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Sample records for coastal site castellon

  1. Coastal pollution due to increasing nutrient flux in aquaculture sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, C. P. C.; Sta. Maria, Y. Y.; Siringan, F. P.; Reotita, J. M.; Zamora, P. B.; Villanoy, C. L.; Sombrito, E. Z.; Azanza, R. V.

    2009-07-01

    The supply of nitrogen and phosphorus in coastal zones through time is reflected in the nutrients’ concentration in the sediment record. Five aquaculture sites in the Philippines were investigated in an effort to establish how long-term changes in land and coastal water use could have led to biogeochemical modifications affecting the coastal ecosystem. Samples from study sites show a narrow concentration range for nitrogen and did not reveal any significant trend through time. In contrast, phosphorus concentrations in most sites start at less than 20 ppm in sediments 30 years and older. The phosphorus value continuously increase in younger sediments, with each site having a different magnitude change as well as timing of when the major increase happened. The uppermost 10 cm, representing the last 15 years in sites with age control, typically show a 2- to 3-fold increase in P load values. Historical increase in nutrient load also coincides with harmful algal bloom events in each area; when effective P input exceeded 130 kg/km2 per year. Lastly, the observed increase may be attributed to several factors including physical attributes of the area, urbanization of coastal zones, but most importantly in the proliferation of aquaculture activities.

  2. Aquaculture siting issues in Washington's coastal zone

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, N.

    1980-01-01

    Greater commitments of aquatic resources are required as aquaculture activities expand and intensify. At the same time, increasing recreational and residential uses of the coast are placing other demands on many of the same resources. Multiple use disputes are arising and conflicts are intensifying. This paper is a problem analysis based on recent public debates in the state of Washington which surrounded the mechanical harvest of clams, raft culture of mussels, and pen rearing of salmon. Subjects of potential conflict are shown in the questions of continuing the subtidal harvest of geoducks, raft culturing of marine algae for food and chemical extracts, and continuing the use of public nearshore aquatic areas for private oyster farming. This report also suggests that better coastal management techniques need to be developed which address: (1) how environmental impacts and risks are determined; (2) how claims for esthetic quality can be evaluated and measured; and (3) which methods can be used to plan for the aquatic areas which recognize the special features of the aquatic areas.

  3. DEVELOPMENT OF THE COASTAL INTENSIVE SITE NETWORK (CISNET)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have joined in partnership to establish pilot sites for the development of a network known as the Coastal Intensive Sit...

  4. Innovation Technologies and Applications for Coastal Archaeological sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Iorio, A.; Biliouris, D.; Guzinski, R.; Hansen, L. B.; Bagni, M.

    2015-04-01

    Innovation Technologies and Applications for Coastal Archaeological sites project (ITACA) aims to develop and test a management system for underwater archaeological sites in coastal regions. The discovering and monitoring service will use innovative satellite remote sensing techniques combined with image processing algorithms. The project will develop a set of applications integrated in a system pursuing the following objectives: - Search and location of ancient ship wrecks; - Monitoring of ship wrecks, ruins and historical artefacts that are now submerged; - Integration of resulting search and monitoring data with on-site data into a management tool for underwater sites; - Demonstration of the system's suitability for a service. High resolution synthetic aperture radar (TerraSAR-X, Cosmo-SkyMed) and multispectral satellite data (WorldView) will be combined to derive the relative bathymetry of the bottom of the sea up to the depth of 50 meters. The resulting data fusion will be processed using shape detection algorithms specific for archaeological items. The new algorithms, the physical modelling and the computational capabilities will be integrated into the Web-GIS, together with data recorded from surface (2D and 3D modelling) and from underwater surveys. Additional specific archaeological layers will be included into the WebGIS to facilitate the object identification through shape detection techniques and mapping. The system will be verified and validated through an extensive onground (sea) campaign carried out with both cutting edge technologies (side-scan sonar, multi beam echo sounder) and traditional means (professional scuba divers) in two test sites in Italy and Greece. The project is leaded by Planetek Hellas E.P.E. and include ALMA Sistemi sas for the "shape detection" and dissemination tasks, DHI-GRAS and Kell Srl for multispectral and SAR bathymetry. The complete consortium is composed by eleven partners and the project Kick-Off has been held in

  5. Sea-level rise and coastal groundwater inundation and shoaling at select sites in California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoover, Daniel J.; Odigie, Kingsley; Swarzenski, Peter W.; Barnard, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    Study regionThe study region spans coastal California, USA, and focuses on three primary sites: Arcata, Stinson Beach, and Malibu Lagoon.Study focus1 m and 2 m sea-level rise (SLR) projections were used to assess vulnerability to SLR-driven groundwater emergence and shoaling at select low-lying, coastal sites in California. Separate and combined inundation scenarios for SLR and groundwater emergence were developed using digital elevation models of study site topography and groundwater surfaces constructed from well data or published groundwater level contours.New hydrological insights for the regionSLR impacts are a serious concern in coastal California which has a long (∼1800 km) and populous coastline. Information on the possible importance of SLR-driven groundwater inundation in California is limited. In this study, the potential for SLR-driven groundwater inundation at three sites (Arcata, Stinson Beach, and Malibu Lagoon) was investigated under 1 m and 2 m SLR scenarios. These sites provide insight into the vulnerability of Northern California coastal plains, coastal developments built on beach sand or sand spits, and developed areas around coastal lagoons associated with seasonal streams and berms. Northern California coastal plains with abundant shallow groundwater likely will see significant and widespread groundwater emergence, while impacts along the much drier central and southern California coast may be less severe due to the absence of shallow groundwater in many areas. Vulnerability analysis is hampered by the lack of data on shallow coastal aquifers, which commonly are not studied because they are not suitable for domestic or agricultural use. Shallow saline aquifers may be present in many areas along coastal California, which would dramatically increase vulnerability to SLR-driven groundwater emergence and shoaling. Improved understanding of the extent and response of California coastal aquifers to SLR will help in preparing for mitigation

  6. Coastal Vulnerability and risk assessment of infrastructures, natural and cultural heritage sites in Greece.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrakis, George; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2016-04-01

    The majority of human activities are concentrated around coastal areas, making coastline retreat, a significant threat to coastal infrastructure, thus increasing protection cost and investment revenue losses. In this study the management of coastal areas in terms of protecting coastal infrastructures, cultural and environmental heritage sites, through risk assessment analysis is been made. The scope is to provide data for spatial planning for future developments in the coastal zone and the protection of existing ones. Also to determine the impact of coastal changes related to the loss of natural resources, agricultural land and beaches. The analysis is based on a multidisciplinary approach, combining environmental, spatial and economic data. This can be implemented by integrating the assessment of vulnerability of coasts, the spatial distribution and structural elements of coastal infrastructure (transport, tourism, and energy) and financial data by region, in a spatial database. The approach is based on coastal vulnerability estimations, considering sea level rise, land loss, extreme events, safety, adaptability and resilience of infrastructure and natural sites. It is based on coupling of environmental indicators and econometric models to determine the socio-economic impact in coastal infrastructure, cultural and environmental heritage sites. The indicators include variables like the coastal geomorphology; coastal slope; relative sea-level rise rate; shoreline erosion/accretion rate; mean tidal range and mean wave height. The anthropogenic factors include variables like settlements, sites of cultural heritage, transport networks, land uses, significance of infrastructure (e.g. military, power plans) and economic activities. The analysis in performed by a GIS application. The forcing variables are determined with the use of sub-indices related to coastal geomorphology, climate and wave variables and the socioeconomics of the coastal zone. The Greek coastline in

  7. Alternative energy facility siting policies for urban coastal areas: Executive summary of findings and policy recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morell, D.; Singer, G.

    1980-11-01

    An analysis was made of siting issues in the coastal zone, one of the nation's most critical natural resource areas and one which is often the target for energy development proposals. The analysis addressed the changing perceptions of citizens toward energy development in the coastal zone, emphasizing urban communities where access to the waterfront and revitalization of waterfront property are of interest to the citizen. The case studies demonstrate the significance of local attitudes and regional cooperation in the siting process.

  8. Natural new particle formation at the coastal Antarctic site Neumayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, R.; Schmidt, K.; Teinilä, K.; Hillamo, R.

    2015-10-01

    We measured condensation particle (CP) concentrations and particle size distributions at the coastal Antarctic station Neumayer (70°39´ S, 8°15´ W) during two summer campaigns (from 20 January to 26 March 2012 and 1 February to 30 April 2014) and during the polar night between 12 August and 27 September 2014 in the particle diameter (Dp) range from 2.94 to 60.4 nm (2012) and from 6.26 to 212.9 nm (2014). During both summer campaigns we identified all in all 44 new particle formation (NPF) events. From 10 NPF events, particle growth rates could be determined to be around 0.90 ± 0.46 nm h-1 (mean ± SD; range: 0.4-1.9 nm h-1). With the exception of one case, particle growth was generally restricted to the nucleation mode (Dp < 25 nm) and the duration of NPF events was typically around 6.0 ± 1.5 h (mean ± SD; range: 4-9 h). Thus, in the surrounding area of Neumayer, particles did not grow up to sizes required for acting as cloud condensation nuclei. NPF during summer usually occurred in the afternoon in coherence with local photochemistry. During winter, two NPF events could be detected, though showing no ascertainable particle growth. A simple estimation indicated that apart from sulfuric acid, the derived growth rates required other low volatile precursor vapours.

  9. Natural new particle formation at the coastal Antarctic site Neumayer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weller, R.; Schmidt, K.; Teinilä, K.; Hillamo, R.

    2015-06-01

    We measured condensation particle (CP) concentrations and particle size distributions at the coastal Antarctic station Neumayer (70°39' S, 8°15' W) during two summer campaigns (from 20 January to 26 March 2012 and 1 February to 30 April 2014) and during polar night between 12 August and 27 September 2014 in the particle diameter (Dp) range from 2.94 to 60.4 nm (2012) and from 6.26 to 212.9 nm (2014). During both summer campaigns we identified all in all 44 new particle formation (NPF) events. From 10 NPF events, particle growth rates could be determined to be around 0.90 ± 0.46 nm h-1 (mean ± SD; range: 0.4 to 1.9 nm h-1). With the exception of one case, particle growth was generally restricted to the nucleation mode (Dp < 25 nm) and the duration of NPF events was typically around 6.0 ± 1.5 h (mean ± SD; range: 4 to 9 h). Thus in the main, particles did not grow up to sizes required for acting as cloud condensation nuclei. NPF during summer usually occurred in the afternoon in coherence with local photochemistry. During winter, two NPF events could be detected, though showing no ascertainable particle growth. A simple estimation indicated that apart from sulfuric acid, the derived growth rates required other low volatile precursor vapours.

  10. PILOT STUDY FOR ESTABLISHMENT OF A NETWORK OF COASTAL REFERENCE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have joined in partnership for a pilot study for the establishment of a network of reference sites, the Coastal Int...

  11. Soil organic radiocarbon and mineralogy at two coastal California sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masiello, C. A.; Chadwick, O. A.; Harden, J. W.; Torn, M. S.; Southon, J.

    2001-12-01

    As the atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration rises it becomes increasingly important to understand the mechanisms that control carbon sequestration in carbon pools such as soils and ocean sediments. Mineralogy and soil grain size have both been hypothesized to regulate soil carbon storage. On volcanic soils, carbon storage correlates best with a mineralogical property, amorphous mineral content. However, volcanic soils are relatively uncommon and weather to unusually high concentrations of amorphous minerals. Two chronosequences of soil terraces occurring along the coast of California provide the opportunity to study the relationship between a range of mineral types, soil carbon content, soil radiocarbon age, and grain size on more common Alfisol soils. One site is located close to the mouth of the Mattole River, near Eureka, CA, and the second site is located close to Santa Cruz, CA. Both series of chronosequences formed on similar parent material, although the Mattole site receives approximately twice the rainfall of the Santa Cruz site. Through analysis of relationships between soil mineralogical properties, organic matter content, and soil radiocarbon age, we examine potential controls on soil carbon turnover.

  12. Alternative energy facility siting policies for urban coastal areas: executive summary of findings and policy recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Morell, D; Singer, G

    1980-11-01

    An analysis was made of siting issues in the coastal zone, one of the nation's most critical natural resource areas and one which is often the target for energy development proposals. The analysis addressed the changing perceptions of citizens toward energy development in the coastal zone, emphasizing urban communities where access to the waterfront and revitalization of waterfront property are of interest to the citizen. The findings of this analysis are based on an examination of energy development along New Jersey's urban waterfront and along the Texas-Louisiana Gulf Coast, and on redevelopment efforts in Seattle, San Francisco, Boston, and elsewhere. The case studies demonstrate the significance of local attitudes and regional cooperation in the siting process. In highly urbanized areas, air quality has become a predominant concern among citizen groups and an influential factor in development of alternative energy facility siting strategies, such as consideration of inland siting connected by pipeline to a smaller coastal facility. The study addresses the economic impact of the permitting process on the desirability of energy facility investments, and the possible effects of the location selected for the facility on the permitting process and investment economics. The economic analysis demonstrates the importance of viewing energy facility investments in a broad perspective that includes the positive or negative impacts of various alternative siting patterns on the permitting process. Conclusions drawn from the studies regarding Federal, state, local, and corporate politics; regulatory, permitting, licensing, environmental assessment, and site selection are summarized. (MCW)

  13. Inventory of coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites (North Bulgarian coast)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palazov, Atanas; Stancheva, Margarita; Stanchev, Hristo; Krastev, Anton; Peev, Preslav

    2015-04-01

    Coastal protected areas and historical heritage sites in Bulgaria are established by national policy instruments/laws and EU Directives to protect a wide range of natural and cultural resources along the coast. Within the framework of HERAS Project (Submarine Archaeological Heritage of the Western Black Sea Shelf), financed by European Union under the CBC Program Romania-Bulgaria, we made an inventory and identification of protected areas, nature reserves, monuments, parks and onshore historical sites along the North Bulgarian coast (NUTS III level). The adjacent coastline is 96 km long between cape Sivriburun to the border of Romania on the north and cape Ekrene on the south. Coastal zone here is mostly undeveloped and low urbanized compared to other coastal regions in Bulgaria. It comprises of large sand beaches, vast sand dunes, up to 70 m spectacular high limestone cliffs, coastal fresh-water lakes, wetlands etc. This coastal section includes also one of the most important wetlands and it is migration corridor for many protected birds in Bulgaria, that host one of the rarest ecosystem types with national and international conservational value. Added to ecosystem values, the region is also an archeologically important area, where numerous underwater and coastal archaeological sites from different periods have been discovered - Prehistory, Antiquity (ancient Greek, Hellenistic, Roman), Mediaeval (Early Byzantium, Bulgarian). Research was made within 2100 m zone from the coastline (in accordance with zones defined by the Black Sea Coastal Development Act) for territories with protected status in the framework of many national laws and EU Directives. The total area of this strip zone is 182, 6 km2 and around 67% is under protection. There are 11 unique NATURA 2000 protected areas (6 Special Protection Areas (SPAs) and 5 Sites of Communities Importance (SCI), 2 nature reserves and 1 Nature Park. Some of them are also onshore historical sites. In Bulgaria such sites

  14. Monitoring Environmental Recovery at Terminated Produced Water Discharge Sites in Coastal Louisiana Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Continental Shelf Associates, Inc.

    1999-08-16

    This report presents the results of a study of terminated produced water discharge sites in the coastal waters of Louisiana. Environmental recovery at the sites is documented by comparing pre-termination and post-termination (six months and one year) data. Produced water, sediments, and sediment interstitial water samples were analyzed for radionuclides, metals, and hydrocarbons. Benthic infauna were identified from samples collected in the vicinity of the discharge and reference sites. Radium isotope activities were determined in fish and crustacean samples. In addition, an environmental risk assessment is made on the basis of the concentrations of metals and hydrocarbons determined in the samples.

  15. Progress toward a circulation atlas for application to coastal water siting problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Gordon, H. H.

    1978-01-01

    Circulation data needed to resolve coastal siting problems are assembled from historical hydrographic and remote sensing studies in the form of a Circulation Atlas. Empirical data are used instead of numerical model simulations to achieve fine resolution and include fronts and convergence zones. Eulerian and Langrangian data are collected, transformed, and combined into trajectory maps and current vector maps as a function of tidal phase and wind vector. Initial Atlas development is centered on the Elizabeth River, Hampton Roads, Virgina.

  16. Colonization of UK coastal realignment sites by mosquitoes: implications for design, management, and public health.

    PubMed

    Medlock, J M; Vaux, A G C

    2013-06-01

    Coastal realignment is now widely instituted in the UK as part of local flood risk management plans to compensate for the loss of European protected habitat and to mitigate the effects of sea-level rise and coastal squeeze. Coastal aquatic habitats have long been known to provide suitable habitats for brackish-water mosquitoes and historically, coastal marshes were considered to support anopheline mosquito populations that were responsible for local malaria transmission. This study surveyed the eight largest managed realignment (MRA) sites in England (Essex and the Humber) for mosquito habitats. The apparent absence of anopheline mosquitoes exploiting aquatic habitats at all of these sites suggests that the risk of malaria associated with MRA sites is currently negligible. However, three of the eight sites supported populations of two nuisance and potential arboviral vector species, Aedes detritus and Aedes caspius. The aquatic habitats that supported mosquitoes resulted from a) specific design aspects of the new sea wall (ballast to mitigate wave action and constructed saline borrow ditches) that could be designed out or managed or b) isolated pools created through silt accretion or expansion of flooded zones to neighbouring pasture. The public health risks and recommendations for management are discussed in this report. This report highlights the need for pro-active public health impact assessments prior to MRA development in consultation with the Health Protection Agency, as well as the need for a case-by-case approach to design and management to mitigate mosquito or mosquito-borne disease issues now and in the future.

  17. Annual low-cost monitoring of a coastal site in Greece by an unmanned aerial vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmeister, Dirk; Bareth, Georg

    2016-04-01

    Coastal areas are under permanent change and are also the result of past processes. These processes are for example sediment transport, accumulation and erosion by normal and extreme waves (storms or tsunamis). As about 23% of the World's population lives within a 100 km distance of coasts, knowledge about coastal processes is important, in particular for possible changes in the nearby future. The past devastating tsunami events demonstrated profoundly the high vulnerability of coastal areas. In order to estimate the different effects, coastal monitoring approaches are of interest. Several different methods exist in order to determine changes in the sedimentary budget and coastline configuration. In order to estimate constant annual changes, we have applied terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in an annual monitoring approach (2009-2011). In 2014, we changed to an approach based on dense imaging and structure-from-motion, applying an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) in order to conduct an annual monitoring of a coastal site in western Greece. Therefore, a GoPro Hero 3+ and a Canon PowerShot S110 mounted on a DJI-Phantom 2 were used. All surveys were conducted in a manually structured image acquisition with a huge overlap. Ground control points (GCP) were measured by tachymetric surveying. This successful approach was repeated again in 2015 with the Canon camera. The measurements of 2014 were controlled by an additional TLS survey, which revealed the high accuracy and more suitable coverage for the UAV-based data. Likewise, the large picture datasets were artificially reduced in order to estimate the most efficient number of images for dense point cloud processing. In addition, also the number of GCPs was decreased for one dataset. Overall, high-resolution digital elevation models with a ground resolution of 10 mm and an equal accuracy were achieved with this low-cost equipment. The data reveals the slight changes on this selected site.

  18. Sub-3 nm particles observed at the coastal and continental sites in the United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Huan; Gannet Hallar, A.; You, Yi; Sedlacek, Arthur; Springston, Stephen; Kanawade, Vijay P.; Lee, Yin-Nan; Wang, Jian; Kuang, Chongai; McGraw, Robert L.; McCubbin, Ian; Mikkila, Jyri; Lee, Shan-Hu

    2014-01-01

    Direct measurements of atmospheric sub-3 nm particles are crucial for understanding the new particle formation mechanisms, but such measurements are very limited at present. We report measurements of sub-3nm particles at Brookhaven, New York (a coastal site in summer) and Kent, Ohio (a continental site in winter). During daytime, in approximately 80% of the observation days at both sites, sub-3nm particle events were observed with concentrations of 2800 ± 1600 cm-3, and they appeared with the elevated sulfuric acid concentrations. During the nighttime at the coastal site under the marine air mass influences, there were also substantial concentrations of sub-3nm particles (1500 ± 400 cm-3), but they did not grow larger. On the other hand, at the coastal Brookhaven site under the continental air mass influences and at the inland Kent site during the night, the sub-3nm particles were significantly lower (190 ± 130 cm-3). Our results indicate that sub-3nm particles were not always present, and their presence was rather closely associated with specific aerosol nucleation precursors: sulfuric acid and other unknown condensable chemical species likely present in the marine air masses. These findings are thus different from other studies conducted in the Finland boreal forest, which showed a persistent presence of high concentrations of sub-2nm particles and that these sub-2nm particles were more correlated to monoterpene oxidation products than to sulfuric acid. Therefore, different nucleation mechanisms, as opposed on to a universal mechanism, involving different nucleation precursors dominate in different atmospheric environments with different emissions and transported trace gases.

  19. Determining return water levels at ungauged coastal sites: a case study for northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arns, Arne; Wahl, Thomas; Haigh, Ivan D.; Jensen, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    We estimate return periods and levels of extreme still water levels for the highly vulnerable and historically and culturally important small marsh islands known as the Halligen, located in the Wadden Sea offshore of the coast of northern Germany. This is a challenging task as only few water level records are available for this region, and they are currently too short to apply traditional extreme value analysis methods. Therefore, we use the Regional Frequency Analysis (RFA) approach. This originates from hydrology but has been used before in several coastal studies and is also currently applied by the local federal administration responsible for coastal protection in the study area. The RFA enables us to indirectly estimate return levels by transferring hydrological information from gauged to related ungauged sites. Our analyses highlight that this methodology has some drawbacks and may over- or underestimate return levels compared to direct analyses using station data. To overcome these issues, we present an alternative approach, combining numerical and statistical models. First, we produced a numerical multidecadal model hindcast of water levels for the entire North Sea. Predicted water levels from the hindcast are bias corrected using the information from the available tide gauge records. Hence, the simulated water levels agree well with the measured water levels at gauged sites. The bias correction is then interpolated spatially to obtain correction functions for the simulated water levels at each coastal and island model grid point in the study area. Using a recommended procedure to conduct extreme value analyses from a companion study, return water levels suitable for coastal infrastructure design are estimated continuously along the entire coastline of the study area, including the offshore islands. A similar methodology can be applied in other regions of the world where tide gauge observations are sparse.

  20. One year of vertical wind profiles measurements at a Mediterranean coastal site of South Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calidonna, Claudia Roberta; Avolio, Elenio; Federico, Stefano; Gullì, Daniel; Lo Feudo, Teresa; Sempreviva, Anna Maria

    2015-04-01

    In order to develop wind farms projects is challenging to site them on coastal areas both onshore and offshore as suitable sites. Developing projects need high quality databases under a wide range of atmospheric conditions or high resolution models that could resolve the effect of the coastal discontinuity in the surface properties. New parametrizations are important and high quality databases are also needed for formulating them. Ground-based remote sensing devices such as lidars have been shown to be functional for studying the evolution of the vertical wind structure coastal atmospheric boundary layer both on- and offshore. Here, we present results from a year of vertical wind profiles, wind speed and direction, monitoring programme at a site located in the Italian Calabria Region, Central Mediterranean, 600m from the Thyrrenian coastline, where a Lidar Doppler, ZephIr (ZephIr ltd) has been operative since July 2013. The lidar monitors wind speed and direction from 10m up to 300m at 10 vertical levels with an average of 10 minutes and it is supported by a metmast providing: Atmospheric Pressure, Solar Radiation, Precipitation, Relative Humidity, Temperature,Wind Speed and Direction at 10m. We present the characterization of wind profiles during one year period according to the time of the day to transition periods night/day/night classified relating the local scale, breeze scale, to the large scale conditions. The dataset is also functional for techniques for short-term prediction of wind for the renewable energy integration in the distribution grids. The site infrastructure is funded within the Project "Infrastructure of High Technology for Environmental and Climate Monitoring" (I-AMICA) (PONa3_00363) by the Italian National Operative Program (PON 2007-2013) and European Regional Development Fund. Real-time data are show on http://www.i-amica.it/i-amica/?page_id=1122.

  1. Stock origins of Dolly Varden collected from Beaufort Sea coastal sites of Arctic Alaska and Canada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krueger, C.C.; Wilmot, R.L.; Everett, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    Anadromous northern Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma support a summer subsistence fishery in Beaufort Sea coastal waters. These same waters coincide with areas of oil and gas exploration and development. The purpose of this study was to assess variation in stock origins of Dolly Varden collected from sites along 400 km of Beaufort Sea coast. Mixed-stock analyses (MSA) of allozyme data were used to compare collections from four sites (Endicolt near Prudhoe Bay, Mikkelsen Bay, and Kaktovik in Alaska and Phillips Bay in Canada) and to assess variation in stock contributions among summer months and between 1987 and 1988. The MSA estimates for individual stocks were summed into estimates for three stock groups: western stocks from the area near Sagavarnirktok River and Prudhoe Bay (SAG), Arctic National Wildlife Refuge stocks (Arctic Refuge), and Canadian stocks. The MSA of Endicott samples taken in 1987 and 1988 did not differ among months in terms of contributions from local SAG stocks (range, 71-95%). Contributions from nonlocal (>100 km distant) Canadian and Arctic Refuge stocks were not different from zero in 1987, but contributions from Canadian stocks were so in July (17%) and August (20%) but not in September of 1988. Thus, stock contributions to Endicott collections were different between 1987 and 1988. Samples from the Kaktovik area in 1988 were different between months in terms of contributions from nonlocal SAG stocks (July, 7%; August, 27%). Significant contributions to these samples were made both months by Canadian (25% and 17%) and local Arctic Refuge stocks (68% and 56%). Among the four coastal sites, local stocks typically contributed most to collections; however, every site had collections that contained significant contributions from nonlocal stocks. The MSA estimates clearly revealed the movement of Dolly Varden between U.S. and Canada coastal waters. If local stocks are affected by oil and gas development activities, distant subsistence fisheries

  2. Overview about polluted sites management by mining activities in coastal-desertic zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, Arturo; Letelier, María Victoria; Arenas, Franko; Cuevas, Jacqueline; Fuentes, Bárbara

    2016-04-01

    In Chile the main mining operations as well as artisanal and small-scale mining (copper, gold and silver) are located in desert areas. A large number of abandoned polluted sites with heavy metals and metalloids (Hg, Pb, Cu, Sb, As) remain in coastal areas close to human centers. The aim of this work was to identify the best remediation alternatives considering the physic-chemical characteristics of the coastal-desertic soils. The concentrations of above mentioned pollutants as well as soil properties were determined. The results showed variable concentration of the pollutants, highest detected values were: Hg (46.5 mg kg-1), Pb (84.7 mg kg-1), Cu (283.0 mg kg-1), Sb (90 mg kg-1), As (2,691 mg kg-1). The soils characteristic were: high alkalinity with pH: 7.75-9.66, high electric conductivity (EC: 1.94-118 mScm-1), sodium adsorption ratio (SAR: 5.07-8.22) and low permeability of the soils. Coastal-desertic sites are potential sources of pollution for population, and for terrestrial and marine ecosystems. Exposure routes of pollution for the population include: primary, by incidental ingestion and inhalation of soil and dust and secondary, by the ingestion of marine sediments, sea food and seawater. Rehabilitation of coastal-desertic sites, by using techniques like soil washing in situ, chemical stabilization, or phytostabilization, is conditioned by physic-chemical properties of the soils. In these cases the recommendation for an appropriate management, remediation and use of the sites includes: 1) physic chemical characterization of the soils, 2) evaluation of environmental risk, 3) education of the population and 3) application of a remediation technology according to soil characteristic and the planned use of the sites. Acknowledgments: Funding for this study was supported by the Regional Council of Antofagasta under Project Estudio de ingeniería para la remediación de sitios abandonados con potencial presencia de contaminantes identificados en la comuna de

  3. Near-coastal water quality at reference sites following storm events.

    PubMed

    Schiff, Kenneth; Brown, Jeff; Trump, Steen; Hardin, Dane

    2016-02-15

    Stormwater is a challenging source of coastal pollution to abate because stormwater also involves complex natural processes, and differentiating these processes from anthropogenic excesses is difficult. The goal of this study was to identify the natural concentrations of stormwater constituents along the 1377 km coastline of California, USA. Twenty-eight ocean reference sites, a priori defined by lack of human disturbance in its adjacent watershed, were collected following 78 site-events and measured for 57 constituents and toxicity. Results indicated a complete lack of toxicity and undetectable levels of anthropogenic constituents (i.e., pesticides). The range of concentrations in ocean receiving waters for naturally-occurring constituents (i.e., total suspended solids, nutrients, trace metals) typically ranged three orders of magnitude. Regional differences and storm characteristics did not explain much of the variations in concentration. The reference site information is now being used to establish targets for marine protected areas subject to runoff from developed watersheds.

  4. Seasonal factors affecting surfactant biodegradation in Antarctic coastal waters: comparison of a polluted and pristine site.

    PubMed

    George, Alison L

    2002-05-01

    This report is the first seasonal study of anthropogenic pollutant biodegradation rates in Antarctic coastal waters. The capacity of surface waters from Rothera Research Station, Adelaide Island, Antarctica, to biodegrade the anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) was quantified in biodegradation tests from April 1988 to January 1999. Large temporal differences in the persistence of SDS were observed. In mid-winter (July), the SDS-biodegradation half life was twice that measured in mid-summer (January), despite small temperature differences (up to 2.45 degrees C). Comparisons between water from a pristine site and a site receiving grey-waste water from the station showed that some acclimation to SDS was occurring in the contaminated water. This resulted in SDS half lives up to to approximately 80 h shorter in the polluted water compared with the pristine site in the summer months when a large population of SDS-degrading bacteria had developed. Biodegradation half lives in Antarctic coastal waters (160-460 h) were generally far higher than those observed in temperate waters.

  5. Modern erosion rates and loss of coastal features and sites, Beaufort Sea coastline, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, Benjamin M.; Hinkel, Kenneth M.; Arp, C.D.; Eisner, Wendy R.

    2008-01-01

    This study presents modern erosion rate measurements based upon vertical aerial photography captured in 1955, 1979, and 2002 for a 100 km segment of the Beaufort Sea coastline. Annual erosion rates from 1955 to 2002 averaged 5.6 m a-1. However, mean erosion rates increased from 5.0 m a-1 in 1955-79 to 6.2 m a-1 in 1979-2002. Furthermore, from the first period to the second, erosion rates increased at 60% (598) of the 992 sites analyzed, decreased at 31% (307), and changed less than ?? 30 cm at 9% (87). Historical observations and quantitative studies over the past 175 years allowed us to place our erosion rate measurements into a longer-term context. Several of the coastal features along this stretch of coastline received Western place names during the Dease and Simpson expedition in 1837, and the majority of those features had been lost by the early 1900s as a result of coastline erosion, suggesting that erosion has been active over at least the historical record. Incorporation of historical and modern observations also allowed us to detect the loss of both cultural and historical sites and modern infrastructure. U.S. Geological Survey topographic maps reveal a number of known cultural and historical sites, as well as sites with modern infrastructure constructed as recently as the 1950s, that had disappeared by the early 2000s as a result of coastal erosion. We were also able to identify sites that are currently being threatened by an encroaching coastline. Our modern erosion rate measurements can potentially be used to predict when a historical site or modern infrastructure will be affected if such erosion rates persist. ?? The Arctic Institute of North America.

  6. Model calculating annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor for coastal site of nuclear power plant.

    PubMed

    Hu, E B; Chen, J Y; Yao, R T; Zhang, M S; Gao, Z R; Wang, S X; Jia, P R; Liao, Q L

    2001-07-01

    This paper describes an atmospheric dispersion field experiment performed on the coastal site of nuclear power plant in the east part of China during 1995 to 1996. The three-dimension joint frequency are obtained by hourly observation of wind and temperature on a 100 m high tower; the frequency of the "event day of land and sea breezes" are given by observation of surface wind and land and sea breezes; the diffusion parameters are got from measurements of turbulent and wind tunnel simulation test. A new model calculating the annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor for coastal site of nuclear power plant is developed and established. This model considers not only the effect from mixing release and mixed layer but also the effect from the internal boundary layer and variation of diffusion parameters due to the distance from coast. The comparison between results obtained by the new model and current model shows that the ratio of annual mean atmospheric dispersion factor gained by the new model and the current one is about 2.0.

  7. The Ysterfontein 1 Middle Stone Age site, South Africa, and early human exploitation of coastal resources

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Richard G.; Avery, Graham; Cruz-Uribe, Kathryn; Halkett, David; Parkington, John E.; Steele, Teresa; Volman, Thomas P.; Yates, Royden

    2004-01-01

    Human fossils and the genetics of extant human populations indicate that living people derive primarily from an African population that lived within the last 200,000 years. Yet it was only ≈50,000 years ago that the descendants of this population spread to Eurasia, where they swamped or replaced the Neanderthals and other nonmodern Eurasians. Based on archaeological observations, the most plausible hypothesis for the delay is that Africans and Eurasians were behaviorally similar until 50,000 years ago, and it was only at this time that Africans developed a behavioral advantage. The archaeological findings come primarily from South Africa, where they suggest that the advantage involved much more effective use of coastal resources. Until now, the evidence has come mostly from deeply stratified caves on the south (Indian Ocean) coast. Here, we summarize results from recent excavations at Ysterfontein 1, a deeply stratified shelter in a contrasting environment on the west (Atlantic) coast. The Ysterfontein 1 samples of human food debris must be enlarged for a full comparison to samples from other relevant sites, but they already corroborate two inferences drawn from south coast sites: (i) coastal foragers before 50,000 years ago did not fish routinely, probably for lack of appropriate technology, and (ii) they collected tortoises and shellfish less intensively than later people, probably because their populations were smaller. PMID:15007171

  8. a Multidisciplinary Approach to the Coastal Protection of Two Archaeological Sites in Lybia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Urso, I.; Ombrelli, M.; Telaroli, P.; Calesso, W.; Badin, C.; Senigaglia, M.; Urrutia, C.; Sterponi, L.

    2015-04-01

    The present study is part of the preliminary investigation to design a coastal protection for the archaeological sites of Sabratha and Leptis Magna and the hydraulic re-arrangement of the final stretch of the Wadi Lebda which runs across the archaeological area of Leptis Magna. This study is a part of the project "Safeguarding the Sabratha and Leptis Magna archaeological sites. Preventing flooding of Leptis Magna from the Wadi Lebda", started in 2009 and commissioned by MARCO POLO STORICA LTD - Scotland. The planning of interventions has required an accurate morphological reconstruction of the interested areas. In this regard, given the wide investigation area, the aerial and land survey operations logistic difficulties and tight timeframe, the use of multi-beam technology and satellite images was particularly useful. The Digital Terrain Model has been coupled with detailed bathymetric surveys of the coastal area, undertaken mostly by multi-beam techniques, and by investigations of the ground characteristics, which were integrated in the information system prepared as design support.

  9. The Ysterfontein 1 Middle Stone Age site, South Africa, and early human exploitation of coastal resources.

    PubMed

    Klein, Richard G; Avery, Graham; Cruz-Uribe, Kathryn; Halkett, David; Parkington, John E; Steele, Teresa; Volman, Thomas P; Yates, Royden

    2004-04-20

    Human fossils and the genetics of extant human populations indicate that living people derive primarily from an African population that lived within the last 200,000 years. Yet it was only approximately 50,000 years ago that the descendants of this population spread to Eurasia, where they swamped or replaced the Neanderthals and other nonmodern Eurasians. Based on archaeological observations, the most plausible hypothesis for the delay is that Africans and Eurasians were behaviorally similar until 50,000 years ago, and it was only at this time that Africans developed a behavioral advantage. The archaeological findings come primarily from South Africa, where they suggest that the advantage involved much more effective use of coastal resources. Until now, the evidence has come mostly from deeply stratified caves on the south (Indian Ocean) coast. Here, we summarize results from recent excavations at Ysterfontein 1, a deeply stratified shelter in a contrasting environment on the west (Atlantic) coast. The Ysterfontein 1 samples of human food debris must be enlarged for a full comparison to samples from other relevant sites, but they already corroborate two inferences drawn from south coast sites: (i) coastal foragers before 50,000 years ago did not fish routinely, probably for lack of appropriate technology, and (ii) they collected tortoises and shellfish less intensively than later people, probably because their populations were smaller.

  10. Lower tropospheric ozone and aerosol measurements at a coastal mountain site in Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, A.; Conley, S. A.; Zhao, Y.; Cliff, S. S.; Faloona, I. C.; Wexler, A. S.; Lighthall, D.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing concern over the impacts of exogenous air pollution in California's Central Valley have prompted the establishment of a coastal, high altitude monitoring site at the Chews Ridge Observatory (1550 m) approximately 30 km east of Point Sur in Monterey County. Six months of ozone and aerosol measurements are presented in the context of long-range transport and its potential impact on surface air quality in the southern San Joaquin Valley. Moreover, approximately monthly ozone surveys are conducted by aircraft upwind, over the Pacific Ocean, and downwind, over the Central Valley, to characterize horizontal and vertical transport across the coastal mountains. The measurements exhibit no systematic diurnal variations of ozone or water vapor, an indication that the site primarily samples lower free tropospheric air which has not been significantly influenced by either local emissions or convective coupling to the surface. Aerosol size is measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer and composition is analyzed with an 8-stage rotating drum impactor whose substrates are characterized by X-ray fluorescence. Various elemental ratios and back trajectory calculations are used to infer the temporal patterns of influence that long range transport has on California air quality.

  11. Assessing landslide potential on coastal bluffs near Mukilteo, Washington—Geologic site characterization for hydrologic monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mirus, Benjamin B.; Smith, Joel B.; Benjamin Stark,; York Lewis,; Abigail Michel,; Baum, Rex L.

    2016-07-01

    During the summer 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey collected geologic and geotechnical data for two sites on coastal bluffs along the eastern shore of Puget Sound, Washington. The U.S. Geological Survey also installed hydrologic instrumentation at the sites and collected specimens for laboratory testing. The two sites are located on City of Mukilteo open-space land and are about 0.6 kilometers apart. The bluffs at each site are approximately 42 meters high, and rise steeply from the shoreline with 32–35° slopes. The more northerly of the two sites occupies an active landslide and is mostly unvegetated. The other site is forested, and although stable during the preparation of this report, shows evidence of historical and potential landslide activity. The slopes of the bluffs at both sites are mantled by a thin, nonuniform colluvium underlain by clay-rich glacial deposits and tills of the Whidbey Formation or Double Bluff Drift. Till consisting of sand, gravel, and cobbles caps the bluffs and rests on finer grained glacial deposits of sand, silt, and clay. These types of different glacial deposits are dense, vertically fractured, and generally have low permeability, but field observations indicate that locally the deposits are sufficiently permeable to allow lateral flow of water along fractures and subhorizontal boundaries between deposits of different texture. Laboratory tests indicate that many of the deposits are highly plastic, with low hydraulic conductivity, and moderate shear strength. Steep slopes combined with the strength and hydraulic characteristics of the deposits leave the bluffs prone to slope instability, particularly during the wet season when infiltrating rainfall changes moisture content, pore-water pressure, and effective stress within the hillslope. The instrumentation was designed to primarily observe rainfall variability and hydrologic changes in the subsurface that can affect stability of the bluffs, and also to compare the hydrologic

  12. Assessing landslide potential on coastal bluffs near Mukilteo, Washington—Geologic site characterization for hydrologic monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mirus, Benjamin B.; Smith, Joel B.; Benjamin Stark; York Lewis; Abigail Michel; Baum, Rex L.

    2016-01-01

    During the summer 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey collected geologic and geotechnical data for two sites on coastal bluffs along the eastern shore of Puget Sound, Washington. The U.S. Geological Survey also installed hydrologic instrumentation at the sites and collected specimens for laboratory testing. The two sites are located on City of Mukilteo open-space land and are about 0.6 kilometers apart. The bluffs at each site are approximately 42 meters high, and rise steeply from the shoreline with 32–35° slopes. The more northerly of the two sites occupies an active landslide and is mostly unvegetated. The other site is forested, and although stable during the preparation of this report, shows evidence of historical and potential landslide activity. The slopes of the bluffs at both sites are mantled by a thin, nonuniform colluvium underlain by clay-rich glacial deposits and tills of the Whidbey Formation or Double Bluff Drift. Till consisting of sand, gravel, and cobbles caps the bluffs and rests on finer grained glacial deposits of sand, silt, and clay. These types of different glacial deposits are dense, vertically fractured, and generally have low permeability, but field observations indicate that locally the deposits are sufficiently permeable to allow lateral flow of water along fractures and subhorizontal boundaries between deposits of different texture. Laboratory tests indicate that many of the deposits are highly plastic, with low hydraulic conductivity, and moderate shear strength. Steep slopes combined with the strength and hydraulic characteristics of the deposits leave the bluffs prone to slope instability, particularly during the wet season when infiltrating rainfall changes moisture content, pore-water pressure, and effective stress within the hillslope. The instrumentation was designed to primarily observe rainfall variability and hydrologic changes in the subsurface that can affect stability of the bluffs, and also to compare the hydrologic

  13. Using remote sensing data for exploitation of integrated renewable energy at coastal site in South Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calaudi, Rosamaria; Lo Feudo, Teresa; Calidonna, Claudia Roberta; Sempreviva, Anna Maria

    2016-04-01

    Renewable energy sources are major components of the strategy to reduce harmful emissions and to replace depleting fossil energy resources. Data from Remote Sensing can provide detailed information for analysis for sources of renewable energy and to determine the potential energy and socially acceptability of suggested location. Coastal sites of Southern Italy have the advantage of favorable climatic conditions to use renewable energy, such us cloud free days and local breeze phenomena. Many ports are located where they have opportunities for exploitation of renewable energy, by using existing port area and by taking advantage of their coastal locations. Policies of European-Committee and Global-Navigation-PIANC for a better use of energy and an efficient supply from renewable sources are also focused on the construction of port facilities in zero emissions. Using data from Remote Sensing, can reduce the financial resources currently required for finding and assessing suitable areas, we defined an integrated methodology for potential wind and solar energy in harbor areas. In this study we compared the hourly solar power energy using MSG-SEVIRI (Meteosat Second Generation Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared) data products DSSF (Down-welling Surface Short-wave-Flux), and PV-Plant measurements with Nominal Power Peak of 19,85 kWp. The PV Plant is situated at a coastal site in Calabrian region, located near Vibo Valentia harbor area. We estimate potential energy by using input solar radiation of Satellite data, with same characteristics of the PV-plant. The RMSE and BIAS for hourly averaged solar electrical reproducibility are estimated including clear and sky conditions. Comparison between energy reproducibility by using DSSF product and PV-plant measurements, made over the period October 2013-June 2014, showed a good agreement in our costal site and generally overestimate (RMSE(35W/m2) and BIAS(4W/m2)) electrical reproducibility from a PV-plant. For wind resource

  14. ERTS surveys a 500 km squared locust breeding site in Saudi Arabia. [Red Sea coastal plain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pedgley, D. E.

    1974-01-01

    From September 1972 to January 1973, ERTS-1 precisely located a 500 sq km area on the Red Sea coastal plain of Saudi Arabia within which the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria, Forsk.) bred successfully and produced many small swarms. Growth of vegetation shown by satellite imagery was confirmed from ground surveys and raingauge data. The experiment demonstrates the feasibility of detecting potential locust breeding sites by satellite, and shows that an operational satellite would be a powerful tool for routine survey of the 3 x 10 to the 7th power sq km invasion area of the Desert Locust in Africa and Asia, as well as of other locust species in the arid and semi-arid tropics.

  15. DEVELOPING SITE-SPECIFIC MODELS FOR FORECASTING BACTERIA LEVELS AT COASTAL BEACHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.Beaches Environmental Assessment and Coastal Health Act of 2000 authorizes studies of pathogen indicators in coastal recreation waters that develop appropriate, accurate, expeditious, and cost-effective methods (including predictive models) for quantifying pathogens in co...

  16. Short-term covariation of dissolved oxygen and phytoplankton photosynthesis in a coastal fish aquaculture site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshikawa, Takashi; Murata, Osamu; Furuya, Ken; Eguchi, Mitsuru

    2007-09-01

    The influence of phytoplankton photosynthesis (PP) on dissolved oxygen (DO) dynamics was evaluated in a red sea bream ( Pagrus major) aquaculture site. The surface PP was monitored continuously by a natural fluorescence sensor for 2-3 weeks during all seasons, except spring. In summer, when the daily PP was low during cloudy weather, DO at the surface markedly decreased below the critical level (5.7 mg O 2 L -1), which is needed for normal fish growth. However, on the subsequent clear day, active PP restored the DO back to above the critical level. In fall, under cloudy skies, the surface DO also decreased below the critical level and remained there, even when the subsequent days were clear. In winter, DO remained at high levels throughout the water column due to an active supply from the air and vertical mixing. Besides seasonal changes, surface DO showed a diel cycle with a minimum early in the morning and maximum in the evening. This diel cycle was also regulated by planktonic photosynthesis. This was most obvious and its amplitude was largest in summer, as PP was very high and thermal stratification prevented diffusion of DO from the surface to deeper water. The present study is the first detailed report on the close coupling of DO with PP in coastal waters, even under non-bloom conditions. Cloudy weather and early mornings were found to be the most critical periods in oxygen supply to cultured fish and other pelagic organisms in a fish culture site and other eutrophic coastal area.

  17. Organochlorines in sediments and mussels collected from coastal sites along the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhan-qiang

    2004-01-01

    The level and pattern of residues of organochlorine pesticide and polychlorinated biphenyls(PCBs) were analyzed in sediment and mussel (Perna viridis) samples from ten coastal sites along the Pearl River Delta, South China. The range of total HCH was < 0.01 to 0.29 ng/g freeze-dried weight in sediment, and < 0.01 to 1.35 ng/g lipid weight in mussels. Average total DDTs concentrations ranged from < 0.01 to 1.04 ng/g in sediment, and < 0.01 to 148.5 ng/g in mussels. Average total PCB concentrations ranged from 16.4 to 198.6 ng/g in sediment, and from 41 to 729.2 ng/g in mussels. Organochlorine pesticide and PCBs in mussels and sediments presented similar distribution patterns. The regression analysis indicated that PCBs concentrations in mussels were significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with concentrations in sediments. However, their concentrations in mussels were several times higher than the concentration detected in surrounding sediments. The major fraction of DDT related compounds measured in mussels and sediments was DDD. Based on average PCB concentrations, penta-, hexa-, and tetrachlorobiphenyls were preferentially accumulated by mussels as compared to the average sediment composition. According to the present results,three organochlorine polluted "hot spot" sites, including Victoria Harbour, Lingding Yang and Huangmao Sea, were found in the Pearl River estuarine zone. HCHs, DDTs and PCBs in all mussel samples were below the limits of 2, 0.2 and 5.0 microg/g wet weight recommended by the Technical Group of Guangdong Coastal Zone Resource Comprehensive Survey and U. S. Food and Drug Administration.

  18. Modification of Summertime Arctic Cloud Characteristics Between a Coastal and Inland Site

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J. C.; Barnard, James C.; Shaw, William J.

    2006-07-01

    Cloud characteristics at two sites on the North Slope of Alaska separated by ~100 km have been examined for the warmer months of 2001–2003 using data collected from microwave radiometers, ceilometers, rotating shadowband radiometers, and pyranometers. Clouds at the inland site, Atqasuk, were found to have approximately 26% greater optical depths than those at the coastal site, Barrow, and the ratio of measured irradiance to clear sky irradiance was nearly 20% smaller at Atqasuk under cloudy conditions. We hypothesize that these differences are largely attributable to enhanced upward fluxes of heat and water vapor over the wet tundra as clouds move inland from Barrow. Further support for this hypothesis is found from the behavior of the liquid water paths for low clouds, which tend to be higher at Atqasuk than at Barrow for onshore winds but not for offshore ones, and from differences in sensible heat fluxes, which are small but significant over the tundra but are nearly zero at an offshore island located just to the northeast of Barrow.

  19. Sunburn risk among children and outdoor workers in South Africa and Reunion Island coastal sites.

    PubMed

    Wright, Caradee Y; Brogniez, Colette; Ncongwane, Katlego P; Sivakumar, Venkataraman; Coetzee, Gerrie; Metzger, Jean-Marc; Auriol, Frédérique; Deroo, Christine; Sauvage, Béatrice

    2013-01-01

    To estimate potential sunburn risk for schoolchildren and outdoor workers, ground-based ambient solar ultraviolet radiation (UVR) measurements were converted into possible child (5% of ambient solar UVR) and outdoor worker (20% of ambient solar UVR) solar UVR exposures by skin type and season for three coastal sites: Durban, Cape Point (South Africa) and Saint Denis (Reunion Island, France). Cumulative daily ambient solar UVR levels were relatively high at all sites, especially during summer, with maximum values of about 67, 57 and 74 Standard Erythemal Dose (SED) (1 SED = 100 J m(-2)) at Durban, Cape Point and Saint Denis respectively. Sunburn risk was evident for both children and outdoor workers, especially those with skin types I and II (extremely to moderately sensitive) during summer, early autumn and/or late spring at all three sites. Although results need to be verified with real-time, instantaneous and nonintegrated personal solar UVR measurements, this understanding of sunburn risk is useful for initiating the development skin cancer prevention and sun protection awareness campaigns in both countries.

  20. Investigation of processes controlling summertime gaseous elemental mercury oxidation at midlatitudinal marine, coastal, and inland sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Zhuyun; Mao, Huiting; Lin, Che-Jen; Kim, Su Youn

    2016-07-01

    A box model incorporating a state-of-the-art chemical mechanism for atmospheric mercury (Hg) cycling was developed to investigate the oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) at three locations in the northeastern United States: Appledore Island (AI; marine), Thompson Farm (TF; coastal, rural), and Pack Monadnock (PM; inland, rural, elevated). The chemical mechanism in this box model included the most up-to-date Hg and halogen chemistry. As a result, the box model was able to simulate reasonably the observed diurnal cycles of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) and chemical speciation bearing distinct differences between the three sites. In agreement with observations, simulated GOM diurnal cycles at AI and TF showed significant daytime peaks in the afternoon and nighttime minimums compared to flat GOM diurnal cycles at PM. Moreover, significant differences in the magnitude of GOM diurnal amplitude (AI > TF > PM) were captured in modeled results. At the coastal and inland sites, GEM oxidation was predominated by O3 and OH, contributing 80-99 % of total GOM production during daytime. H2O2-initiated GEM oxidation was significant (˜ 33 % of the total GOM) at the inland site during nighttime. In the marine boundary layer (MBL) atmosphere, Br and BrO became dominant GEM oxidants, with mixing ratios reaching 0.1 and 1 pptv, respectively, and contributing ˜ 70 % of the total GOM production during midday, while O3 dominated GEM oxidation (50-90 % of GOM production) over the remaining day when Br and BrO mixing ratios were diminished. The majority of HgBr produced from GEM+Br was oxidized by NO2 and HO2 to form brominated GOM species. Relative humidity and products of the CH3O2+BrO reaction possibly significantly affected the mixing ratios of Br or BrO radicals and subsequently GOM formation. Gas-particle partitioning could potentially be important in the production of GOM as well as Br and BrO at the marine site.

  1. Spatial variations of temperature on a coastal site in Sweden as a response to insolation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vercauteren, N.; Dahlberg, J.; Lam, N.; Destouni, G.; Hylander, K.

    2012-04-01

    Temperature and humidity are major factors controlling ecosystem development. In a context of changing climate, the spatial distribution of temperature is likely to be affected, and species distribution might be subsequently modified. In particular, topographic heterogeneity is affecting the micro-climate and thus regulates the expansion or restriction of species in a landscape. During a change of climate, certain species might become restricted to localized refugia, or on the contrary expand from old refugia when the overall landscape becomes favorable. In this research we are using GIS based model of incoming solar radiation and subsequently derived monthly averaged temperatures to increase the understanding of changes in local climate and how it affects species repartition. The model is based on topography and observed variations in atmospheric conditions and is accounting for site latitude, elevation, surface orientation, daily and seasonal shifts in sun angle and the effect of shadows from the surrounding topography. A 2500 km2 forested field site located on the western coast of Sweden, along the Baltic Sea, is investigated both in terms of temperature heterogeneity and plant communities. We derive 50 m resolution insolation maps and analyze the response of monthly temperature to insolation. Surface and near surface temperatures are measured by a dense network of temperature sensors during the spring and summer of 2011 and are used for comparison with the modeled temperature maps. We investigate the potential of this modeling approach to scale climate trend analysis down to local climate change in heterogeneous landscapes. We build on the methodology used by Huang et al. (2008) in a mountain ecosystem and develop it for use on a coastal site that is largely influence by the presence of the sea. The time lag that is appropriate between insolation and subsequent temperature response appears to be influenced by the presence of a large water body and follows an

  2. Byers Peninsula: A reference site for coastal, terrestrial and limnetic ecosystem studies in maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quesada, A.; Camacho, A.; Rochera, C.; Velázquez, D.

    2009-11-01

    This article describes the development of an international and multidisciplinary project funded by the Spanish Polar Programme on Byers Peninsula (Livingston Island, South Shetlands). The project adopted Byers Peninsula as an international reference site for coastal and terrestrial (including inland waters) research within the framework of the International Polar Year initiative. Over 30 scientists from 12 countries and 26 institutions participated in the field work, and many others participated in the processing of the samples. The main themes investigated were: Holocene changes in climate, using both lacustrine sediment cores and palaeo-nests of penguins; limnology of the lakes, ponds, rivers and wetlands; microbiology of microbial mats, ecology of microbial food webs and viral effects on aquatic ecosystems; ornithology, with investigations on a Gentoo penguin rookery ( Pygoscelis papua) as well as the flying ornithofauna; biocomplexity and life cycles of species from different taxonomic groups; analysis of a complete watershed unit from a landscape perspective; and human impacts, specifically the effect of trampling on soil characteristics and biota. Byers Peninsula offers many features as an international reference site given it is one of the largest ice-free areas in the Antarctic Peninsula region, it has a variety of different landscape units, and it hosts diverse aquatic ecosystems. Moreover, the Byers Peninsula is a hotspot for Antarctic biodiversity, and because of its high level of environmental protection, it has been very little affected by human activities. Finally, the proximity to the Spanish polar installations on Livingston Island and the experience derived from previous expeditions to the site make it logistically feasible as a site for ongoing monitoring and research.

  3. Classifications for Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act site-specific projects: 2008 and 2009

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, William R.; Garber, Adrienne

    2012-01-01

    The Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) funds over 100 wetland restoration projects across Louisiana. Integral to the success of CWPPRA is its long-term monitoring program, which enables State and Federal agencies to determine the effectiveness of each restoration effort. One component of this monitoring program is the analysis of high-resolution, color-infrared aerial photography at the U.S. Geological Survey's National Wetlands Research Center in Lafayette, Louisiana. Color-infrared aerial photography (9- by 9-inch) is obtained before project construction and several times after construction. Each frame is scanned on a photogrametric scanner that produces a high-resolution image in Tagged Image File Format (TIFF). By using image-processing software, these TIFF files are then orthorectified and mosaicked to produce a seamless image of a project area and its associated reference area (a control site near the project that has common environmental features, such as marsh type, soil types, and water salinities.) The project and reference areas are then classified according to pixel value into two distinct classes, land and water. After initial land and water ratios have been established by using photography obtained before and after project construction, subsequent comparisons can be made over time to determine land-water change. Several challenges are associated with the land-water interpretation process. Primarily, land-water classifications are often complicated by the presence of floating aquatic vegetation that occurs throughout the freshwater systems of coastal Louisiana and that is sometimes difficult to differentiate from emergent marsh. Other challenges include tidal fluctuations and water movement from strong winds, which may result in flooding and inundation of emergent marsh during certain conditions. Compensating for these events is difficult but possible by using other sources of imagery to verify marsh conditions for other

  4. Temporal evolution of aerosol derived from N2-Raman lidar at a Mediterranean coastal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shang, Xiaoxia; Chazette, Patrick; Totems, Julien

    2016-04-01

    Following the temporal variability of the aerosols in the atmospheric column on coastal areas is challenging. In situ ground-based or integrated column properties are not enough to understand the sea-continent exchange processes and identify the sources of particles. Now classical approach using the synergy between passive (e.g. sunphotometer) and active (e.g. backscatter lidar) instruments gives only a partial view of the aerosol properties, because they could be highly heterogeneous in the lower and middle troposphere. On June-July 2014, an automatic N2-Raman lidar (355 nm) was installed at a coastal site close to Toulon in the South of France. Using the coupling between cross-polarized elastic and N2-Raman channels, various aerosol natures are identified all along the time and against the altitude. Specific regularization algorithms have been tested to improve the aerosol classification. The results of these tests will be presented in terms of sensitivity studies based on the Monte Carlo approach. Selecting the most appropriate inversion method of the lidar profiles, the aerosol types encountered during the field campaign will be presented. We will also discuss their origin and the sea-continent exchanges including the sea breeze effect. We will see that a proper identification of particles passes through analyses coupling satellite observations and air mass trajectory studies. Acknowledgments: The experiments have been funded by the Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives (CEA), the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES), and the Centre national de la recherchescientifique (CNRS). We thank Université de Toulon (SeaTech Engineering School) for their hosts. The Institut Pierre Simon Laplace (IPSL), Labex IPSL, is also acknowledged for its support in the data simulations and analyses.

  5. Use of a coastal biogeochemical model to select environmental monitoring sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wild-Allen, Karen; Thompson, Peter A.; Volkman, John K.; Parslow, John

    2011-10-01

    A method for the spatial selection of sites for a coastal environmental monitoring system is described. The study was completed in southeastern Tasmania, Australia, but the method can be applied in all regions with validated biogeochemical models. A 3-dimensional coupled hydrodynamic, sediment and biogeochemical model with high spatial and temporal resolution was validated against observations collected throughout 2002 and found to capture the essential features of the biogeochemical dynamics of the system. The model was used to predict the possible quantitative environmental impact of a projected increase in fish farming activity in the region. Integrated impacts of fish farm waste on labile nitrogen, phosphorus, chlorophyll and dissolved oxygen concentrations in the water column were spatially ranked to identify the most likely places to detect environmental change due to fish farming activities. Priority sites were found to be grouped in the Huon Estuary and northern part of the D'Entrecasteaux Channel consistent with the residual northward current in the region. The final monitoring program synthesized model and field understanding to ensure adequate spatial and temporal sampling of the region.

  6. Geophysical detection of on-site wastewater plumes in the North Carolina Coastal Plain, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Matthew

    Nonpoint source pollution (NPS) continues to be the leading cause of water quality degradation in the United States. On-site wastewater systems (OWS) contribute to NPS; however, due to the range of system designs and complexity of the subsurface, OWS contributions to groundwater pollution are not well understood. As the population of coastal North Carolina continues to increase, better methods to locate and characterize wastewater impacted groundwater are needed. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of non-intrusive geophysical methods to provide high resolution information on various contaminants in different geologic settings. The goals of this study were to evaluate the utility of ground penetrating radar (GPR) and capacitively coupled resistivity (CCR) for detecting OWS components, delineating associated wastewater plumes, and monitoring temporal variations in groundwater quality. Cross-sectional and three dimensional (3D) geophysical surveys were conducted periodically over a one year period (February 2011--January 2012) at two schools utilizing OWS in the lower Neuse River Basin (NRB) in the North Carolina Coastal Plain (NCCP). Cores were collected at both study sites; as well as monthly groundwater depth, temperature, and specific conductivity measurements to better constrain the geophysical interpretations. Additionally, dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and Cl concentrations were monitored bi-monthly to assess nutrient transport at the sites. The 3D GPR surveys effectively located the wastewater drainage trenches at both sites, in close agreement with locations described in as-built OWS blueprints. Regression analysis of resistivity versus groundwater specific conductivity revealed an inverse relationship, suggesting resistivity ≤ 250 ohm.m was indicative of wastewater impacted groundwater at both sites. The 3D resistivity models identified regions of low resistivity beneath the drainfields relative to background values. Regression analysis of

  7. Lower tropospheric ozone and aerosol measurements at a coastal mountain site in Central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, A.; Faloona, I. C.; Lighthall, D.; Wexler, A. S.; Cliff, S. S.; Conley, S. A.; Zhao, Y.

