be a useful tool to identify environmental impacts, in order to implement remedial actions.

  3. Limestone biopitting in coastal settings: A spatial, morphometric, SEM and molecular microbiology sequencing study in the Mallorca rocky coast (Balearic Islands, Western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomar, F.; Gómez-Pujol, L.; Fornós, J. J.; Del Valle, L.; Nogales, B.

    2017-01-01

    Biological agency on rock coasts has been widely recognised over recent decades. This study deals with the distribution and morphometric characteristics of microforms features developed by cyanobacteria (Rivularia sp.) on coastal limestone outcrops. These coastal microforms, known as biopits, have a small rounded basin shape a few millimetres in size. Environmental and geological data were collected from 100 random rock surface spots from Punta des Faralló cape (Mallorca, Western Mediterranean), from which major controls on the spatial distribution of biopits were established. Additionally, morphological data on 382 biopits determined the diagnostic morphometry of these features and their enlargement mechanisms. The results indicated that biopits exhibit a preferential location in shaded exposures and sheltered areas from prevailing winds and waves, avoiding direct insolation and desiccation. Other major controls on these microforms location and development were variables such as the rock surface slope and the distance to the coast (i.e. influence of splash and spray). Shadow spots displayed higher biopits density than other locations according to the patterns determined by environmental and geomorphological factors at the study site. Morphometric analyses showed that biopits have a width twice their depth. The average width of the microforms was 6.49 ± 2.40 mm and the average depth 2.46 ± 1.09 mm. Most frequently, the width/depth ratio was 2 or larger. This characteristic shape ratio was an additional factor that plays a role in maintaining the necessary humidity for microorganisms associated with biopits.

  4. The east-west-north colonization history of the Mediterranean and Europe by the coastal plant Carex extensa (Cyperaceae).

    PubMed

    Escudero, M; Vargas, P; Arens, P; Ouborg, N J; Luceño, M

    2010-01-01

    Coastal plants are ideal models for studying the colonization routes of species because of the simple linear distributions of these species. Carex extensa occurs mainly in salt marshes along the Mediterranean and European coasts. Variation in cpDNA sequences, amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) and simple sequence repeats (SSRs) of 24 populations were analysed to reconstruct its colonization history. Phylogenetic relationships indicate that C. extensa together with the South American Carex vixdentata and the southern African Carex ecklonii form a monophyletic group of halophilic species. Analyses of divergence times suggest that early lineage diversification may have occurred between the late Miocene and the late Pliocene (Messinian crisis). Phylogenetic and network analyses of cpDNA variation revealed the monophyly of the species and an ancestral haplotype contained in populations of the eastern Mediterranean. The AFLP and SSR analyses support a pattern of variation compatible with these two lineages. These analyses also show higher levels of genetic diversity and differentiation in the eastern population group, which underwent an east-to-west Mediterranean colonization. Quaternary climatic oscillations appear to have been responsible for the split between these two lineages. Secondary contacts may have taken place in areas near the Ligurian Sea in agreement with the gene flow detected in Corsican populations. The AFLP and SSR data accord with the 'tabula rasa' hypothesis in which a recent and rapid colonization of northern Europe took place from the western Mediterranean after the Last Glacial Maximum. The unbalanced west-east vs. west-north colonization may be as a result of 'high density blocking' effect.

  5. Alkylphenols and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in eastern Mediterranean Spanish coastal marine bivalves.

    PubMed

    Bouzas, Alberto; Aguado, Daniel; Martí, Nuria; Pastor, José Manuel; Herráez, Rosa; Campins, Pilar; Seco, Aurora

    2011-05-01

    This paper reports the first results on alkylphenol pollution in edible bivalves from the Spanish coast. Two sampling campaigns (July 2006 and July 2007) were carried out to determine the concentration of nonylphenol (NP), octylphenol (OP), and eight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in wild mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialys) and clams (Donax trunculus) at 14 sampling sites along the eastern Mediterranean Spanish coast. The results show that NP is the predominant alkylphenol, being the port of Valencia the most polluted area (up to 147 μg/kg wet weight in clams). Moving away from the ports the concentration of NP in bivalves decreased. OP concentration was below its detection limit in most of the studied areas and its maximum concentration (6 μg/kg w/w) was measured in clams from the port of Sagunto. The presence of low levels of PAHs was observed in most of the studied areas. The total PAHs concentration (i.e., sum of the eight measured PAHs) achieved a maximum value of 10.09 μg/kg w/w in the north coast of Valencia city. The distribution pattern of the individual PAHs showed that both pollution sources petrogenic and pyrolytic were present in the sampled areas. Fluoranthene was the most abundant PAH in mussels while benzo(b)fluoranthene in clams. The maximum concentration of 10 μg/kg w/w for benzo(a)pyrene established by the European Commission was never reached, indeed sampled bivalves showed concentrations 10 times lower than this reference value. Thus, they can be considered safe for human consumption. Despite the low contamination levels, the results show an overall pollution of bivalves by alkylphenol and PAHs as well as an increment in the number of polluted areas from 2006 to 2007. Thus, periodical sampling campaigns should be carried out to monitor the long-term tendency of these toxic and persistent pollutants.

  6. Seismic evidence for the preservation of several stacked Pleistocene coastal barrier/lagoon systems on the Gulf of Valencia continental shelf (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Albarracín, Silvia; Alcántara-Carrió, Javier; Barranco, Andrés; Sánchez García, María José; Fontán Bouzas, Ángela; Rey Salgado, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    The focus of this study is the analysis of coastal sand barriers and associated coastal lagoons on the inner continental shelf of the Gulf of Valencia (western Mediterranean), based on two W-E seismic profiles recorded seaward of the Albufera de Valencia coastal lagoon. Seismic facies identified include a number of coastal sand barriers with landward lagoons draped by contemporary continental shelf deposits. The barrier systems have been grouped into two sedimentary systems tracts, the older one corresponding to a prograding/aggrading highstand systems tract involving at least four paleo-coastal sand barrier/lagoon systems, followed landward by a transgressive systems tract comprising three such systems. All the systems have been allocated a Tyrrhenian age, the formation of individual barrier systems having been associated with successive sea-level stillstands, and their present-day position being explained by the very high regional subsidence rate. In summary, this study demonstrates that the Quaternary stratigraphic record of the Gulf of Valencia inner continental shelf is composed of littoral sand facies, in particular coastal sand barrier and lagoon deposits. These findings are in agreement with corresponding observations on other continental shelves of the western Mediterranean, showing that the formation of coastal sand barriers was a characteristic feature of this region during the Quaternary.

  7. Water quality assessment of Lebanese coastal rivers during dry season and pollution load into the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Houri, Ahmad; El Jeblawi, Saadieh W

    2007-12-01

    The chemical and microbiological properties of Lebanese perennial coastal rivers were studied during the dry season extending from July to September 2004. The results indicate significant levels of pollution in all eight rivers. Although many physical and chemical variables were within WHO guidelines for drinking water, coliform levels were unacceptably high indicating pollution from untreated sewage. The most polluted rivers in most categories were the Abu Ali and Antelias. With the exception of bacterial and phosphate loadings, Awali River provides the highest amount of pollution to the Mediterranean mainly due to its high water flow, although it is one of the least polluted rivers. The urgent need for controlling wastewater dumping into river streams is emphasized. The data obtained should serve as a reference point to assess the efficiency of planned wastewater treatment plants.

  8. Water flux management and phytoplankton communities in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon. Part II: Mixotrophy of dinoflagellates as an adaptive strategy?

    PubMed

    Cecchi, P; Garrido, M; Collos, Y; Pasqualini, V

    2016-07-15

    Dinoflagellate proliferation is common in coastal waters, and trophic strategies are often advanced to explain the success of these organisms. The Biguglia lagoon is a Mediterranean brackish ecosystem where eutrophication has long been an issue, and where dominance of dinoflagellates has persisted for several years. Monthly monitoring of fluorescence-based properties of phytoplankton communities carried out in 2010 suggested that photosynthesis alone could not support the observed situation all year round. Contrasting food webs developed depending on the hydrological season, with a gradual shift from autotrophy to heterotrophy. Progressively, microphytoplankton assemblages became unequivocally dominated by a Prorocentrum minimum bloom, which exhibited very weak effective photosynthetic performance, whereas paradoxically its theoretical capacities remained fully operational. Different environmental hypotheses explaining this discrepancy were examined, but rejected. We conclude that P. minimum bloom persistence is sustained by mixotrophic strategies, with complex compromises between phototrophy and phagotrophy, as evidenced by fluorescence-based observations.

  9. A compositional analysis approach to phytoplankton composition in coastal Mediterranean wetlands: Influence of salinity and nutrient availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Flores, Rocío; Quintana, Xavier D.; Romaní, Anna M.; Bañeras, Lluís; Ruiz-Rueda, Olaya; Compte, Jordi; Green, Andy J.; Egozcue, Juan J.

    2014-01-01

    Mediterranean wetland communities are strongly constrained by hydrological perturbations and the water flow regime. Salinity and nutrient availability have often been considered the most important variables determining changes in the phytoplankton community of coastal wetlands. Ratios between the main environmental variables often have more relevance than the absolute values of each variable; however, in most cases ratios are not suitable for use in multivariate models commonly used by limnologists. The main objective of the present work was to identify the main variables or variable ratios that are the driving forces of the major phytoplankton taxonomic groups in Mediterranean coastal wetlands, using compositional data analysis techniques (CoDa). With this aim, eleven shallow wetlands (6 in Empordà, 5 in Doñana, NE and SW of Spain respectively) were sampled in winter and spring 2007. Two approaches were used: the first one using raw data and the second one using CoDa techniques to transform data. Our results show that differences in hydrological patterns led to three main community assemblages, ranging from communities dominated by typical marine taxa (diatoms and dinoflagellates) when the marine influence was high, to communities dominated by cyanobacteria during confinement and when inorganic nitrogen was scarce. In freshwaters with a high turnover rate, the community was dominated by opportunistic chlorophytes and cryptophytes that need inorganic nitrogen availability. When the raw data and CoDa approaches were compared, the CoDa approach permitted a better ecological interpretation of the phytoplankton community and the main ecological processes. Salinity was the main environmental determinant with both approaches, while the second CoDa RDA axis was related with the balance between the peptidase and phosphatase enzyme activities, confirming the relevance of nutrient retrieval processes in determining phytoplankton composition. We recommend the use of Co

  10. Anthropogenic versus mineral aerosols in the stimulation of microbial planktonic communities in coastal waters of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Marín, I; Nunes, S; Sánchez-Pérez, E D; Aparicio, F L; Estrada, M; Marrasé, C; Moreno, T; Wagener, T; Querol, X; Peters, F

    2017-01-01

    The atmosphere of the northwestern (NW) Mediterranean Sea is affected by continuous inputs of anthropogenic aerosols and episodic Saharan dust events. These atmospheric inputs deliver to the surface waters high amounts of macronutrients and trace metals that can constitute their main source at certain times of the year. The effect of both anthropogenic and crustal particles over the autotrophic and heterotrophic planktonic community assembles was evaluated through three microcosm experiments carried out in the summer of 2013 and in the winter and spring of 2014 at an urban coastal location of the NW Mediterranean (Barcelona, Spain). Particles were added to seawater at a concentration of 0.8mgl(-1). The results showed that (i) a greater stimulation of the whole community was observed in summer and spring than in winter; (ii) both kinds of aerosols produced an increase in the growth of phytoplankton, although the stimulation of nanoeukaryotes was significantly larger with anthropogenic aerosols; and (iii) bacterial abundance increased more with mineral dust, whereas bacterial production was more stimulated with anthropogenic inputs. Overall, the effect of atmospheric particles was dependent on their composition and solubility in seawater, as well as on the initial biogeochemical conditions present in the seawater and had the potential to change the net metabolic balance of the microbial planktonic community.

  11. Using remote sensing data for exploitation of integrated renewable energy at coastal site in South Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calaudi, Rosamaria; Lo Feudo, Teresa; Calidonna, Claudia Roberta; Sempreviva, Anna Maria

    2016-04-01

    estimation we used Synthetic-Aperture-Radar (SAR) images from March 2002 to April 2012 for a total of 3269 ENVISAT-ASAR scenes acquired in Wide-Swath-Mode (WSM). Wind speed in the Mediterranean is retrieved using the Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU-APL) software APL-NOAA-SAR Wind Retrieval System. The ASAR is a C-band VV and HH instrument with a 405 km swath with 150 m and 1 km resolution in wide-swath mode. With a 35-day repeat orbit the revisit frequency will give daily coverage near the poles and weekly at the equator. We performed statistical analyses for wind parameters. The SAR-based wind results at the location test near Vibo Valentia show that the average of wind speed is U= 5.63 ms-1, the Weibull parameters are A=6.3 ms-1 and k=1.70. The power density of the wind is E=245 Wm-2.The high spatial resolution of the gridded SAR data is particularly relevant to study coastal sites, where most part of human activities is located. In order to create a zero emissions' harbor area, remote sensing satellite data, can be used for smart grid which employed renewable energies.

  12. Occurrence of priority pollutants in WWTP effluents and Mediterranean coastal waters of Spain.

    PubMed

    Martí, N; Aguado, D; Segovia-Martínez, L; Bouzas, A; Seco, A

    2011-03-01

    A comprehensive study aimed at evaluating the occurrence, significance of concentrations and spatial distribution of priority pollutants (PPs) along the Comunidad Valenciana coastal waters (Spain) was carried out in order to fulfil the European Water Framework Directive (WFD). Additionally, PP concentrations were also analysed in the effluent of 28 WWTPs distributed along the studied area. In coastal waters 36 organic pollutants of the 71 analysed, including 26 PPs were detected although many of them with low frequency of occurrence. Only 13 compounds, which belong to four different classes (VOCs, organochlorinated pesticides, phthalates and tributyltin compounds (TBT)) showed a frequency of occurrence above 20% in coastal waters. In the results obtained until now, octylphenol, pentachlorobenzene, DEHP and TBT exceeded the annual average concentration (EQS-AAC), and only TBT surpassed the maximum allowable concentration (EQS-MAC). The most frequent contaminants determined in coastal waters were also present in WWTP effluents.

  13. Influence of Different Environmental Variables on Energy and Carbon Fluxes in a Mediterranean Maquis Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellucco, V.; Marras, S.; Sirca, C.; Duce, P.; Spano, D.

    2015-12-01

    Recent studies show that, in the Mediterranean area, global climate changes are likely causing an increase in frequency and intensity of drought periods as well as in the number of warmer days and nights. Mediterranean maquis (schlerophyll species) is a typical evergreen ecosystem consisting of short shrubs with leathery leaves sparsely distributed. It is adapted to live in a semi-arid climate as that of Mediterranean coasts and can survive to these environmental stress condition, being able to recover after autumn rainfall. However, increased environmental stress condition may determine changes in vegetation behavior in the long period. The aim of this study is to show the seasonal variability of sensible and latent heat, and CO2 exchanges measured, with the Eddy Covariance (EC) technique, over a Mediterranean Maquis site. It is located, about 600 m far from the sea, in the Capo Caccia peninsula (municipal district of Alghero (SS), Italy) within a natural reserve called "Le Prigionette", also known as Arca di Noé, in the North-West Sardinia coast (40.61° N, 8.15° E, 74 m asl). Due to this proximity of the EC tower to the sea, the ecosystem vertical exchanges and their footprint may be differently affected by sea and land breeze during days and nights, respectively. A four-component net radiometer, a quantum sensor, and a meteorological station were also set up for ancillary measurements as well as four heat plates in four different positions to account for under canopy and bare soil conditions in the Maquis ecosystem. Therefore, the influence of different environmental variables, such as soil/air temperature, atmospheric conditions and soil moisture content, on energy and carbon fluxes will be investigated and their effect on the seasonal and inter-annual variability of surface fluxes will be analyzed.

  14. Dissolved Organic Carbon In Precipitation At A Coastal Rural Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liptzin, D.; Daley, M.; Sive, B. C.; Talbot, R. W.; McDowell, W. H.

    2013-12-01

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) is a ubiquitous component of precipitation. This DOC is a complex mixture of compounds from biogenic and anthropogenic sources. The amount and chemistry of the DOC in precipitation has been studied for a variety of reasons: as a source of acidity, as a source of C to marine and terrestrial ecosystems, or to track the fate of individual compounds or pollutants. In most cases, past studies have focused on particular compounds or a limited number of precipitation events. Very little is known about the temporal trends in DOC or the relationship between DOC and other constituents of precipitation. We collected precipitation events for more than five years at a rural coastal site in New Hampshire. We evaluated the seasonal patterns and compared the DOC concentrations to other typical measures of the wet atmospheric deposition (ammonium, nitrate, sulfate, and chloride). In addition, we compared the DOC in precipitation to the concentrations of various organic constituents of the atmosphere. The volume weighted mean C concentration was 0.75 mg C/L with concentrations in the summer significantly higher than in the other three seasons. The DOC concentration was most strongly associated with ammonium concentrations (r=0.81), but was also significantly related to nitrate (r=0.50) and sulfate (r=0.63) concentrations. There was no significant association between DOC and chloride concentrations. Preliminary regression tree analysis suggests that the DOC concentration in precipitation was best predicted by the atmospheric concentration of methyl vinyl ketone, an oxidation product of isoprene. These results suggest that both terrestrial biogenic and anthropogenic sources may be important precursors to the C removed from the atmosphere during precipitation events.

  15. Occurrence and distribution of hydrocarbons in the surface microlayer and subsurface water from the urban coastal marine area off Marseilles, Northwestern Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Guigue, Catherine; Tedetti, Marc; Giorgi, Sébastien; Goutx, Madeleine

    2011-12-01

    Aliphatic (AHs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in dissolved and particulate material from surface microlayer (SML) and subsurface water (SSW) sampled at nearshore observation stations, sewage effluents and harbour sites from Marseilles coastal area (Northwestern Mediterranean) in 2009 and 2010. Dissolved and particulate AH concentrations ranged 0.05-0.41 and 0.04-4.3 μg l(-1) in the SSW, peaking up to 38 and 1366 μg l(-1) in the SML, respectively. Dissolved and particulate PAHs ranged 1.9-98 and 1.9-21 ng l(-1) in the SSW, amounting up 217 and 1597 ng l(-1) in the SML, respectively. In harbours, hydrocarbons were concentrated in the SML, with enrichment factors reaching 1138 for particulate AHs. Besides episodic dominance of biogenic and pyrogenic inputs, a moderate anthropisation from petrogenic sources dominated suggesting the impact of shipping traffic and surface runoffs on this urbanised area. Rainfalls increased hydrocarbon concentrations by a factor 1.9-11.5 in the dissolved phase.

  16. Sea-level rise and coastal groundwater inundation and shoaling at select sites in California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoover, Daniel J.; Odigie, Kingsley; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Barnard, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Study regionThe study region spans coastal California, USA, and focuses on three primary sites: Arcata, Stinson Beach, and Malibu Lagoon.Study focus1 m and 2 m sea-level rise (SLR) projections were used to assess vulnerability to SLR-driven groundwater emergence and shoaling at select low-lying, coastal sites in California. Separate and combined inundation scenarios for SLR and groundwater emergence were developed using digital elevation models of study site topography and groundwater surfaces constructed from well data or published groundwater level contours.New hydrological insights for the regionSLR impacts are a serious concern in coastal California which has a long (∼1800 km) and populous coastline. Information on the possible importance of SLR-driven groundwater inundation in California is limited. In this study, the potential for SLR-driven groundwater inundation at three sites (Arcata, Stinson Beach, and Malibu Lagoon) was investigated under 1 m and 2 m SLR scenarios. These sites provide insight into the vulnerability of Northern California coastal plains, coastal developments built on beach sand or sand spits, and developed areas around coastal lagoons associated with seasonal streams and berms. Northern California coastal plains with abundant shallow groundwater likely will see significant and widespread groundwater emergence, while impacts along the much drier central and southern California coast may be less severe due to the absence of shallow groundwater in many areas. Vulnerability analysis is hampered by the lack of data on shallow coastal aquifers, which commonly are not studied because they are not suitable for domestic or agricultural use. Shallow saline aquifers may be present in many areas along coastal California, which would dramatically increase vulnerability to SLR-driven groundwater emergence and shoaling. Improved understanding of the extent and response of California coastal aquifers to SLR will help in preparing for mitigation

  17. Rate of coastal transport along the southeastern mediterranean coast during storms using water hyacinth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galili, Ehud; Weinstein-Evron, Mina

    1989-06-01

    The current study provides a potential method for measuring current velocities during storms. Water hyacinth debris, carried from the Nile outlet area by the offshore current, are washed ashore along the Israeli coasts after southwesterly winter storms. The impact of the offshore current and wind on the floating debris is such that storms of five days duration are sufficient to transport plants from the Nile to the Carmel coast, a distance of about 400 km. The available information indicates a high rate of transport in the southeastern Mediterranean.

  18. Dynamics of a thermo-Mediterranean coastal environment the Coto Doñana National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlayson, Geraldine; Finlayson, Clive; Espejo, J. M. Recio

    2008-11-01

    Using data collected from existing habitats found in the southwestern Iberian Peninsula, and including data collected in the Biological Reserve of the Parque Nacional de Doñana, Spain, this study considers the seasonal and inter-annual variability of a thermo-Mediterranean, subhumid, environment and the significance of the presence of surface water in the system. This extant environment is then used together with the fossil record from Gorham's Cave in Gibraltar, where Neanderthals lived, as a proxy for the ecology of the emerged landscape outside the cave.

  19. From regional to site specific SPTHA through inundation simulations: a case study for three test sites in Central Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selva, Jacopo; Tonini, Roberto; Romano, Fabrizio; Volpe, Manuela; Brizuela, Beatriz; Piatanesi, Alessio; Basili, Roberto; Lorito, Stefano

    2016-04-01

    We propose a procedure that enables the quantification of tsunami hazard at specific target sites through numerical simulations, accounting for the full variability of potential seismic sources. To this end, we developed a method that reduces the computational effort required by a very large number of detailed inundation simulations by adopting the offshore tsunami propagation patterns used for regional Seismic PTHA (SPTHA) as a proxy for the subsequent hazard estimate. The reduction of the computational effort is based on a two steps filtering procedure of the offshore SPTHA, through which a reduced number of scenarios to be modelled for inundation is selected. Each scenario represents a larger set of sources that form a cluster of potential tsunamis with similar impact on the target area. This filtering procedure is completely based on the tsunami profiles offshore, and it represents a generalization of the method proposed in Lorito et al. (2015) allowing i) to consider a much larger set of input linear simulations, and ii) to control the within-cluster variance of each selected cluster of seismic sources (thence, indirectly the artificial uncertainty introduced in probabilistic inundation maps by this filtering process). Here we present the preliminary results obtained for three test sites in central Mediterranean (Milazzo and Siracusa, Southern Italy, and Thessaloniki, Northern Greece). We preliminary perform a regional SPTHA covering the whole Mediterranean, in which the aleatory variability is quantified considering about 2 × 107 different seismic sources, and epistemic uncertainty is explored through an ensemble model based on more than ×105 alternative model implementations. For each site, separately, few hundreds of "representative scenarios" are filtered out of all the potential seismic sources. Then, the inundations caused by such scenarios is explicitly modelled and the site-specific SPTHA obtained, allowing a complete characterization of the tsunami

  20. Coastal Vulnerability and risk assessment of infrastructures, natural and cultural heritage sites in Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrakis, George; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2016-04-01

    The majority of human activities are concentrated around coastal areas, making coastline retreat, a significant threat to coastal infrastructure, thus increasing protection cost and investment revenue losses. In this study the management of coastal areas in terms of protecting coastal infrastructures, cultural and environmental heritage sites, through risk assessment analysis is been made. The scope is to provide data for spatial planning for future developments in the coastal zone and the protection of existing ones. Also to determine the impact of coastal changes related to the loss of natural resources, agricultural land and beaches. The analysis is based on a multidisciplinary approach, combining environmental, spatial and economic data. This can be implemented by integrating the assessment of vulnerability of coasts, the spatial distribution and structural elements of coastal infrastructure (transport, tourism, and energy) and financial data by region, in a spatial database. The approach is based on coastal vulnerability estimations, considering sea level rise, land loss, extreme events, safety, adaptability and resilience of infrastructure and natural sites. It is based on coupling of environmental indicators and econometric models to determine the socio-economic impact in coastal infrastructure, cultural and environmental heritage sites. The indicators include variables like the coastal geomorphology; coastal slope; relative sea-level rise rate; shoreline erosion/accretion rate; mean tidal range and mean wave height. The anthropogenic factors include variables like settlements, sites of cultural heritage, transport networks, land uses, significance of infrastructure (e.g. military, power plans) and economic activities. The analysis in performed by a GIS application. The forcing variables are determined with the use of sub-indices related to coastal geomorphology, climate and wave variables and the socioeconomics of the coastal zone. The Greek coastline in

  1. Regional and global significance of Pliocene sea surface temperatures from the Gulf of Cadiz (Site U1387) and the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzanova, Alexandrina; Herbert, Timothy D.

    2015-10-01

    The Atlantic-Mediterranean water exchange is a component of global ocean circulation capable of influencing deep water formation in the North Atlantic, yet it is poorly constrained for the time period preceding the intensification of Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG). The sea surface temperature (SST) gradient between the Atlantic and Mediterranean sides of the Strait of Gibraltar can shed light on the communication between the two basins. IODP Site U1387 in the Gulf of Cadiz provides the first alkenone based reconstruction of SST for the Atlantic waters that flowed into the Mediterranean Sea during the Pliocene. This site reflects open ocean North Atlantic subtropical temperature trends while the published SST records from the Rossello composite section (Sicily) in the Mediterranean reflect the addition of regional, continentally-influenced signals from Europe and Northern Africa. The Mediterranean, in particular, may be influenced by high latitude Northern hemisphere climatic evolution. In the modern regime the sites discussed in this work have comparable SST and uninhibited surface connection; however, change in local heat loss/gain over the Mediterranean due to variability in latent heat loss and obstructed connection can result in a gradient between the sites in the Pliocene. The Pliocene surface waters of the Gulf of Cadiz and the Mediterranean Sea were as much as 7 °C warmer than the modern average of ~ 19-20 °C. The reconstructed temperatures show a ~ 1 °C cooling for the Atlantic side of the Strait of Gibraltar from ~ 6 Ma to ~ 2.7 Ma and increasingly cooler glacials. The long-term SST record from Site U1387 provides a basis for future studies into the hydrological balance of the Mediterranean and the temperature component of Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) density. We compared SST on either side of Gibraltar between ~ 3.4-2.7 Ma and found that between ~ 2.7 and ~ 3.1 Ma the Mediterranean and Atlantic surface waters show comparable average

  2. Data assimilation of depth-distributed satellite chlorophyll-α in two Mediterranean contrasting sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalaroni, S.; Tsiaras, K.; Petihakis, G.; Hoteit, I.; Economou-Amilli, A.; Triantafyllou, G.

    2016-08-01

    A new approach for processing the remote sensing chlorophyll-α (Chl-α) before assimilating into an ecosystem model is applied in two contrasting, regarding productivity and nutrients availability, Mediterranean sites: the DYFAMED and POSEIDON E1-M3A fixed point open ocean observatories. The new approach derives optically weighted depth-distributed Chl-α profiles from satellite data based on the model simulated Chl-α vertical distribution and light attenuation coefficient. We use the 1D version of the operational ecological 3D POSEIDON model, based on the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model (ERSEM). The required hydrodynamic properties are obtained (off-line) from the POSEIDON operational 3D hydrodynamic Mediterranean basin scale model. The data assimilation scheme is the singular evolutive interpolated Kalman (SEIK) filter, the ensemble variant of the singular evolutive extended Kalman (SEEK) filter. The performance of the proposed assimilation approach was evaluated against the Chl-α satellite data and the seasonal averages of available in situ data for nitrate, phosphate and Chl-α. An improvement of the model simulated near-surface and subsurface maximum Chl-α concentrations is obtained, especially at the DYFAMED site. Model nitrate is improved with assimilation, particularly with the new approach assimilating depth-distributed Chl-α, while model phosphate is slightly worse after assimilation. Additional sensitivity experiments were performed, showing a better performance of the new approach under different scenarios of model Chl-α deviation from pseudo-observations of surface Chl-α.

  3. Pigment distribution and primary production in the western Mediterranean as derived and modeled from coastal zone color scanner observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, André; André, Jean-Michel

    1991-07-01

    A set of 114 coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) images of the western Mediterranean (mainly in the year 1981) have been processed and analyzed to describe the algal biomass evolution and estimate its potential carbon fixation. For that, the pigment concentration in the top layer, Csat, is used through empirical relationships to infer the depth-integrated pigment content of the productive column, tot. A spectral light-photosynthesis model driven by tot is operated with additional information, namely, about sea temperature and photosynthetically available radiation (computed from astronomical and atmospherical parameters then combined with a cloud climatology). This model also includes a standard set of physiological parameters which account for the light capture by algae and for the use of this radiant energy in photosynthesis. This model allows a climatology of ψ* the cross section for photosynthesis per unit of areal chlorophyll, to be produced and then convoluted with the biomass maps after they have been averaged and composited. On average and for the whole western Mediterranean, the pigment concentration in the upper layer is about 0.25 mg Chl m-3, leading to an areal mean concentration of 21 mg Chl m-2. The maximum (bloom) occurs in early May in all zones. Seasonal variations in algal biomass are much more marked in the northern part than in the southern part (apart from Alboran Sea); the south Tyrrhenian basin and the central part of the Algerian basin are steadily oligotrophic. The mean annual carbon fixation rate for the whole basin is about 94 g C m-2 yr-1, or 106 and 87, for the northern and southern basins when separately considered. The seasonality is expressed by a six-fold change in the production rate (between February and May) within the northern zone, whereas only a two-fold change occurs in the southern zone between the same months. These estimates, which compare well with previous episodic field data, considerably extend our knowledge of

  4. Aerosol optical, microphysical and radiative properties at regional background insular sites in the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sicard, Michaël; Barragan, Rubén; Dulac, François; Alados-Arboledas, Lucas; Mallet, Marc

    2016-09-01

    In the framework of the ChArMEx (the Chemistry-Aerosol Mediterranean Experiment; http://charmex.lsce.ipsl.fr/) program, the seasonal variability of the aerosol optical, microphysical and radiative properties derived from AERONET (Aerosol Robotic Network; http://aeronet.gsfc.nasa.gov/) is examined in two regional background insular sites in the western Mediterranean Basin: Ersa (Corsica Island, France) and Palma de Mallorca (Mallorca Island, Spain). A third site, Alborán (Alborán Island, Spain), with only a few months of data is considered for examining possible northeast-southwest (NE-SW) gradients of the aforementioned aerosol properties. The AERONET dataset is exclusively composed of level 2.0 inversion products available during the 5-year period 2011-2015. AERONET solar radiative fluxes are compared with ground- and satellite-based flux measurements. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that AERONET fluxes are compared with measurements at the top of the atmosphere. Strong events (with an aerosol optical depth at 440 nm greater than 0.4) of long-range transport aerosols, one of the main drivers of the observed annual cycles and NE-SW gradients, are (1) mineral dust outbreaks predominant in spring and summer in the north and in summer in the south and (2) European pollution episodes predominant in autumn. A NE-SW gradient exists in the western Mediterranean Basin for the aerosol optical depth and especially its coarse-mode fraction, which all together produces a similar gradient for the aerosol direct radiative forcing. The aerosol fine mode is rather homogeneously distributed. Absorption properties are quite variable because of the many and different sources of anthropogenic particles in and around the western Mediterranean Basin: North African and European urban areas, the Iberian and Italian peninsulas, most forest fires and

  5. Historic and pre-historic tsunamis in the Mediterranean and its connected seas: a review on documentation, geological signatures, generation mechanisms and coastal impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Urgeles, Roger; Sallares, Valenti; De Martini, Paolo Marco; Pantosti, Daniela; González, Mauricio; Yalciner, Ahmet C.; Mascle, Jean; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Salamon, Amos; Tinti, Stefano; Fokaefs, Anna; Camerlenghi, Angelo; Novikova, Tatyana; Papageorgiou, Antonia

    2013-04-01

    The origin of tsunamis in the Mediterranean region and its connected seas is reviewed. A variety of historical documentary sources combined with evidence from on-shore and off-shore geological signatures, geomorphological imprints, observations from selected coastal archaeological sites, as well as from instrumental records, clearly indicate that seismic and non-seismic (e.g. volcanism, landslides) tsunami sources can be found in all the seas of the region. Local, regional and basin-wide tsunamis have been documented. An improved map of 22 tsunamigenic zones and their relative potential for tsunami generation is presented. From west to east, the most tsunamigenic zones are situated offshore SW Iberia, in North Algeria, in the Tyrrhenian Calabria and Messina Straits, in the western and eastern segments of the Hellenic Arc, in Corinth Gulf (Central Greece), in the Levantine Sea off-shore the Dead Sea Transform Fault and in the eastern Marmara Sea. The mean recurrence of large (intensity≥8) tsunamis in the entire region is ~90 yrs and in the Mediterranean basin ~102 yrs. However, for most of the historical events it is still doubtful which one was the causative seismic fault and if the tsunami was caused by co-seismic fault dislocation or by earthquake-triggered submarine landslides or by a combined source mechanism (e.g. Lisbon 1755). Instrumentally recorded seismic tsunamis (e.g. Messina 1908, S. Aegean 1956) are still with debatable sources. Calculation of seismic slip slowness factor does not indicate that the 1908 and 1956 events were "tsunami earthquakes". In pre-historical times large tsunamis were caused by volcanic processes in Thera and Etna. A tsunami was supposedly generated in the Holocene by the so-called BIG'95 large submarine landslide in W. Mediterranean. The AD 1650 eruption of the submarine Columbo volcano, off-shore Thera, caused an important tsunami but very little is known about its source mechanism. We concluded that investigating further the

  6. Consequences of contaminant mixture on the dynamics and functional diversity of bacterioplankton in a southwestern Mediterranean coastal ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Pringault, Olivier; Lafabrie, Céline; Avezac, Murielle; Bancon-Montigny, Chrystelle; Carre, Claire; Chalghaf, Mohamed; Delpoux, Sophie; Duvivier, Adrien; Elbaz-Poulichet, Françoise; Gonzalez, Catherine; Got, Patrice; Leboulanger, Christophe; Spinelli, Sylvie; Hlaili, Asma Sakka; Bouvy, Marc

    2016-02-01

    Contamination of coastal environments is often due to a complex mixture of pollutants, sometimes in trace levels, that may have significant effects on diversity and function of organisms. The aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term dynamics of bacterioplankton exposed to natural and artificial mixtures of contaminants. Bacterial communities from a southwestern Mediterranean ecosystem, lagoon and the bay (offshore) of Bizerte were exposed to i) elutriate from resuspension of contaminated sediment, and ii) an artificial mixture of metals and herbicides mimicking the contamination observed during sediment resuspension. Elutriate incubation as well as artificial spiking induced strong enrichments in nutrients (up to 18 times), metals (up to six times) and herbicides (up to 20 times) relative to the in situ concentrations in the offshore station, whereas the increases in contaminants were less marked in the lagoon station. In the offshore waters, the artificial mixture of pollutants provoked a strong inhibition of bacterial abundance, production and respiration and significant modifications of the potential functional diversity of bacterioplankton with a strong decrease of the carbohydrate utilization. In contrast, incubation with elutriate resulted in a stimulation of bacterial activities and abundances, suggesting that the toxic effects of pollutants were modified by the increase in nutrient and DOM concentrations due to the sediment resuspension. The effects of elutriate and the artificial mixture of pollutants on bacterial dynamics and the functional diversity were less marked in the lagoon waters, than in offshore waters, suggesting a relative tolerance of lagoon bacteria against contaminants.

  7. Sources and transfer of organic matter in food webs of a Mediterranean coastal environment: Evidence for spatial variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vizzini, Salvatrice; Mazzola, Antonio

    2006-02-01

    The spatial variability in the food web structure of a Mediterranean semi-enclosed coastal environment (Stagnone di Marsala, Italy) was investigated using stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes. Organic matter sources and consumers were sampled in two locations with different environmental features (e.g. hydrodynamic regime, open-sea influence, vegetal coverage). Overall more 13C-enriched and 15N-depleted values were found in the central location than in the southern for organic matter sources and consumers. Pelagic consumers (zooplankton and juveniles of transient fish) showed slight spatial differences and in both locations seemed to depend on phytoplankton as the ultimate energy source. In contrast, benthic consumers (epifauna and resident fish) exhibited remarkable differences between locations. Spatial differences in organic matter sources were smaller than in benthic consumers and thus consumers presumably exploited different ultimate organic matter sources in the two locations. Sedimentary organic matter and epiphytes appeared to be the main primary producers transferred within the food web in both locations, and seagrasses seemed to play a non-negligible trophic role in the central location. The results of this paper corroborate the finding food webs are characterised by high spatial variability even on a small spatial scale and environmental heterogeneity more than primary production that seems to influence the trophic role of autotrophs.

  8. Mid term monitoring of heavy metals content in soils of Mediterranean coastal wetlands. La Albufera de Valencia Natural Park, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascual-Aguilar, Juan Antonio; Andreu, Vicente; Gimeno-García, Eugenia

    2014-05-01

    Coastal wetlands, in general, and Mediterranean ones, in particular, suffer from differente anthropogenic pressures that may affect their intrinsic environmental and ecological functions. Most, if not all, Mediterranean wetlands are not natural spaces were preservation of habitat and wildlife is the only management policy achieved, bur rather their terriroty is a combination of land units with different activities and influences, such as farming, environmental protection and connectivities with urban and industrial areas. Therefore, the need of periodical monitoring is required whenever pressures and environmental health of wetlands is assessed, particularly of those processes that affect the interconnection of environmental compartiments involving water, soils and biota. In agro-ecological protected wetlands soils play and important role because they are potential sources of pollutants due to farming practices. In this case, presence of heavy metals in soils is and indicator of both environmental health and anthtopogenic direct (farming activities) and indirect (neighbour urban areas) pressures. In this work a mid term (17 year) monitoring of seven heavy metals (Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, Ni and Zn) in soils of coastal Mediterranean wetlands (La Albufera Natural Park, Spain) are analyzed. Two monitoring campaings were achieved in 1991 and 2008. In both cases the same 20 points were visited which were distributed in the natural park according two four different sectors of potential anthropogenic pressure and land use. At each point two soil samples were collected at differente depths (0 to 20 cm and 20 to 40 cm). The selected metals were analyzed to determine its total and extractable fractions by treatment with EDTA. Atomic Absorption Spectrometry, using graphite furnace when necessary, was used for the determination of metals. In general, there is a reduction of metal contents in the study area in both dates. The trend of metals according to average concentration (mg

  9. A Review on Toxic and Harmful Algae in Greek Coastal Waters (E. Mediterranean Sea)

    PubMed Central

    Ignatiades, Lydia; Gotsis-Skretas, Olympia

    2010-01-01

    The Greek coastal waters are subjected to harmful algal bloom (HAB) phenomena due to the occurrence of species characterized as toxic (TX), potentially toxic (PT), and non-toxic, high biomass (HB) producers causing harm at multiple levels. The total number of (TX), (PT) and (HB) algae reported in this work are 61, but only 16 species have been associated with the occurrence of important HABs causing damage in the marine biota and the water quality. These phenomena are sporadic in time, space and recurrence of the causative species, and are related to the anthropogenically-induced eutrophication conditions prevailing in the investigated areas. PMID:22069623

  10. Enhanced primary production in summer and winter-spring seasons in a populated NW Mediterranean coastal ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guallar, Carles; Flos, Jordi

    2017-02-01

    Populated coastal ecosystems in the NW Mediterranean present three main characteristics that distinguish them from the open water ecosystem: a sea-land interaction, with freshwater influence from river mouths; a shallow seabed, which facilitates the interaction between the euphotic water column and the sediments; and high anthropogenic pressure, due to submarine sewage discharges. As a result, relatively high nutrient concentrations are measured in these ecosystems, with ammonia being an important fraction. These characteristics entail a different scenario from the open water ecosystem. Here, we present the distribution of phytoplankton primary production in the Barcelona coastal waters during summer and winter-spring seasons, by means of photosynthesis-irradiance experiments using the 14C technique. In winter-spring, stratification of the water column may begin earlier than in open water due to freshwater inputs. Therefore, with the water-column slightly stratified, chlorophyll-a and primary production become localised in the surface layers, due to the lower daily irradiance during this season. In these conditions, Total Primary Production (TPP) values measured ranged between 0.27 and 14.52 mgC m- 3 h- 1. As spring progresses and the stratification develops, surface waters tend to become nutrient depleted and nutrients are mainly localised in bottom waters between the thermocline and the seafloor. Under these conditions, high chlorophyll layers develop near the bottom. With the exception of their nutrient enrichment, these structures, referred to as coastal deep chlorophyll maxima, are comparable to the oceanic deep chlorophyll maxima in temperate oligotrophic seas. The nutrient enrichment is the result of the sediment resuspension from the seabed and the presence of sewage water discharged from the submarine outfall. These structures are highly productive (ca. 60% of water column primary production), comparable to the winter-spring bloom, and are sustained

  11. The effect of wind induced bottom shear stress and salinity on Zostera noltii replanting in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alekseenko, E.; Roux, B.; Fougere, D.; Chen, P. G.

    2017-03-01

    The paper concerns the wind influence on bottom shear stress and salinity levels in a Mediterranean semi-enclosed coastal lagoon (Etang de Berre), with respect to a replanting program of Zostera noltii. The MARS3D numerical model is used to analyze the 3D current, salinity and temperature distribution induced by three meteorological, oceanic and anthropogenic forcings in this lagoon. The numerical model has been carefully validated by comparison with daily observations of the vertical salinity and temperature profiles at three mooring stations, for one year. Then, two modelling scenarios are considered. The first scenario (scen.#1), starting with a homogeneous salinity of S = 20 PSU and without wind forcing, studies a stratification process under the influence of a periodic seawater inflow and a strong freshwater inflow from a hydropower plant (250 m3/s). Then, in the second scenario (scen.#2), we study how a strong wind of 80 km/h can mix the haline stratification obtained at the end of scen.#1. The most interesting results concern four nearshore replanting areas; two are situated on the eastern side of EB and two on the western side. The results of scen.#2 show that all these areas are subject to a downwind coastal jet. Concerning bottom salinity, the destratification process is very beneficial; it always remains greater than 12 PSU for a N-NW wind of 80 km/h and an hydropower runoff of 250 m3/s. Special attention is devoted to the bottom shear stress (BSS) for different values of the bottom roughness parameter (for gravels, sands and silts), and to the bottom salinity. Concerning BSS, it presents a maximum near the shoreline and decreases along transects perpendicular to the shoreline. There exists a zone, parallel to the shoreline, where BSS presents a minimum (close to zero). When comparing the BSS value at the four replanting areas with the critical value, BSScr, at which the sediment mobility would occur, we see that for the smaller roughness values (ranging

  12. Mediterranean coastal dune vegetation: Are disturbance and stress the key selective forces that drive the psammophilous succession?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciccarelli, Daniela

    2015-11-01

    Plant communities of coastal dunes are distributed along a characteristic sea-inland gradient. Generally, there is a shift from annual and short height species with small leaves in the initial successional stages to perennial tall shrubs with tough leaves in later phases. Assessing the community-weighted mean (CWM) trait values is used in plant ecology to describe ecosystem properties especially during succession. In particular, CSR (Competitive, Stress-tolerant, and Ruderal strategy) classification allows us to explore community functional shifts in terms of disturbance, stress and competition selective forces. The functional basis of the psammophilous succession was studied based on the following questions: (1) Can we circumscribe different functional types among plant species of Mediterranean coastal dunes? (2) How do CWM trait values vary along the environmental sea-inland gradient? (3) What is the relative importance of competition, stress and disturbance in the processes of plant community assembling? (4) Can we postulate that along primary successions there is generally a shift from ruderality to stress-tolerance? An explorative analysis of functional groups was performed by Non-Metric Multidimensional Scaling (NMDS) analysing nine morpho-functional traits measured for 45 taxa from 880 dune plots localised in Tuscany (central Italy, Europe). NMDS ordination showed a scattered distribution of psammophytes that could not be delimited in precise plant functional types. The first NMDS axis has been interpreted as a leaf economics axis because it was correlated to leaf area (LA) and leaf dry matter content (LDMC), while the second one was a plant size axis because of its correlation with canopy height. Along the sea-inland gradient, pioneer plant communities of upper beach were dominated by ruderals (with the lowest values of LDMC and specific leaf area - SLA), well-adapted to the harsh environmental conditions of coastal dunes. More distant from the sea, where

  13. Influence of Clouds On The Surface Radiative Balance For Two Mediterranean Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bortoli, D.; Costa, M. J.; Nardino, M.

    Clouds strongly affect the Earth's climate influencing the surface radiative balance by reducing the incident solar radiation and increasing the downward longwave flux. Al- though the quantitative impact of clouds on the surface radiative balance is necessarily associated with great uncertainties due to the complexity and variation of the under- lying parameters, cloud radiative forcing is one of the main regulating factors of the Earth's climate. The present work aims at determining the effect of cloud coverage on the surface radiative balance, in order to contribute for a better understanding of local variations in the Mediterranean climate. Measurements of the cloud cover index (CCI) require the presence of an observer capable of quantifying cloud amounts in the sky in sight above the measurements' site. Since such measurements are not always available the cloud cover index is re- trieved using two different methodologies. On one hand the CCI is computed from the surface radiometer measurements throughout a parameterisation. On the other it is retrieved using a bi-spectral algorithm based on the METEOSAT satellite measure- ments from the visible and infrared spectral regions. Results of the CCI are compared with co-located observations to perform a general check against the available "ground truth". At the same time the CCI values obtained from both methodologies are inter- compared. Results of the CCI and their implications on the surface radiative balance are presented for the two Mediterranean sites selected, one located in Italy and the other in the south of Portugal. The cloud radiative forcing calculations show a cooling effect of the surface in presence of clouds for both sites. Moreover, a seasonal dependence is obtained, with a stronger cooling effect during summer. Acknowledgements: The work was supported by Instituto de Cooperação Científica e Tecnológica Internacional (ICCTI) - Portugal and Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (CNR) - Italy

  14. Long-range Transport of Aerosol at a Mountain Site in the Western Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Greg; Corrigan, Craig; Ritchie, John; Pont, Véronique; Claeys, Marine; Sciare, Jean; Dulac, François

    2016-04-01

    The Mediterranean Region has been identified as sensitive to changes in the hydrological cycle, which could affect the water resources for millions of people by the turn of the century. However, prior to recent observations, most climate models have not accounted for the impacts of aerosol in this region. Past airborne studies have shown that aerosol sources from Europe and Africa are often transported throughout the lower troposphere; yet, because of their complex vertical distribution, it is a challenge to capture the variability and quantify the contribution of these sources to the radiative budget and precipitation processes. The PAEROS ChArMEx Mountain Experiment (PACMEx) complemented the regional activities by collecting aerosol data from atop a mountain on the island of Corsica, France in order to assess boundary layer / free troposphere atmospheric processes. In June/July 2013, PACMEx instruments were deployed at 2000 m.asl near the center of Corsica, France to complement ground-based aerosol observations at 550 m.asl on the northern peninsula, as well as airborne measurements. Comparisons between the peninsula site and the mountain site show similar general trends in aerosol properties; yet, differences in aerosol properties reveal the myriad transport mechanisms over the Mediterranean Basin. Using aerosol physicochemical data coupled with back trajectory analysis, different sources have been identified including Saharan dust transport, residual dust mixed with sea salt, anthropogenic emissions from Western Europe, and a period of biomass burning from Eastern Europe. Each period exhibits distinct signatures in the aerosol related to transport processes above and below the boundary layer. In addition, the total aerosol concentrations at the mountain site revealed a strong diurnal cycling the between the atmospheric boundary layer and the free troposphere, which is typical of mountain-top observations. PACMEx was funded by the National Science Foundation

  15. Dynamics of the marine planktonic diatom family Chaetocerotaceae in a Mediterranean coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosak, Sunčica; Godrijan, Jelena; Šilović, Tina

    2016-10-01

    The planktonic diatoms belonging to two genera Chaetoceros and Bacteriastrum, included within the family Chaetocerotaceae, are ecologically important as they represent an important component of the phytoplankton in the coastal regions and are often among bloom-forming taxa. We analysed the chaetocerotacean species composition and abundances in the coastal area of northeastern Adriatic in a biweekly study conducted from September 2008 to October 2009 with the aim of investigating seasonal dynamics and species succession on a fine temporal scale and determining the most important ecological factors influencing their distribution. The study identified seven Chaetoceros and three Bacteriastrum species as major phytoplankton components showing the clear annual succession and two types of blooms (one species/multi species) governed by differing ecological conditions. Autumn bloom was composed of 20 chaetocerotacean species with Chaetoceros contortus and Chaetoceros vixvisibilis alternating in dominance. The summer period was characterized by spreading of freshwater from the Po River up to the eastern coast increasing availability of phosphate which triggered the monospecific Chaetoceros vixvisibilis bloom. We explained the chaetocerotacean dominant species succession pattern by the environmental parameters, with the temperature, salinity and phosphate availability as most important factors driving the species seasonality.

  16. Reproductive characteristics and steroid levels in the scleractinian coral Oculina patagonica inhabiting contaminated sites along the Israeli Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Armoza-Zvuloni, Rachel; Kramarsky-Winter, Esti; Rosenfeld, Hanna; Shore, Laurence S; Segal, Roee; Sharon, Daniel; Loya, Yossi

    2012-08-01

    In this study we compared reproductive characteristics and steroid hormone levels in the non-indigenous scleractinian coral, Oculina patagonica, inhabiting contaminated vs. uncontaminated reference sites along the Israeli Mediterranean coast. Our results indicate significantly higher steroid levels in both seawater and coral tissue samples from contaminated sites as compared to reference sites, suggesting that corals tend to accumulate steroids from the surrounding waters. Despite their higher steroid levels, corals from the contaminated sites showed reproductive potential comparable to those of the reference sites. Interestingly, a clear distinction could be seen between corals exposed to pollution for long vs. short durations, with the latter showing a failure to complete gametogenesis. This suggests that reproduction in O. patagonica is susceptible to acute rather than chronic stress. The involvement of adjustment/adaptation processes may explain this species tolerance, and may reflect the ability of O. patagonica to successfully invade new areas in the Mediterranean Sea.

  17. Protein expression from zooplankton communities in a metal contaminated NW mediterranean coastal ecosystem.

    PubMed

    Jean, Natacha; Dumont, Estelle; Durrieu, Gael; Balliau, Thierry; Jamet, Jean-Louis; Personnic, Sébastien; Garnier, Cédric

    2012-09-01

    Bidimensional and monodimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were used to study protein expression from zooplankton collected in thirteen stations of Toulon Bay (NW Mediterranean). In this ecosystem, Little Bay showed higher trace metal concentrations (13.5-23.8 nM for Cu, 0.73-1.24 nM for Pb, 27.8-58.7 nM for Zn) than Large Bay (Cu 2.2-15.6 nM; Pb 0.19-0.78 nM; Zn 9.0-38.8 nM). Trace metals positively correlated (p < 0.05) with expression of four zooplankton proteins (MW in kDa/pI: 25.0/5.6; 48.8/4.1; 38.2/4.4; 38.3/5.8) and with biomass of Oithona nana, predominant copepod in Little Bay. Sequencing by LC-MS/MS putatively provided zooplankton identity of these proteins: they were cytoskeleton actin, except one protein that was the chaperone calreticulin. We suggest that actin and calreticulin could be regarded as zooplankton markers of metal stress and be involved in a possible tolerance of O. nana to contamination, contributing to its development in a marine perturbed ecosystem.

  18. Environmental tuning of an insect ensemble: the tenebrionid beetles inhabiting a Mediterranean coastal dune zonation.

    PubMed

    Fattorini, Simone; Santoro, Riccardo; Maurizi, Emanuela; Acosta, Alicia T R; Di Giulio, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Few studies have investigated insect ensembles, i.e. phylogenetically bounded groups of species that use a similar set of resources within a community. The zonation of dune vegetation makes these ecosystems ideal for the study of insect ensembles in a short space. In this study, we investigated if the tenebrionid beetles forming an ensemble on a dune zonation showed variations in community organization (relative abundances and species diversity) in different but spatially associated biotopes defined by different plant communities. Three biotopes (corresponding to European Commission habitat 2110, 2120 and 2230) of a well-preserved Mediterranean dune were sampled using square plots of 2×2 m at three places. To investigate if there was some association between species and habitat we applied a χ(2) test. Variations in community structure parameters were investigated using Shannon index. The three biotopes host tenebrionid communities with similar species composition and overall abundances, confirming that they form a single ensemble. However, tenebrionid species are differently associated with different biotopes along the zonation, with some species occurring with different proportions among the biotopes. A local selection process can be postulated as a mechanism responsible for these differences.

  19. Water quality of Mediterranean coastal plains: conservation implications from the Akyatan Lagoon, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Demir Yetis, Aysegul; Selek, Zeliha; Seckin, Galip; Davutluoglu, Orkun I

    2014-11-01

    The water quality of the Akyatan Lagoon was characterized using hydrochemical methodology. The lagoon is located on the Mediterranean coast and is the largest wetland ecosystem in Turkey. In addition, the lagoon is classified as a hyper-salinity wetland. Water samples were collected monthly between December 2007 and November 2008. Eleven stations within the lagoon were determined, and triplicate grab samples were obtained from each station to characterize water quality as follows: T °C, pH, total alkalinity (TAlk), dissolved oxygen (DO), total dissolved solids (TDS), salinity, electrical conductivity (EC), and main anions, including chloride (Cl(-)), nitrates (NO3 (-)), and sulfate (SO4 (2-)). Results from selected stations indicated varying TDS, EC, salinity, and Cl(-) concentrations, from 20,892 to 175,824 mg/L, from 35.7 to 99.6 mS/cm, from 22.3 to 71.0 ppt, and from 14,819 to 44,198 mg Cl(-)/L, respectively. Data indicated that the spatial distribution of water quality parameters was significantly affected by freshwater input via the constructed drainage channels which collect water from a catchment area and discharge water into the lagoon as a point source, thus preventing drainage water to reach the lagoon as a nonpoint source.

  20. Nutrient flows and related impacts between a Mediterranean river and the associated coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markogianni, Vassiliki; Varkitzi, Ioanna; Pagou, Kalliopi; Pavlidou, Alexandra; Dimitriou, Elias

    2017-02-01

    Taking into consideration the Water Framework Directive's requirements, water samples were collected monthly and/or bimonthly between 2014 and 2015 from Spercheios River, its estuary and the adjacent Maliakos Gulf in order to assess the quality of these water bodies. A study on dissolved nitrate, nitrite, ammonium, phosphate and chlorophyll-a concentrations was carried out, to investigate the impact between the river and the associated coastal area and assess the nutrient loads based on water flows from Spercheios River into the marine system.Furthermore a seasonal distribution of nutrient concentrations have been studied, dividing the sampling period into dry and wet season according to the river's discharges. Correlation analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis among the available chemical data were conducted in order to enhance the detection of the two systems' interaction. Nutrients' concentrations increased from upstream to downstream sampling stations, particularly in areas where human-induced activities are detected. Marine samples were characterized by lower nutrient concentrations than the river ones, and the ecological quality of Maliakos Gulf, based on chlorophyll-a values, is characterized as moderate, except for the stations close to the river, which constantly presented poor quality. Chemical analyses and statistical analysis indicated high nutrient flows and a strong impact between the freshwater and marine systems, accompanied by the profound effect of the adjacent aquafarming areas and the wastewater treatment plant of Lamia city. The highest nutrients' and chlorophyll-a values of the coastal stations were detected close to the river mouth and they were decreasing towards the outer Maliakos Gulf.

  1. Shade tolerance, photoinhibition sensitivity and phenotypic plasticity of Ilex aquifolium in continental Mediterranean sites.

    PubMed

    Valladares, Fernando; Arrieta, Sagrario; Aranda, Ismael; Lorenzo, David; Sánchez-Gómez, David; Tena, David; Suárez, Francisco; Alberto Pardos, José

    2005-08-01

    Shade tolerance, plastic phenotypic response to light and sensitivity to photoinhibition were studied in holly (Ilex aquifolium L.) seedlings transported from the field to a greenhouse and in adult trees in the field. All plants were growing in, or originated from, continental Mediterranean sites in central Spain. Seedlings tolerated moderate but not deep shade. Mortality was high and growth reduced in 1% sunlight. Survival was maximal in 12% sunlight and minimal in full sunlight, although the relative growth rate of the seedlings surviving in high light was similar to that of plants in moderate shade. Maximum photochemical efficiency at predawn was significantly lower in sun plants than in shade plants in the field, revealing chronic photoinhibition that was most pronounced in winter. Plasticity in response to available light varied according to the variable studied, being low for photosynthetic capacity and stomatal conductance, and high for specific leaf area, root:shoot ratio and leaf area ratio, particularly in seedlings. Differences in water relations and hydraulic features between sun and shade plants in the field were marginal. High water potential at the turgor loss point of field-grown plants suggested that holly is sensitive to drought during both the seedling and the adult stage. Low relative growth rates in both high and low light with low physiological plasticity in response to light indicate the existence of a stress-tolerance mechanism. We conclude that holly is a facultative understory plant in areas of oceanic and relatively mild climate, but an obligate understory plant in dry continental areas such as the study site. The impact of abandonment of traditional management practices and climate change on these Mediterranean populations is discussed.

  2. Algal pigment distribution and primary production in the eastern Mediterranean as derived from coastal zone color scanner observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoine, David; Morel, André; André, Jean-Michel

    1995-08-01

    About 300 coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) scenes, gathered over the eastern Mediterranean basin mostly during the years 1979-1981, have been processed from level 1 by using improved pixel-by-pixel procedures for the atmospheric correction and pigment retrieval. The seasonal evolution of the upper ocean pigment concentration is described and analyzed within the whole basin and its subbasins. From the chlorophyll concentration in the top layer, and by using statistical relationships, the depth-integrated pigment content is estimated and used in conjunction with a light-photosynthesis model to estimate the carbon fixation. The model relies on a set of physiological parameters, selected after the validation of the light-photosynthesis model and not on locally measured parameters. Additional information needed in the modeling are the photosynthetically available radiation (computed from astronomic and atmospheric parameters, combined with a cloud climatology), sea temperature and mixed-layer depth (taken from Levitus (1982)). Actually, the model is used to generate look-up tables in such a way that all possible situations (concerning available radiation, chlorophyll concentration, and temperature) are covered. The appropriate situation associated with any pixel is selected from these tables to generate primary production maps. Despite a relatively good spatial coverage, studying the interannual variability of the pigment distribution and primary production appeared to be impossible. Therefore 12 "climatological" monthly chlorophyll maps have been produced by merging the data corresponding to several years. The carbon fixation rates in each of the subbasins have been computed on a monthly basis, and annual mean values derived thereafter. The primary production values are compared with sparse field determinations. They are also compared with those previously derived for the Western basin, also by using CZCS data (Morel and André, 1991). When put together, these

  3. Predicting the long-term durability of hemp-lime renders in inland and coastal areas using Mediterranean, Tropical and Semi-arid climatic simulations.

    PubMed

    Arizzi, Anna; Viles, Heather; Martín-Sanchez, Inés; Cultrone, Giuseppe

    2016-01-15

    Hemp-based composites are eco-friendly building materials as they improve energy efficiency in buildings and entail low waste production and pollutant emissions during their manufacturing process. Nevertheless, the organic nature of hemp enhances the bio-receptivity of the material, with likely negative consequences for its long-term performance in the building. The main purpose of this study was to study the response at macro- and micro-scale of hemp-lime renders subjected to weathering simulations in an environmental cabinet (one year was condensed in twelve days), so as to predict their long-term durability in coastal and inland areas with Mediterranean, Tropical and Semi-arid climates, also in relation with the lime type used. The simulated climatic conditions caused almost unnoticeable mass, volume and colour changes in hemp-lime renders. No efflorescence or physical breakdown was detected in samples subjected to NaCl, because the salt mainly precipitates on the surface of samples and is washed away by the rain. Although there was no visible microbial colonisation, alkaliphilic fungi (mainly Penicillium and Aspergillus) and bacteria (mainly Bacillus and Micrococcus) were isolated in all samples. Microbial growth and diversification were higher under Tropical climate, due to heavier rainfall. The influence of the bacterial activity on the hardening of samples has also been discussed here and related with the formation and stabilisation of vaterite in hemp-lime mixes. This study has demonstrated that hemp-lime renders show good durability towards a wide range of environmental conditions and factors. However, it might be useful to take some specific preventive and maintenance measures to reduce the bio-receptivity of this material, thus ensuring a longer durability on site.

  4. Coastal Evolution in a Mediterranean Microtidal Zone: Mid to Late Holocene Natural Dynamics and Human Management of the Castelló Lagoon, NE Spain

    PubMed Central

    Ejarque, Ana; Julià, Ramon; Reed, Jane M.; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Marco-Barba, Javier; Riera, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    We present a palaeoenvironmental study of the Castelló lagoon (NE Spain), an important archive for understanding long-term interactions between dynamic littoral ecosystems and human management. Combining geochemistry, mineralogy, ostracods, diatoms, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal and archaeo-historical datasets we reconstruct: 1) the transition of the lagoon from a marine to a marginal environment between ~3150 cal BC to the 17th century AD; 2) fluctuations in salinity; and 3) natural and anthropogenic forces contributing to these changes. From the Late Neolithic to the Medieval period the lagoon ecosystem was driven by changing marine influence and the land was mainly exploited for grazing, with little evidence for impact on the natural woodland. Land-use exploitation adapted to natural coastal dynamics, with maximum marine flooding hampering agropastoral activities between ~1550 and ~150 cal BC. In contrast, societies actively controlled the lagoon dynamics and become a major agent of landscape transformation after the Medieval period. The removal of littoral woodlands after the 8th century was followed by the expansion of agrarian and industrial activities. Regional mining and smelting activities polluted the lagoon with heavy metals from the ~11th century onwards. The expansion of the milling industry and of agricultural lands led to the channelization of the river Muga into the lagoon after ~1250 cal AD. This caused its transformation into a freshwater lake, increased nutrient load, and the infilling and drainage of a great part of the lagoon. By tracking the shift towards an anthropogenically-controlled system around ~750 yr ago, this study points out Mediterranean lagoons as ancient and heavily-modified systems, with anthropogenic impacts and controls covering multi-centennial and even millennial timescales. Finally, we contributed to the future construction of reliable seashell-based chronologies in NE Spain by calibrating the Banyuls-sur-Mer

  5. Coastal Evolution in a Mediterranean Microtidal Zone: Mid to Late Holocene Natural Dynamics and Human Management of the Castelló Lagoon, NE Spain.

    PubMed

    Ejarque, Ana; Julià, Ramon; Reed, Jane M; Mesquita-Joanes, Francesc; Marco-Barba, Javier; Riera, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    We present a palaeoenvironmental study of the Castelló lagoon (NE Spain), an important archive for understanding long-term interactions between dynamic littoral ecosystems and human management. Combining geochemistry, mineralogy, ostracods, diatoms, pollen, non-pollen palynomorphs, charcoal and archaeo-historical datasets we reconstruct: 1) the transition of the lagoon from a marine to a marginal environment between ~3150 cal BC to the 17th century AD; 2) fluctuations in salinity; and 3) natural and anthropogenic forces contributing to these changes. From the Late Neolithic to the Medieval period the lagoon ecosystem was driven by changing marine influence and the land was mainly exploited for grazing, with little evidence for impact on the natural woodland. Land-use exploitation adapted to natural coastal dynamics, with maximum marine flooding hampering agropastoral activities between ~1550 and ~150 cal BC. In contrast, societies actively controlled the lagoon dynamics and become a major agent of landscape transformation after the Medieval period. The removal of littoral woodlands after the 8th century was followed by the expansion of agrarian and industrial activities. Regional mining and smelting activities polluted the lagoon with heavy metals from the ~11th century onwards. The expansion of the milling industry and of agricultural lands led to the channelization of the river Muga into the lagoon after ~1250 cal AD. This caused its transformation into a freshwater lake, increased nutrient load, and the infilling and drainage of a great part of the lagoon. By tracking the shift towards an anthropogenically-controlled system around ~750 yr ago, this study points out Mediterranean lagoons as ancient and heavily-modified systems, with anthropogenic impacts and controls covering multi-centennial and even millennial timescales. Finally, we contributed to the future construction of reliable seashell-based chronologies in NE Spain by calibrating the Banyuls-sur-Mer

  6. Drought responses, phenotypic plasticity and survival of Mediterranean species in two different microclimatic sites.

    PubMed

    Bongers, F J; Olmo, M; Lopez-Iglesias, B; Anten, N P R; Villar, R

    2017-01-05

    Climate models predict a further drying of the Mediterranean summer. One way for plant species to persist during such climate changes is through acclimation. Here, we determine the extent to which trait plasticity in response to drought differs between species and between sites, and address the question whether there is a trade-off between drought survival and phenotypic plasticity. Throughout the summer we measured physiological traits (photosynthesis - Amax , stomatal conductance - gs , transpiration - E, leaf water potential - ψl) and structural traits (specific leaf area - SLA, leaf density - LD, leaf dry matter content - LDMC, leaf relative water content - LRWC) of leaves of eight woody species in two sites with slightly different microclimate (north- versus south-facing slopes) in southern Spain. Plant recovery and survival was estimated after the summer drought period. We found high trait variability between species. In most variables, phenotypic plasticity was lower in the drier site. Phenotypic plasticity of SLA and LDMC correlated negatively with drought survival, which suggests a trade-off between them. On the other hand, high phenotypic plasticity of SLA and LDMC was positively related to traits associated with rapid recovery and growth after the drought period. Although phenotypic plasticity is generally seen as favourable during stress conditions, here it seemed beneficial for favourable conditions. We propose that in environments with fluctuating drought periods there can be a trade-off between drought survival and growth during favourable conditions. When climate become drier, species with high drought survival but low phenotypic plasticity might be selected for.

  7. Benthic fluxes of oxygen and nutrients in sublittoral fine sands in a north-western Mediterranean coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sospedra, J.; Falco, S.; Morata, T.; Gadea, I.; Rodilla, M.

    2015-04-01

    Traditionally, benthic metabolism in sublittoral permeable sands have not been widely studied, although these sands can have a direct and transcendental impact in coastal ecosystems. This study aims to determine oxygen and nutrient fluxes at the sediment-water interface and the study of possible interactions among environmental variables and the benthic metabolism in well-sorted fine sands. Eight sampling campaigns were carried out over the annual cycle in the eastern coast of Spain (NW Mediterranean) at 9 m depth station with permeable bottoms. Water column and sediment samples were collected in order to determine physico-chemical and biological variables. Moreover, in situ incubations were performed to estimate the exchange of dissolved solutes in the sediment-water interface using dark and light benthic chambers. Biochemical compounds at the sediment surface ranged between 160 and 744 μg g-1 for proteins, 296 and 702 μg g-1 for carbohydrates, and between 327 and 1224 μg C g-1 for biopolymeric carbon. Chloroplastic pigment equivalents in sediments were mainly composed by chlorophyll a (1.81-2.89 μg g-1). These sedimentary organic descriptors indicated oligotrophic conditions according to the biochemical approach used. In this sense, the most abundant species in the macrobenthic community were sensitive to organic enrichment. In dark conditions, benthic fluxes behaved as a sink of oxygen and a source of nutrients. Oxygen fluxes (between -26,610 and -10,635 μmol m-2 d-1) were related with labile organic fraction (r=-0.86, p<0.01 with biopolymeric carbon; r=-0.91, p<0.01 with chloroplastic pigment equivalents). Daily fluxes of dissolved oxygen, that were obtained by adding light and dark fluxes, were only positive in spring campaigns (6966 μmol m-2 d-1) owing to the highest incident irradiance levels (r=0.98, p<0.01) that stimulate microphytobenthic primary production. Microphytobenthos played an important role on benthic metabolism and was the main primary

  8. Microplastics in the Mediterranean Sea: Deposition in coastal shallow sediments, spatial variation and preferential grain size.

    PubMed

    Alomar, Carme; Estarellas, Fernando; Deudero, Salud

    2016-04-01

    Marine litter loads in sea compartments are an emergent issue due to their ecological and biological consequences. This study addresses microplastic quantification and morphological description to test spatial differences along an anthropogenic gradient of coastal shallow sediments and further on to evaluate the preferential deposition of microplastics in a given sediment grain fraction. Sediments from Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) contained the highest concentrations of microplastics (MPs): up to 0.90 ± 0.10 MPs/g suggesting the transfer of microplastics from source areas to endpoint areas. In addition, a high proportion of microplastic filaments were found close to populated areas whereas fragment type microplastics were more common in MPAs. There was no clear trend between sediment grain size and microplastic deposition in sediments, although microplastics were always present in two grain size fractions: 2 mm > x > 1 mm and 1 mm > x 0.5 mm.

  9. Neighbourhood association of Cortaderia selloana invasion, soil properties and plant community structure in Mediterranean coastal grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domènech, Roser; Vilà, Montserrat; Gesti, Josep; Serrasolses, Isabel

    2006-03-01

    Invasion by alien species is threatening the conservation of native plant communities and the integrity of ecosystems. To gain a better understanding of such impacts, many studies have examined the traits that make alien species successful invaders as well as the factors involved in community invasibility. However, it is necessary to link invader effects on community structure and on ecosystem processes in order to unravel the mechanisms of impact. Cortaderia selloana is a perennial grass native to South America that is invading abandoned agricultural lands close to coastal human settlements in Catalonia (NE Spain). In invaded pastures, we examined the association between C. selloana invasion, soil properties and vegetation structure changes in pastures, comparing the neighbourhood area of influence of C. selloana with areas far from C. selloana. Areas under the influence of C. selloana had lower total soil nitrogen values and higher C/N values than in areas far from C. selloana. Furthermore, the areas affected by C. selloana had lower species, family and life form richness and diversity, and less plant cover. In addition, C. selloana also increased the vertical vegetation structure and changed species composition (only 44% similarity between invaded and non-invaded areas). Our results point out that C. selloana has an effect on its neighbourhood leading to an increase in small-scale variability within invaded fields.

  10. Comparison of growth rates of aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria and other bacterioplankton groups in coastal Mediterranean waters.

    PubMed

    Ferrera, Isabel; Gasol, Josep M; Sebastián, Marta; Hojerová, Eva; Koblízek, Michal

    2011-11-01

    Growth is one of the basic attributes of any living organism. Surprisingly, the growth rates of marine bacterioplankton are only poorly known. Current data suggest that marine bacteria grow relatively slowly, having generation times of several days. However, some bacterial groups, such as the aerobic anoxygenic phototrophic (AAP) bacteria, have been shown to grow much faster. Two manipulation experiments, in which grazing, viruses, and resource competition were reduced, were conducted in the coastal Mediterranean Sea (Blanes Bay Microbial Observatory). The growth rates of AAP bacteria and of several important phylogenetic groups (the Bacteroidetes, the alphaproteobacterial groups Roseobacter and SAR11, and the Gammaproteobacteria group and its subgroups the Alteromonadaceae and the NOR5/OM60 clade) were calculated from changes in cell numbers in the manipulation treatments. In addition, we examined the role that top-down (mortality due to grazers and viruses) and bottom-up (resource availability) factors play in determining the growth rates of these groups. Manipulations resulted in an increase of the growth rates of all groups studied, but its extent differed largely among the individual treatments and among the different groups. Interestingly, higher growth rates were found for the AAP bacteria (up to 3.71 day⁻¹) and for the Alteromonadaceae (up to 5.44 day⁻¹), in spite of the fact that these bacterial groups represented only a very low percentage of the total prokaryotic community. In contrast, the SAR11 clade, which was the most abundant group, was the slower grower in all treatments. Our results show that, in general, the least abundant groups exhibited the highest rates, whereas the most abundant groups were those growing more slowly, indicating that some minor groups, such the AAP bacteria, very likely contribute much more to the recycling of organic matter in the ocean than what their abundances alone would predict.

  11. Sea level and current validation for an early warning coastal system on the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ràfols, Laura; abdelmalik, Sairouni; Bravo, Manel; Espino, Manuel; Grifoll, Manel

    2015-04-01

    An early warning coastal system is being implemented on the Catalan coast (North-western Mediterranean Sea) in order to provide high resolution forecast of sea levels, current velocities and wave conditions. The present investigation is focused on the oceanic model, which provides information about sea level and currents. The aim of this study is to validate the sea level and current forecasts obtained with the help of the Regional Ocean Model System (ROMS; Shchepetkin and McWilliams, 2005) in a high resolution domain (350 metres). In an attempt to reduce the high computational cost required for such a small grid, the Catalan coast has been divided into a few separate domains, which are run independently of each other. For the initial and boundary conditions, data from the MyOcean-IBI products have been used and the atmospheric forcing fields have been obtained from the Catalan Meteorological Service (SMC) and the Spanish Meteorological Agency (AEMET). For a validation purpose, different study periods have been taken into account. Then, the validation of the model has been done using the available in-situ tide-gauge and buoy measurements and HF satellite data. During energetic events, the interaction between currents and waves is expected to be relevant in the shallower areas. For this reason, a coupled wave-ocean system has been implemented to investigate the improvements in the forecasts when faced with the results of separated simulations. In this case, the ROMS model and the SWAN model (Simulating WAves Nearshore; Booij et al., 1999) have been run as part of the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) Modeling System (Warner et al., 2010), which uses the Model Coupling Toolkit to exchange data fields between the models.

  12. Seasonal and diurnal patterns of speciated atmospheric mercury at a coastal-rural and a coastal-urban site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Irene; Zhang, Leiming; Mao, Huiting; Blanchard, Pierrette; Tordon, Rob; Dalziel, John

    2014-01-01

    Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), and particle-bound mercury (PBM) were monitored at a coastal-rural and a coastal-urban site in Nova Scotia, Canada from 2010 to 2011. The three-hour average urban concentrations were 1.67 ± 1.01 ng m-3, 2.1 ± 3.4 pg m-3 and 2.3 ± 3.1 pg m-3 for GEM, GOM and PBM, respectively. The rural site concentrations were 1.38 ± 0.20 ng m-3, 0.4 ± 1.0 pg m-3 and 3.5 ± 4.5 pg m-3, respectively. GEM and GOM concentrations were higher at the urban site in all seasons, while PBM was higher at the rural site in winter. Both sites observed higher GEM and PBM during colder seasons and higher GOM in spring. Seasonal diurnal patterns showed daytime increases and nighttime decreases in GEM, GOM, and PBM. Rural-urban site differences may be attributed to the urban heat island effect resulting in warmer nighttime temperatures and higher GEM concentrations, urban GEM emissions, and enhanced deposition in forested areas leading to faster rural GEM decreases. Wind speeds ≥4 and ≥8 km h-1 were associated with higher rural GEM and lower PBM at night, which could be due to downward mixing from the residual boundary layer and marine airflows from the open ocean as modeled by back trajectories. The back trajectory analysis also found higher rural GEM and lower PBM overnight at both sites for open ocean airflows than all airflow conditions, suggesting the ocean is a source of GEM but not PBM.

  13. Water sources and water-use efficiency in mediterranean coastal dune vegetation.

    PubMed

    Alessio, G A; De Lillis, M; Brugnoli, E; Lauteri, M

    2004-05-01

    In coastal environments plants have to cope with various water sources: rainwater, water table, seawater, and mixtures. These are usually characterized by different isotopic signatures ( (18)O/ (16)O and D/H ratios). Xylem water reflects the isotopic compositions of the water sources. Additionally, water-use efficiency (WUE) can be assessed with carbon isotope discrimination (Delta) analyses. Gas exchange, Delta of leaf dry matter, and isotopic composition (delta (18)O) of xylem water were measured from June to August 2001 in herbaceous perennials of mobile dunes (Ammophila littoralis, Elymus farctus) and sclerophyllous shrubs and climbers (Arbutus unedo, Pistacia lentiscus, Phillyrea angustifolia, Qercus ilex, Juniperus oxycedrus, Smilax aspera) of consolidated dunes. Assimilation rates were rather low and did not show clear seasonal patterns, possibly due to limited precipitation and generally low values of stomatal conductance. The lowest values were shown in S. aspera. Different physiological patterns were found, on the basis of delta (18)O and Delta analyses. Values of delta (18)O of xylem water of phanerophytes were remarkably constant and matched those of the water table, indicating dependence on a reliable water source; values of Delta were relatively high, indicating low intrinsic WUE, with the exception of J. oxycedrus. Surprisingly, very high delta (18)O values were found for the xylem water from S. aspera in August. This suggests retrodiffusion of leaf water to xylem sap in the stem or direct uptake of water by leaves or stems, owing to dew or fog occurrence. Low Delta values indicated high WUE in S. aspera. Contrasting strategies were shown by the species of mobile dunes: E. farctus relied on superficial water and exhibited low WUE, accordingly to its therophyte-like vegetative cycle; on the contrary, A. littoralis used deeper water sources, showing higher WUE in relation to its long-lasting vegetative habit.

  14. Ceilometer evaluation of the eastern Mediterranean summer boundary layer height - first study of two Israeli sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uzan, Leenes; Egert, Smadar; Alpert, Pinhas

    2016-09-01

    Active remote-sensing instruments, such as ceilometers, have been shown to be potentially useful for the investigation of the behavior of the atmospheric mixing layer height (MLH). For the first time ever, high-resolution measurements of backscatter intensity, taken from two CL31 ceilometers situated inland and onshore of Israel, have enabled evaluation of the mean diurnal cycle of the MLH in the eastern Mediterranean region. Although the Israeli summer synoptic conditions are considered to be quite stable, results for the summer season (July-August 2014) showed the inland MLH to be about 200 m higher than the MLH at the onshore site, situated only 7.5 km away. The prevailing influence of the sea breeze front (SBF), as it progresses inland, is presented by the ceilometer plots. Complementing results were found between the radiosonde profiles and the adjacent ceilometer at the inland site of Beit Dagan. In contrast to the expected regularity of clear skies during the Israeli summer, the ceilometers revealed significant cloud cover throughout the day, with higher presence onshore. Assessment of cloud thickness in further research would serve to improve the evaluation of the MLH evolution.

  15. Trophodynamics of suprabenthic fauna on coastal muddy bottoms of the southern Tyrrhenian Sea (western Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fanelli, E.; Cartes, J. E.; Badalamenti, F.; Rumolo, P.; Sprovieri, M.

    2009-02-01

    Philocheras bispinosus). Seasonal changes in isotopic composition occurred for the dominant suprabenthic species. This may result from diet shifts associated with changes in the availability of different food sources and/or from change in the primary sources of organic matter that are particularly variable in coastal environments.

  16. GIS-based vulnerability assessment to sea level rise of Al Hoceima Bay (Moroccan Mediterranean): towards an integrated coastal zone management (ICZM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khouakhi, A.; Snoussi, M.

    2013-12-01

    In the context of coastal vulnerability to climate change and human impacts, integrated coastal zone management (ICZM) is an increasingly relevant process for the sustainable development of coastal areas, in which scientific input plays a vital role. In the Mediterranean Basin, projected increases in sea level rise and in the magnitude and frequency of extreme weather events pose a major challenge for the management of low-lying coastal ecosystems and human settlements. The bay of Al Hoceima is one of the least studied and largest low-lying coastal areas of the Moroccan Mediterranean coast, and is exposed to the effects of sea level rise and storms. The coast is also a touristic area and one of the most important economic assets in the region. Physical coastal vulnerability assessments, determination of setback lines, and evaluation of coastal aquifer vulnerability to sea level rise are among the principal tools used to help decision makers in such a context. Here we quantified, in the context of sea level rise: (1) the physical vulnerability of the coastline, by developing a standard index methodology based on the five most relevant physical indices for local-scale vulnerability analysis, for a total of 822 50m/50m coastal cells; (2) coastal setback lines, based on shoreline evolutionary trends adjusted to sea level rise scenarios using a digital shoreline Analysis System (DSAS); and (3) the vulnerability to sea water intrusion in the coastal aquifer, using a modified GALDIT index (ground water occurrence, aquifer hydraulic conductivity, depth to groundwater level above the sea; distance from the shore; impact of existing status of sea water intrusion in the area; and thickness of the aquifer), following an integrated GIS approach. We find that 41% of the studied coastline is highly vulnerable to the effects of sea level rise and extreme weather events; 60% of the coastline is in retreat (with rates varying between -2m and -0.2m/y), 30% is in dynamic equilibrium

  17. Interactions of near-coastal and basin-wide features of the Mediterranean Sea in the surface colour and temperature historical record

    SciTech Connect

    Barale, V.; Filippi, P.

    1997-08-01

    Sea surface colour and temperature images, derived from time series of CZCS (1978-1986) and AVHRR (1982-1990) data, have been used to assess the interactions of near-coastal and basin-wide features in the Mediterranean basin. Individual images were processed to apply sensor(s) calibration, to correct for atmospheric contamination, and to estimate chlorophyll-like pigment concentration and surface temperature. Long-term composites show marked differences between western and eastern sub-basins, inshore and offshore domains, northern and southern near-coastal areas. Continental runoff and wind-driven mixing, as well as geomorphology and meteorology of the (northern) basin margins, appear to influence both water dynamics and bio-geo-chemistry. The major sub-basins present a distinct seasonality, superimposed to that of the basin.

  18. Regional Sea Level Scenarios for Coastal Risk Management: Managing the Uncertainty of Future Sea Level Change and Extreme Water Levels for Department of Defense Coastal Sites Worldwide

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    SERDP NOAA USACE Ocean MANAGING THE UNCERTAINTY OF FUTURE SEA LEVEL CHANGE AND EXTREME WATER LEVELS FOR DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE COASTAL SITES...Uncertainty of Future Sea Level Change and Extreme Water Levels for Department of Defense Coastal Sites Worldwide. U.S. Department of Defense...Strategic Environmental Research and Development Program. 224 pp. MANAGING THE UNCERTAINTY OF FUTURE SEA LEVEL CHANGE AND EXTREME WATER LEVELS FOR

  19. PILOT STUDY FOR ESTABLISHMENT OF A NETWORK OF COASTAL REFERENCE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have joined in partnership for a pilot study for the establishment of a network of reference sites, the Coastal Int...

  20. An indurated Pleistocene coastal barrier on the inner shelf of the Gulf of Valencia (western Mediterranean): evidence for a prolonged relative sea-level stillstand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alcántara-Carrió, Javier; Albarracín, Silvia; Montoya Montes, Isabel; Flor-Blanco, Germán; Fontán Bouzas, Ángela; Rey Salgado, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study is to document and interpret a recently discovered carbonate-cemented coastal barrier on the inner shelf of the Gulf of Valencia (western Mediterranean Sea). The coastal barrier was identified in a high-resolution digital bathymetric model based on a cartographic survey of the study area using a multibeam echosounder. Moreover, radiocarbon dating and petrographic analyses were performed on a rock sample recovered from the seabed. The data reveal the submerged coastal barrier to be approx. 1.7 km wide and 70 km long, and incised by channels of various dimensions. Aligned more or less parallel to the modern coastline, it is interpreted as corresponding to the shoreline of a former sea-level stillstand. The barrier and lagoon system became stranded above sea level in the course of a subsequent forced regression, which also caused the incision of the river courses. Age dating of the cemented rock suggests that the fossil coastal barrier most probably formed during the prolonged Tyrrhenian (Eemian) sea-level highstand, induration taking place by carbonate cementation at the contact between freshwater and seawater (beach-rock formation). The fact that the fossil barrier is today submerged below modern sea level is explained by the sustained subsidence affecting the region.

  1. A green roof experimental site in the Mediterranean climate: the storm water quality issue.

    PubMed

    Gnecco, Ilaria; Palla, Anna; Lanza, Luca G; La Barbera, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Since 2007, the University of Genoa has been carrying out a monitoring programme to investigate the hydrologic response of green roofs in the Mediterranean climate by installing a green roof experimental site. In order to assess the influence of green roofs on the storm water runoff quality, water chemistry data have been included in the monitoring programme since 2010, providing rainfall and outflow data. For atmospheric source, the bulk deposition is collected to evaluate the role of the overall atmospheric deposition in storm water runoff quality. For subsurface outflow, a maximum of 24 composite samples are taken on an event basis, thus aiming at a full characterization of the outflow hydrograph. Water chemistry data reveal that the pollutant loads associated with green roof outflow is low; in particular, solids and metal concentrations are lower than values generally observed in storm water runoff from traditional rooftops. The concentration values of chemical oxygen demand, total dissolved solids, Fe, Ca and K measured in the subsurface outflow are significantly higher than those observed in the bulk deposition (p < 0.05). With respect to the atmospheric deposition, the green roof behaviour as a sink/source of pollutants is investigated based on both concentration and mass.

  2. Use of native plants for the remediation of abandoned mine sites in Mediterranean semiarid environments.

    PubMed

    Bacchetta, G; Cappai, G; Carucci, A; Tamburini, E

    2015-03-01

    Abandoned tailing dumps from mining industry represent important sources of metal contamination in the surrounding environments. This study evaluates the potential of two Mediterranean native plants, Pistacia lentiscus and Phragmites australis, for phytoremediation of two Sardinian contaminated mine sites. A 6 months study has been conducted at greenhouse-controlled conditions with the aim of investigating the plant capability to tolerate high metal concentrations and to extract or immobilize them within the roots. The possibility to mitigate stress on the plants and improve treatment efficiency by adding compost as amendment was also evaluated. Both species were able to restrict accumulation of Cd, Pb and Zn to the root tissues exhibiting a metal concentration ratio of plant roots to soil bioavailable fraction higher than two (four in the case of Zn). However, the two species showed different adaptation responses, being the survival of P. australis after 6 months in contaminated soil lower (25 %-58 %) than that observed for P. lentiscus (77 %-100 %). Compost addition resulted in a lower metal uptake in tissues of both plants and a higher survival of P. australis, whilst almost no effect was observed as regard the growth of both species. The two tested species appear to be promising candidates for phytostabilization, P. lentiscus exhibiting a greater adaptability to heavy metal contaminated matrices than P. australis.

  3. Alternative energy facility siting policies for urban coastal areas: executive summary of findings and policy recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Morell, D; Singer, G

    1980-11-01

    An analysis was made of siting issues in the coastal zone, one of the nation's most critical natural resource areas and one which is often the target for energy development proposals. The analysis addressed the changing perceptions of citizens toward energy development in the coastal zone, emphasizing urban communities where access to the waterfront and revitalization of waterfront property are of interest to the citizen. The findings of this analysis are based on an examination of energy development along New Jersey's urban waterfront and along the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast, and on redevelopment efforts in Seattle, San Francisco, Boston, and elsewhere. The case studies demonstrate the significance of local attitudes and regional cooperation in the siting process. In highly urbanized areas, air quality has become a predominant concern among citizen groups and an influential factor in development of alternative energy facility siting strategies, such as consideration of inland siting connected by pipeline to a smaller coastal facility. The study addresses the economic impact of the permitting process on the desirability of energy facility investments, and the possible effects of the location selected for the facility on the permitting process and investment economics. The economic analysis demonstrates the importance of viewing energy facility investments in a broad perspective that includes the positive or negative impacts of various alternative siting patterns on the permitting process. Conclusions drawn from the studies regarding Federal, state, local, and corporate politics; regulatory, permitting, licensing, environmental assessment, and site selection are summarized. (MCW)

  4. Origin and Depositional Processes of Coastal Sands Revealed by Grain-Size Analysis (golfe du Lion, Mediterranean Sea, France)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barusseau, J. P.; Braud, R.

    2014-12-01

    The study focused on the lower beach and nearshore zone of the Golfe du Lion (northwestern Mediterranean Sea -France). We looked at grain-size distribution in the berm, collision zone, inner and outer bars, lower shoreface applying parametric methods, grain-size modal analysis and a deconvolution program (LNDoGS).Results indicate a mixture of three recognizable sedimentary types (ST1 - ST3 - ST4) and explain grain-size distribution (GSD) of the sands in both multimodal and apparently unimodal GSDs. ST1 flows from the River Rhone, ST3 and 4 are local components originating from either fluvial input or nearshore reworking of Quaternary sediments.A fourth component (ST2), derived in situ from ST1, is found far from the overwhelming footprint of the Rhone river sands, westward in the lower shoreface.The mixing process entails significant variations in grain-size indices and skewness appears as a very sensitive and meaningful parameter. Skewness and bimodality, generated in all zones, are two aspects of the mixing process, depending on the relative proportions of STs.Using LNDoGS makes deciphering the STs a lot easier. It also reveals that some GSDs can result from a combination of 3 sedimentary variants (SVs) belonging to the same ST (monotype grain-size distributions). Monotype mixtures are very abundant on the lower shoreface, significantly present on the berm and inner bar but rare in the most dynamic zones. On the berm they tend towards a lognormal model for only bedload is present in the swash. This trend towards a lognormal model can also be observed on the lower shoreface, possibly indicating the occurrence of suspension as a dominant process.Thus, each segment of the nearshore - foreshore profile can be characterized using coarseness, skewness sign, the presence of locally generated ST2, abundance of bimodalities, occurrence of SVs. Finally, a more detailed description of the spatial properties of grain-size distributions could help explore possible mechanisms

  5. Eastern Mediterranean sea levels through the last interglacial from a coastal-marine sequence in northern Israel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivan, D.; Sisma-Ventura, G.; Greenbaum, N.; Bialik, O. M.; Williams, F. H.; Tamisiea, M. E.; Rohling, E. J.; Frumkin, A.; Avnaim-Katav, S.; Shtienberg, G.; Stein, M.

    2016-08-01

    A last interglacial (Marine Isotope Stage, MIS5e) marine-coastal sequence has been identified along the Galilee coast of Israel, with the type section located at Rosh Hanikra (RH). The microtidal regime and tectonic stability, along with the detailed stratigraphy of the RH shore, make the study region ideally suited for determining relative sea level (RSL) through the MIS5e interval in the eastern Mediterranean. The sequence contains fossilized microtidal subunits at a few meters above the current sea level. Unfortunately, all fossils were found to be altered, so that U-Th datings cannot be considered to represent initial deposition. We contend that U-Th dating of Strombus bubonius shells (recrystallized to calcite) suffices to indicate a lower limit of ∼110 ± 8 ka for the time sea level dropped below the RH sedimentary sequence. The RH-section comprises three main subunits of a previously determined member (the Yasaf Member): (a) a gravelly unit containing the diagnostic gastropod Strombus bubonius Lamarck (Persististrombus latus), which was deposited in the intertidal to super-tidal stormy zone; (b) Vermetidae reef domes indicating a shallow-water depositional environment; and (c) coarse to medium-sized, bioclastic sandstone, probably deposited in the shallow sub-tidal zone. The sequence overlies three abrasion platforms that are cut by tidal channels at elevations of +0.8 m, +2.6 m and +3.4 m, and which are filled with MIS5e sediments. We present a detailed study of the sequence, with emphasis on stratigraphic, sedimentological, and palaeontological characteristics that indicate sea-level changes. Although without precise absolute dating, the stratigraphic sequence of RH through MIS5e allows us to identify a time-series of RSL positions, using the elevations of three stratigraphic subunits. Reconstructed RSL values range from +1.0 m to +7 m (with uncertainly < 1 m), and most fall within a narrow range of +1.0 to +3.3 m. Toward the end of MIS5e, RSL exceeded

  6. Inventory of coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites (North Bulgarian coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Peev, Preslav

    2015-04-01

    Coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites in Bulgaria are established by national policy instruments/laws and EU Directives to protect a wide range of natural and cultural resources along the coast. Within the framework of HERAS Project (Submarine Archaeological Heritage of the Western Black Sea Shelf), financed by European Union under the CBC Program Romania-Bulgaria, we made an inventory and identification of protected areas, nature reserves, monuments, parks and onshore historical sites along the North Bulgarian coast (NUTS III level). The adjacent coastline is 96 km long between cape Sivriburun to the border of Romania on the north and cape Ekrene on the south. Coastal zone here is mostly undeveloped and low urbanized compared to other coastal regions in Bulgaria. It comprises of large sand beaches, vast sand dunes, up to 70 m spectacular high limestone cliffs, coastal fresh-water lakes, wetlands etc. This coastal section includes also one of the most important wetlands and it is migration corridor for many protected birds in Bulgaria, that host one of the rarest ecosystem types with national and international conservational value. Added to ecosystem values, the region is also an archeologically important area, where numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). Research was made within 2100 m zone from the coastline (in accordance with zones defined by the Black Sea Coastal Development Act) for territories with protected status in the framework of many national laws and EU Directives. The total area of this strip zone is 182, 6 km2 and around 67% is under protection. There are 11 unique NATURA 2000 protected areas (6 Special Protection Areas (SPAs) and 5 Sites of Communities Importance (SCI), 2 nature reserves and 1 Nature Park. Some of them are also onshore historical sites. In Bulgaria such sites

  7. Baseline trace metals in Patella caerulea in a central Tyrrhenian ecosystem (Pontine Islands archipelago and Lazio region coastal sites, Italy).

    PubMed

    Conti, Marcelo Enrique; Mele, Giustino; Finoia, Maria Grazia

    2017-02-18

    In this study, we tested the aptitude of the gastropod mollusk Patella caerulea as biomonitor of elemental pollution in seawater of a central Tyrrhenian ecosystem (Pontine Islands archipelago and Lazio region coastal sites, Italy). Concentrations of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn were measured in 120 individuals collected in six strategic locations in two sampling campaigns during 2011 and 2012. Samples of surrounding seawater were also collected in the same sites and tested for the same metals in order to obtain the respective concentration factors (CFs). Then, we analyzed the evolution of contamination in the selected sites and compared our results with the baseline levels (control charts) previously established for Tyrrhenian seas (Conti et al. Environ Sci Pollut R 22:3640-3651,2015). With this purpose, we defined six new variables (one for each metal) and then we applied multivariate statistics, i.e., cluster analysis and discriminant analysis on the principal component analysis factors in order to obtain more reliable results. Patella resulted to be a strong bioaccumulator of Cd (CFs = 8990) and a good accumulator of Cr, Pb, and Zn. The levels of the majority of metals (i.e., Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn) in Patella decreased in the range from -13.06% of Zn to -42.51% of Ni in Fiumicino harbor, Anzio beach, and Ponza Harbor from 2011 to 2012. In general, the metal levels in these marine areas are low and within the previously established baseline ranges for Tyrrhenian Sea (control charts). Here, we found a not univocal trend of metal bioaccumulation patterns between the two sampling campaigns (2011-2012) in the selected sites. No one site resulted to be clearly more contaminated than another (i.e., harbor sites as expected). For instance, for Cd, we detected a relevant increase of its levels (+118%) in the harbors and Anzio beach sites from 2011 to 2012; however, they remained at lower levels of the lower limit (Q 2.5) of the control chart. Higher Pb levels with

  8. From site data to safety assessment: analysis of present and future hydrological conditions at a coastal site in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Berglund, Sten; Bosson, Emma; Sassner, Mona

    2013-05-01

    This paper presents an analysis of present and future hydrological conditions at the Forsmark site in Sweden, which has been proposed as the site for a geological repository for spent nuclear fuel. Forsmark is a coastal site that changes in response to shoreline displacement. In the considered time frame (until year 10 000 AD), the hydrological system will be affected by landscape succession associated with shoreline displacement and changes in vegetation, regolith stratigraphy, and climate. Based on extensive site investigations and modeling of present hydrological conditions, the effects of different processes on future site hydrology are quantified. As expected, shoreline displacement has a strong effect on local hydrology (e.g., groundwater flow) in areas that change from sea to land. The comparison between present and future land areas emphasizes the importance of climate variables relative to other factors for main hydrological features such as water balances.

  9. Recommended changes in meteorological measurement and prediction methods for coastal sites

    SciTech Connect

    Raynor, G.S.; Michael, P.; SethuRaman, S.

    1980-01-01

    A study was performed to examine currently recommended meteorological measurement programs and atmospheric transport and diffusion prediction models for nuclear power plants to determine their adequacy for plants located in coastal zones where meteorological conditions are normally more complex than at inland sites and to make recommendations for changes to improve current procedures. Recommendations were based on an extensive literature review and on studies of coastal meteorology and diffusion. The study was focused on the following areas: coastal internal boundary layers; tower location; instrument heights; atmospheric stability classification; plume meander; and diffusion calculations. Each of the areas is discussed with appropriate recommendations which were made with respect to either the scientific or the regulation aspects of current procedures or both. Other potential problem areas are also pointed out.

  10. Monitoring Environmental Recovery at Terminated Produced Water Discharge Sites in Coastal Louisiana Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Continental Shelf Associates, Inc.

    1999-08-16

    This report presents the results of a study of terminated produced water discharge sites in the coastal waters of Louisiana. Environmental recovery at the sites is documented by comparing pre-termination and post-termination (six months and one year) data. Produced water, sediments, and sediment interstitial water samples were analyzed for radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons. Benthic infauna were identified from samples collected in the vicinity of the discharge and reference sites. Radium isotope activities were determined in fish and crustacean samples. In addition, an environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentrations of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

  11. Organic matter recycling in a shallow coastal zone (NW Mediterranean): The influence of local and global climatic forcing and organic matter lability on hydrolytic enzyme activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misic, Cristina; Harriague, Anabella Covazzi

    2008-12-01

    Seawater and sediment were collected on a monthly basis from a shallow (10.5 m depth) coastal site in the Ligurian Sea (NW Mediterranean) from November 1993 to December 1994 to determine the main environmental forces that influenced the biogeochemical processes and to study the relationships between the availability and lability of the organic matter (OM) and hydrolytic enzymatic activity. The current direction throughout the sampling year was influenced by the climatic conditions, which showed significant correlations with north atlantic oscillation (NAO) index values. The current generally flowed northwards in spring. This could cause significantly lower transparency values than in the summer, when an eastward current probably reduced the allochthonous input of material from the main local watercourse and contributed to turning the conditions from mesotrophic to oligotrophic. Spring and summer were separated by transitional periods more than by the canonical autumn and winter seasons. These transitions were characterised by a reduction in salinity values and by resuspension caused by water column mixing and a current flowing towards the southwest. The significant inverse correlations of the chlorophyll- a and protein concentrations, bacterial abundance and proteolysis of the bottom seawater and transparency showed the direct influence of resuspension on the organic matter dynamics. Moreover, OM trophic quality influenced the bacterial parameters and the enzymatic activities. The glycolytic β glucosidase and chitinase activities and their bacterial cell-specific hydrolytic rates were higher when substrates such as hydrolysable proteins were available, while they decreased when refractory compounds were abundant. The low leucine aminopeptidase: β glucosidase ratio values observed in the water column were presumably related to the potential ease with which microbes obtained protein-derived materials and energy, the protein hydrolysable fraction being estimated at

  12. Organic aerosol molecular composition and gas-particle partitioning coefficients at a Mediterranean site (Corsica).

    PubMed

    Rossignol, Stéphanie; Couvidat, Florian; Rio, Caroline; Fable, Sébastien; Grignion, Guillaume; Savelli; Pailly, Olivier; Leoz-Garziandia, Eva; Doussin, Jean-Francois; Chiappini, Laura

    2016-02-01

    Molecular speciation of atmospheric organic matter was investigated during a short summer field campaign performed in a citrus fruit field in northern Corsica (June 2011). Aimed at assessing the performance on the field of newly developed analytical protocols, this work focuses on the molecular composition of both gas and particulate phases and provides an insight into partitioning behavior of the semi-volatile oxygenated fraction. Limonene ozonolysis tracers were specifically searched for, according to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) data previously recorded for smog chamber experiments. A screening of other oxygenated species present in the field atmosphere was also performed. About sixty polar molecules were positively or tentatively identified in gas and/or particle phases. These molecules comprise a wide range of branched and linear, mono and di-carbonyls (C3-C7), mono and di-carboxylic acids (C3-C18), and compounds bearing up to three functionalities. Among these compounds, some can be specifically attributed to limonene oxidation and others can be related to α- or β-pinene oxidation. This provides an original snapshot of the organic matter composition at a Mediterranean site in summer. Furthermore, for compounds identified and quantified in both gaseous and particulate phases, an experimental gas/particle partitioning coefficient was determined. Several volatile products, which are not expected in the particulate phase assuming thermodynamic equilibrium, were nonetheless present in significant concentrations. Hypotheses are proposed to explain these observations, such as the possible aerosol viscosity that could hinder the theoretical equilibrium to be rapidly reached.

  13. Subgrid parameterization of snow distribution at a Mediterranean site using terrestrial photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimentel, Rafael; Herrero, Javier; José Polo, María

    2017-02-01

    Subgrid variability introduces non-negligible scale effects on the grid-based representation of snow. This heterogeneity is even more evident in semiarid regions, where the high variability of the climate produces various accumulation melting cycles throughout the year and a large spatial heterogeneity of the snow cover. This variability in a watershed can often be represented by snow accumulation-depletion curves (ADCs). In this study, terrestrial photography (TP) of a cell-sized area (30 × 30 m) was used to define local snow ADCs at a Mediterranean site. Snow-cover fraction (SCF) and snow-depth (h) values obtained with this technique constituted the two datasets used to define ADCs. A flexible sigmoid function was selected to parameterize snow behaviour on this subgrid scale. It was then fitted to meet five different snow patterns in the control area: one for the accumulation phase and four for the melting phase in a cycle within the snow season. Each pattern was successfully associated with the snow conditions and previous evolution. The resulting ADCs were associated to certain physical features of the snow, which were used to incorporate them in the point snow model formulated by Herrero et al. (2009) by means of a decision tree. The final performance of this model was tested against field observations recorded over four hydrological years (2009-2013). The calibration and validation of this ADC snow model was found to have a high level of accuracy, with global RMSE values of 105.8 mm for the average snow depth and 0.21 m2 m-2 for the snow-cover fraction in the control area. The use of ADCs on the cell scale proposed in this research provided a sound basis for the extension of point snow models to larger areas by means of a gridded distributed calculation.

  14. Impact of dredged urban river sediment on a Saronikos Gulf dumping site (Eastern Mediterranean): sediment toxicity, contaminant levels, and biomarkers in caged mussels.

    PubMed

    Tsangaris, Catherine; Strogyloudi, Evangelia; Hatzianestis, Ioannis; Catsiki, Vassiliki-Angelique; Panagiotopoulos, Ioannis; Kapsimalis, Vasilios

    2014-05-01

    Impacts of chemical contaminants associated with dumping of dredged urban river sediments at a coastal disposal area in Saronikos Gulf (Eastern Mediterranean) were investigated through a combined approach of sediment toxicity testing and active biomonitoring with caged mussels. Chemical analyses of aliphatic hydrocarbons (AHs), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), Cu, and Zn in combination with the solid phase Microtox® test were performed on sediments. Concentrations of PAHs, AHs, Cu, and Zn as well as multiple biomarkers of contaminant exposure and/or effects were measured in caged mussels. Sediments in the disposal and neighboring area showed elevated PAHs and AHs concentrations and were characterized as toxic by the solid-phase Microtox® test during and after dumping operations. Biomarker results in the caged mussels indicated sublethal effects mainly during dumping operations, concomitantly with high concentrations of PAHs and AHs in the caged mussel tissues. Cu and Zn concentrations in sediments and caged mussels were generally not elevated except for sediments at the site in the disposal area that received the major amount of dredges. High PAHs and AHs levels as well as sublethal effects in the caged mussels were not persistent after termination of operations. The combined bioassay-biomarker approach proved useful for detecting toxicological impacts of dredged river sediment disposal in sediments and the water column. Nevertheless, further research is needed to evaluate whether sediment toxicity will have long-term effects on benthic communities of the disposal area.

  15. Annual low-cost monitoring of a coastal site in Greece by an unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmeister, Dirk; Bareth, Georg

    2016-04-01

    Coastal areas are under permanent change and are also the result of past processes. These processes are for example sediment transport, accumulation and erosion by normal and extreme waves (storms or tsunamis). As about 23% of the World's population lives within a 100 km distance of coasts, knowledge about coastal processes is important, in particular for possible changes in the nearby future. The past devastating tsunami events demonstrated profoundly the high vulnerability of coastal areas. In order to estimate the different effects, coastal monitoring approaches are of interest. Several different methods exist in order to determine changes in the sedimentary budget and coastline configuration. In order to estimate constant annual changes, we have applied terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in an annual monitoring approach (2009-2011). In 2014, we changed to an approach based on dense imaging and structure-from-motion, applying an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in order to conduct an annual monitoring of a coastal site in western Greece. Therefore, a GoPro Hero 3+ and a Canon PowerShot S110 mounted on a DJI-Phantom 2 were used. All surveys were conducted in a manually structured image acquisition with a huge overlap. Ground control points (GCP) were measured by tachymetric surveying. This successful approach was repeated again in 2015 with the Canon camera. The measurements of 2014 were controlled by an additional TLS survey, which revealed the high accuracy and more suitable coverage for the UAV-based data. Likewise, the large picture datasets were artificially reduced in order to estimate the most efficient number of images for dense point cloud processing. In addition, also the number of GCPs was decreased for one dataset. Overall, high-resolution digital elevation models with a ground resolution of 10 mm and an equal accuracy were achieved with this low-cost equipment. The data reveals the slight changes on this selected site.

  16. Coastal flooding as a parameter in multi-criteria analysis for industrial site selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christina, C.; Memos, C.; Diakoulaki, D.

    2014-12-01

    Natural hazards can trigger major industrial accidents, which apart from affecting industrial installations may cause a series of accidents with serious impacts on human health and the environment far beyond the site boundary. Such accidents, also called Na-Tech (natural - technical) accidents, deserve particular attention since they can cause release of hazardous substances possibly resulting in severe environmental pollution, explosions and/or fires. There are different kinds of natural events or, in general terms, of natural causes of industrial accidents, such as landslides, hurricanes, high winds, tsunamis, lightning, cold/hot temperature, floods, heavy rains etc that have caused accidents. The scope of this paper is to examine the coastal flooding as a parameter in causing an industrial accident, such as the nuclear disaster in Fukushima, Japan, and the critical role of this parameter in industrial site selection. Land use planning is a complex procedure that requires multi-criteria decision analysis involving economic, environmental and social parameters. In this context the parameter of a natural hazard occurrence, such as coastal flooding, for industrial site selection should be set by the decision makers. In this paper it is evaluated the influence that has in the outcome of a multi-criteria decision analysis for industrial spatial planning the parameter of an accident risk triggered by coastal flooding. The latter is analyzed in the context of both sea-and-inland induced flooding.

  17. Causes of daily cycle variability of atmospheric pollutants in a western Mediterranean urban site (DAURE campaign)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reche, Cristina; Moreno, Teresa; Viana, Mar; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés.; Jimenez, Jose L.; Pandolfi, Marco; Amato, Fulvio; Pérez, Noemí; Moreno, Natalia

    2010-05-01

    The 2009 DAURE Aerosol Campaign (23-February-2009 to 27-March-2009 and 1-July to 31-July) (see Presentation: Pandolfi et al., section AS3.2) had the objective of characterising the main sources and chemical processes controlling atmospheric pollution due to particulate matter in the Mediterranean site of Barcelona (Spain). An urban and a rural background site were selected in order to describe both kinds of pollution setting. Several parameters were taken into consideration, including the variability of mass concentration in the coarse and fine fractions, particle number, amount of black carbon and the concentration of gaseous pollutants (SO2, H2S, NO, NO2, CO, O3) present. Comparisons between the chemical composition of ambient atmospheric particles during day versus night were made using twelve-hour PM samples. The data shown here are focused on results obtained for the urban site where two main atmospheric settings were distinguishable in winter, namely Atlantic advection versus local air mass recirculation. During the warmer months Saharan dust intrusions added a third important influence on PM background. The data demonstrate that superimposed upon these background influences on city air quality are important local contributions from road traffic, construction-demolition works and shipping. There is also a major local contribution of secondary aerosols, with elevated number of particles occurring at midday (and especially in summer) when nucleation processes are favoured by photochemistry. Concentrations of SO2 peak at different times to the other gaseous pollutants due to regular daytime onshore south-easterly breezes bringing harbour emissions into the city. Road traffic in Barcelona also has a great impact on air quality, as demonstrated by daily and weekly cycles of gaseous pollutants, black carbon and the finer fraction of PM, with peaks being coincident with traffic rush-hours (8-10h and 20-22h), levels of pollution increasing from Monday to Friday, and

  18. Atmospheric stability of surface boundary layer in coastal region of the Wol-Ryong site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Hee-Chang

    2012-08-01

    In order to provide statistically reliable information of a wind energy site, accurate analysis on the atmospheric stability and climate characteristics in a certain area is a prerequisite. Two 2-D ultrasonic anemometers and one cup anemometer, located perpendicular to the prevailing wind direction, were used to measure the atmospheric wind environment at a height of 4.5 m in coastal region of the Wol-Ryong, Jeju, South Korea. The study is aiming to understand the atmospheric stability about a coastal region, and the effect of roughness length. We calculate the Monin-Obukhov length for division of atmospheric stability about unstable regime, neutral regime and stable regime. The distribution of diurnal Monin-Obukhov length is highly sporadic in the coastal region due to the effect of radiant heat from the surface or other environmental effects. In order to calculate the roughness length in coastal region, three different methods are applied in terms of the surface roughness, flow fluctuation and gust wind, which are called logarithmic profile, standard deviation and gust factor methods. In the study, the atmospheric stability was insignificant when applying these three methods. In the results, three different roughness length scales sufficiently showed the effect of obstacle and surface conditions around the measurement position. On the basis of an overall analysis of the short-term data measured in the Wol-Ryong area, Jeju Island, it is concluded that for the development of future wind energy resources, the Wol-Ryong site could be a good candidate for a future wind energy site.

  19. High resolution characterization of northwest Mediterranean coastal waters thermal regimes: To better understand responses of benthic communities to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensoussan, Nathaniel; Romano, Jean-Claude; Harmelin, Jean-Georges; Garrabou, Joaquim

    2010-04-01

    In the North West Mediterranean (NWM), mass mortality events (MME) of long-lived benthic species that have occurred over the last two decades have been related to regional warming trend. Gaining robust data sets on thermal regimes is critical to assess conditions to which species have adapted, detect extreme events and critically evaluate biological impacts. High resolution temperature ( T) time series obtained during 1999-2006 from 5 to 40 m depth at four contrasted sites of the NWM were analyzed: Area Marina Protegida de les Illes Medes (NE Spain), Riou (Marseilles, France), Parc National de Port-Cros (France), and Réserve Naturelle de Scandola (Corsica, France). The seasonal pattern showed winter T around 11-13 °C, and summer T mainly around 22-24 °C near surface to 18-20 °C at depth. Stratification dynamics showed recurrent downwellings (>40 m) at Medes, frequent observation (1/3rd of the summer) of deep and cold upwelled waters at Riou, while Scandola exhibited stable summer stratification and highest suprathermoclinal T. Port-Cros showed an intermediate regime that oscillated between Riou and Scandola depending on the occurrence of northern winds. Data distribution study permitted to identify and to characterize 3 large scale positive anomalies concomitant with the mass mortality outbreaks of summers 1999, 2003 and 2006. The analysis of biological surveys on gorgonian populations showed significant impacts during the 3 years with temperature anomalies. Besides the degree of impact showed inter-annual differences which could be related to different T conditions concomitant to mortality events, from slight increase in T extreme of only 1-2 °C over short duration, to lengthened more classical summer conditions. Our results therefore support the hypothesis that shallow NWM populations of long-lived benthic species are living near their upper thermal thresholds. Given actual trends and projections in NWM, the repetition of new MMEs in the next decades is

  20. Stock origins of Dolly Varden collected from Beaufort Sea coastal sites of Arctic Alaska and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krueger, C.C.; Wilmot, R.L.; Everett, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Anadromous northern Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma support a summer subsistence fishery in Beaufort Sea coastal waters. These same waters coincide with areas of oil and gas exploration and development. The purpose of this study was to assess variation in stock origins of Dolly Varden collected from sites along 400 km of Beaufort Sea coast. Mixed-stock analyses (MSA) of allozyme data were used to compare collections from four sites (Endicolt near Prudhoe Bay, Mikkelsen Bay, and Kaktovik in Alaska and Phillips Bay in Canada) and to assess variation in stock contributions among summer months and between 1987 and 1988. The MSA estimates for individual stocks were summed into estimates for three stock groups: western stocks from the area near Sagavarnirktok River and Prudhoe Bay (SAG), Arctic National Wildlife Refuge stocks (Arctic Refuge), and Canadian stocks. The MSA of Endicott samples taken in 1987 and 1988 did not differ among months in terms of contributions from local SAG stocks (range, 71-95%). Contributions from nonlocal (>100 km distant) Canadian and Arctic Refuge stocks were not different from zero in 1987, but contributions from Canadian stocks were so in July (17%) and August (20%) but not in September of 1988. Thus, stock contributions to Endicott collections were different between 1987 and 1988. Samples from the Kaktovik area in 1988 were different between months in terms of contributions from nonlocal SAG stocks (July, 7%; August, 27%). Significant contributions to these samples were made both months by Canadian (25% and 17%) and local Arctic Refuge stocks (68% and 56%). Among the four coastal sites, local stocks typically contributed most to collections; however, every site had collections that contained significant contributions from nonlocal stocks. The MSA estimates clearly revealed the movement of Dolly Varden between U.S. and Canada coastal waters. If local stocks are affected by oil and gas development activities, distant subsistence fisheries

  1. Changes in bacterial metabolism as a response to dissolved organic matter modification during protozoan grazing in coastal Cantabrian and Mediterranean waters.

    PubMed

    Baña, Zuriñe; Ayo, Begoña; Marrasé, Cèlia; Gasol, Josep M; Iriberri, Juan

    2014-02-01

    We explored how marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) altered by bacterial growth and protozoan grazing modify the metabolism of Southeastern Cantabrian Sea (CS) and NW Mediterranean Sea (MS) coastal bacterial communities. Major metabolic features were measured in treatments with half of the natural water replaced by water with different DOM quality, characterized by fluorescent DOM analysis and collected from key times of the predator-prey curve. In both ecosystems, protozoan-altered DOM led to similar increases in bacterial carbon demand (238% and 213%) and decreases in bacterial growth efficiency (BGE: 56% for the CS and 46% for the MS). These low BGEs were caused by similar bacterial production but much higher bacterial respiration rates, which in turn were positively related to aminopeptidase activity. However, in the CS bacterial community dominated by Bacteroidetes (41%), the enhanced hydrolytic activity was produced at a lower metabolic cost than in the MS, dominated by SAR11 (47%), which suggests a better adaptation of Bacteroidetes to the DOM altered during protozoan grazing. These results highlight protozoan grazing as a relevant factor influencing BGE in coastal ecosystems, and relate bacterial community composition to the major metabolic processes that result after a change in the quality of marine DOM.