    2013-12-01

    Increasing concern over the impacts of exogenous air pollution in California's Central Valley has prompted the establishment of a coastal, high altitude monitoring site at the Chews Ridge Observatory (1550 m) approximately 30 km east of Point Sur in Monterey County, operated by the Monterey Institute for Research in Astronomy. Eighteen months of ozone and aerosol measurements are presented in the context of long-range transport and its potential impact on surface air quality in the southern San Joaquin Valley. Moreover, several ozone surveys have been conducted by aircraft upwind, over the Pacific Ocean, and downwind, over the Central Valley, to characterize horizontal and vertical transport across the coastal mountains. Diurnal variations present at Chews Ridge indicate the formation of a convective boundary layer on the ridge during the daytime leading to a 6-8 ppb decrease in ozone accompanied by a rise in specific humidity of 2-3 g/kg due to coupling with the forest. During the nighttime, the sampled air masses are representative of free tropospheric conditions which have not been significantly influenced by either local emissions nor convective coupling to the surface. The maximum daily 8-hour average ozone concentration at Chews Ridge is used in lagged correlation analysis with two sites in the San Joaquin Valley, Fresno and Arvin, to de-emphasize the influence of locally produced, diurnally cycled ozone. The correlation coefficients (~0.60) peak between 9-21 hour lag and tend to decorrelate completely within 4-5 days. These and other analyses along with data provided by the aircraft sampling are used to provide a deeper understanding of ozone transport into the San Joaquin Valley. Aerosol size is measured with a scanning mobility particle sizer and composition is analyzed with an 8-stage rotating drum impactor whose substrates are characterized by X-ray fluorescence. Various elemental ratios and back trajectory calculations are used to infer the temporal

  8. Classifications for Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) site-specific projects: 2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, William R.; Garber, Adrienne

    2013-01-01

    The Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act (CWPPRA) funds over 100 wetland restoration projects across Louisiana. Integral to the success of CWPPRA is its long-term monitoring program, which enables State and Federal agencies to determine the effectiveness of each restoration effort. One component of this monitoring program is the classification of high-resolution, color-infrared aerial photography at the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Wetlands Research Center in Lafayette, Louisiana. Color-infrared aerial photography (9- by 9-inch) is obtained before project construction and several times after construction. Each frame is scanned on a photogrametric scanner that produces a high-resolution image in Tagged Image File Format (TIFF). By using image-processing software, these TIFF files are then orthorectified and mosaicked to produce a seamless image of a project area and its associated reference area (a control site near the project that has common environmental features, such as marsh type, soil types, and water salinities.) The project and reference areas are then classified according to pixel value into two distinct classes, land and water. After initial land and water ratios have been established by using photography obtained before and after project construction, subsequent comparisons can be made over time to determine land-water change.

  9. Phytoplankton temporal changes in a coastal northern Adriatic site during the last 25 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrini, Marina; Fornasaro, Daniela; Cossarini, Gianpiero; Lipizer, Marina; Virgilio, Damiano

    2012-12-01

    There is an increasing awareness of the relationships among key phytoplankton groups and their role in biogeochemical cycles; however, less is known about the temporal scales of variability in biodiversity of the phytoplankton community. In the present study a long-term data set (1986-2010) of phytoplankton abundance is used to investigate the temporal variability of the phytoplankton community at a coastal site in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea). The interannual variability of the phytoplankton community shows two major periods in terms of abundance and community composition. The first one, 1986-1994, was characterized by the highest abundances of microalgae and the dominance of phytoflagellates. The second period (1995-2007) showed lower abundances and a collapse of phytoflagellates. Lastly, an apparent new increase in abundances has been recorded during recent years (2008-2010). On a seasonal scale, a classical cycle with two maxima (spring and autumn) and a summer minimum is evident. Diatoms are the most abundant group of the late winter-early spring bloom whereas phytoflagellates, the most abundant group throughout the year, dominate the late spring blooms. Dinoflagellates and coccolithophores have low abundances and show their maxima in summer and autumn, respectively. The species composition has been analysed according to the Indicator Value Index, highlighting the more frequent and abundant taxa for each month. Results show that the winter months are characterized by coccolithophores, in spring small diatoms are dominant, dinoflagellates and larger diatoms are typical in summer, and coccolithophores and diatom colonies characterise the autumn.

  10. PRIAMO project: a feasibility study on Sicilian sites for sea power plants in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribotti, A.; Borghini, M.; Cucco, A.; De Domenico, E.; Dibenedetto, V.; Fazioli, L.; Genovese, L.; Iaria, G.; Olita, A.; Raffa, F.; Schroeder, K.; Sorgente, R.; Spanò, N.

    2012-04-01

    The increasing demand for renewable energy sources has recently favoured the exploitation of wind energy and photovoltaic, with strong repercussions on the landscape due to the visual impact of wind turbines and of the photovoltaic panels. A policy protecting the landscape suggests to focus on innovative solutions that enable the use of renewable energy and a low visual impact. This can be done with extensive offshore diving equipment installed in the sea, formed by turbines that use ocean currents to produce electric energy. The accommodation at sea, as well as offering greater availability of sites, has the advantage of giving a better and relatively constant resource with maximum efficiency and productivity. The international scenario suggests the need to identify sites potentially suitable and safe for energy use, placed at a distance from the coast at depths with bathymetric characteristics that make the power plant installation safe and technologically and economically feasible. In this context, the project PRIAMO (Planning, Research and Innovation in a Oriented Marine Environment), funded by the European Commission through the Sicilian Regional Operational Programme (POR), aims to verify the potential suitability of two Sicilian coastal sites, i.e. the Strait of Messina and a stretch of coast near Capo Granitola (Strait of Sicily). The work is realised with a view to the exploitation of marine currents that will be studied through the use of existing or new numerical models from the open sea to the coastal scale, then evaluating its cost-effectiveness in collaboration with Atlantis Resources Corp. Pte. Ltd (UK), European manufacturer of underwater turbines. An environmental study is done through monitoring and remediation techniques to assess the potential size of the foundation structure: sedimentological and morpho-bathymetric characteristics of the bottom, depth, steepness of the seabed, benthic biocoenoses, and load-bearing capacity of the area affected

  11. Dynamics of mesozooplankton assemblages in subtropical coastal waters of Hong Kong: A comparative study between a eutrophic estuarine and a mesotrophic coastal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Mianrun; Chen, Bingzhang; Harrison, Paul; Liu, Hongbin

    2011-07-01

    A monthly comparative study of mesozooplankton biomass and composition between a eutrophic Pearl River estuarine site (WE) and a mesotrophic coastal-oceanic site (EO) in Hong Kong waters was conducted to examine the response of mesozooplankton to nutrient-rich riverine discharge. Although the annual average mesozooplankton biomass was higher at WE than at EO, they were not statistically significant. Variations of mesozooplankton biomass at both stations followed similar trends of Chl a concentrations, with the exception of July at WE where mesozooplankton biomass was low but total Chl a was high. This mismatch may be due to the high flushing effect of the Pearl River discharge in summer and a time lag in mesozooplankton population growth. On the other hand, the composition of mesozooplankton was significantly modified by riverine discharge and eutrophication conditions. While small copepods dominated at both sites, the eutrophic estuarine water had a high abundance of barnacle and polychaete larvae, while cladocerans, bivalve larvae, gastropod larvae and chaetognaths mainly occurred at EO. Eutrophication increased the top-down role of copepods in the grazing community, revealed by an increase in the percentage of copepods in the total metazoan mesozooplankton, especially during the period of high river discharge. Moreover, mesozooplankton diversity at the two stations was similar, and they both showed relatively higher diversity during autumn and winter and lower diversity during summer, especially at WE. These results suggest that, despite high nutrient and Chl a concentrations in estuarine waters, mesozooplankton biomass were not enhanced compared to coastal waters with no river impact, possibly due to poor food quality and increased predation in the eutrophic estuarine waters.

  12. Floristic Quality Index: An assessment tool for restoration projects and monitoring sites in coastal Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cretini, K.F.; Steyer, G.D.

    2011-01-01

    The Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) program was established to assess the effectiveness of individual coastal restoration projects and the cumulative effects of multiple projects at regional and coastwide scales. In order to make these assessments, analytical teams have been assembled for each of the primary data types sampled under the CRMS program, including vegetation, hydrology, landscape, and soils. These teams consist of scientists and support staff from the U.S. Geological Survey and other Federal agencies, the Louisiana Office of Coastal Protection and Restoration, and university academics. Each team is responsible for developing or identifying parameters, indices, or tools that can be used to assess coastal wetlands at various scales. The CRMS Vegetation Analytical Team has developed a Floristic Quality Index for coastal Louisiana to determine the quality of a wetland based on its plant species composition and abundance.

  13. Variability of surface roughness and turbulence intensities at a coastal site in India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramachandran, Radhika; Prakash, J. Winston Jeeva; Gupta, K. Sen; Nair, K. Narayanan; Kunhikrishnan, P. K.

    1994-09-01

    Surface-layer features with different prevailing wind directions for two distinct seasons (Southwest Monsoon and Northeast Monsoon) on the west coast of India are studied using data obtained from tower-based sensors at a site located about 500 m from the coast. Only daytime runs have been used for the present analysis. The surface boundary-layer fluxes have been estimated using the eddy correlation method. The surface roughness z 0 obtained using the stability-corrected wind profiles (Paulson, 1970) has been found to be low for the Southwest monsson season. For the other season, z 0 is relatively high. The drag coefficient C D varies with height in the NE monsoon season but not in the season with low z 0. This aspect is reflected in the wind profiles for the two seasons and is discussed in detail. The scaling behaviour of friction velocity u * and the turbulence intensity of longitudinal, lateral and vertical winds σu, σv and σw, respectively) are further examined to study their dependence on fetch. Our study shows that for the non-dimensional case, σu/u* and σv/u* do not show any surface roughness dependence in either season. On the other hand, for σw/u* for the season with low z 0, the values are seen to agree well with that of Panofsky et al. (1977) for homogeneous terrain whereas for the other season with high z 0, the results seem to conform more to the values observed by Smedman and Högström (1983) for coastal terrain. The results are discussed in the light of observations by other investigators.

  14. Impact of wildfires on size-resolved aerosol composition at a coastal California site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maudlin, L. C.; Wang, Z.; Jonsson, H. H.; Sorooshian, A.

    2015-10-01

    Size-resolved aerosol composition measurements were conducted at a coastal site in central California during the Nucleation in California Experiment (NiCE) between July and August of 2013. The site is just east of ship and marine emission sources and is also influenced by continental pollution and wildfires, such as those near the California-Oregon border which occurred near the end of NiCE. Two micro-orifice uniform deposit impactors (MOUDIs) were used, and water-soluble and elemental compositions were measured. The five most abundant water-soluble species (in decreasing order) were chloride, sodium, non-sea salt (nss) sulfate, ammonium, and nitrate. During wildfire periods, nss K mass concentrations were not enhanced as strongly as other species in the sub-micrometer stages and even decreased in the super-micrometer stages; species other than nss K are more reliable tracers for biomass burning in this region. Chloride levels were reduced in the fire sets likely due to chloride depletion by inorganic and organic acids that exhibited elevated levels in transported plumes. During wildfire periods, the mass size distribution of most dicarboxylic acids changed from unimodal to bimodal with peaks in the 0.32 μm and 1.0-1.8 μm stages. Furthermore, sulfate's peak concentration shifted from the 0.32 μm to 0.56 μm stage, and nitrate also shifted to larger sizes (1.0 μm to 1.8-3.2 μm stages). Mass concentrations of numerous soil tracer species (e.g., Si, Fe) were strongly enhanced in samples influenced by wildfires, especially in the sub-micrometer range. Airborne cloud water data confirm that soil species were associated with fire plumes transported south along the coast. In the absence of biomass burning, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) composition is dominated by nss sulfate and ammonium, and the water-soluble organic fraction is dominated by methanesulfonate, whereas for the samples influenced by wildfires, ammonium becomes the dominant overall species, and

  15. Managing Data, Provenance and Chaos through Standardization and Automation at the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems LTER Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, W.

    2013-12-01

    Managing data for a large, multidisciplinary research program such as a Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) site is a significant challenge, but also presents unique opportunities for data stewardship. LTER research is conducted within multiple organizational frameworks (i.e. a specific LTER site as well as the broader LTER network), and addresses both specific goals defined in an NSF proposal as well as broader goals of the network; therefore, every LTER data can be linked to rich contextual information to guide interpretation and comparison. The challenge is how to link the data to this wealth of contextual metadata. At the Georgia Coastal Ecosystems LTER we developed an integrated information management system (GCE-IMS) to manage, archive and distribute data, metadata and other research products as well as manage project logistics, administration and governance (figure 1). This system allows us to store all project information in one place, and provide dynamic links through web applications and services to ensure content is always up to date on the web as well as in data set metadata. The database model supports tracking changes over time in personnel roles, projects and governance decisions, allowing these databases to serve as canonical sources of project history. Storing project information in a central database has also allowed us to standardize both the formatting and content of critical project information, including personnel names, roles, keywords, place names, attribute names, units, and instrumentation, providing consistency and improving data and metadata comparability. Lookup services for these standard terms also simplify data entry in web and database interfaces. We have also coupled the GCE-IMS to our MATLAB- and Python-based data processing tools (i.e. through database connections) to automate metadata generation and packaging of tabular and GIS data products for distribution. Data processing history is automatically tracked throughout the data

  16. Coastal Circulation and Potential Disease Pathways Among Aquaculture Sites Near the Eastern U.S.- Canadian Border.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, D. A.

    2002-12-01

    Infectious Salmon Anemia (ISA) is a flu-like virus that can be transmitted between aquaculture sites by tides and currents, contaminated boats and equipment, fish wastes, and ectoparasites. In 1997 ISA outbreaks were reported in Canadian net-pen aquaculture sites in Passamaquoddy Bay, near the mouth of the Bay of Fundy. In March 2001, the first incidence of ISA in the United States occurred at a site near the entrance to Cobscook Bay, about 5 km west of previously infected sites in Canada. In December 2001, it was necessary to destroy Cobscook fish worth about \\12 million at maturity, decimating the local industry. Most net-pen sites are located in protected bays east of Penobscot Bay, Maine, where large tides and cold waters are favorable for aquaculture. Chaotic tidal mixing provides a ready supply of nutrients and oxygen, and also a potential mechanism for ISA transmission within and between coastal bays. In cold water (~6°$C), the ISA virus may remain infective for several days or longer, according to a recent report from a joint government/industry study in Scotland. Recent model studies indicate rapid spreading of neutral particles over distances of 5 km or more, possibly linking Cobscook and Passamaquoddy Bays within a few tidal cycles. On a larger scale, observations and models show the seasonal development of a coastal current that flows southwestward from the Saint John River in the Bay of Fundy toward Penobscot Bay, where the current generally turns offshore to become part of the circulation in the Gulf of Maine. Tidal excursions superimposed on the nontidal coastal current can result in particle displacements of 10-20 km per day, raising concerns about further migration of fish disease pathogens along the Maine coast.

  17. The relationship between Holocene cultural site distribution and marine terrace uplift on the coast fringing Coastal Range, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Hsiaochin; Chen, Wenshan

    2013-04-01

    According to the collision of Philippine Sea plate and Eurasia plate, a series of left-lateral active faults with reverse sense exists in the Longitudinal Valley of east Taiwan. The Holocene marine terraces along the east coast of the Coastal Range in Taiwan are well known for their very rapid uplift and record tectonic history of this active collision boundary. The Holocene marine terrace sequence resulting from successive sea level change and tectonic activation is subdivided into several steps where the highest and oldest terrace, back to ca 13,000yr BP, reaches up to ca 80 m above sea level, and the lower terraces are mostly erosional ones, overlain by less than 1m thick coral beds in situ. The uplift of the coast is very high, ranging from 5 to 10 m/ka. According to the fabrics of potsherds and geochronological data, the prehistoric cultures in eastern Taiwan could be classified into three stages: Fushan (ca 5000-3500yr BP), Peinan/Chilin (ca3500-2000yr BP), Kweishan (ca2000-1000 yr BP) and Jinpu (ca 1000-400yr BP) cultural assemblages respectively. A great difference exists between the various cultural stage, not only the pottery making techniques, but also the distributions of archaeological sites. Combined with the dynamic geomorphic evolution of marine terraces and the distribution of prehistoric culture sites on the east coast of the Coastal Range, a coastal migration trend could be established.

  18. Physical and Chemical Properties of Aerosols at the Tropical Coastal Site, Trivandrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Susan K.; Nair, Prabha R.; Parameswaran, Krishnaswamy; Jacob, Salu; Abraham, Annamma; Abhilash, K. S.

    The influence of tropospheric aerosols on the regional climate is fairly well accepted though there exists large uncertainties in assessing its exact magnitude. This is mainly due to the fact that the aerosol properties are highly variable at short spatial and temporal extents and the information available is rather limited. To overcome these deficiency it is highly essential to gather and analyse long term data covering different seasons over varying climatic regimes. Trivandrum (8.55o N, 77o E), a tropical coastal site situated near the southern tip of Indian Peninsula, is a location where systematic monitoring of different aerosol parameters are being carried out since last two decades. With progressing time new techniques and instruments are also being incorporated. This paper presents the results from the observations on aerosols carried out during the period 2003 to 2005 at this location. Different aerosol properties such as total mass concentration, number density, size distribution, optical depth, chemical composition, etc. are studied systematically during this period. A High Volume Sampler (for measuring total mass loading), Aerosol Spectrometer (for measuring size segregated number density from which size distribution can be derived), and Microtops Sunphotometer (which measures optical depth at 1020 nm) are used to study the physical/optical properties of aerosols. The chemical composition of atmospheric aerosols is examined employing Ion Chromatography, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy and Inductively Couple Plasma - Atomic Emission Spectroscopy. The mean mass concentration of aerosols observed at this site is 54 µg m-3 , which varies by ±19 µg m-3 depending on season and prevailing meteorology. The aerosol number density is 108 particles/m3 . The mass loading at this location is significantly low compared to the northern parts of India as well as the national ambient air quality standards indicating that the environment is relatively less polluted as

  19. Aerosol optical properties over a coastal site in Goa, along the west coast of India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirodkar, Shilpa; Menon, Harilal B.

    2015-08-01

    Spectral characteristics of the Aerosol optical depths (AODs) measured over a coastal site in Goa (15.46°N and 73.83°E), from a plateau ~50 m above mean sea level, for the period 2008-2010, are analyzed to understand the inter-seasonal and intra-seasonal variability and to delineate different aerosol sources. A Microtops-II sunphotometer having five different wavelengths centered at 0.380, 0.440, 0.500, 0.675 and 0.870 μm was used to estimate AODs in different seasons classified as: winter monsoon season from December to March (WMS), spring inter-monsoon season from April to May (SIMS), summer monsoon season from June to September (SMS) and fall inter-monsoon season from October to November (FIMS). The number of data (AODs) generated in each season is 569 in WMS, 131 in SIMS, 38 in SMS and 256 in FIMS. The highest AOD at 500 nm (AOD500) was recorded in SIMS (0.43±0.18) while the lowest value was observed in SMS (0.32±0.10). The seasonal mean values of Ångström α computed from the least-square method in the wavelength range 0.440-0.870 μm showed higher values (1.23±0.20) in FIMS than those in SMS (0.75±0.34). The highest Ångström β values were noticed in SIMS (0.25±0.10) and lowest in FIMS (0.17±0.06). To make a source appropriation and thus to resolve the complexity of aerosols in the study area, α was computed in different wavelength ranges, viz: short wavelengths (0.440-0.500 μm) and long wavelengths (0.675-0.870 μm), which revealed differing α values for different ranges of wavelengths. To account for the curvature, a second order polynomial fit is introduced. Subsequently, the second-order Ångström exponent (ά) and the coefficient of the second-order polynomial fit are analyzed to understand the dominant aerosol type.

  20. Assessing the impact of historical coastal landfill sites on sensitive ecosystems: A case study from Dorset, Southern England

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Njue, C. N.; Cundy, A. B.; Smith, M.; Green, I. D.; Tomlinson, N.

    2012-12-01

    Uncontrolled landfill disposal can cause the release of significant contamination. In Southern England and in other parts of the UK, historical landfills are located along many coastal and estuarine marshes and mudflats. At these sites waste, often significantly contaminated with heavy metals and other contaminants, was dumped with little engineering control and without regard to the surrounding environment. The aim of this study is to investigate the degree to which heavy metals from these historical sites may have contaminated adjacent marshes and mudflats, using the Lodmoor marsh, Dorset, UK as a test site. Surface and sediment core samples were collected from brackish marsh and mudflat areas around the former landfill at Lodmoor, which was operational between 1949 and 1990. Sediment samples were investigated for metallic pollutants, grain size, and mineralogy, and core samples dated via 137Cs and 210Pb. To examine the transfer of heavy metals through the food chain, Phragmites australis leaves were analysed for metallic pollutants. Geochemical data revealed that sediments from the Lodmoor marsh are probably contaminated with Pb. 137Cs dating indicates that concentration maxima for heavy metals correlate to the 1950s and 1960s when landfill activities commenced in Lodmoor. Shallow electromagnetic surveys indicate potential continued leaching from the historic landfill complex. This study indicates the potential for possible landfill-derived contaminants to persist in coastal systems for decades after landfill closure. Over the longer term, it is possible that salinisation and enhanced coastal erosion may cause significant metal release from the landfills and their surrounding sedimentary systems into adjacent ecosystems.

  1. A comparison of cloud properties at a coastal and inland site at the North Slope of Alaska

    DOE PAGES

    Doran, J. C.; Zhong, S.; Liljegren, J. C.; Jakob, C.

    2002-06-11

    In this study, we have examined differences in cloud liquid water paths (LWPs) at a coastal (Barrow) and an inland (Atqasuk) location on the North Slope of Alaska using microwave radiometer (MWR) data collected by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program for the period June-September 1999. Revised retrieval procedures and a filtering algorithm to eliminate data contaminated by wet windows on the MWRs were employed to extract high-quality data suitable for this study. For clouds with low base heights (<350 m), the LWPs at the coastal site were significantly higher than those at the inland site, butmore » for clouds with higher base heights the differences were small. Air-surface interactions may account for some of the differences. Comparisons were also made between observed LWPs and those simulated with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model. The model usually successfully captured the occurrence of cloudy periods but it underpredicted the LWPs by approximately a factor of two. It was also unsuccessful in reproducing the observed differences in LWPs between Barrow and Atqasuk. Some suggestions on possible improvements in the model are presented.« less

  2. A comparison of cloud properties at a coastal and inland site at the North Slope of Alaska

    SciTech Connect

    Doran, J. C.; Zhong, S.; Liljegren, J. C.; Jakob, C.

    2002-06-11

    In this study, we have examined differences in cloud liquid water paths (LWPs) at a coastal (Barrow) and an inland (Atqasuk) location on the North Slope of Alaska using microwave radiometer (MWR) data collected by the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement program for the period June-September 1999. Revised retrieval procedures and a filtering algorithm to eliminate data contaminated by wet windows on the MWRs were employed to extract high-quality data suitable for this study. For clouds with low base heights (<350 m), the LWPs at the coastal site were significantly higher than those at the inland site, but for clouds with higher base heights the differences were small. Air-surface interactions may account for some of the differences. Comparisons were also made between observed LWPs and those simulated with the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) model. The model usually successfully captured the occurrence of cloudy periods but it underpredicted the LWPs by approximately a factor of two. It was also unsuccessful in reproducing the observed differences in LWPs between Barrow and Atqasuk. Some suggestions on possible improvements in the model are presented.

  3. A comparison of the bacterial microflora between coastal sites in Qingdao, P. R. China and Loch Fyne, Scotland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macinnes, J.; Robertson, P. A. W.; Austin, B.

    2002-10-01

    Aerobic, heterotrophic bacteria, recovered from two sites located on the west coast of Scotland, were compared to cultures obtained in a similar way from industrial, aquacultural and clean sites in the vicinity of Qingdao, Shandong, P. R. China. Gram-negative bacterial cultures were examined by BIOLOG-GN, and the data analysed by the simple matching (SSM) and Jaccard coefficients (SJ) and unweighted average linkage clustering using NTSys. The output revealed that 20% of the bacteria, namely, Acinetobacter johnsonii, Aquaspirillum dispar, Pseudomonas spp. (two groups), Sphingobacterium sp., Vibrio, sp., V. campbellii, V. mimicus and V. hollisae, were common between the two geographical locations. However, the study revealed shortcomings with the BIOLOG-GN system for the study of coastal Gram-negative bacteria.

  4. Below-cloud ammonia scavenging in convective thunderstorms at a coastal research site in Tampa, FL, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizak, Constance A.; Campbell, Scott W.; Luther, Mark E.; Carnahan, Robert P.; Murphy, Robert J.; Poor, Noreen D.

    Sequential sampling of ammonium in wet deposition was conducted at a coastal research site in Tampa, Florida to determine and model the intra-storm variability of ammonium deposition to the Tampa Bay Estuary. Ammonium concentrations decreased with increasing precipitation depth according to an inverse power-law relationship of the form, C=aD, where D is the cumulative rainfall and a and b are fitted parameters. These results show that during a precipitation event, the majority of ammonium is delivered to Tampa Bay during the initial stages of the storm. An aqueous-phase accumulation model was used to predict sequential ammonium concentrations at the Gandy Bridge site with reasonable agreement. A relationship between precipitation intensity and scavenging coefficient will facilitate the calculation of dry and wet deposition of ammonia to the Tampa Bay Estuary. The scavenging coefficients calculated with the Tampa Bay model compared well with those predicted with the Asman model.

  5. Modeling colony site dynamics: a case study of gull-billed terns (Sterna nilotica) in coastal Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Erwin, R.M.; Nichols, J.D.; Eyler, T.B.; Stotts, D.B.; Truitt, B.R.

    1998-01-01

    We developed a Markov process model for colony site dynamics of Gull-billed Terns (Sterna nilotica) in coastal Virginia. We used the model and data on colony site occupation from 1993 to 1996 to estimate model parameters. Each year, we monitored the breeding numbers of Gull-billed Terns and their frequent colony associates, Common Terns (Sterna hirundo) and Black Skimmers (Rynchops niger) at colony sites along about 80 km of the barrier island region of Virginia. We also monitored flooding events and renesting. We developed the model for colony survival, extinction, and recolonization at potential colony sites over the four-year period. We then used data on annual site occupation by Gull-billed Terns to estimate model parameters and test between different structures reflecting competing hypotheses. Results revealed a dynamic system, but provided no evidence that the dynamics were Markovian , i.e. the probability of occupancy of a site in one year was not influenced by whether it had been occupied the previous year. Nor did the colony-level reproductive success the previous season seem to affect the probability of site occupancy. Site survival and recolonization rates were similar, and the overall annual probability of a site being occupied over the course of the four-year period was estimated to be 0.59 Of the total of 25 sites that were used during the four-year period, 16 were used in only one or two years while only three were used all four years.. Flooding and renesting were frequent in both habitat types in all years. The frequent flooding of nests on shellpiles argues for more effective management; augmentation with shell and sand to increase elevations as little as 20 cm could have reduced flooding at a number of sites. The low colony-site fidelity we demonstrate suggests that an effective management approach is to provide a large number of alternative sand and/or shellpile sites that the terns may use. Sites not used one year may still be used in subsequent

  6. An integrated study of spatial multicriteria analysis and mathematical modelling for managed aquifer recharge site suitability mapping and site ranking at Northern Gaza coastal aquifer.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Mohammad Azizur; Rusteberg, Bernd; Uddin, Mohammad Salah; Lutz, Annegret; Saada, Muath Abu; Sauter, Martin

    2013-07-30

    This paper describes an integrated approach of site suitability mapping and ranking of the most suitable sites, for the implementation of Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) projects, using spatial multicriteria decision analysis (SMCDA) techniques and mathematical modelling. The SMCDA procedure contains constraint mapping, site suitability analysis with criteria standardization and weighting, criteria overlay by analytical hierarchy process (AHP) combined with weighted linear combination (WLC) and ordered weighted averaging (OWA), and sensitivity analysis. The hydrogeological impacts of the selected most suitable sites were quantified by using groundwater flow and transport modelling techniques. Finally, ranking of the selected sites was done with the WLC method. The integrated approach is demonstrated by a case study in the coastal aquifer of North Gaza. Constraint mapping shows that 50% of the total study area is suitable for MAR implementation. About 25% of the total area is "very good" and 25% percent is "good" for MAR, according to the site suitability analysis. Six locations were selected and ranked against six representative decision criteria. Long term (year 2003 to year 2040) groundwater flow and transport simulations were performed to quantify the selected criteria under MAR project operation conditions at the selected sites. Finally, the suitability mapping and hydrogeological investigation recommends that the location of the existing infiltration ponds, constructed near the planned North Gaza Wastewater Treatment Plant (NGWWTP) is most suitable for MAR project implementation. This paper concludes that mathematical modelling should be combined with the SMCDA technique in order to select the best location for MAR project implementation. Besides MAR project implementation, the generalised approach can be applicable for any other water resources development project that deals with site selection and implementation. PMID:23603773

  7. Spatiotemporal patterns and source implications of aromatic hydrocarbons at six rural sites across China's developed coastal regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhou; Zhang, Yanli; Wang, Xinming; Lü, Sujun; Huang, Zhonghui; Huang, Xinyu; Yang, Weiqiang; Wang, Yuesi; Zhang, Qiang

    2016-06-01

    Aromatic hydrocarbons are important anthropogenic precursors of tropospheric ozone and secondary organic aerosols. Here we measured ambient aromatic hydrocarbons from March 2012 to February 2014 at six rural sites in China's developed coastal regions. On average, benzene (B) comprised > 50% of total benzene (B), toluene (T), ethylbenzene (E), and xylenes (X) (BTEX) at sites in the Northeast China Plain (NECP) or in the North China Plain (NCP), whereas T, E, and X accounted for > 77% of total BTEX at sites in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and the Pearl River Delta in the south. BTEX at the northern sites was significantly correlated (p < 0.01) with combustion tracer-carbon monoxide (CO) but weakly correlated with traffic marker-methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), suggesting that their main sources were coal and biofuel/biomass burning with substantially elevated B levels during the winter heating period. In contrast, BTEX at the southern sites originated mainly from traffic-related and/or industrial emission sources, as indicated by the poor correlations with CO but highly significant (p < 0.01) correlations with MTBE and tetrachloroethylene, an industrial emission tracer. The B/CO emission ratios from measurement agreed within a factor of 2 with that of a previous widely used emission inventory of China, but the T/CO ratio at the NECP site and the o-X/CO ratio at the NCP site were 29% and 38% of that in the inventory, respectively; the E/CO and X/CO ratios at the YRD site were 3.2-3.5 fold that in the emission inventory.

  8. Ambient air benzene at background sites in China's most developed coastal regions: exposure levels, source implications and health risks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhou; Wang, Xinming; Zhang, Yanli; Lü, Sujun; Huang, Zhonghui; Huang, Xinyu; Wang, Yuesi

    2015-04-01

    Benzene is a known human carcinogen causing leukemia, yet ambient air quality objectives for benzene are not available in China. The ambient benzene levels at four background sites in China's most developed coastal regions were measured from March 2012 to February 2013. The sites are: SYNECP, in the Northeast China Plain (NECP); YCNCP, in the North China Plain (NCP); THYRD, in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) and DHPRD, in the Pearl River Delta (PRD). It was found that the mean annual benzene levels (578-1297 ppt) at the background sites were alarmingly higher, especially when compared to those of 60-480 pptv monitored in 28 cities in the United States. Wintertime benzene levels were significantly elevated at both sites (SYNECP and YCNCP) in northern China due to heating with coal/biofuels. Even at these background sites, the lifetime cancer risks of benzene (1.7-3.7E-05) all exceeded 1E-06 set by USEPA as acceptable for adults. At both sites in northern China, good correlations between benzene and CO or chloromethane, together with much lower toluene/benzene (T/B) ratios, suggested that benzene was largely related to coal combustion and biomass/biofuel burning. At the DHPRD site in the PRD, benzene revealed a highly significant correlation with methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), indicating that its source was predominantly from vehicle emissions. At the THYRD site in the YRD, higher T/B ratios and correlations between benzene and tetrachloroethylene, or MTBE, implied that benzene levels were probably affected by both traffic-related and industrial emissions.

  9. Black and Brown Bear Activity at Selected Coastal Sites in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve, Alaska: A Preliminary Assessment Using Noninvasive Procedures

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Partridge, Steve; Smith, Tom; Lewis, Tania

    2009-01-01

    A number of efforts in recent years have sought to predict bear activity in various habitats to minimize human disturbance and bear/human conflicts. Alaskan coastal areas provide important foraging areas for bears (Ursus americanus and U. arctos), particularly following den emergence when there may be no snow-free foraging alternatives. Additionally, coastal areas provide important food items for bears throughout the year. Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve (GLBA) in southeastern Alaska has extensive coastal habitats, and the National Park Service (NPS) has been long interested in learning more about the use of these coastal habitats by bears because these same habitats receive extensive human use by park visitors, especially kayaking recreationists. This study provides insight regarding the nature and intensity of bear activity at selected coastal sites within GLBA. We achieved a clearer understanding of bear/habitat relationships within GLBA by analyzing bear activity data collected with remote cameras, bear sign mapping, scat collections, and genetic analysis of bear hair. Although we could not quantify actual levels of bear activity at study sites, agreement among measures of activity (for example, sign counts, DNA analysis, and video record) lends support to our qualitative site assessments. This work suggests that habitat evaluation, bear sign mapping, and periodic scat counts can provide a useful index of bear activity for sites of interest.

  10. Water exchange on a geological timescale - examples from two coastal sites in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Christin; Engqvist, Anders

    2013-05-01

    The water turnover of two coastal areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, has been modeled for 13 selected years between 6500 BC and 9000 AD by utilizing information about past, present, and future bathymetry. The Forsmark area can be described as an open-ended funnel, and is analyzed with a 3D-model (MIKE 3-FM); the Laxemar area is partitioned into clusters of sub-basins treated with a discrete coupled basin model (CouBa). In all simulations, the main variation factor is the land uplift. The 3D-model domain is successively modified. For the CouBa approach the successive basin configurations are objectively deduced based on the 3D domain modifications. The average age (AvA) of the resident water relative to the open coast is generally lower for the Forsmark area. A typical progression is that the AvA values increase until a sub-basin ceases to be connected to the coastal zone. This disconnection is often preceded by a lowered AvA.

  11. On the evaluation of global sea-salt aerosol models at coastal/orographic sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spada, M.; Jorba, O.; Pérez García-Pando, C.; Janjic, Z.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Sea-salt aerosol global models are typically evaluated against concentration observations at coastal stations that are unaffected by local surf conditions and thus considered representative of open ocean conditions. Despite recent improvements in sea-salt source functions, studies still show significant model errors in specific regions. Using a multiscale model, we investigated the effect of high model resolution (0.1° × 0.1° vs. 1° × 1.4°) upon sea-salt patterns in four stations from the University of Miami Network: Baring Head, Chatam Island, and Invercargill in New Zealand, and Marion Island in the sub-antarctic Indian Ocean. Normalized biases improved from +63.7% to +3.3% and correlation increased from 0.52 to 0.84. The representation of sea/land interfaces, mesoscale circulations, and precipitation with the higher resolution model played a major role in the simulation of annual concentration trends. Our results recommend caution when comparing or constraining global models using surface concentration observations from coastal stations.

  12. Ice nucleating particles at a coastal marine boundary layer site: correlations with aerosol type and meteorological conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mason, R. H.; Si, M.; Li, J.; Chou, C.; Dickie, R.; Toom-Sauntry, D.; Pöhlker, C.; Yakobi-Hancock, J. D.; Ladino, L. A.; Jones, K.; Leaitch, W. R.; Schiller, C. L.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Huffman, J. A.; Bertram, A. K.

    2015-11-01

    Information on what aerosol particle types are the major sources of ice nucleating particles (INPs) in the atmosphere is needed for climate predictions. To determine which aerosol particles are the major sources of immersion-mode INPs at a coastal site in Western Canada, we investigated correlations between INP number concentrations and both concentrations of different atmospheric particles and meteorological conditions. We show that INP number concentrations are strongly correlated with the number concentrations of fluorescent bioparticles between -15 and -25 °C, and that the size distribution of INPs is most consistent with the size distribution of fluorescent bioparticles. We conclude that biological particles were likely the major source of ice nuclei at freezing temperatures between -15 and -25 °C at this site for the time period studied. At -30 °C, INP number concentrations are also well correlated with number concentrations of the total aerosol particles ≥ 0.5 μm, suggesting that non-biological particles may have an important contribution to the population of INPs active at this temperature. As we found that black carbon particles were unlikely to be a major source of ice nuclei during this study, these non-biological INPs may include mineral dust. Furthermore, correlations involving chemical tracers of marine aerosols and marine biological activity, sodium and methanesulfonic acid, indicate that the majority of INPs measured at the coastal site likely originated from terrestrial rather than marine sources. Finally, six existing empirical parameterizations of ice nucleation were tested to determine if they accurately predict the measured INP number concentrations. We found that none of the parameterizations selected are capable of predicting INP number concentrations with high accuracy over the entire temperature range investigated. This finding illustrates that additional measurements are needed to improve parameterizations of INPs and their

  13. End-Pleistocene Soil Constituents from Selected Sites on the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain: First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lecompte, M. A.; Rock, B. N.; Demitroff, M.; Reid, M.; Lucas, L.; Hughes, D.; Hayden, L. B.

    2008-12-01

    Stratigraphic analyses of soil samples taken from dated and undated sites located along the mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain have yielded evidence of increased contemporary biomass burning, compared to under and overlying strata. Host strata ages are known or projected to bracket the onset of the Younger Dryas cooling episode at 12.9 cal ka. This ongoing investigation includes samples from: 1) a late-Pleistocene aged periglacial feature located within the Pine Barrens of southern New Jersey; 2) an artifact dated stratum (~ 12.9 ka) in an embankment on the Chesapeake Bay in Maryland; and 3) an as yet undated (C14 test results pending) embankment of the Perquimans River in northeastern North Carolina projected to be age-appropriate. Sample analysis of scanning electron (SEM) micrographs from the Chesapeake Bay site revealed charred fragments of late-Wisconsinan Krummholz birch (Betula) and species of spruce (Picea) and fir (Abies), which are not extant on the modern-day, temperate Coastal Plain. In addition, organic faunal material is found in association with ancient charred boreal wood, including hollow hair and skin fragments that are as yet unidentified, perhaps from cold climate adapted animals as inferred from host sediment age. Charred wood fragments are found to be attracted to a neodymium magnet. Some aggregates of organic matter appear to contain magnetic spherule-like grains whose composition is awaiting geochemical analysis. Photomicrographs of all specimens and a stratigraphic breakdown in the relative amount of burned carbon associated with each site and strata will be presented, along with the results of various analyses that are currently underway.

  14. Aerosol scattering optical properties by nephelometer measurements at the El Arenosillo site (SW coastal area of Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Juan F.; Cachorro, Victoria E.; de Frutos, Ángel

    2013-05-01

    Aerosol light scattering coefficients, the hemispheric σsp and the back-scattering coefficient σbsc, have been measured using a 3-wavelengths integrating nephelometer over two years (January 2006 to May 2008) at the monitoring station ESAT-El Arenosillo. This station is located in the coastal area of the province of Huelva, in the southwest of the Iberian, Peninsula. The Ångström exponent α, has been also derived from the spectral dependence of σsp. All these parameters have been carefully analyzed to investigate their general characteristics and features, and diurnal variability. A general statistic gives mean values and std of σsp = 48.5 ±38.1 Mm-1 with a large range of variation showing moderate values of this rural and coastal site with marine prevalence but with significant influence of local sources of pollution. The daily cycle of σsp and α presents different behaviour depending on the season and is modulated by sea-land breeze regime.

  15. Land use investigations in the central valley and central coastal test sites, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    The Geography Remote Sensing Unit (GRSU) at the University of California, Santa Barbara is responsible for investigations with ERTS-1 data in the Central Coastal Zone and West Side of the San Joaquin Valley. The nature of investigative effort involves the inventory, monitoring, and assessment of the natural and cultural resources of the two areas. Land use, agriculture, vegetation, landforms, geology, and hydrology are the principal subjects for attention. These parameters are the key indicators of the dynamically changing character of the areas. Monitoring of these parameters with ERTS-1 data will provide the techniques and methodologies required to generate the information needed by federal, state, county, and local agencies to assess change-related phenomena and plan for management and development.

  16. Outfall siting with dye-buoy remote sensing of coastal circulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Welch, C. S.; Gordon, H. H.

    1978-01-01

    A dye-buoy remote sensing technique has been applied to estuarine siting problems that involve fine-scale circulation. Small hard cakes of sodium fluorescein and polyvinyl alcohol, in anchored buoys and low-windage current followers, dissolve to produce dye marks resolvable in 1:60,000 scale color and color infrared imagery. Lagrangian current vectors are determined from sequential photo coverage. Careful buoy placement reveals surface currents and submergence near fronts and convergence zones. The technique has been used in siting two sewage outfalls in Hampton Roads, Virginia: In case one, the outfall region during flood tide gathered floating materials in a convergence zone, which then acted as a secondary source during ebb; for better dispersion during ebb, the proposed outfall site was moved further offshore. In case two, flow during late flood was found to divide, with one half passing over shellfish beds; the proposed outfall site was consequently moved to keep effluent in the other half.

  17. Location and age of Mesolithic coastal occupation sites on Oronsay, Inner Hebrides.

    PubMed

    Jardine, W G

    1977-05-12

    The existence of at least five Mesolithic occupation sites on the island of Oronsay, Inner Hebrides, has now been established. Preliminary results of recent excavation of two of the sites were reported in 1971 (ref. 1). Since then further excavations have been made and the locations and ages of the sites in relation to the position of the shore line of the sea at the maximum of the Holocene marine transgression have been investigated. The results obtained suggest that the ages of some of the sites in relation to the former shore line cannot be established solely on stratigraphical and altitudinal evidence but require supplementary information based on radiocarbon dating. It will be some time before the full details will be published, and so a short account of the results so far obtained is presented now.

  18. The relation between air pollution data and planetary boundary layer quantities in a complex coastal industrial site nearby populated areas.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mammarella, M. C.; Grandoni, G.; Fernando, J.; Cacciani, M.; di Sabatino, S.; Favaron, M.; Fedele, P.

    2010-09-01

    The connection among boundary layer phenomena, atmospheric pollutant dynamics and human health is an established fact, taking many different forms depending on local characteristics, including slope and position of relief and/or coastline, surface roughness, emission patterns. The problem is especially interesting in complex and coastal terrain, where concurrence of slope and sea induced local circulation interact reciprocally, yielding a complex pattern whose interpretation may go beyond pure modeling, and devise specific measurements among which the planetary boundary layer (PBL) height. An occasion for studying this important theme has been offered by Regione Molise and Valle del Biferno Consortium (COSIB), for the specific case of the industrial complex of Valle del Biferno, 3 km inland of Termoli, in Central Italy, on the Adriatic coast. The local government, sensitive to air quality and public health in the industrial area, together with COSIB has co-financed a research project aimed at gaining knowledge about local meteorology, PBL phenomena and atmospheric pollutant dispersion in the area. Expected results include new air quality monitoring and control methodologies in Valle del Biferno for a sustainable development in an environmentally respectful manner, at a site already characterized by a high environmental and landscape value. The research project, developed by ENEA, has began in 2007 and will conclude in December 2010. Project activities involve research group from Europe, the United States of America, and the Russian Federation. Scientific and practical results will be published and presented in occasion of the final workshop to be held on project conclusion. The scientific interest of Valle del Biferno case stems from the specific local characteristics at site. Given the valley orientation respect to mean synoptic circulation, local effects as sea and slope breezes are dominant, and a complex wind regime develops affecting local transport and

  19. Results of monitoring of Equatorial Front at the northern Peruvian coastal site since December 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, C. W.; Gutiérrez, D.

    2015-12-01

    Temperature, salinity and currents have been observed by mooring oceanographic instruments at an oil platform (4º26.863'S, 81º 20.148'W) to monitor movement of the Equatorial Front along the northern Peruvian coastal region since December 6, 2014. Temperature was increased from December 2014 to May 2015 both near surface (10 m) and near bottom (54 m). Bottom temperature became warm abruptly from 16ºC to 22 ºC from mid-March to early-May; however, surface temperature was undulated with a period of 36.6 days. In overall, temperature and salinity was an inverse proportional relation at surface with a steep decline of salinity (from 34.92 to 33.23 psu) for 3 days from 13 to 16 February. This salinity decline suggests southward displacement of the Equatorial Front. The depth mean current which flowed toward south-southwest with 12.4 cm/s supports this. Bottom temperature increased after the Equatorial Front moved to southward. This is important to forecast El Niño.

  20. Sampling design and procedures for fixed surface-water sites in the Georgia-Florida coastal plain study unit, 1993

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatzell, H.H.; Oaksford, E.T.; Asbury, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    The implementation of design guidelines for the National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program has resulted in the development of new sampling procedures and the modification of existing procedures commonly used in the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey. The Georgia-Florida Coastal Plain (GAFL) study unit began the intensive data collection phase of the program in October 1992. This report documents the implementation of the NAWQA guidelines by describing the sampling design and procedures for collecting surface-water samples in the GAFL study unit in 1993. This documentation is provided for agencies that use water-quality data and for future study units that will be entering the intensive phase of data collection. The sampling design is intended to account for large- and small-scale spatial variations, and temporal variations in water quality for the study area. Nine fixed sites were selected in drainage basins of different sizes and different land-use characteristics located in different land-resource provinces. Each of the nine fixed sites was sampled regularly for a combination of six constituent groups composed of physical and chemical constituents: field measurements, major ions and metals, nutrients, organic carbon, pesticides, and suspended sediments. Some sites were also sampled during high-flow conditions and storm events. Discussion of the sampling procedure is divided into three phases: sample collection, sample splitting, and sample processing. A cone splitter was used to split water samples for the analysis of the sampling constituent groups except organic carbon from approximately nine liters of stream water collected at four fixed sites that were sampled intensively. An example of the sample splitting schemes designed to provide the sample volumes required for each sample constituent group is described in detail. Information about onsite sample processing has been organized into a flowchart that describes a pathway for each of

  1. A Geochemical and Geophysical Assessment of Coastal Groundwater Discharge at Select Sites in Maui and O’ahu, Hawai’i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swarzenski, Peter W.; Storlazzi, Curt; M.L. Dalier,; C.R. Glenn,; C.G. Smith,

    2015-01-01

    Based on the submarine groundwater discharge tracer 222Rn, coastal groundwater discharge rates ranged from about 22–50 cm per day at Kahekili, a site in the Ka’anapali region north of Lahaina in west Maui, while at Black Point in Maunalua Bay along southern O’ahu, coastal groundwater discharge rates ranged up to 700 cm per day, although the mean discharge rate at this site was 60 cm per day. The water chemistry of the discharging groundwater can be dramatically different than ambient seawater at both coastal sites. For example, at Kahekili the average concentrations of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), dissolved silicate (DSi) and total dissolved phosphorus (TDP) were roughly 188-, 36-, and 106-times higher in the discharging groundwater relative to ambient seawater, respectively. Such data extend our basic understanding of the physical controls on coastal groundwater discharge and provide an estimate of the magnitude and physical forcings of submarine groundwater discharge and associated trace metal and nutrient loads conveyed by this submarine route.

  2. Further Paleogene and Cretaceous sediment cores from the Kilwa area of coastal Tanzania: Tanzania Drilling Project Sites 6 10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Paul N.; Nicholas, Christopher J.; Singano, Joyce M.; Bown, Paul R.; Coxall, Helen K.; van Dongen, Bart E.; Huber, Brian T.; Karega, Amina; Lees, Jackie A.; MacLeod, Kenneth; McMillan, Ian K.; Pancost, Richard D.; Pearson, Marion; Msaky, Emma

    2006-07-01

    Initial results from scientific drilling in southern coastal Tanzania are described. In a field season in 2003, a total of five sites was drilled (mostly using continuous coring) by the Tanzania Drilling Project for paleoclimate studies. The sediments are predominantly marine clays and claystones deposited in an outer shelf or slope environment and often contain excellently preserved microfossils suitable for geochemical analysis. The studies reported here include summaries of the lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy (planktonic foraminifers, calcareous nannofossils, benthic foraminifers, and palynology) and organic geochemistry. TDP Site 6 was drilled near Kilwa Masoko (UTM 37L 555752, 9014922), 350 m to the south-east of a previous site, TDP Site 1. The top 59.58 m, which was mostly drilled without coring, consists of an Oligocene clay formation belonging to nannofossil Zone NP23. The rest of the hole, to a total depth of 61.25 m, consists of a fault zone in which the Oligocene sediments are intermixed with middle Eocene clays of planktonic foraminifer Zone E9 and nannofossil Subzone NP15b. TDP Site 7 consists of two holes (Hole TDP7A: UTM 37L 547126, 9030142; Hole TDP7B: UTM 37L 0547130, 9030140) drilled just 5 m apart at Kwamatola, a creek to the south of Kilwa Kivinje. Underneath approximately 20 m of unconsolidated sands and gravels, claystones and siltstones were recovered to a total depth of 128.00 m. The site spans lower Eocene planktonic foraminifer Zones E1, E2 and E3 and nannofossil Subzones NP 9b and NP10. The bottom of Hole TDP7B approaches the Paleocene-Eocene boundary but no unambiguously Paleocene sediments were recovered. TDP Site 8 was drilled to the south-east of Singino Hill (UTM 37L 548033, 9025811). Below a covering of surface gravels, it yielded predominantly dark greenish-grey claystones to a total depth of 22.95 m. The sediments are from the lower Eocene and span the boundary between planktonic foraminifer Zones E3 and E4 and fall within

  3. Estimating site occupancy and detection probability parameters for meso- and large mammals in a coastal eosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Connell, Allan F.; Talancy, Neil W.; Bailey, Larissa L.; Sauer, John R.; Cook, Robert; Gilbert, Andrew T.

    2006-01-01

    Large-scale, multispecies monitoring programs are widely used to assess changes in wildlife populations but they often assume constant detectability when documenting species occurrence. This assumption is rarely met in practice because animal populations vary across time and space. As a result, detectability of a species can be influenced by a number of physical, biological, or anthropogenic factors (e.g., weather, seasonality, topography, biological rhythms, sampling methods). To evaluate some of these influences, we estimated site occupancy rates using species-specific detection probabilities for meso- and large terrestrial mammal species on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, USA. We used model selection to assess the influence of different sampling methods and major environmental factors on our ability to detect individual species. Remote cameras detected the most species (9), followed by cubby boxes (7) and hair traps (4) over a 13-month period. Estimated site occupancy rates were similar among sampling methods for most species when detection probabilities exceeded 0.15, but we question estimates obtained from methods with detection probabilities between 0.05 and 0.15, and we consider methods with lower probabilities unacceptable for occupancy estimation and inference. Estimated detection probabilities can be used to accommodate variation in sampling methods, which allows for comparison of monitoring programs using different protocols. Vegetation and seasonality produced species-specific differences in detectability and occupancy, but differences were not consistent within or among species, which suggests that our results should be considered in the context of local habitat features and life history traits for the target species. We believe that site occupancy is a useful state variable and suggest that monitoring programs for mammals using occupancy data consider detectability prior to making inferences about species distributions or population change.

  4. Assessment of oil slick hazard and risk at vulnerable coastal sites.

    PubMed

    Melaku Canu, Donata; Solidoro, Cosimo; Bandelj, Vinko; Quattrocchi, Giovanni; Sorgente, Roberto; Olita, Antonio; Fazioli, Leopoldo; Cucco, Andrea

    2015-05-15

    This work gives an assessment of the hazard faced by Sicily coasts regarding potential offshore surface oil spill events and provides a risk assessment for Sites of Community Importance (SCI) and Special Protection Areas (SPA). A lagrangian module, coupled with a high resolution finite element three dimensional hydrodynamic model, was used to track the ensemble of a large number of surface trajectories followed by particles released over 6 selected areas located inside the Sicily Channel. The analysis was carried out under multiple scenarios of meteorological conditions. Oil evaporation, oil weathering, and shore stranding are also considered. Seasonal hazard maps for different stranding times and seasonal risk maps were then produced for the whole Sicilian coastline. The results highlight that depending on the meteo-marine conditions, particles can reach different areas of the Sicily coast, including its northern side, and illustrate how impacts can be greatly reduced through prompt implementation of mitigation strategies.

  5. Habitat selection by sea kraits (Laticauda spp.) at coastal sites of Orchid Island, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yu-Ling; Chen, Yi-Huei; Lillywhite, Harvey B; Tu, Ming-Chung

    2012-08-01

    Three species of amphibious sea kraits (Laticauda spp.) spend variable time at sea and require fresh water for water balance. Both the rate of cutaneous evaporative water loss and the extent of terrestriality are known to differ among them. Laticauda semifasciata has the greatest rate of water loss and the least extent of terrestriality, whereas L. colubrina exhibits the reverse and L. laticaudata is intermediate. These sea kraits tend to be more abundant at places where there are sources of fresh water, but other factors also influence their distribution. To further clarify the habitat requirements, we investigated the abundance of each species of sea krait at six different habitats and the availability of each type of habitat on Orchid Island, Taiwan. The six habitats were high coral reef without fresh water (HR) and with fresh water (HRF); low coral reef without fresh water (LR) and with fresh water (LRF); sand or gravel coast, which has no coral reef, without fresh water (NR) and with fresh water (NRF). The extent of safety judged from the relative availability of retreat sites, from high to low, was HR, LR, and NR among these habitats. More than 75% of individuals counted for each species were found in HRF. We found no sea kraits in NRF and NR. The most available habitat was LR, but no L. laticaudata or L. semifasciata were found in this habitat. We found 3.3% and 16.7% of L. colubrina in LR and HR, respectively. For L. colubrina, the second abundant habitat was HR, whereas for L. laticaudata and L. semifasciata, the second abundant habitat was LRF. We conclude that both safety (availability of retreat sites) and fresh water are important to the habitat selection of sea kraits. Compared with other species, L. colubrina is characterized by a greater extent of terrestrial habit and possibly greater variety of access to sources of fresh water.

  6. Phytoplankton community structure in local water types at a coastal site in north-western Bay of Bengal.

    PubMed

    Baliarsingh, S K; Srichandan, Suchismita; Lotliker, Aneesh A; Sahu, K C; Srinivasa Kumar, T

    2016-07-01

    A comprehensive analysis on seasonal distribution of phytoplankton community structure and their interaction with environmental variables was carried out in two local water types (type 1 < 30 m isobath and Type 2 > 30 m isobath) at a coastal site in north-western Bay of Bengal. Phytoplankton community was represented by 211 taxa (146 marine, 37 fresh, 2 brackish, 20 marine-fresh, and 6 marine-brackish-fresh) belonging to seven major groups including 45 potential bloom forming and 22 potential toxin producing species. The seasonal variability depicted enrichment of phytoplankton during pre-monsoon in both water types. Total phytoplankton abundance pattern observed with inter-annual shift during monsoon and post-monsoon period at both water types. In both water types, diatom predominance was observed in terms of species richness and abundance comprising of centric (82 sp.) and pennate (58 sp.) forms. Pennate diatoms, Thalassiothrix longissima and Skeletonema costatum preponderated in both the water types. The diatom abundance was higher in type 1 in comparison to type 2. In general, SiO4 found to fuel growth of the dominant phytoplankton group, diatom in both the water types despite comparative lower concentration of other macronutrients in type 2. PMID:27334343

  7. Phytoplankton community structure in local water types at a coastal site in north-western Bay of Bengal.

    PubMed

    Baliarsingh, S K; Srichandan, Suchismita; Lotliker, Aneesh A; Sahu, K C; Srinivasa Kumar, T

    2016-07-01

    A comprehensive analysis on seasonal distribution of phytoplankton community structure and their interaction with environmental variables was carried out in two local water types (type 1 < 30 m isobath and Type 2 > 30 m isobath) at a coastal site in north-western Bay of Bengal. Phytoplankton community was represented by 211 taxa (146 marine, 37 fresh, 2 brackish, 20 marine-fresh, and 6 marine-brackish-fresh) belonging to seven major groups including 45 potential bloom forming and 22 potential toxin producing species. The seasonal variability depicted enrichment of phytoplankton during pre-monsoon in both water types. Total phytoplankton abundance pattern observed with inter-annual shift during monsoon and post-monsoon period at both water types. In both water types, diatom predominance was observed in terms of species richness and abundance comprising of centric (82 sp.) and pennate (58 sp.) forms. Pennate diatoms, Thalassiothrix longissima and Skeletonema costatum preponderated in both the water types. The diatom abundance was higher in type 1 in comparison to type 2. In general, SiO4 found to fuel growth of the dominant phytoplankton group, diatom in both the water types despite comparative lower concentration of other macronutrients in type 2.

  8. Inter-annual variability of surface ozone at coastal (Dumont d'Urville, 2004-2014) and inland (Concordia, 2007-2014) sites in East Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, Michel; Preunkert, Susanne; Savarino, Joël; Frey, Markus M.; Kukui, Alexandre; Helmig, Detlev; Jourdain, Bruno; Jones, Anna E.; Weller, Rolf; Brough, Neil; Gallée, Hubert

    2016-07-01

    Surface ozone has been measured since 2004 at the coastal East Antarctic site of Dumont d'Urville (DDU), and since 2007 at the Concordia station located on the high East Antarctic plateau. This paper discusses long-term changes, seasonal and diurnal cycles, as well as inter-annual summer variability observed at these two East Antarctic sites. At Concordia, near-surface ozone data were complemented by balloon soundings and compared to similar measurements done at the South Pole. The DDU record is compared to those obtained at the coastal site of Syowa, also located in East Antarctica, as well as the coastal sites of Neumayer and Halley, both located on the coast of the Weddell Sea in West Antarctica. Surface ozone mixing ratios exhibit very similar seasonal cycles at Concordia and the South Pole. However, in summer the diurnal cycle of ozone is different at the two sites with a drop of ozone in the afternoon at Concordia but not at the South Pole. The vertical distribution of ozone above the snow surface also differs. When present, the ozone-rich layer located near the ground is better mixed and deeper at Concordia (up to 400 m) than at the South Pole during sunlight hours. These differences are related to different solar radiation and wind regimes encountered at these two inland sites. DDU appears to be the coastal site where the impact of the late winter/spring bromine chemistry is the weakest, but where the impact of elevated ozone levels caused by NOx snow emissions from the high Antarctic plateau is the highest. The highest impact of the bromine chemistry is seen at Halley and Neumayer, and to a lesser extent at Syowa. These three sites are only weakly impacted by the NOx chemistry and the net ozone production occurring on the high Antarctic plateau. The differences in late winter/spring are attributed to the abundance of sea ice offshore from the sites, whereas those in summer are related to the topography of East Antarctica that promotes the katabatic flow

  9. Identification and mapping of natural vegetation on a coastal site using a Worldview-2 satellite image.

    PubMed

    Rapinel, Sébastien; Clément, Bernard; Magnanon, Sylvie; Sellin, Vanessa; Hubert-Moy, Laurence

    2014-11-01

    Identification and mapping of natural vegetation are major issues for biodiversity management and conservation. Remotely sensed data with very high spatial resolution are currently used to study vegetation, but most satellite sensors are limited to four spectral bands, which is insufficient to identify some natural vegetation formations. The study objectives are to discriminate natural vegetation and identify natural vegetation formations using a Worldview-2 satellite image. The classification of the Worldview-2 image and ancillary thematic data was performed using a hybrid pixel-based and object-oriented approach. A hierarchical scheme using three levels was implemented, from land cover at a field scale to vegetation formation. This method was applied on a 48 km² site located on the French Atlantic coast which includes a classified NATURA 2000 dune and marsh system. The classification accuracy was very high, the Kappa index varying between 0.90 and 0.74 at land cover and vegetation formation levels respectively. These results show that Wordlview-2 images are suitable to identify natural vegetation. Vegetation maps derived from Worldview-2 images are more detailed than existing ones. They provide a useful medium for environmental management of vulnerable areas. The approach used to map natural vegetation is reproducible for a wider application by environmental managers.

  10. Integrated use of biomarkers and condition indices in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) for monitoring pollution and development of biomarker index to assess the potential toxic of coastal sites.

    PubMed

    Benali, Imene; Boutiba, Zitouni; Merabet, Amina; Chèvre, Nathalie

    2015-06-15

    In this study, we are interested in spatial and temporal variations of the biological and physiological responses of mussels collected from contrasting marine sites regarding their levels of pollution. We measured both the conditions indices and the enzymatic biomarker expression: acetylcholinesterase (AChE), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. The enzymatic biomarkers were chosen because they respond to environmental stress. Results show a significant interactions between biomarker variations and conditions indices in the industrial harbor site throughout the seasons. But no significant changes in the reference site. Furthermore, we classified the sites along the seasons according to their potential ecotoxicity, calculated based on the sum of the normalised values of the biomarkers. The results show a very high biomarker index in the impacted site with irregular changes between seasons. This biomarker index is therefore a valuable tool that could be used to classify the toxic potential of coastal sites.