  2. Controls and budgets of riverine sediment fluxes to the Gulf of Lions (NW Mediterranean Sea) : Do coastal rivers better than the Rhone?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadaoui, Mahrez; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Bourrin, François; Raimbault, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    Riverine sediment yields can be highly variable among the various river systems on Earth and, despite an increasing amount of data and studies during recent years. Small rivers can be more efficient in the evacuation of freshly eroded materials, attributing greater sediment delivery ratios to these rivers compared to large river systems. The Gulf of Lions (GoL), north-western Mediterranean Sea, is one of the most extensive shelf regions in the Mediterranean Sea. Riverine sediment fluxes from small coastal rivers (SCR) along the Languedoc-Roussillon coast can be compared to the fluxes of the Rhone River, one of the largest in the Mediterranean. Since the late 1990, however, several research programs got interested in these river systems and individual rivers were studied more in detail. Long-term monitoring of the Tet and Rhone rivers was established and finally integrated in the French oceanographic observation system MOOSE (Mediterranean Ocean Observing system of the Environment). In this context, the present study aims to complete the existing studies by providing a reliable comparison of sediment load values for various catchments within lowland river basins. Therefore, we focused on the SCR and Rhone river basins, 7 catchments covering 86 % of this area. We first present a large database of area-specific suspended sediment yields (SSY) calculated from the suspended sediment concentration and flow discharge data over 46 years of measurements at gauging stations. A Simple Rating Curve Approach (SiRCA) using daily discharge data, which allows the estimation of mean annual sediment loads from infrequent sediment concentration data, was used to calculate sediment fluxes. Second, we analyze the temporal and spatial variability of the calculated of sediment load (SL) values, and the contribution of floods in the annual report of sediment yield. Finally, we estimate the contribution of the coastal rivers in total inputs in the GoL. The SL values at the outlet of the

  3. Overview about polluted sites management by mining activities in coastal-desertic zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Arturo; Letelier, María Victoria; Arenas, Franko; Cuevas, Jacqueline; Fuentes, Bárbara

    2016-04-01

    In Chile the main mining operations as well as artisanal and small-scale mining (copper, gold and silver) are located in desert areas. A large number of abandoned polluted sites with heavy metals and metalloids (Hg, Pb, Cu, Sb, As) remain in coastal areas close to human centers. The aim of this work was to identify the best remediation alternatives considering the physic-chemical characteristics of the coastal-desertic soils. The concentrations of above mentioned pollutants as well as soil properties were determined. The results showed variable concentration of the pollutants, highest detected values were: Hg (46.5 mg kg-1), Pb (84.7 mg kg-1), Cu (283.0 mg kg-1), Sb (90 mg kg-1), As (2,691 mg kg-1). The soils characteristic were: high alkalinity with pH: 7.75-9.66, high electric conductivity (EC: 1.94-118 mScm-1), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR: 5.07-8.22) and low permeability of the soils. Coastal-desertic sites are potential sources of pollution for population, and for terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Exposure routes of pollution for the population include: primary, by incidental ingestion and inhalation of soil and dust and secondary, by the ingestion of marine sediments, sea food and seawater. Rehabilitation of coastal-desertic sites, by using techniques like soil washing in situ, chemical stabilization, or phytostabilization, is conditioned by physic-chemical properties of the soils. In these cases the recommendation for an appropriate management, remediation and use of the sites includes: 1) physic chemical characterization of the soils, 2) evaluation of environmental risk, 3) education of the population and 3) application of a remediation technology according to soil characteristic and the planned use of the sites. Acknowledgments: Funding for this study was supported by the Regional Council of Antofagasta under Project Estudio de ingeniería para la remediación de sitios abandonados con potencial presencia de contaminantes identificados en la comuna de

  4. Changes in bacterial community metabolism and composition during the degradation of dissolved organic matter from the jellyfish Aurelia aurita in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon.

    PubMed

    Blanchet, Marine; Pringault, Olivier; Bouvy, Marc; Catala, Philippe; Oriol, Louise; Caparros, Jocelyne; Ortega-Retuerta, Eva; Intertaglia, Laurent; West, Nyree; Agis, Martin; Got, Patrice; Joux, Fabien

    2015-09-01

    Spatial increases and temporal shifts in outbreaks of gelatinous plankton have been observed over the past several decades in many estuarine and coastal ecosystems. The effects of these blooms on marine ecosystem functioning and particularly on the dynamics of the heterotrophic bacteria are still unclear. The response of the bacterial community from a Mediterranean coastal lagoon to the addition of dissolved organic matter (DOM) from the jellyfish Aurelia aurita, corresponding to an enrichment of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by 1.4, was assessed for 22 days in microcosms (8 l). The high bioavailability of this material led to (i) a rapid mineralization of the DOC and dissolved organic nitrogen from the jellyfish and (ii) the accumulation of high concentrations of ammonium and orthophosphate in the water column. DOM from jellyfish greatly stimulated heterotrophic prokaryotic production and respiration rates during the first 2 days; then, these activities showed a continuous decay until reaching those measured in the control microcosms (lagoon water only) at the end of the experiment. Bacterial growth efficiency remained below 20%, indicating that most of the DOM was respired and a minor part was channeled to biomass production. Changes in bacterial diversity were assessed by tag pyrosequencing of partial bacterial 16S rRNA genes, DNA fingerprints, and a cultivation approach. While bacterial diversity in control microcosms showed little changes during the experiment, the addition of DOM from the jellyfish induced a rapid growth of Pseudoalteromonas and Vibrio species that were isolated. After 9 days, the bacterial community was dominated by Bacteroidetes, which appeared more adapted to metabolize high-molecular-weight DOM. At the end of the experiment, the bacterial community shifted toward a higher proportion of Alphaproteobacteria. Resilience of the bacterial community after the addition of DOM from the jellyfish was higher for metabolic functions than diversity

  5. Near-coastal water quality at reference sites following storm events.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Kenneth; Brown, Jeff; Trump, Steen; Hardin, Dane

    2016-02-15

    Stormwater is a challenging source of coastal pollution to abate because stormwater also involves complex natural processes, and differentiating these processes from anthropogenic excesses is difficult. The goal of this study was to identify the natural concentrations of stormwater constituents along the 1377 km coastline of California, USA. Twenty-eight ocean reference sites, a priori defined by lack of human disturbance in its adjacent watershed, were collected following 78 site-events and measured for 57 constituents and toxicity. Results indicated a complete lack of toxicity and undetectable levels of anthropogenic constituents (i.e., pesticides). The range of concentrations in ocean receiving waters for naturally-occurring constituents (i.e., total suspended solids, nutrients, trace metals) typically ranged three orders of magnitude. Regional differences and storm characteristics did not explain much of the variations in concentration. The reference site information is now being used to establish targets for marine protected areas subject to runoff from developed watersheds.

  6. Comparison of the effects of pollution on the marine bivalve Donax trunculus in the vicinity of polluted sites with specimens from a clean reference site (Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Yawetz, Aminadav; Fishelson, Lev; Bresler, Vladimir; Manelis, Rami

    2010-02-01

    The physiological and biochemical characteristics of tissue samples of the marine mussel, Donax trunculus, from an oil-polluted site (Qiryat Yam) and from a site adjacent to an industrial factory (Frutarom) producing polyvinyl chloride (PVC) were compared with samples from a clean reference site (Akko). All sites were located along the sandy shores of the Israeli Mediterranean Sea. The mussels from the oil-polluted site showed increased activity of the system of active transport of organic anions (SATOA) in the gills and the renocardial organ and also of the multixenobiotic resistance transporter (MXR) in the gills. In contrast, samples collected near the PVC factory showed a decrease in SATOA activity and no increase in the activity of MXR in the gills. Specimens from the reference site demonstrated a redox state of equilibrium between energy production and utilization, while in Donax from both the oil polluted and the PVC-polluted sites, the mitochondrial redox state reflected intensive consumption of energy. No significant changes were found in the activity of reduced glutathione s-transferase (GST) in the cytosolic fraction of the digestive gland of Donax collected from any of the three sites. The data demonstrate a differential increase in the anti-chemical defense systems and an intensification of energy metabolism in the mussels exposed to pollution.

  7. Modern erosion rates and loss of coastal features and sites, Beaufort Sea coastline, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Arp, C.D.; Eisner, Wendy R.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents modern erosion rate measurements based upon vertical aerial photography captured in 1955, 1979, and 2002 for a 100 km segment of the Beaufort Sea coastline. Annual erosion rates from 1955 to 2002 averaged 5.6 m a-1. However, mean erosion rates increased from 5.0 m a-1 in 1955-79 to 6.2 m a-1 in 1979-2002. Furthermore, from the first period to the second, erosion rates increased at 60% (598) of the 992 sites analyzed, decreased at 31% (307), and changed less than ?? 30 cm at 9% (87). Historical observations and quantitative studies over the past 175 years allowed us to place our erosion rate measurements into a longer-term context. Several of the coastal features along this stretch of coastline received Western place names during the Dease and Simpson expedition in 1837, and the majority of those features had been lost by the early 1900s as a result of coastline erosion, suggesting that erosion has been active over at least the historical record. Incorporation of historical and modern observations also allowed us to detect the loss of both cultural and historical sites and modern infrastructure. U.S. Geological Survey topographic maps reveal a number of known cultural and historical sites, as well as sites with modern infrastructure constructed as recently as the 1950s, that had disappeared by the early 2000s as a result of coastal erosion. We were also able to identify sites that are currently being threatened by an encroaching coastline. Our modern erosion rate measurements can potentially be used to predict when a historical site or modern infrastructure will be affected if such erosion rates persist. ?? The Arctic Institute of North America.

  8. Development of a 3D Coupled Physical-Biogeochemical Model for the Marseille Coastal Area (NW Mediterranean Sea): What Complexity Is Required in the Coastal Zone?

    PubMed Central

    Fraysse, Marion; Pinazo, Christel; Faure, Vincent Martin; Fuchs, Rosalie; Lazzari, Paolo; Raimbault, Patrick; Pairaud, Ivane

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial inputs (natural and anthropogenic) from rivers, the atmosphere and physical processes strongly impact the functioning of coastal pelagic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to develop a tool for the examination of these impacts on the Marseille coastal area, which experiences inputs from the Rhone River and high rates of atmospheric deposition. Therefore, a new 3D coupled physical/biogeochemical model was developed. Two versions of the biogeochemical model were tested, one model considering only the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles and a second model that also considers the phosphorus (P) cycle. Realistic simulations were performed for a period of 5 years (2007–2011). The model accuracy assessment showed that both versions of the model were able of capturing the seasonal changes and spatial characteristics of the ecosystem. The model also reproduced upwelling events and the intrusion of Rhone River water into the Bay of Marseille well. Those processes appeared to greatly impact this coastal oligotrophic area because they induced strong increases in chlorophyll-a concentrations in the surface layer. The model with the C, N and P cycles better reproduced the chlorophyll-a concentrations at the surface than did the model without the P cycle, especially for the Rhone River water. Nevertheless, the chlorophyll-a concentrations at depth were better represented by the model without the P cycle. Therefore, the complexity of the biogeochemical model introduced errors into the model results, but it also improved model results during specific events. Finally, this study suggested that in coastal oligotrophic areas, improvements in the description and quantification of the hydrodynamics and the terrestrial inputs should be preferred over increasing the complexity of the biogeochemical model. PMID:24324589

  9. Development of a 3D coupled physical-biogeochemical model for the Marseille coastal area (NW Mediterranean Sea): what complexity is required in the coastal zone?

    PubMed

    Fraysse, Marion; Pinazo, Christel; Faure, Vincent Martin; Fuchs, Rosalie; Lazzari, Paolo; Raimbault, Patrick; Pairaud, Ivane

    2013-01-01

    Terrestrial inputs (natural and anthropogenic) from rivers, the atmosphere and physical processes strongly impact the functioning of coastal pelagic ecosystems. The objective of this study was to develop a tool for the examination of these impacts on the Marseille coastal area, which experiences inputs from the Rhone River and high rates of atmospheric deposition. Therefore, a new 3D coupled physical/biogeochemical model was developed. Two versions of the biogeochemical model were tested, one model considering only the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles and a second model that also considers the phosphorus (P) cycle. Realistic simulations were performed for a period of 5 years (2007-2011). The model accuracy assessment showed that both versions of the model were able of capturing the seasonal changes and spatial characteristics of the ecosystem. The model also reproduced upwelling events and the intrusion of Rhone River water into the Bay of Marseille well. Those processes appeared to greatly impact this coastal oligotrophic area because they induced strong increases in chlorophyll-a concentrations in the surface layer. The model with the C, N and P cycles better reproduced the chlorophyll-a concentrations at the surface than did the model without the P cycle, especially for the Rhone River water. Nevertheless, the chlorophyll-a concentrations at depth were better represented by the model without the P cycle. Therefore, the complexity of the biogeochemical model introduced errors into the model results, but it also improved model results during specific events. Finally, this study suggested that in coastal oligotrophic areas, improvements in the description and quantification of the hydrodynamics and the terrestrial inputs should be preferred over increasing the complexity of the biogeochemical model.

  10. Weekday/weekend differences in gasoline related hydrocarbons at coastal PAMS sites due to recreational boating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Robert F.

    2013-08-01

    Analysis of PAMS (Photochemical Assessment Monitoring Stations) data at several coastal sites reveals large weekday/weekend differences in gasoline related hydrocarbons. Elevated concentrations of gasoline related constituents, including alkanes, alkenes, and aromatics, are observed on weekends at the PAMS monitors at Sherwood Island State Park in Westport, CT and at Newbury, MA. An analysis of the ratio of the concentrations of 2,3-dimethylbutane to 2,2-dimethylbutane indicates these compounds are freshly emitted, and an investigation in conjunction with wind data shows that the elevated concentrations are associated primarily with onshore winds. These elevated concentrations are most likely due to weekend recreational boating.

  11. Observations of aerosol optical properties at a coastal site in Hong Kong, South China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiaping; Virkkula, Aki; Gao, Yuan; Lee, Shuncheng; Shen, Yicheng; Chi, Xuguang; Nie, Wei; Liu, Qiang; Xu, Zheng; Huang, Xin; Wang, Tao; Cui, Long; Ding, Aijun

    2017-02-01

    Temporal variations in aerosol optical properties were investigated at a coastal station in Hong Kong based on the field observation from February 2012 to February 2015. At 550 nm, the average light-scattering (151 ± 100 Mm-1) and absorption coefficients (8.3 ± 6.1 Mm-1) were lower than most of other rural sites in eastern China, while the single-scattering albedo (SSA = 0.93 ± 0.05) was relatively higher compared with other rural sites in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region. Correlation analysis confirmed that the darkest aerosols were smaller in particle size and showed strong scattering wavelength dependencies, indicating possible sources from fresh emissions close to the measurement site. Particles with Dp of 200-800 nm were less in number, yet contributed the most to the light-scattering coefficients among submicron particles. In summer, both ΔBC / ΔCO and SO2 / BC peaked, indicating the impact of nearby combustion sources on this site. Multi-year backward Lagrangian particle dispersion modeling (LPDM) and potential source contribution (PSC) analysis revealed that these particles were mainly from the air masses that moved southward over Shenzhen and urban Hong Kong and the polluted marine air containing ship exhausts. These fresh emission sources led to low SSA during summer months. For winter and autumn months, contrarily, ΔBC / ΔCO and SO2 / BC were relatively low, showing that the site was more under influence of well-mixed air masses from long-range transport including from South China, East China coastal regions, and aged aerosol transported over the Pacific Ocean and Taiwan, causing stronger abilities of light extinction and larger variability of aerosol optical properties. Our results showed that ship emissions in the vicinity of Hong Kong could have visible impact on the light-scattering and absorption abilities as well as SSA at Hok Tsui.

  12. Hydrogeologic characterization of the cretaceous-tertiary Coastal Plain sequence at the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Aadland, R.K.

    1990-01-01

    Several hydrostratigraphic classification schemes have been devised to describe the hydrogeology at the Savannah River Site SRS. Central to these schemes is the one-to-one fixed relationship between the hydrostratigraphic units and the lithostratigraphic units currently favored for the Site. This fixed relationship has proven difficult to apply in studies of widely separated locations at the Site due to the various facies observed in the updip Coastal Plain sequence. A detailed analysis and synthesis of the geophysical, core, and hydrologic data available from more than 164 deep wells from 23 cluster locations both on the Site and in the surrounding region was conducted to provide the basis for a hydrostratigraphic classification scheme which could be applied to the entire SRS region. As a result, an interim hydrostratigraphic classification was developed that defines the regional hydrogeologic characteristics of the aquifers underlying the Site (Aadland et al., 1990). The hydrostratigraphic code accounts for and accommodates the rapid lateral variation in lithofacies observed in the region, and eliminates all formal'' connection between the hydrostratigraphic nomenclature and the lithostratigraphic nomenclature. The code is robust and can be made as detailed as is needed to characterize the aquifer units and aquifer zones described in Site-specific studies. 15 refs., 2 figs.

  13. a Multidisciplinary Approach to the Coastal Protection of Two Archaeological Sites in Lybia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Urso, I.; Ombrelli, M.; Telaroli, P.; Calesso, W.; Badin, C.; Senigaglia, M.; Urrutia, C.; Sterponi, L.

    2015-04-01

    The present study is part of the preliminary investigation to design a coastal protection for the archaeological sites of Sabratha and Leptis Magna and the hydraulic re-arrangement of the final stretch of the Wadi Lebda which runs across the archaeological area of Leptis Magna. This study is a part of the project "Safeguarding the Sabratha and Leptis Magna archaeological sites. Preventing flooding of Leptis Magna from the Wadi Lebda", started in 2009 and commissioned by MARCO POLO STORICA LTD - Scotland. The planning of interventions has required an accurate morphological reconstruction of the interested areas. In this regard, given the wide investigation area, the aerial and land survey operations logistic difficulties and tight timeframe, the use of multi-beam technology and satellite images was particularly useful. The Digital Terrain Model has been coupled with detailed bathymetric surveys of the coastal area, undertaken mostly by multi-beam techniques, and by investigations of the ground characteristics, which were integrated in the information system prepared as design support.

  14. The Ysterfontein 1 Middle Stone Age site, South Africa, and early human exploitation of coastal resources

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Richard G.; Avery, Graham; Cruz-Uribe, Kathryn; Halkett, David; Parkington, John E.; Steele, Teresa; Volman, Thomas P.; Yates, Royden

    2004-01-01

    Human fossils and the genetics of extant human populations indicate that living people derive primarily from an African population that lived within the last 200,000 years. Yet it was only ≈50,000 years ago that the descendants of this population spread to Eurasia, where they swamped or replaced the Neanderthals and other nonmodern Eurasians. Based on archaeological observations, the most plausible hypothesis for the delay is that Africans and Eurasians were behaviorally similar until 50,000 years ago, and it was only at this time that Africans developed a behavioral advantage. The archaeological findings come primarily from South Africa, where they suggest that the advantage involved much more effective use of coastal resources. Until now, the evidence has come mostly from deeply stratified caves on the south (Indian Ocean) coast. Here, we summarize results from recent excavations at Ysterfontein 1, a deeply stratified shelter in a contrasting environment on the west (Atlantic) coast. The Ysterfontein 1 samples of human food debris must be enlarged for a full comparison to samples from other relevant sites, but they already corroborate two inferences drawn from south coast sites: (i) coastal foragers before 50,000 years ago did not fish routinely, probably for lack of appropriate technology, and (ii) they collected tortoises and shellfish less intensively than later people, probably because their populations were smaller. PMID:15007171

  15. Model calculating annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor for coastal site of nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Hu, E B; Chen, J Y; Yao, R T; Zhang, M S; Gao, Z R; Wang, S X; Jia, P R; Liao, Q L

    2001-07-01

    This paper describes an atmospheric dispersion field experiment performed on the coastal site of nuclear power plant in the east part of China during 1995 to 1996. The three-dimension joint frequency are obtained by hourly observation of wind and temperature on a 100 m high tower; the frequency of the "event day of land and sea breezes" are given by observation of surface wind and land and sea breezes; the diffusion parameters are got from measurements of turbulent and wind tunnel simulation test. A new model calculating the annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor for coastal site of nuclear power plant is developed and established. This model considers not only the effect from mixing release and mixed layer but also the effect from the internal boundary layer and variation of diffusion parameters due to the distance from coast. The comparison between results obtained by the new model and current model shows that the ratio of annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor gained by the new model and the current one is about 2.0.

  16. Vegetation response to obliquity and precession forcing during the Mid-Pleistocene Transition in Western Mediterranean region (ODP site 976)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joannin, Sébastien; Bassinot, Franck; Nebout, Nathalie Combourieu; Peyron, Odile; Beaudouin, Célia

    2011-02-01

    The ODP leg 161 Site 976 (Alboran Sea) is a deep-sea section sampled at a water depth of 1108 m in the Western Mediterranean Sea. Pollen analysis provides a vegetation and climate record of the Mid Pleistocene Transition (MPT), roughly one million years ago. The age-model tied to biostratigraphic events was revised by aligning the pollen climate index (PCI) to Mediterranean (KC01b) and global (LR04) oxygen isotope records. The studied time slice spans the interval ˜1.09 Ma (MIS 31) to ˜0.90 Ma (MIS 23). Across this interval, past phytogeography of nowadays extinct taxa, which were rare, allows a successful application of the modern analogues technique (MAT) to quantitative climate reconstructions for the MPT. Five, long-term, obliquity-related vegetation successions (O1 to O5), and eight short-term, precession-related vegetation successions (P1 to P8) are observed within the studied interval. These vegetation successions, regardless of their duration, show the same pattern: the progressive replacement of temperate trees by mountainous taxa, and then by herbs and steppe maxima. Precession-related successions correspond, therefore, to as dramatic vegetation changes as those driven by obliquity, including a final steppe phase under deteriorated climate conditions. Wavelet analysis of the PCI record shows that the Western Mediterranean experienced a shift at 1.01 Ma from precession-dominated frequencies (1.05-1.01 Ma) to obliquity-dominated frequencies (1.01-0.9 Ma). There is, therefore, an apparent discrepancy between wavelet analysis results and vegetation dynamic analysis (which suggests that obliquity and precession are recorded throughout the entire studied interval). This discrepancy could result from the fact that the PCI record sums, somehow, similar vegetation changes (wet to dry) occurring at different periodicities. Such a complex vegetation dynamics is mathematically rendered through a single parameter (i.e. principal component), which does not

  17. Seasonal changes of spatial variation of some groundwater quality variables in a large irrigated coastal Mediterranean region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kurunc, Ahmet; Ersahin, Sabit; Sonmez, Namik K; Kaman, Harun; Uz, Ilker; Uz, Buket Y; Aslan, Gulcin E

    2016-06-01

    Soil and groundwater degradations have taken considerable attention, recently. We studied spatial and temporal variations of groundwater table depth and contours, and groundwater pH, electrical conductivity (EC), and nitrate (NO3) content in a large irrigated area in Western Mediterranean region of Turkey. These variables were monitored during 2009 and 2010 in previously constructed 220 monitoring wells. We analyzed the data by geostatistical techniques and GIS. Spatial variation of groundwater table depth (GTD) and groundwater table contours (GTC) remained similar across the four sampling campaigns. The values for groundwater NO3 content, EC, and pH values ranged from 0.01 to 454.1 gL(-1), 0.06 to 46.0 dS m(-1) and 6.53-9.91, respectively. Greatest geostatistical range (16,964 m) occurred for GTC and minimum (960 m) for groundwater EC. Groundwater NO3 concentrations varied both spatially and temporally. Temporal changes in spatial pattern of NO3 indicated that land use and farming practices influenced spatial and temporal variation of groundwater NO3. Several hot spots occurred for groundwater NO3 content and EC. These localities should be monitored more frequently and land management practices should be adjusted to avoid soil and groundwater degradation. The results may have important implications for areas with similar soil, land use, and climate conditions across the Mediterranean region.

  18. Fate of metals in coastal sediments of a Mediterranean flood-dominated system: An approach based on total and labile fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussiez, Vincent; Ludwig, Wolfgang; Radakovitch, Olivier; Probst, Jean-Luc; Monaco, André; Charrière, Bruno; Buscail, Roselyne

    2011-05-01

    The dynamics of sediment-bound metals (Cs, Cu, Ni, Pb, Ti and Zn) were studied off the Têt River (western Gulf of Lion), a typical Mediterranean coastal river punctuated by short and violent flash-floods. Spatial and temporal sampling strategies were combined to elucidate the fate of these elements in response to both the riverine sediment input and the offshore transport of these sediments through hydrodynamics. Our results show the temporal entrapment of riverborne particles and associated metals, consecutively to a major flood event, in the nearshore sedimentary unit called prodelta. Here, deposition and resuspension mechanisms define a sedimentological cycle that could be followed completely in this study. In terms of speciation between reactive (labile) and residual fractions along the fluvio-deltaic continuum, our results show that Cu, Pb and Zn are the most labile (potentially mobile) metals in the river, in accordance with their contributions from anthropogenic sources. But in the marine surficial sediments, two main behaviours can be discriminated when compared to the riverine suspended particulate matter. While Pb and Zn depict rather a constant labile fraction, Cu is characterized by decreasing levels (up to 50% difference). In terms of environmental impact, these contrasting trends have direct repercussions for the contaminant dispersal in the coastal area. Whereas Pb and Zn conserve their enhanced levels because of their stronger affinity with fine sediments, Cu is marked by the entire loss of its anthropogenic component that is progressively transferred to the dissolved phase, likely mediated by organic ligands. We ascribe these behaviours to different post-depositional partition mechanisms with respect to oxidation of the particulate organic phase at the bottom sediment/water interface. Also, analysis of one sediment core from the prodelta indicates that these early diagenetic processes govern the chemical forms of land-derived contaminants

  19. Impact of flash flood events on the distribution of organic pollutants in surface sediments from a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Mar Menor, SE Spain).

    PubMed

    León, V M; Moreno-González, R; García, V; Campillo, J A

    2017-02-01

    The influence of flash flood events on the input and distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorinated pesticides (OCPs) in surface sediments from the Mar Menor lagoon were characterized in this study. These contaminants were analyzed in surface water samples collected during two flash flood events in the main surface watercourse which flow into the Mar Menor lagoon. Surface sediments were sampled semiannually before and after flash flood events. The total input of PAHs, OCPs, and PCBs (sorbed + dissolved) during two flash flood events was estimated at 0.98, 1.32, and 0.34 kg, respectively, the main input corresponding to p,p'-DDE (1.00 kg). The distribution of organic contaminants in surface sediments was not homogeneous as a consequence of the presence of many simultaneous sources and different meteorological, hydrodynamic, and physicochemical conditions. As a consequence of flash flood events, p,p'-DDE concentrations in surface sediments increased significantly in the central and south zones of the lagoon. However, in the case of PCBs, a dilution effect was observed in the south zone after such events, reducing the environmental risk. These changes in the pollutant distribution persisted at least 1 year later (autumn 2010), showing that the impact of flood events in the distribution of persistent organic contaminants in Mediterranean coastal lagoons is of relevance according to the ecological risk assessment carried out. The impact of these events should be also considered in other coastal systems, especially in semiarid and semiconfined areas.

  20. Seasonal and temporal dynamics of macrophytic assemblages and abiotic parameters of coastal lagoons in Western Greece (Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christia, Chrysoula; Papastergiadou, Eva

    2014-05-01

    Coastal lagoons are considered naturally stressed systems that experience frequent environmental disturbances and fluctuations and they are usually considered as physically controlled ecosystems. Coastal lagoons of Western Greece are representative of four different lagoon types covering a wide range of physiographical and hydrological characteristics. The seasonal differences in the physico-chemical parameters monitored from 2005 to 2007 were reduced in lagoon types (II and III) which characterized by better seawater communication when compared with the chocked lagoon types (Type I and IV). The latter types showed lower salinity values and high nutrient concentrations especially during the wet period. The macrophytic assemblages of coastal lagoons are typically dominated by few genera with great environmental plasticity and salinity competition, among other structuring abiotic variables. The implementation of DCA analysis revealed five distinct macrophytic assemblages in which dominant species were the angiosperms Zostera noltii, Ruppia cirrhosa, Cymodocea nodosa, Potamogeton pectinatus, the charophytes Lamprothamnium papulosum and Chara hispida f. corfuensis, as well as species preferring more marine conditions such as Acanthophora nayadiformis and Cystoseira barbata. The lagoon type IV differs from all other distinguished lagoon types due to the dominance of the species Potamogeton pectinatus and the charophyte Chara hispida f. corfuensis. Regarding the macrophytic assemblages and the univariate variables, important differences were recorded between lagoon types. Chocked lagoons showed low number of species and Shannon diversity index comparing with restricted lagoon types (Types II and III). The multiple linear regression analysis showed that transparency, pH, nitrates, alkalinity and Chl-a could affect the values of the above variables. A decline of angiosperms was referred on a worldwide scale and recorded also in coastal lagoons of Western Greece. A gradual

  1. Assessing landslide potential on coastal bluffs near Mukilteo, Washington—Geologic site characterization for hydrologic monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mirus, Benjamin B.; Smith, Joel B.; Benjamin Stark,; York Lewis,; Abigail Michel,; Baum, Rex L.

    2016-07-01

    During the summer 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey collected geologic and geotechnical data for two sites on coastal bluffs along the eastern shore of Puget Sound, Washington. The U.S. Geological Survey also installed hydrologic instrumentation at the sites and collected specimens for laboratory testing. The two sites are located on City of Mukilteo open-space land and are about 0.6 kilometers apart. The bluffs at each site are approximately 42 meters high, and rise steeply from the shoreline with 32–35° slopes. The more northerly of the two sites occupies an active landslide and is mostly unvegetated. The other site is forested, and although stable during the preparation of this report, shows evidence of historical and potential landslide activity. The slopes of the bluffs at both sites are mantled by a thin, nonuniform colluvium underlain by clay-rich glacial deposits and tills of the Whidbey Formation or Double Bluff Drift. Till consisting of sand, gravel, and cobbles caps the bluffs and rests on finer grained glacial deposits of sand, silt, and clay. These types of different glacial deposits are dense, vertically fractured, and generally have low permeability, but field observations indicate that locally the deposits are sufficiently permeable to allow lateral flow of water along fractures and subhorizontal boundaries between deposits of different texture. Laboratory tests indicate that many of the deposits are highly plastic, with low hydraulic conductivity, and moderate shear strength. Steep slopes combined with the strength and hydraulic characteristics of the deposits leave the bluffs prone to slope instability, particularly during the wet season when infiltrating rainfall changes moisture content, pore-water pressure, and effective stress within the hillslope. The instrumentation was designed to primarily observe rainfall variability and hydrologic changes in the subsurface that can affect stability of the bluffs, and also to compare the hydrologic

  2. Stream habitat characteristics at selected sites in the Georgia-Florida coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lewis, L.J.; Turtora, Michael

    1998-01-01

    Habitat characterization is part of a multidisciplinary approach to water-quality assessment implemented by the National Water-Quality Assessment Program. Habitat data were collected in the Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain study unit at 24 sites during 1993-95. Data were collected for habitat characteristics at three spatial scales: basin, segment, and reach. Basin data include physiography, land resource provinces, and land use, providing a description of the environmental setting at each site. Segment data include length, gradient, and sinuosity. A Kendall correlation analysis performed on segment characteristics and the log-of-basin area showed a correlation between segment gradient and the log-of-basin area and a correlation between sinuosity and segment length. Reach data consist of field-collected measurements of both instream and riparian habitats. Sand and detritus were the most common channel-bed substrates among the sampled sites. Measurements of channel width, water depth, and bank width and height were used to create cross-sectional profiles of each sampled area. Elevations of selected durations plotted on cross sections illustrated the percentage of time that the banks were inundated at each site. Sites were divided into two groups based on duration of bank inundation (less than or equal to 1 percent and greater than 1 percent). Bank woody vegetation was also sampled and a clustering algorithm known as Two-Way INdicator SPecies ANalysis (TWINSPAN) was used to analyze these data. TWINSPAN divided the sites into two groups based on their vegetation composition. A statistical comparison of the two types of site groups (duration of bank inundation and vegetation) was performed. The significant association between these groups was consistent with the hypothesis that inundation frequency affected riparian vegetation.

  3. Effects of mariculture on macrobenthic assemblages in a Western Mediterranean site.

    PubMed

    Tomassetti, Paolo; Persia, Emma; Mercatali, Isabel; Vani, Danilo; Marussso, Veronica; Porrello, Salvatore

    2009-04-01

    The effects of solid organic wastes from a marine fish farm on sediment was tested using macrobenthic fauna as biological indicators. Impact on benthic fauna was evaluated in the vicinity of a fish farm in the Tyrrhenian Sea (Western Mediterranean) between July 2001 and October 2002. Changes in benthic community structure were investigated using multivariate, distributional and univariate analyses (diversity indices, AMBI and M-AMBI). The results showed sharp disturbance of assemblages under the cages and no effects in the area more than 25 m from the cages. Sediment alterations were related to an increase in farmed biomass and its wastes, as well as to low current speed that allowed accumulation of organic matter on the sea floor. It was possible to follow the ecological succession from slightly altered assemblages to heavily polluted ones in the very short period of a single fish fattening cycle (15 months).

  4. Interactive Effect of UVR and Phosphorus on the Coastal Phytoplankton Community of the Western Mediterranean Sea: Unravelling Eco-Physiological Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Carrillo, Presentación; Medina-Sánchez, Juan M.; Herrera, Guillermo; Durán, Cristina; Segovia, María; Cortés, Dolores; Salles, Soluna; Korbee, Nathalie; L. Figueroa, Félix; Mercado, Jesús M.

    2015-01-01

    Some of the most important effects of global change on coastal marine systems include increasing nutrient inputs and higher levels of ultraviolet radiation (UVR, 280–400 nm), which could affect primary producers, a key trophic link to the functioning of marine food webs. However, interactive effects of both factors on the phytoplankton community have not been assessed for the Mediterranean Sea. An in situ factorial experiment, with two levels of ultraviolet solar radiation (UVR+PAR vs. PAR) and nutrients (control vs. P-enriched), was performed to evaluate single and UVR×P effects on metabolic, enzymatic, stoichiometric and structural phytoplanktonic variables. While most phytoplankton variables were not affected by UVR, dissolved phosphatase (APAEX) and algal P content increased in the presence of UVR, which was interpreted as an acclimation mechanism of algae to oligotrophic marine waters. Synergistic UVR×P interactive effects were positive on photosynthetic variables (i.e., maximal electron transport rate, ETRmax), but negative on primary production and phytoplankton biomass because the pulse of P unmasked the inhibitory effect of UVR. This unmasking effect might be related to greater photodamage caused by an excess of electron flux after a P pulse (higher ETRmax) without an efficient release of carbon as the mechanism to dissipate the reducing power of photosynthetic electron transport. PMID:26599583

  5. Bacterial community shift is induced by dynamic environmental parameters in a changing coastal ecosystem (northern Adriatic, northeastern Mediterranean Sea)--a 2-year time-series study.

    PubMed

    Tinta, T; Vojvoda, J; Mozetič, P; Talaber, I; Vodopivec, M; Malfatti, F; Turk, V

    2015-10-01

    The potential link between the microbial dynamics and the environmental parameters was investigated in a semi-enclosed and highly dynamic coastal system (Gulf of Trieste, northern Adriatic Sea, NE Mediterranean Sea). Our comprehensive 2-year time-series study showed that despite the shallowness of this area, there was a significant difference between the surface and the bottom bacterial community structure. The bottom bacterial community was more diverse than the surface one and influenced by sediment re-suspension. The surface seawater temperature had a profound effect on bacterial productivity, while the bacterial community structure was more affected by freshwater-borne nutrients and phytoplankton blooms. Phytoplankton blooms caused an increase of Gammaproteobacteria (Alteromonadaceae, SAR86 and Vibrionaceae) and shift in dominance from SAR11 to Rhodobacteraceae taxon at the surface. Our results propose the importance of the water mass movements as drivers of freshwater-borne nutrients and of allochthonous microbial taxa. This study emphasizes the prediction power based on association networks analyses that are fed with long-term measurements of microbial and environmental parameters. These interaction maps offer valuable insights into the response of marine ecosystem to climate- and anthropogenic-driven stressors.

  6. Assessment of the coastal dynamics in a nested zoom and feedback on the boundary current: the North-Western Mediterranean Sea case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Declerck, Amandine; Ourmières, Yann; Molcard, Anne

    2016-11-01

    The Northern Current (hereafter NC), the major current in the North-Western Mediterranean (hereafter NWM) basin, has been largely investigated in the litterature for its mesoscale features. Its behaviour in the Var region can strongly condition the downstream flow along the Gulf of Lions shelf and Spain coast, making this zone a key area. However, the sub-mesoscale dynamics of the area and its potential impacts on the rest of the flow are not well known. This work reveals the potential interest of better simulating high-resolution dynamics in a restricted area and how this could improve the circulation representation in a larger area. To address this question, a very high resolution configuration (1/192∘) nested in an already existing high-resolution configuration (1/64∘) has been developed, using the NEMO model. Comparisons with observations show that the very high-resolution changes only weakly the mean NC characteristics but can significantly modify individual mesoscale events such as eddies and meanders occurring in the zoomed area. Furthermore, the coastal dynamics and episodic intrusions of a NC secondary branch inside a semi-enclosed bay appear to be significantly enhanced. In a second stage, the assessment of the feedback of this improved dynamics on the regional mesoscale dynamics is shown, this being allowed by the two-way coupling option of the embedded configuration using AGRIF.

  7. ERTS surveys a 500 km squared locust breeding site in Saudi Arabia. [Red Sea coastal plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedgley, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    From September 1972 to January 1973, ERTS-1 precisely located a 500 sq km area on the Red Sea coastal plain of Saudi Arabia within which the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria, Forsk.) bred successfully and produced many small swarms. Growth of vegetation shown by satellite imagery was confirmed from ground surveys and raingauge data. The experiment demonstrates the feasibility of detecting potential locust breeding sites by satellite, and shows that an operational satellite would be a powerful tool for routine survey of the 3 x 10 to the 7th power sq km invasion area of the Desert Locust in Africa and Asia, as well as of other locust species in the arid and semi-arid tropics.

  8. Seasonal variations of aerosol over Dona Paula, a coastal site on the west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suresh, T.; Desa, Elgar

    We report here the observations of the aerosol studies carried-out for three years (2000-2002) at Dona-Paula, Goa (15.456°N, 73.801°E), a coastal site on the west coast of India. Aerosol optical depths were measured using a five channel sunphotometer with wavelengths at 440, 500, 675, 870 and 936 nm. The site enjoys a tropical climate and is under the influence of the strong southwest or summer monsoon and weak northeast or winter monsoon. Being a coastal station land-sea breeze play an important role in the variations of the aerosol loading over the site and their transport to the Arabian Sea. The mean aerosol optical thicknesses (AOT) at 500 and 870 nm are 0.46 (±0.15) and 0.23 (±0.097), respectively, while the Angstrom exponent is 1.31 (±0.347). The aerosol properties over the site showed a distinct seasonal variations, with high values of AOT observed during summer, with mean values of 0.48 (±0.15) and 0.26 (±0.09) at 500 and 870 nm, respectively, while during the winter relatively low values were observed, with mean value of 0.41 (±0.14) and 0.19 (±0.09) at 500 and 870 nm, respectively. The values of Angstrom exponents observed at the site suggest that the aerosol comprise mostly of the small size particles, with relatively larger particles being observed during summer than winter. An anti-correlation is observed between the inter-annual variations in the aerosol loading and the rainfall over Goa. Aerosol properties show diurnal variations, with comparatively lower values of AOT being observed in the evening. These diurnal variations are within a limit of 10% of the average values observed for the day. Seasonal patterns in the diurnal variations of aerosol optical depths have been observed. Considering the effect of the meteorological parameters over the aerosol, it is observed that the AOT is positively correlated with water vapor column, however the wind is found to aid in the reduction of aerosol load over Goa. It can be inferred from the weak

  9. Organochlorines in sediments and mussels collected from coastal sites along the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhan-qiang

    2004-01-01

    The level and pattern of residues of organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) were analyzed in sediment and mussel (Perna viridis) samples from ten coastal sites along the Pearl River Delta, South China. The range of total HCH was < 0.01 to 0.29 ng/g freeze-dried weight in sediment, and < 0.01 to 1.35 ng/g lipid weight in mussels. Average total DDTs concentrations ranged from < 0.01 to 1.04 ng/g in sediment, and < 0.01 to 148.5 ng/g in mussels. Average total PCB concentrations ranged from 16.4 to 198.6 ng/g in sediment, and from 41 to 729.2 ng/g in mussels. Organochlorine pesticide and PCBs in mussels and sediments presented similar distribution patterns. The regression analysis indicated that PCBs concentrations in mussels were significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with concentrations in sediments. However, their concentrations in mussels were several times higher than the concentration detected in surrounding sediments. The major fraction of DDT related compounds measured in mussels and sediments was DDD. Based on average PCB concentrations, penta-, hexa-, and tetrachlorobiphenyls were preferentially accumulated by mussels as compared to the average sediment composition. According to the present results,three organochlorine polluted "hot spot" sites, including Victoria Harbour, Lingding Yang and Huangmao Sea, were found in the Pearl River estuarine zone. HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in all mussel samples were below the limits of 2, 0.2 and 5.0 microg/g wet weight recommended by the Technical Group of Guangdong Coastal Zone Resource Comprehensive Survey and U. S. Food and Drug Administration.

  10. Short-term covariation of dissolved oxygen and phytoplankton photosynthesis in a coastal fish aquaculture site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Takashi; Murata, Osamu; Furuya, Ken; Eguchi, Mitsuru

    2007-09-01

    The influence of phytoplankton photosynthesis (PP) on dissolved oxygen (DO) dynamics was evaluated in a red sea bream ( Pagrus major) aquaculture site. The surface PP was monitored continuously by a natural fluorescence sensor for 2-3 weeks during all seasons, except spring. In summer, when the daily PP was low during cloudy weather, DO at the surface markedly decreased below the critical level (5.7 mg O 2 L -1), which is needed for normal fish growth. However, on the subsequent clear day, active PP restored the DO back to above the critical level. In fall, under cloudy skies, the surface DO also decreased below the critical level and remained there, even when the subsequent days were clear. In winter, DO remained at high levels throughout the water column due to an active supply from the air and vertical mixing. Besides seasonal changes, surface DO showed a diel cycle with a minimum early in the morning and maximum in the evening. This diel cycle was also regulated by planktonic photosynthesis. This was most obvious and its amplitude was largest in summer, as PP was very high and thermal stratification prevented diffusion of DO from the surface to deeper water. The present study is the first detailed report on the close coupling of DO with PP in coastal waters, even under non-bloom conditions. Cloudy weather and early mornings were found to be the most critical periods in oxygen supply to cultured fish and other pelagic organisms in a fish culture site and other eutrophic coastal area.

  11. DEVELOPING SITE-SPECIFIC MODELS FOR FORECASTING BACTERIA LEVELS AT COASTAL BEACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act of 2000 authorizes studies of pathogen indicators in coastal recreation waters that develop appropriate, accurate, expeditious, and cost-effective methods (including predictive models) for quantifying pathogens in co...

  12. Modification of Summertime Arctic Cloud Characteristics Between a Coastal and Inland Site

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J. C.; Barnard, James C.; Shaw, William J.

    2006-07-01

    Cloud characteristics at two sites on the North Slope of Alaska separated by ~100 km have been examined for the warmer months of 2001–2003 using data collected from microwave radiometers, ceilometers, rotating shadowband radiometers, and pyranometers. Clouds at the inland site, Atqasuk, were found to have approximately 26% greater optical depths than those at the coastal site, Barrow, and the ratio of measured irradiance to clear sky irradiance was nearly 20% smaller at Atqasuk under cloudy conditions. We hypothesize that these differences are largely attributable to enhanced upward fluxes of heat and water vapor over the wet tundra as clouds move inland from Barrow. Further support for this hypothesis is found from the behavior of the liquid water paths for low clouds, which tend to be higher at Atqasuk than at Barrow for onshore winds but not for offshore ones, and from differences in sensible heat fluxes, which are small but significant over the tundra but are nearly zero at an offshore island located just to the northeast of Barrow.

  13. Rising temperatures and dwindling water supplies? Perception of climate change among residents of the Spanish Mediterranean tourist coastal areas.

    PubMed

    March, Hug; Saurí, David; Olcina, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the results of a survey on the perception of climate change in the 14 "tourist zones" (as defined by the Spanish Statistical Institute, INE) that stretch from the French border to Gibraltar alongside the Spanish Mediterranean coast, including the Balearic Islands. Our sample consisted of 1,014 telephone interviews stratified according to the number of tourists staying in each zone. Respondents showed concern for the likely impacts of climate change on jobs and thought that climate change would reduce the economic activity of their areas. Responses were also pessimistic regarding future water availability but agreed with the development of alternative sources such as desalination and water re-use. Household size, educational levels, and employment tended to be the most significant statistical explanatory factors regarding attitudes toward climate change. Respondents in larger households (a variable not tested in the literature as far as we know), respondents with higher education, and respondents working for a wage tended to express more concerns than the rest.

  14. Rising Temperatures and Dwindling Water Supplies? Perception of Climate Change Among Residents of the Spanish Mediterranean Tourist Coastal Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    March, Hug; Saurí, David; Olcina, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we discuss the results of a survey on the perception of climate change in the 14 "tourist zones" (as defined by the Spanish Statistical Institute, INE) that stretch from the French border to Gibraltar alongside the Spanish Mediterranean coast, including the Balearic Islands. Our sample consisted of 1,014 telephone interviews stratified according to the number of tourists staying in each zone. Respondents showed concern for the likely impacts of climate change on jobs and thought that climate change would reduce the economic activity of their areas. Responses were also pessimistic regarding future water availability but agreed with the development of alternative sources such as desalination and water re-use. Household size, educational levels, and employment tended to be the most significant statistical explanatory factors regarding attitudes toward climate change. Respondents in larger households (a variable not tested in the literature as far as we know), respondents with higher education, and respondents working for a wage tended to express more concerns than the rest.

  15. Fatty acid transfer in the food web of a coastal Mediterranean lagoon: Evidence for high arachidonic acid retention in fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koussoroplis, Apostolos-Manuel; Bec, Alexandre; Perga, Marie-Elodie; Koutrakis, Emmanuil; Bourdier, Gilles; Desvilettes, Christian

    2011-02-01

    The transfer of fatty acids (FAs) in the food web of a Mediterranean lagoon was studied using FA compositional patterns across several trophic levels. The structure of the food web was inferred from C and N stable isotopes values and an isotope mixing model was used in order to estimate the relative contribution of the different potential food sources to the biomass of consumers. Bidimensional plots of FA composition of food web components against their δ 15N values indicated a general trend of increasing proportions of highly unsaturated fatty acids (HUFAs) with increasing trophic levels while the proportions of saturated fatty acids (SAFAs) and 18-carbon polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) decreased. Using the relative contributions of food sources to consumers and their FA compositions, a model was built in order to estimate the PUFA composition of consumer mixed diets which was compared to consumer PUFA profiles. The latter allowed the identification of the PUFAs which were mostly enriched/retained in consumer lipids. There was a surprisingly high retention of arachidonic acid (ARA), a trend which challenges the idea of low ARA needs in marine fish and suggests the important physiological role of this essential FA for fish in estuarine environments.

  16. Investigation of processes controlling summertime gaseous elemental mercury oxidation at midlatitudinal marine, coastal, and inland sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zhuyun; Mao, Huiting; Lin, Che-Jen; Kim, Su Youn

    2016-07-01

    A box model incorporating a state-of-the-art chemical mechanism for atmospheric mercury (Hg) cycling was developed to investigate the oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) at three locations in the northeastern United States: Appledore Island (AI; marine), Thompson Farm (TF; coastal, rural), and Pack Monadnock (PM; inland, rural, elevated). The chemical mechanism in this box model included the most up-to-date Hg and halogen chemistry. As a result, the box model was able to simulate reasonably the observed diurnal cycles of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) and chemical speciation bearing distinct differences between the three sites. In agreement with observations, simulated GOM diurnal cycles at AI and TF showed significant daytime peaks in the afternoon and nighttime minimums compared to flat GOM diurnal cycles at PM. Moreover, significant differences in the magnitude of GOM diurnal amplitude (AI > TF > PM) were captured in modeled results. At the coastal and inland sites, GEM oxidation was predominated by O3 and OH, contributing 80-99 % of total GOM production during daytime. H2O2-initiated GEM oxidation was significant (˜ 33 % of the total GOM) at the inland site during nighttime. In the marine boundary layer (MBL) atmosphere, Br and BrO became dominant GEM oxidants, with mixing ratios reaching 0.1 and 1 pptv, respectively, and contributing ˜ 70 % of the total GOM production during midday, while O3 dominated GEM oxidation (50-90 % of GOM production) over the remaining day when Br and BrO mixing ratios were diminished. The majority of HgBr produced from GEM+Br was oxidized by NO2 and HO2 to form brominated GOM species. Relative humidity and products of the CH3O2+BrO reaction possibly significantly affected the mixing ratios of Br or BrO radicals and subsequently GOM formation. Gas-particle partitioning could potentially be important in the production of GOM as well as Br and BrO at the marine site.

  17. Spatial variations of temperature on a coastal site in Sweden as a response to insolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vercauteren, N.; Dahlberg, J.; Lam, N.; Destouni, G.; Hylander, K.

    2012-04-01

    Temperature and humidity are major factors controlling ecosystem development. In a context of changing climate, the spatial distribution of temperature is likely to be affected, and species distribution might be subsequently modified. In particular, topographic heterogeneity is affecting the micro-climate and thus regulates the expansion or restriction of species in a landscape. During a change of climate, certain species might become restricted to localized refugia, or on the contrary expand from old refugia when the overall landscape becomes favorable. In this research we are using GIS based model of incoming solar radiation and subsequently derived monthly averaged temperatures to increase the understanding of changes in local climate and how it affects species repartition. The model is based on topography and observed variations in atmospheric conditions and is accounting for site latitude, elevation, surface orientation, daily and seasonal shifts in sun angle and the effect of shadows from the surrounding topography. A 2500 km2 forested field site located on the western coast of Sweden, along the Baltic Sea, is investigated both in terms of temperature heterogeneity and plant communities. We derive 50 m resolution insolation maps and analyze the response of monthly temperature to insolation. Surface and near surface temperatures are measured by a dense network of temperature sensors during the spring and summer of 2011 and are used for comparison with the modeled temperature maps. We investigate the potential of this modeling approach to scale climate trend analysis down to local climate change in heterogeneous landscapes. We build on the methodology used by Huang et al. (2008) in a mountain ecosystem and develop it for use on a coastal site that is largely influence by the presence of the sea. The time lag that is appropriate between insolation and subsequent temperature response appears to be influenced by the presence of a large water body and follows an

  18. Patterns of trace element bioaccumulation in jellyfish Rhizostoma pulmo (Cnidaria, Scyphozoa) in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon from SE Spain.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Vera, Ana; Peñas Castejón, Jose Matías; García, Gregorio

    2016-09-15

    The effects of an abandoned mining area, exploited for centuries in the mining district of Cartagena-La Union, result in a continuous supply of heavy metals into the Mar Menor coastal lagoon after rain episodes. As a consequence, concentration of trace elements in water column and sediments of this ecosystem is usually higher than in other areas. For monitoring ecosystem health, this study assessed the ability of Rhizostoma pulmo to bioaccumulate trace elements. A total of 57 individuals were sampled at eight different sampling stations during the summer of 2012. Although the concentrations of different analyzed elements (Al, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Sn, and Pb) were moderate, bioconcentration levels in relation to seawater metal concentration were extremely high. In any case, the use or disposal of these organisms should consider their metal content, because of their potential environmental and health implications.

  19. Meteotsunami occurrence frequency along the Mediterranean coasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masina, Marinella; Archetti, Renata; Lamberti, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    A number of research studies describe exceptional destructive meteotsunami events since long time whereas no systematic database is available of moderate events because sea level data were recorded with insufficient resolution. Sea level measurements recently collected with high sampling rate, one per minute or less, by tide gauges positioned along the Mediterranean coasts are examined, aiming to analyze the occurrence of oscillation events in the tsunami frequency range. Sea level data from operating tide stations inside the Mediterranean basin are made publicly available through the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Sea Level Monitoring Facility web site (http://www.ioc-sealevelmonitoring.org/). After the implementation of a rigorous quality check procedure to the raw water level time series, Hilbert transform is applied to two hour high-pass filtered observations to identify tsunami-like oscillation events. Events of seismic origin are identified by consistency between earthquake occurrence and tsunami wave travel time from the earthquake epicenter to the specific tide gauge. Similar analyses are performed to exclude sea waves induced harbor seiches events. A list of probable meteotsunami episodes occurred in the Mediterranean region is so compiled and their occurrence frequency and intensity statistics are evaluated at the different tide gauge sites over the time period of high frequency water level data availability ranging from five to seven years. The effects of atmospheric conditions and seabed topography are discussed. Detection and characterization of meteotsunamis, both of exceptional character and of weak intensity, represent an essential step toward improved assessments of coastal flooding risk along the Mediterranean coasts.

  20. Response of competing vegetation to site preparation on west gulf coastal plain commercial forest land. Forest Service general technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wolters, G.L.; Pearson, H.A.; Thill, R.E.; Baldwin, V.C.; Martin, A.

    1995-09-01

    This study was initiated to determine: (1) the response of saplings, shrubs, and herbaceous vegetation to various mechanical, chemical, and burning treatments on soils common throughout the West Gulf Coastal Plain of Louisiana, Arkansas, and Texas and (2) how fertilization affects understory vegetation response to site preparation on these soils.

  1. Chemical speciation and source apportionment of gaseous precursors observed at a remote site in the Mediterranean basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michoud, Vincent; Sauvage, Stéphane; Dusanter, Sébastien; Leonardis, Thierry; Locoge, Nadine

    2014-05-01

    Models of atmospheric chemistry suggest that aged anthropogenic air masses still contain significant levels of reactive trace gases such as mono- and multi-functional oxygenated volatile organic compounds, even after several days of oxidation. These air masses can significantly impact the oxidative capacity and the formation rate of secondary pollutants (ozone, SOA…) at remote locations. However, large uncertainties still remain about chemical processes occurring during long range transport that leads to the oxidation of anthropogenic pollutants. Long term measurements of volatile organic compounds and inorganic species are being conducted since July 2012 at a remote site in Cape Corsica, a receptor site experiencing events of long range transport of air masses from different urbanized areas (south of France, Spain, Italia, North of Africa). In addition to the long term monitoring, an extended suite of trace gases and aerosols was acquired as part of the 2013 ChArMEx field campaign at Cape Corsica. One of the objectives was to better understand chemical and physical processes occurring during long range transport of anthropogenic plumes. In this presentation, we will first apportion primary and secondary sources of VOCs observed at this remote site using an analysis of spatial and temporal variations of their concentrations, ratios of chemical tracers, and air mass trajectory clustering. We will then present the results from a concentration field approach. This statistical method, based on a large set of data, consists in redistributing the concentrations of selected VOCs to the trajectories in order to identify potential source areas influencing the receptor site. The results of these two approaches will provide relevant information to study chemical processes occurring in different types of plumes transported over the Mediterranean basin.

  2. Byers Peninsula: A reference site for coastal, terrestrial and limnetic ecosystem studies in maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quesada, A.; Camacho, A.; Rochera, C.; Velázquez, D.

    2009-11-01

    This article describes the development of an international and multidisciplinary project funded by the Spanish Polar Programme on Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island, South Shetlands). The project adopted Byers Peninsula as an international reference site for coastal and terrestrial (including inland waters) research within the framework of the International Polar Year initiative. Over 30 scientists from 12 countries and 26 institutions participated in the field work, and many others participated in the processing of the samples. The main themes investigated were: Holocene changes in climate, using both lacustrine sediment cores and palaeo-nests of penguins; limnology of the lakes, ponds, rivers and wetlands; microbiology of microbial mats, ecology of microbial food webs and viral effects on aquatic ecosystems; ornithology, with investigations on a Gentoo penguin rookery ( Pygoscelis papua) as well as the flying ornithofauna; biocomplexity and life cycles of species from different taxonomic groups; analysis of a complete watershed unit from a landscape perspective; and human impacts, specifically the effect of trampling on soil characteristics and biota. Byers Peninsula offers many features as an international reference site given it is one of the largest ice-free areas in the Antarctic Peninsula region, it has a variety of different landscape units, and it hosts diverse aquatic ecosystems. Moreover, the Byers Peninsula is a hotspot for Antarctic biodiversity, and because of its high level of environmental protection, it has been very little affected by human activities. Finally, the proximity to the Spanish polar installations on Livingston Island and the experience derived from previous expeditions to the site make it logistically feasible as a site for ongoing monitoring and research.

  3. Classifications for Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act site-specific projects: 2008 and 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, William R.; Garber, Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    The Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) funds over 100 wetland restoration projects across Louisiana. Integral to the success of CWPPRA is its long-term monitoring program, which enables State and Federal agencies to determine the effectiveness of each restoration effort. One component of this monitoring program is the analysis of high-resolution, color-infrared aerial photography at the U.S. Geological Survey's National Wetlands Research Center in Lafayette, Louisiana. Color-infrared aerial photography (9- by 9-inch) is obtained before project construction and several times after construction. Each frame is scanned on a photogrametric scanner that produces a high-resolution image in Tagged Image File Format (TIFF). By using image-processing software, these TIFF files are then orthorectified and mosaicked to produce a seamless image of a project area and its associated reference area (a control site near the project that has common environmental features, such as marsh type, soil types, and water salinities.) The project and reference areas are then classified according to pixel value into two distinct classes, land and water. After initial land and water ratios have been established by using photography obtained before and after project construction, subsequent comparisons can be made over time to determine land-water change. Several challenges are associated with the land-water interpretation process. Primarily, land-water classifications are often complicated by the presence of floating aquatic vegetation that occurs throughout the freshwater systems of coastal Louisiana and that is sometimes difficult to differentiate from emergent marsh. Other challenges include tidal fluctuations and water movement from strong winds, which may result in flooding and inundation of emergent marsh during certain conditions. Compensating for these events is difficult but possible by using other sources of imagery to verify marsh conditions for other

  4. Physical and chemical properties of aerosols at a coastal site Paposo (Chile) during VOCALS campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordova, A. M.; Chand, D.; Wood, R.; Wallace, D.; Hegg, D. A.; Shaw, G. E.; Krejci, R.; Fochesatto, G. J.; Gallardo, L.

    2009-12-01

    One of the primary goals of the VOCALS (VAMOS* Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study) Regional Experiment (REx) and associated modeling program is an improved understanding of aerosol indirect effects over the southeast Pacific (SEP). Details on the program are available online at www.eol.ucar.edu/projects/vocals/. To this end, detailed aerosol physical and chemical measurements were made during REx at a coastal land site at Paposo (25o 0.4' S, 70o 27.011' W, 690 masl) in northern Chile, a site ideally positioned for studying continental aerosol sources advecting over the SEP. We present initial analysis of data from Paposo. Detailed measurements of aerosol properties were made from mid October to mid November 2008. Observations from optical particle counters (OPC), nephelometers, aethalometer, scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and the chemical analysis of the submicron aerosols samples collected on teflon filters are being used in this study. Large variations in aerosols parameters were observed which corresponded with changes in meteorology, as determined using trajectory analysis. Ion Chromatograph (IC) analysis of submicron aerosol samples shows that about 41% of submicron mass is sulfate. The light scattering coefficient shows a strong non-linear correlation with aerosol size observed using an OPC. Detailed results will be presented in the AGU meeting.

  5. Use of a coastal biogeochemical model to select environmental monitoring sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild-Allen, Karen; Thompson, Peter A.; Volkman, John K.; Parslow, John

    2011-10-01

    A method for the spatial selection of sites for a coastal environmental monitoring system is described. The study was completed in southeastern Tasmania, Australia, but the method can be applied in all regions with validated biogeochemical models. A 3-dimensional coupled hydrodynamic, sediment and biogeochemical model with high spatial and temporal resolution was validated against observations collected throughout 2002 and found to capture the essential features of the biogeochemical dynamics of the system. The model was used to predict the possible quantitative environmental impact of a projected increase in fish farming activity in the region. Integrated impacts of fish farm waste on labile nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorophyll and dissolved oxygen concentrations in the water column were spatially ranked to identify the most likely places to detect environmental change due to fish farming activities. Priority sites were found to be grouped in the Huon Estuary and northern part of the D'Entrecasteaux Channel consistent with the residual northward current in the region. The final monitoring program synthesized model and field understanding to ensure adequate spatial and temporal sampling of the region.

  6. Site characterization studies along coastal Andhra Pradesh—India using multichannel analysis of surface waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trupti, S.; Srinivas, K. N. S. S. S.; Pavan Kishore, P.; Seshunarayana, T.

    2012-04-01

    Multichannel analysis of surface waves (MASW) technique was employed for site characterization studies at the identified lineament locations along coastal regions of Andhra Pradesh covering ~ 600 km to measure the shear wave velocity. The shear (S)-wave velocity of near surface materials (such as soil, rocks and pavement) and its effect on seismic wave propagation are of fundamental interest in many groundwater, engineering and environmental studies. Geologically, the study area comprises of Precambrian basement over which younger rocks commencing with Jurassic, Cretaceous, Tertiary and Quaternary have given rise to varying sequences in different parts. The study has been conducted along the lineaments and these were selected based on the analysis of IRS-1D LISS-IV satellite images and the field geological investigation. The average shear wave velocity, stiffness and the liquefaction potential were evaluated by using the obtained shear wave velocities. Soils are classified into four categories as soft soils, stiff soils, dense soils/soft rock and hard rock based on the obtained shear wave velocities. The factor of safety (FS) against liquefaction is determined and it is found that the sites with low shear wave velocity have FS < 1 and these are possible liquefiable zones. The results of this study are useful to study the earthquake hazard assessment, and also taking the necessary precautions in the vicinity of the faults/lineaments for the construction of engineering projects such as pipelines, dams, bridges, canal alignments, and cross-drainage structures.

  7. 210Po/210Pb dynamics in relation to zooplankton biomass and trophic conditions during an annual cycle in northwestern Mediterranean coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Färber Lorda, Jaime; Fowler, Scott W; Miquel, Juan-Carlos; Rodriguez y Baena, Alessia; Jeffree, Ross A

    2013-01-01

    Monthly sampling in northwestern Mediterranean coastal waters was undertaken to better understand the relationship between zooplankton biomass and the cycling of the natural radionuclide (210)Po/(210)Pb pair during a one-year period (October 1995-November 1996). In conjunction with mesozooplankton collections and (210)Po/(210)Pb measurements in seawater, zooplankton and their fecal pellets, the biochemical composition of particulate organic matter (POM) was also examined at three depths (0, 20 and 50 m) as an indicator of trophic conditions. During May 1996, a strong zooplankton "bloom" was observed which was preceded by a prolonged increase in POM (protein + carbohydrates + lipids) starting at the end of March, and further demonstrated by a concomitant increase in the concentration of smaller particles, two features that are typical of mesotrophic waters. Simultaneous measurements of (210)Po in sea water and zooplankton showed an inverse trend between these two parameters during the sampling period, with the two lowest (210)Po concentrations in the dissolved phase of seawater coincident with the highest radionuclide concentrations in the zooplankton; however, this apparent relationship was not statistically significant over the entire year. Freshly excreted mesozooplankton and salp fecal pellets, which have been strongly implicated in the removal and downward transport of these radionuclides from the upper water column, contained (210)Po and (210)Pb levels ranging from 175 to 878 and 7.5-486 Bq kg(-1) dry weight, respectively. Salp pellets contained 5 and 10 times more (210)Po and (210)Pb than in fecal pellets produced by mixed zooplankton, a finding most likely related to their different feeding strategies. During the zooplankton biomass peak observed in May, the (210)Po concentration in zooplankton was at a minimum; however, in contrast to what has been reported to occur in some open sea oligotrophic waters, over the year no statistically significant inverse

  8. Tropospheric halocompounds and nitrous oxide monitored at a remote site in the Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artuso, F.; Chamard, P.; Chiavarini, S.; di Sarra, A.; Meloni, D.; Piacentino, S.; Sferlazzo, M. D.

    2010-12-01

    Analysis of time series and trends of nitrous oxide (N 2O) and halocompounds weekly monitored at the Mediterranean island of Lampedusa are discussed. Atmospheric N 2O levels showed a linear upward growth rate of 0.78 ppb yr -1 and mixing ratios comparable with Northern Hemisphere global stations. CFC-11 and CFC-12 time series displayed a decline consistent with their phase-out. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) replacing compounds and SF 6 exhibited an increasing temporal behaviour. The most rapid growth rate was recorded for HFC-134a with a value of 9.6% yr -1. The industrial solvents CCl 4 and CH 3CCl 3, banned by the Montreal Protocol, showed opposite trends. While CH 3CCl 3 reported an expected decay of -1.8 ppt yr -1, an increasing rate of 5.7 ppt yr -1 was recorded for CCl 4 and it is probably related to its relatively long lifetime and persisting emissions. Chlorinated halomethanes showed seasonality with a maximum in early April and a minimum at the end of September. Halon-1301 and Halon-1211 displayed a decreasing trend consistent with industry emission estimates. An interspecies correlation analysis gave positive high correlations between HCFC-22 and HFC-134a (+0.84) highlighting the common extensive employment as refrigerants. Sharing sources inferred the high coupling between CH 3Cl and CH 3Br (+0.73) and between CHCl 3 and CH 2Cl 2 (+0.77). A singular strong relationship (+0.55) between HFC-134a and CH 3I suggested the influence of an unknown anthropogenic source of CH 3I. Constraining of source and sink distribution was carried out by transport studies. Results were compared with the European Environment Agency (EEA) emission database. In contrast with the emission database results, our back trajectory analysis highlighted the release of large amounts of HFC-134a and SF 6 from Eastern Europe. Observations also showed that African SF 6 emissions may be considerable. Leakages from SF 6 insulated electrical equipments located in the industrialized Northern

  9. Can Satellite-derived Chlorophyll Imagery Be Used to Trace Surface Dynamics in Coastal Zone? A Case Study in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Forget, Philippe; André, Gael

    2007-01-01

    A comparison of chlorophyll data from SeaWiFS imagery and modeling results from a 3D hydrodynamical model was performed over the northwestern Mediterranean for the entire year of 2001. The study aims at investigating the information content brought by satellite-derived chlorophyll concentration ([Chl]) maps concerning surface dynamics in coastal zone. The study is mainly focused on the Gulf of Lions (GoL) and its outer region, which are mainly influenced by the Rhône River, local winds and the Northern Current (NC) flowing from the East along the continental slope. The physical hydrodynamical model was continuously run and 40 SeaWiFS images, presenting a significant coverage of the studied area, were selected. The comparison between [Chl] and sea surface salinity (SSS) fields on a pixel basis showed no definite correlation trends. Three reasons are given in discussion for that result. However, the comparison emphasized areas close to the coasts which were under the influence of different inputs not considered in the model and also of upwellings. A qualitative analysis of the data performed out of these regions exhibited significant similarities between [Chl] and SSS features. The signature of the Rhône ROFI (Region of Fresh Water Influence) and, in some cases, of the NC, was evidenced on [Chl] maps. We found that the intensity of this signature is seasonally modulated, e.g., it is low in open sea during the summer, oligotrophic, season. In addition, the signature of the Rhône ROFI in the western part of the GoL can be only partial due to local chlorophyll deficits. We conclude that, for the regional case studied, chlorophyll imagery can be used as a tracer of surface dynamics through surface salinity but with limitations, especially near the coasts.

  10. Geophysical detection of on-site wastewater plumes in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Matthew

    Nonpoint source pollution (NPS) continues to be the leading cause of water quality degradation in the United States. On-site wastewater systems (OWS) contribute to NPS; however, due to the range of system designs and complexity of the subsurface, OWS contributions to groundwater pollution are not well understood. As the population of coastal North Carolina continues to increase, better methods to locate and characterize wastewater impacted groundwater are needed. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of non-intrusive geophysical methods to provide high resolution information on various contaminants in different geologic settings. The goals of this study were to evaluate the utility of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and capacitively coupled resistivity (CCR) for detecting OWS components, delineating associated wastewater plumes, and monitoring temporal variations in groundwater quality. Cross-sectional and three dimensional (3D) geophysical surveys were conducted periodically over a one year period (February 2011--January 2012) at two schools utilizing OWS in the lower Neuse River Basin (NRB) in the North Carolina Coastal Plain (NCCP). Cores were collected at both study sites; as well as monthly groundwater depth, temperature, and specific conductivity measurements to better constrain the geophysical interpretations. Additionally, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and Cl concentrations were monitored bi-monthly to assess nutrient transport at the sites. The 3D GPR surveys effectively located the wastewater drainage trenches at both sites, in close agreement with locations described in as-built OWS blueprints. Regression analysis of resistivity versus groundwater specific conductivity revealed an inverse relationship, suggesting resistivity ≤ 250 ohm.m was indicative of wastewater impacted groundwater at both sites. The 3D resistivity models identified regions of low resistivity beneath the drainfields relative to background values. Regression analysis of

  11. Spatial patterns of density at multiple life stages in protected and fished conditions: An example from a Mediterranean coastal fish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Franco, A.; Di Lorenzo, M.; Guidetti, P.

    2013-02-01

    Settlement and recruitment are well known to have critical influences on the demography of most marine fishes. Few studies have compared processes like larval supply, settlement and recruitment of fishes between protected (i.e. in marine protected areas, MPAs) and unprotected conditions and little information is available about the potential influence of early life history traits (e.g. pelagic larval duration, PLD) on these processes. In the present study, using the white sea bream Diplodus sargus sargus as a model species in the south-western Adriatic Sea, we investigated: 1) potential differences in the densities of adults, settlers, recruits and 1-YOs (one year old specimens) within an MPA and in unprotected areas, at multiple spatial scales; 2) the existence of local relationships between densities of adults (i.e. spawners), settlers, recruits and 1-YOs; and 3) the possible relationships between PLD and density of settlers. Both in 2009 and 2010 the density of settlers was higher at sites down-current to the MPA and showed a significant variability at the scale of sites (kms). Density of recruits only revealed variability among sites (both in 2009 and 2010), while density of 1-YOs was variable at the scale of sites and was higher in protected condition in 2011, but not in 2010. No significant relationships were found between the densities of adults, settlers, recruits and 1-YOs at the site scale, nor between PLD and the density of settlers. Results suggest a possible decoupling in space between the sequential life history stages of fish (from settlers to 1-YOs) due to dispersal (through sea currents or active fish movements). Further study may help better understand the actual contribution of MPAs to larval supply and recruitment in both MPAs and adjacent sites.

  12. A New Root-Knot Nematode Parasitizing Sea Rocket from Spanish Mediterranean Coastal Dunes: Meloidogyne dunensis n. sp. (Nematoda: Meloidogynidae)

    PubMed Central

    Palomares Rius, J. E.; Vovlas, N.; Troccoli, A.; Liébanas, G.; Landa, B. B.; Castillo, P.

    2007-01-01

    High infection rates of European sea rocket feeder roots by an unknown root-knot nematode were found in a coastal dune soil at Cullera (Valencia) in central eastern Spain. Morphometry, esterase and malate dehydrogenase electrophoretic phenotypes and phylogenetic trees demonstrated that this nematode species differs clearly from other previously described root-knot nematodes. Studies of host-parasite relationships showed a typical susceptible reaction in naturally infected European sea rocket plants and in artificially inoculated tomato (cv. Roma) and chickpea (cv. UC 27) plants. The species is herein described and illustrated and named as Meloidogyne dunensis n. sp. The new root-knot nematode can be distinguished from other Meloidogyne spp. by: (i) perineal pattern rounded-oval, formed of numerous fine dorsal and ventral cuticle striae and ridges, lateral fields clearly visible; (ii) female excretory pore at the level of stylet knobs, EP/ST ratio 1.6; (iii) second-stage juveniles with hemizonid located 1 to 2 annuli anteriorly to excretory pore and long, narrow, tapering tail; and (iv) males with lateral fields composed of four incisures anteriorly and posteriorly, while six distinct incisures are observed for large part at mid-body. Phylogenetic trees derived from distance and maximum parsimony analyses based on 18S, ITS1–5.8S-ITS2 and D2-D3 of 28S rDNA showed that M. dunensis n. sp. can be differentiated from all described root-knot nematode species, and it is clearly separated from other species with resemblance in morphology, such as M. duytsi, M. maritima, M. mayaguensis and M. minor. PMID:19259488

  13. Input of pharmaceuticals through coastal surface watercourses into a Mediterranean lagoon (Mar Menor, SE Spain): sources and seasonal variations.

    PubMed

    Moreno-González, R; Rodríguez-Mozaz, S; Gros, M; Pérez-Cánovas, E; Barceló, D; León, V M

    2014-08-15

    The seasonal occurrence and distribution of 69 pharmaceuticals along coastal watercourses during 6 sampling campaigns and their input through El Albujón watercourse to the Mar Menor lagoon were determined by UPLC-MS-MS, considering a total of 115 water samples. The major source of pharmaceuticals running into this watercourse was an effluent from the Los Alcazares WWTP, although other sources were also present (runoffs, excess water from irrigation, etc.). In this urban and agriculturally influenced watercourse different pharmaceutical distribution profiles were detected according to their attenuation, which depended on physicochemical water conditions, pollutant input variation, biodegradation and photodegradation rates of pollutants, etc. The less recalcitrant compounds in this study (macrolides, β-blockers, etc.) showed a relevant seasonal variability as a consequence of dissipation processes (degradation, sorption, etc.). Attenuation was lower, however, for diclofenac, carbamazepine, lorazepam, valsartan, sulfamethoxazole among others, due to their known lower degradability and sorption onto particulate matter, according to previous studies. The maximum concentrations detected were higher than 1000 ng L(-1) for azithromycin, clarithromycin, valsartan, acetaminophen and ibuprofen. These high concentration levels were favored by the limited dilution in this low flow system, and consequently some of them could pose an acute risk to the biota of this watercourse. Considering data from 2009 to 2010, it has been estimated that a total of 11.3 kg of pharmaceuticals access the Mar Menor lagoon annually through the El Albujón watercourse. The highest proportion of this input corresponded to antibiotics (46%), followed by antihypertensives (20%) and diuretics (18%).

  14. Eutrophication and acidification: Do they induce changes in the dissolved organic matter dynamics in the coastal Mediterranean Sea?

    PubMed

    Aparicio, Fran L; Nieto-Cid, Mar; Borrull, Encarna; Calvo, Eva; Pelejero, Carles; Sala, Maria Montserrat; Pinhassi, Jarone; Gasol, Josep M; Marrasé, Cèlia

    2016-09-01

    Two mesocosms experiments were conducted in winter 2010 and summer 2011 to examine how increased pCO2 and/or nutrient concentrations potentially perturbate dissolved organic matter dynamics in natural microbial assemblages. The fluorescence signals of protein- and humic-like compounds were used as a proxy for labile and non-labile material, respectively, while the evolution of bacterial populations, chlorophyll a (Chl a) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were used as a proxy for biological activity. For both seasons, the presence of elevated pCO2 did not cause any significant change in the DOC dynamics (p-value<0.05). The conditions that showed the greatest changes in prokaryote abundances and Chl a content were those amended with nutrients, regardless of the change in pH. The temporal evolution of fluorophores and optical indices revealed that the degree of humification of the organic molecules and their molecular weight changed significantly in the nutrient-amended treatment. The generation of protein-like compounds was paired to increases in the prokaryote abundance, being higher in the nutrient-amended tanks than in the control. Different patterns in the magnitude and direction of the generation of humic-like molecules suggested that these changes depended on initial microbial populations and the availability of extra nutrient inputs. Based on our results, it is expected that in the future projected coastal scenarios the eutrophication processes will favor the transformations of labile and recalcitrant carbon regardless of changes in pCO2.

  15. Multi-year assessment of soil-vegetation-atmosphere transfer (SVAT) modeling uncertainties over a Mediterranean agricultural site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrigues, S.; Olioso, A.; Calvet, J.-C.; Lafont, S.; Martin, E.; Chanzy, A.; Marloie, O.; Bertrand, N.; Desfonds, V.; Renard, D.

    2012-04-01

    Vegetation productivity and water balance of Mediterranean regions will be particularly affected by climate and land-use changes. In order to analyze and predict these changes through land surface models, a critical step is to quantify the uncertainties associated with these models (processes, parameters) and their implementation over a long period of time. Besides, uncertainties attached to the data used to force these models (atmospheric forcing, vegetation and soil characteristics, crop management practices...) which are generally available at coarse spatial resolution (>1-10 km) and for a limited number of plant functional types, need to be evaluated. This paper aims at assessing the uncertainties in water (evapotranspiration) and energy fluxes estimated from a Soil Vegetation Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) model over a Mediterranean agricultural site. While similar past studies focused on particular crop types and limited period of time, the originality of this paper consists in implementing the SVAT model and assessing its uncertainties over a long period of time (10 years), encompassing several cycles of distinct crops (wheat, sorghum, sunflower, peas). The impacts on the SVAT simulations of the following sources of uncertainties are characterized: - Uncertainties in atmospheric forcing are assessed comparing simulations forced with local meteorological measurements and simulations forced with re-analysis atmospheric dataset (SAFRAN database). - Uncertainties in key surface characteristics (soil, vegetation, crop management practises) are tested comparing simulations feeded with standard values from global database (e.g. ECOCLIMAP) and simulations based on in situ or site-calibrated values. - Uncertainties dues to the implementation of the SVAT model over a long period of time are analyzed with regards to crop rotation. The SVAT model being analyzed in this paper is ISBA in its a-gs version which simulates the photosynthesis and its coupling with the stomata

  16. Reliability of on-site greywater treatment systems in Mediterranean and arid environments - a case study.

    PubMed

    Alfiya, Y; Gross, A; Sklarz, M; Friedler, E

    2013-01-01

    On-site greywater (GW) treatment and reuse is gaining popularity. However, a main point of concern is that inadequate treatment of such water may lead to negative environmental and health effects. Maintenance of single-family home GW systems is usually performed by home owners with limited professional support. Therefore, unless GW systems are reliable, environmental and public health might be compromised. This study is aimed at investigating the reliability of on-site recirculated vertical flow constructed wetlands (RVFCW) in 20 single-family homes. In order to ensure reliability, the failure-tree approach was adopted during the design and construction of the systems. The performance of the systems was monitored for 1.5 years, by evaluating treated GW flow and quality, and by recording all malfunctions and maintenance work. Only 39 failures occurred during this period, of which four caused irrigation with impaired quality GW, while the rest led to no irrigation. The mean time between failures (MTBF) was 305 days; two out of the 20 systems suffered from seven malfunctions (each), while nine systems did not fail at all. Thus, it can be postulated that if on-site GW treatment systems are designed with the right controls, and if scheduled (basic and relatively infrequent) maintenance is performed, GW reuse can be safe to the environment and human health.

  17. Phytoplankton temporal changes in a coastal northern Adriatic site during the last 25 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrini, Marina; Fornasaro, Daniela; Cossarini, Gianpiero; Lipizer, Marina; Virgilio, Damiano

    2012-12-01

    There is an increasing awareness of the relationships among key phytoplankton groups and their role in biogeochemical cycles; however, less is known about the temporal scales of variability in biodiversity of the phytoplankton community. In the present study a long-term data set (1986-2010) of phytoplankton abundance is used to investigate the temporal variability of the phytoplankton community at a coastal site in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea). The interannual variability of the phytoplankton community shows two major periods in terms of abundance and community composition. The first one, 1986-1994, was characterized by the highest abundances of microalgae and the dominance of phytoflagellates. The second period (1995-2007) showed lower abundances and a collapse of phytoflagellates. Lastly, an apparent new increase in abundances has been recorded during recent years (2008-2010). On a seasonal scale, a classical cycle with two maxima (spring and autumn) and a summer minimum is evident. Diatoms are the most abundant group of the late winter-early spring bloom whereas phytoflagellates, the most abundant group throughout the year, dominate the late spring blooms. Dinoflagellates and coccolithophores have low abundances and show their maxima in summer and autumn, respectively. The species composition has been analysed according to the Indicator Value Index, highlighting the more frequent and abundant taxa for each month. Results show that the winter months are characterized by coccolithophores, in spring small diatoms are dominant, dinoflagellates and larger diatoms are typical in summer, and coccolithophores and diatom colonies characterise the autumn.

  18. Measurements of Ice Nuclei at a Remote Coastal Site in Western Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, M.; Mason, R.; Li, J.; Dickie, R.; Chou, C.; Ladino Moreno, L.; Yakobi-Hancock, J.; Schiller, C. L.; Jones, K.; Leaitch, W. R.; Desiree, T. S.; Abbatt, J.; Huffman, J. A.; Bertram, A. K.

    2014-12-01

    Aerosol particles are abundant in the atmosphere, and they can influence climate by modifying the formation of ice clouds and mixed-phase clouds. Understanding the sources of ice nuclei (IN) should lead to better predictions of climate. Many current instruments for measuring atmospheric concentrations of IN are not capable of providing size-resolved information. Such knowledge is useful in identifying the sources of IN. The recently developed micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor-droplet freezing technique (MOUDI-DFT) provides size-resolved information by combining an established immersion freezing apparatus with a cascade impactor for sample collection. Here we show results from a field study undertaken at a remote coastal site in Western Canada in August, 2013 using this technique. The size distributions of IN will be presented. A recent study suggested that the IN population in remote marine regions might be dominated by primary biogenic particles. To address the sources of IN from this campaign, correlations between IN concentrations and biological aerosols, carbonaceous aerosols, and other possible IN sources will be discussed.

  19. Classifications for Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) site-specific projects: 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, William R.; Garber, Adrienne

    2013-01-01

    The Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) funds over 100 wetland restoration projects across Louisiana. Integral to the success of CWPPRA is its long-term monitoring program, which enables State and Federal agencies to determine the effectiveness of each restoration effort. One component of this monitoring program is the classification of high-resolution, color-infrared aerial photography at the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Wetlands Research Center in Lafayette, Louisiana. Color-infrared aerial photography (9- by 9-inch) is obtained before project construction and several times after construction. Each frame is scanned on a photogrametric scanner that produces a high-resolution image in Tagged Image File Format (TIFF). By using image-processing software, these TIFF files are then orthorectified and mosaicked to produce a seamless image of a project area and its associated reference area (a control site near the project that has common environmental features, such as marsh type, soil types, and water salinities.) The project and reference areas are then classified according to pixel value into two distinct classes, land and water. After initial land and water ratios have been established by using photography obtained before and after project construction, subsequent comparisons can be made over time to determine land-water change.

  20. PRIAMO project: a feasibility study on Sicilian sites for sea power plants in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribotti, A.; Borghini, M.; Cucco, A.; De Domenico, E.; Dibenedetto, V.; Fazioli, L.; Genovese, L.; Iaria, G.; Olita, A.; Raffa, F.; Schroeder, K.; Sorgente, R.; Spanò, N.

    2012-04-01

    The increasing demand for renewable energy sources has recently favoured the exploitation of wind energy and photovoltaic, with strong repercussions on the landscape due to the visual impact of wind turbines and of the photovoltaic panels. A policy protecting the landscape suggests to focus on innovative solutions that enable the use of renewable energy and a low visual impact. This can be done with extensive offshore diving equipment installed in the sea, formed by turbines that use ocean currents to produce electric energy. The accommodation at sea, as well as offering greater availability of sites, has the advantage of giving a better and relatively constant resource with maximum efficiency and productivity. The international scenario suggests the need to identify sites potentially suitable and safe for energy use, placed at a distance from the coast at depths with bathymetric characteristics that make the power plant installation safe and technologically and economically feasible. In this context, the project PRIAMO (Planning, Research and Innovation in a Oriented Marine Environment), funded by the European Commission through the Sicilian Regional Operational Programme (POR), aims to verify the potential suitability of two Sicilian coastal sites, i.e. the Strait of Messina and a stretch of coast near Capo Granitola (Strait of Sicily). The work is realised with a view to the exploitation of marine currents that will be studied through the use of existing or new numerical models from the open sea to the coastal scale, then evaluating its cost-effectiveness in collaboration with Atlantis Resources Corp. Pte. Ltd (UK), European manufacturer of underwater turbines. An environmental study is done through monitoring and remediation techniques to assess the potential size of the foundation structure: sedimentological and morpho-bathymetric characteristics of the bottom, depth, steepness of the seabed, benthic biocoenoses, and load-bearing capacity of the area affected

  1. Sources of atmospheric mercury in the tropics: continuous observations at a coastal site in Suriname

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, D.; Wip, D.; Warneke, T.; Holmes, C. D.; Dastoor, A.; Notholt, J.

    2012-04-01

    Mercury measurements at a coastal site in Nieuw Nickerie (5°56' N, 56°59' W), Suriname, provide the only continuous records of atmospheric mercury in the tropics. Here we evaluate observations of total gaseous mercury (TGM) during 2007. Nieuw Nickerie typically samples marine air from the Atlantic Ocean, with occasional influence from continental South America. Over the year, average concentrations are 1.40 ng m-3. As the intertropical convergence zone passes over Suriname twice each year, the site samples both northern and southern hemispheric air masses. We use back trajectories to classify each measurement by hemisphere, as well as continental or ocean. For air passing over ocean before sampling, TGM concentrations are 10% higher in air coming from the Northern Hemisphere (1.45 ng m-3) than from the Southern Hemisphere (1.32 ng m-3). Air from the South American continent also carries higher TGM (1.43 ng m-3) than air from the South Atlantic Ocean, with most of these trajectories occurring in August and September. Biomass burning in Brazil peaks in the same months and likely contributes significantly to elevated concentrations seen in Nickerie. We also compare the observed seasonal cycle to two atmospheric mercury chemistry and transport models (GRAHM and GEOS-Chem). Both models simulate transition between northern and southern hemispheric air, thus capturing the seasonal cycle; however the models overestimate the TGM concentrations during months when Nickerie samples Northern Hemisphere air. It is difficult to determine whether the models' sources or sinks in the Northern Hemisphere tropics are responsible.

  2. Sources of atmospheric mercury in the tropics: continuous observations at a coastal site in Suriname

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, D.; Wip, D.; Warneke, T.; Holmes, C. D.; Dastoor, A.; Notholt, J.

    2012-08-01

    Mercury measurements at a coastal site in Nieuw Nickerie (5°56' N, 56°59' W), Suriname, provide the only continuous records of atmospheric mercury in the tropics. Here we evaluate observations of total gaseous mercury (TGM) during 2007. Nieuw Nickerie typically samples marine air from the Atlantic Ocean, with occasional influence from continental South America. Over the year, average concentrations are 1.40 ng m-3. As the intertropical convergence zone passes over Suriname twice each year, the site samples both northern and southern hemispheric air masses. We use back trajectories to classify each measurement by hemisphere, as well as continental or ocean. For air passing over ocean before sampling, TGM concentrations are 10% higher in air coming from the Northern Hemisphere (1.45 ng m-3) than from the Southern Hemisphere (1.32 ng m-3). Air from the South American continent also carries higher TGM (1.43 ng m-3) than air from the South Atlantic Ocean, with most of these trajectories occurring in August and September. Biomass burning in Brazil peaks in the same months and likely contributes significantly to elevated concentrations seen in Nickerie. We also compare the observed seasonal cycle to two atmospheric mercury chemistry and transport models (GRAHM and GEOS-Chem). Both models simulate transition between northern and southern hemispheric air, thus capturing the seasonal cycle; however the models overestimate the TGM concentrations during months when Nickerie samples Northern Hemisphere air. It is difficult to determine whether the models' sources or sinks in the Northern Hemisphere tropics are responsible.

  3. Handbook for Forecasters in the Mediterranean. Part 2. Regional Forecasting Aids for the Mediterranean Basin.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    Occurrences.....................11-7 3. Forecasting Rules.........................11-11 III. TYRRHENIAN SEA - CENTRAL MEDITERRANEAN AREA...the Tyrrhenian Sea -Central Mediterranean Area addressed in Section II1. A complex coastal topography characterizes the north and the south coasts of...is only 3 n mi. 11-25 III. TYRRHENIAN SEA - CENTRAL MEDITERRANEAN AREA 1. OVERVIEW 1.1 REGIONAL GEOGRAPHY The Tyrrhenian Sea -Central Mediterranean

  4. Metabolomic responses in caged clams, Ruditapes decussatus, exposed to agricultural and urban inputs in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Mar Menor, SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Campillo, Juan A; Sevilla, Angel; Albentosa, Marina; Bernal, Cristina; Lozano, Ana B; Cánovas, Manuel; León, Víctor M

    2015-08-15

    The Mar Menor is a coastal lagoon affected by the growth of intensive agriculture and urban development in the surrounding area. Large amounts of chemical pollutants from these areas are discharged into El Albujón, a permanent water-course flowing into the lagoon. Biomarkers such as the activity of acetylcholinesterase or antioxidant enzymes have been previously tested in this lagoon demonstrating the presence of neurotoxicity and oxidative stress in clams transplanted in sites affected by the dispersion of the effluent from El Albujón. To complete this traditional toxicology work, a metabolomic profiling of these transplanted organisms has been carried out for the detection of metabolic biomarkers induced by agricultural/urban pollutants. More than 70 metabolites have been quantified using a targeting metabolomics platform based on HPLC-MS. The intracellular metabolic pattern was analyzed by PCA from the digestive gland of clams after 7 and 22 days of transplantation. Results showed a different profile of metabolite between organisms collected from control and exposed sites. At the shorter exposure time, there was an increase in several metabolites in the latter when compared with those from control sites, whereas metabolic profiling at 22 days showed that those metabolites were drastically diminished, with even lower levels than at control sites. These metabolites included: (i) 12 amino acids from the 21 proteogenic and HomoSer, (ii) osmotic protectants such as γ-butyrobetaine and taurine and (iii) nucleotides such as ITP. Regarding sulfur-containing molecules, taurine could be highlighted as a potential biomarker since its concentration was reduced by more than 30 times after 22 days of exposure, whereas the antioxidant glutathione remained constant in the organisms from both control and exposed sites. Although targeted metabolomics has been shown as an early technique of pollutant effect detection, the two-phase pattern could highlight a more complicated

  5. Interspecific comparison of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and persistent organochlorines bioaccumulation in bivalves from a Mediterranean coastal lagoon.

    PubMed

    León, Víctor M; Moreno-González, Rubén; González, Emilia; Martínez, Fulgencio; García, Víctor; Campillo, Juan A

    2013-10-01

    The bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was characterized in cockle, oyster and noble pen shell from nine areas in the Mar Menor lagoon with different hydrodynamic and pollutant sources. Biota, sediment and water samples were simultaneously collected in the spring and autumn of 2010. Considering all bivalve samples, PAH concentrations ranged from 8.98 to 370 μg·kg(-1) d.w., those of PCBs from 0.15 to 42.36 μg·kg(-1) d.w. and those of DDXs from below detection limit to 240.6 μg·kg(-1) d.w., where p,p'-DDE was the main fraction. The bioaccumulation of PAHs was similar for cockle, oyster and noble pen shell, being higher close to ports and wastewater effluents. However, DDX and PCB bioaccumulations in oyster and noble pen shell were significantly higher than in cockle in spring (p=0.02). The first organic pollutant bioaccumulation data for noble pen shell were obtained in this study, showing a preferential accumulation of pyrene. The increase of PAH bioaccumulation in autumn, as compared to spring, was low, due to high water temperatures during the summer, which favoured PAH dissipation processes. No significant seasonal variations were detected for OCPs and PCBs, except in some specific areas. The PAH, PCB and OCP levels detected in these bivalves were lower than OSPAR/MED POL environmental assessment criteria, except for p,p'-DDE in bivalves sited close to El Albujón watercourse mouth.

  6. Origin and variability of volatile organic compounds observed at an eastern Mediterranean background site (Cyprus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Debevec, Cécile; Sauvage, Stéphane; Gros, Valérie; Sciare, Jean; Pikridas, Michael; Leonardis, Thierry; Gaudion, Vincent; Depelchin, Laurence; Fronval, Isabelle; Pillet, Laetitia; Sarda-Estève, Roland; Baisnée, Dominique; Bonsang, Bernard; Locoge, Nadine

    2016-04-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) include a large number of species from various anthropic and natural sources. Their interest is linked to their toxicity and they are key players in photochemical processes leading to secondary pollutant formation such as ozone, oxygenated species and secondary organic aerosols. More than 7,000 atmospheric measurements of over eighty C2-C16 VOCs, including a wide range of tracers of different specific sources, have been conducted at a background site in Cyprus during a 29-day intensive field campaign held in March 2015 within the framework of ChArMEx and ENVI-Med "CyAr" programs. Primary anthropogenic and biogenic VOCs and oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), including a number of secondary oxidation products, were measured on-line thanks to flame ionization detection/gas chromatography and proton transfer mass spectrometry (2 GC-FID, time resolution 30 min, 1 PTR-QMS, time resolution 5 min). Additionally, more than 400 off-line 3h-integrated air samples were collected on cartridge and analyzed by GC-FID. Recovery of the different techniques, regular quality checks and uncertainty determination approach allow insuring a good robustness of the dataset. In order to study the variability and the origin of these VOCs, their time series were first analyzed here on the basis of meteorological data and clustering of air mass trajectories. Biogenic compounds appear mainly of local origin and present specific diurnal cycles such as daily maximum for isoprene and a nighttime maximum for monoterpenes. Long-lived anthropogenic compounds as well as OVOCs display higher mixing ratios under the influence of eastern and northern sectors (i.e. Middle East and Turkey) indicating that long-range transport significantly contributes to the VOCs levels in the area. A first factor analysis performed in order to examine different species co-variations allows discerning different source types (primary/secondary, anthropogenic/biogenic, local/regional).

  7. Seasonal variation in vegetation water content estimated from proximal sensing and MODIS time series in a Mediterranean Fluxnet site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendiguren, G.; Martín, M. P.; Nieto, H.; Pacheco-Labrador, J.; Jurdao, S.

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluates three different metrics of vegetation water content estimated from proximal sensing and MODIS satellite imagery: Fuel Moisture Content (FMC), Equivalent Water Thickness (EWT) and Canopy Water Content (CWC). Dry matter (Dm) and Leaf area Index (LAI) were also analyzed in order to connect FMC with EWT and EWT with CWC, respectively. This research took place in a Fluxnet site located in Mediterranean wooded grassland (dehesa) ecosystem in Las Majadas del Tietar (Spain). Results indicated that FMC and EWT showed lower spatial variation than CWC. The spatial variation within the MODIS pixel was not as critical as its temporal trend, so to capture better the variability, fewer plots should be sampled but more times. Due to the high seasonal Dm variability, a constant annual value would not work to predict EWT from FMC. Relative root mean square error (RRMSE) evaluated the performance of nine spectral indices to compute each variable. VARI provided the worst results in all cases. For proximal sensing, GEMI worked best for both FMC (RRMSE = 34.5%) and EWT (RRMSE = 27.43%) while NDII and GVMI performed best for CWC (RRMSE =30.27% and 31.58% respectively). For MODIS data, results were a bit better with EVI as the best predictor for FMC (RRMSE = 33.81%) and CWC (RRMSE = 27.56%) and GEMI for EWT (RRMSE = 24.6%). To explain these differences, proximal sensing measures only grasslands at nadir view angle, but MODIS includes also trees, their shades, and other artifacts at up to 20° view angle. CWC was better predicted than the other two water content variables, probably because CWC depends on LAI, which is highly correlated to the spectral indices. Finally, these empirical methods outperformed FMC and CWC products based on radiative transfer model inversion.

  8. Floristic Quality Index: An assessment tool for restoration projects and monitoring sites in coastal Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cretini, K.F.; Steyer, G.D.

    2011-01-01

    The Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) program was established to assess the effectiveness of individual coastal restoration projects and the cumulative effects of multiple projects at regional and coastwide scales. In order to make these assessments, analytical teams have been assembled for each of the primary data types sampled under the CRMS program, including vegetation, hydrology, landscape, and soils. These teams consist of scientists and support staff from the U.S. Geological Survey and other Federal agencies, the Louisiana Office of Coastal Protection and Restoration, and university academics. Each team is responsible for developing or identifying parameters, indices, or tools that can be used to assess coastal wetlands at various scales. The CRMS Vegetation Analytical Team has developed a Floristic Quality Index for coastal Louisiana to determine the quality of a wetland based on its plant species composition and abundance.

  9. Impact of wildfires on size-resolved aerosol composition at a coastal California site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maudlin, L. C.; Wang, Z.; Jonsson, H. H.; Sorooshian, A.

    2015-10-01

    Size-resolved aerosol composition measurements were conducted at a coastal site in central California during the Nucleation in California Experiment (NiCE) between July and August of 2013. The site is just east of ship and marine emission sources and is also influenced by continental pollution and wildfires, such as those near the California-Oregon border which occurred near the end of NiCE. Two micro-orifice uniform deposit impactors (MOUDIs) were used, and water-soluble and elemental compositions were measured. The five most abundant water-soluble species (in decreasing order) were chloride, sodium, non-sea salt (nss) sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate. During wildfire periods, nss K mass concentrations were not enhanced as strongly as other species in the sub-micrometer stages and even decreased in the super-micrometer stages; species other than nss K are more reliable tracers for biomass burning in this region. Chloride levels were reduced in the fire sets likely due to chloride depletion by inorganic and organic acids that exhibited elevated levels in transported plumes. During wildfire periods, the mass size distribution of most dicarboxylic acids changed from unimodal to bimodal with peaks in the 0.32 μm and 1.0-1.8 μm stages. Furthermore, sulfate's peak concentration shifted from the 0.32 μm to 0.56 μm stage, and nitrate also shifted to larger sizes (1.0 μm to 1.8-3.2 μm stages). Mass concentrations of numerous soil tracer species (e.g., Si, Fe) were strongly enhanced in samples influenced by wildfires, especially in the sub-micrometer range. Airborne cloud water data confirm that soil species were associated with fire plumes transported south along the coast. In the absence of biomass burning, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) composition is dominated by nss sulfate and ammonium, and the water-soluble organic fraction is dominated by methanesulfonate, whereas for the samples influenced by wildfires, ammonium becomes the dominant overall species, and

  10. Managing Data, Provenance and Chaos through Standardization and Automation at the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems LTER Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, W.

    2013-12-01

    Managing data for a large, multidisciplinary research program such as a Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site is a significant challenge, but also presents unique opportunities for data stewardship. LTER research is conducted within multiple organizational frameworks (i.e. a specific LTER site as well as the broader LTER network), and addresses both specific goals defined in an NSF proposal as well as broader goals of the network; therefore, every LTER data can be linked to rich contextual information to guide interpretation and comparison. The challenge is how to link the data to this wealth of contextual metadata. At the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems LTER we developed an integrated information management system (GCE-IMS) to manage, archive and distribute data, metadata and other research products as well as manage project logistics, administration and governance (figure 1). This system allows us to store all project information in one place, and provide dynamic links through web applications and services to ensure content is always up to date on the web as well as in data set metadata. The database model supports tracking changes over time in personnel roles, projects and governance decisions, allowing these databases to serve as canonical sources of project history. Storing project information in a central database has also allowed us to standardize both the formatting and content of critical project information, including personnel names, roles, keywords, place names, attribute names, units, and instrumentation, providing consistency and improving data and metadata comparability. Lookup services for these standard terms also simplify data entry in web and database interfaces. We have also coupled the GCE-IMS to our MATLAB- and Python-based data processing tools (i.e. through database connections) to automate metadata generation and packaging of tabular and GIS data products for distribution. Data processing history is automatically tracked throughout the data

  11. Long-term Bat Monitoring on Islands, Offshore Structures, and Coastal Sites in the Gulf of Maine, mid-Atlantic, and Great Lakes—Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, Trevor; Pelletier, Steve; Giovanni, Matt

    2016-01-15

    This report summarizes results of a long-term regional acoustic survey of bat activity at remote islands, offshore structures, and coastal sites in the Gulf of Maine, Great Lakes, and mid-Atlantic coast.

  12. The effect of coagulants and antiscalants discharged with seawater desalination brines on coastal microbial communities: A laboratory and in situ study from the southeastern Mediterranean.

    PubMed

    Belkin, Natalia; Rahav, Eyal; Elifantz, Hila; Kress, Nurit; Berman-Frank, Ilana

    2017-03-01

    Desalination outflows frequently discharge brine containing coagulants and antiscalants (e.g. Iron-hydroxides and polyphosphonates) to the coastal environment. Here we examined changes in composition and productivity of natural microbial coastal communities in experimental mesocosms treated with either iron-hydroxide (Fe), polyphosphonate (Pn), or a combination of high salinities with both chemicals (All). Within 2 h of addition Fe already altered the microbial community composition, enhanced the bacterial production (BP) and cell specific production (BP/BA), and decreased primary production. Addition of Pn, relieved phosphorus stress as demonstrated by the immediate (within 2 h) and significant reduction in the ecto-enzyme alkaline phosphatase activity (APA). Synergistic effects were observed in the All treatment, reflected by increased production of both primary and bacterial producers as P-stress was relieved. After 10 days of incubation, the microbial community composition changed significantly only in the All treatment. The Fe-only treatment caused a significant decline in autotrophic biomass and in the assimilation number (AN), while in both the Pn and the All treatments the BP/BA increased with the added P. We also examined the microbial community responses in a natural impacted environment at the Ashkelon seawater desalination plant brine discharge site during summer and winter. The community composition differed in elevated-salinity compared with non-impacted stations with higher AN and bacterial efficiencies (BP/BA) measured in summer in the elevated-salinity stations. The seasonal differences in responses may reflect both biotic (i.e. initial community composition) and abiotic factors (currents and residence time of salinity gradients). Our results emphasize that desalination brine discharges that include chemicals such as iron-hydroxide and polyphosphonates can induce physiological and compositional changes in the microbial community. With the

  13. Impact assessment of agricultural inputs into a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Mar Menor, SE Spain) on transplanted clams (Ruditapes decussatus) by biochemical and physiological responses.

    PubMed

    Campillo, Juan A; Albentosa, Marina; Valdés, N Juliana; Moreno-González, Rubén; León, Víctor M

    2013-10-15

    The Mar Menor is a coastal lagoon threatened by the development of intensive agriculture in the surrounding areas. Large amounts of pesticides from these areas are discharged into El Albujón, a permanent watercourse flowing into the lagoon. We have used a multi-biomarker approach to assess the biological effects of agricultural pollution on a bivalve species. Biomarkers indicative of neurotoxicity (acetylcholinesterase, AChE), oxidative stress (catalase, CAT; glutathione reductase, GR and lipid peroxidation, LPO), phase II biotransformation of xenobiotics (glutathione S-transferase, GST) and physiological stress (scope for growth, SFG) were measured in clams transplanted to four sites of the lagoon (two reference sites and two sites affected by the dispersion of the effluent of the El Albujón), for exposure periods of 7 and 22 days. The hazards of this effluent were also examined by simultaneously measuring up to 83 contaminants (pesticides, PCBs, PAHs and others) in samples of fresh water from the watercourse mouth and seawater from the deployed sites, as well as the bioaccumulation of organochlorinated compounds and PAHs in the transplanted animals. Biomarker responses showed marked differences between reference and affected sites after 7 and 22 days. However it was only after 22 days that principal component analysis (PCA) of the biomarker responses distinguished between clams deployed in sites affected by the dispersion of the effluent of the watercourse and those from the reference sites. The chemical analysis of water showed high concentrations of pesticides close to El Albujón watercourse mouth, with the greatest input flux corresponding to the organophosphate chlorpyrifos, followed by pendimethalin and naphthalene, and at lower levels acenaphthene, terbuthylazine-desethyl and chlorpyrifos-methyl. In this regard, PCA analysis showed that the biological effects of the mixture of pesticides in caged clams after 22 days were reduced levels of AchE and SFG

  14. Coastal Circulation and Potential Disease Pathways Among Aquaculture Sites Near the Eastern U.S.- Canadian Border.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, D. A.

    2002-12-01

    Infectious Salmon Anemia (ISA) is a flu-like virus that can be transmitted between aquaculture sites by tides and currents, contaminated boats and equipment, fish wastes, and ectoparasites. In 1997 ISA outbreaks were reported in Canadian net-pen aquaculture sites in Passamaquoddy Bay, near the mouth of the Bay of Fundy. In March 2001, the first incidence of ISA in the United States occurred at a site near the entrance to Cobscook Bay, about 5 km west of previously infected sites in Canada. In December 2001, it was necessary to destroy Cobscook fish worth about \\12 million at maturity, decimating the local industry. Most net-pen sites are located in protected bays east of Penobscot Bay, Maine, where large tides and cold waters are favorable for aquaculture. Chaotic tidal mixing provides a ready supply of nutrients and oxygen, and also a potential mechanism for ISA transmission within and between coastal bays. In cold water (~6°$C), the ISA virus may remain infective for several days or longer, according to a recent report from a joint government/industry study in Scotland. Recent model studies indicate rapid spreading of neutral particles over distances of 5 km or more, possibly linking Cobscook and Passamaquoddy Bays within a few tidal cycles. On a larger scale, observations and models show the seasonal development of a coastal current that flows southwestward from the Saint John River in the Bay of Fundy toward Penobscot Bay, where the current generally turns offshore to become part of the circulation in the Gulf of Maine. Tidal excursions superimposed on the nontidal coastal current can result in particle displacements of 10-20 km per day, raising concerns about further migration of fish disease pathogens along the Maine coast.

  15. The relationship between Holocene cultural site distribution and marine terrace uplift on the coast fringing Coastal Range, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hsiaochin; Chen, Wenshan

    2013-04-01

    According to the collision of Philippine Sea plate and Eurasia plate, a series of left-lateral active faults with reverse sense exists in the Longitudinal Valley of east Taiwan. The Holocene marine terraces along the east coast of the Coastal Range in Taiwan are well known for their very rapid uplift and record tectonic history of this active collision boundary. The Holocene marine terrace sequence resulting from successive sea level change and tectonic activation is subdivided into several steps where the highest and oldest terrace, back to ca 13,000yr BP, reaches up to ca 80 m above sea level, and the lower terraces are mostly erosional ones, overlain by less than 1m thick coral beds in situ. The uplift of the coast is very high, ranging from 5 to 10 m/ka. According to the fabrics of potsherds and geochronological data, the prehistoric cultures in eastern Taiwan could be classified into three stages: Fushan (ca 5000-3500yr BP), Peinan/Chilin (ca3500-2000yr BP), Kweishan (ca2000-1000 yr BP) and Jinpu (ca 1000-400yr BP) cultural assemblages respectively. A great difference exists between the various cultural stage, not only the pottery making techniques, but also the distributions of archaeological sites. Combined with the dynamic geomorphic evolution of marine terraces and the distribution of prehistoric culture sites on the east coast of the Coastal Range, a coastal migration trend could be established.

  16. Atmospheric organic and inorganic nitrogen inputs to coastal urban and montane Atlantic Forest sites in southeastern Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Souza, Patricia A.; Ponette-González, Alexandra G.; de Mello, William Z.; Weathers, Kathleen C.; Santos, Isimar A.

    2015-06-01

    Tropical regions are currently experiencing changes in the quantity and form of nitrogen (N) deposition as a result of urban and industrial emissions. We quantified atmospheric N inputs to two coastal urban and two montane (400 m and 1000 m) Atlantic Forest sites downwind of the Metropolitan Region of Rio de Janeiro (MRRJ), Brazil, from August 2008 to August 2009. Concentrations of total dissolved nitrogen (TDN), dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and urea were measured in bulk precipitation at all sites, as well as in canopy throughfall in the lower montane forest. Dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) was calculated as the difference between TDN and DIN (NH4+ + NO3- + NO2-). Annual volume-weighted mean bulk concentrations of all N species were higher at the coastal urban than montane forest sites, with DON accounting for 32-56% and 26-32%, respectively, of the TDN concentration in bulk precipitation. Bulk deposition of TDN ranged 12.1-17.2 kg N ha- 1 yr- 1 and tended to decrease with increasing distance from the coastal urban region. In the lower montane forest, throughfall TDN flux, 34.3 kg N ha- 1 yr- 1, was over 2-fold higher than bulk TDN deposition, and DON comprised 57% of the total N deposited by throughfall to the forest soil. Urea comprised 27% of DON in throughfall compared to up to 100% in bulk precipitation. Our findings show that DON is an important, yet understudied, component of TDN deposition in tropical forest regions, comprising one-third to greater than one-half of the N deposited in rainfall and throughfall. Further, in this lower montane Atlantic Forest site, throughfall DIN flux was 1.5-3 fold higher than the suggested empirical critical load for humid tropical forests, highlighting the potential for increasing N pollution emitted from the MRRJ to impact N cycling in adjacent ecosystems.

  17. Antecedent rainfall effects on the annual variability of water repellency in a patchy-vegetated Mediterranean hillslope (Almogía experimental field site, Southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damian Ruiz Sinoga, Jose; Francisco Martinez Murillo, Juan; Gabarron Galeote, Miguel Angel

    2010-05-01

    Several abiotic and biotic factors have been reported to describe runoff generation in Mediterranean hillslopes: e.g., slope gradient, micro-topography, vegetation pattern, soil water content, rock fragment size and distribution on soil surface, crusts, organic matter, etc. However, few investigations have been focused on the influence of soil repellency to water as runoff mechanisms. Two factors used to control water repellency in Mediterranean environments: soil moisture and organic matter content. There is a direct control of temporal rainfall distribution on soil water repellency: generally, it tends to increase during dry weather while it decreases or completely vanishes after heavy precipitation or during extended periods with high soil water contents. Also, water repellency used to be higher in soils with litter, roots, resins, waxes and other organic substances from some types of vegetation as they can be a source of hydrophobic substances, including some typical species of the Mediterranean scrublands. Studies in unburnt Mediterranean environments or burnt long time ago and more exactly of water repellency related to some vegetal shrub species are not very frequent in scientific literature. The aim of this study is to assess the influence of the rainfall variability in the water repellency of soils from a patchy-vegetated Mediterranean hillslope. The objectives are next: i) to analyze the effects of the rainfall variability on water repellency during one complete year; and ii) to determine the differences in water repellency of soils under a Mediterranean shrub specie (Cistus monspeliensis) and bare soil. The study site corresponds to one hillslope located in Montes de Málaga (South of Spain) under dry-Mediterranean climate. The hillslope was characterized by: southfacing, mean slope gradient of 27%, metamorphic geology (phyllites), patchy-vegetated pattern and sporadic grazing. The site was cultivated with cereal and disperse almond trees until the 1950s

  18. ODP Sites 967 and 968 (eastern Mediterranean) revisited and implications for the global oxygen stable isotope chronology of the late Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konijnendijk, Tiuri; Lourens, Lucas; Ziegler, Martin

    2013-04-01

    ODP Sites 967 and 968 (eastern Mediterranean) revisited and implications for the global oxygen stable isotope chronology of the late Pleistocene ODP Sites 967 and 968, located in the Eastern Mediterranean at the Eratosthenes Seamount, are ideally situated to study both regional and global climate signals. Evidently, changes in the titanium to aluminum ratio of the bulk sediment reflect variations in North African aridity, and hence North African monsoon strength: increased levels of titanium are associated with enhanced windblown dust input from the Sahara and increased levels of aluminum with enhanced runoff from the river Nile. In addition, changes in the benthic foraminiferal stable isotope composition reflect primarily changes in global ice volume and deep sea temperature (Lourens et al., 2010; Ziegler et al., 2010). Here we completed and spliced the Ti/Al and benthic d18O data sets of ODP Site 968 and 967 for the past one million years at approximately 200-400 year resolution. The Ti/Al ratio reflect dominantly precession-controlled African monsoon intensity changes and was used to build an astronomically tuned age model for the composite record. This approach enabled us in first instance to establish an alternative and highly accurate chronology for sapropels in the Eastern Mediterranean, and lead to revisions of existing age models, especially around MIS 11 and 19, when the 405-kyr eccentricity cycle is at a minimum. Color reflectance, typically indicative of sapropels, appears incongruent with insolation forcing during these episodes. Secondly our Ti/Al-based chronology provides an independent age model for the benthic d18O record, which may shed new light upon the relationship between insolation and global climate (e.g. ice volume) changes. Our research indicates negligible differences between our record and the global benthic stack of Lisiecki and Raymo (LR04) between the present and MIS 11. However, there are significant discrepancies in the timing of

  19. Seasonal variability of the organic matter in a sedimentary coastal environment: sources, degradation and accumulation (continental shelf of the Gulf of Lions—northwestern Mediterranean Sea)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buscail, Roselyne; Pocklington, Roger; Germain, Claire

    1995-06-01

    The temporal variations of the superficial (0-1 cm) sedimentary organic matter were studied at a depth of 26 m on the continental shelf of the Gulf of Lions (northwestern Mediterranean). The samples were analyzed for total organic carbon, coarse organic carbon (>40 μm), hydrolyzable organic carbon, nitrogen, total amino acids, total and individual sugars (HPLC), lignin-derived compounds (HPLC) and kerogens (acid-soluble, humic substances and humin). Seasonal variations of the organic compounds are related to the sedimentological, hydrodynamical and physico-chemical environmental conditions. The mean annual values of the different organic compounds analyzed show the low quantities and their evolved character at the sediment-water interface: 0.5% total org C (TOC) (d.w.), 0.049% N (d.w.), C/N: 11.2, coarse org C (COQ: 62% of TOC, hydrolyzable org C: 45% TOC. The labile compounds represent a low percentage of the total organic matter (TOM), amino-acids: 12% of TOM and sugars: 5% of TOM. The relative proportions of soluble (humic) and insoluble kerogens (humin), respectively 6% and 94% of TOC are typical of a highly evolved organic matter. The large contribution of plant remains confirmed by the high proportion of COC, corresponds to a low proportion of humic substances and a high degree of condensation ( H/C = 1.3 ). The infrared spectroscopy determination of the functional groups of the humic substances permits us to confirm both autochtonous (marine) and allochtonous (terrestrial) sources of organic matter in the Têt prodeltaïc accumulation area. Numerous functional groups identified reveal the fresh quality of the organic inputs at the sediment-water interface. Aliphaticity is well marked and nitrogenous compounds (1 and 2 amines) correspond to autochtonous production (in spring: phyto- and zoo-planktonic blooms in the euphotic zone; in summer: primary production under the thermocline and phytobenthic blooms). Sugars are well represented, but from two origins

  20. Assessing the impact of historical coastal landfill sites on sensitive ecosystems: A case study from Dorset, Southern England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njue, C. N.; Cundy, A. B.; Smith, M.; Green, I. D.; Tomlinson, N.