  11. Integrated use of biomarkers and condition indices in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) for monitoring pollution and development of biomarker index to assess the potential toxic of coastal sites.

    PubMed

    Benali, Imene; Boutiba, Zitouni; Merabet, Amina; Chèvre, Nathalie

    2015-06-15

    In this study, we are interested in spatial and temporal variations of the biological and physiological responses of mussels collected from contrasting marine sites regarding their levels of pollution. We measured both the conditions indices and the enzymatic biomarker expression: acetylcholinesterase (AChE), catalase (CAT) and glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity. The enzymatic biomarkers were chosen because they respond to environmental stress. Results show a significant interactions between biomarker variations and conditions indices in the industrial harbor site throughout the seasons. But no significant changes in the reference site. Furthermore, we classified the sites along the seasons according to their potential ecotoxicity, calculated based on the sum of the normalised values of the biomarkers. The results show a very high biomarker index in the impacted site with irregular changes between seasons. This biomarker index is therefore a valuable tool that could be used to classify the toxic potential of coastal sites. PMID:25865346

  12. Geologic Resource Evaluation of Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site, Hawai'i: Part I, Geology and Coastal Landforms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richmond, Bruce M.; Cochran, Susan A.; Gibbs, Ann E.

    2008-01-01

    Geologic resource inventories of lands managed by the National Park Service (NPS) are important products for the parks and are designed to provide scientific information to better manage park resources. Park-specific geologic reports are used to identify geologic features and processes that are relevant to park ecosystems, evaluate the impact of human activities on geologic features and processes, identify geologic research and monitoring needs, and enhance opportunities for education and interpretation. These geologic reports are planned to provide a brief geologic history of the park and address specific geologic issues forming a link between the park geology and the resource manager. The Kona coast National Parks of the Island of Hawai'i are intended to preserve the natural beauty of the Kona coast and protect significant ancient structures and artifacts of the native Hawaiians. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE), Kaloko-Honokohau National Historical Park (KAHO), and Pu'uhonua O Honaunau National Historical Park (PUHO) are three Kona parks studied by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Coastal and Marine Geology Team in cooperation with the National Park Service. This report is one of six related reports designed to provide geologic and benthic-habitat information for the three Kona parks. Each geology and coastal-landform report describes the regional geologic setting of the Hawaiian Islands, gives a general description of the geology of the Kona coast, and presents the geologic setting and issues for one of the parks. The related benthic-habitat mapping reports discuss the marine data and habitat classification scheme, and present results of the mapping program. Pu'ukohola Heiau National Historic Site (PUHE) is the smallest (~86 acres) of three National Parks located on the leeward Kona coast of the Island of Hawai'i. The main structure at PUHE, Pu'ukohola Heiau, is an important historical temple that was built during 1790-91 by King Kamehameha I

  13. Chemometrics methods for the investigation of methylmercury and total mercury contamination in mollusks samples collected from coastal sites along the Chinese Bohai Sea.

    PubMed

    Yawei, Wang; Lina, Liang; Jianbo, Shi; Guibin, Jiang

    2005-06-01

    The development and application of chemometrics methods, principal component analysis (PCA), cluster analysis and correlation analysis for the determination of methylmercury (MeHg) and total mecury (HgT) in gastropod and bivalve species collected from eight coastal sites along the Chinese Bohai Sea are described. HgT is directly determined by atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), while MeHg is measured by a laboratory established high performance liquid chromatography-atomic fluorescence spectrometry system (HPLC-AFS). One-way ANOVA and cluster analysis indicated that the bioaccumulation of Rap to accumulate Hg was significantly (P<0.05) different from other mollusks. Correlation analysis shows that there is linear relationship between MeHg and HgT in mollusks samples collected from coastal sites along the Chinese Bohai Sea, while in mollusks samples collected from Hongqiao market in Beijing City, there is not any linear relationship. PMID:15749543

  14. Aerosol Size, CCN, and Black Carbon Properties at a Coastal Site in the Eastern U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Royalty, T. M.; Petters, M. D.; Grieshop, A. P.; Meskhidze, N.; Reed, R. E.; Phillips, B.; Dawson, K. W.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols play an important role in regulating the global radiative budget through direct and indirect effects. To date, the role of sea spray aerosols in modulating climate remains poorly understood. Here we present results from measurements performed at the United States Army Corps of Engineers' Field Research Facility in Duck, North Carolina, USA. Aerosol mobility size distributions (10-600 nm), refractory black carbon (rBC) and scattering particle size distributions (200-620 nm), and size resolved cloud condensation nuclei distributions (.07% - .6% supersaturation) were collected at the end of a 560m pier. Aerosol characteristics associated with northerly, high wind speed (15+ m s-1) flow originating from an oceanic trajectory are contrasted with aerosol properties observed during a weak to moderate westerly flow originating from a continental trajectory. Both marine and continental air masses had aerosol with bi-modal number size distributions with modes centered at 30nm and 140nm. In the marine air-mass, the CCN concentration at supersaturation of 0.4%, total aerosol number, surface, and volume concentration were low. rBC number concentration (D > 200 nm) associated with the marine air-mass was an order of magnitude less than continental number concentration and indicative of relatively unpolluted air. These measurements are consistent with measurements from other coastal sites under marine influence. The relative proportion of Aitken mode size particles increased from 1:2 to 2:1 while aerosol surface area was < 25 μm2 cm-3, suggesting that conditions upwind were potentially conducive to new particle formation. Overall, these results will contribute a better understanding to composition and size variation of marine aerosols.

  15. Heavy metals in oysters, mussels and clams collected from coastal sites along the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhan-Qiang; Cheung, R Y H; Wong, M H

    2003-01-01

    Concentrations of 8 heavy metals: cadmium (Cd), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), chromium (Cr), antimony (Sb) and tin (Sn) were examined in 3 species of bivalves ( Perna viridis, Crassostrea rivularis and Ruditapes philippinarum) collected from 25 sites along the Pearl River Delta coastal waters in the South China Sea from July to August 1996. In general, Cd, Cu, Zn and Sn concentrations in the three bivalve species collected from the Estuarine Zone were significantly higher than those collected from the Western and Eastern Zones of the Pearl River Delta, which are related to the existence of various anthropogenic activities in the catchment of the Pearl River Delta. The Western Estuarine Zone is mainly impacted hy Cr, Ni and Cu contamination. In Victoria Harbor, heavy metal contamination is mainly due to Cu and Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn concentrations in oysters were significantly higher than those in mussels and clams. This could be explained by the fact that oysters live mainly in the Estuarine Zone of the Pearl River Delta which receives most of the polluting discharges from the catchment of the Delta. During turbid condition, heavy metals( soluble or adsorbed on suspended particulates) discharged from the Delta are filtered from the water column and subsequently accumulated into the soft body tissues of oysters. Heavy metal concentrations in the three bivalve species were compared with the maximum permissible levels of heavy metals in seafood regulated by the Public Health and Municipal Services Ordinance, Laws of Hong Kong, and it was revealed that Cd and Cr concentrations in the three bivalve species exceeded the upper limits. At certain hotspots in the Delta, the maximum acceptable daily load for Cd was also exceeded.

  16. Integrated carbon budget models for the Everglades terrestrial-coastal-oceanic gradient: Current status and needs for inter-site comparisons

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Troxler, Tiffany G.; Gaiser, Evelyn; Barr, Jordan; Fuentes, Jose D.; Jaffe, Rudolf; Childers, Daniel L.; Collado-Vides, Ligia; Rivera-Monroy, Victor H.; Castañeda-Moya, Edward; Anderson, William; Chambers, Randy; Chen, Meilian; Coronado-Molina, Carlos; Davis, Stephen E.; Engel, Victor C.; Fitz, Carl; Fourqurean, James; Frankovich, Tom; Kominoski, John; Madden, Chris; Malone, Sparkle L.; Oberbauer, Steve F.; Olivas, Paulo; Richards, Jennifer; Saunders, Colin; Schedlbauer, Jessica; Scinto, Leonard J.; Sklar, Fred; Smith, Thomas J.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Starr, Gregory; Twilley, Robert; Whelan, Kevin

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that coastal ecosystems can bury significantly more C than tropical forests, indicating that continued coastal development and exposure to sea level rise and storms will have global biogeochemical consequences. The Florida Coastal Everglades Long Term Ecological Research (FCE LTER) site provides an excellent subtropical system for examining carbon (C) balance because of its exposure to historical changes in freshwater distribution and sea level rise and its history of significant long-term carbon-cycling studies. FCE LTER scientists used net ecosystem C balance and net ecosystem exchange data to estimate C budgets for riverine mangrove, freshwater marsh, and seagrass meadows, providing insights into the magnitude of C accumulation and lateral aquatic C transport. Rates of net C production in the riverine mangrove forest exceeded those reported for many tropical systems, including terrestrial forests, but there are considerable uncertainties around those estimates due to the high potential for gain and loss of C through aquatic fluxes. C production was approximately balanced between gain and loss in Everglades marshes; however, the contribution of periphyton increases uncertainty in these estimates. Moreover, while the approaches used for these initial estimates were informative, a resolved approach for addressing areas of uncertainty is critically needed for coastal wetland ecosystems. Once resolved, these C balance estimates, in conjunction with an understanding of drivers and key ecosystem feedbacks, can inform cross-system studies of ecosystem response to long-term changes in climate, hydrologic management, and other land use along coastlines

  17. Hydrologic index development and application to selected Coastwide Reference Monitoring System sites and Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act projects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snedden, Gregg A.; Swenson, Erick M.

    2012-01-01

    Hourly time-series salinity and water-level data are collected at all stations within the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) network across coastal Louisiana. These data, in addition to vegetation and soils data collected as part of CRMS, are used to develop a suite of metrics and indices to assess wetland condition in coastal Louisiana. This document addresses the primary objectives of the CRMS hydrologic analytical team, which were to (1) adopt standard time-series analytical techniques that could effectively assess spatial and temporal variability in hydrologic characteristics across the Louisiana coastal zone on site, project, basin, and coastwide scales and (2) develop and apply an index based on wetland hydrology that can describe the suitability of local hydrology in the context of maximizing the productivity of wetland plant communities. Approaches to quantifying tidal variability (least squares harmonic analysis) and partitioning variability of time-series data to various time scales (spectral analysis) are presented. The relation between marsh elevation and the tidal frame of a given hydrograph is described. A hydrologic index that integrates water-level and salinity data, which are collected hourly, with vegetation data that are collected annually is developed. To demonstrate its utility, the hydrologic index is applied to 173 CRMS sites across the coast, and variability in index scores across marsh vegetation types (fresh, intermediate, brackish, and saline) is assessed. The index is also applied to 11 sites located in three Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act projects, and the ability of the index to convey temporal hydrologic variability in response to climatic stressors and restoration measures, as well as the effect that this community may have on wetland plant productivity, is illustrated.

  18. Modeling study of seasonal and inter-annual variability of circulation in the coastal upwelling site of the El Loa River off northern Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palma, Winston; Escribano, Ruben; Rosales, Sergio A.

    2006-03-01

    A three-dimensional numerical model using the Finite Element Method (FEM) was used to diagnose coastal currents off the El Loa River (21° S) in the northern upwelling region of Chile. This site has been recognized as an important spawning zone of the southern anchovy Engraulis ringens. Diagnostic current fields were obtained for summer and winter during the 1997-1998 El Niño conditions and during a "normal" upwelling year. The results show this site as an efficient retention area in the nearshore, because of a reduced cross-shelf flow, a strong alongshore flow and presence of several anticyclonic eddies. A simulated Lagrangian experiment indicated that retention within the nearshore (<10 km) may last for more than 4 days under a steady-state wind condition. Wind regimes and water density fields during 1997-1998 (El Niño) and 1995-1996 ("normal" upwelling) did not cause differences in the general pattern of coastal circulation. However, the magnitudes of both the alongshore and the cross-shelf flows are substantially reduced during El Niño in the nearshore spawning zone, possibly as a consequence of an anomalous water mass in the coastal area. This altered condition may limit the transport and dispersion of anchovy spawning products.

  19. Evaluation of hot dry rock exploration techniques in the Atlantic Coastal Plain: a test site on the Delmarva Peninsula of Maryland and Virginia

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-01

    Detailed investigation of a potential Hot Dry Rock (HDR) energy extraction site in the area of Crisfield, Maryland, and Wallops Island, Virginia, (referred to as the Cris-Wall site) was carried out to evaluate HDR exploration techniques in the Atlantic Coastal Plain province. The findings favor the HDR exploration program that is outlined for locating a deep test hole in an area with presumed HDR potential (higher than normal heat flow). Six potential sites for extracting HDR energy have been identified within the Cris-Wall area. Each site is thought to have temperatures at the basement rock surface in excess of 75/sup 0/C and to be at least 1 km away from the nearest fault.

  20. Weibull Wind-Speed Distribution Parameters Derived from a Combination of Wind-Lidar and Tall-Mast Measurements Over Land, Coastal and Marine Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gryning, Sven-Erik; Floors, Rogier; Peña, Alfredo; Batchvarova, Ekaterina; Brümmer, Burghard

    2016-05-01

    Wind-speed observations from tall towers are used in combination with observations up to 600 m in altitude from a Doppler wind lidar to study the long-term conditions over suburban (Hamburg), rural coastal (Høvsøre) and marine (FINO3) sites. The variability in the wind field among the sites is expressed in terms of mean wind speed and Weibull distribution shape-parameter profiles. The consequences of the carrier-to-noise-ratio ( CNR) threshold-value choice on the wind-lidar observations are revealed as follows. When the wind-lidar CNR is lower than a prescribed threshold value, the observations are often filtered out as the uncertainty in the wind-speed measurements increases. For a pulsed heterodyne Doppler lidar, use of the traditional -22 dB CNR threshold value at all measuring levels up to 600 m results in a ≈ 7 % overestimation in the long-term mean wind speed over land, and a ≈ 12 % overestimation in coastal and marine environments. In addition, the height of the profile maximum of the shape parameter of the Weibull distribution (so-called reversal height) is found to depend on the applied CNR threshold; it is found to be lower at small CNR threshold values. The reversal height is greater in the suburban (high roughness) than in the rural (low roughness) area. In coastal areas the reversal height is lower than that over land and relates to the internal boundary layer that develops downwind from the coastline. Over the sea the shape parameter increases towards the sea surface. A parametrization of the vertical profile of the shape parameter fits well with observations over land, coastal regions and over the sea. An applied model for the dependence of the reversal height on the surface roughness is in good agreement with the observations over land.

  1. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) Genotypes Differ between Coastal Sites and Inland Road Corridors in the Northeastern US

    PubMed Central

    Ecker, Geoffrey; Zalapa, Juan; Auer, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a North American grass that exhibits vast genetic diversity across its geographic range. In the Northeastern US, local switchgrass populations were restricted to a narrow coastal zone before European settlement, but current populations inhabit inland road verges raising questions about their origin and genetics. These questions are important because switchgrass lines with novel traits are being cultivated as a biofuel feedstock, and gene flow could impact the genetic integrity and distribution of local populations. This study was designed to determine if: 1) switchgrass plants collected in the Long Island Sound Coastal Lowland coastal Level IV ecoregion represented local populations, and 2) switchgrass plants collected from road verges in the adjacent inland regions were most closely related to local coastal populations or switchgrass from other geographic regions. The study used 18 microsatellite markers to infer the genetic relationships between 122 collected switchgrass plants and a reference dataset consisting of 28 cultivars representing ecotypes, ploidy levels, and lineages from North America. Results showed that 84% of 88 plants collected in the coastal plants were most closely aligned with the Lowland tetraploid genetic pool. Among this group, 61 coastal plants were similar to, but distinct from, all Lowland tetraploid cultivars in the reference dataset leading to the designation of a genetic sub-population called the Southern New England Lowland Tetraploids. In contrast, 67% of 34 plants collected in road verges in the inland ecoregions were most similar to two Upland octoploid cultivars; only 24% of roadside plants were Lowland tetraploid. These results suggest that cryptic, non-local genotypes exist in road verges and that gene flow from biofuels plantations could contribute to further changes in switchgrass population genetics in the Northeast. PMID:26125564

  2. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) Genotypes Differ between Coastal Sites and Inland Road Corridors in the Northeastern US.

    PubMed

    Ecker, Geoffrey; Zalapa, Juan; Auer, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a North American grass that exhibits vast genetic diversity across its geographic range. In the Northeastern US, local switchgrass populations were restricted to a narrow coastal zone before European settlement, but current populations inhabit inland road verges raising questions about their origin and genetics. These questions are important because switchgrass lines with novel traits are being cultivated as a biofuel feedstock, and gene flow could impact the genetic integrity and distribution of local populations. This study was designed to determine if: 1) switchgrass plants collected in the Long Island Sound Coastal Lowland coastal Level IV ecoregion represented local populations, and 2) switchgrass plants collected from road verges in the adjacent inland regions were most closely related to local coastal populations or switchgrass from other geographic regions. The study used 18 microsatellite markers to infer the genetic relationships between 122 collected switchgrass plants and a reference dataset consisting of 28 cultivars representing ecotypes, ploidy levels, and lineages from North America. Results showed that 84% of 88 plants collected in the coastal plants were most closely aligned with the Lowland tetraploid genetic pool. Among this group, 61 coastal plants were similar to, but distinct from, all Lowland tetraploid cultivars in the reference dataset leading to the designation of a genetic sub-population called the Southern New England Lowland Tetraploids. In contrast, 67% of 34 plants collected in road verges in the inland ecoregions were most similar to two Upland octoploid cultivars; only 24% of roadside plants were Lowland tetraploid. These results suggest that cryptic, non-local genotypes exist in road verges and that gene flow from biofuels plantations could contribute to further changes in switchgrass population genetics in the Northeast. PMID:26125564

  3. Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) genotypes differ between coastal sites and inland road corridors in the Northeastern US

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) is a North American grass that exhibits vast genetic diversity across its geographic range. In the Northeast, switchgrass was restricted to a narrow zone adjacent to the coastal salt marsh, but current populations inhabit inland road verges raising questions about t...

  4. Aerosol optical properties at a coastal site in Hong Kong, South China: temporal features, size dependencies and source analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jiaping; Ding, Aijun; Virkkula, Aki; Lee, Shuncheng; Shen, Yicheng; Chi, Xuguang; Xu, Zheng

    2016-04-01

    Hong Kong is a typical coastal city adjacent to the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region in southern China, which is one of the regions suffering from severe air pollution. Atmospheric aerosols can affect the earth's radiative balance by scattering and absorbing incoming solar radiation. Black Carbon (BC) aerosol is a particularly emphasized component due to its strong light absorption. Aerosol transported from different source areas consists of distinct size distributions, leading to different optical properties. As the byproducts of the incomplete oxidation, BC and CO both have relatively long life time, their relationship is a good indicator for distinguishing different pollutant sources. In this study, temporal variations of aerosol optical properties and concentrations of BC and CO at a coastal background station in Hong Kong were investigated. Transport characteristics and origins of aerosol were elucidated by analyzing backward Lagrangian particle dispersion modeling (LPDM) results, together with related parameters including the relationships between optical properties and particle size, BC-CO correlations, ship location data and meteorological variables. From February 2012 to September 2013 and March 2014 to February 2015, continuous in-situ measurements of light scattering and absorption coefficients, particle size distribution and concentrations of BC and CO were conducted at Hok Tsui (HT), a coastal background station on the southeast tip of Hong Kong Island (22.22°N, 114.25°E, 60 m above the sea level) with few local anthropogenic activities. Affected by the Asian monsoon, this region is dominated by continental outflow in winter and by marine inflow from the South China Sea in summer, which is an ideal station for identifying the transport characteristics of aerosol and their effects on optical properties from different anthropogenic emission sources. 7-day backward Lagrangian particle dispersion modeling was performed for source identification. Three

  5. Methylmercury and other chemical constituents in Pacific coastal fog water from seven sites in Central/Northern California (FogNet) during the summer of 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weiss-Penzias, P. S.; Heim, W. A.; Fernandez, D.; Coale, K. H.; Oliphant, A. J.; Dann, D.; Porter, M.; Hoskins, D.; Dodge, C.

    2014-12-01

    This project investigates the mercury content in summertime Pacific coastal fog in California and whether fog could be an important vector for ocean emissions of mercury to be deposited via fog drip to upland coastal ecosystems. Efforts began in early 2014 with the building of 7 active-strand fog collectors based on the Colorado State University Caltech CASCC design. The new UCSC CASCC includes doors sealing the collector which open under microcomputer control based on environmental sensing (relative humidity). Seven sites spanning from Trinidad in the north to Marina in the south have collected samples June-August 2014 under a project called FogNet. Fog conditions were favorable for collecting large water volumes (> 250 mL) at many sites. Fog samplers were cleaned with soap and deionized water daily and field blanks taken immediately following cleaning. Fog water samples were collected overnight, split into an aliquot for anion and DOC/DIC analysis and the remaining sample was acidified. Monomethyl mercury (MMHg) concentrations in samples and field blanks for 3 sites in FogNet are shown in the accompanying figure. The range of MMHg concentrations from 10 fog water samples > 100 mL in volume was 0.9-9.3 ng/L (4.5-46.4 pM). Elevated MMHg concentrations (> 5 ng/L, 25 pM) were observed at 2 sites: UC Santa Cruz and Bodega Bay. The field blanks produced MMHg concentrations of 0.08-0.4 ng/L (0.4-2.0 pM), which was on average < 10% of the sample concentration and suggests the artifact due to sampling was small. The observed MMHg concentrations in fog water observed is this study are 1-2 orders of magnitude greater than MMHg concentrations seen previously in rain water samples from the California coast suggesting an additional source of MMHg to fog. Shipboard measurements of dimethyl mercury (DMHg) in coastal California seawater during the time period of FogNet operations (summer 2014) reveal surface waters that were supersaturated in DMHg which represents a potential

  6. A simulation study of dispersion of air borne radionuclides from a nuclear power plant under a hypothetical accidental scenario at a tropical coastal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srinivas, C. V.; Venkatesan, R.

    Meteorological condition in coastal regions is diurnally variable and spatially heterogeneous due to complex topography, land-sea interface, etc. A wide range of dispersion conditions is possible on a given day in the coastal regions. In case of inadvertent accidental situations, though unlikely, it would be necessary to examine the potentially severe case among different dynamically occurring local atmospheric conditions for dispersion and its range of impact around a nuclear power plant for safety analysis. In this context, dispersion of air borne radioactive effluents during a hypothetical accidental scenario from a proposed prototype fast breeder reactor (PFBR) at an Indian coastal site, Kalpakkam, is simulated using a 3-D meso-scale atmospheric model MM5 and a random walk particle dispersion model FLEXPART. A simulation carried out for a typical summer day predicted the development of land-sea breeze circulation and thermal internal boundary layer (TIBL) formation, which have been confirmed by meteorological observations. Analysis of dose distribution shows that the maximum dose for releases from a 100 m stack occurs at two places within 4 km distance during sea breeze/TIBL fumigation hours. Maximum dose also occurred during nighttime stable conditions. Results indicate that, on the day of present study, the highest concentrations occurred during periods of TIBL fumigation rather than during stable atmospheric conditions. Further, the area of impact (plume width at the surface) spreads up to a down wind distance of 4 km during fumigation condition. Simulation over a range of 25 km has shown turning of plume at the incidence of sea breeze circulation and two different dispersion patterns across the sea breeze front. These results are significant in comparison to the expected pattern shown by Gaussian plume model used for routine analysis.

  7. Modeling and evaluation of the global sea-salt aerosol distribution: sensitivity to emission schemes and resolution effects at coastal/orographic sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spada, M.; Jorba, O.; Perez, C.; Janjic, Z.; Baldasano, J. M.

    2013-05-01

    We investigate two of the major sources of uncertainty in the model estimation of the global distribution of sea-salt aerosol, i.e. the sensitivity to the emission parameterization and the influence of model resolution in coastal regions characterized by complex topography and/or steep orographic barriers where some observation sites are located. We evaluate a new sea-salt aerosol lifecycle module implemented within the online chemical transport model NMMB/BSC-CTM. Because of its multiscale core, the model is able to cover a wide range of scales. Global simulations using four state-of-the-art sea-salt emission schemes are evaluated against monthly-averaged aerosol optical depth (AOD) from selected AERONET Sun photometers, surface concentration measurements from the University of Miami's Ocean Aerosol Network and measurements from two NOAA/PMEL cruises (AEROINDOEX and ACE1). The model results are highly sensitive to the introduction of SST-dependent emissions and to the accounting of spume particles production. Depending on emission scheme, annual emissions range from 4312.9 Tg to 8979.7 Tg in the 2006. Sea-salt lifetime varies between 7.7 h and 12.0 h and the annual mean column mass load is between 5.9 Tg and 7.9 Tg. Observed coarse AOD monthly averages are reproduced with an overall correlation around 0.8 (a correlation of 0.6 is produced when applying the SST dependent scheme). Although monthly-averaged surface concentrations are overall in good agreement with the observations, there is a subset of coastal sites surrounded by complex topography where the global model overestimates by a factor of 2 or more. Using regional high-resolution simulations, we show that these large errors are mostly due to the global model's inability to capture local scale effects. In New Zeland, the increase in resolution produces a significant decrease of surface concentrations (up to 40%) - due to changes in the wind circulation and precipitation driven by the orographic barrier

  8. Ground-water flow, geochemistry, and effects of agricultural practices on nitrogen transport at study sites in the Piedmont and Coastal Plain physiographic provinces, Patuxent River basin, Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McFarland, E. Randolph

    1997-01-01

    In an effort to improve water quality in Chesapeake Bay, agricultural practices are being promoted that are intended to reduce contaminant transport to the Bay. The effects of agricultural practices on nitrogen transport were assessed at two 10-acre study sites in the Patuxent River basin, Maryland, during 1986-92. Nitrogen load was larger in ground water than in surface runoff at both sites. At the study site in the Piedmont Province, nitrogen load in ground water decreased from 12 to 6 (lb/acre)/yr (pound per acre per year) as corn under no-till cultivation was replaced by no-till soybeans, continuous alfalfa, and contoured strip crops alternated among corn, alfalfa, and soybeans. At the study site in the Coastal Plain Province, no-till soybeans resulted in a nitrogen load in ground water of 12.55 (lb/acre)/yr, whereas conventional-till soybeans resulted in a nitrogen load in ground water of 11.51 (lb/acre)/yr.

  9. Evaluation of ocean color data processing schemes for VIIRS sensor using in-situ data of coastal AERONET-OC sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, S.; Gilerson, A.; Hlaing, S.; Weidemann, A.; Arnone, R.; Wang, M.

    2013-10-01

    In the processing of Ocean Color (OC) data from sensor data recorded by Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) aboard JPSS-Suomi satellite, NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group (OBPG) is deriving a continuous temporal calibration based on the on-board calibration measurements for the visible bands, and then reprocessing the full mission to produce a continuously calibrated sensor data record (SDR) product. In addition, a vicarious calibration during SDR to OC Level-2 processing is applied. In the latest processing the vicarious calibration is derived from the Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) data, whereas in the initial processing it was derived from a sea surface reflectance model and a climatology of chlorophyll-a concentration. Furthermore, NASA has recently reprocessed the OC data for the entire VIIRS mission with lunar-based temporal calibration and updated vicarious gains. On the other hand, in fulfilling the mission of the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS) developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems, for the processing of the environmental data products from sensor data records, has gained beta status for evaluation. As these processing schemes continue to evolve, monitoring the validity and assessments of the related VIIRS ocean color products are necessary, especially for coastal waters, to evaluate the consistency of these processing and calibration schemes. The ocean color component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET-OC) has been designed to support long-term satellite ocean color investigations through cross-site measurements collected by autonomous multispectral radiometer systems deployed above water. As part of this network, the Long Island Sound Coastal Observatory (LISCO) near New York City and WaveCIS in the Gulf of Mexico expand those observational capabilities with continuous monitoring as well as (for the LISCO site) additional assessment of the

  10. Calibration of a real-time tsunami detection algorithm for sites with no instrumental tsunami records: application to coastal tide-gauge stations in eastern Sicily, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bressan, L.; Zaniboni, F.; Tinti, S.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal tide gauges play a very important role in a tsunami warning system, since sea-level data are needed for a correct evaluation of the tsunami threat, and the tsunami arrival has to be recognized as early as possible. Real-time tsunami detection algorithms serve this purpose. For an efficient detection, they have to be calibrated and adapted to the specific local characteristics of the site where they are installed, which is easily done when the station has recorded a sufficiently large number of tsunamis. In this case the recorded database can be used to select the best set of parameters enhancing the discrimination power of the algorithm and minimizing the detection time. This chance is however rare, since most of the coastal tide-gauge stations, either historical or of new installation, have recorded only a few tsunamis in their lifetimes, if any. In this case calibration must be carried out by using synthetic tsunami signals, which poses the problem of how to generate them and how to use them. This paper investigates this issue and proposes a calibration approach by using as an example a specific case, which is the calibration of a real-time detection algorithm called TEDA (Tsunami Early Detection Algorithm) for two stations (namely Tremestieri and Catania) in eastern Sicily, Italy, which were recently installed in the frame of the Italian project TSUNET, aiming at improving the tsunami monitoring capacity in a region that is one of the most hazardous tsunami areas of Italy and of the Mediterranean.

  11. Stratospheric variability of wave activity and parameters in equatorial coastal and tropical sites during the West African monsoon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafando, P.; Chane-Ming, F.; Petitdidier, M.

    2015-08-01

    Recent numerical studies in stratospheric dynamics and its variability as well as climate, have highlighted the need of more observational analyses to improve simulation of the West African monsoon (WAM). In this paper, activity and spectral characteristics of short-scale vertical waves (wavelengths <4 km) are analysed in equatorial coastal and tropical lower stratosphere during the WAM. A first detailed description of such waves over West Africa is derived from high-resolution vertical profiles of temperature and horizontal wind obtained during Intensive Observation Period of the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analyses (AMMA) Campaign 2006. Monthly variation of wave energy density is revealed to trace the progression of the inter-tropical convergence zone (ITCZ) over West Africa. Mesoscale inertia gravity-waves structures with vertical and horizontal wavelengths of 1.5-2.5 and 400-1100 km respectively and intrinsic frequencies of 1.1-2.2 f or periods <2 days are observed in the tropical LS with intense activity during July and August when the WAM is installed over the tropical West Africa. Over equatorial region, gravity waves with intrinsic frequencies of 1.4-4 f or periods <5.2 days, vertical wavelength of 2.1 km and long horizontal wavelengths of 1300 km are intense during the WAM coastal phase. From July to October, gravity waves with intrinsic frequencies of 1.2-3.8 f or periods <6 days, vertical wavelength of 2.1 km and horizontal wavelengths of 1650 km are less intense during the WAM Sahelian phase of the WAM, March-June. Unlike potential energy density, kinetic energy density is observed to be a good proxy for the activity of short-scale vertical waves during the WAM because quasi-inertial waves are dominant. Long-term wave activity variation from January 2001 to December 2009, highlights strong year-to-year variation superimposed on convective activity and quasi-biennial oscillation-like variations especially above tropical stations.

  12. A Guide to Field Trip Sites in Coastal North Carolina. Project CAPE Teaching Module SC3a.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Walter B.; Carroll, Carolyn H.

    This guide provides information on preparing students in grades 4-10 for field trips and describes possible field trip sites in the northeastern, mid-eastern, and southeastern regions of North Carolina. Selected sites in the northeastern region (from Roanoke Island to Ocracoke) include the Dare Coastline and Cape Hatteras National Seashore.…

  13. Concentrations of organic contaminants in mollusks and sediments at NOAA National Status and Trend sites in the coastal and estuarine United States.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, T P

    1991-01-01

    Mean concentrations of PAHs, PCBs, and DDT in mollusks and sediments at sites in the National Status and Trends Program (NST) are distributed in log-normal fashion. The dry weight-based chlorinated organic concentrations in mollusks generally exceed those in nearby sediments by an order of magnitude. PAHs are found at similar concentrations in sediments and mollusks. Highest concentrations of PCBs and DDT in mollusks are in the ranges of 1000 to 4000 ng/g (dry) and 400 to 1000 ng/g (dry), respectively. The highest PAH concentrations in sediments are in the 10,000 to 50,000 ng/g (dry) range. While higher concentrations of contaminants can be found by sampling localized hot spots, the NST data represent the distribution of concentrations over general areas of the coastal United States.

  14. Bromide and chloride distribution across the snow-sea ice-ocean interface: A comparative study between an Arctic coastal marine site and an experimental sea ice mesocosm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wen; Tenuta, Mario; Wang, Feiyue

    2016-08-01

    During springtime in the Arctic, bromine explosion events occur when high concentrations of reactive bromine species are observed in the boundary layer with the concurrence of ozone depletion events and mercury depletion events. While a variety of substrates including snow, sea ice, frost flowers, and aerosols have been proposed to be the substrate and/or source of bromine activation in the Arctic, recent studies have highlighted the role of snow. Here we report concentration profiles of halides (Br- and Cl-), Na+, and mercury across the snow-sea ice-seawater interface at a coastal marine site in the Canadian Arctic Archipelago in March and June 2014, as well as in an experimental sea ice mesocosm in Winnipeg in January and February 2014. The occurrence of bromine activation at the Arctic site in March was indicated by the high mercury concentrations in snowpack. At both the Arctic and mesocosm sites, the molar ratios of Br-/Na+ were nearly constant throughout the sea ice depth, but highly variable in the upper layer of the overlying snowpack, revealing that bromine activation takes place in the sunlit snow instead of sea ice. This is supported by calculations showing that the loss of Br- from the upper layer of the snowpack is large enough to produce the observed concentrations of reactive bromine in the atmospheric boundary layer. However, the upper layer of the Arctic snowpack tends to be generally enriched in Br- due to the net addition of Br--containing gases and nonsea-salt aerosols.

  15. An experimental approach for archeological soil micromorphology: building a model for site taphonomy in coastal shell middens of the Beagle Channel (Argentina)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbo, Andrea; Suarez Villagran, Ximena; Madella, Marco; Vila, Asumpcio; Estevez, Jordi

    2010-05-01

    There are still many archaeological contexts where soil micromorphology has been little applied. Examples of such are anthropic shell deposits, common in coastal settings worldwide. These archaeological sites have complex stratigraphies composed mainly of shell from diverse species of local mollusks and gastropods. They have the peculiarity of being highly porous sediments with a coarse fraction that is dominated by gravel-sized bioclastic remains (shell, fish bones) and a fine fraction composed of organic material (charcoal, organic matter). The use of soil micromorphology in shell deposits was started by the Spanish-Argentinean research team working in Tierra del Fuego (Argentina) since 1986. This project focused on excavation of hunter-gatherer sites from the contact period. One of the main objectives was to develop a detailed excavation method for shell middens that maximized the amount of recorded data during archaeological excavation. In this perspective, microstratigraphy was conceived as a fundamental complement for the study of site formation processes, as it would provide with high definition data for identification of shell accumulation episodes, trampling on site, abandonment periods, taphonomic alterations etc. A reference collection of known environmental and anthropic control features, such as hearths, trampling areas, wood ashes from local species, among others, was built to help in the microscopic characterization of archaeological samples. In this work, we analyze this experimental collection and compare it with samples from the Tunel VII archaeological site, located in the northern coast of the Beagle Channel and dated from the 18th-19th centuries. The set of modern samples included: trampling area from an animal pathway; beach deposit; forest litter; soil under the forest; hearths lit in diverse contexts (on the prairie, the beach and from the archaeologist camp site); and experimental burnt valves of Mytilus edulis, the main malacological

  16. Aquifer geochemistry at potential aquifer storage and recovery sites in coastal plain aquifers in the New York city area, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brown, C.J.; Misut, P.E.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of injecting oxic water from the New York city (NYC) drinking-water supply and distribution system into a nearby anoxic coastal plain aquifer for later recovery during periods of water shortage (aquifer storage and recovery, or ASR) were simulated by a 3-dimensional, reactive-solute transport model. The Cretaceous aquifer system in the NYC area of New York and New Jersey, USA contains pyrite, goethite, locally occurring siderite, lignite, and locally varying amounts of dissolved Fe and salinity. Sediment from cores drilled on Staten Island and western Long Island had high extractable concentrations of Fe, Mn, and acid volatile sulfides (AVS) plus chromium-reducible sulfides (CRS) and low concentrations of As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U. Similarly, water samples from the Lloyd aquifer (Cretaceous) in western Long Island generally contained high concentrations of Fe and Mn and low concentrations of other trace elements such as As, Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu and U, all of which were below US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) and NY maximum contaminant levels (MCLs). In such aquifer settings, ASR operations can be complicated by the oxidative dissolution of pyrite, low pH, and high concentrations of dissolved Fe in extracted water.The simulated injection of buffered, oxic city water into a hypothetical ASR well increased the hydraulic head at the well, displaced the ambient groundwater, and formed a spheroid of injected water with lower concentrations of Fe, Mn and major ions in water surrounding the ASR well, than in ambient water. Both the dissolved O2 concentrations and the pH of water near the well generally increased in magnitude during the simulated 5-a injection phase. The resultant oxidation of Fe2+ and attendant precipitation of goethite during injection provided a substrate for sorption of dissolved Fe during the 8-a extraction phase. The baseline scenario with a low (0.001M) concentration of pyrite in aquifer sediments, indicated that nearly 190% more water

  17. Influence of relative humidity on aerosol composition: Impacts on light extinction and visibility impairment at two sites in coastal area of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, W. J.; Wang, J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Wang, D.; Sheng, L. F.

    2015-02-01

    Investigation on the aerosol characteristics, surface visibility (Vis) and meteorology at BGS (Baguanshan, Qingdao) and LNA (Lin'an, Zhejiang) shows that the ambient aerosol chemical composition and light extinction are relative humidity (RH) dependent. At higher RH, both the strengthened hygroscopic growth and the more efficient oxidization (of the precursor gases and formation of the secondary sulfate and nitrate) contribute to the increase of the mass fraction of the hygroscopic species, which consequently results in the increase of the aerosol mass extinction efficiency (MEE) and Vis reduction at the two Chinese coastal sites. MEE and chemical composition of the aerosol vary significantly under different regional transport ways; the airmasses from the ocean directions are associated with higher RH, higher sulfate mass fraction and greater MEE at BGS, while MEEs are smaller and associated with lower RH and lower sulfate fraction for the airmasses from the continent directions. Vis shows better correlation with PM2.5 and PM10 mass concentrations when RH effect on aerosol hygroscopic growth is considered. At BGS, the sulfate mass fraction in PM2.5 and PM10 (in average 32.4% and 27.4%) can explain about 60.7% and 74.3% of the variance of the aerosol MEE, respectively; sulfate and nitrate contribute to about 61% of the light extinction. RH plays a key role in aerosol extinction and visibility variation over this coastal area of China. Formation of the secondary aerosol (especially sulfate and nitrate) as well as hygroscopic growth under favorable (more stable and humid) meteorological conditions should be paid adequate attention in regulation of air quality and Vis improvement over eastern China in addition to the routine emission control measurements.

  18. Leucine Aminopeptidase, β-Glucosidase and Alkaline Phosphatase Activity Rates and Their Significance in Nutrient Cycles in Some Coastal Mediterranean Sites

    PubMed Central

    Caruso, Gabriella

    2010-01-01

    In aquatic microbial ecology, knowledge of the processes involved in the turnover of organic matter is of utmost importance to understand ecosystem functioning. Microorganisms are major players in the cycling of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus) and carbon, thanks to their enzymatic activities (leucine aminopeptidase, LAP, alkaline phosphatase, AP, and β-glucosidase, β-GLU) on organic polymers (proteins, organic phosphates and polysaccharides, respectively). Estimates of the decomposition rates of organic polymers are performed using fluorogenic compounds, whose hydrolysis rate allow us to obtain information on the “potential” metabolic activity of the prokaryotic community. This paper refers the enzyme patterns measured during recent oceanographic cruises performed in some coastal Mediterranean sites, not yet fully investigated in terms of microbial biogeochemical processes. Mean enzyme activity rates ranged from 5.24 to 5558.1 nM/h, from 12.68 to 244.73 nM/h and from 0.006 to 9.51 nM/h for LAP, AP and β-GLU, respectively. The highest LAP and AP activity rates were measured in the Gulf of Milazzo (Tyrrhenian Sea) and in the Straits of Messina, in association with the lowest bacterioplankton abundance; in contrast, the lowest ones were found in the northern Adriatic Sea. β-GLU was more active in the Straits of Messina. Activity rates were analysed in relation to the main environmental variables. Along the northern Adriatic coastal side affected by the Po river, significant inverse relationships linked LAP and AP with salinity, pointing out that fluvial inputs provided organic substrates for microbial metabolism. Both in the Gulf of Manfredonia and in the Straits of Messina, LAP and AP levels were inversely related with the concentration of nitrate and inorganic phosphorus, respectively. In the Gulf of Milazzo, high cell-specific AP measured in spite of phosphorus availability suggested the role of this enzyme not only in phosphorus, but also in carbon

  19. Leucine aminopeptidase, beta-glucosidase and alkaline phosphatase activity rates and their significance in nutrient cycles in some coastal Mediterranean sites.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Gabriella

    2010-01-01

    In aquatic microbial ecology, knowledge of the processes involved in the turnover of organic matter is of utmost importance to understand ecosystem functioning. Microorganisms are major players in the cycling of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus) and carbon, thanks to their enzymatic activities (leucine aminopeptidase, LAP, alkaline phosphatase, AP, and beta-glucosidase, beta-GLU) on organic polymers (proteins, organic phosphates and polysaccharides, respectively). Estimates of the decomposition rates of organic polymers are performed using fluorogenic compounds, whose hydrolysis rate allow us to obtain information on the "potential" metabolic activity of the prokaryotic community. This paper refers the enzyme patterns measured during recent oceanographic cruises performed in some coastal Mediterranean sites, not yet fully investigated in terms of microbial biogeochemical processes. Mean enzyme activity rates ranged from 5.24 to 5558.1 nM/h, from 12.68 to 244.73 nM/h and from 0.006 to 9.51 nM/h for LAP, AP and beta-GLU, respectively. The highest LAP and AP activity rates were measured in the Gulf of Milazzo (Tyrrhenian Sea) and in the Straits of Messina, in association with the lowest bacterioplankton abundance; in contrast, the lowest ones were found in the northern Adriatic Sea. beta-GLU was more active in the Straits of Messina. Activity rates were analysed in relation to the main environmental variables. Along the northern Adriatic coastal side affected by the Po river, significant inverse relationships linked LAP and AP with salinity, pointing out that fluvial inputs provided organic substrates for microbial metabolism. Both in the Gulf of Manfredonia and in the Straits of Messina, LAP and AP levels were inversely related with the concentration of nitrate and inorganic phosphorus, respectively. In the Gulf of Milazzo, high cell-specific AP measured in spite of phosphorus availability suggested the role of this enzyme not only in phosphorus, but also in carbon

  20. Leucine aminopeptidase, beta-glucosidase and alkaline phosphatase activity rates and their significance in nutrient cycles in some coastal Mediterranean sites.

    PubMed

    Caruso, Gabriella

    2010-03-29

    In aquatic microbial ecology, knowledge of the processes involved in the turnover of organic matter is of utmost importance to understand ecosystem functioning. Microorganisms are major players in the cycling of nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus) and carbon, thanks to their enzymatic activities (leucine aminopeptidase, LAP, alkaline phosphatase, AP, and beta-glucosidase, beta-GLU) on organic polymers (proteins, organic phosphates and polysaccharides, respectively). Estimates of the decomposition rates of organic polymers are performed using fluorogenic compounds, whose hydrolysis rate allow us to obtain information on the "potential" metabolic activity of the prokaryotic community. This paper refers the enzyme patterns measured during recent oceanographic cruises performed in some coastal Mediterranean sites, not yet fully investigated in terms of microbial biogeochemical processes. Mean enzyme activity rates ranged from 5.24 to 5558.1 nM/h, from 12.68 to 244.73 nM/h and from 0.006 to 9.51 nM/h for LAP, AP and beta-GLU, respectively. The highest LAP and AP activity rates were measured in the Gulf of Milazzo (Tyrrhenian Sea) and in the Straits of Messina, in association with the lowest bacterioplankton abundance; in contrast, the lowest ones were found in the northern Adriatic Sea. beta-GLU was more active in the Straits of Messina. Activity rates were analysed in relation to the main environmental variables. Along the northern Adriatic coastal side affected by the Po river, significant inverse relationships linked LAP and AP with salinity, pointing out that fluvial inputs provided organic substrates for microbial metabolism. Both in the Gulf of Manfredonia and in the Straits of Messina, LAP and AP levels were inversely related with the concentration of nitrate and inorganic phosphorus, respectively. In the Gulf of Milazzo, high cell-specific AP measured in spite of phosphorus availability suggested the role of this enzyme not only in phosphorus, but also in carbon

  1. Nest-site selection and hatching success of waterbirds in coastal Virginia: some results of habitat manipulation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rounds, R.A.; Erwin, R.M.; Portera, J.H.

    2004-01-01

    Rising sea levels in the mid-Atlantic region pose a long-term threat to marshes and their avian inhabitants. The Gull-billed Tern (Sterna nilotica), Common Tern (S. hirundo), Black Skimmer (Rynchops niger), and American Oystercatcher (Haematopus palliatus), species of concern in Virginia, nest on low shelly perimeters of salt marsh islands on the Eastern Shore of Virginia. Marsh shellpiles are free of mammalian predators, but subject to frequent floods that reduce reproductive success. In an attempt to examine nest-site selection, enhance habitat, and improve hatching success, small (2 ? 2 m) plots on five island shellpiles were experimentally elevated, and nest-site selection and hatching success were monitored from 1 May to 1 August, 2002. In addition, location, elevation, and nesting performance of all other nests in the colonies were also monitored. No species selected the elevated experimental plots preferentially over adjacent control plots at any of the sites. When all nests were considered, Common Tern nests were located significantly lower than were random point elevations at two sites, as they tended to concentrate on low-lying wrack. At two other sites, however, Common Tern nests were significantly higher than were random points. Gull-billed Terns and American Oystercatchers showed a weak preference for higher elevations on bare shell at most sites. Hatching success was not improved on elevated plots, despite the protection they provided from flooding. Because of a 7 June flood, when 47% of all nests flooded, hatching success for all species was low. Nest elevation had the strongest impact on a nest's probability of hatching, followed by nest-initiation date. Predation rates were high at small colonies, and Ruddy Turnstones (Arenaria interpres) depredated 90% of early Gull-billed Tern nests at one shellpile. The importance of nest elevation and flooding on hatching success demonstrates the potential for management of certain waterbird nesting sites

  2. Coastal Prairie

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    The coastal prairie, located along the coastal plain of southwestern Louisiana and southcentral Texas, is the southernmost tip of the tallgrass prairie ecosystem so prevalent in the Midwest. The coastal prairie ecosystem once covered as much as 3.8 million ha (9 million acres); today, more than 99% of this land has been lost to agriculture, range improvement, and urbanization. The remainder is highly fragmented and severely threatened by invasions of exotic species and urban sprawl. In Louisiana, the former 1 million ha of coastal prairie have now been reduced to about 100 ha. In Texas, only about 100,000 ha of coastal prairie remain intact.

  3. Clear-Water Contraction Scour at Selected Bridge Sites in the Black Prairie Belt of the Coastal Plain in Alabama, 2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, K.G.; Hedgecock, T.S.

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Alabama Department of Transportation, made observations of clear-water contraction scour at 25 bridge sites in the Black Prairie Belt of the Coastal Plain of Alabama. These bridge sites consisted of 54 hydraulic structures, of which 37 have measurable scour holes. Observed scour depths ranged from 1.4 to 10.4 feet. Theoretical clear-water contraction-scour depths were computed for each bridge and compared with observed scour. This comparison showed that theoretical scour depths, in general, exceeded the observed scour depths by about 475 percent. Variables determined to be important in developing scour in laboratory studies along with several other hydraulic variables were investigated to understand their influence within the Alabama field data. The strongest explanatory variables for clear-water contraction scour were channel-contraction ratio and velocity index. Envelope curves were developed relating both of these explanatory variables to observed scour. These envelope curves provide useful tools for assessing reasonable ranges of scour depth in the Black Prairie Belt of Alabama.

  4. Use of bioassays and sediment polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentrations to assess toxicity at coastal sites impacted by Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Weston, James; Warren, Crystal; Chaudhary, Amit; Emerson, Beth; Argote, Kate; Khan, Shabana; Willett, Kristine L

    2010-07-01

    The goal of the present study was twofold: to rapidly assess the potential environmental toxicological response following the storm surge and flooding caused by Hurricane Katrina along the Gulf Coast of Mississippi, USA, in August 2005, and to establish post-Katrina baseline toxicological profiles for three environmental matrices (water, suspended sediments, and sediments) within the intertidal zone. Sediment and water samples were collected monthly from September 2005 to 2006 from 10 sites along the Gulf Coast from Gulfport, Mississippi, to Mobile Bay, Alabama. Water samples and suspended sediment matrices were extracted, assayed, and toxic equivalent values calculated for compounds with estrogenic potential, using the yeast estrogen screen, and CYP1A induction potential, using the H4IIE rat hepatoma ethoxyresorufin-O-deethylase assay. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were measured in surface sediments. It was hypothesized that the more heavily storm impacted sites, those closest to Katrina's path and time of landfall (e.g., Gulfport, September-October 2005), would elicit higher bioassay responses and PAH concentrations compared to those further east or approximately a year post-Katrina (e.g., Mobile Bay, August- September 2006). Benzo[a]pyrene equivalents decreased along spatial and temporal storm intensity gradients, but estrogenic compounds and sediment PAHs did not. Estrogen equivalents (approximately 1 ng/L) from water and suspended sediment samples occurred primarily in samples collected within a few months post-Katrina. Site-averaged surface sediment total PAHs varied significantly between sites and were higher than the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's probable effects level at the Gulfport Marina and Back Biloxi Bay, Mississippi, sites. Results from the present study suggest that CYP1A inducing compounds elicited a short-term bioassay response in the water matrix shortly (within weeks) after Katrina's passing but were quickly

  5. Effects of Storms on Coastal Vulnerability Through Revisiting Sites Impacted by Super Storm Sandy Offshore Long Island, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hosseini, P.; McHugh, C.; Christensen, B. A.; Yong, W. Y.; Delligatti, M.

    2015-12-01

    Recent models indicate that due to climate change storm activity can intensify. Sea level rise as a result of climate change can lead to storm flooding and coastal damage in low-lying populated areas such as NE, USA. The New York metropolitan area experienced one of the highest storm surges in its history during Hurricane Sandy. The peak storm-tide elevation measured by USGS in Jamaica Bay was about 3.5 m, 1.4 m higher than historical measurements in the same area. As part of a National Science Foundation Rapid Response we surveyed from the R/V Pritchard and sampled the bays and inlets along the southern shore of Long Island after Super Storm Sandy in January 2013 and during June 2014 for assessing the impact of the storm. Short-lived radioisotopes, heavy metals and grain size variability were used to track the path of the storm. In 2013 high concentrations of metals (Pb 184 ppm) were deposited on the landward side of barrier islands and were tracked offshore for10 km. In 2014, we revisited the 2013 locations. The offshore, metal enriched mud layer was seen as small inclusions in sand and not present at the surface suggestive that natural processes are cleansing the sea-floor. Inland the cores showed three facies. From the base upwards: 1) coarse sand with low Pb 99 ppm. Interpreted as either sand transported landwards by the storm or in situ; 2) fine-grained, organic rich sediment with the high Pb 443 ppm and interpreted as seaward transport by the storm; 3) organic rich mud with lower Pb 200 ppm was found in the core tops. Most importantly the sea-floor was colonized by tubeworms suggestive that the environment is returning to normal conditions. These results coupled to other regional studies indicate that the storm was catastrophic and resulted in significant sediment transport. The surge brought sand inland modifying channel and inlet depths but most damaging was the seaward surge that brought contaminants offshore. It appears that the bays and inlets are

  6. On the sub-micron aerosol size distribution in a coastal-rural site at El Arenosillo Station (SW - Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorribas, M.; de La Morena, B. A.; Wehner, B.; López, J. F.; Prats, N.; Mogo, S.; Wiedensohler, A.; Cachorro, V. E.

    2011-11-01

    This study focuses on the analysis of the sub-micron aerosol characteristics at El Arenosillo Station, a rural and coastal environment in South-western Spain between 1 August 2004 and 31 July 2006 (594 days). The mean total concentration (NT) was 8660 cm-3 and the mean concentrations in the nucleation (NNUC), Aitken (NAIT) and accumulation (NACC) particle size ranges were 2830 cm-3, 4110 cm-3 and 1720 cm-3, respectively. Median size distribution was characterised by a single-modal fit, with a geometric diameter, median number concentration and geometric standard deviation of 60 nm, 5390 cm-3 and 2.31, respectively. Characterisation of primary emissions, secondary particle formation, changes to meteorology and long-term transport has been necessary to understand the seasonal and annual variability of the total and modal particle concentration. Number concentrations exhibited a diurnal pattern with maximum concentrations around noon. This was governed by the concentrations of the nucleation and Aitken modes during the warm seasons and only by the nucleation mode during the cold seasons. Similar monthly mean total concentrations were observed throughout the year due to a clear inverse variation between the monthly mean NNUC and NACC. It was related to the impact of desert dust and continental air masses on the monthly mean particle levels. These air masses were associated with high values of NACC which suppressed the new particle formation (decreasing NNUC). Each day was classified according to a land breeze flow or a synoptic pattern influence. The median size distribution for desert dust and continental aerosol was dominated by the Aitken and accumulation modes, and marine air masses were dominated by the nucleation and Aitken modes. Particles moved offshore due to the land breeze and had an impact on the particle burden at noon, especially when the wind was blowing from the NW sector in the morning during summer time. This increased NNUC and NAIT by factors of 3

  7. Polychaete response to fresh food supply at organically enriched coastal sites: Repercussion on bioturbation potential and trophic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturini, N.; Pires-Vanin, A. M. S.; Salhi, M.; Bessonart, M.; Muniz, P.

    2011-12-01

    We investigated the vertical distribution, abundance, specific and functional structure of polychaete assemblages at four organically enriched sites. The effects of fresh organic matter input from the water column driving by upwelling were evaluated. Temperature and salinity values indicate the intrusion of South Atlantic Central Water (SACW) in spring, a nutrient-rich water mass. The dominance of the conveyor belt transport (CONV) in the station influenced by SACW, in the spring survey, is associated with fresh organic matter input as indicated by higher amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Conversely, the predominance of the diffusive mixing (DIFF) bioturbation category, in the sites without SACW influence is related to the preferential accumulation of more refractive food resources as indicated by higher concentrations of short chain saturated fatty acids. At the site influenced by SACW, the changes in polychaete assemblages were not all evident during proceeding upwelling conditions, but may persist at the end of the upwelling. Polychaetes in the study area seemed to be limited by the quality but not the quantity of food. The delay in polychaete response to fresh food supply may be related to the organic enrichment and the prevalence of refractory material in the sediments.

  8. Trace element levels in fish from clean and polluted coastal marine sites in the Mediterranean Sea, Red Sea and North Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kress, Nurit; Herut, Barak; Shefer, Edna; Hornung, Hava

    1999-12-01

    The bioaccumulation of Hg, Cd, Zn, Cu, Mn and Fe was evaluated in the muscle and liver tissue of four fish species (Siganus rivulatus, Diplodus sargus, Lithognatus mormyrus and Plathychtis flesus) from clean and polluted marine coastal sites in the Red Sea, Mediterranean Sea and North Sea within the framework of the MARS 1 program. Representative liver samples were screened for organic contaminants (DDE, PCBs and PAHs) which exhibited very low concentrations. The levels of Cd, Cu, Zn, Fe and Mn found in the muscle tissue in this study were similar among the four species and within the naturally occurring metal ranges. However, differences were found among the sites. In the Red Sea, Cu was higher in the muscle of S. rivulatus at Ardag and Zn at the Observatory (OBS). Cu, Zn and Mn were higher in the Red Sea than in the specimens from the Mediterranean. The differences were attributed to different diets derived from distinctively different natural environments. D. sargus from Haifa Bay (HB) had higher Cd, Cu and Mn values than specimens from Jaffa (JFA), and L. mormyrus higher Cd, Fe and Mn in HB, corresponding to the polluted environmental status of the Bay. No differences in metal levels were found among the North Sea sites, except for Fe that was lower at the Eider station. Hg was low in all the specimens, but the values varied with species and sites. The lowest Hg values were found in S. rivulatus, the herbivorous species, as expected from its trophic level. Hg in P. flesus was higher than in S. rivulatus but still low. Higher Hg values were found in the muscle tissue of L. mormyrus,with the highest values in D. sargus, both carnivorous species from the same family. Hg in D. sargus was higher in HB than in JFA, as expected, but in the larger specimens of L. mormyrus from JFA values were higher, while in the small specimens there were no differences in Hg values. The levels of all metals were higher in the liver than in the muscle, with enrichment factors ranging

  9. Optical Properties of Boreal Region Biomass Burning Aerosols in Central Alaska and Seasonal Variation of Aerosol Optical Depth at an Arctic Coastal Site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eck, T. F.; Holben, B. N.; Reid, J. S.; Sinyuk, A.; Hyer, E. J.; O'Neill, N. T.; Shaw, G. E.; VandeCastle, J. R.; Chapin, F. S.; Dubovik, O.; Smirnov, A.; Vermote, E.; Schafer, J. S.; Giles, D.; Slutsker, I.; Sorokine, M.; Newcomb, W. W.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of aerosol optical properties at a boreal forest AERONET site in interior Alaska was performed from 1994 through 2008 (excluding winter). Large interannual variability was observed, with some years showing near background aerosol optical depth (AOD) levels (<0.1 at 500 nm) while 2004 and 2005 had August monthly means similar in magnitude to peak months at major tropical biomass burning regions. Single scattering albedo (omega (sub 0); 440 nm) at the boreal forest site ranged from approximately 0.91 to 0.99 with an average of approximately 0.96 for observations in 2004 and 2005. This suggests a significant amount of smoldering combustion of woody fuels and peat/soil layers that would result in relatively low black carbon mass fractions for smoke particles. The fine mode particle volume median radius during the heavy burning years was quite large, averaging approximately 0.17 micron at AOD(440 nm) = 0.1 and increasing to approximately 0.25 micron at AOD(440 nm) = 3.0. This large particle size for biomass burning aerosols results in a greater relative scattering component of extinction and, therefore, also contributes to higher omega (sub 0). Additionally, monitoring at an Arctic Ocean coastal site (Barrow, Alaska) suggested transport of smoke to the Arctic in summer resulting in individual events with much higher AOD than that occurring during typical spring Arctic haze. However, the springtime mean AOD(500 nm) is higher during late March through late May (approximately 0.150) than during summer months (approximately 0.085) at Barrow partly due to very few days with low background AOD levels in spring compared with many days with clean background conditions in summer.

  10. Dependence of aerosol scattering coefficients on relative humidity observed at two coastal sites on the East China Sea: Comparison to remote observations and influence of chemical composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanaya, Y.; Taketani, F.; Irie, H.; Komazaki, Y.; Takashima, H.; Xiaole, P.; Takami, A.; Wang, Z.

    2011-12-01

    We employed an integrating nephelometer equipped with a humidifier (where the relative humidity (RH) was scanned between 40 and 90%) to measure the aerosol scattering coefficients and their dependence on RH at Fukue Island (32.75N, 128.68E), west of Japan, in May 2009 and at Rudong, Jiangsu, China (32.26N, 121.37E) in May/June 2010, aiming at better characterization of optical properties of the regional-scale aerosol pollution over East Asia. The two coastal sites are located east and west of the East China Sea and are separated by about 700 km. The observed scattering coefficients are normalized by the concurrently measured PM2.5 mass concentrations and thereby behaviors of the mass scattering coefficients are discussed. At Fukue, the mass scattering coefficients under the ambient RH conditions were >1.5 times higher than those observed under the dry condition (RH = 40%), suggesting that the RH effect was crucial in determining optical properties under ambient conditions. The coefficients under the ambient RH conditions, rather than the dry values, agreed better with the extinction coefficients determined by MAX-DOAS (Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) technique based on remote measurements of O4 optical depths. The single-scattering albedo (SSA), estimated in combination to the absorption coefficients determined by a MAAP (Multi-Angle Absorption Photometer) instrument, had similar average values (~0.95) at the two sites. The SSA values at the two sites were commonly lowered (to below 0.90) when the air traveled from the North China Plain region. At Fukue, the RH dependence was found to be weakened when the organics/sulfate ratio increased (as observed by an Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer), while such influence of chemical composition was less clear at Rudong, possibly masked by large temporal variations in the particle size distributions.