    2012-12-01

    Uncontrolled landfill disposal can cause the release of significant contamination. In Southern England and in other parts of the UK, historical landfills are located along many coastal and estuarine marshes and mudflats. At these sites waste, often significantly contaminated with heavy metals and other contaminants, was dumped with little engineering control and without regard to the surrounding environment. The aim of this study is to investigate the degree to which heavy metals from these historical sites may have contaminated adjacent marshes and mudflats, using the Lodmoor marsh, Dorset, UK as a test site. Surface and sediment core samples were collected from brackish marsh and mudflat areas around the former landfill at Lodmoor, which was operational between 1949 and 1990. Sediment samples were investigated for metallic pollutants, grain size, and mineralogy, and core samples dated via 137Cs and 210Pb. To examine the transfer of heavy metals through the food chain, Phragmites australis leaves were analysed for metallic pollutants. Geochemical data revealed that sediments from the Lodmoor marsh are probably contaminated with Pb. 137Cs dating indicates that concentration maxima for heavy metals correlate to the 1950s and 1960s when landfill activities commenced in Lodmoor. Shallow electromagnetic surveys indicate potential continued leaching from the historic landfill complex. This study indicates the potential for possible landfill-derived contaminants to persist in coastal systems for decades after landfill closure. Over the longer term, it is possible that salinisation and enhanced coastal erosion may cause significant metal release from the landfills and their surrounding sedimentary systems into adjacent ecosystems.

  1. Gas-particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in urban, adjacent coastal, and continental background sites of western Greece.

    PubMed

    Terzi, Eleni; Samara, Constantini

    2004-10-01

    Particle- and gas-phase polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were collected from an urban, an adjacent coastal, and a continental background site located in Eordea basin, western Greece, to investigate their gas/ particle distributions. Thirteen two- to six-ring PAHs, included in the U.S. EPA priority pollutant list, were determined in 24-h integrated glass fiber filters and polyurethane foam samples. At the prevailing ambient temperature levels, the three-ringed species (phenanthrene, anthracene) and the four-ringed fluoranthene and pyrene were primarily found in the gas phase. Conversely, the five- and six-ring PAHs were mainly associated with the particle phase. Gas/particle partitioning coefficients, Kp, were calculated, and their relationship with the subcooled liquid vapor pressure p degrees L of individual PAHs was investigated. Despite the large variability among samples, a good linear relationship between log Kp and log p degrees L was obtained for all sampling sites following the equation log Kp = m(r) log p degrees L + b(r). In the majority of sampling events, particularly in the adjacent coastal and the continental background sites, slopes (m(r)) were found to be shallower than the value of -1, which has been suggested as reflecting equilibrium partitioning. The deviations from predicted aerosol behavior observed in the present study may be attributed to several reasons, such as the presence of nonexchangeable PAH fraction, nonequilibrium as well as different particle characteristics.

  2. Impact of a coastal disposal site for inert wastes on the physical marine environment, Barcola-Bovedo, Trieste, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colizza, E.; Fontolan, G.; Brambati, A.

    1996-06-01

    . Sediments in the marine area surrounding the Barcola-Bovedo coastal disposal site for inert wastes show a textural adjustment as a response to the new morphology due to construction of a 150-wide × 350-long landfill. Relatively coarse-sized deposits were found along the nearshore area facing the central landfill face, while pelitic sediments transported in suspension settle deeper, mainly in the northwestern sector of the study area, according to the cyclonic circulation scheme. Geochemical comparison between disposed material and sea-bottom sediments, normalized taking in account the regional variability of the elements contents, shows: (1) Cr concentrations in the coastal samples twice as high as in the offshore ones, with the former characterizing the whole coastal and port area of Trieste, and (2) “anomalous” enrichments of Zn, Cu, and Pb, located mainly in the southern stretch of the investigated area, where dumping work is in progress in order to connect the landfill with the port area. Although the new morphology of the sea bottom is reflected in the grain-size redistribution, the sediments were not altered as far as their geochemical properties are concerned. In contrast, the recent discharge of material in the southern area is easily discernible because of its high heavy-metal content.

  3. Impact of a coastal disposal site for inert wastes on the physical marine environment, Barcola-Bovedo, Trieste, Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Colizza, E.; Fontolan, G.; Brambati, A.

    1996-06-01

    Sediments in the marine area surrounding the Barcola-Bovedo coastal disposal site for inert wastes show a textural adjustment as a response to the new morphology due to construction of a 150-m-wide x 350-m-long landfill. Relatively coarse-sized deposits were found along the nearshore area facing the central landfill face, while pelitic sediments transported in suspension settle deeper, mainly in the northwestern sector of the study area, according to the cyclonic circulation scheme. Geochemical comparison between disposed material and sea-bottom sediments, normalized taking in account the regional variability of the element contents, shows: (1) Cr concentrations in the coastal samples twice as high as in the offshore ones, with the former characterizing the whole coastal and port area of Trieste, and (2) {open_quotes}anomalous{close_quotes} enrichments of Zn, Cu, and Pb, located mainly in the southern stretch of the investigated area, where dumping work is in progress in order to connect the landfill with the port area. Although the new morphology of the sea bottom is reflected in the grain-size redistribution, the sediments were not altered as far as their geochemical properieties are concerned. In contrast, the recent discharge of material in the southern area is easily discernible because of its high heavy-metal content. 30 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Documentation of dislocated boulders and monitoring of coastal sites in western Greece by terrestrial laser scanning and dense image matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmeister, Dirk; Curdt, Constanze; Röbke, Björn; Vött, Andreas; Bareth, Georg

    2015-04-01

    Dislocated boulders are one evidence of high-energy coastal inundation by tsunamis and storms. The accurate determination of the mass and the lateral areas of these boulders are important input parameters for wave transport equations, which calculate the necessary wave height and velocity for dislocation. Several studies have revealed that these boulder parameters are not easy to estimate by simply measuring the axes of a boulder, as their morphology is mostly complex. In addition, there is an ongoing debate, how tsunami and storm impacts are distinguishable by wave transport equations. Therefore, terrestrial laser scanning (TLS), as well as dense image matching from the ground and by an unmanned aerial system (UAS) have been used to accurately document dislocated boulders. In addition, several different coastal sites in western Greece were monitored since 2009 in order to distinguish gradual changes. This specific region is characterized by a high seismic and tsunami hazard risk, due to the nearby plate boundaries. In addition, severe storms during winter time can considerably alter the coasts. The 3D data, gathered by the different methods, was used to derive 3D models of the boulders and enabled the calculation of the volume of each boulder and the corresponding lateral areas as well. The mass of the boulders was achieved by the incorporation of density values. Likewise, the accurate position, orientation and distance to the sea were measured. High-resolution digital elevation models (2.5D) of each site were compared to each other in order to determine changes. For all measurements, marked base points were used for RTK-GPS and tachymetric measurements. Thus, all data is georeferenced and comparable over the observed years. The results of the field campaigns show that the dislocated boulders can be accurately documented and monitored. Their volume and the lateral areas are considerably smaller than estimations by axes measurements. The new data shows reduced wave

  5. The effects of marine vessel fuel sulfur regulations on ambient PM2.5 at coastal and near coastal monitoring sites in the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotchenruther, Robert A.

    2017-02-01

    In August of 2012 the U.S. began implementing fuel sulfur limits on certain large commercial marine vessels within 200 nautical miles (nm) of its coasts as part of a North American Emissions Control Area (NA-ECA). The NA-ECA limited fuel sulfur use in these vessels to below 1% in 2012 and to below 0.1% starting in 2015. This work uses ambient PM2.5 monitoring data from the U.S. IMPROVE network and Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor modeling to assess the effectiveness of the NA-ECA at reducing ambient PM2.5 from high-sulfur residual fuel oil (RFO) use. RFO combustion emissions of PM2.5 are known to have a fairly unique vanadium (V) and nickel (Ni) trace metal signature. To determine if IMPROVE sites were affected by residual fuel oil combustion, V and Ni data from 65 IMPROVE sites in coastal States of the U.S. were analyzed from 2010 to 2011, the two years prior to NA-ECA implementation. 22 of these IMPROVE sites had a V and Ni correlation coefficient (r2) greater than 0.65 and were selected for further analysis by PMF. The slopes of the correlations between V and Ni at these 22 sites ranged from 2.2 to 4.1, consistent with reported V:Ni emission ratios from RFO combustion. Each of the 22 IMPROVE sites was modeled independently with PMF, using the available PM2.5 chemical speciation data from 2010 to 2015. PMF model solutions for the 22 sites contained from 5 to 9 factors, depending on the site. At every site a PMF factor was identified that was associated with RFO combustion, however, 9 sites had PMF factors where RFO combustion was mixed with other aerosol sources. For the remaining 13 sites, PM2.5 from RFO combustion was analyzed for three time periods; 2010-2011 representing the time period prior to the NA-ECA implementation (pre-NA-ECA), 2013-2014 representing the time period where fuel sulfur was limited to 1.0% (NA-ECA 1.0% S), and 2015 representing the time period where fuel sulfur was limited to 0.1% (NA-ECA 0.1% S). All 13 sites indicated

  6. A comparison of cloud properties at a coastal and inland site at the North Slope of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J. C.; Zhong, S.; Liljegren, J. C.; Jakob, C.

    2002-06-11

    In this study, we have examined differences in cloud liquid water paths (LWPs) at a coastal (Barrow) and an inland (Atqasuk) location on the North Slope of Alaska using microwave radiometer (MWR) data collected by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program for the period June-September 1999. Revised retrieval procedures and a filtering algorithm to eliminate data contaminated by wet windows on the MWRs were employed to extract high-quality data suitable for this study. For clouds with low base heights (<350 m), the LWPs at the coastal site were significantly higher than those at the inland site, but for clouds with higher base heights the differences were small. Air-surface interactions may account for some of the differences. Comparisons were also made between observed LWPs and those simulated with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model. The model usually successfully captured the occurrence of cloudy periods but it underpredicted the LWPs by approximately a factor of two. It was also unsuccessful in reproducing the observed differences in LWPs between Barrow and Atqasuk. Some suggestions on possible improvements in the model are presented.

  7. A comparison of cloud properties at a coastal and inland site at the North Slope of Alaska

    DOE PAGES

    Doran, J. C.; Zhong, S.; Liljegren, J. C.; ...

    2002-06-11

    In this study, we have examined differences in cloud liquid water paths (LWPs) at a coastal (Barrow) and an inland (Atqasuk) location on the North Slope of Alaska using microwave radiometer (MWR) data collected by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program for the period June-September 1999. Revised retrieval procedures and a filtering algorithm to eliminate data contaminated by wet windows on the MWRs were employed to extract high-quality data suitable for this study. For clouds with low base heights (<350 m), the LWPs at the coastal site were significantly higher than those at the inland site, butmore » for clouds with higher base heights the differences were small. Air-surface interactions may account for some of the differences. Comparisons were also made between observed LWPs and those simulated with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model. The model usually successfully captured the occurrence of cloudy periods but it underpredicted the LWPs by approximately a factor of two. It was also unsuccessful in reproducing the observed differences in LWPs between Barrow and Atqasuk. Some suggestions on possible improvements in the model are presented.« less

  8. Atmospheric and Adjacency Correction of Landsat-8 Imagery of Inland and Coastal Waters Near AERONET-OC Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bassani, Cristiana; Cazzaniga, Ilaria; Manzo, Ciro; Bresciani, Mariano; Braga, Federica; Giardino, Claudia; Schroeder, Thomas; Kratzer, Susanne; Brando, Vittorio

    2016-08-01

    Preliminary results of a new algorithm for the atmospheric correction of OLI imagery acquired over coastal and inland water are presented. The algorithm was based on the Second Simulation of the Satellite Signal in the Solar Spectrum (6SV) radiative transfer model and the atmopheric contribution was simulated by using the microphysical properties of the aerosol, their size distribution and refractive index, available from the AERONET stations located in the study area. The SeaDAS software was also applied to the OLI data to compare the results obtained by OLI@CRI algorithm with the standard procedure for atmospheric correction of remotely data. Furthermore, the adjacency effect was removed by the well-known empirical formula as well as a new empirical formula to assess any possible improvement of the atmospheric correction products using the diffuse fraction of the total atmospheric transmission as weight for averaged reflectance removal. To validate the results and assess its accuracy, the above-water data acquired at AERONET- OC sites were used. A coastal area and a lake are considered, where AERONET and AERONET-OC data are available. These sites cover a significant range of both atmospheric (from boreal to tropics) and water quality conditions.

  9. A comparison of the bacterial microflora between coastal sites in Qingdao, P. R. China and Loch Fyne, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macinnes, J.; Robertson, P. A. W.; Austin, B.

    2002-10-01

    Aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria, recovered from two sites located on the west coast of Scotland, were compared to cultures obtained in a similar way from industrial, aquacultural and clean sites in the vicinity of Qingdao, Shandong, P. R. China. Gram-negative bacterial cultures were examined by BIOLOG-GN, and the data analysed by the simple matching (SSM) and Jaccard coefficients (SJ) and unweighted average linkage clustering using NTSys. The output revealed that 20% of the bacteria, namely, Acinetobacter johnsonii, Aquaspirillum dispar, Pseudomonas spp. (two groups), Sphingobacterium sp., Vibrio, sp., V. campbellii, V. mimicus and V. hollisae, were common between the two geographical locations. However, the study revealed shortcomings with the BIOLOG-GN system for the study of coastal Gram-negative bacteria.

  10. Modeling colony site dynamics: a case study of gull-billed terns (Sterna nilotica) in coastal Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Nichols, J.D.; Eyler, T.B.; Stotts, D.B.; Truitt, B.R.

    1998-01-01

    We developed a Markov process model for colony site dynamics of Gull-billed Terns (Sterna nilotica) in coastal Virginia. We used the model and data on colony site occupation from 1993 to 1996 to estimate model parameters. Each year, we monitored the breeding numbers of Gull-billed Terns and their frequent colony associates, Common Terns (Sterna hirundo) and Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger) at colony sites along about 80 km of the barrier island region of Virginia. We also monitored flooding events and renesting. We developed the model for colony survival, extinction, and recolonization at potential colony sites over the four-year period. We then used data on annual site occupation by Gull-billed Terns to estimate model parameters and test between different structures reflecting competing hypotheses. Results revealed a dynamic system, but provided no evidence that the dynamics were Markovian , i.e. the probability of occupancy of a site in one year was not influenced by whether it had been occupied the previous year. Nor did the colony-level reproductive success the previous season seem to affect the probability of site occupancy. Site survival and recolonization rates were similar, and the overall annual probability of a site being occupied over the course of the four-year period was estimated to be 0.59 Of the total of 25 sites that were used during the four-year period, 16 were used in only one or two years while only three were used all four years.. Flooding and renesting were frequent in both habitat types in all years. The frequent flooding of nests on shellpiles argues for more effective management; augmentation with shell and sand to increase elevations as little as 20 cm could have reduced flooding at a number of sites. The low colony-site fidelity we demonstrate suggests that an effective management approach is to provide a large number of alternative sand and/or shellpile sites that the terns may use. Sites not used one year may still be used in subsequent

  11. Ambient air benzene at background sites in China's most developed coastal regions: exposure levels, source implications and health risks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhou; Wang, Xinming; Zhang, Yanli; Lü, Sujun; Huang, Zhonghui; Huang, Xinyu; Wang, Yuesi

    2015-04-01

    Benzene is a known human carcinogen causing leukemia, yet ambient air quality objectives for benzene are not available in China. The ambient benzene levels at four background sites in China's most developed coastal regions were measured from March 2012 to February 2013. The sites are: SYNECP, in the Northeast China Plain (NECP); YCNCP, in the North China Plain (NCP); THYRD, in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and DHPRD, in the Pearl River Delta (PRD). It was found that the mean annual benzene levels (578-1297 ppt) at the background sites were alarmingly higher, especially when compared to those of 60-480 pptv monitored in 28 cities in the United States. Wintertime benzene levels were significantly elevated at both sites (SYNECP and YCNCP) in northern China due to heating with coal/biofuels. Even at these background sites, the lifetime cancer risks of benzene (1.7-3.7E-05) all exceeded 1E-06 set by USEPA as acceptable for adults. At both sites in northern China, good correlations between benzene and CO or chloromethane, together with much lower toluene/benzene (T/B) ratios, suggested that benzene was largely related to coal combustion and biomass/biofuel burning. At the DHPRD site in the PRD, benzene revealed a highly significant correlation with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), indicating that its source was predominantly from vehicle emissions. At the THYRD site in the YRD, higher T/B ratios and correlations between benzene and tetrachloroethylene, or MTBE, implied that benzene levels were probably affected by both traffic-related and industrial emissions.

  12. Spatiotemporal patterns and source implications of aromatic hydrocarbons at six rural sites across China's developed coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhou; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Xinming; Lü, Sujun; Huang, Zhonghui; Huang, Xinyu; Yang, Weiqiang; Wang, Yuesi; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are important anthropogenic precursors of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosols. Here we measured ambient aromatic hydrocarbons from March 2012 to February 2014 at six rural sites in China's developed coastal regions. On average, benzene (B) comprised > 50% of total benzene (B), toluene (T), ethylbenzene (E), and xylenes (X) (BTEX) at sites in the Northeast China Plain (NECP) or in the North China Plain (NCP), whereas T, E, and X accounted for > 77% of total BTEX at sites in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and the Pearl River Delta in the south. BTEX at the northern sites was significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with combustion tracer-carbon monoxide (CO) but weakly correlated with traffic marker-methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), suggesting that their main sources were coal and biofuel/biomass burning with substantially elevated B levels during the winter heating period. In contrast, BTEX at the southern sites originated mainly from traffic-related and/or industrial emission sources, as indicated by the poor correlations with CO but highly significant (p < 0.01) correlations with MTBE and tetrachloroethylene, an industrial emission tracer. The B/CO emission ratios from measurement agreed within a factor of 2 with that of a previous widely used emission inventory of China, but the T/CO ratio at the NECP site and the o-X/CO ratio at the NCP site were 29% and 38% of that in the inventory, respectively; the E/CO and X/CO ratios at the YRD site were 3.2-3.5 fold that in the emission inventory.

  13. What Drives Mediterranean Outflow Water Variability during the Mid-Pleistocene Transition and Early Pleistocene at IODP Site U1387 in the Gulf of Cadiz?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelker, A. H. L.; Jimenez-Espejo, F. J.; Bahr, A.; Acton, G.; Alberto, A.; Rebotim, A.; Salgueiro, E.; Roehl, U.

    2014-12-01

    The Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) forms extensive contourite drift deposits along the Iberian margin, especially in the Gulf of Cadiz, and injects heat and salt into the intermediate depths of the North Atlantic. The sediments recovered during IODP Expedition 339 allow studying MOW's history throughout the Pleistocene and Pliocene and thus under varying climate forcing. Here we present centennial-to-millennial scale proxy records for surface water and MOW variations as recorded at IODP Site U1387, drilled into the Faro Drift, which is formed by the upper MOW core. We focus our study on the early to middle Pleistocene with special attention on the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT) when the dominant climate cyclicity changed from 41 kyr to 100 kyr. Surface water and MOW proxy records show millennial-scale stadial/ interstadial oscillations on top of the glacial/ interglacial cycles. Planktonic and benthic δ18O records are tightly coupled highlighting the constant exchange between the (sub)surface waters and the MOW. Low benthic δ13C values during deglacial and peak interglacial periods, coinciding with insolation maxima, reveal a poorly ventilated upper MOW core and a causal link between MOW ventilation and sapropel formation in the Mediterranean Sea. Better ventilation was recorded during glacial and stadial intervals, often in association with the formation of contourites. During the warmer MIS contourites, often more pronounced than their glacial counterparts, were formed during the stadial(s) following the peak interglacial period when northern hemisphere summer insolation was low. Thus, changes in the upper MOW core are tightly coupled to summer insolation with poor ventilation occurring during insolation maxima and higher current velocity marking insolation minima. This insolation forcing reveals a close link between MOW and Mediterranean Sea climate conditions.

  14. Black and Brown Bear Activity at Selected Coastal Sites in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska: A Preliminary Assessment Using Noninvasive Procedures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Partridge, Steve; Smith, Tom; Lewis, Tania

    2009-01-01

    A number of efforts in recent years have sought to predict bear activity in various habitats to minimize human disturbance and bear/human conflicts. Alaskan coastal areas provide important foraging areas for bears (Ursus americanus and U. arctos), particularly following den emergence when there may be no snow-free foraging alternatives. Additionally, coastal areas provide important food items for bears throughout the year. Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve (GLBA) in southeastern Alaska has extensive coastal habitats, and the National Park Service (NPS) has been long interested in learning more about the use of these coastal habitats by bears because these same habitats receive extensive human use by park visitors, especially kayaking recreationists. This study provides insight regarding the nature and intensity of bear activity at selected coastal sites within GLBA. We achieved a clearer understanding of bear/habitat relationships within GLBA by analyzing bear activity data collected with remote cameras, bear sign mapping, scat collections, and genetic analysis of bear hair. Although we could not quantify actual levels of bear activity at study sites, agreement among measures of activity (for example, sign counts, DNA analysis, and video record) lends support to our qualitative site assessments. This work suggests that habitat evaluation, bear sign mapping, and periodic scat counts can provide a useful index of bear activity for sites of interest.

  15. Water exchange on a geological timescale - examples from two coastal sites in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Christin; Engqvist, Anders

    2013-05-01

    The water turnover of two coastal areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, has been modeled for 13 selected years between 6500 BC and 9000 AD by utilizing information about past, present, and future bathymetry. The Forsmark area can be described as an open-ended funnel, and is analyzed with a 3D-model (MIKE 3-FM); the Laxemar area is partitioned into clusters of sub-basins treated with a discrete coupled basin model (CouBa). In all simulations, the main variation factor is the land uplift. The 3D-model domain is successively modified. For the CouBa approach the successive basin configurations are objectively deduced based on the 3D domain modifications. The average age (AvA) of the resident water relative to the open coast is generally lower for the Forsmark area. A typical progression is that the AvA values increase until a sub-basin ceases to be connected to the coastal zone. This disconnection is often preceded by a lowered AvA.

  16. Ice nucleating particles at a coastal marine boundary layer site: correlations with aerosol type and meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, R. H.; Si, M.; Li, J.; Chou, C.; Dickie, R.; Toom-Sauntry, D.; Pöhlker, C.; Yakobi-Hancock, J. D.; Ladino, L. A.; Jones, K.; Leaitch, W. R.; Schiller, C. L.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Huffman, J. A.; Bertram, A. K.

    2015-06-01

    Information on what aerosol particle types are the major sources of ice nucleating particles (INPs) in the atmosphere is needed for climate predictions. To determine which aerosol particles are the major sources of immersion-mode INPs at a coastal site in Western Canada, we investigated correlations between INP number concentrations and both concentrations of different atmospheric particles and meteorological conditions. We show that INP number concentrations are strongly correlated with the number concentrations of fluorescent bioparticles between -15 and -25 °C, and that the size distribution of INPs is most consistent with the size distribution of fluorescent bioparticles. We conclude that biological particles were likely the major source of ice nuclei at freezing temperatures between -15 and -25 °C at this site for the time period studied. At -30 °C, INP number concentrations are also well correlated with number concentrations of the total aerosol particles ≥ 0.5 μm, suggesting that non-biological particles may have an important contribution to the population of INPs active at this temperature. As we found that black carbon particles were unlikely to be a major source of ice nuclei during this study, these non-biological INPs may include mineral dust. Furthermore, correlations involving tracers of marine aerosols and marine biological activity indicate that the majority of INPs measured at the coastal site likely originated from terrestrial rather than marine sources. Finally, six existing empirical parameterizations of ice nucleation were tested to determine if they accurately predict the measured INP number concentrations. We found that none of the parameterizations selected are capable of predicting INP number concentrations with high accuracy over the entire temperature range investigated.

  17. Ice nucleating particles at a coastal marine boundary layer site: correlations with aerosol type and meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, R. H.; Si, M.; Li, J.; Chou, C.; Dickie, R.; Toom-Sauntry, D.; Pöhlker, C.; Yakobi-Hancock, J. D.; Ladino, L. A.; Jones, K.; Leaitch, W. R.; Schiller, C. L.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Huffman, J. A.; Bertram, A. K.

    2015-11-01

    Information on what aerosol particle types are the major sources of ice nucleating particles (INPs) in the atmosphere is needed for climate predictions. To determine which aerosol particles are the major sources of immersion-mode INPs at a coastal site in Western Canada, we investigated correlations between INP number concentrations and both concentrations of different atmospheric particles and meteorological conditions. We show that INP number concentrations are strongly correlated with the number concentrations of fluorescent bioparticles between -15 and -25 °C, and that the size distribution of INPs is most consistent with the size distribution of fluorescent bioparticles. We conclude that biological particles were likely the major source of ice nuclei at freezing temperatures between -15 and -25 °C at this site for the time period studied. At -30 °C, INP number concentrations are also well correlated with number concentrations of the total aerosol particles ≥ 0.5 μm, suggesting that non-biological particles may have an important contribution to the population of INPs active at this temperature. As we found that black carbon particles were unlikely to be a major source of ice nuclei during this study, these non-biological INPs may include mineral dust. Furthermore, correlations involving chemical tracers of marine aerosols and marine biological activity, sodium and methanesulfonic acid, indicate that the majority of INPs measured at the coastal site likely originated from terrestrial rather than marine sources. Finally, six existing empirical parameterizations of ice nucleation were tested to determine if they accurately predict the measured INP number concentrations. We found that none of the parameterizations selected are capable of predicting INP number concentrations with high accuracy over the entire temperature range investigated. This finding illustrates that additional measurements are needed to improve parameterizations of INPs and their

  18. End-Pleistocene Soil Constituents from Selected Sites on the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain: First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecompte, M. A.; Rock, B. N.; Demitroff, M.; Reid, M.; Lucas, L.; Hughes, D.; Hayden, L. B.

    2008-12-01

    Stratigraphic analyses of soil samples taken from dated and undated sites located along the mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain have yielded evidence of increased contemporary biomass burning, compared to under and overlying strata. Host strata ages are known or projected to bracket the onset of the Younger Dryas cooling episode at 12.9 cal ka. This ongoing investigation includes samples from: 1) a late-Pleistocene aged periglacial feature located within the Pine Barrens of southern New Jersey; 2) an artifact dated stratum (~ 12.9 ka) in an embankment on the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland; and 3) an as yet undated (C14 test results pending) embankment of the Perquimans River in northeastern North Carolina projected to be age-appropriate. Sample analysis of scanning electron (SEM) micrographs from the Chesapeake Bay site revealed charred fragments of late-Wisconsinan Krummholz birch (Betula) and species of spruce (Picea) and fir (Abies), which are not extant on the modern-day, temperate Coastal Plain. In addition, organic faunal material is found in association with ancient charred boreal wood, including hollow hair and skin fragments that are as yet unidentified, perhaps from cold climate adapted animals as inferred from host sediment age. Charred wood fragments are found to be attracted to a neodymium magnet. Some aggregates of organic matter appear to contain magnetic spherule-like grains whose composition is awaiting geochemical analysis. Photomicrographs of all specimens and a stratigraphic breakdown in the relative amount of burned carbon associated with each site and strata will be presented, along with the results of various analyses that are currently underway.

  19. Factors limiting regeneration of Quercus alba and Cornus florida in formerly cultivated coastal plain sites, South Carolina.

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Joseph, M., Jr.; Jones, Robert, H.

    2003-01-01

    Riley, J.M. Jr., and R.H.Jones. 2003. Factors limiting regeneration of Quercus alba and Cornus florida in formerly cultivated coastal plain sites, South Carolina. For. Ecol., and Mgt. 177:571-586. To determine the extent that resources, conditions, and herbivoryy limit regeneration of Quercus alba L. and Cornus florida L. in formerly cultivated coastal plain uplands, we planted seedlings of the two species in two pine and one pine-hardwood forest understory and three adjacent clearcuts. Soil carbon and moisture, available nitrogen and phosphorous, and gap light index (GLI) were measured next to each seedling. Over two growing seasons, stem and leaf herbivory were estimated and survival was recorded. At the end of 2 years, all surviving stems were harvested to determine total leaf area and 2-year biomass growth. Survival to the end of the study was not significantly different between clearcuts and understories. However, clearcuts led to significantly greater biomass growth and leaf area for both Q. alba and C. florida. Soil moisture and available nutrients were also greater in the clearcuts. Using separate multiple linear (growth) or logistic (survival) regressions for each combination of three sites, two cutting treatments and two species, we found that soil moisture significantly affected survival in 12.5% and biomass growth in 8.3% of the regressions. Light availability significantly impacted biomass growth in 16.7% of the regressions. Stem and leaf herbivory had very little impact on survival (8.3%), but when combined, these two factors significantly impacted leaf area or biomass growth in 33.3% of the regressions. Seedling responses were highly variable, and no regression model accounted for more that 70.0% of this variation. In our study, stand-scalevariation in seedling responses (especially the difference between clearcut and understory) was much greater than within-stand variation. Of the within stand factors measured, herbivory was clearly the most

  20. Assessment of anthropogenic inputs in the surface waters of the southern coastal area of Sfax during spring (Tunisia, Southern Mediterranean Sea).

    PubMed

    Drira, Zaher; Kmiha-Megdiche, Salma; Sahnoun, Houda; Hammami, Ahmed; Allouche, Noureddine; Tedetti, Marc; Ayadi, Habib

    2016-03-15

    The coastal marine area of Sfax (Tunisia), which is well-known for its high productivity and fisheries, is also subjected to anthropogenic inputs from diverse industrial, urban and agriculture activities. We investigated the spatial distribution of physical, chemical and biogeochemical parameters in the surface waters of the southern coastal area of Sfax. Pertinent tracers of anthropogenic inputs were identified. Twenty stations were sampled during March 2013 in the vicinity of the coastal areas reserved for waste discharge. Phosphogypsum wastes dumped close to the beaches were the main source of PO4(3-), Cl(-) and SO4(2-) in seawater. The high content in total polyphenolic compounds was due to the olive oil treatment waste water released from margins. These inorganic and organic inputs in the surface waters were associated with elevated COD. The BOD5/COD (<0.5) and COD/BOD5 (>3) ratios highlighted a chemical pollution with organic load of a low biodegradability.

  1. Land use investigations in the central valley and central coastal test sites, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The Geography Remote Sensing Unit (GRSU) at the University of California, Santa Barbara is responsible for investigations with ERTS-1 data in the Central Coastal Zone and West Side of the San Joaquin Valley. The nature of investigative effort involves the inventory, monitoring, and assessment of the natural and cultural resources of the two areas. Land use, agriculture, vegetation, landforms, geology, and hydrology are the principal subjects for attention. These parameters are the key indicators of the dynamically changing character of the areas. Monitoring of these parameters with ERTS-1 data will provide the techniques and methodologies required to generate the information needed by federal, state, county, and local agencies to assess change-related phenomena and plan for management and development.

  2. Diurnal and seasonal trends in carbonyl levels in a semi-urban coastal site in the Gulf of Campeche, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerón, R. M.; Cerón, J. G.; Muriel, M.

    Concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, propionaldehyde and butyraldehyde were measured in a semi-urban coastal site in the Gulf of Campeche, Mexico, during the winter, summer and autumn seasons. Measurements were carried out from 10 February 2004 to 16 November 2004. Carbonyl compound levels showed pronounced diurnal and seasonal variations. Maximum concentrations occurred between 13:00 h and 16:00 h, when vehicular traffic and photochemical activity were intense, and during the summer (when there was greater solar radiation). Only acetone during the first campaign (winter) did not correlate with temperature; it showed an inverse diurnal pattern, with higher concentrations during the night, probably due to a local and temporal source. The low concentrations of the main carbonyls found in this study, compared with the values reported for other urban areas, seem to indicate that air quality is still satisfactory in Carmen City.

  3. Identification of potential sites for aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) in coastal areas using ASR performance estimation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuurbier, Koen G.; Bakker, Mark; Zaadnoordijk, Willem Jan; Stuyfzand, Pieter J.

    2013-09-01

    Performance of freshwater aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) systems in brackish or saline aquifers is negatively affected by lateral flow, density effects, and/or dispersive mixing, causing ambient groundwater to enter ASR wells during recovery. Two recently published ASR performance estimation methods are applied in a Dutch coastal area, characterized by brackish-to-saline groundwater and locally high lateral-flow velocities. ASR performance of existing systems in the study area show good agreement with the predicted performance using the two methods, provided that local vertical anisotropy ratios are limited (<3). Deviations between actual and predicted ASR performance may originate from simplifications in the conceptual model and uncertainties in the hydrogeological and hydrochemical input. As the estimation methods prove suitable to predict ASR performance, feasibility maps are generated for different scales of ASR to identify favorable ASR sites. Successful small-to-medium-scale ASR varies spatially in the study area, emphasizing the relevance of reliable a priori spatial mapping.

  4. Characteristics, sources and evolution of fine aerosol (PM1) at urban, coastal and forest background sites in Lithuania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masalaite, A.; Holzinger, R.; Remeikis, V.; Röckmann, T.; Dusek, U.

    2017-01-01

    The chemical and isotopic composition of organic aerosol (OA) samples collected on PM1 filters was determined as a function of desorption temperature to investigate the main sources of organic carbon and the effects of photochemical processing on atmospheric aerosol. The filter samples were collected at an urban (54°38‧ N, 25°18‧ E), coastal (55°55‧ N, 21°00‧ E) and forest (55°27‧ N, 26°00' E) site in Lithuania in March 2013. They can be interpreted as winter-time samples because the monthly averaged temperature was -4 °C. The detailed chemical composition of organic compounds was analysed with a thermal desorption PTR-MS. The mass concentration of organic aerosol at the forest site was roughly by a factor of 30 lower than at the urban and coastal site. This fact could be an indication that in this cold month the biogenic secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation was very low. Moreover, the organic aerosol collected at the forest site was more refractory and contained a larger fraction of heavy molecules with m/z > 200. The isotopic composition of the aerosol was used to differentiate the two main sources of organic aerosol in winter, i.e. biomass burning (BB) and fossil fuel (FF) combustion. Organic aerosol from biomass burning is enriched in 13C compared to OA from fossil fuel emissions. δ13COC values of the OA samples showed a positive correlation with the mass fraction of several individual organic compounds. Most of these organic compounds contained nitrogen indicating that organic nitrogen compounds formed during the combustion of biomass may be indicative of BB. Other compounds that showed negative correlations with δ13COC were possibly indicative of FF. These compounds included heavy hydrocarbons and were on the average less oxidized than the bulk organic carbon. The correlation of δ13COC and the O/C ratio was positive at low but negative at high desorption temperatures at the forest site. We propose that this might be due to

  5. Evaluation of Potential JHSV Port and Alternative Offload Sites in Coastal North Carolina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    orthoimagery on USGS Seamless Distribution System...............................................................................................10 Figure 6...ft orthoimagery , but the images did not load for this author. Site address: http://nationalmap.usgs.gov/. National map interactive viewer

  6. Outfall siting with dye-buoy remote sensing of coastal circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Welch, C. S.; Gordon, H. H.

    1978-01-01

    A dye-buoy remote sensing technique has been applied to estuarine siting problems that involve fine-scale circulation. Small hard cakes of sodium fluorescein and polyvinyl alcohol, in anchored buoys and low-windage current followers, dissolve to produce dye marks resolvable in 1:60,000 scale color and color infrared imagery. Lagrangian current vectors are determined from sequential photo coverage. Careful buoy placement reveals surface currents and submergence near fronts and convergence zones. The technique has been used in siting two sewage outfalls in Hampton Roads, Virginia: In case one, the outfall region during flood tide gathered floating materials in a convergence zone, which then acted as a secondary source during ebb; for better dispersion during ebb, the proposed outfall site was moved further offshore. In case two, flow during late flood was found to divide, with one half passing over shellfish beds; the proposed outfall site was consequently moved to keep effluent in the other half.

  7. High frequency mesozooplankton monitoring: Can imaging systems and automated sample analysis help us describe and interpret changes in zooplankton community composition and size structure — An example from a coastal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romagnan, Jean Baptiste; Aldamman, Lama; Gasparini, Stéphane; Nival, Paul; Aubert, Anaïs; Jamet, Jean Louis; Stemmann, Lars

    2016-10-01

    The present work aims to show that high throughput imaging systems can be useful to estimate mesozooplankton community size and taxonomic descriptors that can be the base for consistent large scale monitoring of plankton communities. Such monitoring is required by the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) in order to ensure the Good Environmental Status (GES) of European coastal and offshore marine ecosystems. Time and cost-effective, automatic, techniques are of high interest in this context. An imaging-based protocol has been applied to a high frequency time series (every second day between April 2003 to April 2004 on average) of zooplankton obtained in a coastal site of the NW Mediterranean Sea, Villefranche Bay. One hundred eighty four mesozooplankton net collected samples were analysed with a Zooscan and an associated semi-automatic classification technique. The constitution of a learning set designed to maximize copepod identification with more than 10,000 objects enabled the automatic sorting of copepods with an accuracy of 91% (true positives) and a contamination of 14% (false positives). Twenty seven samples were then chosen from the total copepod time series for detailed visual sorting of copepods after automatic identification. This method enabled the description of the dynamics of two well-known copepod species, Centropages typicus and Temora stylifera, and 7 other taxonomically broader copepod groups, in terms of size, biovolume and abundance-size distributions (size spectra). Also, total copepod size spectra underwent significant changes during the sampling period. These changes could be partially related to changes in the copepod assemblage taxonomic composition and size distributions. This study shows that the use of high throughput imaging systems is of great interest to extract relevant coarse (i.e. total abundance, size structure) and detailed (i.e. selected species dynamics) descriptors of zooplankton dynamics. Innovative

  8. The relation between air pollution data and planetary boundary layer quantities in a complex coastal industrial site nearby populated areas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammarella, M. C.; Grandoni, G.; Fernando, J.; Cacciani, M.; di Sabatino, S.; Favaron, M.; Fedele, P.

    2010-09-01

    The connection among boundary layer phenomena, atmospheric pollutant dynamics and human health is an established fact, taking many different forms depending on local characteristics, including slope and position of relief and/or coastline, surface roughness, emission patterns. The problem is especially interesting in complex and coastal terrain, where concurrence of slope and sea induced local circulation interact reciprocally, yielding a complex pattern whose interpretation may go beyond pure modeling, and devise specific measurements among which the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height. An occasion for studying this important theme has been offered by Regione Molise and Valle del Biferno Consortium (COSIB), for the specific case of the industrial complex of Valle del Biferno, 3 km inland of Termoli, in Central Italy, on the Adriatic coast. The local government, sensitive to air quality and public health in the industrial area, together with COSIB has co-financed a research project aimed at gaining knowledge about local meteorology, PBL phenomena and atmospheric pollutant dispersion in the area. Expected results include new air quality monitoring and control methodologies in Valle del Biferno for a sustainable development in an environmentally respectful manner, at a site already characterized by a high environmental and landscape value. The research project, developed by ENEA, has began in 2007 and will conclude in December 2010. Project activities involve research group from Europe, the United States of America, and the Russian Federation. Scientific and practical results will be published and presented in occasion of the final workshop to be held on project conclusion. The scientific interest of Valle del Biferno case stems from the specific local characteristics at site. Given the valley orientation respect to mean synoptic circulation, local effects as sea and slope breezes are dominant, and a complex wind regime develops affecting local transport and

  9. Late second-early first millennium BC abrupt climate changes in coastal Syria and their possible significance for the history of the Eastern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaniewski, D.; Paulissen, E.; Van Campo, E.; Weiss, H.; Otto, T.; Bretschneider, J.; Van Lerberghe, K.

    2010-09-01

    The alluvial deposits near Gibala-Tell Tweini provide a unique record of environmental history and food availability estimates covering the Late Bronze Age and the Early Iron Age. The refined pollen-derived climatic proxy suggests that drier climatic conditions occurred in the Mediterranean belt of Syria from the late 13th/early 12th centuries BC to the 9th century BC. This period corresponds with the time frame of the Late Bronze Age collapse and the subsequent Dark Age. The abrupt climate change at the end of the Late Bronze Age caused region-wide crop failures, leading towards socio-economic crises and unsustainability, forcing regional habitat-tracking. Archaeological data show that the first conflagration of Gibala occurred simultaneously with the destruction of the capital city Ugarit currently dated between 1194 and 1175 BC. Gibala redeveloped shortly after this destruction, with large-scale urbanization visible in two main architectural phases during the Early Iron Age I. The later Iron Age I city was destroyed during a second conflagration, which is radiocarbon-dated at circa 2950 cal yr BP. The data from Gibala-Tell Tweini provide evidence in support of the drought hypothesis as a triggering factor behind the Late Bronze Age collapse in the Eastern Mediterranean.

  10. Sampling design and procedures for fixed surface-water sites in the Georgia-Florida coastal plain study unit, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatzell, H.H.; Oaksford, E.T.; Asbury, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    The implementation of design guidelines for the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program has resulted in the development of new sampling procedures and the modification of existing procedures commonly used in the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey. The Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain (GAFL) study unit began the intensive data collection phase of the program in October 1992. This report documents the implementation of the NAWQA guidelines by describing the sampling design and procedures for collecting surface-water samples in the GAFL study unit in 1993. This documentation is provided for agencies that use water-quality data and for future study units that will be entering the intensive phase of data collection. The sampling design is intended to account for large- and small-scale spatial variations, and temporal variations in water quality for the study area. Nine fixed sites were selected in drainage basins of different sizes and different land-use characteristics located in different land-resource provinces. Each of the nine fixed sites was sampled regularly for a combination of six constituent groups composed of physical and chemical constituents: field measurements, major ions and metals, nutrients, organic carbon, pesticides, and suspended sediments. Some sites were also sampled during high-flow conditions and storm events. Discussion of the sampling procedure is divided into three phases: sample collection, sample splitting, and sample processing. A cone splitter was used to split water samples for the analysis of the sampling constituent groups except organic carbon from approximately nine liters of stream water collected at four fixed sites that were sampled intensively. An example of the sample splitting schemes designed to provide the sample volumes required for each sample constituent group is described in detail. Information about onsite sample processing has been organized into a flowchart that describes a pathway for each of

  11. Guidelines for Vegetative Erosion Control on Wave-Impacted Coastal Dredged Material Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-09-01

    severity is shore geometry (the shape of the shoreline). Common sense would dictate that sites located in narrow coves may be effectively sheltered from...3 Background.................................................... ....... 3 Role of Marshes in Shore ...Stability................................... 4 Impact of Mars-res on Shore Erosion................................... 6 PARI II: SHORELINE REVEGETATION

  12. Effect of climate change on soil carbon dynamics under three wheat based rotation in a Mediterranean semiarid site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farina, Roberta; Troccoli, Antonio; Francaviglia, Rosa

    2014-05-01

    Adoption of intensive and not sustainable farming practices has caused a severe reduction of soil organic C in Mediterranean regions, with major side effects on soil functioning. The purpose of our research was to simulate the effect of different wheat-based rotations, commonly used in Southern Italy, on soil organic carbon dynamics under climate change. C dynamics simulation was performed with RothC10N, a version of RothC modified to increase the simulation accuracy in dry regions (Farina et al., 2013). The baseline climate and the two climate change scenarios ensembles (C4IRCA_A1B and CNMI_RACMO A1B), for two time periods each (2011-30 and 2031-50, short and medium term respectively) were obtained using the climate generator LARSWG5 (Semenov and Stratonovitch, 2010) based on 50 years of measured climatic data. Data for C model validation were obtained by a rotation experiment carried out since 1992 in Foggia (Apulia, Italy) at the experimental farm of the Cereal Research Centre in a clayey vertisol. Rotations were continuous durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) (CW), wheat- fallow (WF) and wheat -irrigated tomato (WT) (Lycopersicon esculentum L.). Results showed a negative trend of soil C in all rotations and in all climates and periods. Under baseline conditions, compared with the initial C content, after 30 years there was a decrease of 15.6, 19.2 and 31.9 % for CW, WF and WT respectively. Under C4IRCA, in the short term, the two rainfed rotations (CW and WF) lost 0.23 and 0.35 t ha-1y-1 while WT C losses were 0.71 t ha-1y-1; in the medium term CW and WF C losses increased by 46 and 25% respectively while WT losses increased only by 10%. Under CNMI_RACMO trends are similar to those described above but losses are slightly higher (0.43-0.60 and 0.58-0.68 t ha-1y-1 for CW and WF) in the short and medium term periods respectively. Instead no increase of losses was registered for WT rotation. Therefore, in Mediterranean semiarid areas, the traditional wheat based

  13. Trophic transfer of trace elements in an isotopically constructed food chain from a semi-enclosed marine coastal area (Stagnone di Marsala, Sicily, Mediterranean).

    PubMed

    Vizzini, Salvatrice; Costa, Valentina; Tramati, Cecilia; Gianguzza, Paola; Mazzola, Antonio

    2013-11-01

    Trace element accumulation is particularly important in coastal and transitional environments, which act as contaminant buffers between the continental and marine systems. We compared trace element transfer to the biota in two locations with different open-sea exposures in a semi-enclosed marine coastal area (Stagnone di Marsala, Sicily, Italy) using isotopically reconstructed food chains. Samples of sediment, macroalgae, seagrasses, invertebrates, fish, and bird feathers were sampled in July 2006 and analysed for stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes (δ(13)C, δ(15)N) and trace elements (arsenic [As], cadmium [Cd], total mercury [THg], and lead [Pb]). Trophic magnification factors were calculated through the relationships between trace elements and δ(15)N in consumers. As and Pb were greater in organic matter sources (sediments and primary producers), whereas Cd and THg were greater in bird feathers. At the food chain level, an insignificant trophic transfer was found for all elements, suggesting biodilution rather than biomagnification. Sediments were more contaminated in the location with lower open-sea exposure. Macroalgae and seagrasses overall mirrored the spatial pattern highlighted in sediments, whereas differences between the two locations became further decreased moving toward higher trophic levels, indicating that trophic transfer of sediment and macrophyte-bound trace elements to the coastal lagoon food chain may be of relatively minor importance.

  14. Surface Water and Mediterranean Outflow Water Variability During the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (Marine Isotope Stages 17-36) - the IODP Site U1387 record

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelker, Antje; Salgueiro, Emilia; Rodrigues, Teresa; Padilha, Maria; Alberto, Ana; Loureiro, Isabel; Rebotim, Andreia; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Bahr, Andre; Röhl, Ulla

    2015-04-01

    The Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) forms extensive contourite drift deposits along the Iberian margin, especially in the Gulf of Cadiz, and injects heat and salt into the intermediate depths of the North Atlantic that affect the overturning circulation. The sediments recovered during IODP Expedition 339 allow studying MOW's history throughout the Pleistocene and Pliocene and thus under varying climate forcing. Here we present centennial-to-millennial scale proxy records for surface water and MOW variations as recorded at IODP Site U1387 (558 m water depth), drilled into the Faro Drift, which is formed by the upper MOW core. We focus our study on the early to middle Pleistocene with special attention on the Mid-Pleistocene Transition (MPT) when the period of the dominant climate cycle changed from 41 kyr to 100 kyr. Surface water and MOW proxy records show millennial-scale stadial/ interstadial oscillations on top of the glacial/ interglacial cycles. Changes in the planktonic and benthic oxygen isotope records are tightly coupled highlighting the constant exchange (entrainment) between the (sub)surface waters and the MOW. Alkenone-derived sea-surface temperatures (SST) increased abruptly at the beginning of an interglacial stage (with the exception of MIS 35) and reached maxima of 21-23°C. During the glacial stages, the SST record reveals abrupt drops down to 10-11°C that lasted approximately 1 kyr, respectively, and remind of the SST minima recorded on the western Iberian margin during Heinrich and Heinrich-type ice-rafting events of the middle to late Pleistocene (e.g., Rodrigues et al., 2011 in Paleoceanography). Low benthic carbon isotope values during deglacial and peak interglacial periods, coinciding with insolation maxima, reveal a poorly ventilated upper MOW core and point to a causal link between MOW ventilation and sapropel formation in the Mediterranean Sea. Better ventilation was recorded during glacial and stadial intervals, often in association

  15. Foramol carbonate shelves as depositional site and source area: Recent and ancient examples from the Mediterranean region

    SciTech Connect

    Carannante, G.; Simone, L.

    1988-08-01

    In recent environments, only limited carbonate depositional areas are dominated by coral reefs. Such platforms frequently develop rimmed margins and are characterized by chlorozoan facies with large contributions of nonskeletal grains. They are practically limited to warm tropical seas. In temperate seas as well as anomalous tropical zones, large areas of the middle-outer shelf are covered by skeletal debris with variable amounts of mollusks, foraminifers, coralline algae, bryozoans, etc (foramol facies). Apart from the skeletal fragments derived from the shallow inner shelf and the contribution from local endobiota and epibiota, the source of the bioclastic sediments may be found in limited and scattered areas supporting active carbonate-producing assemblages. Fossil counterparts of similar deposits are present in the Mediterranean region (e.g., Spain, Italy, Malta, Libya), locally showing good reservoir properties. Examples are described from the Miocene of the Southern Apennines (Italy) where a variety rich in encrusting coralline algae is present, as well as from the Upper Cretaceous of the Southern Apennines and northwest Sardinia (Italy) where scattered rudistid buildups are associated with bioclastic sediments rich in coralline algae and bryozoans.

  16. A Geochemical and Geophysical Assessment of Coastal Groundwater Discharge at Select Sites in Maui and O’ahu, Hawai’i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swarzenski, Peter W.; Storlazzi, Curt; M.L. Dalier,; C.R. Glenn,; C.G. Smith,

    2015-01-01

    Based on the submarine groundwater discharge tracer 222Rn, coastal groundwater discharge rates ranged from about 22–50 cm per day at Kahekili, a site in the Ka’anapali region north of Lahaina in west Maui, while at Black Point in Maunalua Bay along southern O’ahu, coastal groundwater discharge rates ranged up to 700 cm per day, although the mean discharge rate at this site was 60 cm per day. The water chemistry of the discharging groundwater can be dramatically different than ambient seawater at both coastal sites. For example, at Kahekili the average concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), dissolved silicate (DSi) and total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) were roughly 188-, 36-, and 106-times higher in the discharging groundwater relative to ambient seawater, respectively. Such data extend our basic understanding of the physical controls on coastal groundwater discharge and provide an estimate of the magnitude and physical forcings of submarine groundwater discharge and associated trace metal and nutrient loads conveyed by this submarine route.

  17. Climatology of aerosol optical properties and black carbon mass absorption cross section at a remote high-altitude site in the western Mediterranean Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pandolfi, M.; Ripoll, A.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.

    2014-06-01

    Aerosol light scattering (σsp), backscattering (σbsp) and absorption (σap) were measured at Montsec (MSC; 42°3' N, 0°44' E, 1570 m a.s.l.), a remote high-altitude site in the western Mediterranean Basin. Mean (±SD) σsp, σbsp and σap were 18.9 ± 20.8, 2.6 ± 2.8 and 1.5 ± 1.4 Mm-1, respectively at 635 nm during the period under study (June 2011-June 2013). Mean values of single-scattering albedo (SSA, 635 nm), the scattering Ångström exponent (SAE, 450-635 nm), backscatter-to-scatter ratio (B / S, 635 nm), asymmetry parameter (g, 635 nm), black carbon mass absorption cross section (MAC, 637 nm) and PM2.5 mass scattering cross section (MSCS, 635 nm) were 0.92 ± 0.03, 1.56 ± 0.88, 0.16 ± 0.09, 0.53 ± 0.16, 10.9 ± 3.5 m2 g-1 and 2.5 ± 1.3 m2 g-1, respectively. The scattering measurements performed at MSC were in the medium/upper range of values reported by Andrews et al. (2011) for other mountaintop sites in Europe due to the frequent regional recirculation scenarios (SREG) and Saharan dust episodes (NAF) occurring mostly in spring/summer and causing the presence of polluted layers at the MSC altitude. However, the development of upslope winds and the possible presence of planetary boundary layer air at MSC altitude in summer may also have contributed to the high scattering observed. Under these summer conditions no clear diurnal cycles were observed for the measured extensive aerosol optical properties (σsp, σbsp and σap). Conversely, low σsp and σap at MSC were measured during Atlantic advections (AA) and winter regional anticyclonic episodes (WREG) typically observed during the cold season in the western Mediterranean. Therefore, a season-dependent decrease in the magnitude of aerosol extensive properties was observed when MSC was in the free troposphere, with the highest free-troposphere vs. all-data difference observed in winter and the lowest in spring/summer. The location of MSC station allowed for a reliable characterization of aerosols

  18. Estimating site occupancy and detection probability parameters for meso- and large mammals in a coastal eosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connell, Allan F.; Talancy, Neil W.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Sauer, John R.; Cook, Robert; Gilbert, Andrew T.

    2006-01-01

    Large-scale, multispecies monitoring programs are widely used to assess changes in wildlife populations but they often assume constant detectability when documenting species occurrence. This assumption is rarely met in practice because animal populations vary across time and space. As a result, detectability of a species can be influenced by a number of physical, biological, or anthropogenic factors (e.g., weather, seasonality, topography, biological rhythms, sampling methods). To evaluate some of these influences, we estimated site occupancy rates using species-specific detection probabilities for meso- and large terrestrial mammal species on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA. We used model selection to assess the influence of different sampling methods and major environmental factors on our ability to detect individual species. Remote cameras detected the most species (9), followed by cubby boxes (7) and hair traps (4) over a 13-month period. Estimated site occupancy rates were similar among sampling methods for most species when detection probabilities exceeded 0.15, but we question estimates obtained from methods with detection probabilities between 0.05 and 0.15, and we consider methods with lower probabilities unacceptable for occupancy estimation and inference. Estimated detection probabilities can be used to accommodate variation in sampling methods, which allows for comparison of monitoring programs using different protocols. Vegetation and seasonality produced species-specific differences in detectability and occupancy, but differences were not consistent within or among species, which suggests that our results should be considered in the context of local habitat features and life history traits for the target species. We believe that site occupancy is a useful state variable and suggest that monitoring programs for mammals using occupancy data consider detectability prior to making inferences about species distributions or population change.

  19. Radionuclide transfer in marine coastal ecosystems, a modelling study using metabolic processes and site data.

    PubMed

    Konovalenko, L; Bradshaw, C; Kumblad, L; Kautsky, U

    2014-07-01

    This study implements new site-specific data and improved process-based transport model for 26 elements (Ac, Ag, Am, Ca, Cl, Cm, Cs, Ho, I, Nb, Ni, Np, Pa, Pb, Pd, Po, Pu, Ra, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Tc, Th, U, Zr), and validates model predictions with site measurements and literature data. The model was applied in the safety assessment of a planned nuclear waste repository in Forsmark, Öregrundsgrepen (Baltic Sea). Radionuclide transport models are central in radiological risk assessments to predict radionuclide concentrations in biota and doses to humans. Usually concentration ratios (CRs), the ratio of the measured radionuclide concentration in an organism to the concentration in water, drive such models. However, CRs vary with space and time and CR estimates for many organisms are lacking. In the model used in this study, radionuclides were assumed to follow the circulation of organic matter in the ecosystem and regulated by radionuclide-specific mechanisms and metabolic rates of the organisms. Most input parameters were represented by log-normally distributed probability density functions (PDFs) to account for parameter uncertainty. Generally, modelled CRs for grazers, benthos, zooplankton and fish for the 26 elements were in good agreement with site-specific measurements. The uncertainty was reduced when the model was parameterized with site data, and modelled CRs were most similar to measured values for particle reactive elements and for primary consumers. This study clearly demonstrated that it is necessary to validate models with more than just a few elements (e.g. Cs, Sr) in order to make them robust. The use of PDFs as input parameters, rather than averages or best estimates, enabled the estimation of the probable range of modelled CR values for the organism groups, an improvement over models that only estimate means. Using a mechanistic model that is constrained by ecological processes enables (i) the evaluation of the relative importance of food and water

  20. Mediterranean diet

    MedlinePlus

    ... provider if you should take a calcium supplement. Wine is a common part of a Mediterranean eating ... but some people should not drink alcohol. Avoid wine if you are prone to alcohol abuse, pregnant, ...