  11. Analysis of aerosol scattering properties measured by a nephelometer at a coastal-rural site in the Atlantic southwest of the Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López, Juan F.; Cachorro, Victoria E.; de Frutos, Angel M.

    2015-09-01

    Aerosol hemispherical scattering and the backscattering coefficients, σsp, σbsc, have been measured using a 3-wavelength (450, 550 and 700 nm) integrating nephelometer over two years (January 2006-May 2008) in the coastal area of the Gulf of Cádiz, in the southwest of the Iberian Peninsula. These coefficients have been carefully analyzed starting with the impact of corrections on the measurements of σsp: i.e., drift calibration constants do not modify the mean value in our data series. However, the selection of dry data (with RH less than 50%) modifies substantially the number of data and the resulting mean value of σsp is now 14% lower, which is compensated when the angular truncation correction is applied. The characterization and features of σsp, σbsc, and the derived parameters αsp (alpha Ångström exponent) and b (the backscatter ratio) has been analyzed, as annual, seasonal and diurnal evolution. A general statistic based on hourly data gives mean values and standard deviation of σsp (500 nm)=48±38 Mm-1 with a median of 38 Mm-1, and σbsc (500 nm)=5.6±3.8 Mm-1 with a median of 4.6 Mm-1. Thus, these values show moderate-low values but with a large range of variation considering the existing measured values over the Iberian Peninsula. The median value of σsp (500 nm) is an indicator that events of high aerosol burden are frequent presenting a substantial influence on the daily averages. The alpha Ångström exponent, αsp, derived from the pairs 450/700 nm gives a mean value 1.35±0.54 with a median of 1.47 and with the most frequent value of 1.7, thus indicating the prevalence of medium size particles but with a significant influence of fine particles. The b ratio has the same value for mean and median, 0.12±0.02, showing a decrease with increasing values of σsp. Annual and daily cycles have been also analyzed showing the complex behaviour of the optical properties at this coastal site where cold and warn periods show very different

  12. Paleogene and Cretaceous sediment cores from the Kilwa and Lindi areas of coastal Tanzania: Tanzania Drilling Project Sites 1-5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearson, Paul N.; Nicholas, Christopher J.; Singano, Joyce M.; Bown, Paul R.; Coxall, Helen K.; van Dongen, Bart E.; Huber, Brian T.; Karega, Amina; Lees, Jackie A.; Msaky, Emma; Pancost, Richard D.; Pearson, Marion; Roberts, Andrew P.

    2004-05-01

    Initial results of scientific drilling in southern coastal Tanzania are described. A total of five sites was drilled (mostly using continuous coring) by the Tanzania Drilling Project for paleoclimate studies. The sediments are predominantly clays and claystones deposited in a deep marine shelf environment and often contain excellently preserved microfossils suitable for geochemical analysis. The studies reported here include summaries of the lithostratigraphy, biostratigraphy (planktonic foraminifers, calcareous nannofossils, benthic foraminifers, and palynology), magnetostratigraphy, and organic geochemistry. TDP Site 1 was drilled near Kilwa Masoko airstrip (8°54.516 'S, 39°30.397 'E). It yielded 8.55 m of barren blue-grey clays that may be Miocene in age, followed by 1.2 m of greenish-black to dark greenish-grey clay probably of the same age. The remainder of the hole cored 62.35 m of lower Oligocene sediments (nannofossil Zone NP23), which are predominantly greenish-black to dark greenish-grey clays. Total penetration was 74.10 m. The coring represents the first report of a thick Oligocene clay formation in the area. TDP Site 2 was drilled near Kilwa Masoko prison (8°55.277 'S, 39°30.219 'E). It yielded 92.78 m of predominantly dark greenish-grey clay with occasional allochthonous limestone beds that consist mostly of redeposited larger foraminifers. The site encompasses lower to middle Eocene planktonic foraminifer Zones P8/9 to P11 and nannofossil Subzones NP14b to NP15c. It encompasses a rarely cored interval across the Ypresian-Lutetian transition. TDP Site 3 was drilled near Mpara in the Kilwa area (8°51.585 'S, 39°27.655 'E). It yielded 56.4 m of predominantly dark greenish-grey clays and claystones. The site is assigned to lower Eocene planktonic foraminifer Zone P6 and nannofossil Zone NP11. TDP Site 4 was drilled near Ras Tipuli on the northwest side of Lindi creek (9°56.999 'S, 39°42.985 'E). It yielded 19.8 m of predominantly dark greenish

  13. Determination of Aerosol Optical Depth with a Multifilter Rotating Shadowband Radiometer using in-place calibrations at a coastal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denn, F. M.; Fabbri, B. E.; Schuster, G. L.

    2012-12-01

    Direct and indirect aerosol effects are identified among the largest sources of uncertainty in model projections of climate change (IPCC AR-4). Even though aerosol optical depths (AODs) are currently derived on a global scale from satellite measurements as well as within data assimilation models, ground-based sun photometer measurements of AOD are extremely important for validating these indirect retrievals. Calibration of surface sun photometers requires knowledge of the instrument-specific solar signal at each measurement channel (V0), determined by doing Langley extrapolations. V0s are often difficult to determine at ground sites, and are very difficult to obtain at the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy (CERES) Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE) site. Some reasons for this difficulty are varying humidity, aerosol loading, and generally unstable atmospheric conditions. For these reasons, many researchers prefer to determine instrument V0s at pristine mountain sites, such as Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) Hawaii, where these problems are greatly reduced. However, taking an instrument to a mountain top location can introduce a new set of problems, such as shipping damage and potential environmental influences on the instrument (temperature). For instruments with an exposed Spectralon diffuser such as the Multifilter Rotating Shadowband radiometer (MFRSR), diffuser bleaching by ultraviolet radiation and possible distortion of the diffuser by changes in atmospheric pressure can occur. For these reasons, our goal is to determine AODs for our MFRSR using V0s determined in-place at the COVE site. The reference AOD data is from a co-located CIMEL sun photometer, which is part of NASA's Aerosol Robotic NETwork (AERONET). We show that in-place V0s can be determined with nearly the same precision as at a mountain site, and that the resultant AODs obtained using these in-place V0s agree better with AERONET than the AODs determined using the mountain derived V0s. The

  14. One year online chemical speciation of submicron particulate matter (PM1) sampled at a French industrial and coastal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shouwen; Riffault, Véronique; Dusanter, Sébastien; Augustin, Patrick; Fourmentin, Marc; Delbarre, Hervé

    2015-04-01

    The harbor of Dunkirk (Northern France) is surrounded by different industrial plants (metallurgy, petrochemistry, food processing, power plant, etc.), which emit gaseous and particulate pollutants such as Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and sulfur (SO2), and submicron particles (PM1). These emissions are poorly characterized and their impact on neighboring urban areas has yet to be assessed. Studies are particularly needed in this type of complex environments to get a better understanding of PM1sources, especially from the industrial sector, their temporal variability, and their transformation. Several instruments, capable of real-time measurements (temporal resolution ≤ 30 min), were deployed at a site located downwind from the industrial area of Dunkirk for a one-year duration (July 2013-September 2014). An Aerosol Chemical Speciation Monitor (ACSM) and an Aethalometer monitored the main chemical species in the non-refractory submicron particles and black carbon, respectively. Concomitant measurements of trace gases and wind speed and direction were also performed. This dataset was analyzed considering four wind sectors, characteristics of marine, industrial, industrial-urban, and urban influences, and the different seasons. We will present a descriptive analysis of PM1, showing strong variations of ambient concentrations, as well as evidences of SO2 to SO4 gas-particle conversion when industrial plumes reached the monitoring site. The organic fraction measured by ACSM (37% of the total mass on average) was analyzed using a source-receptor model based on Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to identify chemical signatures of main emission sources and to quantify the contribution of each source to the PM1 budget given the wind sector. Four main factors were identified: hydrocarbon organic aerosol (HOA), oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA), biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) and cooking-like organic aerosol (COA). Overall, the total PM

  15. How does the selection of landscape classification schemes affect the spatial pattern of natural landscapes? An assessment on a coastal wetland site in southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Tomaselli, V; Veronico, G; Sciandrello, S; Blonda, P

    2016-06-01

    It is widely known that thematic resolution affects spatial pattern and landscape metrics performances. In literature, data dealing with this issue usually refer to a specific class scheme with its thematic levels. In this paper, the effects of different land cover (LC) and habitat classification schemes on the spatial pattern of a coastal landscape were compared. One of the largest components of the Mediterranean wetland system was considered as the study site, and different schemes widely used in the EU were selected and harmonized with a common thematic resolution, suitable for habitat discrimination and monitoring. For each scheme, a thematic map was produced and, for each map, 28 landscape metrics were calculated. The landscape composition, already in terms of number of classes, class area, and number of patches, changes significantly among different classification schemes. Landscape complexity varies according to the class scheme considered and its underlying semantics, depending on how the different types aggregate or split when changing class scheme. Results confirm that the selection of a specific class scheme affects the spatial pattern of the derived landscapes and consequently the landscape metrics, especially at class level. Moreover, among the classification schemes considered, EUNIS seems to be the best choice for a comprehensive representation of both natural and anthropogenic classes.

  16. Heavy mineral delineation of the Cretaceous, Paleocene, and Eocene stratigraphic sections at the Savannah River Site, Upper Coastal Plain of South Carolina

    SciTech Connect

    Cathcart, E.M. . Dept. of Geology); Sargent, K.A. . Dept. of Geology)

    1994-03-01

    The Upper Atlantic Coastal Plain of South Carolina consists of a fluvial-deltaic and shallow marine complex of unconsolidated sediments overlying the crystalline basement rocks of the North American continent. Because of the lateral and vertical variability of these sediments, stratigraphic boundaries have been difficult to distinguish. Portions of the Cretaceous, Paleocene, and eocene stratigraphic sections from cores recovered during the construction of two monitoring wells at the Savannah River Site were studied to determine if heavy mineral suites could be utilized to distinguish boundaries. The stratigraphic sections include: the Late Cretaceous Middendorf, Black Creek, and Steel Creek Formations, the Paleocene Snapp Formation, the late Paleocene-Early Eocene Fourmile Branch Formation, and the Early Eocene Congaree formation. In previous studies composite samples were taken over 2.5 ft. intervals along the cores and processed using a heavy liquid for heavy mineral recovery. During this study, heavy mineral distributions were determined by binocular microscope and the mineral identifications confirmed by x-ray diffraction analysis of hand-picked samples. The heavy mineral concentration data and grain size data were then compared to the stratigraphic boundary positions determined by other workers using more classical methods. These comparisons were used to establish the utility of this method for delineating the stratigraphic boundaries in the area of study.

  17. Preliminary reactive geochemical transport simulation study on CO2 geological sequestration at the Changhua Coastal Industrial Park Site, Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sung, R.; Li, M.

    2013-12-01

    Mineral trapping by precipitated carbonate minerals is one of critical mechanisms for successful long-term geological sequestration (CGS) in deep saline aquifer. Aquifer acidification induced by the increase of carbonic acid (H2CO3) and bicarbonate ions (HCO3-) as the dissolution of injected CO2 may induce the dissolution of minerals and hinder the effectiveness of cap rock causing potential risk of CO2 leakage. Numerical assessments require capabilities to simulate complicated interactions of thermal, hydrological, geochemical multiphase processes. In this study, we utilized TOUGHREACT model to demonstrate a series of CGS simulations and assessments of (1) time evolution of aquifer responses, (2) migration distance and spatial distribution of CO2 plume, (3) effects of CO2-saline-mineral interactions, and (4) CO2 trapping components at the Changhua Costal Industrial Park (CCIP) Site, Taiwan. The CCIP Site is located at the Southern Taishi Basin with sloping and layered heterogeneous formations. At this preliminary phase, detailed information of mineralogical composition of reservoir formation and chemical composition of formation water are difficult to obtain. Mineralogical composition of sedimentary rocks and chemical compositions of formation water for CGS in deep saline aquifer from literatures (e.g. Xu et al., 2004; Marini, 2006) were adopted. CGS simulations were assumed with a constant CO2 injection rate of 1 Mt/yr at the first 50 years. Hydrogeological settings included porosities of 0.103 for shale, 0.141 for interbedding sandstone and shale, and 0.179 for sandstone; initial pore pressure distributions of 24.5 MPa to 28.7 MPa, an ambient temperature of 70°C, and 0.5 M of NaCl in aqueous solution. Mineral compositions were modified from Xu et al. (2006) to include calcite (1.9 vol. % of solid), quartz (57.9 %), kaolinite (2.0 %), illite (1.0 %), oligoclase (19.8 %), Na-smectite (3.9 %), K-feldspar (8.2 %), chlorite (4.6 %), and hematite (0.5 %) and were

  18. Atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) over a coastal/rural site downwind of East China: Temporal variation and long-range transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ci, Zhijia; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Wang, Zhangwei; Niu, Zhenchuan

    2011-05-01

    Although much attention has been paid to the mercury pollution in China, limited field studies have been conducted to explore the atmospheric behavior of mercury. To investigate the temporal variation and long-range transport of atmospheric gaseous elemental mercury (GEM or Hg(0)), the GEM measurements covering four different seasons were performed at a coastal/rural site of the Yellow Sea downwind of East China. Hourly mean concentrations of GEM measured by RA-915+ mercury analyzer over the entire study (four different time periods between July 2007 and May 2009) were 2.31 ± 0.74 ng m -3 with a range of 1.12-7.01 ng m -3. The results showed moderate seasonal variations with high levels in cold seasons (winter: 2.53 ± 0.77 ng m -3 and spring: 2.34 ± 0.54 ng m -3) and low levels in warm seasons (summer: 2.28 ± 0.82 ng m -3 and fall: 2.16 ± 0.84 ng m -3). Over the each campaign a diurnal variation of GEM was observed consistently with peak levels in daytime and low levels in late night and early morning. The pollution rose and NOAA-HYSPLIT back-trajectory model analyses indicated that the elevated GEM was transported to the sampling site from the regional sources of East China and Korea peninsula-Japan. Air masses originated from the East China Sea and the regions of Continental East Asia with low emission strengths of atmospheric mercury (e.g., the east Russia, the north Inner Mongolia and the Bohai Sea) showed the decreased GEM levels.

  19. Characteristics and potential sources of atmospheric mercury at a subtropical near-coastal site in East China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Ben; Wang, Xun; Lin, Che-Jen; Fu, Xuewu; Zhang, Hui; Shang, Lihai; Feng, Xinbin

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the impact of regional mercury (Hg) emissions and understand possible source regions of atmospheric Hg in Eastern China, 2 year observation for speciated atmospheric Hg was conducted at the Dameishan Atmospheric Observatory, a mountain site near the east coast of China. The observed concentration of total gaseous Hg (TGM) was 3.3 ± 1.4 ng m-3. During the sampling period, gaseous oxidized Hg and particulate bound Hg were 6.7 ± 4.3 pg m-3 and 180 ± 110 pg m-3 in winter and 5.9 ± 3.4 pg m-3 and 130 ± 100 pg m-3 in spring, respectively. The relatively high mean concentration of TGM was mainly caused by regional anthropogenic emissions and occasional long-range transport from domestic source regions. Seasonal variation in the TGM concentration was observed with lower values in the wet monsoon season (from May to September) and higher values in the dry monsoon season (from October to April). Backward trajectories and potential source contribution function analysis suggested that anthropogenic Hg emission from coal combustion in the Yangtze River Delta region was the most likely cause for the elevated TGM concentrations. Relatively clean air originating from the East China Sea was the most possible cause for the observed low TGM concentrations. Positive correlation between TGM concentration and air quality index suggests that emissions that influenced regional air quality contributed to the elevated TGM concentrations.

  20. Model for Coastal Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Judd, Chaeli

    2007-07-27

    Successful restoration of wetland habitats depends on both our understanding of our system and our ability to characterize it. By developing a conceptual model, looking at different spatial scales and integrating diverse data streams: GIS datasets and NASA products, we were able to develop a dynamic model for site prioritization based on both qualitative and quantitative relationships found in the coastal environment.

  1. A Three-Year Study of Ichyoplankton in Coastal Plains Reaches of the Savannah River Site and its Tributaries

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, D.

    2007-03-05

    Altering flow regimes of rivers has large effects on native floras and faunas because native species are adapted to the natural flow regime, many species require lateral connectivity with floodplain habitat for feeding or spawning, and the change in regime often makes it possible for invasive species to replace natives (Bunn & Arthington 2002). Floodplain backwaters, both permanent and temporary, are nursery areas for age 0+ fish and stable isotope studies indicate that much of the productivity that supports fish larvae is autochthonous to these habitats (Herwig et al. 2004). Limiting access by fish to floodplain habitat for feeding, spawning and nursery habitat is one of the problems noted with dams that regulate flow in rivers and is considered to be important as an argument to remove dams and other flow regulating structures from rivers (Shuman 1995; Bednarek 2001). While there have been a number of studies in the literature about the use of floodplain habitat for fish reproduction (Copp 1989; Killgore & Baker 1996; Humphries, et al. 1999; Humphries and Lake 2000; Crain et al. 2004; King 2004) there have been only a few studies that examined this aspect of stream ecology in more than a cursory way. The study reported here was originally designed to determine whether the Department of Energy's (DOE) Savannah River Site was having a negative effect on fish reproduction in the Savannah River but its experimental design allowed examination of the interactions between the river, the floodplain and the tributaries entering the Savannah River across this floodplain. This study is larger in length of river covered than most in the literature and because of its landscape scale may be in important indicator of areas where further study is required.

  2. PM2.5 source apportionment in a French urban coastal site under steelworks emission influences using constrained non-negative matrix factorization receptor model.

    PubMed

    Kfoury, Adib; Ledoux, Frédéric; Roche, Cloé; Delmaire, Gilles; Roussel, Gilles; Courcot, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    The constrained weighted-non-negative matrix factorization (CW-NMF) hybrid receptor model was applied to study the influence of steelmaking activities on PM2.5 (particulate matter with equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) composition in Dunkerque, Northern France. Semi-diurnal PM2.5 samples were collected using a high volume sampler in winter 2010 and spring 2011 and were analyzed for trace metals, water-soluble ions, and total carbon using inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), ICP--mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), ionic chromatography and micro elemental carbon analyzer. The elemental composition shows that NO3(-), SO4(2-), NH4(+) and total carbon are the main PM2.5 constituents. Trace metals data were interpreted using concentration roses and both influences of integrated steelworks and electric steel plant were evidenced. The distinction between the two sources is made possible by the use Zn/Fe and Zn/Mn diagnostic ratios. Moreover Rb/Cr, Pb/Cr and Cu/Cd combination ratio are proposed to distinguish the ISW-sintering stack from the ISW-fugitive emissions. The a priori knowledge on the influencing source was introduced in the CW-NMF to guide the calculation. Eleven source profiles with various contributions were identified: 8 are characteristics of coastal urban background site profiles and 3 are related to the steelmaking activities. Between them, secondary nitrates, secondary sulfates and combustion profiles give the highest contributions and account for 93% of the PM2.5 concentration. The steelwork facilities contribute in about 2% of the total PM2.5 concentration and appear to be the main source of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn. PMID:26969551

  3. PM2.5 source apportionment in a French urban coastal site under steelworks emission influences using constrained non-negative matrix factorization receptor model.

    PubMed

    Kfoury, Adib; Ledoux, Frédéric; Roche, Cloé; Delmaire, Gilles; Roussel, Gilles; Courcot, Dominique

    2016-02-01

    The constrained weighted-non-negative matrix factorization (CW-NMF) hybrid receptor model was applied to study the influence of steelmaking activities on PM2.5 (particulate matter with equivalent aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 μm) composition in Dunkerque, Northern France. Semi-diurnal PM2.5 samples were collected using a high volume sampler in winter 2010 and spring 2011 and were analyzed for trace metals, water-soluble ions, and total carbon using inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), ICP--mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), ionic chromatography and micro elemental carbon analyzer. The elemental composition shows that NO3(-), SO4(2-), NH4(+) and total carbon are the main PM2.5 constituents. Trace metals data were interpreted using concentration roses and both influences of integrated steelworks and electric steel plant were evidenced. The distinction between the two sources is made possible by the use Zn/Fe and Zn/Mn diagnostic ratios. Moreover Rb/Cr, Pb/Cr and Cu/Cd combination ratio are proposed to distinguish the ISW-sintering stack from the ISW-fugitive emissions. The a priori knowledge on the influencing source was introduced in the CW-NMF to guide the calculation. Eleven source profiles with various contributions were identified: 8 are characteristics of coastal urban background site profiles and 3 are related to the steelmaking activities. Between them, secondary nitrates, secondary sulfates and combustion profiles give the highest contributions and account for 93% of the PM2.5 concentration. The steelwork facilities contribute in about 2% of the total PM2.5 concentration and appear to be the main source of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn.

  4. The size distribution of chemical elements of atmospheric aerosol at a semi-rural coastal site in Venice (Italy). The role of atmospheric circulation.

    PubMed

    Masiol, Mauro; Squizzato, Stefania; Ceccato, Daniele; Pavoni, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations of selected elemental tracers were determined in the aerosol of a semi-rural coastal site near Venice (Italy). Size-segregated aerosol samples were collected using an 8-stage cascade impactor set at 15m above ground, during the cold season (late autumn and winter), when high levels of many pollutants are known to cause risks for human health. From the experimental data, information was extracted on potential pollutant sources by investigating the relationships between elements in the different size fractions. Moreover, an approach to highlight the importance of local atmospheric circulation and air mass origin in influencing the PM composition and fractional distribution is proposed. Anthropogenic elements are strongly inter-correlated in the submicrometric (<1 μm) (S, K, Mn, Cu, Fe and Zn) and intermediate mode (1-4 μm) (Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni) and their relationships highlight the presence of several sources (combustions, secondary aerosol, road traffic). In the intermediate mode, associations having geochemical significance exist between marine (Na, Cl and Mg) and crustal (Si, Mg, Ca, Al, Ti and K) elements. In the coarse mode (>4 μm) Fe and Zn are well correlated and are probably linked to tire and brake wear emissions. Regarding atmospheric circulation, results show increasing levels of elements related to pollution sources (S, K, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn) when air masses come from Central and Eastern Europe direction and on the ground wind blows from NWN-N-NE (from mainland Venice). Low wind speed and high percentage of wind calm hours favor element accumulation in the submicrometric and intermediate modes. Furthermore, strong winds favor the formation of sea-spray and the increase of Si in the coarse mode due to the resuspension of sand fine particles. PMID:25063963

  5. Size and elemental composition of dry-deposited particles during a severe dust storm at a coastal site of Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Hongya; Zhang, Daizhou; Hu, Wei; Shi, Jinhui; Li, Ruipeng; Gao, Huiwang; Pian, Wei; Hu, Min

    2016-02-01

    Dry-deposited particles were collected during the passage of an extremely strong dust storm in March, 2010 at a coastal site in Qingdao (36.15 °N, 120.49 °E), a city located in Eastern China. The size, morphology, and elemental composition of the particles were quantified with a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray instrument (SEM-EDX). The particles appeared in various shapes, and their size mainly varied from 0.4 to 10 μm, with the mean diameters of 0.5, 1.5, and 1.0 μm before, during, and after the dust storm, respectively. The critical size of the mineral particles settling on the surface in the current case was about 0.3-0.4 μm before the dust storm and about 0.5-0.7 μm during the dust storm. Particles that appeared in high concentration but were smaller than the critical size deposited onto the surface at a small number flux. The elements Al, Si and Mg were frequently detected in all samples, indicating the dominance of mineral particles. The frequency of Al in particles collected before the dust storm was significantly lower than for those collected during and after the dust storm. The frequencies of Cl and Fe did not show obvious changes, while those of S, K and Ca decreased after the dust arrival. These results indicate that the dust particles deposited onto the surface were less influenced by anthropogenic pollutants in terms of particle number. PMID:26969556

  6. The size distribution of chemical elements of atmospheric aerosol at a semi-rural coastal site in Venice (Italy). The role of atmospheric circulation.

    PubMed

    Masiol, Mauro; Squizzato, Stefania; Ceccato, Daniele; Pavoni, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The concentrations of selected elemental tracers were determined in the aerosol of a semi-rural coastal site near Venice (Italy). Size-segregated aerosol samples were collected using an 8-stage cascade impactor set at 15m above ground, during the cold season (late autumn and winter), when high levels of many pollutants are known to cause risks for human health. From the experimental data, information was extracted on potential pollutant sources by investigating the relationships between elements in the different size fractions. Moreover, an approach to highlight the importance of local atmospheric circulation and air mass origin in influencing the PM composition and fractional distribution is proposed. Anthropogenic elements are strongly inter-correlated in the submicrometric (<1 μm) (S, K, Mn, Cu, Fe and Zn) and intermediate mode (1-4 μm) (Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni) and their relationships highlight the presence of several sources (combustions, secondary aerosol, road traffic). In the intermediate mode, associations having geochemical significance exist between marine (Na, Cl and Mg) and crustal (Si, Mg, Ca, Al, Ti and K) elements. In the coarse mode (>4 μm) Fe and Zn are well correlated and are probably linked to tire and brake wear emissions. Regarding atmospheric circulation, results show increasing levels of elements related to pollution sources (S, K, Mn, Ni, Cu, Zn) when air masses come from Central and Eastern Europe direction and on the ground wind blows from NWN-N-NE (from mainland Venice). Low wind speed and high percentage of wind calm hours favor element accumulation in the submicrometric and intermediate modes. Furthermore, strong winds favor the formation of sea-spray and the increase of Si in the coarse mode due to the resuspension of sand fine particles.

  7. Size and elemental composition of dry-deposited particles during a severe dust storm at a coastal site of Eastern China.

    PubMed

    Niu, Hongya; Zhang, Daizhou; Hu, Wei; Shi, Jinhui; Li, Ruipeng; Gao, Huiwang; Pian, Wei; Hu, Min

    2016-02-01

    Dry-deposited particles were collected during the passage of an extremely strong dust storm in March, 2010 at a coastal site in Qingdao (36.15 °N, 120.49 °E), a city located in Eastern China. The size, morphology, and elemental composition of the particles were quantified with a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray instrument (SEM-EDX). The particles appeared in various shapes, and their size mainly varied from 0.4 to 10 μm, with the mean diameters of 0.5, 1.5, and 1.0 μm before, during, and after the dust storm, respectively. The critical size of the mineral particles settling on the surface in the current case was about 0.3-0.4 μm before the dust storm and about 0.5-0.7 μm during the dust storm. Particles that appeared in high concentration but were smaller than the critical size deposited onto the surface at a small number flux. The elements Al, Si and Mg were frequently detected in all samples, indicating the dominance of mineral particles. The frequency of Al in particles collected before the dust storm was significantly lower than for those collected during and after the dust storm. The frequencies of Cl and Fe did not show obvious changes, while those of S, K and Ca decreased after the dust arrival. These results indicate that the dust particles deposited onto the surface were less influenced by anthropogenic pollutants in terms of particle number.

  8. Tracking a northern fulmar from a Scottish nesting site to the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone: Evidence of linkage between coastal breeding seabirds and Mid-Atlantic Ridge feeding sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, Ewan W. J.; Quinn, Lucy R.; Wakefield, Ewan D.; Miller, Peter I.; Thompson, Paul M.

    2013-12-01

    The seas above mid-ocean ridges are biodiversity hotspots in an otherwise largely oligotrophic environment, but the nature and extent of linkage between these offshore regimes and coastal ecosystems remains uncertain. Using a combination of GPS and geolocation tracking data, we show that a male fulmar, breeding on the Scottish coast, foraged over areas of persistent thermal fronts along the Charlie-Gibbs Fracture Zone (CGFZ) of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge during the incubation period. The bird travelled over 6200 km in 14.9 days. First-passage time analysis identified seven areas of restricted search, four on the shelf and three in the vicinity of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge. Previous studies of incubation foraging trip durations at this site suggest that a trip of this duration is unusual, and further work is required to assess the extent to which different individuals use these offshore resources. Nevertheless, these data highlight the potential importance of high sea areas beyond the limits of national jurisdiction when considering the management and conservation of seabirds breeding in NW Europe, and raises the potential for even greater linkage between the CGFZ and seabirds breeding colonies in other regions.

  9. One-year observations of size distribution characteristics of major aerosol constituents at a coastal receptor site in Hong Kong - Part 1: Inorganic ions and oxalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Q.; Huang, X. H. H.; Yu, J. Z.

    2014-09-01

    Size distribution data of major aerosol constituents are essential in source apportioning of visibility degradation, testing and verification of air quality models incorporating aerosols. We report here 1-year observations of mass size distributions of major inorganic ions (sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium) and oxalate at a coastal suburban receptor site in Hong Kong, China. A total of 43 sets of size-segregated samples in the size range of 0.056-18 μm were collected from March 2011 to February 2012. The size distributions of sulfate, ammonium, potassium and oxalate were characterized by a dominant droplet mode with a mass mean aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) in the range of ~ 0.7-0.9 μm. Oxalate had a slightly larger MMAD than sulfate on days with temperatures above 22 °C as a result of the process of volatilization and repartitioning. Nitrate was mostly dominated by the coarse mode but enhanced presence in fine mode was detected on winter days with lower temperature and lower concentrations of sea salt and soil particles. This data set reveals an inversely proportional relationship between the fraction of nitrate in the fine mode and product of the sum of sodium and calcium in equivalent concentrations and the dissociation constant of ammonium nitrate (i.e., (1/([Na+] + 2[Ca2+]) × (1/Ke')) when Pn_fine is significant (> 10%). The seasonal variation observed for sea salt aerosol abundance, with lower values in summer and winter, is possibly linked with the lower marine salinities in these two seasons. Positive matrix factorization was applied to estimate the relative contributions of local formation and transport to the observed ambient sulfate level through the use of the combined data sets of size-segregated sulfate and select gaseous air pollutants. On average, the regional/super-regional transport of air pollutants was the dominant source at this receptor site, especially on high-sulfate days while local formation

  10. One-year observations of size distribution characteristics of major aerosol constituents at a coastal receptor site in Hong Kong - Part 1: Inorganic ions and oxalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bian, Q.; Huang, X. H. H.; Yu, J. Z.

    2014-01-01

    Size distribution data of major aerosol constituents are essential in source apportioning of visibility degradation, testing and verification of air quality models incorporating aerosols. We report here one-year observations of mass size distributions of major inorganic ions (sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium, sodium, potassium, magnesium and calcium) and oxalate at a coastal suburban receptor site in Hong Kong, China. A total of 43 sets of size segregated samples in the size range of 0.056-18 μm were collected from March 2011 to February 2012. The size distributions of sulfate, ammonium, potassium and oxalate were characterized by a dominant droplet mode with a mass mean aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) in the range of ~0.7-0.9 μm. Oxalate had a slightly larger MMAD than sulfate on days with temperatures above 22 °C as a result of the process of volatilization and repartitioning. Nitrate was mostly dominated by the coarse mode but enhanced presence in fine mode was detected on winter days with lower temperature and lower concentrations of sea salt and soil particles. This data set reveals an inversely proportional relationship between the fraction of nitrate in the fine mode and product of the sum of sodium and calcium in equivalent concentrations and the dissociation constant of ammonium nitrate (i.e., (1/[Na+] + 2[Ca2+]) × (1/Ke')). The seasonal variation observed for sea salt aerosol abundance, with lower values in summer and winter, is possibly linked with the lower marine salinities in these two seasons. Positive matrix factorization was applied to estimate the relative contributions of local formation and transport to the observed ambient sulfate level through the use of the combined datasets of size-segregated sulfate and select gaseous air pollutants. On average, the regional/super-regional transport of air pollutants was the dominant source at this receptor site, especially on high sulfate days, while local formation processes contributed approximately

  11. Coastal Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The U.S. Geological Survey dedicated its new Center for Coastal Geology June 12 at the University of South Florida in St. Petersburg. Robert Halley leads the staff of nine USGS scientists studying coastal erosion and pollution and underwater mineral resources in cooperation with the university's Marine Science Department. Current research is on erosion along Lake Michigan and the Gulf Coast of Louisiana. The number of USGS scientists at the center should increase to 30 over five years.

  12. Sources and atmospheric processes impacting oxalate at a suburban coastal site in Hong Kong: Insights inferred from 1 year hourly measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yang; Huang, Xiaohui Hilda; Bian, Qijing; Griffith, Stephen M.; Louie, Peter K. K.; Yu, Jian Zhen

    2015-09-01

    Oxalic acid is one of the most abundant dicarboxylic acids in the atmosphere, receiving a great deal of attention due to its potential influence on cloud condensation nucleus activities. In this work, we report 10 months of hourly oxalate measurements in particulate matter of less than 2.5 µm in aerodynamic diameter (PM2.5) by a Monitor for Aerosols and Gases in ambient Air at a suburban coastal site in Hong Kong from April 2012 to February 2013. A total of more than 6000 sets of oxalate and inorganic ion data were obtained. The mean (±SD) oxalate concentration was 0.34 (±0.18) µg m-3, accounting for 2.8% of the total ion mass and 1.5% of the PM2.5 mass. Seasonal variation showed higher concentrations in fall and winter (0.54 and 0.36 µg m-3, respectively) and lower concentrations in spring and summer (~0.26 µg m-3). Different from the inorganic ions, a shallow dip in the oxalate concentration consistently occurred in the morning after sunrise (around 9:00 A.M.) throughout all seasons. Our analysis suggests that this was likely due to photolysis of oxalate-Fe (III) complex under sunlight. In summer, a small daytime peak was discernable for oxalate and nitrate. This characteristic, together with a more evident diurnal variation of O3, indicates comparatively more active photochemical oxidation in summer than other seasons. High correlations were observed between oxalate and non-sea-salt SO42- (NSS) (R2 = 0.63) and Ox (O3 + NO2) (R2 = 0.48), indicating significant commonality in their secondary formation. Positive matrix factorization analysis of oxalate and other real-time gas and particle-phase component data estimates that secondary formation processes, including secondary gas or aqueous oxidation processes (49%), oxidation processes of biomass burning emissions (37%), accounted for the majority of PM2.5 oxalate. A backward trajectories cluster analysis found that higher oxalate/NSS ratios were associated with low pollution samples under the influence of

  13. Cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and HR-ToF-AMS measurements at a coastal site in Hong Kong: size-resolved CCN activity and closure analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, J. W.; Yeung, M. C.; Li, Y. J.; Lee, B. Y. L.; Chan, C. K.

    2014-04-01

    The cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) properties of atmospheric aerosols were measured on 1-30 May 2011 at a coastal site in Hong Kong. Size-resolved CCN activation curves, the ratio of number concentration of CCN (NCCN) to aerosol concentration (NCN) as a function of particle size, were obtained at supersaturation (SS) = 0.15%, 0.35%, 0.50%, and 0.70% using a DMT CCN counter (CCNc) and a TSI scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). The mean bulk size-integrated NCCN ranged from ∼500 cm-3 at SS = 0.15% to ∼2100 cm-3 at SS = 0.70%, and the mean bulk NCCN / NCN ratio ranged from 0.16 at SS = 0.15% to 0.65 at SS = 0.70%. The average critical mobility diameters (D50) at SS = 0.15%, 0.35%, 0.50%, and 0.70% were 116 nm, 67 nm, 56 nm, and 46 nm, respectively. The corresponding average hygroscopic parameters (κCCN) were 0.39, 0.36, 0.31, and 0.28. The decrease in κCCN can be attributed to the increase in organic to inorganic volume ratio as particle size decreases, as measured by an Aerodyne high resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). The κCCN correlates reasonably well with κAMS based on size-resolved AMS measurements: κAMS = κorg × forg + κinorg × finorg, where forg and finorg are the organic and inorganic volume fractions, respectively, κorg = 0.1 and κinorg = 0.6, with a R2 of 0.51. In closure analysis, NCCN was estimated by integrating the measured size-resolved NCN for particles larger than D50 derived from κ assuming internal mixing state. Estimates using κAMS from size-resolved AMS measurements show that the measured and predicted NCCN were generally within 10% of each other at all four SS. The deviation increased to 26% when κAMS was calculated from bulk PM1 AMS measurements of particles because PM1 was dominated by particles of 200 nm to 500 nm in diameter, which had a larger inorganic fraction than those of D50 (particle diameter < 200 nm). A constant κ = 0.33 (the average value of size-resolved κAMS over the

  14. Portable coastal observatories

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frye, Daniel; Butman, Bradford; Johnson, Mark; von der Heydt, Keith; Lerner, Steven

    2000-01-01

    Ocean observational science is in the midst of a paradigm shift from an expeditionary science centered on short research cruises and deployments of internally recording instruments to a sustained observational science where the ocean is monitored on a regular basis, much the way the atmosphere is monitored. While satellite remote sensing is one key way of meeting the challenge of real-time monitoring of large ocean regions, new technologies are required for in situ observations to measure conditions below the ocean surface and to measure ocean characteristics not observable from space. One method of making sustained observations in the coastal ocean is to install a fiber optic cable from shore to the area of interest. This approach has the advantage of providing power to offshore instruments and essentially unlimited bandwidth for data. The LEO-15 observatory offshore of New Jersey (yon Alt et al., 1997) and the planned Katama observatory offshore of Martha's Vineyard (Edson et al., 2000) use this approach. These sites, along with other cabled sites, will play an important role in coastal ocean science in the next decade. Cabled observatories, however, have two drawbacks that limit the number of sites that are likely to be installed. First, the cable and the cable installation are expensive and the shore station needed at the cable terminus is often in an environmentally sensitive area where competing interests must be resolved. Second, cabled sites are inherently limited geographically to sites within reach of the cable, so it is difficult to cover large areas of the coastal ocean.

  15. Dramatic Variability of the Carbonate System at a Temperate Coastal Ocean Site (Beaufort, North Carolina, USA) Is Regulated by Physical and Biogeochemical Processes on Multiple Timescales

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Zackary I.; Wheeler, Benjamin J.; Blinebry, Sara K.; Carlson, Christina M.; Ward, Christopher S.; Hunt, Dana E.

    2013-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) from anthropogenic sources is acidifying marine environments resulting in potentially dramatic consequences for the physical, chemical and biological functioning of these ecosystems. If current trends continue, mean ocean pH is expected to decrease by ~0.2 units over the next ~50 years. Yet, there is also substantial temporal variability in pH and other carbon system parameters in the ocean resulting in regions that already experience change that exceeds long-term projected trends in pH. This points to short-term dynamics as an important layer of complexity on top of long-term trends. Thus, in order to predict future climate change impacts, there is a critical need to characterize the natural range and dynamics of the marine carbonate system and the mechanisms responsible for observed variability. Here, we present pH and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) at time intervals spanning 1 hour to >1 year from a dynamic, coastal, temperate marine system (Beaufort Inlet, Beaufort NC USA) to characterize the carbonate system at multiple time scales. Daily and seasonal variation of the carbonate system is largely driven by temperature, alkalinity and the balance between primary production and respiration, but high frequency change (hours to days) is further influenced by water mass movement (e.g. tides) and stochastic events (e.g. storms). Both annual (~0.3 units) and diurnal (~0.1 units) variability in coastal ocean acidity are similar in magnitude to 50 year projections of ocean acidity associated with increasing atmospheric CO2. The environmental variables driving these changes highlight the importance of characterizing the complete carbonate system rather than just pH. Short-term dynamics of ocean carbon parameters may already exert significant pressure on some coastal marine ecosystems with implications for ecology, biogeochemistry and evolution and this shorter term variability layers additive effects and complexity, including

  16. Dramatic variability of the carbonate system at a temperate coastal ocean site (Beaufort, North Carolina, USA) is regulated by physical and biogeochemical processes on multiple timescales.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Zackary I; Wheeler, Benjamin J; Blinebry, Sara K; Carlson, Christina M; Ward, Christopher S; Hunt, Dana E

    2013-01-01

    Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) from anthropogenic sources is acidifying marine environments resulting in potentially dramatic consequences for the physical, chemical and biological functioning of these ecosystems. If current trends continue, mean ocean pH is expected to decrease by ~0.2 units over the next ~50 years. Yet, there is also substantial temporal variability in pH and other carbon system parameters in the ocean resulting in regions that already experience change that exceeds long-term projected trends in pH. This points to short-term dynamics as an important layer of complexity on top of long-term trends. Thus, in order to predict future climate change impacts, there is a critical need to characterize the natural range and dynamics of the marine carbonate system and the mechanisms responsible for observed variability. Here, we present pH and dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) at time intervals spanning 1 hour to >1 year from a dynamic, coastal, temperate marine system (Beaufort Inlet, Beaufort NC USA) to characterize the carbonate system at multiple time scales. Daily and seasonal variation of the carbonate system is largely driven by temperature, alkalinity and the balance between primary production and respiration, but high frequency change (hours to days) is further influenced by water mass movement (e.g. tides) and stochastic events (e.g. storms). Both annual (~0.3 units) and diurnal (~0.1 units) variability in coastal ocean acidity are similar in magnitude to 50 year projections of ocean acidity associated with increasing atmospheric CO2. The environmental variables driving these changes highlight the importance of characterizing the complete carbonate system rather than just pH. Short-term dynamics of ocean carbon parameters may already exert significant pressure on some coastal marine ecosystems with implications for ecology, biogeochemistry and evolution and this shorter term variability layers additive effects and complexity, including

  17. Submergence Vulnerability Index development and application to Coastwide Reference Monitoring System Sites and Coastal Wetlands Planning, Protection and Restoration Act projects

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stagg, Camille L.; Sharp, Leigh Anne; McGinnis, Thomas E.; Snedden, Gregg A.

    2013-01-01

    Since its implementation in 2003, the Coastwide Reference Monitoring System (CRMS) in Louisiana has facilitated the creation of a comprehensive dataset that includes, but is not limited to, vegetation, hydrologic, and soil metrics on a coastwide scale. The primary impetus for this data collection is to assess land management activities, including restoration efforts, across the coast. The aim of the CRMS analytical team is to provide a method to synthesize this data to enable multiscaled evaluations of activities in Louisiana’s coastal wetlands. Several indices have been developed to facilitate data synthesis and interpretation, including a Floristic Quality Index, a Hydrologic Index, and a Landscape Index. This document details the development of the Submergence Vulnerability Index, which incorporates sediment-elevation data as well as hydrologic data to determine the vulnerability of a wetland based on its ability to keep pace with sea-level rise. The objective of this document is to provide Federal and State sponsors, project managers, planners, landowners, data users, and the rest of the coastal restoration community with the following: (1) data collection and model development methods for the sediment-elevation response variables, and (2) a description of how these response variables will be used to evaluate CWPPRA project and program effectiveness.

  18. Coastal alert

    SciTech Connect

    Holing, D.

    1990-01-01

    This book explains: how offshore drilling affects the environment and the quality of life; how the government auctions off our threatened coast to the oil industry; how offshore oil and gas are developed; how the lease sale process works; how energy alternatives can replace offshore drilling; how citizen action works and how one can become involved; letters and press announcements; important contacts. The author believes that America needs to get off the energy consumption treadmill and onto the track that leads to reliance on renewable resources and energy efficiency. This book is intended to tell citizens how they can help bring about this transition and protect unique coastal resources.

  19. Copper corrosion in coastal Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, Sophie J.; Cramer, Stephen D.; Covino, Bernard S. Jr.; Holcomb, Gordon R.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy is studying the atmospheric corrosion performance of copper and other metals along the Oregon coast. Only the copper results will be presented in this paper. Atmospheric corrosion measurements of copper samples were made at seven bridges, eight coastal communities, and three inland reference sites to quantify and understand the effect of high chloride environments on the corrosion performance of copper. The materials were atmospherically exposed for 1, 2, and 3 years to examine the effects of sheltering, orientation, distance from the ocean, and coastal microclimates on the rate of corrosion and the composition of the corrosion film.

  20. Hydrogeologic framework, hydrology, and refined conceptual model of groundwater flow for Coastal Plain aquifers at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site, New Castle County, Delaware, 2005-12

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brayton, Michael J.; Cruz, Roberto M.; Myers, Luke; Degnan, James R.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.

    2015-01-01

    The regional hydrogeologic framework indicates that the site is underlain by Coastal Plain sediments of the Columbia, Merchantville, and Potomac Formations. Two primary aquifers underlying the site, the Columbia and the upper Potomac, are separated by the Merchantville Formation confining unit. Local groundwater flow in the surficial (Columbia) aquifer is controlled by topography and generally flows northward and discharges to nearby surface water. Regional flow within the Potomac aquifer is towards the southeast, and is strongly influenced by major water withdrawals locally. Previous investigations at the site indicated that contaminants, primarily benzene and chlorinated benzene compounds, were present in the Columbia aquifer in most locations; however, there were only limited detections in the upper Potomac aquifer as of 2004. From 2005 through 2012, the USGS designed a monitoring network, assisted with exploratory drilling, collected data at monitoring wells, conducted geophysical surveys, evaluated water-level responses in wells during pumping of a production well, and evaluated major aquifer withdrawals. Data collected through these efforts were used to refine the local conceptual flow system. The refined conceptual flow system for the site includes: (a) identification of gaps in confining units in the study area, (b) identification and correlation of multiple water-bearing sand intervals within the upper Potomac Formation, (c) connections between groundwater and surface water, (d) connections between shallow and deeper groundwater, (e) new water-level (or potentiometric surface) maps and inferred flow directions, and (f) identification of major local pumping well influences. The implications of the revised conceptual flow system on the occurrence and movement of site contaminants are that the resulting detection of contaminants in the upper Potomac aquifer at specific well locations can be attributed primarily to either advective lateral transport, direct

  1. The Liverpool Bay Coastal Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howarth, John; Palmer, Matthew

    2011-11-01

    A pilot Coastal Observatory has been established in Liverpool Bay which integrates (near) real-time measurements with coupled models and whose results are displayed on the web. The aim is to understand the functioning of coastal seas, their response to natural forcing and the consequences of human activity. The eastern Irish Sea is an apt test site, since it encompasses a comprehensive range of processes found in tidally dominated coastal seas, including near-shore physical and biogeochemical processes influenced by estuarine inflows, where both vertical and horizontal gradients are important. Applications include hypernutrification, since the region receives significantly elevated levels of nutrient inputs, shoreline management (coastal flooding and beach erosion/accretion), and understanding present conditions to predict the impact of climate change (for instance if the number and severity of storms, or of high or low river flows, change). The integrated measurement suite which started in August 2002 covers a range of space and time scales. It includes in situ time series, four to six weekly regional water column surveys, an instrumented ferry, a shore-based HF radar system measuring surface currents and waves, coastal tide gauges and visible and infra-red satellite data. The time series enable definition of the seasonal cycle, its inter-annual variability and provide a baseline from which the relative importance of events can be quantified. A suite of nested 3D hydrodynamic, wave and ecosystem models is run daily, focusing on the observatory area by covering the ocean/shelf of northwest Europe (at 12-km resolution) and the Irish Sea (at 1.8 km), and Liverpool Bay at the highest resolution of 200 m. The measurements test the models against events as they happen in a truly 3D context. All measurements and model outputs are displayed freely on the Coastal Observatory website (http://cobs.pol.ac.uk) for an audience of researchers, education, coastal managers and the

  2. Diel Variability of Total and Speciated Water-Soluble Inorganic Iodine in PM2.5 Aerosol at a Southern California Coastal Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pszenny, A.; Cotter, K.; Deegan, B.; Fischer, E.; Johnson, D.

    2007-12-01

    PM2.5 aerosol was sampled over nominal 3-hour intervals at the head of Zuma Beach in Malibu, California (USA) from 6 to 24 October 2006 by filtration at 1.13 m3 min-1 (STP) through 20 x 25 cm cellulose fiber (Whatman 41) filters that had been rinsed with deionized water (DIW). Exposed filters were removed from support cartridges as soon as possible after retrieval (usually within 2 hours), immediately sealed in clean polyethylene bags, and stored frozen until further processing. Following the field campaign one quarter of each filter was pressed into a pellet (2.0 cm diameter x 0.5 cm thick) and analyzed by neutron activation for total concentrations of I and several other trace elements. Our preliminary analyses indicate that sodium and iodine show a clear diel variation characterized by higher concentrations from late morning to early evening. We hypothesize that this diel variability is related to a persistent land/sea breeze circulation associated with the nearby coastal region. Other elements are indicative of variability in other aerosol sources such as soil dust (Al, Mn) and fossil fuel combustion (V). Second quarters are currently being extracted in DIW and analyzed in two ways: 1) for iodide by ion chromatography, and 2) for inorganic iodine in higher oxidation states (i.e., V to 0) by chemical reduction with ascorbic acid followed by determination of iodide by ion chromatography. Results of the trace element and speciated iodine analyses will be presented.

  3. A study of fecal coliform sources at a coastal site using colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) as a water source tracer.

    PubMed

    Clark, Catherine D; O'Connor, Adam P; Foley, Denise M; de Bruyn, Warren J

    2007-09-01

    Optical properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) were measured as a tracer of polluted waters in a Southern California surf-zone with consistently high levels of fecal indicator bacteria. Salinity, temperature, fecal coliform, absorbance (200-700nm) and fluorescence (lambda(excitation)=350nm; lambda(emission)=360-650nm) were measured in the creek and surf-zone during a dry and rain event. Fluorescence to absorption ratios for CDOM were used to distinguish water masses, with two distinct CDOM end-members identified as creek (flu/abs=8.7+/-0.8x10(4)) and coastal (flu/abs=2.2+/-0.3x10(4)). Waters containing the same CDOM end-member had highly variable bacterial levels during the dry event, suggesting intermittent sources of bacteria added to a uniform water source, consistent with marine birds. During the rain event, increased levels of the creek end-member and bacteria indicated a second bacteria source from runoff.

  4. Effectiveness of a physical barrier for contaminant control in an unconfined coastal plain aquifer: the case study of the former industrial site of Bagnoli (Naples, southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Arienzo, Michele; Allocca, Vincenzo; Manna, Ferdinando; Trifuoggi, Marco; Ferrara, Luciano

    2015-12-01

    A vertical engineered barrier (VEB) coupled with a water treatment plant was surveyed in the framework of a vast remedial action at the brownfield site of the former ILVA of Bagnoli steel making facility located in western Naples, Italy. The VEB was put in place to minimize contaminant migration from the brownfield site toward the sea at the shorelines sites of Bagnoli and Coroglio. The efficiency of the VEB was monitored through 12 piezometers, 8 at the Bagnoli shoreline and 4 at the Coroglio shoreline. Concentrations of inorganic and organic pollutants were examined in upstream and downstream groundwater relative to the VEB. The mean levels of Al, As, Fe, and Mn largely exceeded the legal limits, 10-15-fold, whereas that of Hg was up to 3-fold the rules. The VEB decreased the outlet concentrations only at certain specific location of the barrier, four times for Al, 6-fold for Hg, and by 20% for Mn with means largely exceeding the rules. At the other sites, the downstream water showed marked increases of the pollutants up to 3-fold. Outstanding levels of the hydrocarbons > 12 were detected in the inlet water with means of some hundred times the limits at both sites. Likewise most of screened inorganic pollutants, the downstream water showed marked increases of the hydrocarbons up to ~113%. The treatment plant was very effective, with removal efficiencies >80% for As, Al, Fe, and Mn. The study evidenced the need to put alternative groundwater remedial actions.

  5. Effectiveness of a physical barrier for contaminant control in an unconfined coastal plain aquifer: the case study of the former industrial site of Bagnoli (Naples, southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Arienzo, Michele; Allocca, Vincenzo; Manna, Ferdinando; Trifuoggi, Marco; Ferrara, Luciano

    2015-12-01

    A vertical engineered barrier (VEB) coupled with a water treatment plant was surveyed in the framework of a vast remedial action at the brownfield site of the former ILVA of Bagnoli steel making facility located in western Naples, Italy. The VEB was put in place to minimize contaminant migration from the brownfield site toward the sea at the shorelines sites of Bagnoli and Coroglio. The efficiency of the VEB was monitored through 12 piezometers, 8 at the Bagnoli shoreline and 4 at the Coroglio shoreline. Concentrations of inorganic and organic pollutants were examined in upstream and downstream groundwater relative to the VEB. The mean levels of Al, As, Fe, and Mn largely exceeded the legal limits, 10-15-fold, whereas that of Hg was up to 3-fold the rules. The VEB decreased the outlet concentrations only at certain specific location of the barrier, four times for Al, 6-fold for Hg, and by 20% for Mn with means largely exceeding the rules. At the other sites, the downstream water showed marked increases of the pollutants up to 3-fold. Outstanding levels of the hydrocarbons > 12 were detected in the inlet water with means of some hundred times the limits at both sites. Likewise most of screened inorganic pollutants, the downstream water showed marked increases of the hydrocarbons up to ~113%. The treatment plant was very effective, with removal efficiencies >80% for As, Al, Fe, and Mn. The study evidenced the need to put alternative groundwater remedial actions. PMID:26581607

  6. Microbial degradation at a shallow coastal site: Long-term spectra and rates of exoenzymatic activities in the NE Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Celussi, Mauro; Del Negro, Paola

    2012-12-01

    The degradation of organic matter along the water column is mediated by enzymes released into the environment by planktonic organisms. Variations in enzymes profiles (types and levels of activity) reflect the trophic status of the environment and could be caused by shifts in the dominant species or in the level of enzyme expression by the same species in response to changes in the spectrum of organic substrates. To explore this issue, we examined the maximum rates of hydrolysis of 6 different enzymes (protease, α-glucosidase, β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase, alkaline phosphatase and lipase) along the water column (4 depths) at a coastal station in the Gulf of Trieste (northern Adriatic Sea), from 2000 to 2005. Most of the studied enzymes exhibited a pronounced seasonal variability with winter minima and maxima from April to October. During summer, alkaline phosphatase, lipase and protease reached the highest activities, while polysaccharide degradation prevailed in spring and autumn, associated to phytoplankton blooms. Phosphatase/protease activities ratio was generally low, indicating that microbial communities were rarely P-limited, possibly because of the use of organic P sources. A pronounced interannual variability of degradation patterns was found, with maximum rates of protease being the highest in most of the samples, followed by the alkaline phosphatase's ones. Water column features greatly affected hydrolysis rates, being degradation of linear polysaccharides, lipids, phosphorilated compounds and polypeptides significantly different at different depths during stratified condition. Mixing processes affected especially α-glucosidase activity, possibly as a consequence of resuspension of organic matter from the seabed. Large-impact phenomena such as the 2003 heat wave and mucilage influenced the degradation of specific substrates. Mucilage enhanced lipase, phosphatase and protease, whereas a pronounced inhibition characterised phosphatase and protease

  7. COMMENTS ON "MEASUREMENTS OF ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY SPECIES AT A COASTAL SITE IN THE ANTARCTIC AND OVER THE SOUTH ATLANTIC OCEAN DURING POLAR SUMMER"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Attached comment submitted to Environmental Science and Technology entitled, Comments on "Measurements of Atmospheric Mercury Species at a Costal Site in the Antarctic and over the South Atlantic Ocean during Polar Summer" by Temme et al. Environmental Science and Technology 37 (...

  8. High frequency mesozooplankton monitoring: Can imaging systems and automated sample analysis help us describe and interpret changes in zooplankton community composition and size structure — An example from a coastal site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romagnan, Jean Baptiste; Aldamman, Lama; Gasparini, Stéphane; Nival, Paul; Aubert, Anaïs; Jamet, Jean Louis; Stemmann, Lars

    2016-10-01

    The present work aims to show that high throughput imaging systems can be useful to estimate mesozooplankton community size and taxonomic descriptors that can be the base for consistent large scale monitoring of plankton communities. Such monitoring is required by the European Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD) in order to ensure the Good Environmental Status (GES) of European coastal and offshore marine ecosystems. Time and cost-effective, automatic, techniques are of high interest in this context. An imaging-based protocol has been applied to a high frequency time series (every second day between April 2003 to April 2004 on average) of zooplankton obtained in a coastal site of the NW Mediterranean Sea, Villefranche Bay. One hundred eighty four mesozooplankton net collected samples were analysed with a Zooscan and an associated semi-automatic classification technique. The constitution of a learning set designed to maximize copepod identification with more than 10,000 objects enabled the automatic sorting of copepods with an accuracy of 91% (true positives) and a contamination of 14% (false positives). Twenty seven samples were then chosen from the total copepod time series for detailed visual sorting of copepods after automatic identification. This method enabled the description of the dynamics of two well-known copepod species, Centropages typicus and Temora stylifera, and 7 other taxonomically broader copepod groups, in terms of size, biovolume and abundance-size distributions (size spectra). Also, total copepod size spectra underwent significant changes during the sampling period. These changes could be partially related to changes in the copepod assemblage taxonomic composition and size distributions. This study shows that the use of high throughput imaging systems is of great interest to extract relevant coarse (i.e. total abundance, size structure) and detailed (i.e. selected species dynamics) descriptors of zooplankton dynamics. Innovative

  9. Year-round records of sea salt, gaseous, and particulate inorganic bromine in the atmospheric boundary layer at coastal (Dumont d'Urville) and central (Concordia) East Antarctic sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, Michel; Yang, Xin; Preunkert, Susanne; Theys, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Multiple year-round records of bulk and size-segregated compositions of aerosol were obtained at the coastal Dumont d'Urville (DDU) and inland Concordia sites located in East Antarctica. They document the sea-salt aerosol load and composition including, for the first time in Antarctica, the bromide depletion of sea-salt aerosol relative to sodium with respect to seawater. In parallel, measurements of bromide trapped in mist chambers and denuder tubes were done to investigate the concentrations of gaseous inorganic bromine species. These data are compared to simulations done with an off-line chemistry transport model, coupled with a full tropospheric bromine chemistry scheme and a process-based sea-salt production module that includes both sea-ice-sourced and open-ocean-sourced aerosol emissions. Observed and simulated sea-salt concentrations sometime differ by up to a factor of 2 to 3, particularly at DDU possibly due to local wind pattern. In spite of these discrepancies, both at coastal and inland Antarctica, the dominance of sea-ice-related processes with respect to open ocean emissions for the sea-salt aerosol load in winter is confirmed. For summer, observations and simulations point out sea salt as the main source of gaseous inorganic bromine species. Investigations of bromide in snow pit samples do not support the importance of snowpack bromine emissions over the Antarctic Plateau. To evaluate the overall importance of the bromine chemistry over East Antarctica, BrO simulations were also discussed with respect data derived from GOME-2 satellite observations over Antarctica.

  10. Influence of site, season, silvering stage, and length on the parasites of the European eel Anguilla anguilla in two Mediterranean coastal lagoons of the island of Corsica, France using indicator species method.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Jean-José; Quilichini, Yann; Foata, Joséphine; Marchand, Bernard

    2013-08-01

    The parasites of 425 European eels, Anguilla anguilla, were studied between 2009 and 2012 in two Mediterranean coastal lagoons of the island of Corsica, France. An indicator value (IndVal) method was used for analysis, which combines measures of fidelity and specificity. Because of its resilience to detect changes in abundance, IndVal is an effective ecological bioindicator. The IndVal method demonstrated that site, season, silvering stage, and length could influence the occurrence of parasite species in European eel. A randomization test identified ten parasite species as having a significant indicator value for site (lagoons differed principally in salinity: oligohaline to polyhaline for the Biguglia lagoon and polyhaline to euhaline for the Urbino lagoon; the digeneans Bucephalus anguillae and Lecithochirium musculus, the cestodes Bothriocephalus claviceps, Proteocephalus macrocephalus, and larvae of Myzophyllobothrium sp., the nematodes Anguillicoloides crassus, and encysted larvae of Contracaecum sp., the acanthocephalan Acanthocephaloides incrassatus, the monogenean Pseudodactyogyrus anguillae, and the copepod Ergasilus gibbus); one parasite species for the spring season (the acanthocephalan A. incrassatus); six parasite species for silvering stage (yellow, pre-silver, silver; the trematodes B. anguillae and Deropristis inflata, encysted larvae of the nematode Contracaecum sp., the acanthocephalan A. incrassatus, the monogenean P. anguillae, and the copepod E. gibbus); and three parasite species for some of the five length classes (the cestode P. macrocephalus, encysted larvae of the nematode Contracaecum sp., and the monogenean P. anguillae). Data for species composition and infection levels should help to improve the management of parasitism in the populations of European eels.

  11. Differentiation of MIS 9 and MIS 11 in the continental record: vegetational, faunal, aminostratigraphic and sea-level evidence from coastal sites in Essex, UK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roe, Helen M.; Coope, G. Russell; Devoy, Robert J. N.; Harrison, Colin J. O.; Penkman, Kirsty E. H.; Preece, Richard C.; Schreve, Danielle C.