  1. Vanadium uptake and translocation in dominant plant species on an urban coastal brownfield site.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yu; Gallagher, Frank J; Feng, Huan; Wu, Meiyin; Zhu, Qingzhi

    2014-04-01

    This study, conducted at a brownfield site in New Jersey, USA, investigated factors controlling V uptake and translocation in naturally assembled plant species. Six dominant species were collected from 22 stations in the study area. We found that V concentration in the plants decreased in a sequence of root>leaf>stem. No significant differences were found among the six dominant plant species in terms of root V uptake efficiency (V BCF) and V root to shoot translocation (V TF). Although soil pH and TOC did not show significant impact on V accumulation in the roots, soil labile V content showed significant positive linear correlation (p<0.05) with plant root V. Non-linear regression analysis indicates that V translocation efficiency decreases with increasing concentration in the soil, implying that excessive V in the soil might inhibit its absorption by the plant roots. Leaf V concentration was constant in all the plant species regardless of the variation in soil V concentration. The study shows that the six dominant plant species on site had limited amount of V translocated to the aerial part of the plant.

  2. Surface and Mediterranean Outflow Water Variability during the Mid-Pleistocene Transition - Evidence from IODP Site U1387 offshore southern Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelker, Antje H. L.; Rodrigues, Teresa; Padilha, Maria; Jimenez-Espejo, Francisco J.; Bahr, Andre; Salgueiro, Emilia; Rebotim, Andreia; Cavaleiro, Catarina; Röhl, Ulla; Kuhnert, Henning

    2016-04-01

    The Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) forms contourite drift deposits along the Iberian margin, especially in the Gulf of Cadiz, and injects heat and salt into the North Atlantic affecting the overturning circulation. Drift sediments, such as the Faro Drift into which IODP Site U1387 was drilled during Exp. 339 - Mediterranean Outflow, allow studying MOW's response to climate oscillations at high resolution. Here we present centennial-to-millennial scale proxy records for surface and MOW variability during the 700 ky long interval spanning Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 16 to 41 (630-1330 ka), encompassing the Mid-Pleistocene Transition. Surface water conditions are reconstructed using G. bulloides oxygen isotope and alkenone-based sea-surface temperature (SST) records, whereas bottom water/MOW conditions are deduced from benthic foraminifer stable isotope records as well as sedimentological indicators for contourite layers (wt% sand; XRF-derived Zr/Al). Surface water conditions were relative stable during the interglacial periods with SST exceeding 21°C. Interglacial periods of MIS 31 to 41, i.e. during the 41 ky world, were, however, warmer (22-24°C) than those of MIS 17 to 29. Interglacial to glacial transitions as well as some of the glacial periods experienced millennial-scale stadial/interstadial oscillations, similar to those known from the late Pleistocene. Some of these stadials were associated with extreme cold events when SST dropped abruptly below 13°C indicating that the Polar Front was temporarily pushed further to the south than during most of the Heinrich events of the last glacial cycle. During glacial MIS 18 to 26, the cold events occurred at the end of the glacial period, whereas timing in the older glacials varied with events sometimes already occurring early on. Conditions in the upper MOW show no distinct change associated with the Mid-Pleistocene Transition. Throughout the whole interval MOW conditions are driven by insolation as the long

  3. Comparison of post-fire seedling establishment between scrub communities in mediterranean and non-mediterranean climate ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carrington, M.E.; Keeley, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    I Both fire regimes and the conditions under which fires occur vary widely. Abiotic conditions (such as climate) in combination with fire season, frequency and intensity could influence vegetation responses to fire. A variety of adaptations facilitate post-fire recruitment in mediterranean climate ecosystems, but responses of other communities are less well known. We evaluated the importance of climate by comparing sites with mediterranean and subtropical climates. 2 We used paired burned and mature sites in chamise chaparral, mixed chaparral and coastal sage scrub (California), and rosemary scrub, sand pine scrub and sand-hill (Florida), to test whether (i) patterns of pre-fire and post-fire seedling recruitment are more similar between communities within a region than between regions, and (ii) post-fire stimulation of seedling establishment is greater in regions with marked fire-induced contrasts in abiotic site characteristics. 3 Post-fire seedling densities were more similar among sites within climatic regions than between regions. Both seedling densities and proportions of species represented by seedlings after fires were generally higher in California. 4 The only site characteristic showing a pre-fire-post-fire contrast was percentage open canopy, and the effect was greater in California than in Florida. Soil properties were unaffected by fire. 5 Mediterranean climate ecosystems in other regions have nutrient-poor soils similar to our subtropical Florida sites, but show post-fire seedling recruitment patterns more similar to the nutrient-rich sites in California. Climate therefore appears to play a more major role than soil characteristics.

  4. Diurnal and seasonal variation of mercury species at coastal-suburban, urban, and rural sites in the southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nair, Udaysankar S.; Wu, Yuling; Walters, Justin; Jansen, John; Edgerton, Eric S.

    2012-02-01

    Observations for the 2005-2008 time period from three Southeastern Aerosol Research and Characterization (SEARCH) air quality monitoring sites are examined for diurnal and seasonal variation in concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), and particle bound mercury (HgP < 2.5 μm). The sites are located at 1) a suburban-coastal location near Pensacola, Florida (OLF), 2) an urban location in Birmingham, Alabama (BHM), and 3) a rural location west-northwest of Atlanta, Georgia (YRK). Average concentrations of GEM at both OLF and YRK are 1.35 ng m -3, whereas at BHM it is 2.12 ng m -3. All sites show increase in GEM concentration during the morning hours (0.023 and 0.011 ng m -3hr -1 at OLF and YRK between 6 and 10 AM, 0.038 ng m -3hr -1 at BHM between 5 and 10 AM) due to downward mixing of higher concentrations from the residual layer, after which OLF and YRK show negligible variation compared to decrease in concentration at BHM (2.3-1.9 ng m -3 from 10 AM to 6 PM). All sites show seasonal variation of GEM with enhanced concentrations found in winter and spring. Average GOM concentrations are 4.26, 8.55, and 78.2 pg m -3 at OLF, YRK, and BHM, respectively. Seasonally, GOM values are enhanced during fall and spring. All sites undergo a sinusoidal daytime variation of GOM that peaks in the afternoon, while BHM additionally exhibits an early morning enhancement likely caused by vertical mixing. The average HgP concentrations at OLF, YRK, and BHM are 2.49, 4.43, and 39.5 pg m -3, respectively. At OLF, vertical mixing causes an early morning increase in HgP concentration followed by an afternoon decline during all seasons. A daytime increase in HgP is found at YRK for all seasons, while at BHM, nocturnal accumulation followed by a daytime decline is also found for most seasons except winter. In winter, concentrations increase due to vertical mixing in the morning and then decline as the boundary layer grows. Boundary layer processes

  5. Habitat selection by sea kraits (Laticauda spp.) at coastal sites of Orchid Island, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Ling; Chen, Yi-Huei; Lillywhite, Harvey B; Tu, Ming-Chung

    2012-08-01

    Three species of amphibious sea kraits (Laticauda spp.) spend variable time at sea and require fresh water for water balance. Both the rate of cutaneous evaporative water loss and the extent of terrestriality are known to differ among them. Laticauda semifasciata has the greatest rate of water loss and the least extent of terrestriality, whereas L. colubrina exhibits the reverse and L. laticaudata is intermediate. These sea kraits tend to be more abundant at places where there are sources of fresh water, but other factors also influence their distribution. To further clarify the habitat requirements, we investigated the abundance of each species of sea krait at six different habitats and the availability of each type of habitat on Orchid Island, Taiwan. The six habitats were high coral reef without fresh water (HR) and with fresh water (HRF); low coral reef without fresh water (LR) and with fresh water (LRF); sand or gravel coast, which has no coral reef, without fresh water (NR) and with fresh water (NRF). The extent of safety judged from the relative availability of retreat sites, from high to low, was HR, LR, and NR among these habitats. More than 75% of individuals counted for each species were found in HRF. We found no sea kraits in NRF and NR. The most available habitat was LR, but no L. laticaudata or L. semifasciata were found in this habitat. We found 3.3% and 16.7% of L. colubrina in LR and HR, respectively. For L. colubrina, the second abundant habitat was HR, whereas for L. laticaudata and L. semifasciata, the second abundant habitat was LRF. We conclude that both safety (availability of retreat sites) and fresh water are important to the habitat selection of sea kraits. Compared with other species, L. colubrina is characterized by a greater extent of terrestrial habit and possibly greater variety of access to sources of fresh water.

  6. Eutrophication and environmental policy in the Mediterranean Sea: a review.

    PubMed

    Karydis, Michael; Kitsiou, Dimitra

    2012-08-01

    The Mediterranean Sea is a semienclosed basin connected with the open sea mainly through the Strait of Gibraltar. Due to the circulation pattern and the long residence time ranging between 80 and 100 years, the Mediterranean Sea is a sensitive environment to eutrophication pressures. The main body of water of the Mediterranean is characterized by very low nutrient concentrations, and therefore, the Mediterranean is classified among the most oligotrophic (very poor waters in nutrients) seas of the world's oceans. However, some coastal areas, mainly in the northern part of the basin, receive excessive loads of nutrients from sewage effluents, river fluxes, aquaculture farms, fertilizers, and industrial facilities, showing intense eutrophic phenomena with many adverse effects for the marine ecosystem and humans. Various national and international authorities, in addition to monitoring, have taken legal and administrative measures to mitigate eutrophication trends in the area. The Mediterranean environment is a good paradigm of integration of extensive legal framework, scientific knowledge, and administrative practices. The Barcelona Convention, the Mediterranean Action Plan, and European Union Directives on water quality and coastal management, together with scientific information derived from international research programs in the Mediterranean, provide a sound background for practical actions in eutrophication problems. In the present work, the problem of coastal eutrophication in the Mediterranean is reviewed in connection with public policies of the Mediterranean States based on national and international legislation and scientific knowledge on Mediterranean oceanography-ecology and actions coordinated by international bodies. These common actions and practices on coastal management are also discussed in relation to the need for sustainable development and protection of the coastal zone in the Mediterranean Sea.

  7. Inter-annual variability of surface ozone at coastal (Dumont d'Urville, 2004-2014) and inland (Concordia, 2007-2014) sites in East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, Michel; Preunkert, Susanne; Savarino, Joël; Frey, Markus M.; Kukui, Alexandre; Helmig, Detlev; Jourdain, Bruno; Jones, Anna E.; Weller, Rolf; Brough, Neil; Gallée, Hubert

    2016-07-01

    Surface ozone has been measured since 2004 at the coastal East Antarctic site of Dumont d'Urville (DDU), and since 2007 at the Concordia station located on the high East Antarctic plateau. This paper discusses long-term changes, seasonal and diurnal cycles, as well as inter-annual summer variability observed at these two East Antarctic sites. At Concordia, near-surface ozone data were complemented by balloon soundings and compared to similar measurements done at the South Pole. The DDU record is compared to those obtained at the coastal site of Syowa, also located in East Antarctica, as well as the coastal sites of Neumayer and Halley, both located on the coast of the Weddell Sea in West Antarctica. Surface ozone mixing ratios exhibit very similar seasonal cycles at Concordia and the South Pole. However, in summer the diurnal cycle of ozone is different at the two sites with a drop of ozone in the afternoon at Concordia but not at the South Pole. The vertical distribution of ozone above the snow surface also differs. When present, the ozone-rich layer located near the ground is better mixed and deeper at Concordia (up to 400 m) than at the South Pole during sunlight hours. These differences are related to different solar radiation and wind regimes encountered at these two inland sites. DDU appears to be the coastal site where the impact of the late winter/spring bromine chemistry is the weakest, but where the impact of elevated ozone levels caused by NOx snow emissions from the high Antarctic plateau is the highest. The highest impact of the bromine chemistry is seen at Halley and Neumayer, and to a lesser extent at Syowa. These three sites are only weakly impacted by the NOx chemistry and the net ozone production occurring on the high Antarctic plateau. The differences in late winter/spring are attributed to the abundance of sea ice offshore from the sites, whereas those in summer are related to the topography of East Antarctica that promotes the katabatic flow

  8. Phytoplankton community structure in local water types at a coastal site in north-western Bay of Bengal.

    PubMed

    Baliarsingh, S K; Srichandan, Suchismita; Lotliker, Aneesh A; Sahu, K C; Srinivasa Kumar, T

    2016-07-01

    A comprehensive analysis on seasonal distribution of phytoplankton community structure and their interaction with environmental variables was carried out in two local water types (type 1 < 30 m isobath and Type 2 > 30 m isobath) at a coastal site in north-western Bay of Bengal. Phytoplankton community was represented by 211 taxa (146 marine, 37 fresh, 2 brackish, 20 marine-fresh, and 6 marine-brackish-fresh) belonging to seven major groups including 45 potential bloom forming and 22 potential toxin producing species. The seasonal variability depicted enrichment of phytoplankton during pre-monsoon in both water types. Total phytoplankton abundance pattern observed with inter-annual shift during monsoon and post-monsoon period at both water types. In both water types, diatom predominance was observed in terms of species richness and abundance comprising of centric (82 sp.) and pennate (58 sp.) forms. Pennate diatoms, Thalassiothrix longissima and Skeletonema costatum preponderated in both the water types. The diatom abundance was higher in type 1 in comparison to type 2. In general, SiO4 found to fuel growth of the dominant phytoplankton group, diatom in both the water types despite comparative lower concentration of other macronutrients in type 2.

  9. LIDAR-based coastal landscape reconstruction and harbour location: The Viking-age royal burial site of Borre (Norway)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draganits, Erich; Doneus, Michael; Gansum, Terje

    2013-04-01

    Airborne light detection and ranging (LIDAR) has found wide application in archaeological research for the detection and documentation of archaeological and palaeo-environmental features. In this study we demonstrate the analysis of an LIDAR derived 1x1 m digital elevation model (DTM) combined with geoarchaeological research of the coastal Viking-age burial site in Borre, Olso Fjord (Norway). Borre is an exceptional burial site in Scandinavia, containing burial mounds up to 40 m in diameter and 6 m height, mentioned in Nordic Sagas, especially in the skaldic poem Ynglingatal, as the burial place of one or two kings of the Ynglinga dynasty. Archaeological findings and radiocarbon ages indicate that the Borre burial ground had been in use broadly between 600-1000 AD. Despite the reasonable expectation that a coastal site connected with the Viking kings of Vestfold, with hall buildings and ship graves demands a harbour, up to now no harbour has not been found with traditional archaeological surveys. Since the area of Borre is affected by a continuous land uplift related to glacial rebound of Scandinavia, any former harbour site is expected to be exposed to the land surface today. The present day vertical crustal uplift is calculated around 2.5 mm/yr in the area of Borre. Burial mounds and surrounding borrow pits as well as geomorphological features of the uplifted coast of Borre have been analysed by the 1x1 m LIDAR-DTM, using hillshade, slope and local relief model for visualisation. Altogether, 41 burial mounds and further 6 potential mounds are visible in the high-resolution DTM. A succession of more than 14 beach ridges, cross-cut by the burial mounds, is visible from the present shore line up to 18 m asl. They are more or less parallel and similar in size, except between at ca. 4-6 m asl, where the most prominent ridge is located, which probably has been enforced artificially. Using published shoreline displacement curves from nearby areas, the shore-line at

  10. Seasonal variation in grass water content estimated from proximal sensing and MODIS time series in a Mediterranean Fluxnet site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendiguren, G.; Martín, M. Pilar; Nieto, H.; Pacheco-Labrador, J.; Jurdao, S.

    2015-09-01

    This study evaluates three different metrics of water content of an herbaceous cover in a Mediterranean wooded grassland (dehesa) ecosystem. Fuel moisture content (FMC), equivalent water thickness (EWT) and canopy water content (CWC) were estimated from proximal sensing and MODIS satellite imagery. Dry matter (Dm) and leaf area index (LAI) connect the three metrics and were also analyzed. Metrics were derived from field sampling of grass cover within a 500 m MODIS pixel. Hand-held hyperspectral measurements and MODIS images were simultaneously acquired and predictive empirical models were parametrized. Two methods of estimating FMC and CWC using different field protocols were tested in order to evaluate the consistency of the metrics and the relationships with the predictive empirical models. In addition, radiative transfer models (RTM) were used to produce estimates of CWC and FMC, which were compared with the empirical ones. Results revealed that, for all metrics spatial variability was significantly lower than temporal. Thus we concluded that experimental design should prioritize sampling frequency rather than sample size. Dm variability was high which demonstrates that a constant annual Dm value should not be used to predict EWT from FMC as other previous studies did. Relative root mean square error (RRMSE) evaluated the performance of nine spectral indices to compute each variable. Visible Atmospherically Resistant Index (VARI) provided the lowest explicative power in all cases. For proximal sensing, Global Environment Monitoring Index (GEMI) showed higher statistical relationships both for FMC (RRMSE = 34.5 %) and EWT (RRMSE = 27.43 %) while Normalized Difference Infrared Index (NDII) and Global Vegetation Monitoring Index (GVMI) for CWC (RRMSE = 30.27 % and 31.58 % respectively). When MODIS data were used, results showed an increase in R2 and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) as the best predictor for FMC (RRMSE = 33.81 %) and CWC (RRMSE = 27.56 %) and GEMI

  11. First evidence of European eels exiting the Mediterranean Sea during their spawning migration

    PubMed Central

    Amilhat, Elsa; Aarestrup, Kim; Faliex, Elisabeth; Simon, Gaël; Westerberg, Håkan; Righton, David

    2016-01-01

    The migration route and the spawning site of the European eel Anguilla anguilla are still uncertain. It has been suggested that the Mediterranean eel stock does not contribute to spawning because there is no evidence of eels leaving the Mediterranean Sea. To test this hypothesis, we equipped eight female silver eels from the south of France with pop-up satellite tags during escapement from coastal waters. Once in deeper water, the eels quickly established diel vertical migration (DVM) between the upper and lower mesopelagic zone. Five tagged eels were taken by predators within the Mediterranean, but two eels reached the Atlantic Ocean after six months and at distances greater than 2000 km from release. These eels ceased their DVM while they negotiated the Gibraltar Strait, and remained in deep water until they reached the Atlantic Ocean, when they recommenced DVM. Our results are the first to show that eels from Mediterranean can cross the Strait of Gibraltar and continue their migration into the Atlantic Ocean. This finding suggests that Mediterranean countries, as for other EU states, have an important role to play in contributing to conservation efforts for the recovery of the European eel stock. PMID:26906289

  12. Identification and mapping of natural vegetation on a coastal site using a Worldview-2 satellite image.

    PubMed

    Rapinel, Sébastien; Clément, Bernard; Magnanon, Sylvie; Sellin, Vanessa; Hubert-Moy, Laurence

    2014-11-01

    Identification and mapping of natural vegetation are major issues for biodiversity management and conservation. Remotely sensed data with very high spatial resolution are currently used to study vegetation, but most satellite sensors are limited to four spectral bands, which is insufficient to identify some natural vegetation formations. The study objectives are to discriminate natural vegetation and identify natural vegetation formations using a Worldview-2 satellite image. The classification of the Worldview-2 image and ancillary thematic data was performed using a hybrid pixel-based and object-oriented approach. A hierarchical scheme using three levels was implemented, from land cover at a field scale to vegetation formation. This method was applied on a 48 km² site located on the French Atlantic coast which includes a classified NATURA 2000 dune and marsh system. The classification accuracy was very high, the Kappa index varying between 0.90 and 0.74 at land cover and vegetation formation levels respectively. These results show that Wordlview-2 images are suitable to identify natural vegetation. Vegetation maps derived from Worldview-2 images are more detailed than existing ones. They provide a useful medium for environmental management of vulnerable areas. The approach used to map natural vegetation is reproducible for a wider application by environmental managers.

  13. Zooplankton taxonomic and size diversity in Mediterranean coastal lagoons (NE Iberian Peninsula): Influence of hydrology, nutrient composition, food resource availability and predation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badosa, Anna; Boix, Dani; Brucet, Sandra; López-Flores, Rocío; Gascón, Stéphanie; Quintana, Xavier D.

    2007-01-01

    The influence of hydrology, nutrient composition, food resource availability and predation on zooplankton taxonomic and size diversity was analyzed in several shallow lagoons of a Mediterranean salt marsh (Baix Ter Wetlands, NE Iberian Peninsula). Taxonomic diversity correlated better with variables related to the trophic state, such as nutrient concentrations, whereas size diversity was more sensitive to fish predation. However, the fish predation influence on the size diversity was only significant when fishes reached high densities. Under low fish densities no predation effects were observed and the food resource availability (FR a) appeared to be more important in structuring the zooplankton community. Nevertheless, the two diversity indexes showed opposite responses to this factor. With increasing FR a the taxonomic diversity increased and the size diversity decreased. Neither taxonomic nor size diversity of the zooplankton community correlated with other physical or biotic factors such as hydrological variability or macroinvertebrate predation. The relationships found suggest that the size diversity is mainly related to biotic interactions, such as fish predation or inter/intraspecific competition, while the taxonomic diversity appears to be more sensitive to abiotic factors such as the nutrient composition.

  14. The role of highly sratified nutrient-rich small estuaries as a source of dissolved inorganic nitrogen to coastal seawater, the Qishon (SE Mediterranean) case.

    PubMed

    Eliani-Russak, Efrat; Herut, Barak; Sivan, Orit

    2013-06-15

    We studied the role of small, highly stratified, sulfate and nutrient enriched estuaries, as a source or sink of inorganic nitrogen species, using the Qishon estuary at the Mediterranean coast of Israel, as a case study. Measurements of nutrient concentrations, δ(15)N and δ(18)O of nitrate+nitrite, δ(13)CDIC and δ(18)OH2O were performed during 2008-2009 along the upper-fresh and lower-saline water masses, as well as sediment porewater depth-profiles. Such estuaries are characterized by relatively low removal flux of NO3(-) (via sedimentary denitrification) and enhanced (×3) upward flux of NH4(+) (via sulfate reduction), attributed to the penetration of seawater of low NO3(-) and high dissolved oxygen and sulfate concentrations. The role of such small estuaries in releasing dissolved inorganic nitrogen, especially in sensitive oligotrophic areas as the Levantine basin and in the long-term, as a result of enhanced seawater penetration due to the expected sea level rise, has important environmental policy implications.

  15. Effect of an exceptional rainfall event on the sea urchin ( Paracentrotus lividus) stock and seagrass distribution in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Catherine; Pasqualini, Vanina; Boudouresque, Charles-François; Johnson, Monique; Ferrat, Lila; Caltagirone, Angela; Mouillot, David

    2006-06-01

    A shallow Mediterranean brackish lagoon (Urbinu, Corsica), 700 ha in surface area, characterized by low freshwater input and permanent communication with the open sea, and therefore by relatively stable salinity (usually 30-38), was subject in late 1993 to an exceptional rainfall event occurring on an average once every 50 years: 450 mm in 48 h (compared to the average annual precipitation of 650 mm). The volume of freshwater that poured into the lagoon corresponds to 36% of its volume. As a result, salinity dramatically dropped while turbidity increased. The seagrass Cymodocea nodosa and other habitats were mapped before (1990) and after (1994, 1996, 1999) the rainfall event, and the sea urchin Paracentrotus lividus stock was estimated together with its population structure. In 1994, after the rainfall event, the surface area of seagrass meadows moderately declined, but it cannot be ruled out that this loss may be within their usual inter-annual fluctuations. The sea urchin stock dropped by 50% (6-3 million individuals). Low salinity, turbidity and siltation were probably the reasons for the changes in sea urchin population in addition to variability of dynamic population parameters (e.g. recruitment, mortality). The recovery of sea urchin stock was completed within a few years (six years or less). The high population dynamics and the high recruitment potential of sea urchins may act as a mechanism to maintain sea urchin populations in this highly variable habitat. These results reflect the resilience and high adjustment stability of the system.

  16. Integrated use of biomarkers and condition indices in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) for monitoring pollution and development of biomarker index to assess the potential toxic of coastal sites.

    PubMed

    Benali, Imene; Boutiba, Zitouni; Merabet, Amina; Chèvre, Nathalie

    2015-06-15

    In this study, we are interested in spatial and temporal variations of the biological and physiological responses of mussels collected from contrasting marine sites regarding their levels of pollution. We measured both the conditions indices and the enzymatic biomarker expression: acetylcholinesterase (AChE), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. The enzymatic biomarkers were chosen because they respond to environmental stress. Results show a significant interactions between biomarker variations and conditions indices in the industrial harbor site throughout the seasons. But no significant changes in the reference site. Furthermore, we classified the sites along the seasons according to their potential ecotoxicity, calculated based on the sum of the normalised values of the biomarkers. The results show a very high biomarker index in the impacted site with irregular changes between seasons. This biomarker index is therefore a valuable tool that could be used to classify the toxic potential of coastal sites.

  17. Late quaternary sea level changes of Gabes coastal plain and shelf: Identification of the MIS 5c and MIS 5a onshore highstands, southern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gzam, Maher; Mejdoub, Noureddine El; Jedoui, Younes

    2016-02-01

    The continental shelf of the Gulf of Gabes is outlined, during the MIS 5c and MIS 5a onshore highstands, by the genesis of forced regressive beach ridges situated respectively at -19 m b.s.l/100 ka and -8 m b.s.l/80 ka. This area, considered as a stable domain since at least the last 130 ka (Bouaziz et al. 2003), is a particular zone for the reconstruction of the late quaternary sea-level changes in the region. Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) data and field observations are highlighted to deduce interaction between hydrodynamic factors and antecedent topography. Variations in geomorphology were attributed to geological inheritance. Petrography and sedimentary facies of the submerged coastal ridges reveal that the palaeocoastal morphology was more agitated than today and the fluvial discharges are consistent. Actual morphologic trend deduced from different environment coasts (sandy coasts, sea cliffs and tidal flat) is marked by accumulation of marine sands and progradation.

  18. Infestation status of Aega psora (Linnaeus, 1758) (Isopoda, Cymothoidae) skin parasite of the marine fish, sardine (Sardinella gibbosa) of Port Said Mediterranean Coastal Zone, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Ramadan, Ramadan A M; Mohamadeen, Amaal; Ghobashy, Mahi A

    2011-08-01

    An isopod parasite of family Aegidea was collected from marine fish, Sardinella gibbosa (new hosts) over 2-years period from 2007 to 2008. The fish hosts were captured in the coastal waters of Port Said, Egypt. The Cymothoa sp. & Aega sp. were only collected from skin of the new host, Sardinella gibbosa, and described on the basis of female specimens. The morphological characteristics of were discussed in details. Comparing the present specimens with the previously reported Aega sp. showed that the present material belongs to the type species of the genus: Aega psora (Linnaeus, 1758). Monthly and seasonal patterns in infestation rates [N=593, W +/- SD (range) =50.09 +/- 3.8 g]. Parasitic specificity and prevalence are given Mean prevalence, P = 24 +/- 5.5 and mean intensity, MI +/- SD =28.44 +/- 16.19 and total number of infestation were estimated 59 (10.35).

  19. Eastern-Mediterranean ventilation variability during sapropel S1 formation, evaluated at two sites influenced by deep-water formation from Adriatic and Aegean Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippidi, A.; Triantaphyllou, M. V.; De Lange, G. J.

    2016-07-01

    Present-day bottom-water ventilation in the Eastern Mediterranean basin occurs through deep-water convection originating from the two marginal basins, i.e. Adriatic and Aegean Seas. In the paleo record, long periods of enhanced deep-water formation have been alternating with shorter periods of reduced deep-water formation. The latter is related mainly to low-latitude humid climate conditions and the enhanced deposition and preservation of organic-rich sediment units (sapropels). This study focuses on sedimentary archives of the most-recent sapropel S1, retrieved from two sites under the direct influence of the two deep-water formation areas. Restricted oxygen conditions have developed rapidly at the beginning of S1 deposition in the Adriatic site, but bottom-water conditions have not persistently remained anoxic during the full interval of sapropel deposition. In fact, the variability in intensity and persistence of sedimentary redox conditions at the two deep-water formation sites is shown to be related to brief episodes of climate cooling. In the Adriatic site, sapropel deposition appears to have been interrupted twice. The 8.2 ka event, only recovered at the Adria site, is characterized by gradually increasing suboxic to possibly intermittently oxic conditions and decreasing Corg fluxes, followed by an abrupt re-establishment of anoxic conditions. Another important event that disrupted sapropel S1 formation, has taken place at ca. 7.4 cal ka BP. The latter event has been recovered at both sites. In the Adriatic site it is followed by a period of sedimentary conditions that gradually change from suboxic to more permanently oxic, as deduced from the Mn/Al pattern. Using the same proxy for suboxic/oxic sedimentary redox conditions, we observe that conditions in the Aegean Sea site shift to more permanently oxic from the 7.4 ka event onwards. However, at both sites the accumulation and preservation of enhanced amounts of organic matter have continued under these

  20. Geologic Resource Evaluation of Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site, Hawai'i: Part I, Geology and Coastal Landforms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, Bruce M.; Cochran, Susan A.; Gibbs, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic resource inventories of lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) are important products for the parks and are designed to provide scientific information to better manage park resources. Park-specific geologic reports are used to identify geologic features and processes that are relevant to park ecosystems, evaluate the impact of human activities on geologic features and processes, identify geologic research and monitoring needs, and enhance opportunities for education and interpretation. These geologic reports are planned to provide a brief geologic history of the park and address specific geologic issues forming a link between the park geology and the resource manager. The Kona coast National Parks of the Island of Hawai'i are intended to preserve the natural beauty of the Kona coast and protect significant ancient structures and artifacts of the native Hawaiians. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE), Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO), and Pu'uhonua O Honaunau National Historical Park (PUHO) are three Kona parks studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Team in cooperation with the National Park Service. This report is one of six related reports designed to provide geologic and benthic-habitat information for the three Kona parks. Each geology and coastal-landform report describes the regional geologic setting of the Hawaiian Islands, gives a general description of the geology of the Kona coast, and presents the geologic setting and issues for one of the parks. The related benthic-habitat mapping reports discuss the marine data and habitat classification scheme, and present results of the mapping program. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE) is the smallest (~86 acres) of three National Parks located on the leeward Kona coast of the Island of Hawai'i. The main structure at PUHE, Pu'ukohola Heiau, is an important historical temple that was built during 1790-91 by King Kamehameha I

  1. Response of potentially toxic Pseudo-nitzschia (Bacillariophyceae) populations and domoic acid to environmental conditions in a eutrophied, SW Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Tunisia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahraoui, Inès; Grami, Boutheina; Bates, Stephen S.; Bouchouicha, Donia; Chikhaoui, Mohamed Ali; Mabrouk, Hassine Hadj; Hlaili, Asma Sakka

    2012-05-01

    The population dynamics of Pseudo-nitzschia species from Bizerte Lagoon, northern Tunisia, were examined at six stations sampled monthly from March 2006 to February 2007. These are potential producers of the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA), cause of amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP). Six morphospecies were counted: Pseudo-nitzschia brasiliana, Pseudo-nitzschia calliantha, Pseudo-nitzschia delicatissima complex species, Pseudo-nitzschia multistriata, Pseudo-nitzschia pseudodelicatissima and 'Nitzschia seriata' group species. Canonical correspondence analysis was used to correlate species with the physical and chemical properties of the seawater, and the statistical significance of species-variable associations was tested using the Van Dobben method. The P. delicatissima complex species abundance was significantly positively correlated to turbidity, and negatively associated with temperature, nitrate, silicate and DA. P. brasiliana was more abundant in samples with higher salinity, nitrate, silicate and DA, and with lower nitrite, phosphate and turbidity. P. multistriata was negatively linked to salinity and nitrate, and positively correlated to temperature and turbidity. Abundances of the P. calliantha, P. pseudodelicatissima and 'N. seriata' group species were not statistically related to any of the variables examined. We document, for the first time, the incidence of DA in the Bizerte Lagoon (at four stations) and at one offshore station in Bizerte Bay (Mediterranean Sea). Total DA ranged from 0.5 to 2.0 μg DA l-1 and was detected only in October 2006, when lagoon waters were rich in nitrate and silicate and the salinity was elevated. The beginning of autumn was the highest potential risk period for ASP events, linked to elevated salinity and P. brasiliana growth. These findings allow local jurisdictions to prepare for Pseudo-nitzschia bloom events, and provide data for eventual predictive models of Pseudo-nitzschia bloom formation and toxin production in Bizerte

  2. Mediterranean Outflow Water at the Pliocene/Pleistocene transition: New stratigraphic constraints from IODP Site U1389 (Gulf of Cadiz, IODP Expedition 339)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunert, Patrick; Balestra, Barbara; Auer, Gerald; Flores, José-Abel; Richter, Carl; García Gallardo, Ángela; Röhl, Ulla; Piller, Werner E.

    2016-04-01

    IODP Hole U1389E, at present located in the lower core of the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) at 640m water depth in the northern Gulf of Cadiz, represents a key-site for the understanding of changes in MOW contribution to the North Atlantic during the late Pliocene and the transition into the Pleistocene ice house climate. Integrated geophysical, micropalaeontological and geochemical proxy records of the recovered sediments imply major changes in MOW strength over the studied interval. However, to consider these data in a broader paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic context, a well-constrained age model is essential. New bio-, chemo-, magnetostratigraphic data and XRF core-scanning suggest that the shipboard age model for the site has to be reconsidered as major changes in the depositional environment have not been recognized in the original, comparably low resolution data-sets. While the new, high-resolution biostratigraphic data confirm the overall time frame of 2.6 to 3.6 Myrs for the studied interval, they also indicate that the last occurrence of Discoaster tamalis in the succession should be reconsidered. New palaeomagnetic data constrain the Gauss normal chron and its subchrons more accurately. Finally, a high-resolution δ18O-record of the planktic foraminifer Globigerinoides ruber allows the identification of many marine isotopic chrons, further refining the stratigraphic framework. Cyclic patterns are recognized in the CaCO3 and TOC contents as well as Ca/Ti- and Zr/Al-ratios. A preliminary cyclostratigraphic analysis of these records in well-recovered intervals suggests an interplay of obliquity and precessional forcing reflected in a change from deposits strongly influenced by terrestrial input (3.0-2.8 Myrs) to deposits strongly affected by MOW (2.8-2.6 Myrs). This study contributes to project P25831-N29 of the Austrian Science Fund (FWF) and is financially supported by grants of ECORD and the Max Kade Foundation.

  3. Amino acid epimerization dating of Quaternary coastal deformation in SE Iberian Peninsula: The region between Aguas and Antas Rivers' mouths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Trinidad; Ortiz, José E.; Sánchez-Palencia, Yolanda

    2016-05-01

    The coastal area between the mouths of the Aguas and Antas Rivers presents a deformed system of raised marine deposits, some of which have been strongly affected by active tectonics. The use of amino acid epimerization dating of Glycymeris shells from raised coastal deposits allowed determining the age of these marine deposits, all of them linked to highstand sea levels in the Mediterranean realm, with ages between MIS 11 and MIS 1. These results allowed corroborating the age of some previously studied sites, and using new sampling sites, the general aminostratigraphy for the Quaternary raised marine deposits on the Mediterranean coast was confirmed. The main deformation event took place after MIS 11 and continued until MIS 5, and was linked to the activity of the Palomares Fault.

  4. Geomorphological and ecological features of blowouts in a western Mediterranean coastal dune complex: a case study of the Es Comú de Muro beach-dune system on the island of Mallorca, Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mir-Gual, Miquel; Pons, Guillem X.; Martín-Prieto, José Ángel; Roig-Munar, Francesc X.; Rodríguez-Perea, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Many of the coastal dune systems along western Mediterranean shores are in an advanced state of fragmentation and show distinct signs of erosion, largely because of blowout development along the dune front. The Es Comú de Muro beach-dune system on the island of Mallorca (Spain) is a good example of this. In order to better understand and quantify the current situation, 58 blowouts along a ca. 1.5-km-long dune front were investigated. In each case, a number of morphometric and ecological variables were analyzed as a basis for comparison and classification, in particular blowout dimensions and orientation, inner morphometry and topography, morphological types, the role of vegetation in defining the state of the foremost dune line, and the link between vegetation and blowout typology. In comparison with a recent preliminary investigation, the results of the present study provide a more comprehensive picture of the advanced state of fragmentation along the dune front. The blowouts are not evenly distributed, highest densities occurring along the southernmost part of the beach, lowest densities along the northern part. The blowouts were subdivided into two categories on the basis of their shape and general structure, trough blowouts being the most prevalent, followed by mixed trough-saucer shapes. Distinctly saucer-shaped blowouts could not be distinguished. In addition, the blowouts were subdivided into two morphological categories, i.e. simple and branched. It was also possible to link the morphological state of the dune front to certain ecological parameters, in particular vegetation which, in the present case, comprised herbaceous and woody plants. Cluster analyses of species associations (Bray-Curtis similarity indices) were carried out on the basis of the presence/absence of each species. It is shown that, on account of presence counts and the degree of similarity of species associations, some species play a more important role in stabilizing the mobile dune

  5. Aerosol Size, CCN, and Black Carbon Properties at a Coastal Site in the Eastern U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royalty, T. M.; Petters, M. D.; Grieshop, A. P.; Meskhidze, N.; Reed, R. E.; Phillips, B.; Dawson, K. W.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in regulating the global radiative budget through direct and indirect effects. To date, the role of sea spray aerosols in modulating climate remains poorly understood. Here we present results from measurements performed at the United States Army Corps of Engineers' Field Research Facility in Duck, North Carolina, USA. Aerosol mobility size distributions (10-600 nm), refractory black carbon (rBC) and scattering particle size distributions (200-620 nm), and size resolved cloud condensation nuclei distributions (.07% - .6% supersaturation) were collected at the end of a 560m pier. Aerosol characteristics associated with northerly, high wind speed (15+ m s-1) flow originating from an oceanic trajectory are contrasted with aerosol properties observed during a weak to moderate westerly flow originating from a continental trajectory. Both marine and continental air masses had aerosol with bi-modal number size distributions with modes centered at 30nm and 140nm. In the marine air-mass, the CCN concentration at supersaturation of 0.4%, total aerosol number, surface, and volume concentration were low. rBC number concentration (D > 200 nm) associated with the marine air-mass was an order of magnitude less than continental number concentration and indicative of relatively unpolluted air. These measurements are consistent with measurements from other coastal sites under marine influence. The relative proportion of Aitken mode size particles increased from 1:2 to 2:1 while aerosol surface area was < 25 μm2 cm-3, suggesting that conditions upwind were potentially conducive to new particle formation. Overall, these results will contribute a better understanding to composition and size variation of marine aerosols.

  6. Heavy metals in oysters, mussels and clams collected from coastal sites along the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhan-Qiang; Cheung, R Y H; Wong, M H

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of 8 heavy metals: cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb) and tin (Sn) were examined in 3 species of bivalves ( Perna viridis, Crassostrea rivularis and Ruditapes philippinarum) collected from 25 sites along the Pearl River Delta coastal waters in the South China Sea from July to August 1996. In general, Cd, Cu, Zn and Sn concentrations in the three bivalve species collected from the Estuarine Zone were significantly higher than those collected from the Western and Eastern Zones of the Pearl River Delta, which are related to the existence of various anthropogenic activities in the catchment of the Pearl River Delta. The Western Estuarine Zone is mainly impacted hy Cr, Ni and Cu contamination. In Victoria Harbor, heavy metal contamination is mainly due to Cu and Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations in oysters were significantly higher than those in mussels and clams. This could be explained by the fact that oysters live mainly in the Estuarine Zone of the Pearl River Delta which receives most of the polluting discharges from the catchment of the Delta. During turbid condition, heavy metals( soluble or adsorbed on suspended particulates) discharged from the Delta are filtered from the water column and subsequently accumulated into the soft body tissues of oysters. Heavy metal concentrations in the three bivalve species were compared with the maximum permissible levels of heavy metals in seafood regulated by the Public Health and Municipal Services Ordinance, Laws of Hong Kong, and it was revealed that Cd and Cr concentrations in the three bivalve species exceeded the upper limits. At certain hotspots in the Delta, the maximum acceptable daily load for Cd was also exceeded.

  7. Occurrence and seasonal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and legacy and current-use pesticides in air from a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (Mar Menor, SE Spain).

    PubMed

    Carratalá, A; Moreno-González, R; León, V M

    2017-01-01

    The occurrence and seasonal distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and legacy and current-use pesticides (CUPs) in air were characterized around the Mar Menor lagoon using both active and passive sampling devices. The seasonal distribution of these pollutants was determined at 6 points using passive samplers. Passive sampler sampling rates were estimated for all detected analytes using an active sampler, considering preferentially winter data, due to probable losses in active sampling during summer (high temperatures and solar irradiation). The presence of 28 compounds (14 CUPs, 11 PAHs and 3 organochlorinated pesticides) were detected in air by polyurethane passive sampling. The most commonly detected contaminants (>95% of samples) in air were chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-methyl and phenanthrene. The maximum concentrations corresponded to phenanthrene (6000 pg m(-3)) and chlorpyrifos (4900 pg m(-3)). The distribution of contaminants was spatially and seasonally heterogeneous. The highest concentrations of PAHs were found close to the airport, while the highest concentrations of pesticides were found in the influence area of agricultural fields (western stations). PAH and herbicide concentrations were higher in winter than in the other seasons, although some insecticides such as chlorpyrifos were more abundant in autumn. The presence of PAHs and legacy and current-use pesticides in air confirmed their transference potential to marine coastal areas such as the Mar Menor lagoon.

  8. The "one-out, all-out" principle entails the risk of imposing unnecessary restoration costs: a study case in two Mediterranean coastal lakes.

    PubMed

    Prato, S; La Valle, P; De Luca, E; Lattanzi, L; Migliore, G; Morgana, J G; Munari, C; Nicoletti, L; Izzo, G; Mistri, M

    2014-03-15

    The Water Framework Directive uses the "one-out, all-out" principle in assessing water bodies (i.e., the worst status of the elements used in the assessment determines the final status of the water body). In this study, we assessed the ecological status of two coastal lakes in Italy. Indices for all biological quality elements used in transitional waters from the Italian legislation and other European countries were employed and compared. Based on our analyses, the two lakes require restoration, despite the lush harbor seagrass beds, articulated macrobenthic communities and rich fish fauna. The "one-out, all-out" principle tends to inflate Type I errors, i.e., concludes that a water body is below the "good" status even if the water body actually has a "good" status. This may cause additional restoration costs where they are not necessarily needed. The results from this study strongly support the need for alternative approaches to the "one-out, all-out" principle.

  9. Bioaccumulation of metals (Cd, Cu, Zn) by the marine bivalves M. galloprovincialis, P. radiata, V. verrucosa and C. chione in Mediterranean coastal microenvironments: association with metal bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Sakellari, Aikaterini; Karavoltsos, Sotirios; Theodorou, Dimitrios; Dassenakis, Manos; Scoullos, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The concentrations of Cd, Cu and Zn in both the whole soft tissue and separate organs (gills, mantle, muscle and digestive gland) of wild bivalves (Mytilus galloprovincialis, Pinctada radiata, Venus verrucosa and Callista chione) from three different coastal microenvironments of Greece were monitored from 2003 to 2004. In parallel, by employing appropriate analytical protocols for metal partitioning, the labile fraction of the metals was determined in the dissolved phase, suspended particulate matter and sediments. Differences in the metal levels were detected both among the study areas as well as among the bivalves examined. Significant bioaccumulation was demonstrated regarding Zn in M. galloprovincialis specimens from the highly industrialized Gulf of Elefsis and Cd in P. radiata and V. verrucosa from the Maliakos Gulf, which is influenced by extended agricultural activity occurring at the neighbouring area and a river outflow. Data of the metal levels in the various environmental phases were correlated with their concentrations in bivalves' tissues. The clear relationships obtained in many cases among the labile metal concentrations and the bioaccumulated concentrations in bivalves point out that the labile fraction of a metal is the most bioavailable. The lack of positive correlation for C. chione confirms the occurrence of effective mechanisms of internal regulation of metal concentrations.

  10. Combining Existing Monitoring Sites with a Probability Survey Design-Examples from U.S. EPA's National Coastal Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) National Coastal Assessment was envisioned as a research effort led by EPA's Office of Research and Development to evaluate assessment methods for ecosystem condition monitoring. The program was conducted through strategic partnershi...

  11. Dsp in Moroccan Mediterranean Sea.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rachid, Fadel

    At sea temperate, there is usually a sole major floraison of the phytoplancton (in the spring) that exhausts the available stock of nutritious salt. This phenomenon is natural. It's more known under the name of "red tide or colored waters", it brings about a danger, with hazardous consequences on the wildlife water wildlife. The toxins emitted by certain seaweeds, of this phytoplancton, are transmitted through the trophic chain to man. Sometimes the contamination of these sea fruits provokes empoisoning to the consumers. Sometimes phytoplanctonics efflorescences do not present any significant coloring but can generate an increased liberation of toxins in sea water. The relative concentration of the one here then is detected in the shellfishes. These organisms concentrate the phocotoxines in their hepatopancreas. These are therefore bio potential indicators of the sea environment. We studied, in parallel, the variation of the characteristic abiotics of the Mediterranean sites previously choosen (physico-chimicals parameters and oceanographics parameters) and the variation of the relative toxicity of the bio indicators in every site. It in springs that the zones navies, subjected to important water provisions coming from a river, undergo several excessive floraisons during the spring and the summer, thanks to their continuous supplying in nutriments. We noted that the arrival new water masses. We draw from this that the coastal areas, due to the precipitations of the winter, translates itself at the level of the embouchure of the estuary Oued Laou by the maximum concentration of contained toxins in the shellfishes and that these waters were loaded with drifts of the olive waste, liquid loss abandoned to himself after extraction of the oil of the renowned olives of this region.

  12. Integrated carbon budget models for the Everglades terrestrial-coastal-oceanic gradient: Current status and needs for inter-site comparisons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troxler, Tiffany G.; Gaiser, Evelyn; Barr, Jordan; Fuentes, Jose D.; Jaffe, Rudolf; Childers, Daniel L.; Collado-Vides, Ligia; Rivera-Monroy, Victor H.; Castañeda-Moya, Edward; Anderson, William; Chambers, Randy; Chen, Meilian; Coronado-Molina, Carlos; Davis, Stephen E.; Engel, Victor C.; Fitz, Carl; Fourqurean, James; Frankovich, Tom; Kominoski, John; Madden, Chris; Malone, Sparkle L.; Oberbauer, Steve F.; Olivas, Paulo; Richards, Jennifer; Saunders, Colin; Schedlbauer, Jessica; Scinto, Leonard J.; Sklar, Fred; Smith, Thomas J.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Starr, Gregory; Twilley, Robert; Whelan, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that coastal ecosystems can bury significantly more C than tropical forests, indicating that continued coastal development and exposure to sea level rise and storms will have global biogeochemical consequences. The Florida Coastal Everglades Long Term Ecological Research (FCE LTER) site provides an excellent subtropical system for examining carbon (C) balance because of its exposure to historical changes in freshwater distribution and sea level rise and its history of significant long-term carbon-cycling studies. FCE LTER scientists used net ecosystem C balance and net ecosystem exchange data to estimate C budgets for riverine mangrove, freshwater marsh, and seagrass meadows, providing insights into the magnitude of C accumulation and lateral aquatic C transport. Rates of net C production in the riverine mangrove forest exceeded those reported for many tropical systems, including terrestrial forests, but there are considerable uncertainties around those estimates due to the high potential for gain and loss of C through aquatic fluxes. C production was approximately balanced between gain and loss in Everglades marshes; however, the contribution of periphyton increases uncertainty in these estimates. Moreover, while the approaches used for these initial estimates were informative, a resolved approach for addressing areas of uncertainty is critically needed for coastal wetland ecosystems. Once resolved, these C balance estimates, in conjunction with an understanding of drivers and key ecosystem feedbacks, can inform cross-system studies of ecosystem response to long-term changes in climate, hydrologic management, and other land use along coastlines

  13. Hydrologic index development and application to selected Coastwide Reference Monitoring System sites and Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act projects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snedden, Gregg A.; Swenson, Erick M.

    2012-01-01

    Hourly time-series salinity and water-level data are collected at all stations within the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) network across coastal Louisiana. These data, in addition to vegetation and soils data collected as part of CRMS, are used to develop a suite of metrics and indices to assess wetland condition in coastal Louisiana. This document addresses the primary objectives of the CRMS hydrologic analytical team, which were to (1) adopt standard time-series analytical techniques that could effectively assess spatial and temporal variability in hydrologic characteristics across the Louisiana coastal zone on site, project, basin, and coastwide scales and (2) develop and apply an index based on wetland hydrology that can describe the suitability of local hydrology in the context of maximizing the productivity of wetland plant communities. Approaches to quantifying tidal variability (least squares harmonic analysis) and partitioning variability of time-series data to various time scales (spectral analysis) are presented. The relation between marsh elevation and the tidal frame of a given hydrograph is described. A hydrologic index that integrates water-level and salinity data, which are collected hourly, with vegetation data that are collected annually is developed. To demonstrate its utility, the hydrologic index is applied to 173 CRMS sites across the coast, and variability in index scores across marsh vegetation types (fresh, intermediate, brackish, and saline) is assessed. The index is also applied to 11 sites located in three Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act projects, and the ability of the index to convey temporal hydrologic variability in response to climatic stressors and restoration measures, as well as the effect that this community may have on wetland plant productivity, is illustrated.

  14. Spatial and temporal variability of the total atmospheric deposition of metals and elements of biogeochemical interest over the whole Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guieu, C.; Loye-Pilot, M. D.; Dufour, A.; Nourrisson, S.; Benyahya, L.

    2003-04-01

    The total deposition has been collected continuously at height atmospheric sampling stations in the Mediterranean coastal environment, from June 2001 to June 2002. The stations were: Cap Spartel (Morocco), Cap Bear (SW France), Ostriconi (Corsica Island, France), Madhia (Tunisia), Finokalia (Crete), Akkuyu (Turkey), Cavo Greco (Cyprus Island, Greece) and Mytilene (Lesbos Island, Greece). The monthly fluxes have been established for Al, Fe, Cd, Pb, Zn and P allowing to discuss the spatial and temporal variability of the measured elements over the whole Mediterranean Sea. Quite low temporal variability were observed for the Tunisian station (variation coefficient ˜50%), whereas particularly high variation coefficients were observed at the Corsican site for Al and Fe. This was attributed to a spectacular Saharan event that occurred in Nov. 2001 and that particularly affected the Corsican site and to a lesser extend all the stations of the western Mediterranean Sea. Indeed, compared to previous measurements in the Mediterranean environment, Al and Fe fluxes in the eastern Mediterranean were of the same order of magnitude than those recently reported in Ridame et al. (1999) whereas in the western Mediterranean Sea, the present fluxes were higher by a factor of 3 to 12. Lead fluxes were of the same order of magnitude that those previously measured in the Mediterranean Environment. Except for the Moroccan site, Cd fluxes were very homogeneous over the Mediterranean for the considered period, and three times lower than those reported in Ridame et al. (1999). A significant fraction of Pb appear to be of crustal origin; in Nov 2001, in Corsica all the lead had a Saharan origin; this is the first time that such result was observed.

  15. Prokaryotic dynamics and heterotrophic metabolism in a deep convection site of Eastern Mediterranean Sea (the Southern Adriatic Pit)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzaro, M.; La Ferla, R.; Maimone, G.; Monticelli, L. S.; Zaccone, R.; Civitarese, G.

    2012-08-01

    We report on investigations of prokaryotic abundance, biomass, extracellular enzymatic activity, prokaryotic heterotrophic production and respiration in the full water column (˜1200 m) of a deep convection site (the Southern Adriatic Pit), carried out on six cruises in 2006-2008. Prokaryotic abundance (PA) varied vertically and temporally and ranged from 1.2 to 20.4×105 cell ml-1. Cell volumes, generally increased with depth; the lowest mean cell volume was observed in a period with no active convective process (Feb-07) and the highest in a period of stratification (Jun-08) following the convection process occurred in Feb-08. Prokaryotic biomass decreased with the depth and was related with both seasonal cycles of organic matter and hydrological processes. The picophytoplankton ranged in the upper layer (UL) from 0.089 to 10.71×104 cell ml-1. Cells were also recorded till 500 m depth in Feb-08 and this finding could be linked to water convection occurred in the Southern Adriatic Pit in that month. In UL the variations of enzymatic activities as well as leucine-aminopeptidase/ß-glucosidase ratio showed a seasonal trend probably linked to the productive processes of the photic layer. An inverse relation between alkaline phosphatase activity (APA) and phosphate concentrations was found (APA=0.0003PO4-1.7714, R2=0.333, P<0.05). Generally cell-specific enzymatic activities increased with depth as did cell-specific carbon dioxide production rates, while cell-specific prokaryotic heterotrophic production had an opposite trend. High values of prokaryotic growth efficiency registered in the deep layers in Nov-06 reflected a supply of preformed C transported within the deep water masses. Overall, in 2007 when no convective phenomenon was observed, the variability of prokaryotic metabolism was governed by the seasonal cycle of the organic matter, while in Nov-06 and Jun-08 the dynamics of deep water ventilation influenced the trend along the water column of many microbial

  16. Inertial bioluminescence rhythms at the Capo Passero (KM3NeT-Italia) site, Central Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguzzi, J.; Fanelli, E.; Ciuffardi, T.; Schirone, A.; Craig, J.; Aiello, S.; Ameli, F.; Anghinolfi, M.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Biagioni, A.; Bouhadef, B.; Bozza, C.; Cacopardo, G.; Calamai, M.; Calì, C.; Capone, A.; Caruso, F.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; D’Amato, C.; D’Amico, A.; de Bonis, G.; de Luca, V.; Deniskina, N.; Distefano, C.; di Mauro, L. S.; Fermani, P.; Ferrara, G.; Flaminio, V.; Fusco, L. A.; Garufi, F.; Giordano, V.; Gmerk, A.; Grasso, R.; Grella, G.; Hugon, C.; Imbesi, M.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Leismüller, K. P.; Leonora, E.; Litrico, P.; Lonardo, A.; Longhitano, F.; Presti, D. Lo; Maccioni, E.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martini, A.; Masullo, R.; Mele, R.; Migliozzi, P.; Migneco, E.; Miraglia, A.; Mollo, C. M.; Mongelli, M.; Morganti, M.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Nicolau, C. A.; Orlando, A.; Orzelli, A.; Papaleo, R.; Pellegrino, C.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Poma, E.; Pulvirenti, S.; Raffaelli, F.; Randazzo, N.; Riccobene, G.; Rovelli, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Sciacca, V.; Sgura, I.; Simeone, F.; Sipala, V.; Speziale, F.; Spitaleri, A.; Spurio, M.; Stellacci, S. M.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Trasatti, L.; Trovato, A.; Versari, F.; Vicini, P.; Viola, S.; Vivolo, D.

    2017-03-01

    In the deep sea, the sense of time is dependent on geophysical fluctuations, such as internal tides and atmospheric-related inertial currents, rather than day-night rhythms. Deep-sea neutrino telescopes instrumented with light detecting Photo-Multiplier Tubes (PMT) can be used to describe the synchronization of bioluminescent activity of abyssopelagic organisms with hydrodynamic cycles. PMT readings at 8 different depths (from 3069 to 3349 m) of the NEMO Phase 2 prototype, deployed offshore Capo Passero (Sicily) at the KM3NeT-Italia site, were used to characterize rhythmic bioluminescence patterns in June 2013, in response to water mass movements. We found a significant (p < 0.05) 20.5 h periodicity in the bioluminescence signal, corresponding to inertial fluctuations. Waveform and Fourier analyses of PMT data and tower orientation were carried out to identify phases (i.e. the timing of peaks) by subdividing time series on the length of detected inertial periodicity. A phase overlap between rhythms and cycles suggests a mechanical stimulation of bioluminescence, as organisms carried by currents collide with the telescope infrastructure, resulting in the emission of light. A bathymetric shift in PMT phases indicated that organisms travelled in discontinuous deep-sea undular vortices consisting of chains of inertially pulsating mesoscale cyclones/anticyclones, which to date remain poorly known.

  17. Inertial bioluminescence rhythms at the Capo Passero (KM3NeT-Italia) site, Central Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Aguzzi, J.; Fanelli, E.; Ciuffardi, T.; Schirone, A.; Craig, J.; Aiello, S.; Ameli, F.; Anghinolfi, M.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Biagioni, A.; Bouhadef, B.; Bozza, C.; Cacopardo, G.; Calamai, M.; Calì, C.; Capone, A.; Caruso, F.; Cecchini, S.; Ceres, A.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Cocimano, R.; Coniglione, R.; Costa, M.; Cuttone, G.; D’Amato, C.; D’Amico, A.; De Bonis, G.; De Luca, V.; Deniskina, N.; Distefano, C.; Di Mauro, L. S.; Fermani, P.; Ferrara, G.; Flaminio, V.; Fusco, L. A.; Garufi, F.; Giordano, V.; Gmerk, A.; Grasso, R.; Grella, G.; Hugon, C.; Imbesi, M.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Larosa, G.; Lattuada, D.; Leismüller, K. P.; Leonora, E.; Litrico, P.; Lonardo, A.; Longhitano, F.; Presti, D. Lo; Maccioni, E.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martini, A.; Masullo, R.; Mele, R.; Migliozzi, P.; Migneco, E.; Miraglia, A.; Mollo, C. M.; Mongelli, M.; Morganti, M.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Nicolau, C. A.; Orlando, A.; Orzelli, A.; Papaleo, R.; Pellegrino, C.; Pellegriti, M. G.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Poma, E.; Pulvirenti, S.; Raffaelli, F.; Randazzo, N.; Riccobene, G.; Rovelli, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Sciacca, V.; Sgura, I.; Simeone, F.; Sipala, V.; Speziale, F.; Spitaleri, A.; Spurio, M.; Stellacci, S. M.; Taiuti, M.; Terreni, G.; Trasatti, L.; Trovato, A.; Versari, F.; Vicini, P.; Viola, S.; Vivolo, D.