    2009-11-01

    Multidisciplinary investigations of the vegetational, faunal and sea-level history inferred from the infills of buried channels on the coast of eastern Essex have a direct bearing on the differentiation of MIS 11 and MIS 9 in continental records. New data are presented from Cudmore Grove, an important site on Mersea Island that can be linked to the terrace sequence of the River Thames. The vegetational history has been reconstructed from a pollen sequence covering much of the interglacial represented. The temperate nature of the climate is apparent from a range of fossil groups, including plant remains, vertebrates (especially the rich herpetofauna), molluscs and beetles, which all have strong thermophilous components. The beetle data have been used to derive a Mutual Climatic Range reconstruction, suggesting that mean July temperatures were about 2 °C warmer than modern values for southeast England, whereas mean January temperatures may have been slightly colder. The sea-level history has been reconstructed from the molluscs, ostracods and especially the diatoms, which indicate that the marine transgression occurred considerably earlier in the interglacial cycle than at the neighbouring Hoxnian site at Clacton. There are a number of palynological similarities between the sequence at Cudmore Grove and Clacton, especially the presence of Abies and the occurrence of Azolla filiculoides megaspores. Moreover, both sites have yielded Palaeolithic archaeology, indeed the latter is the type site of the Clactonian (flake-and-core) industry. However, the sites can be differentiated on the basis of mammalian biostratigraphy, new aminostratigraphic data, as well as the differences in the sea-level history. The combined evidence suggests that the infill of the channel at Cudmore Grove accumulated during MIS 9, whereas the deposits at Clacton formed during MIS 11. The infill of a much later channel, yielding non-marine molluscs and vertebrates including Hippopotamus, appears

  12. Differentiation of MIS 9 and MIS 11 in the continental record: vegetational, faunal, aminostratigraphic and sea-level evidence from coastal sites in Essex, UK.

    PubMed

    Roe, Helen M; Coope, G Russell; Devoy, Robert J N; Harrison, Colin J O; Penkman, Kirsty E H; Preece, Richard C; Schreve, Danielle C

    2009-11-01

    Multidisciplinary investigations of the vegetational, faunal and sea-level history inferred from the infills of buried channels on the coast of eastern Essex have a direct bearing on the differentiation of MIS 11 and MIS 9 in continental records. New data are presented from Cudmore Grove, an important site on Mersea Island that can be linked to the terrace sequence of the River Thames. The vegetational history has been reconstructed from a pollen sequence covering much of the interglacial represented. The temperate nature of the climate is apparent from a range of fossil groups, including plant remains, vertebrates (especially the rich herpetofauna), molluscs and beetles, which all have strong thermophilous components. The beetle data have been used to derive a Mutual Climatic Range reconstruction, suggesting that mean July temperatures were about 2 degrees C warmer than modern values for southeast England, whereas mean January temperatures may have been slightly colder. The sea-level history has been reconstructed from the molluscs, ostracods and especially the diatoms, which indicate that the marine transgression occurred considerably earlier in the interglacial cycle than at the neighbouring Hoxnian site at Clacton. There are a number of palynological similarities between the sequence at Cudmore Grove and Clacton, especially the presence of Abies and the occurrence of Azolla filiculoides megaspores. Moreover, both sites have yielded Palaeolithic archaeology, indeed the latter is the type site of the Clactonian (flake-and-core) industry. However, the sites can be differentiated on the basis of mammalian biostratigraphy, new aminostratigraphic data, as well as the differences in the sea-level history. The combined evidence suggests that the infill of the channel at Cudmore Grove accumulated during MIS 9, whereas the deposits at Clacton formed during MIS 11. The infill of a much later channel, yielding non-marine molluscs and vertebrates including Hippopotamus

  13. Differentiation of MIS 9 and MIS 11 in the continental record: vegetational, faunal, aminostratigraphic and sea-level evidence from coastal sites in Essex, UK

    PubMed Central

    Roe, Helen M.; Coope, G. Russell; Devoy, Robert J.N.; Harrison, Colin J.O.; Penkman, Kirsty E.H.; Preece, Richard C.; Schreve, Danielle C.

    2009-01-01

    Multidisciplinary investigations of the vegetational, faunal and sea-level history inferred from the infills of buried channels on the coast of eastern Essex have a direct bearing on the differentiation of MIS 11 and MIS 9 in continental records. New data are presented from Cudmore Grove, an important site on Mersea Island that can be linked to the terrace sequence of the River Thames. The vegetational history has been reconstructed from a pollen sequence covering much of the interglacial represented. The temperate nature of the climate is apparent from a range of fossil groups, including plant remains, vertebrates (especially the rich herpetofauna), molluscs and beetles, which all have strong thermophilous components. The beetle data have been used to derive a Mutual Climatic Range reconstruction, suggesting that mean July temperatures were about 2 °C warmer than modern values for southeast England, whereas mean January temperatures may have been slightly colder. The sea-level history has been reconstructed from the molluscs, ostracods and especially the diatoms, which indicate that the marine transgression occurred considerably earlier in the interglacial cycle than at the neighbouring Hoxnian site at Clacton. There are a number of palynological similarities between the sequence at Cudmore Grove and Clacton, especially the presence of Abies and the occurrence of Azolla filiculoides megaspores. Moreover, both sites have yielded Palaeolithic archaeology, indeed the latter is the type site of the Clactonian (flake-and-core) industry. However, the sites can be differentiated on the basis of mammalian biostratigraphy, new aminostratigraphic data, as well as the differences in the sea-level history. The combined evidence suggests that the infill of the channel at Cudmore Grove accumulated during MIS 9, whereas the deposits at Clacton formed during MIS 11. The infill of a much later channel, yielding non-marine molluscs and vertebrates including Hippopotamus, appears

  14. Impact of marine pollution in green mussel Perna viridis from four coastal sites in Karachi, Pakistan, North Arabian Sea: histopathological observations.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Iftikhar; Ayub, Zarrien; Siddiqui, Ghazala

    2015-04-01

    Pathological changes are regarded as a standard technique to monitor the effects of pollutants in marine animals. Histopathological examination of the population of green mussel Perna viridis (L.) from four sites in Pakistan, namely, Manora Channel, Rehri Creek, Sandspit Backwaters and Bhanbore was conducted. The first three sites are on the Karachi coast, whereas the fourth one, Bhanbore is situated outside Karachi, and is considered to be less polluted. Two types of parasites, Rickettsia-like organisms and metacestode were found in the mussels studied. In the present study, we observed various pathological lesions, such as inflammatory responses, granulocytomas, lipofuscin pigments, vacuolation in the digestive gland and gonads, lamellar fusion and dilated hemolymphatic sinus in the gills of P. viridis. These observations indicate the extent of environmental pollution in the studied areas. Although, Bhanbore is considered to be relatively less polluted compared to other three sites, the present results have revealed that the waters of Bhanbore are also polluted as evidenced by the pathological changes observed in the mussels collected from there.

  15. Impact of marine pollution in green mussel Perna viridis from four coastal sites in Karachi, Pakistan, North Arabian Sea: histopathological observations.

    PubMed

    Khan, Muhammad Iftikhar; Ayub, Zarrien; Siddiqui, Ghazala

    2015-04-01

    Pathological changes are regarded as a standard technique to monitor the effects of pollutants in marine animals. Histopathological examination of the population of green mussel Perna viridis (L.) from four sites in Pakistan, namely, Manora Channel, Rehri Creek, Sandspit Backwaters and Bhanbore was conducted. The first three sites are on the Karachi coast, whereas the fourth one, Bhanbore is situated outside Karachi, and is considered to be less polluted. Two types of parasites, Rickettsia-like organisms and metacestode were found in the mussels studied. In the present study, we observed various pathological lesions, such as inflammatory responses, granulocytomas, lipofuscin pigments, vacuolation in the digestive gland and gonads, lamellar fusion and dilated hemolymphatic sinus in the gills of P. viridis. These observations indicate the extent of environmental pollution in the studied areas. Although, Bhanbore is considered to be relatively less polluted compared to other three sites, the present results have revealed that the waters of Bhanbore are also polluted as evidenced by the pathological changes observed in the mussels collected from there. PMID:26011983

  16. Do recreational activities affect coastal biodiversity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riera, Rodrigo; Menci, Cristiano; Sanabria-Fernández, José Antonio; Becerro, Mikel A.

    2016-09-01

    Human activities are largely affecting coastal communities worldwide. Recreational perturbations have been overlooked in comparison to other perturbations, yet they are potential threats to marine biodiversity. They affect coastal communities in different ways, underpinning consistent shifts in fish and invertebrates assemblages. Several sites were sampled subjected to varying effects by recreational fishermen (low and high pressure) and scuba divers (low and high) in an overpopulated Atlantic island. Non-consistent differences in ecological, trophic and functional diversity were found in coastal communities, considering both factors ("diving" and "fishing"). Multivariate analyses only showed significant differences in benthic invertebrates between intensively-dived and non-dived sites. The lack of clear trends may be explained by the depletion of coastal resources in the study area, an extensively-affected island by overfishing.

  17. Ship Shoal as a prospective borrow site for barrier island restoration, coastal south-central Louisiana, Usa: Numerical wave modeling and field measurements of hydrodynamics and sediment transport

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stone, G.W.; Pepper, D.A.; Xu, Jie; Zhang, X.

    2004-01-01

    Ship Shoal, a transgressive sand body located at the 10 m isobath off south-central Louisiana, is deemed a potential sand source for restoration along the rapidly eroding Isles Dernieres barrier chain and possibly other sites in Louisiana. Through numerical wave modeling we evaluate the potential response of mining Ship Shoal on the wave field. During severe and strong storms, waves break seaward of the western flank of Ship Shoal. Therefore, removal of Ship Shoal (approximately 1.1 billion m3) causes a maximum increase of the significant wave height by 90%-100% and 40%-50% over the shoal and directly adjacent to the lee of the complex for two strong storm scenarios. During weak storms and fair weather conditions, waves do not break over Ship Shoal. The degree of increase in significant wave height due to shoal removal is considerably smaller, only 10%-20% on the west part of the shoal. Within the context of increasing nearshore wave energy levels, removal of the shoal is not significant enough to cause increased erosion along the Isles Dernieres. Wave approach direction exerts significant control on the wave climate leeward of Ship Shoal for stronger storms, but not weak storms or fairweather. Instrumentation deployed at the shoal allowed comparison of measured wave heights with numerically derived wave heights using STWAVE. Correlation coefficients are high in virtually all comparisons indicating the capability of the model to simulate wave behavior satisfactorily at the shoal. Directional waves, currents and sediment transport were measured during winter storms associated with frontal passages using three bottom-mounted arrays deployed on the seaward and landward sides of Ship Shoal (November, 1998-January, 1999). Episodic increases in wave height, mean and oscillatory current speed, shear velocity, and sediment transport rates, associated with recurrent cold front passages, were measured. Dissipation mechanisms included both breaking and bottom friction due to

  18. 75 FR 8649 - Evaluation of State Coastal Management Programs and National Estuarine Research Reserves

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-25

    ... Resource Management (OCRM) announces a rescheduled site visit and time for a public meeting previously... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Evaluation of State Coastal Management Programs and... of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management, National Ocean Service, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of...

  19. Three-dimensional resistivity tomography in extreme coastal terrain amidst dense cultural signals: application to cliff stability assessment at the historic D-Day site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udphuay, Suwimon; Günther, Thomas; Everett, Mark E.; Warden, Robert R.; Briaud, Jean-Louis

    2011-04-01

    Pointe du Hoc overlooking the English Channel in Normandy, France was host to one of the most important military engagements of World War II but is vulnerable to cliff collapses that threaten important German fortifications including the forward observation post (OP) and Rudder's command post. The objective of this study is to apply advanced 3-D resistivity tomography towards a detailed site stability assessment with special attention to the two at-risk buildings. 3-D resistivity tomography data sets at Pointe du Hoc in the presence of extreme topography and dense cultural clutter have been successfully acquired, inverted and interpreted. A cliff stability hazard assessment scheme has been designed in which regions of high resistivity are interpreted as zones of open, dry fractures with a moderate mass movement potential. Regions of low resistivity are zones of wet, clay-filled fractures with a high mass movement potential. The OP tomography results indicate that the highest mass movement hazard appears to be associated with the marine caverns at the base of the cliff that are positioned at the point of strongest wave attack. These caverns likely occupy the future site of development of a sea arch that will threaten the OP building. The mass movement potential at the Rudder's command post area is low to moderate. The greatest risk there is associated with soil wedge failures at the top of the cliffs.

  20. Atmospheric Boundary Layer wind profile at a flat coastal site - wind speed lidar measurements and mesoscale modeling results during a summer period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batchvarova, E.; Gryning, S.-E.; Hahmann, A.; Peña, A.; Mikkelsen, T.

    2010-09-01

    The wind profile above the surface layer up to 1 kilometer is presently a challenge for wind energy assessment studies and air pollution applications, as instruments for high resolution (in time and space) measurements were rarely available until recently and mesoscale meteorological models have difficulties to predict it, due to complex phenomena taking place in nature and not accounted for in the ABL parameterizations currently used. Worldwide an effort is going on to emphasize the important role of boundary layer research in various direct applications (as wind energy and air pollution) and in weather forecast models. Contributing to this effort are the Danish Research Agency Strategic Research Council (Sagsnr. 2104-08-0025) "Tall wind project" and the EU FP7-People-IEF VSABLA (PIEF-GA-2009-237471). The data analyzed here are presenting a summer period of wind lidar (WSL70) measurements at a site at the West coast of Jutland, Denmark, situated approximately 2 km inland. Therefore over water conditions are defining the structure of the boundary layer at westerly winds, while the land surface is felt only within the internal boundary layer estimated in previous studies as about 80 - 100 m deep at the site. Patterns of the wind field and wind profiles over the North Sea up to 1 km height are studied based on observations and mesoscale modelling results. Simultaneously, the height of the atmospheric boundary layer is estimated from aerosol lidars backscatter analysis and thus providing a rich data set for testing and development of new parametrizations for the wind profile within the entire atmospheric boundary layer over different surfaces.

  1. Coastal storm monitoring in Virginia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wicklein, Shaun M.; Bennett, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Coastal communities in Virginia are prone to flooding, particularly during hurricanes, nor’easters, and other coastal low-pressure systems. These weather systems affect public safety, personal and public property, and valuable infrastructure, such as transportation, water and sewer, and electric-supply networks. Local emergency managers, utility operators, and the public are tasked with making difficult decisions regarding evacuations, road closures, and post-storm recovery efforts as a result of coastal flooding. In coastal Virginia these decisions often are made on the basis of anecdotal knowledge from past events or predictions based on data from monitoring sites located far away from the affected area that may not reflect local conditions. Preventing flood hazards, such as hurricane-induced storm surge, from becoming human disasters requires an understanding of the relative risks that flooding poses to specific communities. The risk to life and property can be very high if decisions about evacuations and road closures are made too late or not at all.

  2. Interdisciplinary study of atmospheric processes and constituents of the mid-Atlantic coastal region. Attachment 4: Data set for background investigation of atmospheric constituents for Nansemond River site. [a proposed oil refinery site

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kindle, E. C.; Bandy, E. C.; Copeland, G.; Blais, R.; Levy, G.; Sonenshine, D.; Adams, D.; Maier, G.

    1975-01-01

    Background data was provided for the assessment of the environmental impact of a proposed oil refinery location. Climatic background, particulate data, digitized portrayal of site molecular and meteorological data, graphical portrayal of molecular data, hourly meteorological data, and streamflow charts and radiosonde data are given

  3. Adenovirus-associated health risks for recreational activities in a multi-use coastal watershed based on site-specific quantitative microbial risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Arti; McBride, Graham; Wuertz, Stefan

    2013-10-15

    We used site-specific quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) to assess the probability of adenovirus illness for three groups of swimmers: adults with primary contact, children with primary contact, and secondary contact regardless of age. Human enteroviruses and adenoviruses were monitored by qPCR in a multi-use watershed and Adenovirus type 40/41 was detected in 11% of 73 samples, ranging from 147 to 4117 genomes per liter. Enterovirus was detected only once (32 genomes per liter). Seven of eight virus detections occurred when E. coli concentrations were below the single sample maximum water quality criterion for contact recreation, and five of eight virus detections occurred when fecal coliforms were below the corresponding criterion. We employed dose-harmonization to convert viral genome measurements to TCID50 values needed for dose-response curves. The three scenarios considered different amounts of water ingestion and Monte Carlo simulation was used to account for the variability associated with the doses. The mean illness risk in children based on adenovirus measurements obtained over 11 months was estimated to be 3.5%, which is below the 3.6% risk considered tolerable by the current United States EPA recreational criteria for gastrointestinal illnesses (GI). The mean risks of GI illness for adults and secondary contact were 1.9% and 1.0%, respectively. These risks changed appreciably when different distributions were fitted to the data as determined by Monte Carlo simulations. In general, risk was at a maximum for the log-logistic distribution and lowest for the hockey stick distribution in all three selected scenarios. Also, under default assumptions, the risk was lowered considerably when assuming that only a small proportion of Adenovirus 40/41 (3%) was as infectious as Adenovirus type 4, compared to the assumption that all genomes were Adenovirus 4. In conclusion, site-specific QMRA on water-borne adenoviruses in this watershed provided a similar

  4. Influence of site, season, silvering stage, and length on the parasites of the European eel Anguilla anguilla in two Mediterranean coastal lagoons of the island of Corsica, France using indicator species method.

    PubMed

    Filippi, Jean-José; Quilichini, Yann; Foata, Joséphine; Marchand, Bernard

    2013-08-01

    The parasites of 425 European eels, Anguilla anguilla, were studied between 2009 and 2012 in two Mediterranean coastal lagoons of the island of Corsica, France. An indicator value (IndVal) method was used for analysis, which combines measures of fidelity and specificity. Because of its resilience to detect changes in abundance, IndVal is an effective ecological bioindicator. The IndVal method demonstrated that site, season, silvering stage, and length could influence the occurrence of parasite species in European eel. A randomization test identified ten parasite species as having a significant indicator value for site (lagoons differed principally in salinity: oligohaline to polyhaline for the Biguglia lagoon and polyhaline to euhaline for the Urbino lagoon; the digeneans Bucephalus anguillae and Lecithochirium musculus, the cestodes Bothriocephalus claviceps, Proteocephalus macrocephalus, and larvae of Myzophyllobothrium sp., the nematodes Anguillicoloides crassus, and encysted larvae of Contracaecum sp., the acanthocephalan Acanthocephaloides incrassatus, the monogenean Pseudodactyogyrus anguillae, and the copepod Ergasilus gibbus); one parasite species for the spring season (the acanthocephalan A. incrassatus); six parasite species for silvering stage (yellow, pre-silver, silver; the trematodes B. anguillae and Deropristis inflata, encysted larvae of the nematode Contracaecum sp., the acanthocephalan A. incrassatus, the monogenean P. anguillae, and the copepod E. gibbus); and three parasite species for some of the five length classes (the cestode P. macrocephalus, encysted larvae of the nematode Contracaecum sp., and the monogenean P. anguillae). Data for species composition and infection levels should help to improve the management of parasitism in the populations of European eels. PMID:23739809

  5. Dinocysts and other palynomorphs from the Holocene record of the Adélie coastal margin, Antarctica (IODP Site U1357)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartman, Julian; Sangiorgi, Francesca; Bijl, Peter; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2016-04-01

    During International Ocean Drilling Program Expedition 318, about 170 meters of Holocene core have been retrieved from Site U1357, near the Adélie Coast, East-Antarctica. This core provides a high resolution marine record of Holocene climate variability close to the Antarctic margin. Palynomorphs in this core are extremely well-preserved due to the high sedimentation rates of diatom ooze. One of these exceptionally well-preserved finds is the first account of cysts of a sea-ice dwelling suessoid dinoflagellate (Polarella glacialis). Furthermore, a new species of dinoflagellate cyst, large amounts of tintinnid loricae, copepod remains, and various kinds of unknown/undescribed acritarch species have been found. Although the composition of the palynomorphs assemblage is highly variable throughout the record, this record potentially gives insight into ecological and/or environmental changes in a polynya-controlled environment since the last deglaciation. For example, the dinocyst assemblage seems to indicate that the sea-ice season was shorter in the early Holocene.

  6. Weathering steel as a potential source for metal contamination: Metal dissolution during 3-year of field exposure in a urban coastal site.

    PubMed

    Raffo, Simona; Vassura, Ivano; Chiavari, Cristina; Martini, Carla; Bignozzi, Maria C; Passarini, Fabrizio; Bernardi, Elena

    2016-06-01

    Surface and building runoff can significantly contribute to the total metal loading in urban runoff waters, with potential adverse effects on the receiving ecosystems. The present paper analyses the corrosion-induced metal dissolution (Fe, Mn, Cr, Ni, Cu) from weathering steel (Cor-Ten A) with or without artificial patinas, exposed for 3 years in unsheltered conditions at a marine urban site (Rimini, Italy). The influence of environmental parameters, atmospheric pollutants and surface finish on the release of dissolved metals in rain was evaluated, also by means of multivariate analysis (two-way and three-way Principal Component Analysis). In addition, surface and cross-section investigations were performed so as to monitor the patina evolution. The contribution provided by weathering steel runoff to the dissolved Fe, Mn and Ni loading at local level is not negligible and pre-patination treatments seem to worsen the performance of weathering steel in term of metal release. Metal dissolution is strongly affected by extreme events and shows seasonal variations, with different influence of seasonal parameters on the behaviour of bare or artificially patinated steel, suggesting that climate changes could significantly influence metal release from this alloy. Therefore, it is essential to perform a long-term monitoring of the performance, the durability and the environmental impact of weathering steel.

  7. Seasonal and annual dynamics of harmful algae and algal toxins revealed through weekly monitoring at two coastal ocean sites off southern California, USA.

    PubMed

    Seubert, Erica L; Gellene, Alyssa G; Howard, Meredith D A; Connell, Paige; Ragan, Matthew; Jones, Burton H; Runyan, Jennifer; Caron, David A

    2013-10-01

    Reports of toxic harmful algal blooms (HABs) attributed to the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp. have been increasing in California during the last several decades. Whether this increase can be attributed to enhanced awareness and monitoring or to a dramatic upswing in the development of HAB events remains unresolved. Given these uncertainties, the ability to accurately and rapidly identify an emerging HAB event is of high importance. Monitoring of HAB species and other pertinent chemical/physical parameters at two piers in southern California, Newport and Redondo Beach, was used to investigate the development of a site-specific bloom definition for identifying emerging domoic acid (DA) events. Emphasis was given to abundances of the Pseudo-nitzschia seriata size category of Pseudo-nitzschia due to the prevalence of this size class in the region. P. seriata bloom thresholds were established for each location based on deviations from their respective long-term mean abundances, allowing the identification of major and minor blooms. Sixty-five percent of blooms identified at Newport Beach coincided with measurable DA concentrations, while 36 % of blooms at Redondo Beach coincided with measurable DA. Bloom definitions allowed for increased specificity in multiple regression analysis of environmental forcing factors significant to the presence of DA and P. seriata. The strongest relationship identified was between P. seriata abundances 2 weeks following upwelling events at Newport Beach.

  8. Seasonal and annual dynamics of harmful algae and algal toxins revealed through weekly monitoring at two coastal ocean sites off southern California, USA.

    PubMed

    Seubert, Erica L; Gellene, Alyssa G; Howard, Meredith D A; Connell, Paige; Ragan, Matthew; Jones, Burton H; Runyan, Jennifer; Caron, David A

    2013-10-01

    Reports of toxic harmful algal blooms (HABs) attributed to the diatom Pseudo-nitzschia spp. have been increasing in California during the last several decades. Whether this increase can be attributed to enhanced awareness and monitoring or to a dramatic upswing in the development of HAB events remains unresolved. Given these uncertainties, the ability to accurately and rapidly identify an emerging HAB event is of high importance. Monitoring of HAB species and other pertinent chemical/physical parameters at two piers in southern California, Newport and Redondo Beach, was used to investigate the development of a site-specific bloom definition for identifying emerging domoic acid (DA) events. Emphasis was given to abundances of the Pseudo-nitzschia seriata size category of Pseudo-nitzschia due to the prevalence of this size class in the region. P. seriata bloom thresholds were established for each location based on deviations from their respective long-term mean abundances, allowing the identification of major and minor blooms. Sixty-five percent of blooms identified at Newport Beach coincided with measurable DA concentrations, while 36 % of blooms at Redondo Beach coincided with measurable DA. Bloom definitions allowed for increased specificity in multiple regression analysis of environmental forcing factors significant to the presence of DA and P. seriata. The strongest relationship identified was between P. seriata abundances 2 weeks following upwelling events at Newport Beach. PMID:23288675

  9. Ecosystem functioning approach applied to a large contaminated coastal site: the study case of the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea).

    PubMed

    Cibic, Tamara; Bongiorni, Lucia; Borfecchia, Flavio; Di Leo, Antonella; Franzo, Annalisa; Giandomenico, Santina; Karuza, Ana; Micheli, Carla; Rogelja, Manja; Spada, Lucia; Del Negro, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge on ecosystem functioning can largely contribute to promote ecosystem-based management and its application. The Mar Piccolo of Taranto is a densely populated area at a high risk of environmental crisis. Here, planktonic primary production (PP) and heterotrophic prokaryotic production (HPP) were measured as proxies of functioning in three sampling sites located in two inlets at different levels of industrial contamination, during three sampling surveys (June 2013, February and April 2014). To have a better overall view and provide some insights into the benthic-pelagic coupling, we integrated PP and HPP in the water column with those in the sediments and then discussed this with the origin of the organic matter pools based on analysis of stable isotopes. Heavy metals and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) were also analysed in the surface (1 cm) sediment layer and related to the overall ecosystem functioning. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis, based on the main data, clearly separated the second inlet from the first one, more severely impacted by anthropogenic activities. The stable isotope mixing model suggested the prevalent terrestrial/riverine origin of the particulate organic matter pools (mean 45.5 %) in all sampling periods, whereas phytoplankton contributed up to 29 % in February. Planktonic PP and HPP rates followed the same pattern over the entire study period and seemed to respond to phytoplankton dynamics confirming this community as the main driver for the C cycling in the water column. On the contrary, benthic PP rates were almost negligible while HPP rates were lower or comparable to those in the water column indicating that although the Mar Piccolo is very shallow, the water column is much more productive than the surface sediments. The sediment resuspension is likely responsible for a pulsed input of contaminants into the water column. However, their interference with the proper functioning of the pelagic ecosystem seems to be limited to

  10. Transboundary transport of anthropogenic sulfur in PM2.5 at a coastal site in the Sea of Japan as studied by sulfur isotopic ratio measurement.

    PubMed

    Inomata, Yayoi; Ohizumi, Tsuyoshi; Take, Naoko; Sato, Keiichi; Nishikawa, Masataka

    2016-05-15

    Sulfur isotopic ratios (δ(34)S) in size separated aerosol particles (PM2.5 and coarse particles) were measured at Niigata-Maki facing the Sea of Japan. Non-sea salt δ(34)S (δ(34)Snss) in PM2.5 showed seasonal variations with relatively high values in winter (1.0-3.9‰ in spring, 2.8-4.5‰ in summer, 1.3-4.5‰ in autumn, 3.7-5.7‰ in winter). Taking into consideration air mass transport routes, δ(34)Snss in the air masses which originated in the Asian continent and were transported over the Sea of Japan to the monitoring sites were higher than those values for air masses which were transported over the Japanese islands after leaving the Asian continent for each season. Considering that the δ(34)Snss in sulfuric acid derived from domestic emissions in Japan are lower than those of δ(34)Snss in coal, the lower δ(34)Snss for the air mass transported over the Japanese islands suggest that sulfuric acid in PM2.5 modified the δ(34)Snss due to aerosol mixing with sulfuric acid in Japan. Material balance calculations suggested that the relative contribution of transboundary transport in winter was also higher than for other seasons (40-75% in spring, 51-63% in summer, 45-73% in autumn, and 53-81% in winter). In particular, the contribution to the air masses which were transported directly from the Asian continent was relatively large (75% in spring, 59% in autumn, 78% in winter) in comparison with that for the air masses which were transported over Japan.

  11. Ecosystem functioning approach applied to a large contaminated coastal site: the study case of the Mar Piccolo of Taranto (Ionian Sea).

    PubMed

    Cibic, Tamara; Bongiorni, Lucia; Borfecchia, Flavio; Di Leo, Antonella; Franzo, Annalisa; Giandomenico, Santina; Karuza, Ana; Micheli, Carla; Rogelja, Manja; Spada, Lucia; Del Negro, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Knowledge on ecosystem functioning can largely contribute to promote ecosystem-based management and its application. The Mar Piccolo of Taranto is a densely populated area at a high risk of environmental crisis. Here, planktonic primary production (PP) and heterotrophic prokaryotic production (HPP) were measured as proxies of functioning in three sampling sites located in two inlets at different levels of industrial contamination, during three sampling surveys (June 2013, February and April 2014). To have a better overall view and provide some insights into the benthic-pelagic coupling, we integrated PP and HPP in the water column with those in the sediments and then discussed this with the origin of the organic matter pools based on analysis of stable isotopes. Heavy metals and polychlorobiphenyls (PCBs) were also analysed in the surface (1 cm) sediment layer and related to the overall ecosystem functioning. Multidimensional scaling (MDS) analysis, based on the main data, clearly separated the second inlet from the first one, more severely impacted by anthropogenic activities. The stable isotope mixing model suggested the prevalent terrestrial/riverine origin of the particulate organic matter pools (mean 45.5 %) in all sampling periods, whereas phytoplankton contributed up to 29 % in February. Planktonic PP and HPP rates followed the same pattern over the entire study period and seemed to respond to phytoplankton dynamics confirming this community as the main driver for the C cycling in the water column. On the contrary, benthic PP rates were almost negligible while HPP rates were lower or comparable to those in the water column indicating that although the Mar Piccolo is very shallow, the water column is much more productive than the surface sediments. The sediment resuspension is likely responsible for a pulsed input of contaminants into the water column. However, their interference with the proper functioning of the pelagic ecosystem seems to be limited to

  12. Measurements of atmospheric mercury species at a coastal site in the Antarctic and over the south Atlantic Ocean during polar summer.

    PubMed

    Temme, Christian; Einax, Jürgen W; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Schroeder, William H

    2003-01-01

    Mercury and many of its compounds behave exceptionally in the environment because of their volatility, capability for methylation, and subsequent biomagnification in contrast with most of the other heavy metals. Long-range atmospheric transport of elemental mercury, its transformation to more toxic methylmercury compounds, the ability of some to undergo photochemical reactions, and their bioaccumulation in the aquatic food chain have made it a subject of global research activities, even in polar regions. The first continuous high-time-resolution measurements of total gaseous mercury in the Antarctic covering a 12-month period were carried out at the German Antarctic research station Neumayer (70 degrees 39' S, 8 degrees 15' W) between January 2000 and February 2001. We recently reported that mercury depletion events (MDEs) occur in the Antarctic after polar sunrise, as was previously shown for Arctic sites. These events (MDEs) end suddenly during Antarctic summer. A possible explanation of this phenomenon is presented in this paper, showing that air masses originating from the sea-ice surface were a necessary prerequisite for the observations of depletion of atmospheric mercury at polar spring. Our extensive measurements at Neumayer of atmospheric mercury species during December 2000-February 2001 show that fast oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury leads to variable Hg0 concentrations during Antarctic summer, accompanied by elevated concentrations, up to more than 300 pg/m3, of reactive gaseous mercury. For the first time in the Southern Hemisphere, atmospheric mercury species measurements were also performed onboard of a research vessel, indicating the existence of homogeneous background concentrations over the south Atlantic Ocean. These new findings contain evidence for an enhanced oxidizing potential of the Antarctic atmosphere over the continent that needs to be considered for the interpretation of dynamic transformations of mercury during summertime.

  13. Late Eocene to middle Miocene (33 to 13 million years ago) vegetation and climate development on the North American Atlantic Coastal Plain (IODP Expedition 313, Site M0027)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotthoff, U.; Greenwood, D. R.; McCarthy, F. M. G.; Müller-Navarra, K.; Prader, S.; Hesselbo, S. P.

    2014-08-01

    We investigated the palynology of sediment cores from Site M0027 of IODP (Integrated Ocean Drilling Program) Expedition 313 on the New Jersey shallow shelf to examine vegetation and climate dynamics on the east coast of North America between 33 and 13 million years ago and to assess the impact of over-regional climate events on the region. Palynological results are complemented with pollen-based quantitative climate reconstructions. Our results indicate that the hinterland vegetation of the New Jersey shelf was characterized by oak-hickory forests in the lowlands and conifer-dominated vegetation in the highlands from the early Oligocene to the middle Miocene. The Oligocene witnessed several expansions of conifer forest, probably related to cooling events. The pollen-based climate data imply an increase in annual temperatures from ∼11.5 °C to more than 16 °C during the Oligocene. The Mi-1 cooling event at the onset of the Miocene is reflected by an expansion of conifers and mean annual temperature decrease of ∼4 °C, from ∼16 °C to ∼12 °C around 23 million years before present. Relatively low annual temperatures are also recorded for several samples during an interval around ∼20 million years before present, which may reflect the Mi-1a and the Mi-1aa cooling events. Generally, the Miocene ecosystem and climate conditions were very similar to those of the Oligocene. Miocene grasslands, as known from other areas in the USA during that time period, are not evident for the hinterland of the New Jersey shelf, possibly reflecting moisture from the proto-Gulf Stream. The palaeovegetation data reveal stable conditions during the mid-Miocene climatic optimum at ∼15 million years before present, with only a minor increase in deciduous-evergreen mixed forest taxa and a decrease in swamp forest taxa. Pollen-based annual temperature reconstructions show average annual temperatures of ∼14 °C during the mid-Miocene climatic optimum, ∼2

  14. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT III

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal waers in the US include estuaries, coastal wetlands, coral reefs, ,mangrove and kelp forests, seagrass meadows, and upwelling areas. Critical coastal habitats provide spawning grounds, nurseries, shelter, and food for finfish, shellfish, birds, and other wildlife. The n...

  15. EVALUATION OF FISH SAMPLING DESIGNS FOR COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because no objective assessment of fish sampling methodologies has been completed for Great Lakes coastal wetlands we evaluated catches from several techniques and studies to determine the most effecive combinations for these habitats. Data from six underdeveloped sites in Green ...

  16. EVALUATION OF FISH SAMPLING DESIGNS FOR COASTAL WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because no objective assessment of fish sampling methodologies has been completed for Great Lakes coastal wetlands we evaluated catches from several techniques and studies to determine the most effective combinations for these habitats. Data from six underdeveloped sites in Green...

  17. AN OBJECTIVE CLIMATOLOGY OF CAROLINA COASTAL FRONTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study describes a simple objective method to identify cases of coastal frontogenesis offshore of the Carolinas and to characterize the sensible weather associated with frontal passage at measurement sites near the coast. The identification method, based on surface hourly d...

  18. The global coastal hazards data base

    SciTech Connect

    Gornitz, V. . Goddard Inst. for Space Studies Columbia Univ., New York, NY ); White, T.W. )

    1989-01-01

    A rise of sea level between 0.5 and 1.5 m, caused by predicted climate warming in the next century, could jeopardize low-lying radioactive waste disposal sites near the coast, due to permanent and episodic inundation, increased shoreline retreat, and changes in the water table. The effects of global sea level rise on the shoreline will not be spatially uniform. Therefore, site selection will depend on assessment of these differential vulnerabilities, in order to avoid high-risk coasts. The coastal hazards data base described here could provide an appropriate framework. The coastal hazards data base integrates relevant topographic, geologic, geomorphologic, erosional and subsidence information in a Geographic Information System (GIS), to identify high-risk shorelines characterized by low coastal relief, an erodible substrate, present and past evidence of subsidence, extensive shoreline retreat, and high wave/tide energies. Data for seven variables relating to inundation and erosion hazards are incorporated into the ORNL ARC/INFO Geographic Information System (GIS). Data compilation has been completed for the US and is being extended to North America, and ultimately the world. A coastal vulnerability index (CVI) has been designed to flag high risk coastal segments. 17 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Resilience from coastal protection.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Lesley C

    2015-10-28

    Coastal areas are important residential, commercial and industrial areas; but coastal hazards can pose significant threats to these areas. Shoreline/coastal protection elements, both built structures such as breakwaters, seawalls and revetments, as well as natural features such as beaches, reefs and wetlands, are regular features of a coastal community and are important for community safety and development. These protection structures provide a range of resilience to coastal communities. During and after disasters, they help to minimize damages and support recovery; during non-disaster times, the values from shoreline elements shift from the narrow focus on protection. Most coastal communities have limited land and resources and few can dedicate scarce resources solely for protection. Values from shore protection can and should expand to include environmental, economic and social/cultural values. This paper discusses the key aspects of shoreline protection that influence effective community resilience and protection from disasters. This paper also presents ways that the economic, environmental and social/cultural values of shore protection can be evaluated and quantified. It presents the Coastal Community Hazard Protection Resilience (CCHPR) Index for evaluating the resilience capacity to coastal communities from various protection schemes and demonstrates the use of this Index for an urban beach in San Francisco, CA, USA.

  20. NATIONAL COASTAL ASSESSMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of the National Coastal Assessment (NCA) is to estimate the status and trends of the condition of the nation's coastal resources on a state, regional and national basis. Based on NCA monitoring from 1999-2001, 100% of the nation's estuarine waters (at over 2500 locati...

  1. Coastal zone management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tilton, E. L., III

    1975-01-01

    A panel of federal and state representatives concerned with coastal zone affairs discussed their problems in this area. In addition, several demonstrations of the application of remote sensing technology to coastal zone management were described. These demonstrations were performed by several agencies in a variety of geographical areas.

  2. Resilience from coastal protection.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Lesley C

    2015-10-28

    Coastal areas are important residential, commercial and industrial areas; but coastal hazards can pose significant threats to these areas. Shoreline/coastal protection elements, both built structures such as breakwaters, seawalls and revetments, as well as natural features such as beaches, reefs and wetlands, are regular features of a coastal community and are important for community safety and development. These protection structures provide a range of resilience to coastal communities. During and after disasters, they help to minimize damages and support recovery; during non-disaster times, the values from shoreline elements shift from the narrow focus on protection. Most coastal communities have limited land and resources and few can dedicate scarce resources solely for protection. Values from shore protection can and should expand to include environmental, economic and social/cultural values. This paper discusses the key aspects of shoreline protection that influence effective community resilience and protection from disasters. This paper also presents ways that the economic, environmental and social/cultural values of shore protection can be evaluated and quantified. It presents the Coastal Community Hazard Protection Resilience (CCHPR) Index for evaluating the resilience capacity to coastal communities from various protection schemes and demonstrates the use of this Index for an urban beach in San Francisco, CA, USA. PMID:26392613

  3. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Coastal Condition report compiles several available data sets from different agencies and areas of the country and summarizes them to present a broad baseline picture of the condition of coastal waters. Although data sets presented in this report do not cover all coa...

  4. Coastal-inland solar radiation difference study. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Bach, W.D. Jr.; Vukovich, F.M.

    1980-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantify the characteristics of solar insolation in the coastal zone and to determine the effect of the sea breeze circulation on the global insolation. In order to satisfy these objectives, a six station sampling network was established in the coastal plain of southeastern North Carolina, where previous evidence has indicated that the sea breeze circulation is almost a daily occurrence from late May through October. Three sites (Sloop Point, Onslow Beach, and Cape Fear Technical Institute (CFTI)) were located near the coast (coastal sites) to assess the insolation at the coast. A site (Clinton) was located in an area seldom affected by the sea breeze (about 100 km from the coast). Two additional sites, Wallace and Ellis Airport, located between the coastal sites and the control site, were to be used to assess the transient impact of the sea breeze upon the insolation. Pyranometers were located at each site to measure the global insolation. Direct normal insolation measured by a pyrheliometer and ultraviolet radiation measured by uv radiometers were observed at the Sloop Point and Clinton sites only. Data were collected during the calendar year 1978. The results of the study indicated that the global insolation had greater variability over the network during the summer season (June, July, and August). During the summer, there was a systematicdiurnal variation of the difference in global insolation between the inland and the coastal sites.

  5. California coastal processes study, LANDSAT 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pirie, D. M.; Steller, D. D. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The authors have identified the following significant results. By using suspended sediments as tracers, objectives were met by qualitative definition of the nearshore circulation along the entire coast of California with special study sites at Humboldt Bay, the mouth of the Russian River, San Francisco Bay, Monterey Bay, and the Santa Barbara Channel. Although LANDSAT primarily imaged fines and silts in the surface waters, the distribution of sediments allowed an examination of upwelling, convergences and coastal erosion and deposition. In Monterey Bay and Humboldt Bay, these coastal phenomena were used to trace seasonal trends in surface currents.

  6. Coastal Hazards: Hurricanes, Tsunamis, Coastal Erosion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vandas, Steve

    1998-01-01

    Details an ocean-based lesson and provides background information on the designation of 1998 as the "Year of the Ocean" by the United Nations. Contains activities on the poster insert that can help raise student awareness of coastal-zone hazards. (DDR)

  7. Coastal mapping handbook

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,; ,; Ellis, Melvin Y.

    1978-01-01

    Passage of the Coastal Zone Management Act of 1972 focused attention on the Nation's coastal land and water areas. As plans for more effective management of the coastal zone evolved, it soon became apparent that improved maps and charts of these areas were needed. This handbook was prepared with the requirements of the entire coastal community in mind, giving greatest attention to the needs of coastal zone managers and planners at the State and local levels. Its principal objective is to provide general information and guidance; it is neither a textbook nor a technical manual, but rather a primer on coastal mapping. This handbook should help planners and managers of coastal programs to determine their mapping requirements, select the best maps and charts for their particular needs, and to deal effectively with personnel who gather data and prepare maps. The sections on "Sources of Assistance and Advice" and "Product and Data Sources" should be especially useful to all involved in mapping the coastal zone. Brief summaries of the mapping efforts of several State coastal zone management programs are included. "Future outlook" discusses anticipated progress and changes in mapping procedures and techniques. Illustrations are inserted, where appropriate, to illustrate the products and equipment discussed. Because of printing restrictions, the colors in map illustrations may vary from those in the original publication. The appendixes include substantial material which also should be of interest. In addition a glossary and an index are included to provide easy and quick access to the terms and concepts used in the text. For those interested in more technical detail than is provided in this handbook, the "Selected references" will be useful. Also, the publications of the professional societies listed in appendix 4 will provide technical information in detail.

  8. Quantifying Connectivity in the Coastal Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitarai, S.; Siegel, D.; Watson, J.; Dong, C.; McWilliams, J.

    2008-12-01

    The quantification of coastal connectivity is important for a wide range of real-world applications ranging from marine pollution to nearshore fisheries management. For these purposes, coastal connectivity is best defined as the probability that water parcels from one nearshore location are advected to another site over a given time interval. Here, we demonstrate how to quantify coastal connectivity using Lagrangian probability- density function (PDF) methods, a classic modeling approach for many turbulent applications, and numerical solutions of coastal circulation for the Southern California Bight. Mean dispersal patterns from a single release site (or Lagrangian PDFs) show a strong dependency to the particle-release location and seasonal variability, reflecting circulation patterns in the Southern California Bight. Strong interannual variations, responding to El Nino and La Nina transitions are also observed. Mean connectivity patterns, deduced from Lagrangian PDFs, is spatially heterogeneous for the advection time of around 30 days or less, resulting from distinctive circulation patterns, and becomes more homogeneous for a longer advection time. A given realization of connectivity is stochastic because of eddy-driven transport and synoptic wind forcing changes. In general, mainland sites are good sources while both Northern and Southern Channel Islands are poor source sites, although they receive substantial fluxes of water parcels from the mainland. The predicted connectivity gives useful information to ecological and other applications for the Southern California Bight (e.g., designing marine protected areas, understanding gene structures, and predicting the impact of a pollution event) and provide a path for assessing connectivity for other regions of the coastal ocean.

  9. Waves in Oceanic and Coastal Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holthuijsen, Leo H.

    2007-01-01

    Waves in Oceanic and Coastal Waters describes the observation, analysis and prediction of wind-generated waves in the open ocean, in shelf seas, and in coastal regions with islands, channels, tidal flats and inlets, estuaries, fjords and lagoons. The book brings graduate students, researchers and engineers up-to-date with the science and technology involved, assuming only a basic understanding of physics, mathematics and statistics. Most of this richly illustrated book is devoted to the physical aspects of waves. After introducing observation techniques for waves, both at sea and from space, the book defines the parameters that characterize waves. Using basic statistical and physical concepts, the author discusses the prediction of waves in oceanic and coastal waters, first in terms of generalized observations, and then in terms of the more theoretical framework of the spectral energy balance. He gives the results of established theories and also the direction in which research is developing. The book ends with a description of SWAN (Simulating Waves Nearshore), the preferred computer model of the engineering community for predicting waves in coastal waters. Illustrations from the book are featured in color, along with student questions and answers on a web site Includes a detailed description of the wave model SWAN, the preferred computer model of the engineering community for predicting waves in coastal waters Appendices briefly review pre-requisite information on mathematics, statistics and physics

  10. Coastal Rainfall Estimation using AMSR-E

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCollum, J.; Ferraro, R.

    2003-12-01

    The vast majority of microwave rainfall estimation research has been for either ocean-filled or land-filled fields of view, as the physics for both surface types are quite different. However, neither ocean-based nor land-based methods may be used for coastal pixels that contain a mixture of water and land. Current algorithms for coastal regions perform relatively poorly. We have built upon previous coastal rainfall algorithms developed for the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) and TRMM Microwave Imager (TMI). Using principal component analysis, we found multi-frequency brightness temperature responses to rainfall over coastal regions, enabling us to do a more accurate rain/no-rain classification. The TMI has similar frequencies and resolutions as AMSR-E, so we could use the co-located TMI and Precipitation Radar (PR) data to determine the principal components related to rainfall. These principal components are effective in distinguishing rain from no-rain AMSR-E pixels, as we show with AMSR-E data. We include global results as well as those from the Eureka, CA, coastal radar AMSR-E validation site.

  11. Characterization of Archaeological Sediments Using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) and Portable X-ray Fluorescence (pXRF): An Application to Formative Period Pyro-Industrial Sites in Pacific Coastal Southern Chiapas, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Neff, Hector; Bigney, Scott J; Sakai, Sachiko; Burger, Paul R; Garfin, Timothy; George, Richard G; Culleton, Brendan J; Kennett, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    Archaeological sediments from mounds within the mangrove zone of far-southern Pacific coastal Chiapas, Mexico, are characterized in order to test the hypothesis that specialized pyro-technological activities of the region's prehistoric inhabitants (salt and ceramic production) created the accumulations visible today. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) is used to characterize sediment mineralogy, while portable X-ray fluorescence (pXRF) is used to determine elemental concentrations. Elemental characterization of natural sediments by both instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and pXRF also contribute to understanding of processes that created the archaeological deposits. Radiocarbon dates combined with typological analysis of ceramics indicate that pyro-industrial activity in the mangrove zone peaked during the Late Formative and Terminal Formative periods, when population and monumental activity on the coastal plain and piedmont were also at their peaks. PMID:26767637

  12. Biophysical and socio-economic assessments of the coastal zone: The LOICZ approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Talaue-McManus, L.; Smith, S.V.; Buddemeier, R.W.

    2003-01-01

    The Land-Ocean Interactions in the Coastal Zone Project of the International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme focused on quantifying the role of the global coastal zone in the cycling of carbon and nutrients. From 1993 to date, it has developed protocols and tools that allow for site-specific and global assessments of coastal processes and their drivers. Indicators used in coastal assessments include the contribution of population and economic activities to waste load generation, and the resulting coastal system states relative to net production and nitrogen cycling. ?? 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Coastal geomorphology of arctic Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barnes, Peter W.; Rawlinson, Stuart E.; Reimnitz, Erk

    1988-01-01

    The treeless, tundra-plain of northern Alaska merges with the Arctic Ocean along a coastal area characterized by low tundra bluffs, and sparse coastal and delta dunes. Coastal engineering projects that aggrade or degrade permafrost will alter the geomorphology and rates of coastal processes by changing coastal stability. Similarly, projects that modify the ice environment (artificial islands) or the coastal configuration (causeways) will cause nature to readjust to the new process regime, resulting in modification of the coast. In this paper the authors describe the coastal geomorphology from Barrow to the Canadian border. In addition, they provide a general outline and extensive references of the major coastal processes operating in this environment that will be useful on coastal environments elsewhere in the Arctic.

  14. Application of remote sensors in coastal zone observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caillat, J. M.; Elachi, C.; Brown, W. E., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A review of processes taking place along coastlines and their biological consideration led to the determination of the elements which are required in the study of coastal structures and which are needed for better utilization of the resources from the oceans. The processes considered include waves, currents, and their influence on the erosion of coastal structures. Biological considerations include coastal fisheries, estuaries, and tidal marshes. Various remote sensors were analyzed for the information which they can provide and sites were proposed where a general ocean-observation plan could be tested.

  15. Louisiana coastal ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2000-01-01

    Louisiana's coast and its degradation and restoration are major environmental issues being studied at the National Wetlands Research Center. Coastal ecosystems are vulnerable because of the tremendous amount of human activity that takes place along the coast. Information on ecological processes is essential to guide the development along the coast as well as to protect and restore wildlife habitat.Louisiana has about 40% of coastal wetlands in the lower 48 states; they support fish, waterfowl, and fur-bearing animals as well as unique cultures like that of the Acadians. The fish and wildlife resources of Louisiana's coast produce over $1 billion each year in revenues.But Louisiana has the highest coastal loss rate because of natural and human causes. Over the past three decades, Louisiana has lost as much as 35-40 mi2 (90-104 km2) of coastal wetlands a year.The National Wetlands Research Center is qualified to assess and monitor this ecosystem because of its proximity to the study area, a staff chosen for their expertise in the system, and a number of established partnerships with others who study the areas. The Center is often the lead group in partnerships with universities, other federal agencies, and private entities who study this ecosystem.Most of the Center's research and technology development performed for coastal wetlands are done at the Lafayette headquarters; some work is performed at the National Wetlands Research Center's project office in Baton Rouge, LA.

  16. The Use of Coastal Brownfields as Nature Preserves

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levi, Daniel; Kocher, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Brownfields have the potential to be reused as nature preserves or recreation areas. This reuse depends on the public's perceptions of risk and their willingness to support the new uses of the sites. This study examines attitudes about the reuse of large coastal brownfields from local and nonlocal students and the public. The sites include the…

  17. Coastal Processes with Engineering Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, Robert G.; Dalrymple, Robert A.

    2004-03-01

    The world's coastlines, dividing land from sea, are geological environments that are unique in their composition and the physical processes affecting them. At the dynamically active intersection of land and the oceans, humans have been building structures throughout history. Initially used for naval and commercial purposes, more recently recreation and tourism have increased activity in the coastal zone dramatically. Shoreline development is now causing a significant conflict with natural coastal processes. This text on coastal engineering will help the reader understand these coastal processes and develop strategies to cope effectively with shoreline erosion. The book is organized in four parts: (1) an overview of coastal engineering, using case studies to illustrate problems; (2) hydrodynamics of the coastal zone, reviewing storm surges, water waves, and low frequency motions within the nearshore and surf zone; (3) coastal responses including equilibrium beach profiles and sediment transport; (4) applications such as erosion mitigation, beach nourishment, coastal armoring, tidal inlets, and shoreline management.

  18. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT II

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal waters in the US include estuaries, coastalwetlands, coral reefs, mangrove and kep forests, seagrass meadows, and upwelling areas. Critical coastal habitats provide spawning grounds, nurseries, shelter, and food for finfish, shellfish, birds, and other wildlife. the nat...

  19. Coastal laws strike a balance

    SciTech Connect

    Dennison, M.S.

    1993-04-01

    Although the coastal zone comprises less than 10% of the nation`s land mass, more than 75% of the population lives within 50 miles of coastal areas. Commercial enterprises, including manufacturing facilities, industrial plants, resort hotels and marinas, are built in coastal areas along with the usual beachfront homes condominiums. These enterprises can adversely impact coastal environment through pollution-generation activities. Government regulators have sought to curtail activities that give rise to pollution.

  20. MANAGING COASTAL DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    To answer broad-scale questions on environmental conditions, the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program (EMAP) and its partners have collected estuarine and coastal data from hundreds of stations along the coasts of the continental United States. Types of data include w...

  1. CHAPTER 7: COASTAL ZONES.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mid-Atlantic's coastal areas, especially the Chesapeake Bay, Delaware Bay, and Albemarle/Pamlico Sounds (Figure 3), have important aesthetic and economic values. In Delaware, for example, Parsons and Powell (1998) estimated that $90,000 of the value of a $200,000 home along t...

  2. Neotropical coastal wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Karen L.; Batzer, Darold P.; Baldwin, Andrew H.

    2012-01-01

    The Neotropical region, which includes the tropical Americas, is one of the world's eight biogeographic zones. It contains some of the most diverse and unique wetlands in the world, some of which are still relatively undisturbed by humans. This chapter focuses on the northern segment of the Neotropics (south Florida, the Caribbean islands, Mexico, and Central America), an area that spans a latitudinal gradient from about 7 N to 29 N and 60 W to 112 W. Examples of coastal wetlands in this realm include the Everglades (Florida, USA), Ten Thousand Islands (Florida, USA), Laguna de Terminos (Mexico), Twin Cays (Belize), and Zapata Swamp (Cuba). Coastal wetlands are dominated by mangroves, which will be emphasized here, but also include freshwater swamps and marshes, saline marshes, and seagrass beds. The aim of this chapter is to provide a broad overview of Neotropical coastal wetlands of the North American continent, with an emphasis on mangroves, since this is the dominant vegetation type and because in-depth coverage of all wetland types is impossible here. Instead, the goal is to describe the environmental settings, plant and animal communities, key ecological controls, and some conservation concerns, with specific examples. Because this book deals with wetlands of North America, this chapter excludes coastal wetlands of South America. However, much of the information is applicable to mangrove, marsh, and seagrass communities of other tropicaI regions.

  3. Coastal hazards: hurricanes, tsunamis, coastal erosion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vandas, Stephen; Mersfelder, Lynne; Farrar, Frank; France, Rigoberto Guardado; Yajimovich, Oscar Efraín González; Muñoz, Aurora R.; Rivera, María del C.

    1996-01-01

    Oceans are the largest geographic feature on the surface of the Earth, covering approximately 70% of the planet's surface. As a result, oceans have a tremendous impact on the Earth, its climate, and its inhabitants. The coast or shoreline is the boundary between ocean environments and land habitats. By the year 2025, it is estimated that approximately two-thirds of the world's population will be living within 200 kilometers of a coast. In many ways, we treat the coast just like any other type of land area, as a safe and stable place to live and play. However, coastal environments are dynamic, and they constantly change in response to natural processes and to human activities.

  4. Arctic coastal zone mapping: Evolution of sedimentary coasts in Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendixen, M.; Kroon, A.

    2015-12-01

    Climate change threatens many of the coastal areas all over the world. In the Arctic, the warming happens at a rate which is three times faster than the global average increasing the pressure on the coast. Arctic coasts differ from coasts in lower latitude in terms of the natural conditions prevailing, i.e. sea-ice, permafrost, and thermal erosion. These factors are likely to change with an increasing temperature, and thereby the erodibility of the shores and the erosivity of the coastal processes are changing. The majority of studies on arctic coasts focus on tundra coasts. Here, there is a general increase of coastal erosion rates over the last decades. However, the arctic coastal areas of Greenland differ; they are often close to hard rock protrusions and are characterized by large differences in geomorphology, erodibility of sediments, and erosivity by coastal processes. Sedimentary coasts in Greenland are only sporadically investigated, and it is thus difficult to predict the impact of climate changes in these areas. With this work we focus on sedimentary coasts in Greenland and present shoreline analysis of two sedimentary coastal sites. We show how the position of the shoreline has changed since the 1930'ies and we address the responsible factors controlling this evolution. The hotspots of coastal change are all located near delta mouths and the detected changes are coupled to dominating process occurring here.

  5. Sources of Sea Salts to Coastal Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curran, M. A.; van Ommen, T. D.; Moy, A. D.; Vance, T.; Wong, G. J.; Goodwin, I. D.; Domensino, B.

    2010-12-01

    Coastal Antarctic sea salt aerosols are partitioned into two main sources, namely ocean sea spray and surface sea ice. The sea spray source is related to windiness over the surface ocean and the action of bubbles bursting. The sea ice source is due to frost flowers which form on the surface of sea ice, which are concentrated in sea salts and are lofted by wind action over the sea ice zone. At high accumulation coastal sites, with seasonal resolution, it is possible to estimate the sources of both using deviations of the sodium to sulphate ratio from that found in seawater. To date, from ice core records in east Antarctica (including iceberg B09B near the Mertz Glacier, Law Dome, Wilkes Land and Wilhelm II land), we have found that the source strength from surface sea ice to the Antarctic ice sheet diminishes with elevation and distance inland. We present new data from coastal ice core sites including Mill Island off the coast of east Antarctica and the upper and lower Totten glacier to the east of Law Dome. Using this combined dataset we estimate the source strengths of sea salt aerosols, their partitioning and quantify the relationship with elevation and distance inland.

  6. Development of a Coastal Drought Index Using Salinity Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrads, P. A.; Darby, L. S.

    2014-12-01

    The freshwater-saltwater interface in surface-water bodies along the coast is an important factor in the ecological and socio-economic dynamics of coastal communities. It influences community composition in freshwater and saltwater ecosystems, determines fisheries spawning habitat, and controls freshwater availability for municipal and industrial water intakes. These dynamics may be affected by coastal drought through changes in Vibrio bacteria impacts on shellfish harvesting and occurrence of wound infection, fish kills, harmful algal blooms, hypoxia, and beach closures. There are many definitions of drought, with most describing a decline in precipitation having negative impacts on water supply and agriculture. Four general types of drought are recognized: hydrological, agricultural, meteorological, and socio-economic. Indices have been developed for these drought types incorporating data such as rainfall, streamflow, soil moisture, groundwater levels, and snow pack. These indices were developed for upland areas and may not be appropriate for characterizing drought in coastal areas. Because of the uniqueness of drought impacts on coastal ecosystems, a need exists to develop a coastal drought index. The availability of real-time and historical salinity datasets provides an opportunity to develop a salinity-based coastal drought index. The challenge of characterizing salinity dynamics in response to drought is excluding responses attributable to occasional saltwater intrusion events. Our approach to develop a coastal drought index modified the Standardized Precipitation Index and applied it to sites in South Carolina and Georgia, USA. Coastal drought indices characterizing 1-, 3-, 6-, 9-, and12-month drought conditions were developed. Evaluation of the coastal drought index indicates that it can be used for different estuary types, for comparison between estuaries, and as an index for wet conditions (high freshwater inflow) in addition to drought conditions.

  7. Simulating decadal coastal morphodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, Robert J.; French, Jon R.; van Maanen, Barend

    2016-03-01

    Coastal geomorphic systems provide many services of key importance to humankind, including protection from flood and erosion hazards, diverse habitats and amenity values (Agardy et al., 2005; Jones et al., 2011). However, these systems are widely undergoing degradation that can be substantially attributed to the cumulative direct and indirect effects of human interference. Declining sediment inputs and throughputs are frequently a factor driving a shift towards progressive coastal erosion (Valiela, 2006; Nicholls et al., 2007). Such sediment starved systems have reduced resilience and are further threatened by human-induced climate change, not only due to accelerated sea-level rise, but also through possible shifts in wave and surge climate (Wong et al., 2014).

  8. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, Paul G.; Williams, Timothy; Horton, Keith A.

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote-sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly.

  9. Development and Validation of Rapid Assessment Indices for Condition of Coastal Wetlands in Southern New England USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goals of this study were to develop and validate a Rapid Assessment Method (RAM) for assessing the condition of coastal wetlands in New England, USA. Eighty-one coastal wetland sites were assessed; nested within these were ten reference sites which were previously assessed us...

  10. Toward N Criteria in Coastal Waters: Normalizing N Loading for Estuarine Volume and Local Residence Time

    EPA Science Inventory

    One approach to developing criteria for nitrogen (N) in coastal waters has been to determine quantitative relationships between N loading and ecological effects (e.g., hypoxia) in coastal estuaries. Although this approach has met with some success, data obtained from field sites ...

  11. Floristic and structural patterns in South Brazilian coastal grasslands.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Luciana S; Müller, Sandra C; Overbeck, Gerhard E

    2015-01-01

    The natural vegetation of Southern Brazil's coastal region includes grasslands formations that are poorly considered in conservation policy, due to the lack of knowledge about these systems. This study reports results from a regional-scale survey of coastal grasslands vegetation along a 536 km gradient on southern Brazil. We sampled 16 sites along the coastal plain with 15 plots (1 m²) per site. All sites were grazed by cattle. We estimated plant species cover, vegetation height, percentage of bare soil, litter and manure, and classified species according to their growth forms. We found 221 species, 14 of them exotic and two threatened. The prostate grasses: Axonopus aff.affinis, Paspalum notatum and P. pumilumwere among the most important species. Prostrate graminoids species represented the most important vegetation cover, followed by cespitose grasses. Vegetation height, bare soil, litter and manure were similar among all areas, highlighting the homogeneity of sampling sites due to similar management. In comparison to other grasslands formations in Southern Brazil, the coastal grasslands presented rather low species richness. The presence of high values for bare soil at all sampling sites indicates the need to discuss management practices in the region, especially with regard to the intensity of livestock grazing.

  12. An introduction to coastal geomorphology

    SciTech Connect

    Pethick, J.S.

    1984-01-01

    This book is an introduction to wave and tidally dominated coastal forms, including beaches, cliffs, dunes, estuaries, mudflats and marshlands. The book emphasises the physical mechanisms by which this variety of landforms is produced and maintained. It introduces the energy outputs - waves, currents, tides - into the coastal 'machine', examines the way in which this energy is converted into water and sediment movement, and leads to an account of coastal landform development.

  13. Coastal Ohio Wind Project

    SciTech Connect

    Gorsevski, Peter; Afjeh, Abdollah; Jamali, Mohsin; Bingman, Verner

    2014-04-04

    The Coastal Ohio Wind Project intends to address problems that impede deployment of wind turbines in the coastal and offshore regions of Northern Ohio. The project evaluates different wind turbine designs and the potential impact of offshore turbines on migratory and resident birds by developing multidisciplinary research, which involves wildlife biology, electrical and mechanical engineering, and geospatial science. Firstly, the project conducts cost and performance studies of two- and three-blade wind turbines using a turbine design suited for the Great Lakes. The numerical studies comprised an analysis and evaluation of the annual energy production of two- and three-blade wind turbines to determine the levelized cost of energy. This task also involved wind tunnel studies of model wind turbines to quantify the wake flow field of upwind and downwind wind turbine-tower arrangements. The experimental work included a study of a scaled model of an offshore wind turbine platform in a water tunnel. The levelized cost of energy work consisted of the development and application of a cost model to predict the cost of energy produced by a wind turbine system placed offshore. The analysis found that a floating two-blade wind turbine presents the most cost effective alternative for the Great Lakes. The load effects studies showed that the two-blade wind turbine model experiences less torque under all IEC Standard design load cases considered. Other load effects did not show this trend and depending on the design load cases, the two-bladed wind turbine showed higher or lower load effects. The experimental studies of the wake were conducted using smoke flow visualization and hot wire anemometry. Flow visualization studies showed that in the downwind turbine configuration the wake flow was insensitive to the presence of the blade and was very similar to that of the tower alone. On the other hand, in the upwind turbine configuration, increasing the rotor blade angle of attack

  14. Approaches to the conservation of coastal wetlands in the Western Hemisphere

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bildstein, K.L.; Bancroft, G.T.; Dugan, P.J.; Gordon, D.H.; Erwin, R.M.; Nol, E.; Payne, L.X.; Senner, S.E.

    1991-01-01

    Coastal wetlands rank among the most productive and ecologically valuable natural ecosystems on Earth. Unfortunately, they are also some of the most disturbed. Because they are productive and can serve as transportation arteries, coastal wetlands have long attracted human settlement. More than half of the U.S. population currently lives within 80 km of its coasts, and one estimate places 70% of all humanity in the coastal zone. Human impacts to coastal wetlands include physical alteration of hydrological processes; the introduction of toxic materials, nutrients, heat, and exotic species; and the unsustainable harvest ofnative species. Between 1950 and 1970, coastal wetland losses in the U.S. averaged 8 100 ha/year. In Central and South America, development pressures along the coastal zone rank among the most serious natural resource problems in the region..... Here, we (1) briefly describe coastal wetland avifauna, (2) discuss the threat of global warming on coastal wetlands, (3) use several Western Hemisphere wetlands as site-specific examples of development pressures facing these habitats, and (4) provide synopses of nongovernmental and governmental approaches to wetland conservation. Overall, we provide a socio-economic context for conservation of coastal wetlands in the Western Hemisphere. We suggest that efforts aimed at conserving sites of particular importance for their biological diversity should be pursued within a framework of wise use that addresses the broader issues of human population growth and economic development.

  15. Conceptual hydrogeological model of a coastal hydrosystem in the mediterranean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitropapas, Anastasios; Pouliaris, Christos; Apostolopoulos, Georgios; Vasileiou, Eleni; Schüth, Christoph; Vienken, Thomas; Dietrich, Peter; Kallioras, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Groundwater resources management in the Mediterranean basin is an issue of paramount importance that becomes a necessity in the case of the coastal hydrosystems. Coastal aquifers are considered very sensitive ecosystems that are subject to several stresses being of natural or anthropogenic origin. The coastal hydrosystem of Lavrion can be used as a reference site that incorporates multi-disciplinary environmental problems, which are typical for Circum-Mediterranean. This study presents the synthesis of a wide range of field activities within the area of Lavrion including the monitoring of water resources within all hydrologic zones (surface, unsaturated and saturated) and geophysical (invasive and non-invasive) surveys. Different monitoring approaches -targeting to the collection of hydrochemical, geophysical, geological, hydrological data- were applied, that proved to provide a sound characterization of the groundwater flows within the coastal karstic system in connection to the surrounding water bodies of the study area. The above are used as input parameters process during the development of the conceptual model of the coastal hydrosystem of Lavrion. Key-words: Coastal hydrosystems, Mediterranean basin, seawater intrusion

  16. A NATIONAL COASTAL ASSESSMENT OF COASTAL SEDIMENT CONDITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    One element of the Environmental Monitoring and Assessment Program's National Coastal Assessment is to estimate the current status, extent, changes and trends in the condition of the Nation's coastal sediments on a national basis. Based on NCA monitoring activities from 1999-2001...

  17. Vegetation Types in Coastal Louisiana in 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sasser, Charles E.; Visser, Jenneke M.; Mouton, Edmond; Linscombe, Jeb; Hartley, Steve B.

    2008-01-01

    During the summer and fall of 2007, the U.S. Geological Survey, the Louisiana State University Agricultural Center, and the Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries Fur and Refuge Division jointly completed an aerial survey to collect data on 2007 vegetation types in coastal Louisiana. The current map presents the data collected in this effort. The 2007 aerial survey was conducted by using techniques developed over the last thirty years while conducting similar vegetation surveys. Transects flown were oriented in a north-south direction and spaced 1.87 mi (3 km) apart and covered coastal marshes from the Texas State line to the Mississippi State line and from the northern extent of fresh marshes to the southern end of saline (saltwater) marshes on the beaches of the Gulf of Mexico or of coastal bays. Navigation along these transects and to each sampling site was accomplished by using Global Positioning System (GPS) technology and geographic information system (GIS) software. As the surveyors reached each sampling station, observed areas of marsh were assigned as fresh, intermediate, brackish, or saline (saltwater) types, and dominant plant species were listed and ranked according to abundance. Delineations of marsh boundaries usually followed natural levees, bayous, or other features that impede or restrict water flow.

  18. Sinking coastal cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, Gilles; Bucx, Tom; Dam, Rien; De Lange, Ger; Lambert, John

    2014-05-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs. This effects roads and transportation networks, hydraulic infrastructure - such as river embankments, sluice gates, flood barriers and pumping stations -, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. Excessive groundwater extraction after rapid urbanization and population growth is the main cause of severe land subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. Because of ongoing urbanization and population growth in delta areas, in particular in coastal megacities, there is, and will be, more economic development in subsidence-prone areas. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by extreme weather events (short term) and rising sea levels (long term).Consequently, detrimental impacts will increase in the near future, making it necessary to address subsidence related problems now. Subsidence is an issue that involves many policy fields, complex technical aspects and governance embedment. There is a need for an integrated approach in order to manage subsidence and to develop appropriate strategies and measures that are effective and efficient on both the short and long term. Urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management and related spatial planning strategies are just examples of the options available. A major rethink is needed to deal with the 'hidden' but urgent

  19. Levoglucosan and phenols in Antarctic marine, coastal and plateau aerosols.

    PubMed

    Zangrando, Roberta; Barbaro, Elena; Vecchiato, Marco; Kehrwald, Natalie M; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2016-02-15

    Due to its isolated location, Antarctica is a natural laboratory for studying atmospheric aerosols and pollution in remote areas. Here, we determined levoglucosan and phenolic compounds (PCs) at diverse Antarctic sites: on the plateau, a coastal station and during an oceanographic cruise. Levoglucosan and PCs reached the Antarctic plateau where they were observed in accumulation mode aerosols (with median levoglucosan concentrations of 6.4 pg m(-3) and 4.1 pg m(-3), and median PC concentrations of 15.0 pg m(-3) and 7.3 pg m(-3)). Aged aerosols arrived at the coastal site through katabatic circulation with the majority of the levoglucosan mass distributed on larger particulates (24.8 pg m(-3)), while PCs were present in fine particles (34.0 pg m(-3)). The low levoglucosan/PC ratios in Antarctic aerosols suggest that biomass burning aerosols only had regional, rather than local, sources. General acid/aldehyde ratios were lower at the coastal site than on the plateau. Levoglucosan and PCs determined during the oceanographic cruise were 37.6 pg m(-3) and 58.5 pg m(-3) respectively. Unlike levoglucosan, which can only be produced by biomass burning, PCs have both biomass burning and other sources. Our comparisons of these two types of compounds across a range of Antarctic marine, coastal, and plateau sites demonstrate that local marine sources dominate Antarctic PC concentrations. PMID:26674690

  20. Levoglucosan and phenols in Antarctic marine, coastal and plateau aerosols.

    PubMed

    Zangrando, Roberta; Barbaro, Elena; Vecchiato, Marco; Kehrwald, Natalie M; Barbante, Carlo; Gambaro, Andrea

    2016-02-15

    Due to its isolated location, Antarctica is a natural laboratory for studying atmospheric aerosols and pollution in remote areas. Here, we determined levoglucosan and phenolic compounds (PCs) at diverse Antarctic sites: on the plateau, a coastal station and during an oceanographic cruise. Levoglucosan and PCs reached the Antarctic plateau where they were observed in accumulation mode aerosols (with median levoglucosan concentrations of 6.4 pg m(-3) and 4.1 pg m(-3), and median PC concentrations of 15.0 pg m(-3) and 7.3 pg m(-3)). Aged aerosols arrived at the coastal site through katabatic circulation with the majority of the levoglucosan mass distributed on larger particulates (24.8 pg m(-3)), while PCs were present in fine particles (34.0 pg m(-3)). The low levoglucosan/PC ratios in Antarctic aerosols suggest that biomass burning aerosols only had regional, rather than local, sources. General acid/aldehyde ratios were lower at the coastal site than on the plateau. Levoglucosan and PCs determined during the oceanographic cruise were 37.6 pg m(-3) and 58.5 pg m(-3) respectively. Unlike levoglucosan, which can only be produced by biomass burning, PCs have both biomass burning and other sources. Our comparisons of these two types of compounds across a range of Antarctic marine, coastal, and plateau sites demonstrate that local marine sources dominate Antarctic PC concentrations.

  1. Microclimate Corrosion Effects in Coastal Environments

    SciTech Connect

    Holcomb, G.R.; Covino, B.S. Jr.; Bullard, S.J.; Cramer, S.D.

    1996-03-24

    The Albany Research Center is conducting atmospheric corrosion research in coastal environments to improve the performance of materials in the Nation's infrastructure. The corrosion of bare metals, and of painted, thermal-sprayed, and galvanized steels are presented for one-year exposures at sites located on bridges and utility poles along the Oregon coast. The effects of microclimates (for example distance from the ocean, high wind zones, and salt-fog prone regions) are examined in conjunction with sample orientation and sheltered/unsheltered comparisons. An atmospheric corrosion model examines the growth and dissolution of corrosion product layers to arrive at a steady-state thickness and corrosion rate.

  2. Boundary layer halogens in coastal Antarctica.

    PubMed

    Saiz-Lopez, Alfonso; Mahajan, Anoop S; Salmon, Rhian A; Bauguitte, Stephane J-B; Jones, Anna E; Roscoe, Howard K; Plane, John M C

    2007-07-20

    Halogens influence the oxidizing capacity of Earth's troposphere, and iodine oxides form ultrafine aerosols, which may have an impact on climate. We report year-round measurements of boundary layer iodine oxide and bromine oxide at the near-coastal site of Halley Station, Antarctica. Surprisingly, both species are present throughout the sunlit period and exhibit similar seasonal cycles and concentrations. The springtime peak of iodine oxide (20 parts per trillion) is the highest concentration recorded anywhere in the atmosphere. These levels of halogens cause substantial ozone depletion, as well as the rapid oxidation of dimethyl sulfide and mercury in the Antarctic boundary layer.

  3. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT II

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of EPA's National Coastal Assessment (NCA) program is to estimate the status and trends of the condition of the nation's coastal resources on state, regional and national scales. During 1999-2003, 100% of the nation's estuarine waters were representatively sampled at ...

  4. NATIONAL COASTAL CONDITION REPORT IV

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Coastal Condition Report IV (NCCR IV) is the fourth in a series of environmental assessments of U.S. coastal waters and the Great Lakes. The report includes assessments of all the nation’s estuaries in the contiguous 48 states and Puerto Rico, south-eastern Alaska, ...

  5. Coastal Zone Color Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B.

    1988-01-01

    The Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) spacecraft ocean color instrument is capable of measuring and mapping global ocean surface chlorophyll concentration. It is a scanning radiometer with multiband capability. With new electronics and some mechanical, and optical re-work, it probably can be made flight worthy. Some additional components of a second flight model are also available. An engineering study and further tests are necessary to determine exactly what effort is required to properly prepare the instrument for spaceflight and the nature of interfaces to prospective spacecraft. The CZCS provides operational instrument capability for monitoring of ocean productivity and currents. It could be a simple, low cost alternative to developing new instruments for ocean color imaging. Researchers have determined that with global ocean color data they can: specify quantitatively the role of oceans in the global carbon cycle and other major biogeochemical cycles; determine the magnitude and variability of annual primary production by marine phytoplankton on a global scale; understand the fate of fluvial nutrients and their possible affect on carbon budgets; elucidate the coupling mechanism between upwelling and large scale patterns in ocean basins; answer questions concerning the large scale distribution and timing of spring blooms in the global ocean; acquire a better understanding of the processes associated with mixing along the edge of eddies, coastal currents, western boundary currents, etc., and acquire global data on marine optical properties.

  6. Sinking coastal cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, G.; Bucx, T.; Dam, R.; de Lange, G.; Lambert, J.

    2015-11-01

    In many coastal and delta cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. A major cause for severe land subsidence is excessive groundwater extraction related to rapid urbanization and population growth. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will sink below sea level. Land subsidence increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. In addition, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs for (infra)structure. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. As subsidence is often spatially variable and can be caused by multiple processes, an assessment of subsidence in delta cities needs to answer questions such as: what are the main causes? What is the current subsidence rate and what are future scenarios (and interaction with other major environmental issues)? Where are the vulnerable areas? What are the impacts and risks? How can adverse impacts be mitigated or compensated for? Who is involved and responsible to act? In this study a quick-assessment of subsidence is performed on the following mega-cities: Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok. Results of these case studies will be presented and compared, and a (generic) approach how to deal with subsidence in current and future subsidence-prone areas is provided.

  7. Ocean and Coastal Law

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, David A.

    First of all, this is not the typical book that one expects to see reviewed in Eos, but, read on. It should be clear, by now, even to the most esoteric geophysicist, that lawyers and jurists are taking very close looks at many coastal zone and offshore marine activities. More importantly, there are a wide variety of laws (both at the state and the national levels) and international regulations that determine how we now use or will use our coastal region including how and where we will do marine scientific research. Recently, a Presidential Proclamation (March 1983) declared a 200-mile exclusive economic zone for the United States. The President, in the accompanying statements to the Proclamation, has called special attention to polymetallic sulfide deposits (Is someone in the White House reading Eos?) in what will now be U.S. waters (i.e., the Juan de Fuca region). Well, if you or your colleagues want to know more about U.S. and individual state rules for management and use of our marine areas, this might be the book for you.

  8. Coastal mangrove forests mitigated tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathiresan, Kandasamy; Rajendran, Narayanasamy

    2005-11-01

    A study conducted after the 26th of December 2004 tsunami in 18 coastal hamlets along the south-east coast of India reiterates the importance of coastal mangrove vegetations and location characteristics of human inhabitation to protect lives and wealth from the fury of tsunami. The tsunami caused human death and loss of wealth and these decreased with the area of coastal vegetation, distance and elevation of human inhabitation from the sea. Human inhabitation should be encouraged more than 1 km from the shoreline in elevated places, behind dense mangroves and or other coastal vegetation. Some plant species, suitable to grow in between human inhabitation and the sea for coastal protection, are suggested.

  9. On the use of drift bottle and seabed drifter data in coastal management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, C. S.; Norcross, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    The use of drift bottle and seabed drifter information for use in coastal management is discussed. The drift bottle/seabed drifter portion of VIMS project MACONS (Mid Atlantic Continental Shelf) is described as an example of how a comprehensive survey using drift bottles and seabed drifters provides data useful for coastal management. The data from MACONS are analyzed to answer specific questions of interest to several different coastal managers: a manager siting a deep oil port, one siting a sewage outfall, a manager responsible for setting up emergency beach protection procedures before an accident occurs, and a manager responsible for the environmental quality of a particular small section of coastline.

  10. Spatial patterns in the abundance of the coastal horned lizard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, R.N.; Suarez, A.V.; Case, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    Coastal horned lizards (Phrynosoma coronatum) have undergone severe declines in southern California and are a candidate species for state and federal listing tender the Endangered Species Act. Quantitative data on their habitat use, abundance, and distribution are lacking, however. We investigated the determinants of abundance for coastal horned lizards at multiple spatial scales throughout southern California. Specifically, we estimated lizard distribution and abundance by establishing 256 pitfall trap arrays clustered within 21 sites across four counties. These arrays were sampled bimonthly for 2-3 years. At each array we measured 26 "local" site descriptors and averaged these values with other "regional" measures to determine site characteristics. Our analyses were successful at identifying factors within and among sites correlated with the presence and abundance of coastal horned lizards. These factors included the absence of the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) (and presence of native ant species eaten by the lizards), the presence of chaparral community plants, and the presence of sandy substrates. At a regional scale the relative abundance of Argentine ants was correlated with the relative amount of developed edge around a site. There was no evidence for spatial autocorrelation, even at the scale of the arrays within sites, suggesting that the determinants of the presence or absence and abundance of horned lizard can vary over relatively small spatial scales (hundreds of meters). Our results suggest that a gap-type approach may miss some of the fine-scale determinants of species abundance in fragmented habitats.

  11. Genetic diversity in Monoporeia affinis at polluted and reference sites of the Baltic Bothnian Bay.

    PubMed

    Guban, Peter; Wennerström, Lovisa; Elfwing, Tina; Sundelin, Brita; Laikre, Linda

    2015-04-15

    The amphipod Monoporeia affinis plays an important role in the Baltic Sea ecosystem as prey and as detritivore. The species is monitored for contaminant effects, but almost nothing is known about its genetics in this region. A pilot screening for genetic variation at the mitochondrial COI gene was performed in 113 individuals collected at six sites in the northern Baltic. Three coastal sites were polluted by pulp mill effluents, PAHs, and trace metals, and two coastal reference sites were without obvious connection to pollution sources. An off-coastal reference site was also included. Contaminated sites showed lower levels of genetic diversity than the coastal reference ones although the difference was not statistically significant. Divergence patterns measured as ΦST showed no significant differentiation within reference and polluted groups, but there was significant genetic divergence between them. The off-coastal sample differed significantly from all coastal sites and also showed lower genetic variation.

  12. Sustainable Management of Coastal Environments Through Coupled Terrestrial-Coastal Ocean Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohrenz, S. E.; Cai, W.; Tian, H.; He, R.; Xue, Z.; Fennel, K.; Hopkinson, C.; Howden, S. D.

    2012-12-01

    Changing climate and land use practices have the potential to dramatically alter coupled hydrologic-biogeochemical processes and associated movement of water, carbon and nutrients through various terrestrial reservoirs into rivers, estuaries, and coastal ocean waters. Consequences of climate- and land use-related changes will be particularly evident in large river basins and their associated coastal outflow regions. The large spatial extent of such systems necessitates a combination of satellite observations and model-based approaches coupled with targeted ground-based site studies to adequately characterize relationships among climate forcing (e.g., wind, precipitation, temperature, solar radiation, humidity, extreme weather), land use practice/land cover change, and transport of materials through watersheds and, ultimately, to coastal regions. Here, we describe a NASA Interdisciplinary Science project that employs an integrated suite of models in conjunction with remotely sensed as well as targeted in situ observations with the objectives of describing processes controlling fluxes on land and their coupling to riverine, estuarine and ocean ecosystems. The objectives of this effort are to 1) assemble and evaluate long term datasets for the assessment of impacts of climate variability, extreme weather events, and land use practices on transport of water, carbon and nitrogen within terrestrial systems and the delivery of materials to waterways and rivers; 2) using the Mississippi River as a testbed, develop and evaluate an integrated suite of models to describe linkages between terrestrial and riverine systems, transport of carbon and nutrients in the Mississippi river and its tributaries, and associated cycling of carbon and nutrients in coastal ocean waters; and 3) evaluate uncertainty in model products and parameters and identify areas where improved model performance is needed through model refinement and data assimilation. The effort employs the Dynamic Land

  13. Sinking Coastal Cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkens, G.; Stuurman, R.; De Lange, G.; Bucx, T.; Lambert, J.

    2014-12-01

    In many coastal cities land subsidence now exceeds absolute sea level rise up to a factor of ten. Without action, parts of Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Bangkok and numerous other coastal cities will continue to sink, even below sea level. The ever increasing industrial and domestic demand for water in these cities results in excessive groundwater extraction, causing severe subsidence. In addition, coastal cities are often faced with larger natural subsidence, as they are built on thick sequences of soft soil. The impacts of subsidence are further exacerbated by climate-induced sea level rise. Land subsidence results in two types damage: foremost it increases flood vulnerability (frequency, inundation depth and duration of floods), with floods causing major economic damage and loss of lives. Secondly, differential land movement causes significant economic losses in the form of structural damage and high maintenance costs of roads and transportation networks, sewage systems, buildings and foundations. The total damage worldwide is estimated at billions of dollars annually. To survey the extent of groundwater associated subsidence, we conducted a quick-assessment of subsidence in a series of mega-cities (Jakarta, Ho Chi Minh City, Dhaka, New Orleans and Bangkok). For each city research questions included: what are the main causes, how much is the current subsidence rate and what are predictions, where are the vulnerable areas, what are the impacts and risks, how can adverse impacts can be mitigated or compensated for, and what governmental bodies are involved and responsible to act? Using the assessment, this paper discusses subsidence modelling and measurement results from the selected cities. The focus is on the importance of delayed settlement after increases in hydraulic heads, the role of the subsurface composition for subsidence rates and best practice solutions for subsiding cities. For the latter, urban (ground)water management, adaptive flood risk management

  14. An integrated approach to assess broad-scale condition of coastal wetlands - The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Wetlands pilot survey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nestlerode, J.A.; Engle, V.D.; Bourgeois, P.; Heitmuller, P.T.; Macauley, J.M.; Allen, Y.C.

    2009-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated a two-year regional pilot survey in 2007 to develop, test, and validate tools and approaches to assess the condition of northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) coastal wetlands. Sampling sites were selected from estuarine and palustrine wetland areas with herbaceous, forested, and shrub/scrub habitats delineated by the US Fish and Wildlife Service National Wetlands Inventory Status and Trends (NWI S&T) program and contained within northern GOM coastal watersheds. A multi-level, stepwise, iterative survey approach is being applied to multiple wetland classes at 100 probabilistically-selected coastal wetlands sites. Tier 1 provides information at the landscape scale about habitat inventory, land use, and environmental stressors associated with the watershed in which each wetland site is located. Tier 2, a rapid assessment conducted through a combination of office and field work, is based on best professional judgment and on-site evidence. Tier 3, an intensive site assessment, involves on-site collection of vegetation, water, and sediment samples to establish an integrated understanding of current wetland condition and validate methods and findings from Tiers 1 and 2. The results from this survey, along with other similar regional pilots from the Mid-Atlantic, West Coast, and Great Lakes Regions will contribute to a design and implementation approach for the National Wetlands Condition Assessment to be conducted by EPA's Office of Water in 2011. ?? Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2008.

  15. Scenarios for coastal vulnerability assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nicholls, Robert J.; Woodroffe, Colin D.; Burkett, Virginia; Hay, John; Wong, Poh Poh; Nurse, Leonard; Wolanski, Eric; McLusky, Donald S.

    2011-01-01

    Coastal vulnerability assessments tend to focus mainly on climate change and especially on sea-level rise. Assessment of the influence of nonclimatic environmental change or socioeconomic change is less well developed and these drivers are often completely ignored. Given that the most profound coastal changes of the twentieth century due to nonclimate drivers are likely to continue through the twenty-first century, this is a major omission. It may result in not only overstating the importance of climate change but also overlooking significant interactions of climate change and other drivers. To support the development of policies relating to climate change and coastal management, integrated assessments of climatic change in coastal areas are required, including the effects of all the relevant drivers. This chapter explores the development of scenarios (or "plausible futures") of relevant climate and nonclimate drivers that can be used for coastal analysis, with an emphasis on the nonclimate drivers. It shows the importance of analyzing the impacts of climate change and sea-level rise in a broader context of coastal change and all its drivers. This will improve the analysis of impacts, key vulnerabilities, and adaptation needs and, hence, inform climate and coastal policy. Stakeholder engagement is important in the development of scenarios, and the underlying assumptions need to be explicit, transparent, and open to scientific debate concerning their uncertainties/realism and likelihood.

  16. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote-sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly.anomaly. Both the visible and infrared subsystems scan in "pushbroom" mode: that is, an aircraft carrying the system moves along a ground track, the system is aimed downward, and image data are acquired in acrosstrack linear arrays of pixels. Both subsystems operate at a frame rate of 30 Hz. The infrared and visible-light optics are adjusted so that both subsystems are aimed at the same moving swath, which has across-track angular width of 15. Data from the infrared and visible imaging subsystems are stored in the same file along with aircraft-position data acquired by a Global Positioning System receiver. The combination of the three sets of data is used to construct infrared and hyperspectral maps of scanned areas shown.

  17. Estrogens from sewage in coastal marine environments.

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Shannon; Atkinson, Marlin J; Tarrant, Ann M

    2003-01-01

    Estrogens are ancient molecules that act as hormones in vertebrates and are biologically active in diverse animal phyla. Sewage contains natural and synthetic estrogens that are detectable in streams, rivers, and lakes. There are no studies reporting the distribution of steroidal estrogens in marine environments. We measured estrogens in sewage, injection-well water, and coastal tropical and offshore tropical water in the Pacific Ocean, western Atlantic Ocean, and Caribbean Sea. Concentrations of unconjugated estrone ranged from undetectable (< 40 pg/L) in the open ocean to nearly 2,000 pg/L in Key West, Florida, and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA); estrone concentrations were highest near sources of sewage. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steroid conjugates in seawater samples indicated that polar conjugates comprise one-half to two-thirds of "total estrone" (unconjugated plus conjugated) in Hawaiian coastal samples. Adsorption to basalt gravel and carbonate sand was less than 20% per week and indicates that estrogens can easily leach into the marine environment from septic fields and high-estrogen groundwater. Of 20 sites (n = 129 samples), the mean values from 12 sites were above the threshold concentration for uptake into coral, indicating that there is a net uptake of anthropogenic steroidal estrogen into these environments, with unknown impacts. PMID:12676611

  18. Estrogens from sewage in coastal marine environments.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Shannon; Atkinson, Marlin J; Tarrant, Ann M

    2003-04-01

    Estrogens are ancient molecules that act as hormones in vertebrates and are biologically active in diverse animal phyla. Sewage contains natural and synthetic estrogens that are detectable in streams, rivers, and lakes. There are no studies reporting the distribution of steroidal estrogens in marine environments. We measured estrogens in sewage, injection-well water, and coastal tropical and offshore tropical water in the Pacific Ocean, western Atlantic Ocean, and Caribbean Sea. Concentrations of unconjugated estrone ranged from undetectable (< 40 pg/L) in the open ocean to nearly 2,000 pg/L in Key West, Florida, and Rehoboth Bay, Delaware (USA); estrone concentrations were highest near sources of sewage. Enzymatic hydrolysis of steroid conjugates in seawater samples indicated that polar conjugates comprise one-half to two-thirds of "total estrone" (unconjugated plus conjugated) in Hawaiian coastal samples. Adsorption to basalt gravel and carbonate sand was less than 20% per week and indicates that estrogens can easily leach into the marine environment from septic fields and high-estrogen groundwater. Of 20 sites (n = 129 samples), the mean values from 12 sites were above the threshold concentration for uptake into coral, indicating that there is a net uptake of anthropogenic steroidal estrogen into these environments, with unknown impacts. PMID:12676611

  19. Seasonal variations in 228Ra/226Ra ratio within coastal waters of the Sea of Japan: implications for water circulation patterns in coastal areas.

    PubMed

    Inoue, M; Tanaka, K; Watanabe, S; Kofuji, H; Yamamoto, M; Komura, K

    2006-01-01

    In this study, low-background gamma-spectrometry was used to determine the (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratio of 131 coastal water samples from various environments around Honshu Island, Japan (mainly around Noto Peninsula) at 1-3 month intervals from April 2003 until September 2005. Spatial variation in (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratios was also assessed by analyzing 34 coastal water samples from five areas within the Sea of Japan during May and June 2004. The (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratio of coastal water from all sites around Noto Peninsula shows seasonal variation, with minimum values during summer ((228)Ra/(226)Ra=0.7) and maximum values during autumn-winter ((228)Ra/(226)Ra=1.7-2). This seasonal variation is similar to that recorded for coastal water between Tsushima Strait and Noto Peninsula. The measured lateral variation in (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratios within coastal water between Tsushima Strait and Noto Peninsula is only minor (0.5-0.7; May-June 2004). Coastal waters from two other sites (Pacific shore and Tsugaru Strait, north Honshu) show no clear seasonal variation in (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratio. These measured variations in (228)Ra/(226)Ra ratio, especially the temporal variations, have important implications for seasonal changes in patterns of coastal water circulation within the Sea of Japan.

  20. [Hurricanes and tropical coastal biodiversity].

    PubMed

    Salazar-Vallejo, Sergio I

    2002-06-01

    Tropical coastal biodiversity has been modulated by tropical storms during a long time and it is currently facing a heavy human impact. The purpose of this review is to compile the available information to improve our understanding of hurricane impacts and to promote the establishment of coastal landscape monitoring, because that is the best way to assess these impacts. Although generalizations on hurricane effects are elusive, some historical dynamics and temporal relationships are included and some details are presented on the impacts by resuspension and movement of sediments, storm waves, and breaking off of coral reef organisms. Some effects on marine turtles and coastal forests are also briefly pointed out.

  1. 24 CFR 574.645 - Coastal barriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Coastal barriers. 574.645 Section....645 Coastal barriers. In accordance with the Coastal Barrier Resources Act, 16 U.S.C. 3501, no financial assistance under this part may be made available within the Coastal Barrier Resources System....

  2. Chinese coastal seas are facing heavy atmospheric nitrogen deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, X. S.; Tang, A. H.; Shi, K.; Wu, L. H.; Li, W. Q.; Shi, W. Q.; Shi, X. K.; Erisman, J. W.; Zhang, F. S.; Liu, X. J.

    2014-09-01

    As the amount of reactive nitrogen (N) generated and emitted increases the amount of N deposition and its contribution to eutrophication or harmful algal blooms in the coastal zones are becoming issues of environmental concern. To quantify N deposition in coastal seas of China we selected six typical coastal sites from North to South in 2011. Concentrations of NH3, HNO3, NO2, particulate NH4+ (pNH4+) and pNO3- ranged from 1.97- 4.88, 0.46 -1.22, 3.03 -7.09, 2.24 - 4.90 and 1.13-2.63 μg N m-3 at Dalian (DL), Changdao (CD), Linshandao (LS), Fenghua (FH), Fuzhou (FZ), and Zhanjiang (ZJ) sites, respectively. Volume-weighted NO3--N and NH4+-N concentrations in precipitation varied from 0.46 to 1.67 and 0.47 to 1.31 mg N L-1 at the six sites. Dry, wet and total deposition rates of N were 7.8-23.1, 14.2-25.2 and 22.0 - 44.6 kg N ha-1 yr-1 across the six coastal sites. Average N dry deposition accounted for 45.4% of the total deposition and NH3 and pNH4+ contributed to 76.6% of the dry deposition. If we extrapolate our total N deposition of 33.9 kg N ha-1 yr-1 to the whole Chinese coastal sea area (0.40 million km2), total N deposition amounts to 1.36 Tg N yr-1, a large external N input to surrounding marine ecosystems.

  3. Native plants for effective coastal wetland restoration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, Rebecca J.

    2003-01-01

    Plant communities, along with soils and appropriate water regimes, are essential components of healthy wetland systems. In Louisiana, the loss of wetland habitat continues to be an issue of major concern. Wetland loss is caused by several interacting factors, both natural and human-induced (e.g., erosion and saltwater intrusion from the construction of canals and levees). Recent estimates of annual coastal land loss rates of about 62 km2 (24 mi2 ) over the past decade emphasize the magnitude of this problem. In an attempt to slow the rate of loss and perhaps halt the overall trend, resource managers in Louisiana apply various techniques to restore damaged or degraded habitats to functioning wetland systems.Researchers at the U.S. Geological Survey’s National Wetlands Research Center (NWRC) have cooperated with the Louisiana Department of Natural Resources in studies that address effective restoration strategies for coastal wetlands. The studies have identified differences in growth that naturally exist in native Louisiana wetland plant species and genetic varieties (i.e., clones) within species. Clones of a species have a distinctive genetic identity, and some clones may also have distinctive growth responses under various environmental conditions (i.e., preferences). Indeed, large areas of coastal marsh are typically populated by several clones of a plant species, each growing in a microenvironment suited to its preferences.These studies will provide information that will assist resource managers in selecting plant species and clones of species with known growth characteristics that can be matched to environmental conditions at potential restoration sites. Before the studies began, a collection of several clones from four plant species native to coastal Louisiana was established. The species collected included saltgrass (Distichlis spicata), common reed (Phragmites australis), giant bulrush (Schoenoplectus californicus), and saltmarsh bulrush (Schoenoplectus

  4. Contamination of diuron in coastal waters around Malaysian Peninsular.

    PubMed

    Ali, Hassan Rashid; Arifin, Marinah Mohd; Sheikh, Mohammed Ali; Shazili, Noor Azhar Mohamed; Bakari, Said Suleiman; Bachok, Zainudin

    2014-08-15

    The use of antifouling paints to the boats and ships is one among the threats facing coastal resources including coral reefs in recent decades. This study reports the current contamination status of diuron and its behaviour in the coastal waters of Malaysia. The maximum concentration of diuron was 285 ng/L detected at Johor port. All samples from Redang and Bidong coral reef islands were contaminated with diuron. Temporal variation showed relatively high concentrations but no significant difference (P>0.05) during November and January (North-East monsoon) in Klang ports (North, South and West), while higher levels of diuron were detected during April, 2012 (Inter monsoon) in Kemaman, and Johor port. Although no site has shown concentration above maximum permissible concentration (430 ng/L) as restricted by the Dutch Authorities, however, long term exposure studies for environmental relevance levels of diuron around coastal areas should be given a priority in the future. PMID:24934440

  5. Predicting the persistence of coastal wetlands to global change stressors

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guntenspergen, G.; McKee, K.; Cahoon, D.; Grace, J.; Megonigal, P.

    2006-01-01

    Despite progress toward understanding the response of coastal wetlands to increases in relative sea-level rise and an improved understanding of the effect of elevated CO2 on plant species allocation patterns, we are limited in our ability to predict the response of coastal wetlands to the effects associated with global change. Static simulations of the response of coastal wetlands to sea-level rise using LIDAR and GIS lack the biological and physical feedback mechanisms present in such systems. Evidence from current research suggests that biotic processes are likely to have a major influence on marsh vulnerability to future accelerated rates of sea-level rise and the influence of biotic processes likely varies depending on hydrogeomorphic setting and external stressors. We have initiated a new research approach using a series of controlled mesocosm and field experiments, landscape scale studies, a comparative network of brackish coastal wetland monitoring sites and a suite of predictive models that address critical questions regarding the vulnerability of coastal brackish wetland systems to global change. Specifically, this research project evaluates the interaction of sea level rise and elevated CO2 concentrations with flooding, nutrient enrichment and disturbance effects. The study is organized in a hierarchical structure that links mesocosm, field, landscape and biogeographic levels so as to provide important new information that recognizes that coastal wetland systems respond to multiple interacting drivers and feedback effects controlling wetland surface elevation, habitat stability and ecosystem function. We also present a new statistical modelling technique (Structural Equation Modelling) that synthesizes and integrates our environmental and biotic measures in a predictive framework that forecasts ecosystem change and informs managers to consider adaptive shifts in strategies for the sustainable management of coastal wetlands.

  6. Coastal biodiversity and bioresources: variation and sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Song; Liu, Zhengyi; Yu, Roger Ziye

    2016-03-01

    The 1st International Coastal Biology Congress (1st ICBC) was held in Yantai, China, in Sep. 26-30, 2014. Eighteen manuscripts of the meeting presentations were selected in this special issue. According to the four themes set in the ICBC meeting, this special issue include four sections, i.e., Coastal Biodiversity under Global Change, Adaptation and Evolution to Special Environment of Coastal Zone, Sustainable Utilization of Coastal Bioresources, and Coastal Biotechnology. Recent advances in these filed are presented.

  7. CLASSIFICATION FRAMEWORK FOR COASTAL SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Classification Framework for Coastal Systems. EPA/600/R-04/061. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Atlantic Ecology Division, Narragansett, RI, Gulf Ecology Division, Gulf Bree...

  8. North Atlantic Coastal Tidal Wetlands

    EPA Science Inventory

    The book chapter provides college instructors, researchers, graduate and advanced undergraduate students, and environmental consultants interested in wetlands with foundation information on the ecology and conservation concerns of North Atlantic coastal wetlands. The book c...

  9. Coastal system mapping: a new approach to formalising and conceptualising the connectivity of large-scale coastal systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, J.; Burningham, H.; Whitehouse, R.

    2010-12-01

    pertaining to specific locations to be embedded in system maps. Exported maps can be analysed separately to quantify abundance of system components and their scales of interaction. Our approach is demonstrated for different scales and geomorphic contexts in the UK, including Alnmouth Bay (NE England; 15km), Lowestoft to Felixstowe (E England; 73km) and Cardigan Bay (Wales; 267km). Aerial imagery provides the primary basis for identifying features and elements and likely modes of interaction. This interpretation is then checked against relevant research literature and site data. Coastal system mapping is a kind of knowledge formalisation that generalises disparate sources of information (‘plain data’) into usable knowledge. Consensus-derived system maps are highly effective as a catalyst for structured discussion of geomorphic system behaviour and its implications for coastal management. They also function as a repository for results from quantitative analyses and modelling.

  10. Wave model downscaling for coastal applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valchev, Nikolay; Davidan, Georgi; Trifonova, Ekaterina; Andreeva, Nataliya

    2010-05-01

    Downscaling is a suitable technique for obtaining high-resolution estimates from relatively coarse-resolution global models. Dynamical and statistical downscaling has been applied to the multidecadal simulations of ocean waves. Even as large-scale variability might be plausibly estimated from these simulations, their value for the small scale applications such as design of coastal protection structures and coastal risk assessment is limited due to their relatively coarse spatial and temporal resolutions. Another advantage of the high resolution wave modeling is that it accounts for shallow water effects. Therefore, it can be used for both wave forecasting at specific coastal locations and engineering applications that require knowledge about extreme wave statistics at or near the coastal facilities. In the present study downscaling is applied to both ECMWF and NCEP/NCAR global reanalysis of atmospheric pressure over the Black Sea with 2.5 degrees spatial resolution. A simplified regional atmospheric model is employed for calculation of the surface wind field at 0.5 degrees resolution that serves as forcing for the wave models. Further, a high-resolution nested WAM/SWAN wave model suite of nested wave models is applied for spatial downscaling. It aims at resolving the wave conditions in a limited area at the close proximity to the shore. The pilot site is located in the northern part the Bulgarian Black Sea shore. The system involves the WAM wave model adapted for basin scale simulation at 0.5 degrees spatial resolution. The WAM output for significant wave height, mean wave period and mean angle of wave approach is used in terms of external boundary conditions for the SWAN wave model, which is set up for the western Black Sea shelf at 4km resolution. The same model set up on about 400m resolution is nested to the first SWAN run. In this case the SWAN 2D spectral output provides boundary conditions for the high-resolution model run. The models are implemented for a

  11. Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucey, Paul G.; Williams, Timothy; Horton, Keith A.

    2004-01-01

    The Coastal Research Imaging Spectrometer (CRIS) is an airborne remote sensing system designed specifically for research on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of coastal waters. The CRIS includes a visible-light hyperspectral imaging subsystem for measuring the color of water, which contains information on the biota, sediment, and nutrient contents of the water. The CRIS also includes an infrared imaging subsystem, which provides information on the temperature of the water. The combination of measurements enables investigation of biological effects of both natural and artificial flows of water from land into the ocean, including diffuse and point-source flows that may contain biological and/or chemical pollutants. Temperature is an important element of such measurements because temperature contrasts can often be used to distinguish among flows from different sources: for example, a sewage outflow could manifest itself in spectral images as a local high-temperature anomaly. Both the visible and infrared subsystems scan in pushbroom mode: that is, an aircraft carrying the system moves along a ground track, the system is aimed downward, and image data are acquired in across-track linear arrays of pixels. Both subsystems operate at a frame rate of 30 Hz. The infrared and visible-light optics are adjusted so that both subsystems are aimed at the same moving swath, which has across-track angular width of 15 . Data from the infrared and visible imaging subsystems are stored in the same file along with aircraft- position data acquired by a Global Positioning System receiver. The combination of the three sets of data is used to construct infrared and hyperspectral maps of scanned areas (see figure). The visible subsystem is based on a grating spectrograph and a rapid-readout charge-coupled-device camera. Images of the swatch are acquired in 256 spectral bands at wavelengths from 400 to 800 nm. The infrared subsystem, which is sensitive in a single

  12. Megacities in the Coastal Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Glasow, R.; Jickells, T.; Baklanov, A.; Carmichael, G. R.; Church, T. M.; Gallardo, L.; Hughes, C.; Kanakidou, M.; Liss, P. S.; Mee, L.; Raine, R.; Ramachandran, P.; Ramesh, R.; Sundseth, K.; Tsunogai, U.; Uematsu, M.; Zhu, T.

    2012-04-01

    Megacities have long been recognised as important drivers for socioeconomic development but also as sources of environmental challenges. A large number of megacities are located in the coastal zone where land, atmosphere and ocean meet, posing additional challenges for our understanding of the interactions. The atmospheric flow is complicated not only by urban heat island effects but also topographic flows and sea breezes which also lead to profound changes in clouds and precipitation. Inflow of oceanic air (rich in sea salt) into the polluted city's atmosphere and outflow of polluted air onto a much cleaner ocean lead to very specific interactions, the net effects of which are not well understood. The addition of contaminants to the coastal waters both by atmospheric deposition and fluvial inputs can affect the coastal ecosystems dramatically, limiting their ability to function and provide ecosystem services, e.g. fisheries and aquaculture. Changes to coastal ecosystems also affect fluxes of gases and particles to the atmosphere and can lead to harmful algal blooms. The scale of influence of megacities in the coastal zone is at least hundreds if not thousands of kilometres in the atmosphere and tens to hundreds of kilometres in the ocean, the latter strongly dependent on the hydrographic setting. Coastal megacities are at risk by sea level rise, floods and storms; they are at the forefront of change and scientifically well informed planning can improve livelihoods and ecosystem health but only if we take a holistic approach to study and monitor these regions.

  13. Coastal connectivity in the Gulf of Maine in spring and summer of 2004-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yizhen; He, Ruoying; Manning, James P.

    2014-05-01

    Coastal ocean connectivity associated with the Gulf of Maine (GOM) surface flows in spring and summer seasons of 2004-2009 is studied using surface numerical particle tracking based on realistic regional ocean circulation hindcast solutions. Seven initial particle release sites are selected in key gulf regions often affected by harmful algal (Alexandrium fundyense) blooms, including Massachusetts Bay, the western GOM coastal area, the eastern GOM coastal area, the Bay of Fundy, Wilkinson Basin, the Jordan Basin, and a region seaward of Penobscot Bay. Surface particles are released every 5 days between February 1st and August 1st in each year, and the variability in their trajectories on interannual time scales is quantified by Lagrangian probability density function calculations. Coastal connectivity is further quantified using a connectivity matrix, identifying source and destination functions. Our results suggest that the interannual variability in coastal connectivity has strong impact on the spatial distribution of A. fundyense blooms in each year.

  14. Water quality assessment in the Mexican Caribbean: Impacts on the coastal ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernández-Terrones, Laura M.; Null, Kimberly A.; Ortega-Camacho, Daniela; Paytan, Adina

    2015-07-01

    Coastal zones are dominated by economically important ecosystems, and excessive urban, industrial, agricultural, and tourism activities can lead to rapid degradation of those habitats and resources. Groundwater in the Eastern Yucatan Peninsula coastal aquifer discharges directly into the coastal ocean affecting the coral reefs, which are part of the Mesoamerican Coral Reef System. The composition and impacts of groundwater were studied at different coastal environments around Akumal (SE Yucatan Peninsula). Radium isotopes and salinity were used to quantify fresh groundwater and recirculated seawater contributions to the coastal zone. Excess Ra distribution suggests spatially variable discharge rates of submarine groundwater. High NO3- levels and high coliform bacteria densities indicate that groundwater is polluted at some sites. Dissolved phosphorous content is elevated in the winter and during the high tourism season, likely released from untreated sewage discharge and from aquifer sediments under reducing conditions.

  15. Coastal sediment elevation change following anthropogenic mangrove clearing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayden, Heather L.; Granek, Elise F.

    2015-11-01

    Coastal mangrove forests along tropical shorelines serve as an important interface between land and sea. They provide a physical buffer protecting the coastline from erosion and act as sediment "traps" catching terrestrial sediment, thus preventing smothering of subtidal coral reefs. Coastal development that removes mangrove habitat may impact adjacent nearshore coral reefs through sedimentation and nutrient loading. We examined differences in sediment elevation change between patches of open-coast intact and anthropogenically cleared red mangroves (Rhizophora mangle) on the east side of Turneffe Atoll, Belize, to quantify changes following mangrove clearing. Samples were collected over a 24 month period at five study sites, each containing paired intact (+mangrove) and cleared (-mangrove) plots. Five sediment elevation pins were deployed in each plot: behind areas cleared of mangroves (-mangrove) and behind adjacent intact mangroves (+mangrove). Sediment elevation increased at intact mangrove sites (M = +3.83 mm, SE = 0.95) whereas cleared mangrove areas suffered elevation loss (M = -7.30 mm, SE = 3.38). Mangroves inshore of partial or continuous gaps in the adjacent fringing reefs had higher rates of elevation loss (M = -15.05 mm) than mangroves inshore of continuous fringing reefs (M = -1.90 mm). Our findings provide information on potential effects of mangrove clearing and the role of offshore habitat characteristics on coastal sediment trapping and maintenance of sediment elevation by mangroves. With implications for coastline capacity to adjust to sea level rise, these findings are relevant to management of coastal fringing mangrove forests across the Caribbean.

  16. Coastal sediment dynamics in Spitsbergen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deloffre, J.; Lafite, R.; Baltzer, A.; Marlin, C.; Delangle, E.; Dethleff, D.; Petit, F.

    2010-12-01

    In arctic knowledge on coastal sediment dynamics and sedimentary processes is limited. The studied area is located in the microtidal Kongsfjorden glacial fjord on the North-western coast of Spitsbergen in the Artic Ocean (79°N). In this area sediment contributions to the coastal zone is provided by small temporary rivers that flows into the fjord. The objectives of this study are to (i) assess the origin and fate of fine-grained particles (<63µm) from the piedmont glacier to the coastal zone (0-30m depth), (ii) establish the role of this coastal zone in sediment transfer and (iii) identify the impact of sea ice cover on sediment dynamics. The sampling strategy is based on characterization of sediment and SPM (grain-size, X-rays diffraction, SEM images, carbonates and organic matter contents) from the glacier to the coastal zone completed by a bottom-sediment map on the nearshore using side-scan sonar validated with Ekman binge sampling. River inputs (i.e. river plumes) to the coastal zone were punctually followed using CTD (conductivity, temperature, depth and turbidity) profiles. OBS (water level, temperature and turbidity) operating at high-frequency and during at least 1 years (including under sea ice cover) was settled at the mouth of rivers at 10m depth. In the coastal zone the fine-grained sediment deposit is limited to mud patches located at river mouths that originate the piedmont glacier. However a significant amount of sediment originates the coastal glacier located in the eastern part of the fjord via two processes: direct transfer and ice-drop. Results from turbidity measurements show that the sediment dynamics is controlled by river inputs in particular during melting period. During winter sediment resuspension can occurs directly linked to significant wind-events. When the sea ice cover is present (January to April) no sediment dynamics is observed. Sediment processes in the coastal zone of arctic fjords is significant however only a small amount of

  17. Comparison of hourly solar radiation from ground-based station, remote sensing sensors and weather forecast models: A preliminary study, in a coastal site of South Italy (Lamezia Terme).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo Feudo, Teresa; Avolio, Elenio; Gullì, Daniel; Federico, Stefano; Sempreviva, Annamaria; Calidonna, Claudia Roberta

    2015-04-01

    The solar radiation is a very complex parameter to cope with due to its random and nonlinear characteristics depending on changeable weather conditions and complex orography. Therefore it is a critical input parameter to address many climatic, meteorological, and solar energy issues. In this preliminary study we made an intercomparison between the hourly solar MSG SEVIRI (Meteosat Second Generation Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared) data product DSSF(Down-welling Surface Short-wave Flux) developed by LSA SAF( Land Surface Analysis Satellite Application Facility), a pyranometer sensor (CNR 4 Net Radiometer - Kipp&Zonen) and two weather forecast models. The solar radiation datasets were obtained from a pyranometer sensor situated in Weather Station of CNR ISAC Lamezia Terme(38,88 LAT 16,24 LON), a satellite based product DSSF with spatial resolution of 3km and outputs of two weather forecast models. Models adopted are WRF(Weather Research and Forecasting) and Rams( Regional Atmospheric Modeling System)running operatively with a 3Km horizontal resolution. Both DSSF and model outputs are extracted at Latitude and Longitude previously defined. The solar radiation performance and accuracy are evaluated for datasets segmented into two atmospheric conditions clear and cloudy sky, and both conditions, additionally, for a quantitative analysis the exact acquisition times of satellite measurements was taken into account. The RMSE and BIAS for hourly, daily and monthly - averaged solar radiation are estimated including clear and sky conditions and snow or ice cover. Comparison between DSSF product, Solar Radiation ground based pyranometer measurements and output of two weather forecast models, made over the period June2013-December2013, showed a good agreement in this costal site and we demonstrated that the forecast models generally overestimate solar radiation respect the ground based sensor and DSSF product. As results in general the RMSE monthly-averaged are

  18. Hidden Forests: The role of vegetated coastal habitats in the ocean carbon budget (Vladimir Ivanovich Vernadsky Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Carlos M.

    2016-04-01

    Vegetated coastal habitats, including mangrove forests, salt-marshes, seagrass meadows and macroalgal beds, provide the marine equivalent to terrestrial forests. However, in contrast to the traditional recognition of forests as significant components of the global carbon budget, the biogeochemical significance of vegetated coastal habitats has been largely ignored. However, the past decade has witness a paradigm shift, where vegetated coastal habitats have been recognized to play a globally significant role in the carbon budget of the ocean. Here I synthesize this evidence and consider how current representations of the ocean carbon budget need be reconsidered to incorporate the role of vegetated coastal habitats and globally relevant, sites of intense carbon cycling.

  19. The roles of large top predators in coastal ecosystems: new insights from long term ecological research

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenblatt, Adam E.; Heithaus, Michael R.; Mather, Martha E.; Matich, Philip; Nifong, James C.; Ripple, William J.; Silliman, Brian R.

    2013-01-01

    During recent human history, human activities such as overhunting and habitat destruction have severely impacted many large top predator populations around the world. Studies from a variety of ecosystems show that loss or diminishment of top predator populations can have serious consequences for population and community dynamics and ecosystem stability. However, there are relatively few studies of the roles of large top predators in coastal ecosystems, so that we do not yet completely understand what could happen to coastal areas if large top predators are extirpated or significantly reduced in number. This lack of knowledge is surprising given that coastal areas around the globe are highly valued and densely populated by humans, and thus coastal large top predator populations frequently come into conflict with coastal human populations. This paper reviews what is known about the ecological roles of large top predators in coastal systems and presents a synthesis of recent work from three coastal eastern US Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) sites where long-term studies reveal what appear to be common themes relating to the roles of large top predators in coastal systems. We discuss three specific themes: (1) large top predators acting as mobile links between disparate habitats, (2) large top predators potentially affecting nutrient and biogeochemical dynamics through localized behaviors, and (3) individual specialization of large top predator behaviors. We also discuss how research within the LTER network has led to enhanced understanding of the ecological roles of coastal large top predators. Highlighting this work is intended to encourage further investigation of the roles of large top predators across diverse coastal aquatic habitats and to better inform researchers and ecosystem managers about the importance of large top predators for coastal ecosystem health and stability.

  20. Integrated approach for coastal hazards and risks in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcin, M.; Desprats, J. F.; Fontaine, M.; Pedreros, R.; Attanayake, N.; Fernando, S.; Siriwardana, C. H. E. R.; de Silva, U.; Poisson, B.

    2008-06-01

    The devastating impact of the tsunami of 26 December 2004 on the shores of the Indian Ocean recalled the importance of knowledge and the taking into account of coastal hazards. Sri Lanka was one of the countries most affected by this tsunami (e.g. 30 000 dead, 1 million people homeless and 70% of the fishing fleet destroyed). Following this tsunami, as part of the French post-tsunami aid, a project to establish a Geographical Information System (GIS) on coastal hazards and risks was funded. This project aims to define, at a pilot site, a methodology for multiple coastal hazards assessment that might be useful for the post-tsunami reconstruction and for development planning. This methodology could be applied to the whole coastline of Sri Lanka. The multi-hazard approach deals with very different coastal processes in terms of dynamics as well as in terms of return period. The first elements of this study are presented here. We used a set of tools integrating a GIS, numerical simulations and risk scenario modelling. While this action occurred in response to the crisis caused by the tsunami, it was decided to integrate other coastal hazards into the study. Although less dramatic than the tsunami these remain responsible for loss of life and damage. Furthermore, the establishment of such a system could not ignore the longer-term effects of climate change on coastal hazards in Sri Lanka. This GIS integrates the physical and demographic data available in Sri Lanka that is useful for assessing the coastal hazards and risks. In addition, these data have been used in numerical modelling of the waves generated during periods of monsoon as well as for the December 2004 tsunami. Risk scenarios have also been assessed for test areas and validated by field data acquired during the project. The results obtained from the models can be further integrated into the GIS and contribute to its enrichment and to help in better assessment and mitigation of these risks. The coastal

  1. POTENTIAL FOR GULLS TO TRANSPORT BACTERIA FROM HUMAN WASTE SITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study was designed as a first step in assessing whether gulls visiting human waste sites can acquire human microorganisms and distribute them across the coastal landscape. Beaches, landfills, and a lagoon of treated wastewater located in a coastal Lake Michigan county were t...

  2. Extensive mapping of coastal change in Alaska by Landsat time-series analysis, 1972-2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, J.; Macander, M. J.; Swingley, C. S.; Spencer, S. R.

    2014-12-01

    The landscape-scale effects of coastal storms on Alaska's Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska coasts includes coastal erosion, migration of spits and barrier islands, breaching of coastal lakes and lagoons, and inundation and salt-kill of vegetation. Large changes in coastal storm frequency and intensity are expected due to climate change and reduced sea-ice extent. Storms have a wide range of impacts on carbon fluxes and on fish and wildlife resources, infrastructure siting and operation, and emergency response planning. In areas experiencing moderate to large effects, changes can be mapped by analyzing trends in time series of Landsat imagery from Landsat 1 through Landsat 8. The authors are performing a time-series trend analysis for over 22,000 kilometers of coastline along the Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska. Ice- and cloud-free Landsat imagery from Landsat 1-8, covering 1972-2013, were analyzed using a combination of regression, changepoint detection, and classification tree approaches to detect, classify, and map changes in near-infrared reflectance. Areas with significant changes in coastal features, as well as timing of dominant changes and, in some cases, rates of change were identified . The approach captured many coastal changes over the 42-year study period, including coastal erosion exceeding the 60-m pixel resolution of the Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data and migrations of coastal spits and estuarine channels.

  3. Alabama-Mississippi Coastal Classification Maps - Perdido Pass to Cat Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Morton, Robert A.; Peterson, Russell L.

    2005-01-01

    The primary purpose of the USGS National Assessment of Coastal Change Project is to provide accurate representations of pre-storm ground conditions for areas that are designated high-priority because they have dense populations or valuable resources that are at risk from storm waves. Another purpose of the project is to develop a geomorphic (land feature) coastal classification that, with only minor modification, can be applied to most coastal regions in the United States. A Coastal Classification Map describing local geomorphic features is the first step toward determining the hazard vulnerability of an area. The Coastal Classification Maps of the National Assessment of Coastal Change Project present ground conditions such as beach width, dune elevations, overwash potential, and density of development. In order to complete a hazard vulnerability assessment, that information must be integrated with other information, such as prior storm impacts and beach stability. The Coastal Classification Maps provide much of the basic information for such an assessment and represent a critical component of a storm-impact forecasting capability. The map above shows the areas covered by this web site. Click on any of the location names or outlines to view the Coastal Classification Map for that area.

  4. The Potential Effect of Sea Level Rise on Coastal Property Values

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Donnell, J.

    2015-12-01

    It is well established that one consequence of increasing global sea level is that the frequency of flooding at low-lying coastal sites will increase. We review recent evidence that the effects coastal geometry will create substantial spatial variations in the changes in flooding frequency with scales of order 100km. Using a simple model of the evolution of coastal property values we demonstrate that a consequence of sea level rise is that the appreciation of coastal properties will peak, and then decline relative to higher properties. The time when the value reach a maximum is shown to depend upon the demand for the coastal property, and the local rate of change of flooding frequency due to sea level rise. The simple model is then extended to include, in an elementary manner, the effects on the value of adjacent but higher properties. We show that the effect of increased flooding frequency of the lower properties leads to an accelerated appreciation of the value of upland properties and an accelerated decline in the value of the coastal properties. We then provide some example calculations for selected sites. We conclude with a discussion of comparisons of the prediction of the analyses to recent data, and then comments on the impact of sea level rise on tax base of coastal communities.

  5. Modelling the global coastal ocean.

    PubMed

    Holt, Jason; Harle, James; Proctor, Roger; Michel, Sylvain; Ashworth, Mike; Batstone, Crispian; Allen, Icarus; Holmes, Robert; Smyth, Tim; Haines, Keith; Bretherton, Dan; Smith, Gregory

    2009-03-13

    Shelf and coastal seas are regions of exceptionally high biological productivity, high rates of biogeochemical cycling and immense socio-economic importance. They are, however, poorly represented by the present generation of Earth system models, both in terms of resolution and process representation. Hence, these models cannot be used to elucidate the role of the coastal ocean in global biogeochemical cycles and the effects global change (both direct anthropogenic and climatic) are having on them. Here, we present a system for simulating all the coastal regions around the world (the Global Coastal Ocean Modelling System) in a systematic and practical fashion. It is based on automatically generating multiple nested model domains, using the Proudman Oceanographic Laboratory Coastal Ocean Modelling System coupled to the European Regional Seas Ecosystem Model. Preliminary results from the system are presented. These demonstrate the viability of the concept, and we discuss the prospects for using the system to explore key areas of global change in shelf seas, such as their role in the carbon cycle and climate change effects on fisheries. PMID:19087928

  6. Nitrous oxide in coastal waters

    SciTech Connect

    Bange, H.W.; Rapsomanikis, S.; Andreae, M.O.