    2017-01-01

    In the deep sea, the sense of time is dependent on geophysical fluctuations, such as internal tides and atmospheric-related inertial currents, rather than day-night rhythms. Deep-sea neutrino telescopes instrumented with light detecting Photo-Multiplier Tubes (PMT) can be used to describe the synchronization of bioluminescent activity of abyssopelagic organisms with hydrodynamic cycles. PMT readings at 8 different depths (from 3069 to 3349 m) of the NEMO Phase 2 prototype, deployed offshore Capo Passero (Sicily) at the KM3NeT-Italia site, were used to characterize rhythmic bioluminescence patterns in June 2013, in response to water mass movements. We found a significant (p < 0.05) 20.5 h periodicity in the bioluminescence signal, corresponding to inertial fluctuations. Waveform and Fourier analyses of PMT data and tower orientation were carried out to identify phases (i.e. the timing of peaks) by subdividing time series on the length of detected inertial periodicity. A phase overlap between rhythms and cycles suggests a mechanical stimulation of bioluminescence, as organisms carried by currents collide with the telescope infrastructure, resulting in the emission of light. A bathymetric shift in PMT phases indicated that organisms travelled in discontinuous deep-sea undular vortices consisting of chains of inertially pulsating mesoscale cyclones/anticyclones, which to date remain poorly known. PMID:28332561

  18. Inertial bioluminescence rhythms at the Capo Passero (KM3NeT-Italia) site, Central Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Aguzzi, J; Fanelli, E; Ciuffardi, T; Schirone, A; Craig, J

    2017-03-23

    In the deep sea, the sense of time is dependent on geophysical fluctuations, such as internal tides and atmospheric-related inertial currents, rather than day-night rhythms. Deep-sea neutrino telescopes instrumented with light detecting Photo-Multiplier Tubes (PMT) can be used to describe the synchronization of bioluminescent activity of abyssopelagic organisms with hydrodynamic cycles. PMT readings at 8 different depths (from 3069 to 3349 m) of the NEMO Phase 2 prototype, deployed offshore Capo Passero (Sicily) at the KM3NeT-Italia site, were used to characterize rhythmic bioluminescence patterns in June 2013, in response to water mass movements. We found a significant (p < 0.05) 20.5 h periodicity in the bioluminescence signal, corresponding to inertial fluctuations. Waveform and Fourier analyses of PMT data and tower orientation were carried out to identify phases (i.e. the timing of peaks) by subdividing time series on the length of detected inertial periodicity. A phase overlap between rhythms and cycles suggests a mechanical stimulation of bioluminescence, as organisms carried by currents collide with the telescope infrastructure, resulting in the emission of light. A bathymetric shift in PMT phases indicated that organisms travelled in discontinuous deep-sea undular vortices consisting of chains of inertially pulsating mesoscale cyclones/anticyclones, which to date remain poorly known.

  19. The collection of clear-water contraction and abutment scour data at selected bridge sites in the coastal plain and piedmont of South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Benedict, Stephen T.; Caldwell, Andy W.; Edited by Abt, S. R. and others

    1998-01-01

    Clear-water contraction and abutment scour data were collected at 128 bridge sites in South Carolina. In the sandy soils of the Coastal Plain, clear-water-scour data were collected at 63 sites (scour depths ranged from 0.4 to 7.2 meters.) In the clayey soils of the Piedmont, clear-water-scour data were collected at 47 sites (scour depths ranged from 0 to 1.4 meters.) In the sandy, clayey soils of the Piedmont, clear-water-scour data were collected at 18 sites (scour depths ranged from 0.9 to 5.5 meters.) The field data are to be compiled into a data base that will include bridge age; basin, soil and hydraulic characteristics; and theoretical scour data. The data are planned to be statistically analyzed for significant relations that may help explain and (or) predict maximum scour depths at bridges in South Carolina.

  20. The effects of particle-size distribution and chloride depletion of sea-salt aerosols on estimating atmospheric deposition at a coastal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harkel, M. J. Ten

    Estimating atmospheric deposition in a coastal region cannot be done without taking care of the size distribution and amount of chloride depletion of sea-salt aerosols. Size distribution of the dry deposition particles is important when the approach of Ulrich (1983, Effects of Accumulation of Air Pollutants in Forest Ecosystems, pp. 33-45. Reidel, Dordrecht) is used to estimate total atmospheric deposition levels in a coastal area. A sodium deposition model demonstrated that the presumption of an equal size of sodium aerosols and chloride, potassium, magnesium and calcium aerosols is not valid in the coastal zone. Modelled aerosol diameter distribution showed that more than 50% of the aerosols deposited in this zone is larger than 20 μm. Besides an anthropogenic source, the reaction of nitric or sulphuric acid with sea-salt aerosols, by which HCl (g) is formed, can be a second source of an excess of chloride in throughflow compared to sodium. The newly formed HCl can deposit as dry deposition on a vegetation, and not as dry bulk deposition. Chloride loss in the bulk deposition at the coastal sites was up to 35% in summertime. Chloride depletion also affects the calculation of potential acid deposition (PAD) in the coastal zone. Part of the NO 3- and excess SO 42- deposition should not be taken into account when calculating the PAD, because it is neutralized by the sea-salt. This effect decreases very soon with increasing distance to the sea. Implementing chloride depletion in calculating yearly PAD at 500 m from the coastline decreased the PAD with 26%. At 2000 m this decrease was 14%. However, in some cases PAD values on a fortnightly base were observed to decrease more than 50% after implementing chloride depletion.

  1. Urbanised beaches of the Ligurian coastal area (NW Mediterranean): a classification based on organic-matter characteristics and hydrolytic enzymatic activities.

    PubMed

    Misic, Cristina; Covazzi Harriague, Anabella

    2013-01-01

    The beaches of Liguria have been intensively affected by human activities for over a century, transforming nearly the entire coastline from natural to urbanised and significantly upsetting beach ecological properties. The present study aims to investigate 9 Ligurian beaches characterised by different degree of urbanisation, to test if and to what extent the organic-matter (OM) recycling processes can be linked to the human activity. Swash zone sediment, sampled during the spring-summer-autumn period, when the anthropogenic influence is at its maximum due to tourism, was analysed for OM features and recycling processes. Multivariate statistical analyses showed that huge amounts of detrital OM accumulated in the more urbanised sites, where the anthropogenic influence was at its peak, deriving from higher inhabitant number and density, from the presence of crowded roads very near to the swash zone and sewage treatment plants. The presence of torrent outlets on the beaches provided further OM accumulation. Lipids, carbohydrates and degraded autotrophic pigments were the OM fractions mainly responsible of the differentiation, and rather constant, high labile phosphorus contents were found in the more urbanised sites. The high activity values of the hydrolytic enzymes indicate the response of the microbial system to the OM accumulation in the urban sites. However, a decoupling of the trends of some enzymatic activities (namely glucosidase and lipase) and their target OM was observed in the highly urbanised conditions.

  2. Application of the Sketch Match method in Sulina coastal study area within PEGASO project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marin, Eugenia; Nichersu, Iuliana; Mierla, Marian; Trifanov, Cristian; Nichersu, Iulian

    2013-04-01

    The Sketch Match approach for Sulina pilot case was carried out in the frame of the project "People for Ecosystem Based Governance in Assessing Sustainable Development of Ocean and Coast" - PEGASO, funded by the Seventh Framework Programme. The PEGASO project has been designed to identify common threats and solutions in relation to the long-term sustainable development and environmental protection of coastal zones bordering the Mediterranean and Black Seas in ways relevant to the implementation of the Integrated Coastal Zone Management Protocol (ICZM) for the Mediterranean. PEGASO will use the model of the existing ICZM Protocol for the Mediterranean and adjust it to the needs of the Black Sea through innovative actions, one of them being Refine and develop efficient and easy to use tools for making sustainability assessments in the coastal zone tested through a number of relevant pilot sites. Thus, for the Romania case study, the Sketch Match approach was selected, being an interactive public participation planning method, developed by the Dutch Government, and applied for Sulina area in order to stimulate support and involvement from stakeholders regarding Integrated Coastal Zone Management Protocol by consulting and involving these people in the planning process and making use of a coherent package of interactive methods. Participants were representatives of a wide range of stakeholders, varying from local fisherman to representatives of the Local and County council and Danube Delta Biosphere Reserve Authority. They participated in a two-day design session, focused on problems and potentials of the area, with the aim to work out possible solutions for an integrated coastal spatial planning, focusing on the parallel enhance of the various local functions in the spatial design (coastal area protection next to industry, tourism, nature, recreation, and other activities).

  3. Weibull Wind-Speed Distribution Parameters Derived from a Combination of Wind-Lidar and Tall-Mast Measurements Over Land, Coastal and Marine Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Floors, Rogier; Peña, Alfredo; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Brümmer, Burghard

    2016-05-01

    Wind-speed observations from tall towers are used in combination with observations up to 600 m in altitude from a Doppler wind lidar to study the long-term conditions over suburban (Hamburg), rural coastal (Høvsøre) and marine (FINO3) sites. The variability in the wind field among the sites is expressed in terms of mean wind speed and Weibull distribution shape-parameter profiles. The consequences of the carrier-to-noise-ratio ( CNR) threshold-value choice on the wind-lidar observations are revealed as follows. When the wind-lidar CNR is lower than a prescribed threshold value, the observations are often filtered out as the uncertainty in the wind-speed measurements increases. For a pulsed heterodyne Doppler lidar, use of the traditional -22 dB CNR threshold value at all measuring levels up to 600 m results in a ≈ 7 % overestimation in the long-term mean wind speed over land, and a ≈ 12 % overestimation in coastal and marine environments. In addition, the height of the profile maximum of the shape parameter of the Weibull distribution (so-called reversal height) is found to depend on the applied CNR threshold; it is found to be lower at small CNR threshold values. The reversal height is greater in the suburban (high roughness) than in the rural (low roughness) area. In coastal areas the reversal height is lower than that over land and relates to the internal boundary layer that develops downwind from the coastline. Over the sea the shape parameter increases towards the sea surface. A parametrization of the vertical profile of the shape parameter fits well with observations over land, coastal regions and over the sea. An applied model for the dependence of the reversal height on the surface roughness is in good agreement with the observations over land.

  4. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) Genotypes Differ between Coastal Sites and Inland Road Corridors in the Northeastern US

    PubMed Central

    Ecker, Geoffrey; Zalapa, Juan; Auer, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a North American grass that exhibits vast genetic diversity across its geographic range. In the Northeastern US, local switchgrass populations were restricted to a narrow coastal zone before European settlement, but current populations inhabit inland road verges raising questions about their origin and genetics. These questions are important because switchgrass lines with novel traits are being cultivated as a biofuel feedstock, and gene flow could impact the genetic integrity and distribution of local populations. This study was designed to determine if: 1) switchgrass plants collected in the Long Island Sound Coastal Lowland coastal Level IV ecoregion represented local populations, and 2) switchgrass plants collected from road verges in the adjacent inland regions were most closely related to local coastal populations or switchgrass from other geographic regions. The study used 18 microsatellite markers to infer the genetic relationships between 122 collected switchgrass plants and a reference dataset consisting of 28 cultivars representing ecotypes, ploidy levels, and lineages from North America. Results showed that 84% of 88 plants collected in the coastal plants were most closely aligned with the Lowland tetraploid genetic pool. Among this group, 61 coastal plants were similar to, but distinct from, all Lowland tetraploid cultivars in the reference dataset leading to the designation of a genetic sub-population called the Southern New England Lowland Tetraploids. In contrast, 67% of 34 plants collected in road verges in the inland ecoregions were most similar to two Upland octoploid cultivars; only 24% of roadside plants were Lowland tetraploid. These results suggest that cryptic, non-local genotypes exist in road verges and that gene flow from biofuels plantations could contribute to further changes in switchgrass population genetics in the Northeast. PMID:26125564

  5. Ground-water flow, geochemistry, and effects of agricultural practices on nitrogen transport at study sites in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain physiographic provinces, Patuxent River Basin, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McFarland, E. Randolph

    1995-01-01

    The effects of agricultural practices on nitrogen transport were assessed at two 10-acre study sites in the Patuxent River Basin, Maryland, during 1986- 92. Nitrogen load was larger in ground water than in surface runoff at both sites. Denitrification and (or) long traveltimes of ground water at the study site in the Piedmont Province resulted in lower concentrations of nitrate than at the site in the Coastal Plain Province. The study period was brief compared to traveltimes of nitrogen in ground water of several decades. Therefore, the effects of agricultural practices were observed only in parts of both sites. At the Piedmont site, nitrate concentration in two springs was 7 mg/L (milligrams per liter) two years after corn was grown under no-till cultivation, and decreased to 3.5 mg/L during 4 years while cultivation practices and crops included no-till soybeans, continuous alfalfa, and contoured strips alternated among corn, alfalfa, and soybeans. Nitrogen load in ground water decreased from 12 to 6 (lb/acre)/yr (pounds per acre per year). At the Coastal Plain site, the concentration of nitrate in ground water decreased from 10 mg/L after soybeans were grown under no-till cultivation for 2 years, to 9 mg/L after soybeans were grown under conventional till cultivation for 3 years. No-till cultivation in 1988 resulted in a greater nitrogen load in ground water (12.55 (lbs/acre)/yr), as well as greater ground-water recharge and discharge, than conventional till cultivation in 1991 (11.51 (lbs/ acre)/yr), even though the amount and timing of precipitation for both years were similar.

  6. Impact of climate, vegetation, soil and crop management variables on multi-year ISBA-A-gs simulations of evapotranspiration over a Mediterranean crop site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrigues, S.; Olioso, A.; Carrer, D.; Decharme, B.; Martin, E.; Calvet, J.-C.; Moulin, S.; Marloie, O.

    2015-02-01

    irrigation which represents 18% of cumulative rainfall over 12 years induces a deficit in ET of 14%. It generates much larger variations in incoming water for the model than the differences in rainfall between the reanalysis datasets. ET simulated with the Ecoclimap-II LAI climatology is overestimated by 18% over 12 years. This is related to the overestimation of the mean LAI over the crop cycle which reveals inaccurate representation of Mediterranean crop cycles. Compared to SAFRAN, the use of the ERA-I reanalysis, the GPCC rainfall and the downwelling shortwave radiation derived from the MSG satellite have little influence on the ET simulation performances. The error in yearly ET is mainly driven by the error in yearly rainfall and to a less extent by radiations. The SAFRAN and MSG satellite shortwave radiation estimates show similar negative biases (-9 and -11 W m-2). The ERA-I bias in shortwave radiations is 4 times smaller at daily time scale. Both SAFRAN and ERA-I underestimate longwave downwelling radiations by -12 and -16 W m-2, respectively. The biases in shortwave and longwave radiations show larger inter-annual variation for SAFRAN than for ERA-I. Regarding rainfall, SAFRAN and ERA-I/GPCC are slightly biased at daily and longer time scales (1 and 0.5% of the mean rainfall measurement). The SAFRAN rainfall estimates are more precise due to the use of the in situ daily rainfall measurements of the Avignon site in the reanalysis.

  7. Combining Existing Monitoring Sites with a Probability Survey Design - Examples from U.S. EPA’s National Coastal Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA’s) National Coastal Assessment was envisioned as a research effort led by EPA’s Office of Research and Development to evaluate assessment methods for ecosystem condition monitoring. The program was conducted through strategic partnershi...

  8. Familial Mediterranean Fever

    MedlinePlus

    Diseases and Conditions Familial Mediterranean fever By Mayo Clinic Staff Familial Mediterranean fever is an inflammatory disorder that causes recurrent fevers and painful inflammation of your abdomen, ...

  9. Mitochondrial DNA reveals genetic structuring of Pinna nobilis across the Mediterranean Sea.

    PubMed

    Sanna, Daria; Cossu, Piero; Dedola, Gian Luca; Scarpa, Fabio; Maltagliati, Ferruccio; Castelli, Alberto; Franzoi, Piero; Lai, Tiziana; Cristo, Benedetto; Curini-Galletti, Marco; Francalacci, Paolo; Casu, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Pinna nobilis is the largest endemic Mediterranean marine bivalve. During past centuries, various human activities have promoted the regression of its populations. As a consequence of stringent standards of protection, demographic expansions are currently reported in many sites. The aim of this study was to provide the first large broad-scale insight into the genetic variability of P. nobilis in the area that encompasses the western Mediterranean, Ionian Sea, and Adriatic Sea marine ecoregions. To accomplish this objective twenty-five populations from this area were surveyed using two mitochondrial DNA markers (COI and 16S). Our dataset was then merged with those obtained in other studies for the Aegean and Tunisian populations (eastern Mediterranean), and statistical analyses (Bayesian model-based clustering, median-joining network, AMOVA, mismatch distribution, Tajima's and Fu's neutrality tests and Bayesian skyline plots) were performed. The results revealed genetic divergence among three distinguishable areas: (1) western Mediterranean and Ionian Sea; (2) Adriatic Sea; and (3) Aegean Sea and Tunisian coastal areas. From a conservational point of view, populations from the three genetically divergent groups found may be considered as different management units.

  10. Mitochondrial DNA Reveals Genetic Structuring of Pinna nobilis across the Mediterranean Sea

    PubMed Central

    Sanna, Daria; Cossu, Piero; Dedola, Gian Luca; Scarpa, Fabio; Maltagliati, Ferruccio; Castelli, Alberto; Franzoi, Piero; Lai, Tiziana; Cristo, Benedetto; Curini-Galletti, Marco; Francalacci, Paolo; Casu, Marco

    2013-01-01

    Pinna nobilis is the largest endemic Mediterranean marine bivalve. During past centuries, various human activities have promoted the regression of its populations. As a consequence of stringent standards of protection, demographic expansions are currently reported in many sites. The aim of this study was to provide the first large broad-scale insight into the genetic variability of P. nobilis in the area that encompasses the western Mediterranean, Ionian Sea, and Adriatic Sea marine ecoregions. To accomplish this objective twenty-five populations from this area were surveyed using two mitochondrial DNA markers (COI and 16S). Our dataset was then merged with those obtained in other studies for the Aegean and Tunisian populations (eastern Mediterranean), and statistical analyses (Bayesian model-based clustering, median-joining network, AMOVA, mismatch distribution, Tajima’s and Fu’s neutrality tests and Bayesian skyline plots) were performed. The results revealed genetic divergence among three distinguishable areas: (1) western Mediterranean and Ionian Sea; (2) Adriatic Sea; and (3) Aegean Sea and Tunisian coastal areas. From a conservational point of view, populations from the three genetically divergent groups found may be considered as different management units. PMID:23840684

  11. Effects of natural and anthropogenic processes in the distribution of marine litter in the deep Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramirez-Llodra, Eva; De Mol, Ben; Company, Joan B.; Coll, Marta; Sardà, Francesc

    2013-11-01

    The distribution, type and quantity of marine litter accumulated on the bathyal and abyssal Mediterranean seafloor has been studied in the framework of the Spanish national projects PROMETEO and DOS MARES and the ESF-EuroDEEP project BIOFUN. Litter was collected with an otter trawl and Agassiz trawl while sampling for megafauna on the Blanes canyon and adjacent slope (Catalan margin, north-western Mediterranean) between 900 and 2700 m depth, and on the western, central and eastern Mediterranean basins at 1200, 2000 and 3000 m depth. All litter was sorted into 8 categories (hard plastic, soft plastic, glass, metal, clinker, fabric, longlines and fishing nets) and weighed. The distribution of litter was analysed in relation to depth, geographic area and natural (bathymetry, currents and rivers) and anthropogenic (population density and shipping routes) processes. The most abundant litter types were plastic, glass, metal and clinker. Lost or discarded fishing gear was also commonly found. On the Catalan margin, although the data indicated an accumulation of litter with increasing depth, mean weight was not significantly different between depths or between the open slope and the canyon. We propose that litter accumulated in the canyon, with high proportions of plastics, has predominantly a coastal origin, while litter collected on the open slope, dominated by heavy litter, is mostly ship-originated, especially at sites under major shipping routes. Along the trans-Mediterranean transect, although a higher amount of litter seemed to be found on the Western Mediterranean, differences of mean weight were not significant between the 3 geographic areas and the 3 depths. Here, the shallower sites, also closer to the coast, had a higher proportion of plastics than the deeper sites, which had a higher proportion of heavy litter and were often affected by shipping routes. The weight of litter was also compared to biomass of megafauna from the same samples. On the Blanes slope

  12. Cleaning up hazardous waste disposal sites in the coastal zone: A review of the federal and state legal requirements for remediation at Allen Harbor, Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. (Reannouncement with new availability information)

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, R.K.

    1992-04-01

    In many coastal areas past hazardous waste disposal practices have created current pollution problems. Cleanup and restoration of these sites poses significant technical, social, political, and legal questions. The wide diversity of coastal areas and the complexity of various federal, state, and local laws and regulations makes it necessary to focus this review on the specific requirements pertaining to a hazardous waste site investigation being conducted by the Navy at the Naval Construction Battalion Center Davisville, located adjacent to Allen Harbor in Narragansett Bay, RI. The cleanup requirements specified by the Comprehensive Response Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the National Contingency Plan (NCP) are reviewed in the context of other federal and state laws and regulations including the Glean Water Act (CWA), Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA), Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA), Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), natural resource protection (fisheries, endangered species, migratory birds, etc.), federal facility agreements (FFA) and Rhode Island statutes which define applicable or relevant and appropriate requirements (ARARs) for remediation. The cleanup requirements common to all coastal disposal sites, the relationship between cleanup and other coastal zone management issues, and the need for development of an effective policy strategy for coastal cleanup projects are presented and discussed.

  13. Aerosol optical properties at a coastal site in Hong Kong, South China: temporal features, size dependencies and source analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiaping; Ding, Aijun; Virkkula, Aki; Lee, Shuncheng; Shen, Yicheng; Chi, Xuguang; Xu, Zheng

    2016-04-01

    Hong Kong is a typical coastal city adjacent to the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in southern China, which is one of the regions suffering from severe air pollution. Atmospheric aerosols can affect the earth's radiative balance by scattering and absorbing incoming solar radiation. Black Carbon (BC) aerosol is a particularly emphasized component due to its strong light absorption. Aerosol transported from different source areas consists of distinct size distributions, leading to different optical properties. As the byproducts of the incomplete oxidation, BC and CO both have relatively long life time, their relationship is a good indicator for distinguishing different pollutant sources. In this study, temporal variations of aerosol optical properties and concentrations of BC and CO at a coastal background station in Hong Kong were investigated. Transport characteristics and origins of aerosol were elucidated by analyzing backward Lagrangian particle dispersion modeling (LPDM) results, together with related parameters including the relationships between optical properties and particle size, BC-CO correlations, ship location data and meteorological variables. From February 2012 to September 2013 and March 2014 to February 2015, continuous in-situ measurements of light scattering and absorption coefficients, particle size distribution and concentrations of BC and CO were conducted at Hok Tsui (HT), a coastal background station on the southeast tip of Hong Kong Island (22.22°N, 114.25°E, 60 m above the sea level) with few local anthropogenic activities. Affected by the Asian monsoon, this region is dominated by continental outflow in winter and by marine inflow from the South China Sea in summer, which is an ideal station for identifying the transport characteristics of aerosol and their effects on optical properties from different anthropogenic emission sources. 7-day backward Lagrangian particle dispersion modeling was performed for source identification. Three

  14. Methylmercury and other chemical constituents in Pacific coastal fog water from seven sites in Central/Northern California (FogNet) during the summer of 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss-Penzias, P. S.; Heim, W. A.; Fernandez, D.; Coale, K. H.; Oliphant, A. J.; Dann, D.; Porter, M.; Hoskins, D.; Dodge, C.

    2014-12-01

    This project investigates the mercury content in summertime Pacific coastal fog in California and whether fog could be an important vector for ocean emissions of mercury to be deposited via fog drip to upland coastal ecosystems. Efforts began in early 2014 with the building of 7 active-strand fog collectors based on the Colorado State University Caltech CASCC design. The new UCSC CASCC includes doors sealing the collector which open under microcomputer control based on environmental sensing (relative humidity). Seven sites spanning from Trinidad in the north to Marina in the south have collected samples June-August 2014 under a project called FogNet. Fog conditions were favorable for collecting large water volumes (> 250 mL) at many sites. Fog samplers were cleaned with soap and deionized water daily and field blanks taken immediately following cleaning. Fog water samples were collected overnight, split into an aliquot for anion and DOC/DIC analysis and the remaining sample was acidified. Monomethyl mercury (MMHg) concentrations in samples and field blanks for 3 sites in FogNet are shown in the accompanying figure. The range of MMHg concentrations from 10 fog water samples > 100 mL in volume was 0.9-9.3 ng/L (4.5-46.4 pM). Elevated MMHg concentrations (> 5 ng/L, 25 pM) were observed at 2 sites: UC Santa Cruz and Bodega Bay. The field blanks produced MMHg concentrations of 0.08-0.4 ng/L (0.4-2.0 pM), which was on average < 10% of the sample concentration and suggests the artifact due to sampling was small. The observed MMHg concentrations in fog water observed is this study are 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than MMHg concentrations seen previously in rain water samples from the California coast suggesting an additional source of MMHg to fog. Shipboard measurements of dimethyl mercury (DMHg) in coastal California seawater during the time period of FogNet operations (summer 2014) reveal surface waters that were supersaturated in DMHg which represents a potential

  15. Early urban impact on Mediterranean coastal environments.

    PubMed

    Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Morhange, Christophe; Guiot, Joël; Zviely, Dov; Shaked, Idan; Otto, Thierry; Artzy, Michal

    2013-12-18

    A common belief is that, unlike today, ancient urban areas developed in a sustainable way within the environmental limits of local natural resources and the ecosystem's capacity to respond. This long-held paradigm is based on a weak knowledge of the processes underpinning the emergence of urban life and the rise of an urban-adapted environment in and beyond city boundaries. Here, we report a 6000-year record of environmental changes around the port city of Akko (Acre), Israel, to analyse ecological processes and patterns stemming from the emergence and growth of urban life. We show that early urban development deeply transformed pre-existing ecosystems, swiftly leading to an urban environment already governed by its own ecological rules and this, since the emergence of the cities.

  16. Early urban impact on Mediterranean coastal environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaniewski, David; van Campo, Elise; Morhange, Christophe; Guiot, Joël; Zviely, Dov; Shaked, Idan; Otto, Thierry; Artzy, Michal

    2013-12-01

    A common belief is that, unlike today, ancient urban areas developed in a sustainable way within the environmental limits of local natural resources and the ecosystem's capacity to respond. This long-held paradigm is based on a weak knowledge of the processes underpinning the emergence of urban life and the rise of an urban-adapted environment in and beyond city boundaries. Here, we report a 6000-year record of environmental changes around the port city of Akko (Acre), Israel, to analyse ecological processes and patterns stemming from the emergence and growth of urban life. We show that early urban development deeply transformed pre-existing ecosystems, swiftly leading to an urban environment already governed by its own ecological rules and this, since the emergence of the cities.

  17. Early urban impact on Mediterranean coastal environments

    PubMed Central

    Kaniewski, David; Van Campo, Elise; Morhange, Christophe; Guiot, Joël; Zviely, Dov; Shaked, Idan; Otto, Thierry; Artzy, Michal

    2013-01-01

    A common belief is that, unlike today, ancient urban areas developed in a sustainable way within the environmental limits of local natural resources and the ecosystem's capacity to respond. This long-held paradigm is based on a weak knowledge of the processes underpinning the emergence of urban life and the rise of an urban-adapted environment in and beyond city boundaries. Here, we report a 6000-year record of environmental changes around the port city of Akko (Acre), Israel, to analyse ecological processes and patterns stemming from the emergence and growth of urban life. We show that early urban development deeply transformed pre-existing ecosystems, swiftly leading to an urban environment already governed by its own ecological rules and this, since the emergence of the cities. PMID:24345820

  18. Air mass origin and its influence on radionuclide activities ( 7Be and 210Pb) in aerosol particles at a coastal site in the western Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dueñas, C.; Orza, J. A. G.; Cabello, M.; Fernández, M. C.; Cañete, S.; Pérez, M.; Gordo, E.

    2011-07-01

    Studies of radionuclide activities in aerosol particles provide a means for evaluating the integrated effects of transport and meteorology on the atmospheric loadings of substances with different sources. Measurements of aerosol mass concentration and specific activities of 7Be and 210Pb in aerosols at Málaga (36° 43' 40″ N; 4° 28' 8″ W) for the period 2000-2006 were used to obtain the relationships between radionuclide activities and airflow patterns by comparing the data grouped by air mass trajectory clusters. The average concentration values of 7Be and 210Pb over the 7 year period have been found to be 4.6 and 0.58 mBq m -3, respectively, with mean aerosol mass concentration of 53.6 μg m -3. The identified air flow types arriving at Málaga reflect the transitional location of the Iberian Peninsula and show significant differences in radionuclide activities. Air concentrations of both nuclides and the aerosol mass concentration are controlled predominantly by the synoptic scenarios leading to the entrance of dust-laden continental flows from northern Africa and the arrival of polar maritime air masses, as implied by the strong correlations found between the monthly frequencies of the different air masses and the specific activities of both radionuclides. Correlations between activity concentrations and precipitation are significant though lower than with air masses.

  19. Sedimentological techniques applied to the hydrology of the Atlantic coastal plain in South Carolina and Georgia near the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Falls, F.W. ); Baum, J.S. ); Edwards, L.E. )

    1994-03-01

    Potential for migration of contaminants in ground water under the Savannah River from South Carolina into Georgia near the US Department of Energy (DOE) Savannah River Site (SRS). The SRS is located in the inner Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina and is underlain by 200 to more than 300 meters of permeable, unconsolidated to poorly consolidated sediments of Cretaceous and Tertiary age. The US Geological Survey, in cooperation with the US Department of Energy and the Georgia Department of Natural Resources, is evaluating ground-water flow through the Coastal Plain sediments in the area. Preliminary hydrologic studies conducted to provide the data needed for digital modeling of the ground-water flow system identified the need for more extensive investigation into the influence of the geologic complexities on that flow system. The Coastal Plain physiographic province in South Carolina and Georgia is comprised of a complex wedge of fluvial, deltaic, and marine sedimentary deposits locally modified by faulting. Several techniques commonly used in petroleum basin analysis (sequence stratigraphy, biostratigraphy, detailed core description, and geophysical well log analysis), were used together with water-level measurements, aquifer-test data, and geochemical data to identify six regional aquifers. Hydraulic conductivity distribution maps within each of these aquifers were constructed using textural analysis of core materials, aquifer test data, and depositional system reconstruction. Sedimentological techniques were used to improve understanding of the depositional system and the ground-water flow system dynamics, and to help focus research in areas where additional hydrologic, geologic, and aquifer-test data are needed.

  20. Ground-water flow, geochemistry, and effects of agricultural practices on nitrogen transport at study sites in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain physiographic provinces, Patuxent River basin, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McFarland, E. Randolph

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to improve water quality in Chesapeake Bay, agricultural practices are being promoted that are intended to reduce contaminant transport to the Bay. The effects of agricultural practices on nitrogen transport were assessed at two 10-acre study sites in the Patuxent River basin, Maryland, during 1986-92. Nitrogen load was larger in ground water than in surface runoff at both sites. At the study site in the Piedmont Province, nitrogen load in ground water decreased from 12 to 6 (lb/acre)/yr (pound per acre per year) as corn under no-till cultivation was replaced by no-till soybeans, continuous alfalfa, and contoured strip crops alternated among corn, alfalfa, and soybeans. At the study site in the Coastal Plain Province, no-till soybeans resulted in a nitrogen load in ground water of 12.55 (lb/acre)/yr, whereas conventional-till soybeans resulted in a nitrogen load in ground water of 11.51 (lb/acre)/yr.

  1. Evaluation of ocean color data processing schemes for VIIRS sensor using in-situ data of coastal AERONET-OC sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, S.; Gilerson, A.; Hlaing, S.; Weidemann, A.; Arnone, R.; Wang, M.

    2013-10-01

    In the processing of Ocean Color (OC) data from sensor data recorded by Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard JPSS-Suomi satellite, NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) is deriving a continuous temporal calibration based on the on-board calibration measurements for the visible bands, and then reprocessing the full mission to produce a continuously calibrated sensor data record (SDR) product. In addition, a vicarious calibration during SDR to OC Level-2 processing is applied. In the latest processing the vicarious calibration is derived from the Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) data, whereas in the initial processing it was derived from a sea surface reflectance model and a climatology of chlorophyll-a concentration. Furthermore, NASA has recently reprocessed the OC data for the entire VIIRS mission with lunar-based temporal calibration and updated vicarious gains. On the other hand, in fulfilling the mission of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS) developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems, for the processing of the environmental data products from sensor data records, has gained beta status for evaluation. As these processing schemes continue to evolve, monitoring the validity and assessments of the related VIIRS ocean color products are necessary, especially for coastal waters, to evaluate the consistency of these processing and calibration schemes. The ocean color component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET-OC) has been designed to support long-term satellite ocean color investigations through cross-site measurements collected by autonomous multispectral radiometer systems deployed above water. As part of this network, the Long Island Sound Coastal Observatory (LISCO) near New York City and WaveCIS in the Gulf of Mexico expand those observational capabilities with continuous monitoring as well as (for the LISCO site) additional assessment of the

  2. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll trend

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    rinaldi, eleonora; colella, simone; santoleri, rosalia

    2014-05-01

    Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, seen as a proxy for phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool in order to understand the response of marine ecosystem to human pressures. This is particularly important along the coastal regions, in which the strong anthropization and the irrational exploitation of resources represent a persistent threat to the biodiversity. The aim of this work is to assess the effectiveness and feasibility of using Ocean Color (OC) data to monitor the environmental changes in Mediterranean Sea and to develop a method for detecting trend from OC data that can constitute a new indicator of the water quality within the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive implementation. In this study the Mediterranean merged Case1-Case2 chlorophyll product, produced by CNR-ISAC and distributed in the framework of MyOcean, is analyzed. This product is obtained by using two different bio-optical algorithms for open ocean (Case1) and coastal turbid (Case2) waters; this improves the quality of the Chl satellite estimates, especially near the coast. In order to verify the real capability of the this product for estimating Chl trend and for selecting the most appropriated statistical test to detect trend in the Mediterranean Sea, a comparison between OC and in situ data are carried out. In-situ Chl data are part of the European Environment Information and Observation Network (Eionet) of the European Environmental Agency (EEA). Four different statistical approaches to estimate trend have been selected and used to compare trend values obtained with in-situ and OC data. Results show that the best agreement between in-situ and OC trend is achieved using the Mann- Kendall test. The Mediterranean trend map obtained applying this test to the de-seasonalized OC time series shows that, in accordance with the results of many authors, the case 1 waters of Mediterranean sea are characterized by a negative trend. However, the most intense trend signals, both negative

  3. Human health benefits supplied by Mediterranean marine biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Lloret, Josep

    2010-10-01

    This paper summarizes the overall benefits supplied by Mediterranean marine biodiversity to human health and highlights the anthropogenic and environmental causes that are threatening these benefits. First, the Mediterranean Sea is a valuable source of seafood, which is an important component of the so-called "Mediterranean diet". This type of diet has several health benefits, including cardio and cancer protective effects, which are attributed to the high intake of seafood-derived n-3 (omega-3) fatty acids. Second, the Mediterranean marine organisms, particularly the benthic ones, have furnished a large variety of bioactive metabolites, some of which are being developed into new drugs to threat major human diseases such as cancer. Third, the Mediterranean coastal areas provide environments for practising maritime leisure activities that provide physical and psychological benefits to users. Despite all this, fishing, tourism, contamination and sea warming are deteriorating this rich marine ecosystem, which needs to be protected to assure human welfare.

  4. A Guide to Field Trip Sites in Coastal North Carolina. Project CAPE Teaching Module SC3a.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Walter B.; Carroll, Carolyn H.

    This guide provides information on preparing students in grades 4-10 for field trips and describes possible field trip sites in the northeastern, mid-eastern, and southeastern regions of North Carolina. Selected sites in the northeastern region (from Roanoke Island to Ocracoke) include the Dare Coastline and Cape Hatteras National Seashore.…

  5. Planktonic food web structure at a coastal time-series site: I. Partitioning of microbial abundances and carbon biomass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caron, David A.; Connell, Paige E.; Schaffner, Rebecca A.; Schnetzer, Astrid; Fuhrman, Jed A.; Countway, Peter D.; Kim, Diane Y.

    2017-03-01

    Biogeochemistry in marine plankton communities is strongly influenced by the activities of microbial species. Understanding the composition and dynamics of these assemblages is essential for modeling emergent community-level processes, yet few studies have examined all of the biological assemblages present in the plankton, and benchmark data of this sort from time-series studies are rare. Abundance and biomass of the entire microbial assemblage and mesozooplankton (>200 μm) were determined vertically, monthly and seasonally over a 3-year period at a coastal time-series station in the San Pedro Basin off the southwestern coast of the USA. All compartments of the planktonic community were enumerated (viruses in the femtoplankton size range [0.02-0.2 μm], bacteria + archaea and cyanobacteria in the picoplankton size range [0.2-2.0 μm], phototrophic and heterotrophic protists in the nanoplanktonic [2-20 μm] and microplanktonic [20-200 μm] size ranges, and mesozooplankton [>200 μm]. Carbon biomass of each category was estimated using standard conversion factors. Plankton abundances varied over seven orders of magnitude across all categories, and total carbon biomass averaged approximately 60 μg C l-1 in surface waters of the 890 m water column over the study period. Bacteria + archaea comprised the single largest component of biomass (>1/3 of the total), with the sum of phototrophic protistan biomass making up a similar proportion. Temporal variability at this subtropical station was not dramatic. Monthly depth-specific and depth-integrated biomass varied 2-fold at the station, while seasonal variances were generally <50%. This study provides benchmark information for investigating long-term environmental forcing on the composition and dynamics of the microbes that dominate food web structure and function at this coastal observatory.

  6. Stratospheric variability of wave activity and parameters in equatorial coastal and tropical sites during the West African monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafando, P.; Chane-Ming, F.; Petitdidier, M.

    2016-12-01

    Recent numerical studies in stratospheric dynamics and its variability as well as climate, have highlighted the need of more observational analyses to improve simulation of the West African monsoon (WAM). In this paper, activity and spectral characteristics of short-scale vertical waves (wavelengths <4 km) are analysed in equatorial coastal and tropical lower stratosphere during the WAM. A first detailed description of such waves over West Africa is derived from high-resolution vertical profiles of temperature and horizontal wind obtained during Intensive Observation Period of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA) Campaign 2006. Monthly variation of wave energy density is revealed to trace the progression of the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) over West Africa. Mesoscale inertia gravity-waves structures with vertical and horizontal wavelengths of 1.5-2.5 and 400-1100 km respectively and intrinsic frequencies of 1.1-2.2 f or periods <2 days are observed in the tropical LS with intense activity during July and August when the WAM is installed over the tropical West Africa. Over equatorial region, gravity waves with intrinsic frequencies of 1.4-4 f or periods <5.2 days, vertical wavelength of 2.1 km and long horizontal wavelengths of 1300 km are intense during the WAM coastal phase. From July to October, gravity waves with intrinsic frequencies of 1.2-3.8 f or periods <6 days, vertical wavelength of 2.1 km and horizontal wavelengths of 1650 km are less intense during the WAM Sahelian phase of the WAM, March-June. Unlike potential energy density, kinetic energy density is observed to be a good proxy for the activity of short-scale vertical waves during the WAM because quasi-inertial waves are dominant. Long-term wave activity variation from January 2001 to December 2009, highlights strong year-to-year variation superimposed on convective activity and quasi-biennial oscillation-like variations especially above tropical stations.

  7. Terrestrial habitat use by pacific pond turtles in a Mediterranean climate

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rathbun, G.B.; Scott, N.J.; Murphey, T.G.

    2002-01-01

    The Pacific pond turtle (Clemmys marmorata) is a widespread aquatic turtle in the Pacific states, yet relatively little is known about its ecology. We radio-tracked 34 individuals during an 8 year period in 4 small coastal creeks in central California to determine their use of terrestrial upland habitats. Most of our turtles left the drying arroyos during late summer and returned after winter floods. Turtles spent an average of 111 days at these land refuges, which were located in woodland and coastal sage scrub habitats an average of 50 m from arroyos. Most gravid females left the creeks during June to oviposit in sunny upland habitats with low vegetation structure, such as grazed pastures. Nest sites were an average of 28 m from creeks. Terrestrial basking sites averaged 4.5 m from streams, but were only used for a few days. We believe the use of terrestrial upland sites was related to the Mediterranean climate and the resulting unique hydrodynamics of the small coastal arroyos (dry in summer and flooding in winter).

  8. Concentrations of organic contaminants in mollusks and sediments at NOAA National Status and Trend sites in the coastal and estuarine United States.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, T P

    1991-01-01

    Mean concentrations of PAHs, PCBs, and DDT in mollusks and sediments at sites in the National Status and Trends Program (NST) are distributed in log-normal fashion. The dry weight-based chlorinated organic concentrations in mollusks generally exceed those in nearby sediments by an order of magnitude. PAHs are found at similar concentrations in sediments and mollusks. Highest concentrations of PCBs and DDT in mollusks are in the ranges of 1000 to 4000 ng/g (dry) and 400 to 1000 ng/g (dry), respectively. The highest PAH concentrations in sediments are in the 10,000 to 50,000 ng/g (dry) range. While higher concentrations of contaminants can be found by sampling localized hot spots, the NST data represent the distribution of concentrations over general areas of the coastal United States.

  9. Restoration impact of an uncontrolled phosphogypsum dump site on the seasonal distribution of abiotic variables, phytoplankton and zooplankton along the near shore of the south-western Mediterranean coast.

    PubMed

    Rekik, Amira; Maalej, Sami; Ayadi, Habib; Aleya, Lotfi

    2013-06-01

    'In connection with the Taparura Project, we studied the distribution of phytoplankton and zooplankton communities in relation to environmental variables at 18 stations sampled during four coastal cruises conducted between October 2009 and July 2010 on the north coast of Sfax (Tunisia, western Mediterranean Sea). The inshore location was largely dominated by diatoms (66 %) represented essentially by members of the genera Navicula, Grammatophora, and Licmophora. Dinophyceae were numerically the second largest group and showed an enhanced species richness. Cyanobacteriae developed in association with an important proliferation of colonial Trichodesmium erythraeum, contributing 39.4 % of total phytoplankton abundances. The results suggest that phytoplankters are generally adapted to specific environmental conditions. Copepods were the most abundant zooplankton group (82 %) of total zooplankton. A total of 21 copepod species were identified in all stations, with an overwhelming abundance of Oithona similis in autumn and summer, Euterpina acutifrons in winter, and Oncaea conifera in spring. The phosphogypsum restoration had been acutely necessary allowing dominant zooplankton species to exploit a wide range of food resources including phytoplankton and thus improving water quality.

  10. Bromide and chloride distribution across the snow-sea ice-ocean interface: A comparative study between an Arctic coastal marine site and an experimental sea ice mesocosm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wen; Tenuta, Mario; Wang, Feiyue

    2016-08-01

    During springtime in the Arctic, bromine explosion events occur when high concentrations of reactive bromine species are observed in the boundary layer with the concurrence of ozone depletion events and mercury depletion events. While a variety of substrates including snow, sea ice, frost flowers, and aerosols have been proposed to be the substrate and/or source of bromine activation in the Arctic, recent studies have highlighted the role of snow. Here we report concentration profiles of halides (Br- and Cl-), Na+, and mercury across the snow-sea ice-seawater interface at a coastal marine site in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago in March and June 2014, as well as in an experimental sea ice mesocosm in Winnipeg in January and February 2014. The occurrence of bromine activation at the Arctic site in March was indicated by the high mercury concentrations in snowpack. At both the Arctic and mesocosm sites, the molar ratios of Br-/Na+ were nearly constant throughout the sea ice depth, but highly variable in the upper layer of the overlying snowpack, revealing that bromine activation takes place in the sunlit snow instead of sea ice. This is supported by calculations showing that the loss of Br- from the upper layer of the snowpack is large enough to produce the observed concentrations of reactive bromine in the atmospheric boundary layer. However, the upper layer of the Arctic snowpack tends to be generally enriched in Br- due to the net addition of Br--containing gases and nonsea-salt aerosols.

  11. Presence of Shocked Quartz at Two Cretaceous / Paleogene (K/Pg) Sites in the New Jersey Coastal Plain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmood, S. S.; Jarret, S. J.; Sessa, J. A.; Bigolski, J. N.; Aldoroty, R. J.; Ebel, D. S.; Landman, N. H.

    2015-07-01

    Upon re-observation of samples collected at the chemo stratigraphic boundary of the Agony Creek (30m paleodepth) and Crosswicks Creek (100m paleodepth) shocked quartz was found confirming their status as K/Pg sites.

  12. An experimental approach for archeological soil micromorphology: building a model for site taphonomy in coastal shell middens of the Beagle Channel (Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbo, Andrea; Suarez Villagran, Ximena; Madella, Marco; Vila, Asumpcio; Estevez, Jordi

    2010-05-01

    There are still many archaeological contexts where soil micromorphology has been little applied. Examples of such are anthropic shell deposits, common in coastal settings worldwide. These archaeological sites have complex stratigraphies composed mainly of shell from diverse species of local mollusks and gastropods. They have the peculiarity of being highly porous sediments with a coarse fraction that is dominated by gravel-sized bioclastic remains (shell, fish bones) and a fine fraction composed of organic material (charcoal, organic matter). The use of soil micromorphology in shell deposits was started by the Spanish-Argentinean research team working in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) since 1986. This project focused on excavation of hunter-gatherer sites from the contact period. One of the main objectives was to develop a detailed excavation method for shell middens that maximized the amount of recorded data during archaeological excavation. In this perspective, microstratigraphy was conceived as a fundamental complement for the study of site formation processes, as it would provide with high definition data for identification of shell accumulation episodes, trampling on site, abandonment periods, taphonomic alterations etc. A reference collection of known environmental and anthropic control features, such as hearths, trampling areas, wood ashes from local species, among others, was built to help in the microscopic characterization of archaeological samples. In this work, we analyze this experimental collection and compare it with samples from the Tunel VII archaeological site, located in the northern coast of the Beagle Channel and dated from the 18th-19th centuries. The set of modern samples included: trampling area from an animal pathway; beach deposit; forest litter; soil under the forest; hearths lit in diverse contexts (on the prairie, the beach and from the archaeologist camp site); and experimental burnt valves of Mytilus edulis, the main malacological

  13. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll Trends

    PubMed Central

    Colella, Simone; Falcini, Federico; Rinaldi, Eleonora; Sammartino, Michela; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity). Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication). Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the “good environmental status” (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020) and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean) algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I) and coastal (i.e., Case II) waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens’s method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However, the

  14. Quantitative Analysis and Simulation of Mediterranean Coastal Ecosystems: The Gulf of Naples, a Case Study. Report of a Workshop on Ecosystem Modelling (Naples, Italy, March 28-April 10, 1981).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carrada, G., Ed.; And Others

    The third workshop on marine ecosystem modeling is one in a sequence of activities designed to promote modeling as a research and management tool among Mediterranean marine scientists. Previous workshops served mainly as a forum for a familiarization with modeling, while this workshop focused on specific implementation of modeling technology. The…

  15. Air-water exchange and dry deposition of polybrominated diphenyl ethers at a coastal site in Izmir Bay, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Banu; Odabasi, Mustafa

    2007-02-01

    The air-water exchange of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), an emerging class of persistent organic pollutants (POPs), was investigated using paired air-water samples (n = 15) collected in July and December, 2005 from Guzelyali Port in Izmir Bay, Turkey. Total dissolved-phase water concentrations of PBDEs (sigma7PBDEs) were 212 +/- 65 and 87 +/- 57 pg L(-1) (average +/- SD) in summer and winter, respectively. BDE-209 was the most abundant congener in all samples, followed by BDE-99 and -47. Average ambient gas-phase sigma7PBDE concentrations were between 189 +/- 61 (summer) and 76 +/- 65 pg m(-3) (winter). Net air-water exchange fluxes ranged from -0.9 +/- 1.0 (BDE-28) (volatilization) to 11.1 +/- 5.4 (BDE-209) ng m(-2) day(-1) (deposition). The BDE-28 fluxes were mainly volatilization while the other congeners were deposited. Gas- and dissolved-phase concentrations were significantly correlated (P = 0.33-0.55, p < 0.05, except for BDE-209, r = 0.05, p > 0.05) indicating thatthe atmosphere controls the surface water PBDE levels in this coastal environment. Estimated particulate dry deposition fluxes ranged between 2.7 +/- 1.9 (BDE-154) and 116 +/- 84 ng m(-2) day(-1) (BDE-209) indicating that dry deposition is also a significant input to surface waters in the study area.

  16. Planktonic food web structure at a coastal time-series site: II. Spatiotemporal variability of microbial trophic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connell, Paige E.; Campbell, Victoria; Gellene, Alyssa G.; Hu, Sarah K.; Caron, David A.

    2017-03-01

    The grazing activities of phagotrophic protists on various microbial assemblages play key roles in determining the amount of carbon available for higher trophic levels and for export out of the photic zone. However, comparisons of the proportion of carbon consumed from the phytoplankton (cyanobacteria+photosynthetic eukaryotes) and heterotrophic bacteria (bacteria+archaea, excluding cyanobacteria) are rare. In this study, microbial community composition, phytoplankton growth and mortality rates (total chlorophyll a, Synechococcus, Prochlorococcus, and photosynthetic picoeukaryotes), and bacterial mortality rates were measured seasonally from 2012 to 2014 in the surface waters of three environmentally distinct sites in the San Pedro Channel, off the coast of southern CA, USA. Higher nutrient concentrations at the nearshore site supported community standing stocks that were 1.3-4.5x those found offshore, yet average growth and grazing rates of the phytoplankton and bacterial assemblages were generally similar between sites and across seasons. Thus, the amount of carbon consumed by the grazer assemblage was largely dictated by prey standing stocks. Heterotrophic bacteria constituted an important source of carbon for microbial consumers, particularly at the two offshore sites where bacterial carbon consumed was roughly equivalent to the amount of phytoplankton carbon consumed. Carbon removal by grazers at the nearshore station was predominantly from the diatoms, which were the primary component of the photosynthetic community at that site. This study highlights the significant contribution of protistan-bacterial trophic interactions to planktonic food webs and provides unique community composition and turnover data to inform biogeochemical models.

  17. Ancient wells and their geoarchaeological significance in detecting tectonics of the Israel Mediterranean coastline region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nir, Yaacov; Eldar, Iris

    1987-01-01

    Eight ancient water wells, representing the late Bronze Age to the Crusades period (ca. 3100 700 B.P.), have recently been excavated (six by the authors) and reopened at archaeological sites (tels) along the southern and central Mediterranean coast of Israel. Evidence of ancient freshwater levels directly reflects on possible neotectonics of the region and on eustatic changes of sea level. There is substantial disagreement about the tectonic stability of the Israel Mediterranean coastal region during the past 3500 yr, whether there was a large-magnitude tectonic event (one of the largest known for recent times) during the period in discussion or whether the region was tectonically quiet. We tested the instability hypothesis by using geoarchaeological data from the wells and found no evidence for significant tectonic deformation of the central and southern Israel coast in the past 3100 yr. The “ancient water-well” method can, with appropriate modifications, be used all around the Mediterranean and other coasts elsewhere in the world where ground-water-sea-level relations are alike. Now in the digging of wells we must not disdain reflection, but must devote much acuteness and skill to the consideration of the natural principles of things. Vitruvius Pollio, Architectura, Book VIII, Chapter VI (25 B.C.)

  18. Large Historical Earthquakes and Tsunami Hazards in the Western Mediterranean: Source Characteristics and Modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harbi, Assia; Meghraoui, Mustapha; Belabbes, Samir; Maouche, Said

    2010-05-01

    The western Mediterranean region was the site of numerous large earthquakes in the past. Most of these earthquakes are located at the East-West trending Africa-Eurasia plate boundary and along the coastline of North Africa. The most recent recorded tsunamigenic earthquake occurred in 2003 at Zemmouri-Boumerdes (Mw 6.8) and generated ~ 2-m-high tsunami wave. The destructive wave affected the Balearic Islands and Almeria in southern Spain and Carloforte in southern Sardinia (Italy). The earthquake provided a unique opportunity to gather instrumental records of seismic waves and tide gauges in the western Mediterranean. A database that includes a historical catalogue of main events, seismic sources and related fault parameters was prepared in order to assess the tsunami hazard of this region. In addition to the analysis of the 2003 records, we study the 1790 Oran and 1856 Jijel historical tsunamigenic earthquakes (Io = IX and X, respectively) that provide detailed observations on the heights and extension of past tsunamis and damage in coastal zones. We performed the modelling of wave propagation using NAMI-DANCE code and tested different fault sources from synthetic tide gauges. We observe that the characteristics of seismic sources control the size and directivity of tsunami wave propagation on both northern and southern coasts of the western Mediterranean.

  19. Aquifer geochemistry at potential aquifer storage and recovery sites in coastal plain aquifers in the New York city area, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, C.J.; Misut, P.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of injecting oxic water from the New York city (NYC) drinking-water supply and distribution system into a nearby anoxic coastal plain aquifer for later recovery during periods of water shortage (aquifer storage and recovery, or ASR) were simulated by a 3-dimensional, reactive-solute transport model. The Cretaceous aquifer system in the NYC area of New York and New Jersey, USA contains pyrite, goethite, locally occurring siderite, lignite, and locally varying amounts of dissolved Fe and salinity. Sediment from cores drilled on Staten Island and western Long Island had high extractable concentrations of Fe, Mn, and acid volatile sulfides (AVS) plus chromium-reducible sulfides (CRS) and low concentrations of As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U. Similarly, water samples from the Lloyd aquifer (Cretaceous) in western Long Island generally contained high concentrations of Fe and Mn and low concentrations of other trace elements such as As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U, all of which were below US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and NY maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). In such aquifer settings, ASR operations can be complicated by the oxidative dissolution of pyrite, low pH, and high concentrations of dissolved Fe in extracted water.The simulated injection of buffered, oxic city water into a hypothetical ASR well increased the hydraulic head at the well, displaced the ambient groundwater, and formed a spheroid of injected water with lower concentrations of Fe, Mn and major ions in water surrounding the ASR well, than in ambient water. Both the dissolved O2 concentrations and the pH of water near the well generally increased in magnitude during the simulated 5-a injection phase. The resultant oxidation of Fe2+ and attendant precipitation of goethite during injection provided a substrate for sorption of dissolved Fe during the 8-a extraction phase. The baseline scenario with a low (0.001M) concentration of pyrite in aquifer sediments, indicated that nearly 190% more water

  20. Nest-site selection and hatching success of waterbirds in coastal Virginia: some results of habitat manipulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rounds, R.A.; Erwin, R.M.; Portera, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    Rising sea levels in the mid-Atlantic region pose a long-term threat to marshes and their avian inhabitants. The Gull-billed Tern (Sterna nilotica), Common Tern (S. hirundo), Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger), and American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus), species of concern in Virginia, nest on low shelly perimeters of salt marsh islands on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. Marsh shellpiles are free of mammalian predators, but subject to frequent floods that reduce reproductive success. In an attempt to examine nest-site selection, enhance habitat, and improve hatching success, small (2 ? 2 m) plots on five island shellpiles were experimentally elevated, and nest-site selection and hatching success were monitored from 1 May to 1 August, 2002. In addition, location, elevation, and nesting performance of all other nests in the colonies were also monitored. No species selected the elevated experimental plots preferentially over adjacent control plots at any of the sites. When all nests were considered, Common Tern nests were located significantly lower than were random point elevations at two sites, as they tended to concentrate on low-lying wrack. At two other sites, however, Common Tern nests were significantly higher than were random points. Gull-billed Terns and American Oystercatchers showed a weak preference for higher elevations on bare shell at most sites. Hatching success was not improved on elevated plots, despite the protection they provided from flooding. Because of a 7 June flood, when 47% of all nests flooded, hatching success for all species was low. Nest elevation had the strongest impact on a nest's probability of hatching, followed by nest-initiation date. Predation rates were high at small colonies, and Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres) depredated 90% of early Gull-billed Tern nests at one shellpile. The importance of nest elevation and flooding on hatching success demonstrates the potential for management of certain waterbird nesting sites

  1. Clear-Water Contraction Scour at Selected Bridge Sites in the Black Prairie Belt of the Coastal Plain in Alabama, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, K.G.; Hedgecock, T.S.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Alabama Department of Transportation, made observations of clear-water contraction scour at 25 bridge sites in the Black Prairie Belt of the Coastal Plain of Alabama. These bridge sites consisted of 54 hydraulic structures, of which 37 have measurable scour holes. Observed scour depths ranged from 1.4 to 10.4 feet. Theoretical clear-water contraction-scour depths were computed for each bridge and compared with observed scour. This comparison showed that theoretical scour depths, in general, exceeded the observed scour depths by about 475 percent. Variables determined to be important in developing scour in laboratory studies along with several other hydraulic variables were investigated to understand their influence within the Alabama field data. The strongest explanatory variables for clear-water contraction scour were channel-contraction ratio and velocity index. Envelope curves were developed relating both of these explanatory variables to observed scour. These envelope curves provide useful tools for assessing reasonable ranges of scour depth in the Black Prairie Belt of Alabama.