    1996-03-01

    Measurements of dissolved and atmospheric nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) are presented for three coastal environments: (1) the central North Sea, (2) the German Bight, and (3) the Gironde estuary. The contribution of coastal regions to the oceanic emissions of atmospheric N{sub 2}O were also determined. N{sub 2}O was measured with a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector and analyzed. The surface waters of the central North Sea and the German bight were found to be near equilibrium with the overlying atmosphere, while the mean saturation in the Gironde estuary was 132%. Mean saturations in coastal regions without estuaries or upwelling phenomena were only slightly higher than in the open ocean. When estuaries and regions with upwelling are included, however, approximately 60% of the oceanic N{sub 2}O flux is attributable to coastal regions. A review of published data indicated that previous studies have seriously underestimated N{sub 2}O sea-to-air flux from coastal regions. 69 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  7. Genetic isolation between coastal and fishery-impacted, offshore bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) populations.

    PubMed

    Allen, Simon J; Bryant, Kate A; Kraus, Robert H S; Loneragan, Neil R; Kopps, Anna M; Brown, Alexander M; Gerber, Livia; Krützen, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The identification of species and population boundaries is important in both evolutionary and conservation biology. In recent years, new population genetic and computational methods for estimating population parameters and testing hypotheses in a quantitative manner have emerged. Using a Bayesian framework and a quantitative model-testing approach, we evaluated the species status and genetic connectedness of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) populations off remote northwestern Australia, with a focus on pelagic 'offshore' dolphins subject to incidental capture in a trawl fishery. We analysed 71 dolphin samples from three sites beyond the 50 m depth contour (the inshore boundary of the fishery) and up to 170 km offshore, including incidentally caught and free-ranging individuals associating with trawl vessels, and 273 dolphins sampled at 12 coastal sites inshore of the 50 m depth contour and within 10 km of the coast. Results from 19 nuclear microsatellite markers showed significant population structure between dolphins from within the fishery and coastal sites, but also among dolphins from coastal sites, identifying three coastal populations. Moreover, we found no current or historic gene flow into the offshore population in the region of the fishery, indicating a complete lack of recruitment from coastal sites. Mitochondrial DNA corroborated our findings of genetic isolation between dolphins from the offshore population and coastal sites. Most offshore individuals formed a monophyletic clade with common bottlenose dolphins (T. truncatus), while all 273 individuals sampled coastally formed a well-supported clade of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (T. aduncus). By including a quantitative modelling approach, our study explicitly took evolutionary processes into account for informing the conservation and management of protected species. As such, it may serve as a template for other, similarly inaccessible study populations.

  8. Genetic isolation between coastal and fishery-impacted, offshore bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) populations.

    PubMed

    Allen, Simon J; Bryant, Kate A; Kraus, Robert H S; Loneragan, Neil R; Kopps, Anna M; Brown, Alexander M; Gerber, Livia; Krützen, Michael

    2016-06-01

    The identification of species and population boundaries is important in both evolutionary and conservation biology. In recent years, new population genetic and computational methods for estimating population parameters and testing hypotheses in a quantitative manner have emerged. Using a Bayesian framework and a quantitative model-testing approach, we evaluated the species status and genetic connectedness of bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops spp.) populations off remote northwestern Australia, with a focus on pelagic 'offshore' dolphins subject to incidental capture in a trawl fishery. We analysed 71 dolphin samples from three sites beyond the 50 m depth contour (the inshore boundary of the fishery) and up to 170 km offshore, including incidentally caught and free-ranging individuals associating with trawl vessels, and 273 dolphins sampled at 12 coastal sites inshore of the 50 m depth contour and within 10 km of the coast. Results from 19 nuclear microsatellite markers showed significant population structure between dolphins from within the fishery and coastal sites, but also among dolphins from coastal sites, identifying three coastal populations. Moreover, we found no current or historic gene flow into the offshore population in the region of the fishery, indicating a complete lack of recruitment from coastal sites. Mitochondrial DNA corroborated our findings of genetic isolation between dolphins from the offshore population and coastal sites. Most offshore individuals formed a monophyletic clade with common bottlenose dolphins (T. truncatus), while all 273 individuals sampled coastally formed a well-supported clade of Indo-Pacific bottlenose dolphins (T. aduncus). By including a quantitative modelling approach, our study explicitly took evolutionary processes into account for informing the conservation and management of protected species. As such, it may serve as a template for other, similarly inaccessible study populations. PMID:27015516

  9. Coastal America Program going forward

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bush, Susan

    Coastal America, a new multiagency initiative developed by the Bush administration to address coastal resource problems, seems to be ignoring the fact that Congress did not fund it for FY92. Although $23 million was requested by Bush for four agencies for FY92, Congress zeroed the funding for the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Department of the Interior. The appropriations bill that covers the Environmental Protection Agency has not been voted on by its joint conference committee. Until they are federally funded, Coastal America will use money from the agencies that has already been authorized in specific areas, such as dredging for the Corps of Engineers. They will also rely on state and private support.

  10. Coastal eutrophication and temperature variation

    SciTech Connect

    Ganoulis, J.; Rafailidis, S.; Bogardi, I.; Duckstein, L.; Matyasovszky, I.

    1994-12-31

    A 3-D hydroecological model has been developed to simulate the impact of climate-change-induced daily temperature variation on coastal water quality and eutrophication. Historical daily temperature time series over a thirty-year period have been used to link local meteorological variables to large-scale atmospheric circulation patterns (CPs). Then, CPs generated under a 2{times}CO{sub 2} scenario have been used to simulate climate-change-induced local daily temperature variations. Both historical and climate-change-induced temperature time series have been introduced as inputs into the hydroecological model to simulate coastal water quality and eutrophication. Subject to model validation with available data, a case study in the bay of Thessaloniki (N. Greece) indicates a risk of increasing eutrophication and oxygen depletion in coastal areas due to possible climate change.

  11. Luminescence dating of fluvial and coastal red sediments in the SE coast, India, and implications for paleoenvironmental changes and dune reddening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayangondaperumal, R.; Murari, M. K.; Sivasubramanian, P.; Chandrasekar, N.; Singhvi, A. K.

    2012-05-01

    The Holocene and late Pleistocene environmental history of the teri ('sandy waste' in local parlance) red sands in the southeast coastal Tamil Nadu was examined using remote sensing, stratigraphy, and optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating. Geomorphological surveys enabled the classification of the teri red sands as, 1) inland fluvial teri, 2) coastal teri and, 3) near-coastal teri dunes. The inland teri sediments have higher clay and silty-sand component than the coastal and near-coastal teri, suggesting that these sediments were deposited by the fluvial process during a stronger winter monsoon around > 15 ka. The coastal teri dunes were deposited prior to 11.4 ± 0.9 ka, and the near-coastal dunes aggraded at around 5.6 ± 0.4 ka. We interpret that the coastal dunes were formed during a period of lower relative sea level and the near-coastal dunes formed during a period of higher sea level. Dune reddening is post deposition occurred after 11.4 ± 0.9 ka for the coastal teri dunes and after 5.6 ± 0.4 ka for the near-coastal teri dunes. Presence of microlithic sites associated with the coastal dunes suggest that the cultures existed in the region during 11.4 ± 0.9 ka and 5.6 ± 0.4 ka.

  12. National Coastal Condition Assessment Report 2010

    EPA Science Inventory

    This National Coastal Condition Assessment 2010 (NCCA 2010) is the fifth in a series of reports assessing the condition of the coastal waters of the United States, including a vast array of estuarine, Great Lakes, and coastal embayment waters. It is part of the National Aquatic R...

  13. 77 FR 40586 - Coastal Programs Division

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... request for comments in the Federal Register at 77 FR 12245 on the request of Lockheed Martin Corp. to... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Coastal Programs Division AGENCY: Coastal Programs Division... licenses. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Kerry Kehoe, Coastal Programs Division (NORM/3), Office of...

  14. Coastal Vulnerability to Sea Level Rise and Erosion in Northwest Alaska (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorokhovich, Y.; Leiserowitz, A.

    2009-12-01

    Northwest Alaska is experiencing significant climate change and human impacts. The study area includes the coastal zone of Kotzebue Sound and the Chukchi Sea and provides the local population (predominantly Inupiaq Eskimo) with critical subsistence resources of meat, fish, berries, herbs, and wood. The geomorphology of the coast includes barrier islands, inlets, estuaries, deltas, cliffs, bluffs, and beaches that host modern settlements and infrastructure. Coastal dynamics and sea-level rise are contributing to erosion, intermittent erosion/accretion patterns, landslides, slumps and coastal retreat. These factors are causing the sedimentation of deltas and lagoons, and changing local bathymetry, morphological parameters of beaches and underwater slopes, rates of coastal dynamics, and turbidity and nutrient cycling in coastal waters. This study is constructing vulnerability maps to help local people and federal officials understand the potential consequences of sea-level rise and coastal erosion on local infrastructure, subsistence resources, and culturally important sites. A lack of complete and uniform data (in terms of methods of collection, geographic scale and spatial resolution) creates an additional level of uncertainty that complicates geographic analysis. These difficulties were overcome by spatial modeling with selected spatial resolution using extrapolation methods. Data include subsistence resource maps obtained using Participatory GIS with local hunters and elders, geological and geographic data on coastal dynamics from satellite imagery, aerial photos, bathymetry and topographic maps, and digital elevation models. These data were classified and ranked according to the level of coastal vulnerability (Figure 1). The resulting qualitative multicriteria model helps to identify the coastal areas with the greatest vulnerability to coastal erosion and of the potential loss of subsistence resources. Acknowldgements: Dr. Ron Abileah (private consultant, j

  15. Flooding, erosion and coastal structures hazards on the Spanish coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, Jorge; Losada, Inigo; Mendez, Fernando; Menendez, Melisa; Izaguirre, Cristina; Requejo, Soledad; Abascal, Ana; Tomas, Antonio; Camus, Paula

    2013-04-01

    Coastal flooding, beach erosion and coastal structures can be affected by long-term changes in sea level and in the storminess. Each beach or construction requires a specific study for a proper estimation of coastal hazards. However, high resolution regional studies are useful to decision-makers to focus in the most endangered areas. The aim of this work is to provide an overview of coastal risks along the Spanish coast. Four different databases providing hourly data have been used to study 423 local sites along the Spanish coastline (around 10 Km spatial resolution). 1- The mean sea level was estimated from satellite and tide-gauges based on Church et al. (2004). 2- The astronomical tide was assessed from the Spanish tide-gauge network interpolating 68 tidal constituents to obtain a tide series for each local site. 3- The coastal surge data come from a numerical reanalysis (GOS) with 1/8 degree spatial resolution performed by using the 2-D barotropic Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) model. 4- Nearshore wave time series (at 15-25 m water depth) are provided from a reanalysis obtained from a hybrid downscaling along the Spanish coast (Camus et al., 2013). Flooding can be considered as the combined result of mean sea level, tidal level, surge level and run-up. Run-up has been assessed by the Stockdon et al. (2006) formulation from the wave time series. We reconstructed hourly flood level time series from their components in the selected locations during 60 years (from 1950 to 2009). A time-dependent extreme value model based on Pareto and Poisson probability distributions has been developed for magnitude and frequency respectively. Long-term trends and their statistical significance, and future changes on flooding return levels (e.g. 20 year return level) have been estimated. Two main causes of beach erosion have been analyzed. The shoreline retreat induced by sea level rise has been quantified by using Bruun's rule, and the erosion due to changes in the

  16. Spatial patterns in the abundance of the coastal horned lizard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Robert N.; Suarez, Andrew V.; Case, Ted J.

    2002-01-01

    Coastal horned lizards (   Phrynosoma coronatum) have undergone severe declines in southern California and are a candidate species for state and federal listing under the Endangered Species Act. Quantitative data on their habitat use, abundance, and distribution are lacking, however. We investigated the determinants of abundance for coastal horned lizards at multiple spatial scales throughout southern California. Specifically, we estimated lizard distribution and abundance by establishing 256 pitfall trap arrays clustered within 21 sites across four counties. These arrays were sampled bimonthly for 2–3 years. At each array we measured 26 “local” site descriptors and averaged these values with other “regional” measures to determine site characteristics. Our analyses were successful at identifying factors within and among sites correlated with the presence and abundance of coastal horned lizards. These factors included the absence of the invasive Argentine ant (  Linepithema humile) (and presence of native ant species eaten by the lizards), the presence of chaparral community plants, and the presence of sandy substrates. At a regional scale the relative abundance of Argentine ants was correlated with the relative amount of developed edge around a site. There was no evidence for spatial autocorrelation, even at the scale of the arrays within sites, suggesting that the determinants of the presence or absence and abundance of horned lizard can vary over relatively small spatial scales ( hundreds of meters). Our results suggest that a gap-type approach may miss some of the fine-scale determinants of species abundance in fragmented habitats.

  17. Measurements of the volume scattering function in a coastal environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berthon, Jean-François; Lee, Michael; Shybanov, Eugeny; Zibordi, Giuseppe

    2007-04-01

    The Volume Scattering Function (VSF) is an essential variable in the context of marine radiative transfer modeling and of the inversion of ocean colour remote sensing data. However, an important lack of knowledge on the VSF natural variability affects the present models, in particular for the coastal environment. Measurements of the Volume Scattering Function between 0.6° and 177.3° with an angular resolution of 0.3° were performed in the northern coastal Adriatic Sea onboard an oceanographic platform in October 2004 using a prototype instrument. Observed differences with the commonly used Petzold's functions are significant, in particular for the "open ocean" and "coastal" types in the backward directions. The use of an empirical relationship for the derivation of b b(λ) from a unique measurement of β(ψ,λ) at ψ=140 for the Hydroscat-6 was validated for this coastal site at that season. Finally, the use of the Kopelevich VSF model together with a measurement of b p(λ) at λ=555 nm allowed the reconstruction of the VSF to within about 35%.

  18. [Influence of thinning on regeneration in a coastal pinus thunbergii forest].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiaojun; Li, Fengqin; Matsuzaki, Takeshi; Gonda, Yutaka

    2002-11-01

    A coastal forest planted nearby the sea can provide many shelter benefits for the coastal regions. It is ideally if the continuity of the shelter benefits could be preserved through reasonable management. Thinning and regeneration as the most important management techniques for plantations can help the continuity of the shelter benefits of the coastal forest. However, because of the peculiarities of coastal forest, i.e., the coastal plantation nearby the sea is vulnerable to disturbances (thinning as one kind of disturbance), the study on thinning and regeneration within a coastal forest is poorly understood. The purpose of this paper is to give a primary understanding in natural regeneration for the coastal Pinus thunbergii forest with different thinning rates after four growing seasons since thinning. The experiment was carried out at the middle of the shoreline along the Japan Sea, and the investigated sites consisted of four thinning treatments (control, 0% thinned, 20% thinned, 30% thinned and 50% thinned) in a coastal P. thunbergii forest. After thinning, the regenerated seedlings, soil water content, light condition (canopy openness or canopy density), wind regime, and litter depth and quantity were investigated for four growing seasons. The relationships between the regenerated seedlings and light condition, litter, wind profile and soil water content were examined. The results showed that thinning could improve the light condition on the forest floor, increase the exchange of airflow (wind speed) in the coastal forest stand, and ameliorate the water content of the forest soil. These factors accelerated the decomposition of litters, and provided necessary conditions for natural regeneration. The results of regeneration observation indicated that the most intensively thinned treatment (50% thinned with density of about 1500 stems.hm-2) could provide a better condition for regeneration during the four growing seasons. The density and growth of seedling

  19. Coastal Studies for Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butler, Venetia R.; Roach, Ellen M.

    1986-01-01

    Describes a set of field trips for participants of the Coastal Environmental Education for Primary Grades program in Georgia. Includes a sample of the activities used by first- and second-grade students. Discusses follow-up activities and the need for more educational programs dealing with sand dunes and saltwater marshes. (TW)

  20. Coastal Adaptation and Ecological Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, S. M.

    2014-12-01

    Ecological engineering combines ecology and engineering to sustain coastal environment and facilitate adaptation to climate change. This paper discusses how the cases of mangroves, oyster reefs, and marshes help mainstream climate change with ecosystem conservation. It demonstrates the benefits of combining strategies to combat changing climate given the financial and political constraints.

  1. Issues in Coastal Zone Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Derrin

    1992-01-01

    Addresses the following issues relevant to coastal zone management: overcrowding, resource exploitation, pollution, agriculture, fisheries, industrial, and other uses. Describes conflicts and trade-offs in management typified by fragmented agency decision making. Discusses implications of the greenhouse effect, sustainable development, and the…

  2. Tropical cyclone Pam coastal impact survey in Vanuatu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, H. M.; Pilarczyk, J.; Kosciuch, T. J.; Hong, I.; Rarai, A.; Harrison, M. J.; Jockley, F. R.; Horton, B.

    2015-12-01

    Severe tropical cyclone Pam (Cat. 5, SSHS) crossed the Vanuatu archipelago with sustained winds of 270 km/h on March 13 and 14, 2015 and made landfall on Erromango. Pam caused the worst natural disaster in Vanuatu's recorded history since severe tropical cyclone Uma in 1987. Eleven fatalities were directly attributed to cyclone Pam and mostly due to lack of shelter from airborne debris. On March 6 Pam formed east of the Santa Cruz Islands and intensified while tracking southward along Vanuatu severely affecting the Shefa and Tafea Provinces. An international storm surge reconnaissance team was deployed to Vanuatu from June 3 to 17, 2015 to complement earlier local surveys. Cyclone Pam struck a remote island archipelago particularly vulnerable to the combined cyclonic multi-hazards encompassing extreme wind gusts, massive rainfall and coastal flooding due to a combination of storm surge and storm wave impacts. The team surveyed coastal villages on Epi, the Shepherd Islands (Tongoa and Mataso), Efate (including Lelepa), Erromango, and Tanna. The survey spanned 320 km parallel to the cyclone track between Epi and Tanna encompassing more than 45 sites including the hardest hit settlements. Coastal flooding profiles were surveyed from the shoreline to the limit of inundation. Maximum coastal flood elevations and overland flow depths were measured based on water marks on buildings, scars on trees, rafted debris and corroborated with eyewitness accounts. We surveyed 91 high water marks with characteristic coastal flood levels in the 3 to 7 m range and composed of storm surge with superimposed storm waves. Inundation distances were mostly limited to a few hundred meters. Coral boulders of more than 1 m diameter were measured on Erromango and sediment samples were collected at key sites across the archipelago. Infrastructure damage on traditional and modern structures was assessed. Eyewitnesses were interviewed at most sites to document the chronology of the wind and

  3. Coastal resource and sensitivity mapping of Vietnam

    SciTech Connect

    Odin, L.M.

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes a project to establish a relationship between environmental sensitivity (primarily to oil pollution) and response planning and prevention priorities for Vietnamese coastal regions. An inventory of coastal environmental sensitivity and the creation of index mapping was performed. Satellite and geographical information system data were integrated and used for database creation. The database was used to create a coastal resource map, coastal sensitivity map, and a field inventory base map. The final coastal environment sensitivity classification showed that almost 40 percent of the 7448 km of mapped shoreline has a high to medium high sensitivity to oil pollution.

  4. The cost and feasibility of marine coastal restoration.

    PubMed

    Bayraktarov, Elisa; Saunders, Megan I; Abdullah, Sabah; Mills, Morena; Beher, Jutta; Possingham, Hugh P; Mumby, Peter J; Lovelock, Catherine E

    2016-06-01

    Land-use change in the coastal zone has led to worldwide degradation of marine coastal ecosystems and a loss of the goods and services they provide. Restoration is the process of assisting the recovery of an ecosystem that has been degraded, damaged, or destroyed and is critical for habitats where natural recovery is hindered. Uncertainties about restoration cost and feasibility can impede decisions on whether, what, how, where, and how much to restore. Here, we perform a synthesis of 235 studies with 954 observations from restoration or rehabilitation projects of coral reefs, seagrass, mangroves, salt-marshes, and oyster reefs worldwide, and evaluate cost, survival of restored organisms, project duration, area, and techniques applied. Findings showed that while the median and average reported costs for restoration of one hectare of marine coastal habitat were around US$80000 (2010) and US$1600000 (2010), respectively, the real total costs (median) are likely to be two to four times higher. Coral reefs and seagrass were among the most expensive ecosystems to restore. Mangrove restoration projects were typically the largest and the least expensive per hectare. Most marine coastal restoration projects were conducted in Australia, Europe, and USA, while total restoration costs were significantly (up to 30 times) cheaper in countries with developing economies. Community- or volunteer-based marine restoration projects usually have lower costs. Median survival of restored marine and coastal organisms, often assessed only within the first one to two years after restoration, was highest for saltmarshes (64.8%) and coral reefs (64.5%) and lowest for seagrass (38.0%). However, success rates reported in the scientific literature could be biased towards publishing successes rather than failures. The majority of restoration projects were short-lived and seldom reported monitoring costs. Restoration success depended primarily on the ecosystem, site selection, and techniques

  5. Coastal changes in sedimentary environments on Disko Island, western Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendixen, M.; Kroon, A.; Nielsen, L.

    2013-12-01

    Global climate change affects Arctic coasts. A rising sea level, increasing fresh water fluxes from glaciers, and decreasing sea-ice extent increase the pressure on the sedimentary areas in these high-latitude regions. In Arctic coastal environments, permafrost, sea-ice, and fluvial input from glacial melt water have an impact in controlling the evolution of the coast. In this study we present the results of annual to decadal coastal changes (rates of change in shoreline positions) along the southern Disko Island in Greenland. These changes are detected and quantified using rectified aerial photos and satellite images. The oldest images used are from the 1940's and the most recent one was 2012. Additional field-measurements are made to identify the responsible processes that cause the coastal development in more detail. The southern coast of Disko Island includes two distinct sedimentary deltas: Skansen and Tuapaat. They consist of sandy, gravelly, and pebbly material. Lagoons, spits, and beaches are present on these deltas and our analyses reveal that these characteristic coastal features have undergone significant morphological changes within the last 60 years: The identified changes within the deltas show a migration of the delta mouths over more than 400 m in an eastward direction, and thus closure of the former inlets. These rapid coastal responses are probably caused by a combination of a shift in channel lobe on the delta plain after 1985, combined with a predominant wave-driven alongshore sediment transport to the east. The shift in delta channels is often recognized as the main responsible agent in controlling the evolution of the sedimentary sites.

  6. Coastal Sensitivity to Sea Level: Data from the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC)

    DOE Data Explorer

    CDIAC products are indexed and searchable through a customized interface powered by ORNL's Mercury search engine. Products include numeric data packages, publications, trend data, atlases, and models and can be searched for by subject area, keywords, authors, product numbers, time periods, collection sites, spatial references, etc. Some of the collections may also be included in the CDIAC publication Trends Online: A Compendium of Global Change Data. Most data sets, many with numerous data files, are free to download from CDIAC's ftp area. Information related to coastal sensitivity to sea level includes: • A Coastal Hazards Data Base for the U.S. East Coast (1992) • A Coastal Hazards Data Base for the U.S. Gulf Coast (1993) • A Coastal Hazards Data Base for the U.S. West Coast (1997)

  7. Ecology of a key ecosystem engineer on hard coastal infrastructure and natural rocky shores.

    PubMed

    Martins, Gustavo M; Neto, Ana I; Cacabelos, Eva

    2016-02-01

    The numbers of hard coastal artificial structures is increasing worldwide and there is now cumulative evidence that they support assemblages that are less diverse than natural shores. Here we investigated patterns of distribution and demography of the native barnacle Chthamalus stellatus on hard coastal structures and on natural rocky shores. Barnacles were 35% less abundant on hard structures regardless of substratum type (concrete or basalt). On a subset of sites we found that temporal population stability, growth and mortality were similar on natural rocky shores and hard structures. In contrast, barnacles were significantly larger and recruited more onto natural rocky shores. These results emphasise the important role of recruitment in determining the abundance of a key space occupier on hard coastal structures. Experimental work building on these results may generate insights that can be used as guidelines for the management of urbanised coastal areas. PMID:26686564

  8. Strategic assessment of near coastal waters: Northeast case study. Interim draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    The report is an interim draft of a forthcoming case study of coastal and estuarine data for 17 estuaries of the Northeast USA. It illustrates the progress made toward completion of the final report. Most of the information presented is compiled from data bases developed by NOAA's continuing program of strategic assessments, including its National Coastal Pollutant Discharge Inventory, National Coastal Wetlands Inventory, and Public Outdoor Recreational Facilities Inventory. Data are compiled and organized into 7 sections: (1) physical and hydrologic characteristics; (2) land use and population; (3) nutrient discharges to estuaries; (4) classified shellfish waters; (5) toxic discharges to estuaries and hazardous waste disposal sites; (6) coastal wetlands; and (7) public outdoor recreation facilities. The fifth section has been completed to illustrate the approximate scale and scope of the information content and discussion that will be presented for each theme in the final report.

  9. Savannah River Region: Transition between the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Zullo, V.A.; Harris, W.B.; Price, V.

    1990-12-31

    The focus of the this conference of Coastal Plains geologists was on the Savannah River region of Georgia and South Carolina, and particularly on the geology of the US Department of Energy`s 300 square mile Savannah River Site (SRS) in western South Carolina. Current geological studies indicate that the Mesozoic-Cenozoic section in the Savannah River region is transitional between that of the Gulf Coastal Plain to the southwest and that of the Atlantic Coastal Plain to the northeast. With the transitional aspect of the region as its theme, the first session was devoted to overviews of Cretaceous and Paleogene geology in the Gulf and Atlantic Coastal Plains. Succeeding presentations and resulting discussions dealt with more specific problems in structural, lithostratigraphic, hydrological, biostratigraphic, and cyclostratigraphic analysis, and of correlation to standard stratigraphic frameworks. For these conference proceedings, individual papers have been processed separately for the Energy Data Base.

  10. Ecology of a key ecosystem engineer on hard coastal infrastructure and natural rocky shores.

    PubMed

    Martins, Gustavo M; Neto, Ana I; Cacabelos, Eva

    2016-02-01

    The numbers of hard coastal artificial structures is increasing worldwide and there is now cumulative evidence that they support assemblages that are less diverse than natural shores. Here we investigated patterns of distribution and demography of the native barnacle Chthamalus stellatus on hard coastal structures and on natural rocky shores. Barnacles were 35% less abundant on hard structures regardless of substratum type (concrete or basalt). On a subset of sites we found that temporal population stability, growth and mortality were similar on natural rocky shores and hard structures. In contrast, barnacles were significantly larger and recruited more onto natural rocky shores. These results emphasise the important role of recruitment in determining the abundance of a key space occupier on hard coastal structures. Experimental work building on these results may generate insights that can be used as guidelines for the management of urbanised coastal areas.

  11. Assessment of organotin and tin-free antifouling paints contamination in the Korean coastal area.

    PubMed

    Lee, Mi-Ri-Nae; Kim, Un-Jung; Lee, In-Seok; Choi, Minkyu; Oh, Jeong-Eun

    2015-10-15

    Twelve organotins (methyl-, octyl-, butyl-, and phenyl-tin), and eight tin-free antifouling paints and their degradation products were measured in marine sediments from the Korean coastal area, and Busan and Ulsan bays, the largest harbor area in Korea. The total concentration of tin-free antifouling paints was two- to threefold higher than the total concentration of organotins. Principal component analysis was used to identify sites with relatively high levels of contamination in the inner bay area of Busan and Ulsan bays, which were separated from the coastal area. In Busan and Ulsan bays, chlorothalonil and DMSA were more dominant than in the coastal area. However, Sea-Nine 211 and total diurons, including their degradation products, were generally dominant in the Korean coastal area. The concentrations of tin and tin-free compounds were significantly different between the east and west coasts.

  12. An Integrated Approach to Assess Broad-Scale Condition of Coastal Wetlands – The Gulf of Mexico Coastal Wetlands Pilot Survey.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiated a two-year regional pilot survey in 2007 to develop, test, and validate tools and approaches to assess the condition of northern Gulf of Mexico (GOM) coastal wetlands. Sampling sites were select...

  13. Analysis of impacts: Produced waters in sensitive coastal habitats. Central coastal Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Boesch, D.F.; Rabalais, N.N.

    1989-06-01

    This study quantified the location and characteristics of outer continental shelf (OCS) produced waters discharged into coastal environments of the Gulf of Mexico and provided an assessment of the environmental fate and effects of selected discharges. An inventory of produced-water discharges based on records of regulatory agencies in Texas and Louisiana was compiled. The other Gulf states do not permit the discharge of produced water into surface waters. Three sites representing large volumes of OCS-generated produced water discharges and different hydrological conditions were selected for field assessment. Produced water contained elevated levels of dissolved and dispersed petroleum hydrocarbons, organic acids, and tract metals. Concentrations of the organic constituents may depend on the separation and treatment technologies employed. Substantial contamination of fine-grained bottom sediments with petroleum hydrocarbons was observed near the discharges at the three sites studied. General surveys at the three sites showed evidence of biological effects in terms of reduced density and diversity of macrobenthic organisms in contaminated sediments and the accumulation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the tissues of filter-feeding bivalves proximate to the discharge sites.

  14. Coastal Louisiana Wetlands Restoration Monitoring with Global Fiducials Program (GFP) Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, G.

    2012-12-01

    Coastal Louisiana has experienced dramatic landscape change over the past century due to human induced changes to the environment as well as an onslaught of major coastal storms. Coastal Louisiana loses on average 25-35 square miles of land per year. The USGS has partnered with the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) - National Marine Fisheries Service to provide cyclical remote sensing data for selected restoration sites along the coast of Louisiana. Three of these sites are actively maintained in the GFP archive - Atchafalaya River Delta, East Timbalier Island, and Pecan Island. These three sites coincide with NOAA restoration sites that have been monitored since early 2000. The GFP has provided a consistent set of remote sensing data that has greatly benefited the long-term monitoring of these restoration sites. Long-term monitoring of these sites includes both pre- and post-hurricane season data collection used to identify landscape change along the coast. The long-term monitoring also has helped to identify areas of success in the restoration projects, as well as areas that have continued to decline in spite of restoration efforts. These three sites are significant to the program because they provide a variety of coastal landscape types: an open water barrier island environment at East Timbalier Island; coastal wetlands at Pecan Island, which have experienced subsidence of the marsh and convergence to an open water environment; and a deltaic marsh environment at Atchafalaya River Delta. Long-term monitoring of these sites has provided a wealth of knowledge about the changes occurring, as well as a valuable tool for reliable shoreline measurements. Continued monitoring is necessary to accurately assess the condition of these areas as environmental conditions continue to shape the landscape.

  15. Recent Advances in Studies of Coastal Marsh Sedimentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasternack, G. B.; Leonard, L. A.

    2001-05-01

    Limited understanding of sedimentation processes in coastal marshes is a key constraint on the management of environmental impacts associated with sea level rise, degrading quality and quantity of aquatic habitats, and downstream impacts of watershed land use. The problem is exacerbated by complex interactions among physical, ecological, and chemical variables that impact sedimentation over a large range of spatio-temporal scales. These challenges are being met by increasingly sophisticated approaches which cross-fertilize from other disciplines or go even further to integrate multidisciplinary perspectives. One example of the former has been improved precision of fine scale measurements of fluid mechanics and sediment transport over marsh plains and application of those measurements in geomorphologic and coastal engineering models. This advancement has improved our understanding of marsh dynamics at a mechanistic level, which is key for improving the predictive capabilities of wetland models. An example of a multidisciplinary approach that has become very common is the combined usage of multiple monitoring, isotopic, and palynological methods for estimating sedimentation and erosion at a site over a range of time scales. By applying such combinations, it has been possible to piece apart the relative roles of natural processes such as sea level rise and storms from human impacts such as flow constrictions, channel dredging, and sediment supply changes. Beyond improving approaches used to study marshes, past work has led to new questions about marsh morphodynamics and how coastal marshes interact with upland watersheds. With the aid of chaos theory, some recent studies have asserted that coastal marsh channels are fractal and thus must follow universal laws in common with watershed drainages and other dendritic systems. Also, where marshes exist among a mosaic of habitats on a delta, research has revealed the relative roles of watershed versus coastal processes in

  16. Bacterial pollution of Messina coastal waters: a one year study.

    PubMed

    Caruso, G; Zaccone, R; Monticelli, L; Crisafi, E; Zampino, D

    2000-07-01

    A year's monitoring of faecal pollution of marine coastal waters surrounding Messina was carried out in 1996/97. The distribution of faecal coliforms was evaluated in 15 stations located along the Sicilian coastline, sampled monthly in coincidence of the two opposing current phases ("montante" and "scendente" currents) which characterise the Straits of Messina. The data obtained provided a complete picture of hygienic-sanitary conditions of the area and highlighted the presence of heavily polluted sites in correspondence with river outflows. Higher bacterial counts were associated with lower salinity values and higher ammonia concentrations; over an annual study, they occurred during the coldest months, showing the negative impact of continental water inputs on the bacteriological quality of coastal waters. PMID:10939045

  17. Toward an european Med HF-radar coastal monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molcard, A.; Fraunie, P.

    2010-12-01

    The monitoring of coastal areas through HF radar is developping in the european Mediterranean coasts, through national and international projects. Surface current maps may be used for process studies, forecast correction through assimilation, or for practical applications in transport studies (jellyfish, oil-spill, search-and-rescue operations). Results of radar campaigns in the North-western Mediterranean (evidence of mesoscale eddy in the Gulf of Lions and identification of dynamical structures by FSLE in the Ligurian Sea) are shown, as well as techniques for current reconstruction using a single site. A new inter-regional european project started in summer 2010, regrouping 5 countries for an integrated oil-spill coastal awarness network is presented.

  18. Backscattering by very small particles in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaodong; Gray, Deric J.

    2015-10-01

    The volume scattering and backscattering by very small particles (VSPs) of sizes <0.2 µm in four coastal waters in U.S. (Chesapeake Bay, Monterey Bay, Mobile Bay, and the LEO-15 site) were estimated by inverting the measured volume scattering functions (VSFs) at 532 nm. The measured VSFs are consistent with concurrent measurements of total scattering coefficients by the ac-meters and angular scattering at 100, 125, and 150° by the ECO-VSF sensor and at 140° by the HydroScat-6 sensor. The inferred backscattering coefficients by the VSPs correlate strongly with the absorption coefficients measured for the colored dissolved organic matter, indicating that the dissolved portion of particles do scatter light. In the coastal waters that we studied, the backscattering by VSPs dominate over larger particles (of sizes >0.2 µm), accounting for 40-80% of total backscattering at 532 nm, while only account for <5% of total scattering.

  19. Hurricane Influences on Vegetation Community Change in Coastal Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steyer, Gregory D.; Cretini, Kari Foster; Piazza, Sarai C.; Sharp, Leigh Anne; Snedden, Gregg A.; Sapkota, Sijan

    2010-01-01

    The impacts of Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005 on wetland vegetation were investigated in Louisiana coastal marshes. Vegetation cover, pore-water salinity, and nutrients data from 100 marsh sites covering the entire Louisiana coast were sampled for two consecutive growing seasons after the storms. A mixed-model nested ANOVA with Tukey's HSD test for post-ANOVA multiple comparisons was used to analyze the data. Significantly (p<0.05) lower vegetation cover was observed within brackish and fresh marshes in the west as compared to the east and central regions throughout 2006, but considerable increase in vegetation cover was noticed in fall 2007 data. Marshes in the west were stressed by prolonged saltwater logging and increased sulfide content. High salinity levels persisted throughout the study period for all marsh types, especially in the west. The marshes of coastal Louisiana are still recovering after the hurricanes; however, changes in the species composition have increased in these marshes.

  20. Estimating Coastal Turbidity using MODIS 250 m Band Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davies, James E.; Moeller, Christopher C.; Gunshor, Mathew M.; Menzel, W. Paul; Walker, Nan D.

    2004-01-01

    Terra MODIS 250 m observations are being applied to a Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSC) algorithm that is under development for coastal case 2 waters where reflectance is dominated by sediment entrained in major fluvial outflows. An atmospheric correction based on MODIS observations in the 500 m resolution 1.6 and 2.1 micron bands is used to isolate the remote sensing reflectance in the MODIS 25Om resolution 650 and 865 nanometer bands. SSC estimates from remote sensing reflectance are based on accepted inherent optical properties of sediment types known to be prevalent in the U.S. Gulf of Mexico coastal zone. We present our findings for the Atchafalaya Bay region of the Louisiana Coast, in the form of processed imagery over the annual cycle. We also apply our algorithm to selected sites worldwide with a goal of extending the utility of our approach to the global direct broadcast community.

  1. Mapping Atlantic coastal marshlands, Maryland, Georgia, using ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, R. R.; Carter, V. L.; Mcginness, J. W., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    Eastern coastal marshes are the most extensive and productive in the United States. A relatively low cost, moderately accurate method is needed to map these areas for management and protection. Groundbased and low-altitude aircraft methods for mapping are time-consuming and quite expensive. The launch of NASA's Earth Resources Technology Satellite has provided an opportunity to test the feasibility of mapping wetlands using small scale imagery. The test sites selected were in Chesapeake Bay, Maryland, and Ossabaw Island, Georgia. Results of the investigation indicate that the following may be ascertained from ERTS imagery, enlarged to 1:250,000: (1) upper wetland boundary; (2) drainage pattern in the wetland; (3) plant communities; (4) ditching activities associated with agriculture; and (5) lagooning for water-side home development. Conclusions are that ERTS will be an excellent tool for many types of coastal wetland mapping.

  2. An integrated approach to manage coastal ecosystems and prevent marine pollution effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marcelli, Marco; Bonamano, Simone; Carli, Filippo Maria; Giovacchini, Monica; Madonia, Alice; Mancini, Emanuele; Molino, Chiara; Piermattei, Viviana; Manfredi Frattarelli, Francesco

    2016-04-01

    This work focuses an integrated approach based on Sea-Use-Map (SUM), backed by a permanent monitoring system (C-CEMS-Civitavecchia Coastal Environmental Monitoring System). This tool supports the management of the marine coastal area, contributing substantially to ecosystem benefits evaluation and to minimize pollution impacts. Within the Blue Growth strategy, the protection of marine ecosystems is considered a priority for the sustainable growth of marine and maritime sectors. To face this issue, the European MSP and MSFD directives (2014/89/EU; 2008/56/EC) strongly promote the adoption of an ecosystem-based approach, paying particular attention to the support of monitoring networks that use L-TER (long-term ecological research) observations and integrate multi-disciplinary data sets. Although not largely used in Europe yet, the Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI), developed in 1979 by NOAA (and promoted by IMO in 2010), can be considered an excellent example of ecosystem-based approach to reduce the environmental consequences of an oil spill event in a coastal area. SUM is an ecosystem oriented cartographic tool specifically designed to support the sustainable management of the coastal areas, such as the selection of the best sites for the introduction of new uses or the identification of the coastal areas subjected to potential impacts. It also enables a rapid evaluation of the benefits produced by marine areas as well as of their anthropogenic disturbance. SUM integrates C-CEMS dataset, geomorphological and ecological features and knowledge on the coastal and maritime space uses. The SUM appliance allowed to obtain relevant operational results in the Civitavecchia coastal area (Latium, Italy), characterized by high variability of marine and coastal environments, historical heritage and affected by the presence of a big harbour, relevant industrial infrastructures, and touristic features. In particular, the valuation of marine ecosystem services based on

  3. Coastal vulnerability assessment with the use of environmental and socio-economic indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandrakis, George; Petrakis, Stelios; Vousdoukas, Mixalis; Ghionis, George; Hatziyanni, Eleni; Kampanis, Nikolaos

    2014-05-01

    Climate change has significant repercussions on the natural environment, triggering obvious changes in the natural processes that have a severe socio-economic impact on the coastal zone; where a great number of human activities are concentrated. So far, the estimation of coastal vulnerability was based primarily on the natural processes and less on socio-economic variables, which would assist in the identification of vulnerable areas. The present investigation proposes a methodology to examine the vulnerability of a highly touristic area in the Island of Crete to an expected sea level rise of up to ~40 cm by the year 2100, according to the A1B scenario of IPCC 2007. The methodology includes the combination of socio-economic indicators into a GIS-based coastal vulnerability index for wave-induced erosion. This approach includes three sub-indices that contribute equally to the overall index. The sub-indices refer to coastal forcing, socio-economic and coastal characteristics. All variables are ranked on a 1-5 scale with 5 indicating higher vulnerability. The socio-economic sub-index includes, as indicators, the population of the study area, cultural heritage sites, transport networks, land use and protection measures. The coastal forcing sub-index includes the frequency of extreme events, while the Coastal Vulnerability Index includes the geological variables (coastal geomorphology, historical coastline changes, and regional coastal slope) and the variables representing the marine processes (relative sea level rise, mean significant wave height, and tidal range). The main difficulty for the estimation of the index lies in assessing and ranking the socio-economic indicators. The whole approach was tested and validated through field and desktop studies, using as a case study the Elouda bay, Crete Isl., an area of high cultural and economic value, which combines monuments from ancient and medieval times, with a very high touristic development since the 1970s.

  4. A coastal perspective on security.

    PubMed

    Emerson, Steven D; Nadeau, John

    2003-11-14

    This paper examines security issues from the unique perspective of our nation's coastlines and associated infrastructure. It surveys ongoing efforts to secure offshore shipping lanes, as well as the transportation systems and huge capital investments on the narrow strip of land intersecting with coastal waters. The paper recounts the extraordinary demands recently placed on the Coast Guard, port authorities and other agencies charged with offshore security. New federal requirements such as port assessments continue to be mandated, while solutions to finding are still unfolding. An up-to-date summary of maritime security functions is provided. Those requirements are compared and contrasted with security guidelines and regulatory demands placed upon mobile and fixed assets of the Chemical Process Industry (CPI) in coastal environs. These span the gamut from recommendations by industry groups and professional organizations, to federal and state requirements, to insurance demands, to general duty obligations.

  5. Metagenomes of Mediterranean Coastal Lagoons

    PubMed Central

    Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Díez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L.; McMahon, Katherine D.; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria. PMID:22778901

  6. Metagenomes of Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    PubMed

    Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Díez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L; McMahon, Katherine D; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria.

  7. Holocene coastal glaciation of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calkin, Parker E.; Wiles, Gregory C.; Barclay, David J.

    2001-01-01

    Holocene fluctuations of the three cirque glaciers on the Seward Peninsula and five groups of tidewater- and land-terminating glaciers along the northernmost Gulf of Alaska, provide a proxy record of late Holocene climatic change. Furthermore, the movements of the coastal glaciers were relevant to late Holocene native American migration. The earliest expansion was recorded about 6850 yr BP by Hubbard Glacier at the head of Yakutat Bay in the Gulf of Alaska; however, its down-fjord advance to the bay mouth was delayed until ˜2700 BP. Similarly, expansions of the Icy Bay, Bering, and McCarty glaciers occurred near their present termini by ˜3600-3000 BP, compatible with marked cooling and precipitation increases suggested by the Alaskan pollen record. Decrease in glacier activity ˜2000 BP was succeeded by advances of Gulf coastal glaciers between 1500 and 1300 BP, correlative with early Medieval expansions across the Northern Hemisphere. A Medieval Optimum, encompassing at least a few centuries prior to AD 1200 is recognized by general retreat of land-terminating glaciers, but not of all tidewater glaciers. Little Ice Age advances of land-based glaciers, many dated with the precision of tree-ring cross-dating, were centered on the middle 13th or early 15th centuries, the middle 17th and the last half of the 19th century A.D. Strong synchrony of these events across coastal Alaska is evident.

  8. Effects of Different Vegetation Zones on CH4 and N2O Emissions in Coastal Wetlands: A Model Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yuhong; Wang, Lixin; Bao, Shumei; Liu, Huamin; Yu, Junbao; Wang, Yu; Shao, Hongbo; Ouyang, Yan; An, Shuqing

    2014-01-01

    The coastal wetland ecosystems are important in the global carbon and nitrogen cycle and global climate change. For higher fragility of coastal wetlands induced by human activities, the roles of coastal wetland ecosystems in CH4 and N2O emissions are becoming more important. This study used a DNDC model to simulate current and future CH4 and N2O emissions of coastal wetlands in four sites along the latitude in China. The simulation results showed that different vegetation zones, including bare beach, Spartina beach, and Phragmites beach, produced different emissions of CH4 and N2O in the same latitude region. Correlation analysis indicated that vegetation types, water level, temperature, and soil organic carbon content are the main factors affecting emissions of CH4 and N2O in coastal wetlands. PMID:24892044

  9. Stakeholder involvement for management of the coastal zone.

    PubMed

    Oen, Amy Mp; Bouma, Geiske M; Botelho, Maria; Pereira, Patrícia; Haeger-Eugensson, Marie; Conides, Alexis; Przedrzymirska, Joanna; Isaksson, Ingela; Wolf, Christina; Breedveld, Gijs D; Slob, Adriaan

    2016-10-01

    The European Union (EU) has taken the lead to promote the management of coastal systems. Management strategies are implemented by the Water Framework Directive (WFD) and the Marine Strategy Framework Directive (MSFD), as well as the recent Maritime Spatial Planning (MSP) Directive. Most EU directives have a strong focus on public participation; however, a recent review found that the actual involvement of stakeholders was variable. The "Architecture and roadmap to manage multiple pressures on lagoons" (ARCH) research project has developed and implemented participative methodologies at different case study sites throughout Europe. These cases represent a broad range of coastal systems, and they highlight different legislative frameworks that are relevant for coastal zone management. Stakeholder participation processes were subsequently evaluated at 3 case study sites in order to assess the actual implementation of participation in the context of their respective legislative frameworks: 1) Byfjorden in Bergen, Norway, in the context of the WFD; 2) Amvrakikos Gulf, Greece, in the context of the MSFD; and 3) Nordre Älv Estuary, Sweden, in the context of the MSP Directive. An overall assessment of the evaluation criteria indicates that the ARCH workshop series methodology of focusing first on the current status of the lagoon or estuary, then on future challenges, and finally on identifying management solutions provided a platform that was conducive for stakeholder participation. Results suggest that key criteria for a good participatory process were present and above average at the 3 case study sites. The results also indicate that the active engagement that was initiated at the 3 case study sites has led to capacity building among the participants, which is an important intermediary outcome of public participation. A strong connection between participatory processes and policy can ensure the legacy of the intermediary outcomes, which is an important and necessary

  10. Assessment of coastal water quality at Bakkhali, West Bengal (India).

    PubMed

    Singh, Shiv; Bhadurfi, Bhaskar; Banerjee, Prasanta Kumar; Datta, Siddhartha

    2012-04-01

    Spatial variations of some physico-chemical water quality of the coastal water of a segment of Bakkhali (Bay of Bengal) were studied between the months of November 2009 and February 2010 before 12:00 a.m. The studies were carried out at three coastal sites of Bakkhali Beach (south extreme point, middle point and far north point, about 1.2 km along the shore) which is influenced by anthropogenic input from land-based sources. The site receives domestic, agricultural and industrial wastes. The water is being used for fishing, transportation of goods and by people for several purposes. The banks of the estuarine channels have traditionally been preferred locations for human settlement. Considering the various uses of this coastal segment, between Bakkhali to Haldia, the studies related to water quality monitoring were carried out. The pH, temperature, turbidity, salinity, TDS and conductivity vary in range of 8.24 - 8.65, 27.5 degrees C-31.5 degrees C, 480 NTU - 808 NTU, 21.6 PSU-30.0 PSU, 676 mg/L -934 mg/L and 1.72 mS/cm -1.97 mS/ cm respectively. Dissolved oxygen, biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) concentrations at different sites vary within a narrow range 6.05 mg/L - 8.1 mg/L and 1.05 mg/L - 3.0 mg/L respectively. Chemical oxygen demand concentrations vary in a wide range of 170 mg/L - 812 mg/L. The bacterial count at the sampling site varied from 76-150 CFU. PMID:24749373

  11. Numerical Experiments for Storm Surge Inundation in Korean Coastal Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, J.; Shim, J.; Jun, K.

    2012-12-01

    predicted inundation regimes and depths were compared with measurements from a tidal gage each area and inundation map by field measurements after the event. Comparisons of the numerical results and measured data show a good correlation. The numerical model adopted in this study is expected to be a useful tool for analysis of storm surges, and for predicting inundation regimes due to coastal flooding. Many coastal cities including low-lying areas were flooded during strong typhoon. So it is necessary to consider detailed evacuation planning, including hazard map, preparation of evacuation site, and sustainable city planning against storm surge inundation problems. For this study, we used 201 typhoons passing through Korea during the past 55 years since 1950. Typhoon wind model was used to estimate wind forcing and air pressure data for each typhoon. We estimated the spatial statistical analysis for inundation level as each return period. And finally we suggested the example of coastal hazard map in the Korean coast(Masan, yeosu and Busan city).

  12. 76 FR 39857 - Alaska Coastal Management Program Withdrawal From the National Coastal Management Program Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration Alaska Coastal Management Program Withdrawal From the National... Coastal Resource Management (OCRM), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Department of Commerce (Commerce). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: By operation of Alaska...

  13. Formulating a coastal zone health metric for landuse impact management in urban coastal zones.

    PubMed

    Anilkumar, P P; Varghese, Koshy; Ganesh, L S

    2010-11-01

    The need for ICZM arises often due to inadequate or inappropriate landuse planning practices and policies, especially in urban coastal zones which are more complex due to the larger number of components, their critical dimensions, attributes and interactions. A survey of literature shows that there is no holistic metric for assessing the impacts of landuse planning on the health of a coastal zone. Thus there is a need to define such a metric. The proposed metric, CHI (Coastal zone Health Indicator), developed on the basis of coastal system sustainability, attempts to gauge the health status of any coastal zone. It is formulated and modeled through an expert survey and pertains to the characteristic components of coastal zones, their critical dimensions, and relevant attributes. The proposed metric is applied to two urban coastal zones and validated. It can be used for more coast friendly and sustainable landuse planning/masterplan preparation and thereby for the better management of landuse impacts on coastal zones.

  14. USGS Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Sam; Gibbons, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) studies the coasts of the western United States, including Alaska and Hawai‘i. Team scientists conduct research, monitor processes, and develop information about coastal and marine geologic hazards, environmental conditions, habitats, and energy and mineral resources. This information helps managers at all levels of government and in the private sector make informed decisions about the use and protection of national coastal and marine resources.

  15. Impact of ERTS-1 images on management of New Jersey's coastal zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, E. B.; Yunghans, R. S.; Stitt, J. A.; Mairs, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    The thrust of New Jersey's ERTS investigation is development of procedures for operational use of ERTS-1 data by the Department of Environmental Protection in the management of the State's coastal zone. Four major areas of concern were investigated: detection of land use changes in the coastal zone; monitoring of offshore waste disposal; siting of ocean outfalls; and allocation of funds for shore protection. ERTS imagery was not useful for shore protection purposes; it was of limited practical value in the evaluation of offshore waste disposal and ocean outfall siting. However, ERTS imagery shows great promise for operational detection of land use changes in the coastal zone. Some constraints for practical change detection have been identified.

  16. Baseline monitoring of organic sunscreen compounds along South Carolina's coastal marine environment.

    PubMed

    Bratkovics, Stephanie; Wirth, Edward; Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Pennington, Paul; Sanger, Denise

    2015-12-15

    Organic ultraviolet filters (UV-F) are increasingly being used in personal care products to protect skin and other products from the damaging effects of UV radiation. In this study, marine water was collected monthly for approximately one year from six coastal South Carolina, USA sites and analyzed for the occurrence of seven organic chemicals used as UV filters (avobenzone, dioxybenzone, octocrylene, octinoxate, oxybenzone, padimate-o and sulisobenzone). The results were used to examine the relationship between beach use and the distribution of UV-F compounds along coastal South Carolina, USA. Five of the seven target analytes were detected in seawater along coastal South Carolina during this study. Dioxybenzone and sulisobenzone were not detected. The highest concentrations measured were >3700 ng octocrylene/L and ~2200 ng oxybenzone/L and beach use was greatest at this site; a local beach front park. Patterns in concentrations were assessed based on season and a measure of beach use.

  17. Baseline monitoring of organic sunscreen compounds along South Carolina's coastal marine environment.

    PubMed

    Bratkovics, Stephanie; Wirth, Edward; Sapozhnikova, Yelena; Pennington, Paul; Sanger, Denise

    2015-12-15

    Organic ultraviolet filters (UV-F) are increasingly being used in personal care products to protect skin and other products from the damaging effects of UV radiation. In this study, marine water was collected monthly for approximately one year from six coastal South Carolina, USA sites and analyzed for the occurrence of seven organic chemicals used as UV filters (avobenzone, dioxybenzone, octocrylene, octinoxate, oxybenzone, padimate-o and sulisobenzone). The results were used to examine the relationship between beach use and the distribution of UV-F compounds along coastal South Carolina, USA. Five of the seven target analytes were detected in seawater along coastal South Carolina during this study. Dioxybenzone and sulisobenzone were not detected. The highest concentrations measured were >3700 ng octocrylene/L and ~2200 ng oxybenzone/L and beach use was greatest at this site; a local beach front park. Patterns in concentrations were assessed based on season and a measure of beach use. PMID:26541983

  18. Coastal resources management guidelines. Coastal Management Publication No. 2. Renewable Resources Information Series

    SciTech Connect

    Snedaker, S.C.; Getter, C.D.

    1985-01-01

    The guidebook is one in a series of publications being produced for the Agency for International Development (AID) by the National Park Service (NPS). Its purpose is to provide expert guidance in planning and management for sustainable coastal development and for the conservation of coastal resources. In addition to the book the coastal series includes a casebook with eight case studies, a report on institutional arrangements for coastal resource management, and a condensed design aids booklet.

  19. Integrated Research Approaches to Coastal Zone Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nandini Menon, N.; Singh, Tanya; Pettersson, Lasse H.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal zones around the world are extremely vulnerable today because of the unprecedented pressures of industrial and urban development as well as climate change related devastations, such as the growing intensities of cyclonic storms, the rise in sea surface temperature, sea surges, and sea level rise. In India, where about 35% of the population lives within 100 kilometers of the coastline, fisheries are a major driver and safety net for economic development and coastal livelihoods. Coastal ecosystems are closely linked with socio-economic systems, which require carefully planned coastal zone management (CZM) actions.

  20. The wave criteria for coastal zoning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monnot, J. V.; Diez Gonzalez, J. J.; del Saz Cordero, S.

    2012-04-01

    THE WAVE CRITERIA FOR THE COASTAL ZONE DEFINITION Coastal nations define along their shores a strip of intense administrative intervention entailing strong restrictions to landowners domainial powers. The exact determination of the spatial extent of this zone is always blurred by coastal dynamics which cast some degree of legal uncertainty on the adjacent real rights. Criterion adopted for this determination shall seek to be practical enough to be effectively implemented, and at the same time robust enough in order to remain reliable at least in the mid term. In short, the aim of this paper is to integrate technical tools taken from coastal engineering and coastal law in order to better understand the relationship between human societies and the coastal substratum. The first step of our document aims to highlight those reasons that lead human societies to set back from the coast, and for this purpose we will proceed to a systematical scanning through the "Legal Findings" sections of several coastal laws. As a second step, we will make a review of the most common coastal features that constitute the final object of the administrative protection. Those coastal features, present in almost all coastal laws, are cliffs, dunes, wetlands and beaches, all of them closely related to waves. In this second point, the review will point out the reasons for the protection of those geomorphological elements and their role and utility for coastal human societies. The last part of this document will take advantage of the elements resulting from the first two steps in order to draw some conclusions. As a first achievement, and at the light of the fundamentals for coastal administrative protection identified in the first part, we will sort out a classification of coastal setbacks, according to the leading idea by which they are based. Finally will we will put into practice the concepts obtained from both the first and second steps - fundamentals for coastal administrative

  1. 75 FR 9158 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Coastal Sharks Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-01

    ... Management Act Provisions; Coastal Sharks Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... Management Plan (ISFMP) for Coastal Sharks. Subsequently, the Commission referred the matter to NMFS, under... out its responsibilities under the Coastal Sharks ISFMP, and if the measures it failed to...

  2. Discriminating coastal rangeland production and improvements with computer aided techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reeves, C. A.; Faulkner, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    The feasibility and utility of using satellite data and computer-aided remote sensing analysis techniques to conduct range inventories were tested. This pilot study was focused over a 250,000 acre site in Galveston and Brazoria Counties along the Texas Gulf Coast. Rectified enlarged aircraft color infrared photographs of this site were used as the ground truth base. The different land categories were identified, delineated, and measured. Multispectral scanner (MSS) bulk data from LANDSAT-1 was received and analyzed with the Image 100 pattern recognition system. Features of interest were delineated on the image console giving the number of picture elements classified; the picture elements were converted to acreages and the accuracy of the technique was evaluated by comparison with data base results for three test sites. The accuracies for computer aided classification of coastal marshes ranged from 89% to 96%.

  3. 76 FR 57022 - Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-15

    ... National Oceanic And Atmospheric Administration Coastal Zone Management Program: Illinois AGENCY: Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management (OCRM), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... Impact Statement (DEIS) prepared by NOAA's Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management. The...

  4. Recognition of fiducial surfaces in lidar surveys of coastal topography

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brock, J.C.; Sallenger, A.H.; Krabill, W.B.; Swift, R.N.; Wright, C.W.

    2001-01-01

    A new method for the recognition and mapping of surfaces in coastal landscapes that provide accurate and low variability topographic measurements with respect to airborne lidar surveys is described and demonstrated in this paper. Such surfaces are herein termed "fiducial" because they can represent reference baseline morphology in Studies of coastal change due to natural or anthropogenic causes. Non-fiducial surfaces may also be identified in each separate lidar survey to be used in a given geomorphic change analysis. Sites that are non-fiducial in either or both lidar surveys that bracket the time period under investigation may be excluded from consideration in subsequent calculations of survey-to-survey elevation differences to eliminate spurious indications of landscape change. This new analysis method, or lidar fiducial surface recognition (LFSR) algorithm, is intended to more fully enable the non-ambiguous Use of topographic lidar in a range of coastal investigations. The LFSR algorithm may be widely applied, because it is based solely on the information inherent in the USGS/NASA/NOAA airborne topographic lidar coverage that exists for most of the contiguous U.S. coastline.

  5. Hyperspectral Imaging Sensors and the Marine Coastal Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, Laurie L.

    2000-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging sensors greatly expand the potential of remote sensing to assess, map, and monitor marine coastal zones. Each pixel in a hyperspectral image contains an entire spectrum of information. As a result, hyperspectral image data can be processed in two very different ways: by image classification techniques, to produce mapped outputs of features in the image on a regional scale; and by use of spectral analysis of the spectral data embedded within each pixel of the image. The latter is particularly useful in marine coastal zones because of the spectral complexity of suspended as well as benthic features found in these environments. Spectral-based analysis of hyperspectral (AVIRIS) imagery was carried out to investigate a marine coastal zone of South Florida, USA. Florida Bay is a phytoplankton-rich estuary characterized by taxonomically distinct phytoplankton assemblages and extensive seagrass beds. End-member spectra were extracted from AVIRIS image data corresponding to ground-truth sample stations and well-known field sites. Spectral libraries were constructed from the AVIRIS end-member spectra and used to classify images using the Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM) algorithm, a spectral-based approach that compares the spectrum, in each pixel of an image with each spectrum in a spectral library. Using this approach different phytoplankton assemblages containing diatoms, cyanobacteria, and green microalgae, as well as benthic community (seagrasses), were mapped.

  6. Mapping pollution and coastal hydrogeology with helicopterborne transient electromagnetic measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, Niels B.; Halkjær, Max

    2014-03-01

    Coastal hydrology is becoming the focus of increasing interest for several reasons. Hydrogeological models need good boundary conditions at the coastline, and with the expected sea level rise due to climate changes, it becomes increasingly important to grasp the dynamics of coastal hydrology in order to predict the consequences of sea level rise for nature and society. We present a helicopterborne transient electromagnetic survey from a region at the North Sea coast in western Jutland, Denmark, carried out at a seriously polluted site with the dual purpose of assessing the extent of the pollution and mapping the coastal hydrogeology to provide data for remediation activities. Data are subjected to constrained inversion with one-dimensional multi-layer (smooth) models. The extent of the pollution plume estimated from a conductive anomaly in the survey results is mainly in accordance with results from other investigations, but also points to hitherto unknown directions of seepage. The interleaving of freshwater extending under the offshore shallow sea and saltwater infiltrating under the onshore freshwater aquifer can be clearly discerned and preferential flow channels are revealed.