  2. Hebei Spirit oil spill monitored on site by fluorometric detection of residual oil in coastal waters off Taean, Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moonkoo; Yim, Un Hyuk; Hong, Sang Hee; Jung, Jee-Hyun; Choi, Hyun-Woo; An, Joongeon; Won, Jongho; Shim, Won Joon

    2010-03-01

    The spatiotemporal distributions of dissolved and/or dispersed oil in seawater and pore water were monitored on site by fluorometric detection method after the Hebei Spirit oil spill. The oil concentrations in intertidal seawater, 15 days after the spill, were as high as 16,600 microg/L and appeared to decrease below the Korean marine water quality standard of 10 microg/L at most sites 10 months after the spill. Fluorometric detection of oil in pore water was introduced to eliminate the effects of grain size for the quantification of oil in sediments and to better explain spatial and temporal distribution of oil pollution at sandy beaches. The fluorescence detection method was compared with the conventional laboratory technique of total petroleum hydrocarbon analysis using gas chromatography. The method of fluorescence detection of oil was capable of generating results much faster and more cost-effectively than the traditional GC technique.

  3. The Mattassee Lake Sites: Archeological Investigations Along the Lower Santee River in the Coastal Plain of South Carolina.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    340 .- q Fourteen taxa were identified: Woodland features at site 38BK246 yielded GRAMINEAE (Grass family), CYPERACEAE blackberry and dogwood. ( sedge ... sedge , pickerelweed, bayberry and Nyssa or Biplisia spp.), and grape seed (Widmer spp. (if this is tupelo, N. sylvatica). 1976a:36). The seeds were...with the swamp or swamp margin, including americana (poke), Rubus spp. (blackberry), sedge , pickerelweed, bayberry and possibly LEGUMICOSAE (Bean family

  4. Polychaete response to fresh food supply at organically enriched coastal sites: Repercussion on bioturbation potential and trophic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturini, N.; Pires-Vanin, A. M. S.; Salhi, M.; Bessonart, M.; Muniz, P.

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the vertical distribution, abundance, specific and functional structure of polychaete assemblages at four organically enriched sites. The effects of fresh organic matter input from the water column driving by upwelling were evaluated. Temperature and salinity values indicate the intrusion of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) in spring, a nutrient-rich water mass. The dominance of the conveyor belt transport (CONV) in the station influenced by SACW, in the spring survey, is associated with fresh organic matter input as indicated by higher amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Conversely, the predominance of the diffusive mixing (DIFF) bioturbation category, in the sites without SACW influence is related to the preferential accumulation of more refractive food resources as indicated by higher concentrations of short chain saturated fatty acids. At the site influenced by SACW, the changes in polychaete assemblages were not all evident during proceeding upwelling conditions, but may persist at the end of the upwelling. Polychaetes in the study area seemed to be limited by the quality but not the quantity of food. The delay in polychaete response to fresh food supply may be related to the organic enrichment and the prevalence of refractory material in the sediments.

  5. Effects of Storms on Coastal Vulnerability Through Revisiting Sites Impacted by Super Storm Sandy Offshore Long Island, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, P.; McHugh, C.; Christensen, B. A.; Yong, W. Y.; Delligatti, M.

    2015-12-01

    Recent models indicate that due to climate change storm activity can intensify. Sea level rise as a result of climate change can lead to storm flooding and coastal damage in low-lying populated areas such as NE, USA. The New York metropolitan area experienced one of the highest storm surges in its history during Hurricane Sandy. The peak storm-tide elevation measured by USGS in Jamaica Bay was about 3.5 m, 1.4 m higher than historical measurements in the same area. As part of a National Science Foundation Rapid Response we surveyed from the R/V Pritchard and sampled the bays and inlets along the southern shore of Long Island after Super Storm Sandy in January 2013 and during June 2014 for assessing the impact of the storm. Short-lived radioisotopes, heavy metals and grain size variability were used to track the path of the storm. In 2013 high concentrations of metals (Pb 184 ppm) were deposited on the landward side of barrier islands and were tracked offshore for10 km. In 2014, we revisited the 2013 locations. The offshore, metal enriched mud layer was seen as small inclusions in sand and not present at the surface suggestive that natural processes are cleansing the sea-floor. Inland the cores showed three facies. From the base upwards: 1) coarse sand with low Pb 99 ppm. Interpreted as either sand transported landwards by the storm or in situ; 2) fine-grained, organic rich sediment with the high Pb 443 ppm and interpreted as seaward transport by the storm; 3) organic rich mud with lower Pb 200 ppm was found in the core tops. Most importantly the sea-floor was colonized by tubeworms suggestive that the environment is returning to normal conditions. These results coupled to other regional studies indicate that the storm was catastrophic and resulted in significant sediment transport. The surge brought sand inland modifying channel and inlet depths but most damaging was the seaward surge that brought contaminants offshore. It appears that the bays and inlets are

  6. Sustainable management for the eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Berberoglu, Süha

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this article is to propose a program for the integrated coastal zone management that is required to stimulate and guide sustainable development of the Mediterranean coastal zone of Turkey. Improved data collection, quality control, analysis, and data management will provide a firm basis for future scientific understanding of the East Mediterranean coast of Turkey and will support long-term management. Various innovative procedures were proposed for a promising ecosystem-based approach to manage coastal wetlands in the Mediterranean: remote data acquisition with new technologies; environmental quality monitoring program that will provide a baseline for monitoring; linking a Geographic Information System (GIS) with natural resource management decision routines in the context of operational wetlands, fisheries, tourism management system; environmental sensitivity analysis to ensure that permitted developments are environmentally sustainable; and use of natural species to restore the wetlands and coastal dunes and sustain the system processes. The proposed management scheme will benefit the scientific community in the Mediterranean and the management/planning community in Eastern Turkey.

  7. Optical Properties of Boreal Region Biomass Burning Aerosols in Central Alaska and Seasonal Variation of Aerosol Optical Depth at an Arctic Coastal Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Sinyuk, A.; Hyer, E. J.; O'Neill, N. T.; Shaw, G. E.; VandeCastle, J. R.; Chapin, F. S.; Dubovik, O.; Smirnov, A.; Vermote, E.; Schafer, J. S.; Giles, D.; Slutsker, I.; Sorokine, M.; Newcomb, W. W.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of aerosol optical properties at a boreal forest AERONET site in interior Alaska was performed from 1994 through 2008 (excluding winter). Large interannual variability was observed, with some years showing near background aerosol optical depth (AOD) levels (<0.1 at 500 nm) while 2004 and 2005 had August monthly means similar in magnitude to peak months at major tropical biomass burning regions. Single scattering albedo (omega (sub 0); 440 nm) at the boreal forest site ranged from approximately 0.91 to 0.99 with an average of approximately 0.96 for observations in 2004 and 2005. This suggests a significant amount of smoldering combustion of woody fuels and peat/soil layers that would result in relatively low black carbon mass fractions for smoke particles. The fine mode particle volume median radius during the heavy burning years was quite large, averaging approximately 0.17 micron at AOD(440 nm) = 0.1 and increasing to approximately 0.25 micron at AOD(440 nm) = 3.0. This large particle size for biomass burning aerosols results in a greater relative scattering component of extinction and, therefore, also contributes to higher omega (sub 0). Additionally, monitoring at an Arctic Ocean coastal site (Barrow, Alaska) suggested transport of smoke to the Arctic in summer resulting in individual events with much higher AOD than that occurring during typical spring Arctic haze. However, the springtime mean AOD(500 nm) is higher during late March through late May (approximately 0.150) than during summer months (approximately 0.085) at Barrow partly due to very few days with low background AOD levels in spring compared with many days with clean background conditions in summer.

  8. Paleogene and Cretaceous sediment cores from the Kilwa and Lindi areas of coastal Tanzania: Tanzania Drilling Project Sites 1-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Paul N.; Nicholas, Christopher J.; Singano, Joyce M.; Bown, Paul R.; Coxall, Helen K.; van Dongen, Bart E.; Huber, Brian T.; Karega, Amina; Lees, Jackie A.; Msaky, Emma; Pancost, Richard D.; Pearson, Marion; Roberts, Andrew P.

    2004-05-01

    Initial results of scientific drilling in southern coastal Tanzania are described. A total of five sites was drilled (mostly using continuous coring) by the Tanzania Drilling Project for paleoclimate studies. The sediments are predominantly clays and claystones deposited in a deep marine shelf environment and often contain excellently preserved microfossils suitable for geochemical analysis. The studies reported here include summaries of the lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy (planktonic foraminifers, calcareous nannofossils, benthic foraminifers, and palynology), magnetostratigraphy, and organic geochemistry. TDP Site 1 was drilled near Kilwa Masoko airstrip (8°54.516 'S, 39°30.397 'E). It yielded 8.55 m of barren blue-grey clays that may be Miocene in age, followed by 1.2 m of greenish-black to dark greenish-grey clay probably of the same age. The remainder of the hole cored 62.35 m of lower Oligocene sediments (nannofossil Zone NP23), which are predominantly greenish-black to dark greenish-grey clays. Total penetration was 74.10 m. The coring represents the first report of a thick Oligocene clay formation in the area. TDP Site 2 was drilled near Kilwa Masoko prison (8°55.277 'S, 39°30.219 'E). It yielded 92.78 m of predominantly dark greenish-grey clay with occasional allochthonous limestone beds that consist mostly of redeposited larger foraminifers. The site encompasses lower to middle Eocene planktonic foraminifer Zones P8/9 to P11 and nannofossil Subzones NP14b to NP15c. It encompasses a rarely cored interval across the Ypresian-Lutetian transition. TDP Site 3 was drilled near Mpara in the Kilwa area (8°51.585 'S, 39°27.655 'E). It yielded 56.4 m of predominantly dark greenish-grey clays and claystones. The site is assigned to lower Eocene planktonic foraminifer Zone P6 and nannofossil Zone NP11. TDP Site 4 was drilled near Ras Tipuli on the northwest side of Lindi creek (9°56.999 'S, 39°42.985 'E). It yielded 19.8 m of predominantly dark greenish

  9. Analysis of aerosol scattering properties measured by a nephelometer at a coastal-rural site in the Atlantic southwest of the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Juan F.; Cachorro, Victoria E.; de Frutos, Angel M.

    2015-09-01

    Aerosol hemispherical scattering and the backscattering coefficients, σsp, σbsc, have been measured using a 3-wavelength (450, 550 and 700 nm) integrating nephelometer over two years (January 2006-May 2008) in the coastal area of the Gulf of Cádiz, in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula. These coefficients have been carefully analyzed starting with the impact of corrections on the measurements of σsp: i.e., drift calibration constants do not modify the mean value in our data series. However, the selection of dry data (with RH less than 50%) modifies substantially the number of data and the resulting mean value of σsp is now 14% lower, which is compensated when the angular truncation correction is applied. The characterization and features of σsp, σbsc, and the derived parameters αsp (alpha Ångström exponent) and b (the backscatter ratio) has been analyzed, as annual, seasonal and diurnal evolution. A general statistic based on hourly data gives mean values and standard deviation of σsp (500 nm)=48±38 Mm-1 with a median of 38 Mm-1, and σbsc (500 nm)=5.6±3.8 Mm-1 with a median of 4.6 Mm-1. Thus, these values show moderate-low values but with a large range of variation considering the existing measured values over the Iberian Peninsula. The median value of σsp (500 nm) is an indicator that events of high aerosol burden are frequent presenting a substantial influence on the daily averages. The alpha Ångström exponent, αsp, derived from the pairs 450/700 nm gives a mean value 1.35±0.54 with a median of 1.47 and with the most frequent value of 1.7, thus indicating the prevalence of medium size particles but with a significant influence of fine particles. The b ratio has the same value for mean and median, 0.12±0.02, showing a decrease with increasing values of σsp. Annual and daily cycles have been also analyzed showing the complex behaviour of the optical properties at this coastal site where cold and warn periods show very different

  10. Anthropogenic metal contamination and sapropel imprints in deep Mediterranean sediments.

    PubMed

    Angelidis, M O; Radakovitch, O; Veron, A; Aloupi, M; Heussner, S; Price, B

    2011-05-01

    Sediment cores from the deep Balearic basin and the Cretan Sea provide evidence for the accumulation of Cd, Pd and Zn in the top few centimeters of the abyssal Mediterranean sea-bottom. In both cores, 206Pb/207Pb profiles confirm this anthropogenic impact with less radiogenic imprints toward surface sediments. The similarity between excess 210Pb accumulated in the top core and the 210Pb flux suggests that top core metal inventories reasonably reflect long-term atmospheric deposition to the open Mediterranean. Pb inventory in the western core for the past 100 years represents 20-30% of sediment coastal inventories, suggesting that long-term atmospheric deposition determined from coastal areas has to be used cautiously for mass balance calculations in the open Mediterranean. In the deeper section of both cores, Al normalized trace metal profiles suggest diagenetic remobilization of Fe, Mn, Cu and, to a lesser extent, Pb that likely corresponds to sapropel event S1.

  11. Factors controlling groundwater salinization and hydrogeochemical processes in coastal aquifers from southern Spain.

    PubMed

    Argamasilla, M; Barberá, J A; Andreo, B

    2017-02-15

    In detrital coastal aquifers, seawater and surface water may interact with groundwater in multiple ways. Understanding the interference of water fluxes in this type of environment is essential to effectively manage the groundwater resources in water-stressed regions, such as the Mediterranean coastal fringe. In this research, the characterization of the main hydrogeochemical processes and the interaction between surface water and groundwater in the Marbella-Estepona coastal aquifers (southern Spain) have been carried out by means of the combined use of different hydrogeochemical indicators along with isotope data. The results show that the diversity of source lithologies (peridotite, carbonate and/or metapelitic) substantially conditions the groundwater geochemistry. The analysis of ionic deltas made it possible a preliminary screening of the geochemical reactions that occur in the Marbella-Estepona aquifers, while the Discriminant Analysis allowed for a consistent classification of sampled groundwater types. The dissolution of calcite and dolomite determines the chemical composition of the groundwater from the eastern sector that are more conditioned by the rainwater infiltration. The dissolution of magnesium-bearing minerals (predominantly forming peridotite rocks) is observed in groundwater samples from the western and central sectors, whose chemical composition showed a greater influence of surface water. The spatial analysis of rCl(-)/Br(-) in groundwater has permitted to corroborate that saline intrusion is negligible, hardly affecting to its original water quality. The irregularly distributed recharge by precipitation (seasonal effect) and the atmospheric circulation of cloud fronts (coastal/continental effect) explains why most of groundwater sampled is isotopically impoverished with respect to the rainfall signature. The isotope approach also suggests the hydraulic relationship between surface water and groundwater in the study site. A deeper knowledge of

  12. Coastal sedimentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubel, J. R.

    1980-01-01

    Several important coastal sedimentation problems are identified. Application of existing or anticipated remote sensing techniques to examine these problems is considered. Specifically, coastal fine particle sediment systems, floods and hy hurricanes and sedimentation f of coastal systems, routes and rates of sediment transport on continental shelves, and dredging and dredged material disposal are discussed.

  13. Fractionation and risk assessment of Fe and Mn in surface sediments from coastal sites of Sonora, Mexico (Gulf of California).

    PubMed

    Jara-Marini, Martín E; García-Camarena, Raúl; Gómez-Álvarez, Agustín; García-Rico, Leticia

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate Fe and Mn distribution in geochemical fractions of the surface sediment of four oyster culture sites in the Sonora coast, Mexico. A selective fractionation scheme to obtain five fractions was adapted for the microwave system. Surface sediments were analyzed for carbonates, organic matter contents, and Fe and Mn in geochemical fractions. The bulk concentrations of Fe ranged from 10,506 to 21,918 mg/kg (dry weight, dry wt), and the bulk concentrations of Mn ranged from 185.1 to 315.9 mg/kg (dry wt) in sediments, which was low and considered as non-polluted in all of the sites. The fractionation study indicated that the major geochemical phases for the metals were the residual, as well as the Fe and Mn oxide fractions. The concentrations of metals in the geochemical fractions had the following order: residual > Fe and Mn oxides > organic matter > carbonates > interchangeable. Most of the Fe and Mn were linked to the residual fraction. Among non-residual fractions, high percentages of Fe and Mn were linked to Fe and Mn oxides. The enrichment factors (EFs) for the two metals were similar in the four studied coasts, and the levels of Fe and Mn are interpreted as non-enrichment (EF < 1) because the metals concentrations were within the baseline concentrations. According to the environmental risk assessment codes, Fe and Mn posed no risk and low risk, respectively. Although the concentrations of Fe and Mn were linked to the residual fraction, the levels in non-residual fractions may significantly result in the transference of other metals, depending on several physico-chemical and biological factors.

  14. Heavy mineral delineation of the Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene stratigraphic sections at the Savannah River Site, Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Cathcart, E.M. . Dept. of Geology); Sargent, K.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    The Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina consists of a fluvial-deltaic and shallow marine complex of unconsolidated sediments overlying the crystalline basement rocks of the North American continent. Because of the lateral and vertical variability of these sediments, stratigraphic boundaries have been difficult to distinguish. Portions of the Cretaceous, Paleocene, and eocene stratigraphic sections from cores recovered during the construction of two monitoring wells at the Savannah River Site were studied to determine if heavy mineral suites could be utilized to distinguish boundaries. The stratigraphic sections include: the Late Cretaceous Middendorf, Black Creek, and Steel Creek Formations, the Paleocene Snapp Formation, the late Paleocene-Early Eocene Fourmile Branch Formation, and the Early Eocene Congaree formation. In previous studies composite samples were taken over 2.5 ft. intervals along the cores and processed using a heavy liquid for heavy mineral recovery. During this study, heavy mineral distributions were determined by binocular microscope and the mineral identifications confirmed by x-ray diffraction analysis of hand-picked samples. The heavy mineral concentration data and grain size data were then compared to the stratigraphic boundary positions determined by other workers using more classical methods. These comparisons were used to establish the utility of this method for delineating the stratigraphic boundaries in the area of study.

  15. Preliminary reactive geochemical transport simulation study on CO2 geological sequestration at the Changhua Coastal Industrial Park Site, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, R.; Li, M.

    2013-12-01

    Mineral trapping by precipitated carbonate minerals is one of critical mechanisms for successful long-term geological sequestration (CGS) in deep saline aquifer. Aquifer acidification induced by the increase of carbonic acid (H2CO3) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) as the dissolution of injected CO2 may induce the dissolution of minerals and hinder the effectiveness of cap rock causing potential risk of CO2 leakage. Numerical assessments require capabilities to simulate complicated interactions of thermal, hydrological, geochemical multiphase processes. In this study, we utilized TOUGHREACT model to demonstrate a series of CGS simulations and assessments of (1) time evolution of aquifer responses, (2) migration distance and spatial distribution of CO2 plume, (3) effects of CO2-saline-mineral interactions, and (4) CO2 trapping components at the Changhua Costal Industrial Park (CCIP) Site, Taiwan. The CCIP Site is located at the Southern Taishi Basin with sloping and layered heterogeneous formations. At this preliminary phase, detailed information of mineralogical composition of reservoir formation and chemical composition of formation water are difficult to obtain. Mineralogical composition of sedimentary rocks and chemical compositions of formation water for CGS in deep saline aquifer from literatures (e.g. Xu et al., 2004; Marini, 2006) were adopted. CGS simulations were assumed with a constant CO2 injection rate of 1 Mt/yr at the first 50 years. Hydrogeological settings included porosities of 0.103 for shale, 0.141 for interbedding sandstone and shale, and 0.179 for sandstone; initial pore pressure distributions of 24.5 MPa to 28.7 MPa, an ambient temperature of 70°C, and 0.5 M of NaCl in aqueous solution. Mineral compositions were modified from Xu et al. (2006) to include calcite (1.9 vol. % of solid), quartz (57.9 %), kaolinite (2.0 %), illite (1.0 %), oligoclase (19.8 %), Na-smectite (3.9 %), K-feldspar (8.2 %), chlorite (4.6 %), and hematite (0.5 %) and were

  16. Coastal Prairie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    The coastal prairie, located along the coastal plain of southwestern Louisiana and southcentral Texas, is the southernmost tip of the tallgrass prairie ecosystem so prevalent in the Midwest. The coastal prairie ecosystem once covered as much as 3.8 million ha (9 million acres); today, more than 99% of this land has been lost to agriculture, range improvement, and urbanization. The remainder is highly fragmented and severely threatened by invasions of exotic species and urban sprawl. In Louisiana, the former 1 million ha of coastal prairie have now been reduced to about 100 ha. In Texas, only about 100,000 ha of coastal prairie remain intact.

  17. Characteristics and potential sources of atmospheric mercury at a subtropical near-coastal site in East China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ben; Wang, Xun; Lin, Che-Jen; Fu, Xuewu; Zhang, Hui; Shang, Lihai; Feng, Xinbin

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the impact of regional mercury (Hg) emissions and understand possible source regions of atmospheric Hg in Eastern China, 2 year observation for speciated atmospheric Hg was conducted at the Dameishan Atmospheric Observatory, a mountain site near the east coast of China. The observed concentration of total gaseous Hg (TGM) was 3.3 ± 1.4 ng m-3. During the sampling period, gaseous oxidized Hg and particulate bound Hg were 6.7 ± 4.3 pg m-3 and 180 ± 110 pg m-3 in winter and 5.9 ± 3.4 pg m-3 and 130 ± 100 pg m-3 in spring, respectively. The relatively high mean concentration of TGM was mainly caused by regional anthropogenic emissions and occasional long-range transport from domestic source regions. Seasonal variation in the TGM concentration was observed with lower values in the wet monsoon season (from May to September) and higher values in the dry monsoon season (from October to April). Backward trajectories and potential source contribution function analysis suggested that anthropogenic Hg emission from coal combustion in the Yangtze River Delta region was the most likely cause for the elevated TGM concentrations. Relatively clean air originating from the East China Sea was the most possible cause for the observed low TGM concentrations. Positive correlation between TGM concentration and air quality index suggests that emissions that influenced regional air quality contributed to the elevated TGM concentrations.

  18. Receptor modeling of PM2.5, PM10 and TSP in different seasons and long-range transport analysis at a coastal site of Tianjin, China.

    PubMed

    Kong, Shaofei; Han, Bin; Bai, Zhipeng; Chen, Li; Shi, Jianwu; Xu, Zhun

    2010-09-15

    Atmospheric particulate matter (PM(2.5), PM(10) and TSP) were sampled synchronously during three monitoring campaigns from June 2007 to February 2008 at a coastal site in TEDA of Tianjin, China. Chemical compositions including 19 elements, 6 water-solubility ions, organic and elemental carbon were determined. principle components analysis (PCA) and chemical mass balance modeling (CMB) were applied to determine the PM sources and their contributions with the assistance of NSS SO(4)(2)(-), the mass ratios of NO(3)(-) to SO(4)(2)(-) and OC to EC. Air mass backward trajectory model was compared with source apportionment results to evaluate the origin of PM. Results showed that NSS SO(4)(2)(-) values for PM(2.5) were 2147.38, 1701.26 and 239.80 ng/m(3) in summer, autumn and winter, reflecting the influence of sources from local emissions. Most of it was below zero in summer for PM(10) indicating the influence of sea salt. The ratios of NO(3)(-) to SO(4)(2)(-) was 0.19 for PM(2.5), 0.18 for PM(10) and 0.19 for TSP in winter indicating high amounts of coal consumed for heating purpose. Higher OC/EC values (mostly larger than 2.5) demonstrated that secondary organic aerosol was abundant at this site. The major sources were construction activities, road dust, vehicle emissions, marine aerosol, metal manufacturing, secondary sulfate aerosols, soil dust, biomass burning, some pharmaceutics industries and fuel-oil combustion according to PCA. Coal combustion, marine aerosol, vehicular emission and soil dust explained 5-31%, 1-13%, 13-44% and 3-46% for PM(2.5), PM(10) and TSP, respectively. Backward trajectory analysis showed air parcels originating from sea accounted for 39% in summer, while in autumn and winter the air parcels were mainly related to continental origin.

  19. Passive atmospheric sampling of organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in urban, rural, and wetland sites along the coastal length of India.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gan; Chakraborty, Paromita; Li, Jun; Sampathkumar, Pichai; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Kathiresan, Kandasamy; Takahashi, Shin; Subramanian, Annamalai; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Jones, Kevin C

    2008-11-15

    India is of prime interest due to the large past and ongoing use of pesticidal persistent organic pollutants (POPs). Rapid dissipation of POPs to the atmosphere in the tropical climate of India infers an atmospheric outflow of these chemicals. Yet data on POPs in the atmosphere of India are sparse. Passive air samplers consisting of polyurethane foam disks were therefore deployed concurrently at 18 locations and exposed for 6 weeks from July 30, 2006, to September 26, 2006, along the coastal length of India to screen for POPs in the atmosphere. The sampling sites were selected to form categories of urban, rural, and background (mangrove/wetlands) locations. Derived air concentrations (pg/m3) ranged as fellows: the sum of 28 PCB congeners, 120-1080; DDTs, 16-2950; HCHs, 66-5400; chlordanes, 9-921; endosulfans, 0.45-1120; and the sum of 9 PBDE congeners, 1-181. The highest levels of all the detected POPs (except endosulfan) were observed at the urban sites, indicating the dominant areas of usage and emissions. An urban-rural composition fractionation of PCBs indicates their atmospheric movement. The gamma-HCH levels were more than double those of alpha-HCH, indicating the sporadic use of lindane. DDT concentrations were elevated, at levels comparable to China, but with much higher percentages of p,p'-DDE, reflecting a more 'weathered' feature. Although no dicofol use was recorded in India, the o,p'-/p,p'-DDT ratios were observed to be even higher than in China. Chlordanes showed high trans-/cis-chlordane (TC/CC) ratios, indicative of the current use of technical chlordane and a contribution from heptachlor usage.

  20. A Three-Year Study of Ichyoplankton in Coastal Plains Reaches of the Savannah River Site and its Tributaries

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, D.

    2007-03-05

    Altering flow regimes of rivers has large effects on native floras and faunas because native species are adapted to the natural flow regime, many species require lateral connectivity with floodplain habitat for feeding or spawning, and the change in regime often makes it possible for invasive species to replace natives (Bunn & Arthington 2002). Floodplain backwaters, both permanent and temporary, are nursery areas for age 0+ fish and stable isotope studies indicate that much of the productivity that supports fish larvae is autochthonous to these habitats (Herwig et al. 2004). Limiting access by fish to floodplain habitat for feeding, spawning and nursery habitat is one of the problems noted with dams that regulate flow in rivers and is considered to be important as an argument to remove dams and other flow regulating structures from rivers (Shuman 1995; Bednarek 2001). While there have been a number of studies in the literature about the use of floodplain habitat for fish reproduction (Copp 1989; Killgore & Baker 1996; Humphries, et al. 1999; Humphries and Lake 2000; Crain et al. 2004; King 2004) there have been only a few studies that examined this aspect of stream ecology in more than a cursory way. The study reported here was originally designed to determine whether the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site was having a negative effect on fish reproduction in the Savannah River but its experimental design allowed examination of the interactions between the river, the floodplain and the tributaries entering the Savannah River across this floodplain. This study is larger in length of river covered than most in the literature and because of its landscape scale may be in important indicator of areas where further study is required.

  1. HyMeX-SOP1, the field campaign dedicated to heavy precipitation and flash-flooding in Northwestern Mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducrocq, Véronique

    2013-04-01

    The Mediterranean region is frequently affected by heavy precipitation events associated with flash-floods, landslides and mudslides each year that cost several billions of dollars in damage and causing too often casualties. Within the framework of the 10-year international HyMeX program dedicated to the hydrological cycle and related processes in the Mediterranean (http://www.hymex.org), a major field campaign has been dedicated to heavy precipitation and flash-floods from September to November 2012. The 2-month field campaign took place over the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea and its surrounding coastal regions in France, Italy and Spain. The observation strategy aimed at documenting four key components leading to heavy precipitation and flash-flooding in that region: (i) the marine atmospheric flow that transport moist and conditionaly unstable air towards the coasts; (ii) the Mediterranean Sea as a moisture and energy source; (iii) the dynamics and microphysics of the convective systems; (iv) the hydrological processes during flash-floods. During the field campaign about twenty precipitation events were monitored, including mesoscale convective systems, Mediterranean cyclogenesis, shallow-convection orographic precipitation. Three aircraft performed about 250 flight hours for a survey of the upstream flow, the air-sea fluxes and the convective systems. About 700 additional radiosoundings were launched either from HyMeX sites or from operational RS sites in Europe, as well as about 20 boundary layer balloons were launched to monitor the low-level flow over the Mediterranean Sea and the ambient atmospheric conditions. Gliders, Argo floats, drifting buoys and ocean soundings from vessels monitored the Mediterranean Sea during the field campaign. Atmospheric and hydrological instruments such as radars, LIDARS, radiometers, wind profilers, lightning sensors, were deployed over 5 regions in France, Italy and Spain. The presentation will present the general

  2. Impact of climate, vegetation, soil and crop management variables on multi-year ISBA-A-gs simulations of evapotranspiration over a Mediterranean crop site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrigues, S.; Olioso, A.; Carrer, D.; Decharme, B.; Calvet, J.-C.; Martin, E.; Moulin, S.; Marloie, O.

    2015-10-01

    Generic land surface models are generally driven by large-scale data sets to describe the climate, the soil properties, the vegetation dynamic and the cropland management (irrigation). This paper investigates the uncertainties in these drivers and their impacts on the evapotranspiration (ET) simulated from the Interactions between Soil, Biosphere, and Atmosphere (ISBA-A-gs) land surface model over a 12-year Mediterranean crop succession. We evaluate the forcing data sets used in the standard implementation of ISBA over France where the model is driven by the SAFRAN (Système d'Analyse Fournissant des Renseignements Adaptés à la Nivologie) high spatial resolution atmospheric reanalysis, the leaf area index (LAI) time courses derived from the ECOCLIMAP-II land surface parameter database and the soil texture derived from the French soil database. For climate, we focus on the radiations and rainfall variables and we test additional data sets which include the ERA-Interim (ERA-I) low spatial resolution reanalysis, the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre data set (GPCC) and the MeteoSat Second Generation (MSG) satellite estimate of downwelling shortwave radiations. The evaluation of the drivers indicates very low bias in daily downwelling shortwave radiation for ERA-I (2.5 W m-2) compared to the negative biases found for SAFRAN (-10 W m-2) and the MSG satellite (-12 W m-2). Both SAFRAN and ERA-I underestimate downwelling longwave radiations by -12 and -16 W m-2, respectively. The SAFRAN and ERA-I/GPCC rainfall are slightly biased at daily and longer timescales (1 and 0.5 % of the mean rainfall measurement). The SAFRAN rainfall is more precise than the ERA-I/GPCC estimate which shows larger inter-annual variability in yearly rainfall error (up to 100 mm). The ECOCLIMAP-II LAI climatology does not properly resolve Mediterranean crop phenology and underestimates the bare soil period which leads to an overall overestimation of LAI over the crop succession. The

  3. Stomatal responses to drought at a Mediterranean site: a comparative study of co-occurring woody species differing in leaf longevity.

    PubMed

    Mediavilla, Sonia; Escudero, Alfonso

    2003-10-01

    We studied stomatal responses to decreasing predawn water potential (Psipd) and increasing leaf-to-air water vapor pressure difference (VPD) of co-occurring woody Mediterranean species with contrasting leaf habits and growth form. The species included two evergreen oaks (Quercus ilex subsp. ballota (Desf.) Samp. and Q. suber L.), two deciduous oaks (Q. faginea Lam. and Q. pyrenaica Willd.) and two deciduous shrubs (Pyrus bourgaeana Decne. and Crataegus monogyna Jacq.). Our main objective was to determine if stomatal sensitivity is related to differences in leaf life span and leaf habit. The deciduous shrubs had the least conservative water-use characteristics, with relatively high stomatal conductance and low stomatal sensitivity to soil and atmospheric drought. As a result, Psipd decreased greatly in both species during the growing season, resulting in early leaf abscission in the summer. The deciduous oaks showed intermediate water-use characteristics, having maximum stomatal conductances and CO2 assimilation rates similar to or even higher than those of the deciduous shrubs. However, they had greater stomatal sensitivity to soil drying and showed less negative Psipd values than the deciduous shrubs. The evergreen oaks, and especially the species with the greatest leaf longevity, Q. ilex, exhibited the most conservative water-use behavior, having lower maximum stomatal conductances and greater sensitivity to VPD than the deciduous species. As a result, Psipd decreased less during the growing season in the evergreens than in the deciduous species, which may contribute to greater leaf longevity by avoiding irreversible damage during the summer drought. However, the combination of low maximum CO2 assimilation rates and high stomatal sensitivity to drought must have a negative impact on the final carbon budget of leaves with a long life span.

  4. Behavioural plasticity in wintering Mediterranean ospreys revealed by stable isotopes analyses and GPS tracking.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monti, Flavio; Robert, Aloïs; Dominici, Jean-Marie; Sforzi, Andrea; Triay Bagur, Rafel; Muñoz Navarro, Antoni; Guillou, Gaël; Bentaleb, Ilham; Duriez, Olivier

    2015-04-01

    To infer wintering ecology in Mediterranean ospreys (Pandion haliaetus) we relied on a dual and complementary approach, using both GPS tracking and multi stable isotope tracer approaches. A control sample of feathers from 80 individuals (mostly chicks) was collected over a large latitudinal gradient (from Lapland to Africa) to assess the variability of carbon, nitrogen and sulphur stable isotope ratios between breeding sites and habitat types across the Western Palearctic. Then, C, N and S isotopic compositions from an experimental set of 18 Mediterranean adults were examined to infer wintering ground locations and habitat types used during the inter-breeding period. Additionally, 12 adult ospreys were fitted with GPS devices and tracked during migration and the wintering season. By combining the two techniques we evidenced a partial migratory population with 41.7% of tagged individuals being resident and 58.3% that actually migrated. Ospreys spent the winter at temperate latitudes and showed a high plasticity in habitat selection. They made use of marine bays, coastal lagoons/marshland and inland freshwater sites. Movements and home range areas were reduced during the season. Wintering grounds were largely spread over the coasts of different countries of the basin, rather than concentrated in one single area. Such behavioural plasticity in the choice of location and habitat type suggests the implementing of broad-scale approaches for the protection of important areas for ospreys in winter. To contribute at assuring a right level of conservation of the osprey populations in the Mediterranean basin, a harmonization of the management protocols of wetland sites among countries is necessary.

  5. Climatic Feedbacks and Desertification: The Mediterranean Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millán, M. M.; Estrela, M. J.; Sanz, M. J.; Mantilla, E.; Martín, M.; Pastor, F.; Salvador, R.; Vallejo, R.; Alonso, L.; Gangoiti, G.; Ilardia, J. L.; Navazo, M.; Albizuri, A.; Artíñano, B.; Ciccioli, P.; Kallos, G.; Carvalho, R. A.; Andrés, D.; Hoff, A.; Werhahn, J.; Seufert, G.; Versino, B.

    2005-03-01

    Mesometeorological information obtained in several research projects in southern Europe has been used to analyze perceived changes in the western Mediterranean summer storm regime. A procedure was developed to disaggregate daily precipitation data into three main components: frontal precipitation, summer storms, and Mediterranean cyclogenesis. Working hypotheses were derived on the likely processes involved. The results indicate that the precipitation regime in this Mediterranean region is very sensitive to variations in surface airmass temperature and moisture. Land-use perturbations that accumulated over historical time and greatly accelerated in the last 30 yr may have induced changes from an open, monsoon-type regime with frequent summer storms over the mountains inland to one dominated by closed vertical recirculations where feedback mechanisms favor the loss of storms over the coastal mountains and additional heating of the sea surface temperature during summer. This, in turn, favors Mediterranean cyclogenesis and torrential rains in autumn-winter. Because these intense rains and floods can occur anywhere in the basin, perturbations to the hydrological cycle in any part of the basin can propagate to the whole basin and adjacent regions. Furthermore, present levels of air pollutants can produce greenhouse heating, amplifying the perturbations and pushing the system over critical threshold levels. The questions raised are relevant for the new European Union (EU) water policies in southern Europe and for other regions dominated by monsoon-type weather systems.

  6. Assessing the role of submarine groundwater discharge as a source of Sr to the Mediterranean Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trezzi, Giada; Garcia-Orellana, Jordi; Rodellas, Valentí; Masqué, Pere; Garcia-Solsona, Ester; Andersson, Per S.

    2017-03-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) has been identified as an important source of Sr to the ocean and the SGD-driven Sr flux to the global ocean has been recently re-evaluated (Beck et al., 2013). However, the uncertainty of this value is still high because of the uncertainties related to the determination of SGD flow rates and the paucity of 87Sr/86Sr data in SGD end-members. As carbonates have high Sr concentrations and are subjected to intense heightened weathering, they might significantly influence the SGD input of Sr to the ocean. Here we present data on Sr concentrations and 87Sr/86Sr ratios in three carbonate dominated sites of the western area of the Mediterranean Sea, a semi-enclosed basin characterized by abundant coastal carbonates. The 87Sr/86Sr ratios in groundwater were lower compared to modern seawater (∼0.70916), as expected for areas dominated by carbonate lithologies. Concentrations of Sr and 87Sr/86Sr ratios in groundwater showed conservative mixing in the studied subterranean estuaries. By using SGD flow rates reported in the literature for the study areas, a flow-weighted fresh SGD end-member characterized by a Sr concentration of 27-30 μM and a 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.707834-0.708020 was calculated for the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula. Integrating these Sr data with literature data (i.e. values of Sr concentration and 87Sr/86Sr ratio from other lithologies as well as SGD flow rates), we also calculated the fresh SGD-driven Sr flux to the entire Mediterranean Sea, obtaining a value of (0.34-0.83)·109 mol y-1, with a 87Sr/86Sr of 0.7081-0.7086. Thus, for the entire Mediterranean basin, SGD is globally a source of Sr less radiogenic compared to seawater. The SGD Sr flux to the Mediterranean Sea represents 5-6% of the SGD Sr flux to the global ocean and the Mediterranean SGD end-member has higher Sr concentration (5-12 μM) than the global SGD end-member (2.9 μM). This confirms the significant role of carbonate lithologies on SGD

  7. Morphodynamic implications for shoreline management of the western-Mediterranean sector of Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frihy, Omran E.

    2009-09-01

    Although the western-Mediterranean coast of Egypt between Sallum and Alexandria, ~550 km long, has maintained a considerable equilibrium throughout history, developers have built traditional protective structures in an effort to form sheltered recreational beaches without taking into consideration its geomorphologic characteristics, coastal processes and their harmful impact on the coastal environment and human safety. The improper practices in this environmentally valuable region have induced us to undertake an initiative to carry out a morphodynamic analysis to provide a framework for understanding the relationship between coastal morphology and the prevailing dynamic forces. Based on the degree of natural protection or wave sheltering, the study shoreline can be categorized into four distinct morphotypical stretches: (1) high-energy wave-exposed shores and the outer margins of the rocky headlands, (2) moderate to high wave-energy beaches along semi-exposed embayments and bays mostly downdrift of the rocky headlands, (3) low-wave energy at semi-exposed headland lee-sided and pocket beaches, and (4) calm wave-sheltered enclosing water basins for safe anchorages, moorings and recreation beaches. The results deducted will have practical applications for shoreline management initiatives regarding sustained sites suitable for future beachfront development such as safe swimming conditions, sport facilities, water intakes and sheltered areas for vessels. In addition, benefits realized by the understanding of the morphodynamic processes would enhance our awareness of the significance of the role of western coast morphodynamics in supporting sustainable development via shoreline management. As far as sustainability is concerned, the selection of appropriate sites would help avoiding or minimizing the formation of the hard structures needed for creating safe recreation beaches. On a national scale, results reached could provide reliable database for information that can be

  8. The size distribution of chemical elements of atmospheric aerosol at a semi-rural coastal site in Venice (Italy). The role of atmospheric circulation.

    PubMed

    Masiol, Mauro; Squizzato, Stefania; Ceccato, Daniele; Pavoni, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations of selected elemental tracers were determined in the aerosol of a semi-rural coastal site near Venice (Italy). Size-segregated aerosol samples were collected using an 8-stage cascade impactor set at 15m above ground, during the cold season (late autumn and winter), when high levels of many pollutants are known to cause risks for human health. From the experimental data, information was extracted on potential pollutant sources by investigating the relationships between elements in the different size fractions. Moreover, an approach to highlight the importance of local atmospheric circulation and air mass origin in influencing the PM composition and fractional distribution is proposed. Anthropogenic elements are strongly inter-correlated in the submicrometric (<1 μm) (S, K, Mn, Cu, Fe and Zn) and intermediate mode (1-4 μm) (Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni) and their relationships highlight the presence of several sources (combustions, secondary aerosol, road traffic). In the intermediate mode, associations having geochemical significance exist between marine (Na, Cl and Mg) and crustal (Si, Mg, Ca, Al, Ti and K) elements. In the coarse mode (>4 μm) Fe and Zn are well correlated and are probably linked to tire and brake wear emissions. Regarding atmospheric circulation, results show increasing levels of elements related to pollution sources (S, K, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn) when air masses come from Central and Eastern Europe direction and on the ground wind blows from NWN-N-NE (from mainland Venice). Low wind speed and high percentage of wind calm hours favor element accumulation in the submicrometric and intermediate modes. Furthermore, strong winds favor the formation of sea-spray and the increase of Si in the coarse mode due to the resuspension of sand fine particles.

  9. Concentration-weighted trajectory approach to identifying sources of Speciated Atmospheric Mercury at an Urban Coastal Site in Nova Scotia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, I.; Zhang, L.; Blanchard, P.; Dalziel, J.; Tordon, R.

    2013-02-01

    Regional and local sources contributing to gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), and particle-bound mercury (PBM) at an urban coastal site in Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada were investigated using the Concentration-Weighted Trajectory model (CWT) and Conditional Probability Function. From 2010-2011, GEM, GOM, and PBM concentrations were 1.67 ± 1.01 ng m-3, 2.07 ± 3.35 pg m-3, and 2.32 ± 3.09 pg m-3, respectively. Seasonal variability was observed, with statistically higher GEM and PBM concentrations in winter and spring and higher GOM in spring. In the CWT, concentrations are the weighting factors for the trajectory residence time in modeled grid cells, which results in the identification of source areas based on the CWT values in the grid cells. Source areas were identified in regions with known industrial Hg sources particularly in the fall season, but also in regions without these sources (e.g. Atlantic Ocean, northern Ontario and Quebec). CWTs for GOM and PBM that were associated with ≥5 kg industrial Hg emissions from 2010-2011 were statistically larger than those with zero Hg emissions, despite a lack of strong correlations. A large proportion of elevated CWTs (85-97%) was in regions with zero industrial Hg sources indicating the potential role of non-point sources, natural emissions, and residential-scale combustion. Analysis of wind data suggests that a commercial harbour and vehicular traffic were potential local sources. Evaluating modeled source areas against Hg emissions inventories was not an ideal method for assessing the CWT model accuracy because of insufficient data on Hg emissions at more precise locations.

  10. Concentration-weighted trajectory approach to identifying potential sources of speciated atmospheric mercury at an urban coastal site in Nova Scotia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, I.; Zhang, L.; Blanchard, P.; Dalziel, J.; Tordon, R.

    2013-06-01

    Regional and local sources contributing to gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), and particle-bound mercury (PBM) at an urban coastal site in Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, Canada were investigated using the Concentration-Weighted Trajectory model (CWT) and Conditional Probability Function. From 2010-2011, GEM, GOM, and PBM concentrations were 1.67 ± 1.01 ng m-3, 2.07 ± 3.35 pg m-3, and 2.32 ± 3.09 pg m-3, respectively. Seasonal variability was observed, with statistically higher GEM and PBM concentrations in winter and spring and higher GOM in spring. In the CWT, concentrations are the weighting factors for the trajectory residence time in modeled grid cells, which results in the identification of source areas based on the CWT values in the grid cells. Potential source areas were identified in regions with known industrial Hg sources particularly in the fall season, but also in regions without these sources (e.g. Atlantic Ocean, northern Ontario and Quebec). CWTs for GOM and PBM that were associated with ≥ 5 kg industrial Hg emissions from 2010-2011 were statistically larger than those with zero Hg emissions, despite a lack of strong correlations. A large proportion of elevated CWTs (85-97%) was in regions with zero industrial Hg sources indicating the potential role of non-point sources, natural emissions, and residential-scale combustion. Analysis of wind data suggests that a commercial harbor and vehicular traffic were potential local sources. Evaluating modeled source areas against Hg emissions inventories was not an ideal method for assessing the CWT model accuracy because of insufficient data on Hg emissions at more precise locations.

  11. Size and elemental composition of dry-deposited particles during a severe dust storm at a coastal site of Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Hongya; Zhang, Daizhou; Hu, Wei; Shi, Jinhui; Li, Ruipeng; Gao, Huiwang; Pian, Wei; Hu, Min

    2016-02-01

    Dry-deposited particles were collected during the passage of an extremely strong dust storm in March, 2010 at a coastal site in Qingdao (36.15 °N, 120.49 °E), a city located in Eastern China. The size, morphology, and elemental composition of the particles were quantified with a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray instrument (SEM-EDX). The particles appeared in various shapes, and their size mainly varied from 0.4 to 10 μm, with the mean diameters of 0.5, 1.5, and 1.0 μm before, during, and after the dust storm, respectively. The critical size of the mineral particles settling on the surface in the current case was about 0.3-0.4 μm before the dust storm and about 0.5-0.7 μm during the dust storm. Particles that appeared in high concentration but were smaller than the critical size deposited onto the surface at a small number flux. The elements Al, Si and Mg were frequently detected in all samples, indicating the dominance of mineral particles. The frequency of Al in particles collected before the dust storm was significantly lower than for those collected during and after the dust storm. The frequencies of Cl and Fe did not show obvious changes, while those of S, K and Ca decreased after the dust arrival. These results indicate that the dust particles deposited onto the surface were less influenced by anthropogenic pollutants in terms of particle number.

  12. Model for Coastal Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Judd, Chaeli

    2007-07-27

    Successful restoration of wetland habitats depends on both our understanding of our system and our ability to characterize it. By developing a conceptual model, looking at different spatial scales and integrating diverse data streams: GIS datasets and NASA products, we were able to develop a dynamic model for site prioritization based on both qualitative and quantitative relationships found in the coastal environment.

  13. What is the role of fresh groundwater and recirculated seawater in conveying nutrients to the coastal ocean?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weinstein, Y.; Yechieli, Y.; Shalem, Y.; Burnett, W.C.; Swarzenski, P.W.; Herut, B.

    2011-01-01

    Submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) is a major process operating at the land-sea interface. Quantifying the SGD nutrient loads and the marine/terrestrial controls of this transport is of high importance, especially in oligotrophic seas such as the eastern Mediterranean. The fluxes of nutrients in groundwater discharging from the seafloor at Dor Bay (southeastern Mediterranean) were studied in detail using seepage meters. Our main finding is that the terrestrial, fresh groundwater is the main conveyor of DIN and silica to the coastal water, with loads of 500 and 560 mol/yr, respectively, per 1 m shoreline. Conversely, recirculated seawater is nutrient-poor, and its role is mainly as a dilution agent. The nutrient loads regenerated in the subterranean estuary (sub-bay sediment) are relatively small, consisting mostly of ammonium (24 mol/yr). On the other hand, the subterranean estuary at Dor Bay sequesters as much as 100 mol N/yr per 1 m shoreline, mainly via denitrification processes. These, and observations from other SGD sites, imply that the subterranean estuary at some coastal systems may function more as a sink for nitrogen than a source. This further questions the extent of nutrient contributions to the coastal water by some subterranean estuaries and warrants systematic evaluation of this process in various hydrological and marine trophic conditions. ?? 2011 American Chemical Society.

  14. Temporal evolution of the anthropogenic CO2 and acidification of the northwestern Mediterranean Sea, from the mid-1990s to the mid-2000s

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savy, J.-P.; Yao, K. M.; Touratier, F.; Goyet, C.

    2012-04-01

    Since the beginning of the industrial era, humankind consumption of fossil fuels at increasing rates has led to increases in atmospheric CO2 concentrations by approximately 105 ppm. In the same time, the Mediterranean coastal regions experienced a brutal population growth, from 94 million habitants in 1950 to 274 million in 2000, generating a strong anthropogenic pressure on the Mediterranean marine ecosystems. To follow the man-induced changes on the Mediterranean carbonate system properties (pH; total alkalinity, AT; total inorganic carbon CT, and CO2 partial pressure, pCO2), an entire body-research has recently emerged in order to quantify both the present and future penetration of anthropogenic carbon (CANT) in the Mediterranean Sea and the inferred acidification of its waters. From monthly observations accumulated over more than a decade (from 1993 to 2005) at DYFAMED time-series station (DYnamique des Flux Atmosphériques en MEDiterranée) located in the central part of the Ligurian Sea, Touratier and Goyet (2009) have estimated the temporal evolution of CANT of the western Mediterranean Sea. This study highlights that concentrations of anthropogenic CO2 are much higher at DYFAMED site (> 50 mol.kg-1) than those found in the Atlantic Ocean. Our study, conducted with measurements performed at 10 meters depth from 1995 to 2011 at the same location, allowed us to investigate the temporal evolution of CANT into the upper seawater layer. Our results indicate an averaged annual CANT increase of 3 µmol.kg-1 and a linked pH drop of 0.0032 per year confirming the ongoing acidification of the Mediterranean water masses. These results suggest the vulnerability and the endangerment of the Mediterranean ecosystems by the massive human-induced CO2 emissions. Touratier F. and C. Goyet (2009). Decadal evolution of anthropogenic CO2 in the north western Mediterranean Sea (at the Dyfamed site) from the mid-1990's to the mid-2000's. Deep Sea Research Part I, 56, 1708-1716

  15. One-year observations of size distribution characteristics of major aerosol constituents at a coastal receptor site in Hong Kong - Part 1: Inorganic ions and oxalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Q.; Huang, X. H. H.; Yu, J. Z.

    2014-09-01

    Size distribution data of major aerosol constituents are essential in source apportioning of visibility degradation, testing and verification of air quality models incorporating aerosols. We report here 1-year observations of mass size distributions of major inorganic ions (sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium) and oxalate at a coastal suburban receptor site in Hong Kong, China. A total of 43 sets of size-segregated samples in the size range of 0.056-18 μm were collected from March 2011 to February 2012. The size distributions of sulfate, ammonium, potassium and oxalate were characterized by a dominant droplet mode with a mass mean aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) in the range of ~ 0.7-0.9 μm. Oxalate had a slightly larger MMAD than sulfate on days with temperatures above 22 °C as a result of the process of volatilization and repartitioning. Nitrate was mostly dominated by the coarse mode but enhanced presence in fine mode was detected on winter days with lower temperature and lower concentrations of sea salt and soil particles. This data set reveals an inversely proportional relationship between the fraction of nitrate in the fine mode and product of the sum of sodium and calcium in equivalent concentrations and the dissociation constant of ammonium nitrate (i.e., (1/([Na+] + 2[Ca2+]) × (1/Ke')) when Pn_fine is significant (> 10%). The seasonal variation observed for sea salt aerosol abundance, with lower values in summer and winter, is possibly linked with the lower marine salinities in these two seasons. Positive matrix factorization was applied to estimate the relative contributions of local formation and transport to the observed ambient sulfate level through the use of the combined data sets of size-segregated sulfate and select gaseous air pollutants. On average, the regional/super-regional transport of air pollutants was the dominant source at this receptor site, especially on high-sulfate days while local formation

  16. One-year observations of size distribution characteristics of major aerosol constituents at a coastal receptor site in Hong Kong - Part 1: Inorganic ions and oxalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Q.; Huang, X. H. H.; Yu, J. Z.

    2014-01-01

    Size distribution data of major aerosol constituents are essential in source apportioning of visibility degradation, testing and verification of air quality models incorporating aerosols. We report here one-year observations of mass size distributions of major inorganic ions (sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium) and oxalate at a coastal suburban receptor site in Hong Kong, China. A total of 43 sets of size segregated samples in the size range of 0.056-18 μm were collected from March 2011 to February 2012. The size distributions of sulfate, ammonium, potassium and oxalate were characterized by a dominant droplet mode with a mass mean aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) in the range of ~0.7-0.9 μm. Oxalate had a slightly larger MMAD than sulfate on days with temperatures above 22 °C as a result of the process of volatilization and repartitioning. Nitrate was mostly dominated by the coarse mode but enhanced presence in fine mode was detected on winter days with lower temperature and lower concentrations of sea salt and soil particles. This data set reveals an inversely proportional relationship between the fraction of nitrate in the fine mode and product of the sum of sodium and calcium in equivalent concentrations and the dissociation constant of ammonium nitrate (i.e., (1/[Na+] + 2[Ca2+]) × (1/Ke')). The seasonal variation observed for sea salt aerosol abundance, with lower values in summer and winter, is possibly linked with the lower marine salinities in these two seasons. Positive matrix factorization was applied to estimate the relative contributions of local formation and transport to the observed ambient sulfate level through the use of the combined datasets of size-segregated sulfate and select gaseous air pollutants. On average, the regional/super-regional transport of air pollutants was the dominant source at this receptor site, especially on high sulfate days, while local formation processes contributed approximately

  17. Caracterisation of anthropogenic contribution to the coastal fluorescent organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Nahhal, Ibrahim; Nouhi, Ayoub; Mounier, Stéphane

    2015-04-01

    It is known that most of the coastal fluorescent organic matter is of a terrestrial origin (Parlanti, 2000; Tedetti, Guigue, & Goutx, 2010). However, the contribution of the anthropogenic organic matter to this pool is not well defined and evaluated. In this work the monitoring of little bay (Toulon Bay, France) was done in the way to determine the organic fluorescent response during a winter period. The sampling campaign consisted of different days during the month of December, 2014 ( 12th, 15th, 17th, 19th) on 21 different sampling sites for the fluorescence measurements (without any filtering of the samples) and the whole month of December for the bacterial and the turbidity measurements. Excitation Emission Matrices (EEMs) of fluorescence (from 200 to 400 nm and 220 to 420 nm excitation and emission range) were treated by parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC).The parafac analysis of the EEM datasets was conducted using PROGMEEF software in Matlab langage. On the same time that the turbidity and bacterial measurement (particularly the E.Coli concentration) were determined. The results gives in a short time range, information on the the contribution of the anthropogenic inputs to the coastal fluorescent organic matter. In addition, the effect of salinity on the photochemical degradation of the anthropogenic organic matter (especially those from wastewater treatment plants) will be studied to investigate their fate in the water end member by the way of laboratory experiments. Parlanti, E. (2000). Dissolved organic matter fluorescence spectroscopy as a tool to estimate biological activity in a coastal zone submitted to anthropogenic inputs. Organic Geochemistry, 31(12), 1765-1781. doi:10.1016/S0146-6380(00)00124-8 Tedetti, M., Guigue, C., & Goutx, M. (2010). Utilization of a submersible UV fluorometer for monitoring anthropogenic inputs in the Mediterranean coastal waters. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60(3), 350-62. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2009.10.018

  18. Trends of particulate matter (PM2.5) and chemical composition at a regional background site in the Western Mediterranean over the last nine years (2002-2010)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cusack, M.; Alastuey, A.; Pérez, N.; Pey, J.; Querol, X.

    2012-09-01

    The time variability and long term trends of PM2.5 (particulate matter of diameter < 2.5 μm) at various regional background (RB) sites across Europe are studied and interpreted in this work. Data on mean annual levels of PM2.5 measured at Montseny (MSY, North East Spain) and various RB sites in Spain and Europe are evaluated and compared, and subsequently analysed for statistically significant trends. The MSY site registered higher average PM2.5 levels than those measured at a selection of other RB sites across Spain, Portugal, Germany and Scandinavia by percentage compared to the mean of all the stations in these countries, but lower than those measured in Switzerland, Italy and Austria. Reductions in PM2.5 were observed across all stations in Spain and Europe to varying degrees (7-49%). MSY underwent a statistically significant reduction since measurements began, indicating a year-on-year gradual decrease (-3.7 μg m-3, calculated from the final year of data compared to the mean). Similar trends were observed in other RB sites across Spain (-1.9 μg m-3). Reductions recorded in PM2.5 across Europe were varied, with many experiencing gradual, year-on-year decreases (-1.8 μg m-3). These reductions have been attributed to various causes: the introduction and implementation of pollution abatement strategies in EU member states, the effect of the current economic crisis on emissions of PM2.5 and the influence of meteorology observed during the winters of 2009 and 2010. In addition, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), a large scale meteorological phenomenon most prevalent during winter, was observed to influence the frequency of Saharan dust intrusions across the Iberian Peninsula. Chemical composition of PM2.5 at MSY is characterised by high levels of organic matter (OM) and sulphate, followed by crustal material, nitrate and ammonia. Sea Spray and elemental carbon (EC) comprised a minor part of the total PM2.5 mass. Statistical trend analysis was performed on the

  19. Are coastal lagoons physically or biologically controlled ecosystems? Revisiting r vs. K strategies in coastal lagoons