  7. Trends and causes of historical wetland loss in coastal Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bernier, Julie

    2013-01-01

    Wetland losses in the northern Gulf Coast region of the United States are so extensive that they represent critical concerns to government environmental agencies and natural resource managers. In Louisiana, almost 3,000 square kilometers (km2) of low-lying wetlands converted to open water between 1956 and 2004, and billions of dollars in State and Federal funding have been allocated for coastal restoration projects intended to compensate for some of those wetland losses. Recent research at the St. Petersburg Coastal and Marine Science Center (SPCMSC) focused on understanding the physical processes and human activities that contributed to historical wetland loss in coastal Louisiana and the spatial and temporal trends of that loss. The physical processes (land-surface subsidence and sediment erosion) responsible for historical wetland loss were quantified by comparing marsh-surface elevations, water depths, and vertical displacements of stratigraphic contacts at 10 study areas in the Mississippi River delta plain and 6 sites at Sabine National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR) in the western chenier plain. The timing and extent of land loss at the study areas was determined by comparing historical maps, aerial photographs, and satellite imagery; the temporal and spatial trends of those losses were compared with historical subsidence rates and hydrocarbon production trends.

  8. Critical review of studies on atmospheric dispersion in coastal regions

    SciTech Connect

    Shearer, D.L.; Kaleel, R.J.

    1982-09-01

    This study effort was required as a preliminary step prior to initiation of field measurements of atmospheric dispersion in coastal regions. The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is in the process of planning an extensive field measurement program to generate data which will serve as improved data bases for licensing decisions, confirmation of regulations, standards, and guides, and for site characterizations. The study being reported here is an effort directed to obtaining as much information as is possible from existing studies that is relevant toward NRC's objectives. For this study, reports covering research and meteorological measurements conducted for industrial purposes, utility needs, military objectives, and academic studies were obtained and critically reviewed in light of NRC's current data needs. This report provides an interpretation of the extent of existing usable information, an indication of the potential for tailoring existing research toward current NRC information needs, and recommendations for several follow-on studies which could provide valuable additional information through reanalysis of the data. Recommendations are also offered regarding new measurement programs. Emphasis is placed on the identification and acquisition of data from atmospheric tracer studies conducted in coastal regions. A total of 225 references were identified which deal with the coastal atmosphere, including meteorological and tracer measurement programs, theoretical descriptions of the relevant processes, and dispersion models.

  9. Coastal marine eutrophication assessment: a review on data analysis.

    PubMed

    Kitsiou, Dimitra; Karydis, Michael

    2011-05-01

    A wide variety of data analysis techniques have been applied for quantitative assessment of coastal marine eutrophication. Indicators for assessing eutrophication and frequency distributions have been used to develop scales for characterizing oligotrophy and eutrophication. Numerical classification has also contributed to the assessment of eutrophic trends by grouping sampling sites of similar trophic conditions. Applications of eutrophication assessment based on Principal Component Analysis and Multidimensional Scaling have also been carried out. In addition, the rapid development of Geographical Information Systems has provided the framework for applications of spatial methods and mapping techniques on eutrophication studies. Satellite data have also contributed to eutrophication assessment especially at large scale. Multiple criteria analysis methods can integrate eutrophication variables together with socio-economic parameters providing a holistic approach particularly useful to policy makers. As the current concept of eutrophication problems is to be examined as part of a coastal management approach, more complex quantitative procedures are needed to provide a platform useful for implementation of environmental policy. The present work reviews methods of data analysis used for the assessment of coastal marine eutrophication. The difficulties in applying these methods on data collected from the marine environment are discussed as well as the future perspectives of spatial and multiple criteria choice methods.

  10. Coastal zone color scanner retrospective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, B. Greg

    1994-04-01

    The following special section of the Journal of Geophysical Research is dedicated to a retrospective of scientific studies using the coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) instrument. The CZCS was launched in late 1978 aboard the Nimbus 7 satellite as a "proof-of-concept" instrument to demonstrate the feasibility of using satellite platforms to monitor the distribution of oceanic phytoplankton in the world's oceans. It provided data until the middle of 1986. Phytoplankton primary production contributes approximately one half of the global biospheric fixation of organic matter by photosynthesis, thereby forming the base of the oceanic food web and providing a major sink for atmospheric CO2.

  11. GREATEM survey in coastal area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd allah, S.; Mogi, T.; Femonko, E.

    2014-12-01

    To determine the electric-resistivity structure in coastal areas, airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys have been used many places. These results showed AEM can reveal seawater depth, sediment thickness, and depth to bedrock. However, until now, AEM could only reveal the resistivity structure to a depth of ˜200 m in coastal areas. Conventional AEM, using an airborne inductive source limits the depth of exploration because the presence of a conductor, such as saline surface water, decreases the penetration of the AEM signal. In order to enhance the depth of exploration, we used a grounded electrical source aligned parallel to the coast line and towed a magnetic receiver in the air. The method, called grounded-electrical-source airborne transient electromagnetics, or GREATEM (Mogi et al., 1998), should enhance survey depth in coastal areas, since this method galvanically injects electric current into the ground. The method has increased the depth of exploration to 800 m in on-shore areas (Mogi et al., 2009, Ito et al. 2014). We have carried out a GREATEM survey at Kujukuri beach in central Japan, where an alluvial plain is dominated by sedimentary rocks and shallow water. Another GREATEM survey was performed at northwestern Awaji Island, where granitic rocks crop out onshore. In these studies, we faced issues how do we evaluate an effect of sea water on the data. To circumvent this problem, we used a three-dimensional (3D) electromagnetic (EM) modeling scheme based on the staggered-grid finite-difference (FD) method (Fomenko and Mogi, 2002) to study the effects of oceanic saltwater on GREATEM survey data at coastal areas. The models consisted of two adjacent layers where sea is a conductive thin sheet placed on top of a unifirm half space ( 100 Ohm-m). Then, we performed numerical forward modeling using the SFD method to generate a 3-D resistivity structure models from GREATEM field survey data at both of Kujukuri beach and the Nojima fault. As a result, we have

  12. WETLAND MORPHOLOGIC AND BIOGEOGRAPHIC INFLUENCES ON ALGAL RESPONSES TO NUTRIENT LOADING IN GREAT LAKES COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We are testing the influence of wetland morphology (protected vs. riverine) and biogeography (upper vs. lower Great Lakes) on algal responses to nutrients in Great Lakes Coastal wetlands. Principal components analysis using nutrient-specific GIS data was used to select sites wit...

  13. Integrated multidisciplinary biostratigraphic and paleoecologic study of southern California Neogene coastal sections

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, G.H.; Arends, R.G.; Filewicz, M.V.; Thornton, M.L.C.; Vork, D.R.

    1988-03-01

    This integrated biostratigraphic and paleoecologic study of several Neogene sections of coastal southern California is based on the use of diatoms, calcareous nannofossils, palynology, and benthic foraminifera. The study included the Naples Bluff, Topanga Canyon, and Newport Bay sections, and DSDP Site 468.

  14. MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL STREAMS STUDY: STATISTICAL DESIGN FOR REGIONAL ASSESSMENT AND LANDSCAPE MODEL DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A network of stream-sampling sites was developed for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain (New Jersey through North Carolina) a collaborative study between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Geological Survey. A stratified random sampling with unequal weighting was u...

  15. MID-ATLANTIC COASTAL STREAMS STUDY: STATISTICAL DESIGN FOR REGIONAL ASSESSMENT AND LANDSCAPE MODEL DEVELOPMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A network of stream-sampling sites was developed for the Mid-Atlantic Coastal Plain (New Jersey through North Carolina) as part of collaborative research between the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the U.S. Geological Survey. A stratified random sampling with unequal wei...

  16. Analysis and modeling of decadal and long-term variability of coastal California summer temperature changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sequera, Pedro

    Summer average daily maximum temperature (Tmax) trends for 1950-2010 were calculated for 241 locations along all of California by use of daily max temperatures from NWS Coop sites to understand the spatial and temporal variabilities of the previously reported summer coastal-cooling. Results show that coastal-cooling appears almost continuously throughout the California coast in locations open to marine air penetrations for the period of 1970-2010. Correlations with the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) Index show that coastal-cooling disappears during the increasing PDO period (1950-1985). The most influential factor(s) on California summer coastal temperatures, i.e., Greenhouse Gas (GHG) warming, PDO and changes in Land Cover/Land Use (LCLU), were determined through numerical atmospheric modeling using the Weather Research & Forecasting (WRF) model. Combined results from observations, reanalysis and modeling lead to the conclusion that PDO is the main mechanism of decadal variability of California summer temperatures, dominating over global GHG-warming effects. PDO affects both coastal and inland temperatures by controlling the position and intensity of the two dominating global circulation patterns on California summer: the semi-permanent Pacific High Pressure System and the continental Thermal-Low. Coastal cooling will rise on decreasing PDO periods, where the warming of inland regions and cooling of nearshore Sea Surface Temperatures (SSTs) results in an increase in sea-breeze activity. Coastal-warming results in increasing periods of the PDO. Global warming induced by GHG and hyper-urbanization were found to be major sources of coastal warming over complete PDO cycles (1950-2010).

  17. Emergence of MD type infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Washington State coastal steelhead trout.

    PubMed

    Breyta, Rachel; Jones, Amelia; Stewart, Bruce; Brunson, Ray; Thomas, Joan; Kerwin, John; Bertolini, Jim; Mumford, Sonia; Patterson, Chris; Kurath, Gael

    2013-06-13

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) occurs in North America as 3 major phylogenetic groups designated U, M, and L. In coastal Washington State, IHNV has historically consisted of U genogroup viruses found predominantly in sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. M genogroup IHNV, which has host-specific virulence for rainbow and steelhead trout O. mykiss, was detected only once in coastal Washington prior to 2007, in an epidemic among juvenile steelhead trout in 1997. Beginning in 2007 and continuing through 2011, there were 8 IHNV epidemics in juvenile steelhead trout, involving 7 different fish culture facilities in 4 separate watersheds. During the same time period, IHNV was also detected in asymptomatic adult steelhead trout from 6 coastal watersheds. Genetic typing of 283 recent virus isolates from coastal Washington revealed that the great majority were in the M genogroup of IHNV and that there were 2 distinct waves of viral emergence between the years 2007 and 2011. IHNV type mG110M was dominant in coastal steelhead trout during 2007 to 2009, and type mG139M was dominant between 2010 and 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of viral isolates indicated that all coastal M genogroup viruses detected in 1997 and 2007 to 2011 were part of the MD subgroup and that several novel genetic variants related to the dominant types arose in the coastal sites. Comparison of spatial and temporal incidence of coastal MD viruses with that of the rest of the Pacific Northwest indicated that the likely source of the emergent viruses was Columbia River Basin steelhead trout. PMID:23759556

  18. Conserving intertidal habitats: What is the potential of ecological engineering to mitigate impacts of coastal structures?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perkins, Matthew J.; Ng, Terence P. T.; Dudgeon, David; Bonebrake, Timothy C.; Leung, Kenneth M. Y.

    2015-12-01

    Globally, coastlines are under pressure as coastal human population growth and urbanization continues, while climatic change leads to stormier seas and rising tides. These trends create a strong and sustained demand for land reclamation and infrastructure protection in coastal areas, requiring engineered coastal defence structures such as sea walls. Here, we review the nature of ecological impacts of coastal structures on intertidal ecosystems, seek to understand the extent to which ecological engineering can mitigate these impacts, and evaluate the effectiveness of mitigation as a tool to contribute to conservation of intertidal habitats. By so doing, we identify critical knowledge gaps to inform future research. Coastal structures alter important physical, chemical and biological processes of intertidal habitats, and strongly impact community structure, inter-habitat linkages and ecosystem services while also driving habitat loss. Such impacts occur diffusely across localised sites but scale to significant regional and global levels. Recent advances in ecological engineering have focused on developing habitat complexity on coastal structures to increase biodiversity. 'Soft' engineering options maximise habitat complexity through inclusion of natural materials, species and processes, while simultaneously delivering engineering objectives such as coastal protection. Soft options additionally sustain multiple services, providing greater economic benefits for society, and resilience to climatic change. Currently however, a lack of inclusion and economic undervaluation of intertidal ecosystem services may undermine best practice in coastline management. Importantly, reviewed evidence shows mitigation and even restoration do not support intertidal communities or processes equivalent to pre-disturbance conditions. Crucially, an absence of comprehensive empirical baseline biodiversity data, or data comprising additional ecological parameters such as ecosystem functions

  19. Emergence of MD type infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus in Washington State coastal steelhead trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breyta, Rachel; Jones, Amelia; Stewart, Bruce; Brunson, Ray; Thomas, Joan; Kerwin, John; Bertolini, Jim; Mumford, Sonia; Patterson, Chris; Kurath, Gael

    2013-01-01

    Infectious hematopoietic necrosis virus (IHNV) occurs in North America as 3 major phylogenetic groups designated U, M, and L. In coastal Washington State, IHNV has historically consisted of U genogroup viruses found predominantly in sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka. M genogroup IHNV, which has host-specific virulence for rainbow and steelhead trout O. mykiss, was detected only once in coastal Washington prior to 2007, in an epidemic among juvenile steelhead trout in 1997. Beginning in 2007 and continuing through 2011, there were 8 IHNV epidemics in juvenile steelhead trout, involving 7 different fish culture facilities in 4 separate watersheds. During the same time period, IHNV was also detected in asymptomatic adult steelhead trout from 6 coastal watersheds. Genetic typing of 283 recent virus isolates from coastal Washington revealed that the great majority were in the M genogroup of IHNV and that there were 2 distinct waves of viral emergence between the years 2007 and 2011. IHNV type mG110M was dominant in coastal steelhead trout during 2007 to 2009, and type mG139M was dominant between 2010 and 2011. Phylogenetic analysis of viral isolates indicated that all coastal M genogroup viruses detected in 1997 and 2007 to 2011 were part of the MD subgroup and that several novel genetic variants related to the dominant types arose in the coastal sites. Comparison of spatial and temporal incidence of coastal MD viruses with that of the rest of the Pacific Northwest indicated that the likely source of the emergent viruses was Columbia River Basin steelhead trout. 

  20. The development of a vulnerabilities indicator library for coastal flood risk management at a European scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Damon; Viavattene, Christophe; Priest, Sally; Micou, Paula; Parker, Dennis

    2015-04-01

    Recent and historic low-frequency, high-impact events (Xynthia, Ligurian Flash Floods, the 1953 North Sea storm surge etc) have demonstrated the flood risks faced by exposed coastal areas in Europe. The hazard probability is likely to increase due to a changing climate with more frequent and violent instances of surge-driven floods, wind damage, erosion, overtopping and rain-driven flash flooding. The number and value of receptors in the coastal area also increases due to continued economic development and population growth. As part of the FP7 EU RISCKIT (Resilience-Increasing Strategies for Coasts toolkit) project, a coastal vulnerability indicator library has been produced incorporating ecosystems, built environment, human population, critical infrastructure and the overall characteristics of the coastal system. The library will include data at European, national and local levels and will be gathered, in large part, through a multitude of interviews with various members of the coastal community at 11 case study sites across Europe. The presentation will give a brief outline of the challenges in developing vulnerability indicators - particularly for countries where specific data is limited or lacking - and how the library will be organised to facilitate the use of the data. Finally, the presentation will describe how the vulnerability library will feed into a Coastal Risk Assessment Framework (CRAF). The CRAF will evaluate coastal risk at regional scale and identify "hot spots" to assist coastal practitioners to choose the best prevention, mitigation and preparedness measures for their coast. The work described in this abstract was supported by the European Community's 7th Framework Programme through the grant to the budget of RISC-KIT, contract no. 603458, and by contributions by the partner institutes.

  1. Fog chemistry at three sites in Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Youliang; Zhang, Jinwei; Marcotte, Aurelie R.; Karl, Matthias; Dye, Christian; Herckes, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Fog composition was investigated at three sites in Norway, one in suburban Oslo and two coastal sites in the area of the Mongstad refinery. Overall fog frequency during the study periods was low. Fog pH was around 5 with slightly lower values at Hakadal, the suburban site, compared to the coastal sites, which were slightly above 5. Major ions at the coastal sites were sodium and chloride consistent with the marine environment. The ion chemistry at the suburban site was dominated by ammonium, sulfate and nitrate, consistent with fogs in anthropogenically impacted environments. Overall concentrations of major ions were very low, orders of magnitude lower than those in polluted urban fogs. Organic matter concentrations were also low (< 3 mgC/L) consistent with limited anthropogenic impact and little biogenic activity in the winter months. Selected amine concentrations were determined and ranged from nanomolar concentrations for ethylamines to several hundred nanomolar concentrations for dimethylamine, the most abundant amine investigated. While N-nitrosodimehylamine was detected in fog, the concentrations were very low in the fogs.

  2. Hydrogeologic Framework of the New Jersey Coastal Plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zapecza, Otto S.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents the results of a water-resources, oriented subsurface mapping program within the Coastal Plain of New Jersey. The occurrence and configuration of 15 regional hydrogeologic units have been defined, primarily on the basis of an interpretation of borehole geophysical data. The nine aquifers and six confining beds are composed of unconsolidated clay, silt, sand, and gravel and range in age from Cretaceous to Quaternary. Electric and gamma-ray logs from more than 1,000 Coastal Plain wells were examined. Of these, interpretive data for 302 sites were selected, on the basis of logged depth, quality of data, and data distribution, to prepare structure contour and thickness maps for each aquifer and a thickness map for each confining bed. These maps, together with 14 hydrogeologic sections, show the geometry, lateral extent, and vertical and horizontal relationships among the 15 hydrogeologic units. The hydrogeologic maps and sections show that distinct lower, middle, and upper aquifers are present within the Potomac, Raritan-Magothy aquifer system near the Delaware River from Burlington County to Salem County. Although the lower aquifer is recognized only in this area, the middle aquifer extends into the northeastern Coastal Plain of New Jersey, where it is stratigraphically equivalent to the Farrington aquifer. The upper aquifer extends throughout most of the New Jersey Coastal Plain and is stratigraphically equivalent to the Old Bridge aquifer in the northeastern Coastal Plain. The overlying Merchantville-Woodbury confining bed is the most regionally extensive confining bed within the New Jersey Coastal Plain. Its thickness ranges from less than 100 feet near the outcrop to more than 450 feet along the coast. The Englishtown aquifer system acts as a single aquifer throughout most of its subsurface extent, but it contains two water-bearing sands in pars of Monmouth and Ocean Counties. The overlying Marshalltown-Wenonah confining bed is a thin, leaky

  3. Estimating the long-term historic evolution of exposure to flooding of coastal populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, A. J.; Clarke, D.; Nicholls, R. J.; Wadey, M. P.

    2015-02-01

    Coastal managers face the task of assessing and managing flood risk. This requires knowledge of the area of land, the number of people, properties and other infrastructure potentially affected by floods. Such analyses are usually static; i.e. they only consider a snapshot of the current situation. This misses the opportunity to learn about the role of key drivers of historical changes in flood risk, such as development and population rise in the coastal flood plain and sea-level rise. In this paper, we develop and apply a method to analyse the temporal evolution of residential population exposure to coastal flooding. It uses readily available data in a GIS environment. We examine how population and sea level change modify exposure over two centuries in two neighbouring coastal sites: Portsea and Hayling Islands on the UK south coast. The analysis shows that flood exposure changes as a result of increases in population, changes in coastal population density and sea level rise. The results indicate that to date, population change is the dominant driver of the increase in exposure to flooding in the study sites, but climate change may outweigh this in the future. A full analysis of flood risk is not possible as data on historic defences and wider vulnerability are not available. Hence, the historic evolution of flood exposure is as close as we can get to a historic evolution of flood risk. The method is applicable anywhere that suitable floodplain geometry, sea level and population datasets are available and could be widely applied, and will help inform coastal managers of the time evolution in coastal flood drivers.

  4. Estimating the long-term historic evolution of exposure to flooding of coastal populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, A. J.; Clarke, D.; Nicholls, R. J.; Wadey, M. P.

    2015-06-01

    Coastal managers face the task of assessing and managing flood risk. This requires knowledge of the area of land, the number of people, properties and other infrastructure potentially affected by floods. Such analyses are usually static; i.e. they only consider a snapshot of the current situation. This misses the opportunity to learn about the role of key drivers of historical changes in flood risk, such as development and population rise in the coastal flood plain, as well as sea-level rise. In this paper, we develop and apply a method to analyse the temporal evolution of residential population exposure to coastal flooding. It uses readily available data in a GIS environment. We examine how population and sea-level change have modified exposure over two centuries in two neighbouring coastal sites: Portsea and Hayling Islands on the UK south coast. The analysis shows that flood exposure changes as a result of increases in population, changes in coastal population density and sea level rise. The results indicate that to date, population change is the dominant driver of the increase in exposure to flooding in the study sites, but climate change may outweigh this in the future. A full analysis of changing flood risk is not possible as data on historic defences and wider vulnerability are not available. Hence, the historic evolution of flood exposure is as close as we can get to a historic evolution of flood risk. The method is applicable anywhere that suitable floodplain geometry, sea level and population data sets are available and could be widely applied, and will help inform coastal managers of the time evolution in coastal flood drivers.

  5. Characteristics of indoor air pollution in rural mountainous and rural coastal communities in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huboyo, Haryono S.; Tohno, Susumu; Lestari, Puji; Mizohata, Akira; Okumura, Motonori

    2014-01-01

    The increased use of biomass fuel use among rural Indonesian households for years despite national program on subsidized LPG fuel distribution pose threat of indoor air pollution for the householders. Indoor air pollution levels of PM2.5 and CO in the kitchen of 40 households using the fuelwood as the main cooking fuel were measured in the same season in mountainous and coastal areas in Indonesia. The temporal variations of PM2.5 and its size distributions were simultaneously measured using photoelectric UCB monitor and personal cascade impactor, respectively. While carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were measured using USB-CO monitors. Household indoor air pollution in the mountainous area was generally higher than that in the coastal area. This is because the households in coastal area have higher kitchen volume (about three times), smaller ventilation area (about 1.7 times) and shorter cooking duration with wood fuel (0.6 times) than those in mountainous area. Yet, during cooking with fuelwood, the indoor PM2.5 concentrations at the cook site showed almost comparable results for both sites. The wood stove burning in coastal area tended to be in flaming combustion than in mountainous area. This can be indicated by a higher fraction of finest particles in PM2.5, a higher fraction of EC in PM2.5 and a higher fraction of K+ and Cl- ions in PM2.5 mass concentrations. The time-averaged CO concentrations for 22-h measurements at the mountainous area were higher than those in coastal area. The mountainous area showed higher positive correlation relationship between the measured concentrations of CO and PM2.5 than those in the coastal area. The use of cleaner fuel, e.g., subsidized LPG fuel in rural area should be promoted and managed intensively in mountainous area than in coastal area to avoid people exposure of health damaging indoor air pollutants.

  6. Reduction of tsunami inundation by coastal forests in Yogyakarta, Indonesia: a numerical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohira, W.; Honda, K.; Harada, K.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal forests are known to protect coastal areas from environmental degradation. In this paper, we examined another important role of coastal forests - to mitigate tsunami devastations to coastal areas. Using a two-dimensional numerical model (Harada and Imamura model, 2005), we evaluated the damping effects of a coastal forest to resist tsunami inundation in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. In the simulations, we set up a two-km long control forest with a representative topography of the study site and experimented its damping performance sensitivity under various width configurations, e.g. 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 200 m. The initial tsunami wave was set such that the inundation depth at the front edge of the forest would not exceed 4 m (tree fragility limit). The forest variables such as species, density, DBH, height and canopy size were determined from a typical forest of the site (Casuarina plantation, 4 trees/100 m2, Diameter at Breast Height = 0.20 m). The results showed that coastal forest with 100 m width reduced inundation flux, depth and area by 17.6, 7.0 and 5.7%, respectively. Exponential models were found to describe the relationships between forest width and tsunami inundation transmission. An additional experiment was performed using actual topography and a forest plantation plan with 100 m width for 2.46 km2. In this experiment, the results showed that the plan would reduce inundation flux by 10.1%, while the exponential model estimated it to be 10.6%, close to the numerical model results. It suggests that statistical models of forest width and damping effects are useful tools for plantation planning, as it allows for quicker evaluation of the impact of coastal forest without simulation modeling that requires a lot of data, time and computing power.

  7. Soil characteristics of sediment-amended baldcypress (Taxodium distichum) swamps of coastal Louisiana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, Ming; Middleton, Beth A.

    2011-01-01

    Amendments of sediment from dredging activities have played an important role in raising the elevation of sinking coastal wetlands. This study compared the soil characteristics of sediment- amended coastal swamps in the Barataria Preserve unit of Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve with natural swamps along Bayou des Familles. The sandy sediment amendments used in the coastal forests had different soil texture and characteristics than the more organic soils of the natural swamps. Three years after the application of these sediments on the sediment-amended swamps, dewatering and compaction of the sediment had occurred but the sediment still had high salinity and bulk density, and low organic matter content. The two sediment-amended swamps differed from each other in that Site 1 had a higher elevation (mean = 25 cm higher) and drier soil than Site 2. The effects of sediment in coastal forested wetlands require separate consideration from studies of salt marshes, e.g., the weight of the sediment might damage tree roots, or the amendments might influence soil stability during storms in a different way. Generally, this study suggests that shallower depths of sediment are more likely to yield environments beneficial to these sinking baldcypress swamps in coastal Louisiana.

  8. Caracterisation of anthropogenic contribution to the coastal fluorescent organic matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Nahhal, Ibrahim; Nouhi, Ayoub; Mounier, Stéphane

    2015-04-01

    It is known that most of the coastal fluorescent organic matter is of a terrestrial origin (Parlanti, 2000; Tedetti, Guigue, & Goutx, 2010). However, the contribution of the anthropogenic organic matter to this pool is not well defined and evaluated. In this work the monitoring of little bay (Toulon Bay, France) was done in the way to determine the organic fluorescent response during a winter period. The sampling campaign consisted of different days during the month of December, 2014 ( 12th, 15th, 17th, 19th) on 21 different sampling sites for the fluorescence measurements (without any filtering of the samples) and the whole month of December for the bacterial and the turbidity measurements. Excitation Emission Matrices (EEMs) of fluorescence (from 200 to 400 nm and 220 to 420 nm excitation and emission range) were treated by parallel factor analysis (PARAFAC).The parafac analysis of the EEM datasets was conducted using PROGMEEF software in Matlab langage. On the same time that the turbidity and bacterial measurement (particularly the E.Coli concentration) were determined. The results gives in a short time range, information on the the contribution of the anthropogenic inputs to the coastal fluorescent organic matter. In addition, the effect of salinity on the photochemical degradation of the anthropogenic organic matter (especially those from wastewater treatment plants) will be studied to investigate their fate in the water end member by the way of laboratory experiments. Parlanti, E. (2000). Dissolved organic matter fluorescence spectroscopy as a tool to estimate biological activity in a coastal zone submitted to anthropogenic inputs. Organic Geochemistry, 31(12), 1765-1781. doi:10.1016/S0146-6380(00)00124-8 Tedetti, M., Guigue, C., & Goutx, M. (2010). Utilization of a submersible UV fluorometer for monitoring anthropogenic inputs in the Mediterranean coastal waters. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 60(3), 350-62. doi:10.1016/j.marpolbul.2009.10.018

  9. Diurnal changes in ocean color in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnone, Robert; Vandermeulen, Ryan; Ladner, Sherwin; Ondrusek, Michael; Kovach, Charles; Yang, Haoping; Salisbury, Joseph

    2016-05-01

    Coastal processes can change on hourly time scales in response to tides, winds and biological activity, which can influence the color of surface waters. These temporal and spatial ocean color changes require satellite validation for applications using bio-optical products to delineate diurnal processes. The diurnal color change and capability for satellite ocean color response were determined with in situ and satellite observations. Hourly variations in satellite ocean color are dependent on several properties which include: a) sensor characterization b) advection of water masses and c) diurnal response of biological and optical water properties. The in situ diurnal changes in ocean color in a dynamic turbid coastal region in the northern Gulf of Mexico were characterized using above water spectral radiometry from an AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET -WavCIS CSI-06) site that provides up to 8-10 observations per day (in 15-30 minute increments). These in situ diurnal changes were used to validate and quantify natural bio-optical fluctuations in satellite ocean color measurements. Satellite capability to detect changes in ocean color was characterized by using overlapping afternoon orbits of the VIIRS-NPP ocean color sensor within 100 minutes. Results show the capability of multiple satellite observations to monitor hourly color changes in dynamic coastal regions that are impacted by tides, re-suspension, and river plume dispersion. Hourly changes in satellite ocean color were validated with in situ observation on multiple occurrences during different times of the afternoon. Also, the spatial variability of VIIRS diurnal changes shows the occurrence and displacement of phytoplankton blooms and decay during the afternoon period. Results suggest that determining the temporal and spatial changes in a color / phytoplankton bloom from the morning to afternoon time period will require additional satellite coverage periods in the coastal zone.

  10. Nature, Humans, and the Coastal Zone.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, H. Jesse

    1990-01-01

    Considers the interface of humans and seacoasts over time. Explains how coastal zones are formed and human attempts to defend against sea level changes. Charts the percentage of major world cities that also are ports. Postulates how the greenhouse effect could influence sea level, examining potential human responses to changes in coastal zones.…

  11. Seagrasses and the Coastal Marine Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips, Ronald C.

    1978-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems are the most highly productive in the world. This article discusses seagrasses, major coastal producers, and provides information on their ecology, productivity, position in food chains, and role in sediment stabilization. Recent attempts to restore seagrasses in areas of massive kills are described. (MA)

  12. DIAGNOSING CAUSES OF IMPAIRMENT IN COASTAL ECOSYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Engle, Virginia D. and Stephen J. Jordan. In press. Diagnosing Causes of Impairment in Coastal Ecosystems (Abstract). To be presented at the SETAC Fourth World Congress, 14-18 November 2004, Portland, OR. 1 p. (ERL,GB R1008).

    Estuarine and coastal ecosystems are challenge...

  13. Government conservation policies on Mexican coastal areas: is "top-down" management working?

    PubMed

    Nava, Héctor; Ramírez-Herrera, M Teresa

    2011-12-01

    Marine and terrestrial ecosystems are declining globally due to environmental degradation and poorly planned resource use. Traditionally, local government agencies have been responsible of the management of natural reserves to preserve biodiversity. Nonetheless, much of these approaches have failed, suggesting the development of more integrative strategies. In order to discuss the importance of a holistic approach in conservation initiatives, coastal and underwater landscape value and biological/environmental indicators of coral reef degradation were assessed using the study case of Zihuatanejo, Guerrero coastal area. This area shelters representative coral reef structures of the Eastern Pacific coast and its terrestrial biodiversity and archaeology enhance the high value of its coastal area. This study explored the landscape value of both terrestrial and marine ecosystems using the geomorphosite approach in two sites on the Zihuatanejo coastal area: Caleta de Chon and Manzanillo Beach. Sedimentation rate, water transparency, chlorophyll and total suspended solids were recorded underwater in each site for environmental characterization. 50 photo-quadrants on five transects were surveyed between 3-4m depth to record coverage (%) of living corals, dead corals, algae, sand and rocks. The conservation status of coral reefs was assessed by the coral mortality index (MI). Landscape values showed that both terrestrial and marine ecosystems had important scientific and aesthetic values, being Manzanillo Beach the site with the highest potential for conservation initiatives (TtV = 14.2). However, coral reefs face elevated sedimentation rates (up to 1.16 kg/m2d) and low water transparency (less of 5m) generated by coastal land use changes that have increased soil erosion in the adjacent coastal area. High coverage of dead corals (23.6%) and algae (up to 29%) confirm the low values in conservation status of coral reefs (MI = 0.5), reflecting a poorly-planned management

  14. Government conservation policies on Mexican coastal areas: is "top-down" management working?

    PubMed

    Nava, Héctor; Ramírez-Herrera, M Teresa

    2011-12-01

    Marine and terrestrial ecosystems are declining globally due to environmental degradation and poorly planned resource use. Traditionally, local government agencies have been responsible of the management of natural reserves to preserve biodiversity. Nonetheless, much of these approaches have failed, suggesting the development of more integrative strategies. In order to discuss the importance of a holistic approach in conservation initiatives, coastal and underwater landscape value and biological/environmental indicators of coral reef degradation were assessed using the study case of Zihuatanejo, Guerrero coastal area. This area shelters representative coral reef structures of the Eastern Pacific coast and its terrestrial biodiversity and archaeology enhance the high value of its coastal area. This study explored the landscape value of both terrestrial and marine ecosystems using the geomorphosite approach in two sites on the Zihuatanejo coastal area: Caleta de Chon and Manzanillo Beach. Sedimentation rate, water transparency, chlorophyll and total suspended solids were recorded underwater in each site for environmental characterization. 50 photo-quadrants on five transects were surveyed between 3-4m depth to record coverage (%) of living corals, dead corals, algae, sand and rocks. The conservation status of coral reefs was assessed by the coral mortality index (MI). Landscape values showed that both terrestrial and marine ecosystems had important scientific and aesthetic values, being Manzanillo Beach the site with the highest potential for conservation initiatives (TtV = 14.2). However, coral reefs face elevated sedimentation rates (up to 1.16 kg/m2d) and low water transparency (less of 5m) generated by coastal land use changes that have increased soil erosion in the adjacent coastal area. High coverage of dead corals (23.6%) and algae (up to 29%) confirm the low values in conservation status of coral reefs (MI = 0.5), reflecting a poorly-planned management

  15. Base-flow measurements at partial-record sites on small streams in South Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, Carroll

    1986-01-01

    This report contains site descriptions and base-flow data collected at 362 partial-record sites in South Carolina. These data include site name, site description, latitude, longitude, drainage area, instantaneous streamflow, and date of the streamflow measurement. The base-flow data can be used as an aid to estimate low flow characteristics at ungaged locations on streams in South Carolina. Partial record data collection sites were established in all physiographic provinces except the lower Coastal Plain. Data collection sites were not established in the lower Coastal Plain because of the widespread occurrence of zero during drought periods in all but the larger streams. (USGS)

  16. Coastal-ocean uptake of anthropogenic carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourgeois, Timothée; Orr, James C.; Resplandy, Laure; Terhaar, Jens; Ethé, Christian; Gehlen, Marion; Bopp, Laurent

    2016-07-01

    Anthropogenic changes in atmosphere-ocean and atmosphere-land CO2 fluxes have been quantified extensively, but few studies have addressed the connection between land and ocean. In this transition zone, the coastal ocean, spatial and temporal data coverage is inadequate to assess its global budget. Thus we use a global ocean biogeochemical model to assess the coastal ocean's global inventory of anthropogenic CO2 and its spatial variability. We used an intermediate resolution, eddying version of the NEMO-PISCES model (ORCA05), varying from 20 to 50 km horizontally, i.e. coarse enough to allow multiple century-scale simulations but finer than coarse-resolution models (˜ 200 km) to better resolve coastal bathymetry and complex coastal currents. Here we define the coastal zone as the continental shelf area, excluding the proximal zone. Evaluation of the simulated air-sea fluxes of total CO2 for 45 coastal regions gave a correlation coefficient R of 0.8 when compared to observation-based estimates. Simulated global uptake of anthropogenic carbon results averaged 2.3 Pg C yr-1 during the years 1993-2012, consistent with previous estimates. Yet only 0.1 Pg C yr-1 of that is absorbed by the global coastal ocean. That represents 4.5 % of the anthropogenic carbon uptake of the global ocean, less than the 7.5 % proportion of coastal-to-global-ocean surface areas. Coastal uptake is weakened due to a bottleneck in offshore transport, which is inadequate to reduce the mean anthropogenic carbon concentration of coastal waters to the mean level found in the open-ocean mixed layer.

  17. Coastal influence on vertical pollutant partitioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peake, D.

    Coastal outflow describes the horizontal ventilation of pollutants from the continental boundary layer (CBL) by advection above the shallower marine boundary layer. Passive tracers incorporated in the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM) are used to simulate coastal outflow over the eastern United States for the summer of 2004. The results are interpreted with a simple box-model containing a diurnally varying CBL height and uniform wind flow. Ventilation by coastal outflow from the US occurs at the same magnitude as vertical ventilation into the free troposphere for the eastern half of the US. The diurnal variability in coastal outflow is determined by the lifetime of the tracer and the cycle of CBL height. Over the diurnal cycle, pollutants with lifetimes less than 24 hours experience a maximum in the evening and a minimum in the mid-morning. Pollutants with lifetimes greater than 24 hours undergo continuous coastal outflow with little diurnal variability. The dominant parameters in this study are tracer lifetime α, wind-speed U and width of emissions (i.e. land) L. The box-model indicates the presence of a critical threshold, αU/L ≈ 10, above which increasing the cross-coastal wind speed decreases coastal out-flow by reducing the availability of tracer in the residual layer to undergo coastal outflow at night. Of tracer advected across the coast in the MetUM simulation, 65% and 67% of tracer with 3- and 24-hour lifetimes undergo coastal outflow respectively. For the 24-hour tracer, the box-model has the highest correlation with the MetUM simulation when the advection rate U/L≈ 2 x 10-5s-1. Given the observed wind speed the distance near the coast over which emissions significantly contribute to coastal outflow is ≈ 100-110km.

  18. Are coastal lagoons physically or biologically controlled ecosystems? Revisiting r vs. K strategies in coastal lagoons and estuaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Ruzafa, Angel; Marcos, Concepción; Pérez-Ruzafa, Isabel María; Pérez-Marcos, María

    2013-11-01

    Environmental stress influences biological assemblages, with species responding to stress by adopting particular life-history strategies (e.g., r vs. K). Coastal lagoons and estuaries are considered naturally stressed and physically controlled systems with frequent environmental disturbances and fluctuations. At the same time, their transitional nature (between terrestrial, freshwater and marine) makes them especially vulnerable to human impacts and land and freshwater inputs. As a result, it is hypothesised that residents of coastal lagoons would display characteristics of r-selected species. The r-strategy involves increased reproductive effort through early reproduction, small and numerous offspring with a large dispersive capability, short lifespan and small adult body size. Together, these traits provide a selective advantage in such unpredictable or short-lived environments. Alternatively, immigrants to coastal lagoons should mostly be K-strategists, with a competitive advantage over the r-strategists, at least on a temporary time scale. These hypotheses were explored using a dataset from 73 Atlanto-Mediterranean sites: 27 estuaries, 42 coastal lagoons and 4 from the sea, obtained from published sources. A detailed analysis of the distributions of the different resident fish species according to lagoon characteristics indicated that in lagoons with a higher marine influence the families Gobiidae, Blenniidae and Syngnathidae were common, while lagoons with freshwater influence are characterized by Cyprinidae and other freshwater species. In analyzing the biological strategies of lagoon species we found that fish assemblages inhabiting marine influenced lagoons were characterized by solitary, necto-benthonic sedentary species. These species are often hermaphroditic, with benthic broods and many exhibit brooding behaviour. This suggests that marine influenced lagoons are dominated by K-strategist species, while r-strategy species will be more common in

  19. The conservation status and anthropogenic impacts assessments of Mediterranean coastal dunes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinna, Maria Silvia; Cogoni, Donatella; Fenu, Giuseppe; Bacchetta, Gianluigi

    2015-12-01

    Mediterranean coastal dunes have been highly modified by human impacts and understanding their conservation status is crucial to preserve these extremely vulnerable habitats. In the present study three different diversity indices elaborated by Grunewald and Schubert (Hdune, a modified version of the Shannon diversity index, Edune, a modified Evenness index, and N, the Naturalness index) were applied in order to assess the conservation status and anthropogenic impacts on Is Arenas dune system (CW Sardinia), one of the widest and most important in the Western Mediterranean Basin. Within the system, two sites with different anthropic disturbance conditions were selected; 25 permanent plots were seasonally monitored and the cover of each vascular plant present was visually estimated. The Hdune values were similar between sites and differences were not significant; Edune showed higher value in the North than in the South site with relevant statistical differences. Moreover a seasonal variation in the indices values was recorded, which could be linked to presence of annual plants rather than the touristic pressure. Instead, the small variability of N index suggests that the application of this index may be an important tool to assess human impact on coastal dunes, but better discriminates between sites with different disturbance degrees. Our results highlight the usefulness of Hdune and Edune indices to assess the conservation status of a Mediterranean coastal dune system, while these indices are less influenced by the human trampling at finer scale (sites within the beach). Spring and summer are the best seasons when the main plant diversity of Mediterranean coastal dune can be captured. The diversity indices applied, although need to be developed through further researches, could be a quickly tool allowing to assess the integrity of the coastal dunes in order to plan management actions of these complex and threatened ecosystems.

  20. Features of ODEs derived from an autonomous surface ozone network in coastal Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. E.; Wolff, E. W.; Bauguitte, S. J.-B.; Brough, N.

    2012-04-01

    In 2008, a network of 10 autonomous ozone monitors was established around Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, along 800 km of the coastal perimeter and with a transect running ~450 km up onto the polar plateau. The monitors ran for a full year. The aim of the network was to explore variability of ozone at the different sites, and the contrasting influences of O3 production (arising from snowpack photochemistry) and O3 destruction driven by halogen chemistry. While ozone depletion events have been much studied at single coastal locations, and even from within a large ozone depleted air mass over the Arctic Ocean, a different approach is required to gain information on their spatial extent. The autonomous network provided an opportunity to map the movement, and thereby the size, of ozone-depleted air masses. Here we present results from the network, focusing particularly on activity during springtime. In many cases the same ODE appeared at several (in some cases, all) of the coastal sites, the arrival and departure of the depleted air mass being offset in time. In some instances a severe ODE was evident at a single coastal site only. We explore the meteorological conditions operative during the ODEs as a means of accounting for these observations, and estimate the size of the depleted air masses. Further, we use our data to explore how far inland ODEs can penetrate to address why these are thus far seen as coastal phenomena only. An awareness of the variability in ODEs, spatially as well as temporally, will be necessary for trend studies using coastal polar surface ozone measurements.

  1. Two centuries of coastal change at Caesarea, Israel: natural processes vs. human intervention

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shtienberg, Gilad; Zviely, Dov; Sivan, Dorit; Lazar, Michael

    2014-08-01

    The coast at Caesarea, Israel, has been inhabited almost continuously for the last 2,400 years, and the archeological sites are today a major international tourist attraction. Because the sites straddle the shoreline, they are subject to constant damage by wave action, and must therefore be frequently restored. In this paper, local shoreline migrations over the last 200 years are investigated with the aim of distinguishing between natural and man-made coastal changes. In order to assess these changes accurately, geomorphological and sedimentological data were examined based on detailed beach profile measurements, bathymetric surveys, and grain-size analyses. In addition, series of old aerial photographs, as well as historical topographic maps and nautical charts were consulted. The results show that shoreline changes can be grouped into two main time periods. During the first period from 1862 to 1949 before the expansion of modern settlements, the position of the shoreline changed irregularly by up to 30 m. In the second period from 1949 onward, numerous coastal structures have been erected, and various coastal modifications have been carried out. The evaluation of the data suggests that human interventions have had relatively little effect on the overall position of the shoreline, as displacements ranged only from 5 to 18 m. Thus, coastal changes at Caesarea are predominantly due to natural wave action reflected in the heterogeneous geomorphological and sedimentological characteristics of the shore. This contradicts the common assumption that human activities are always mainly responsible for large-scale shoreline modifications in the region. It is concluded that, in order to implement meaningful mitigating countermeasures, coastal archeological sites need to be individually assessed with respect to the dominant factors causing local coastal change.

  2. The Egyptian Red Sea coastal microbiome: A study revealing differential microbial responses to diverse anthropogenic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Ghada A; Abd-Elgawad, Amr; Ouf, Amged; Siam, Rania

    2016-07-01

    The Red Sea is considered one of the youngest oceanic systems, with unique physical, geochemical and biological characteristics. Tourism, industrialization, extensive fishing, oil processing and shipping are extensive sources of pollution in the Red Sea. We analyzed the geochemical characteristics and microbial community of sediments along the Egyptian coast of the Red Sea. Our sites mainly included 1) four ports used for shipping aluminum, ilmenite and phosphate; 2) a site previously reported to have suffered extensive oil spills; and 3) a site impacted by tourism. Two major datasets for the sediment of ten Red Sea coastal sites were generated; i) a chemical dataset included measurements of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur, metals and selected semi-volatile oil; and ii) a 16S rRNA Pyrotags bacterial metagenomic dataset. Based on the taxonomic assignments of the 16S rRNA Pyrotags to major bacterial groups, we report 30 taxa constituting an Egyptian Red Sea Coastal Microbiome. Bacteria that degrade hydrocarbons were predominant in the majority of the sites, particularly in two ports where they reached up to 76% of the total identified genera. In contrast, sulfate-reducing and sulfate-oxidizing bacteria dominated two lakes at the expense of other hydrocarbon metabolizers. Despite the reported "Egyptian Red Sea Coastal Microbiome," sites with similar anthropogenic pollutants showed unique microbial community abundances. This suggests that the abundance of a specific bacterial community is an evolutionary mechanism induced in response to selected anthropogenic pollutants.

  3. The Egyptian Red Sea coastal microbiome: A study revealing differential microbial responses to diverse anthropogenic pollutants.

    PubMed

    Mustafa, Ghada A; Abd-Elgawad, Amr; Ouf, Amged; Siam, Rania

    2016-07-01

    The Red Sea is considered one of the youngest oceanic systems, with unique physical, geochemical and biological characteristics. Tourism, industrialization, extensive fishing, oil processing and shipping are extensive sources of pollution in the Red Sea. We analyzed the geochemical characteristics and microbial community of sediments along the Egyptian coast of the Red Sea. Our sites mainly included 1) four ports used for shipping aluminum, ilmenite and phosphate; 2) a site previously reported to have suffered extensive oil spills; and 3) a site impacted by tourism. Two major datasets for the sediment of ten Red Sea coastal sites were generated; i) a chemical dataset included measurements of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulfur, metals and selected semi-volatile oil; and ii) a 16S rRNA Pyrotags bacterial metagenomic dataset. Based on the taxonomic assignments of the 16S rRNA Pyrotags to major bacterial groups, we report 30 taxa constituting an Egyptian Red Sea Coastal Microbiome. Bacteria that degrade hydrocarbons were predominant in the majority of the sites, particularly in two ports where they reached up to 76% of the total identified genera. In contrast, sulfate-reducing and sulfate-oxidizing bacteria dominated two lakes at the expense of other hydrocarbon metabolizers. Despite the reported "Egyptian Red Sea Coastal Microbiome," sites with similar anthropogenic pollutants showed unique microbial community abundances. This suggests that the abundance of a specific bacterial community is an evolutionary mechanism induced in response to selected anthropogenic pollutants. PMID:27179234

  4. Highlights of Coastal Waves 1996.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, David P.; Dorman, Clive E.; Edwards, Kathleen A.; Brooks, Ian M.; Melville, W. Kendall; Burk, Stephen D.; Thompson, William T.; Holt, Teddy; Ström, Linda M.; Tjernström, Michael; Grisogono, Branko; Bane, John M.; Nuss, Wendell A.; Morley, Bruce M.; Schanot, Allen J.

    1998-07-01

    Some of the highlights of an experiment designed to study coastal atmospheric phenomena along the California coast (Coastal Waves 1996 experiment) are described. This study was designed to address several problems, including the cross-shore variability and turbulent structure of the marine boundary layer, the influence of the coast on the development of the marine layer and clouds, the ageostrophy of the flow, the dynamics of trapped events, the parameterization of surface fluxes, and the supercriticality of the marine layer.Based in Monterey, California, the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR) C-130 Hercules and the University of North Carolina Piper Seneca obtained a comprehensive set of measurements on the structure of the marine layer. The study focused on the effects of prominent topographic features on the wind. Downstream of capes and points, narrow bands of high winds are frequently encountered. The NCAR-designed Scanning Aerosol Backscatter Lidar (SABL) provided a unique opportunity to connect changes in the depth of the boundary layer with specific features in the dynamics of the flow field.An integral part of the experiment was the use of numerical models as forecast and diagnostic tools. The Naval Research Laboratory's Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Model System (COAMPS) provided high-resolution forecasts of the wind field in the vicinity of capes and points, which aided the deployment of the aircraft. Subsequently, this model and the MIUU (University of Uppsala) numerical model were used to support the analysis of the field data.These are some of the most comprehensive measurements of the topographically forced marine layer that have been collected. SABL proved to be an exceptionally useful tool to resolve the small-scale structure of the boundary layer and, combined with in situ turbulence measurements, provides new insight into the structure of the marine atmosphere. Measurements were made sufficiently far offshore to distinguish between the

  5. Benefits of coastal recreation in Europe: identifying trade-offs and priority regions for sustainable management.

    PubMed

    Ghermandi, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines the welfare dimension of the recreational services of coastal ecosystems through the application of a meta-analytical value transfer framework, which integrates Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for the characterization of climate, biodiversity, accessibility, and anthropogenic pressure in each of 368 regions of the European coastal zone. The relative contribution of international, domestic, and local recreationists to aggregated regional values is examined. The implications of the analysis for prioritization of conservation areas and identification of good management practices are highlighted through the comparative assessment of estimated recreation values, current environmental pressures, and existing network of protected sites.

  6. Benefits of coastal recreation in Europe: identifying trade-offs and priority regions for sustainable management.

    PubMed

    Ghermandi, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    This paper examines the welfare dimension of the recreational services of coastal ecosystems through the application of a meta-analytical value transfer framework, which integrates Geographic Information Systems (GIS) for the characterization of climate, biodiversity, accessibility, and anthropogenic pressure in each of 368 regions of the European coastal zone. The relative contribution of international, domestic, and local recreationists to aggregated regional values is examined. The implications of the analysis for prioritization of conservation areas and identification of good management practices are highlighted through the comparative assessment of estimated recreation values, current environmental pressures, and existing network of protected sites. PMID:25656628

  7. Dispersal of fine sediment in nearshore coastal waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Warrick, Jonathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Fine sediment (silt and clay) plays an important role in the physical, ecological, and environmental conditions of coastal systems, yet little is known about the dispersal and fate of fine sediment across coastal margin settings outside of river mouths. Here I provide simple physical scaling and detailed monitoring of a beach nourishment project near Imperial Beach, California, with a high portion of fines (40% silt and clay by weight). These results provide insights into the pathways and residence times of fine sediment transport across a wave-dominated coastal margin. Monitoring of the project used physical, optical, acoustic, and remote sensing techniques to track the fine portion of the nourishment sediment. The initial transport of fine sediment from the beach was influenced strongly by longshore currents of the surf zone that were established in response to the approach angles of the waves. The mean residence time of fine sediment in the surf zone—once it was suspended—was approximately 1 hour, and rapid decreases in surf zone fine sediment concentrations along the beach resulted from mixing and offshore transport in turbid rip heads. For example, during a day with oblique wave directions and surf zone longshore currents of approximately 25 cm/s, the offshore losses of fine sediment in rips resulted in a 95% reduction in alongshore surf zone fine sediment flux within 1 km of the nourishment site. However, because of the direct placement of nourishment sediment on the beach, fine suspended-sediment concentrations in the swash zone remained elevated for several days after nourishment, while fine sediment was winnowed from the beach. Once offshore of the surf zone, fine sediment settled downward in the water column and was observed to transport along and across the inner shelf. Vertically sheared currents influenced the directions and rates of fine sediment transport on the shelf. Sedimentation of fine sediment was greatest on the seafloor directly offshore

  8. Sediment quality in the north coastal basin of Massachusetts, 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breault, Robert F.; Ashman, Mary S.; Heath, Douglas

    2004-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Massachusetts Department of Environmental Protection, completed a reconnaissance-level study of bottom-sediment quality in selected lakes, rivers, and estuaries in the North Coastal Basin of Massachusetts. Bottom-sediment grab samples were collected from 20 sites in the North River, Lake Quannapowitt, Saugus River, Mill River, Shute Brook, Sea Plane Basin, Pines River, and Bear Creek. The samples were tested for various types of potentially harmful contaminants? including 33 elements, 17 polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 22 organochlorine pesticides, and 7 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) mixtures (Aroclors)?to benthic organisms (bottom-dwelling) and humans. The results were compared among sampling sites, to background concentrations, and to concen-trations measured in other urban rivers, and sediment-quality guidelines were used to predict toxicity at the sampling sites to benthic organisms and humans. Because there are no standards for human toxicity for aquatic sediment, standards for contaminated upland soil were used. Contaminant concentrations measured in sediment collected from the North Coastal Basin generally were equal to or greater than concentrations in sediment from uncontaminated rivers throughout New England. Contaminants in North Coastal Basin sediment with elevated concentrations (above back-ground levels) included arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc, some of the PAHs, dichlorodiphenyltrichloro-ethane (DDT) and its metabolites, and dieldrin. No PCBs were measured above the detection limits. Measured concentrations of arsenic, chromium, and lead were also generally greater than those measured in other urban rivers throughout the conter-minous United States. With one exception (arsenic), local con-centrations measured in sediment samples collected from the North Coastal Basin were lower than concentrations measured in sediment collected from two of three urban rivers draining to Boston

  9. Late Pleistocene raised beaches of coastal Estremadura, central Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benedetti, Michael M.; Haws, Jonathan A.; Funk, Caroline L.; Daniels, J. Michael; Hesp, Patrick A.; Bicho, Nuno F.; Minckley, Thomas A.; Ellwood, Brooks B.; Forman, Steven L.

    2009-12-01

    We present new stratigraphic, sedimentological, and chronological data for a suite of tectonically raised beaches dating to Marine Isotope Stages 5, 4, and 3 along the Estremadura coast of west-central Portugal. The beach deposits are found in association with ancient tidal channels and coastal dunes, pollen bearing mud and peat, and Middle Paleolithic archaeological sites that confirm occupation of the coastal zone by Neanderthal populations. The significance of these deposits is discussed in terms of the archaeological record, the tectonic and geomorphic evolution of the coast, and correlation with reconstructions of global climate and eustatic sea-level change. Direct correlation between the Estremadura beach sections is complicated by the tectonic complexity of the area and the age of the beach deposits (which are near or beyond the limit of radiocarbon dating). Evidence from multiple sites dated by AMS radiocarbon and optical luminescence methods suggests broad synchroneity in relative sea-level changes along this coast during Marine Isotope Stage 3. Two beach complexes with luminescence and radiocarbon age control date to about 35 ka and 42 ka, recording a rise in relative sea level around the time of Heinrich Event 4 at 39 ka. Depending on assumptions about eustatic sea level at the time they were deposited, we estimate that these beaches have been uplifted at rates of 0.4-4.3 mm yr -1 by the combined effects of tectonic, halokinetic, and isostatic processes. Uplift rates of 1-2 mm yr -1 are likely if the beaches represent sea level stands at roughly 40 m below modern, as suggested by recent eustatic sea level reconstructions. Evidence from coastal bluffs and the interior of the study area indicates extensive colluvial, fluvial, and aeolian sedimentation beginning around 31 ka and continuing into the Holocene. These geomorphic adjustments are related to concomitant changes in climate and sea level, providing context that improves our understanding of Late

  10. Coastal vegetation and its influence on the 2004 tsunami event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laso Bayas, J. C.; Marohn, C.; Dercon, G.; Dewi, S.; Piepho, H. P.; Joshi, L.; van Noordwijk, M.; Cadisch, G.

    2012-04-01

    A tsunami event has several effects once it reaches the shore. Infrastructure damage and casualties are two of its most dire consequences. The intensity of these damages is related to the wave force, which in turn is mostly determined by seaquake intensity and offshore properties. Nevertheless, once on land, the energy of the wave is attenuated by gravity (elevation) and friction (land cover). Despite being promoted as 'bio-shields' against wave impact, tree-belts lack quantitative evidence of their performance in such extreme events, and have been criticized for creating a false sense of security. We have studied some of the land uses in sites affected by the 2004 tsunami event, especially in coastal areas close to the coast of Indonesia, more specifically in the west coast of Aceh, Sumatra. Using transects perpendicular to the coast we analyzed the influence of coastal vegetation, particularly cultivated trees, on the impact of the 2004 tsunami. We developed a spatial statistical model that uses a land cover roughness coefficient to account for the resistance offered by different land uses to the wave advance. The coefficient was built using satellite imagery, land cover maps, land use characteristics such as stem diameter, height, and planting density, as well as a literature review. The spatial generalized linear mixed models used determined that while distance to coast was the dominant determinant of impact (casualties and infrastructure damage), the existing coastal vegetation in front of settlements also significantly reduced casualties by an average of 5%. Despite this positive effect of coastal vegetation in front of a settlement, we also found out that dense vegetation behind villages endangered human lives and increased structural damage. We believe that possibly debris carried by the backwash may have contributed to these dissimilar effects of land cover. The models developed in Indonesia are currently being adapted and tested for the effects that the

  11. Surface and airborne measurements of organosulfur and methanesulfonate over the western United States and coastal areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorooshian, Armin; Crosbie, Ewan; Maudlin, Lindsay C.; Youn, Jong-Sang; Wang, Zhen; Shingler, Taylor; Ortega, Amber M.; Hersey, Scott; Woods, Roy K.

    2015-08-01

    This study reports on ambient measurements of organosulfur (OS) and methanesulfonate (MSA) over the western United States and coastal areas. Particulate OS levels are highest in summertime and generally increase as a function of sulfate (a precursor) and sodium (a marine tracer) with peak levels at coastal sites. The ratio of OS to total sulfur is also highest at coastal sites, with increasing values as a function of normalized difference vegetation index and the ratio of organic carbon to elemental carbon. Correlative analysis points to significant relationships between OS and biogenic emissions from marine and continental sources, factors that coincide with secondary production, and vanadium due to a suspected catalytic role. A major OS species, methanesulfonate (MSA), was examined with intensive field measurements, and the resulting data support the case for vanadium's catalytic influence. Mass size distributions reveal a dominant MSA peak between aerodynamic diameters of 0.32-0.56 µm at a desert and coastal site with nearly all MSA mass (≥84%) in submicrometer sizes; MSA:non-sea-salt sulfate ratios vary widely as a function of particle size and proximity to the ocean. Airborne data indicate that relative to the marine boundary layer, particulate MSA levels are enhanced in urban and agricultural areas and also the free troposphere when impacted by biomass burning. Some combination of fires and marine-derived emissions leads to higher MSA levels than either source alone. Finally, MSA differences in cloud water and out-of-cloud aerosol are discussed.

  12. Quantifying connectivity in the coastal ocean with application to the Southern California Bight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitarai, S.; Siegel, D. A.; Watson, J. R.; Dong, C.; McWilliams, J. C.

    2009-10-01

    The quantification of coastal connectivity is important for a wide range of real-world applications ranging from assessment of pollutant risk to nearshore fisheries management. For these purposes, coastal connectivity can be defined as the probability that water parcels from one location have advected to another site over a given time interval. Here we demonstrate how to quantify connectivity using Lagrangian probability-density functions (PDFs) based on numerical solutions of the coastal circulation of the Southern California Bight (SCB). Ensemble mean dispersal patterns from a single release site show strong dependencies on particle-release location, season, and year, reflecting annual and interannual circulation patterns in the SCB. Mean connectivity patterns are heterogeneous for the advection time of 30 days or less, due to local circulation patterns, and they become more homogeneous for longer advection times. However, connectivity patterns for a single realization are highly variable because of intrinsic eddy-driven transport and synoptic wind-forcing variability. In the long term, mainland sites are good sources while both Northern and Southern Channel Islands are poor sources, although they receive substantial fluxes of water parcels from the mainland. The predicted connectivity gives useful information to ecological and other applications for the SCB (e.g., designing marine protected areas and predicting the impact of a pollution event) and demonstrates how high-resolution numerical solutions of coastal ocean circulations can be used to quantify nearshore connectivity.

  13. Determination of Turbulent Sensible Heat Flux over a Coastal Maritime Area Using a Large Aperture Scintillometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Hyun

    2015-11-01

    Scintillometers have been widely used in estimating the surface-layer sensible heat flux (Q_H) over natural and urban surfaces, but their application over water bodies is rare. Here, a large aperture scintillometer (LAS) was deployed over a coastal maritime area (`a beach') with an optical path distance of 1 km to investigate LAS capability in estimating the sensible heat fluxes. The measurements were conducted for clear days in the cold season, characterized by a warmer sea surface than the overlying air throughout the studied days. The LAS-derived Q_H showed a significant diurnal variability of 10-150 W m^{-2} at the coastal site, and it was found that local thermal advection and tidal change at the site largely influenced the diurnal variability. A series of sensitivity tests indicated that the uncertainty in the LAS-derived Q_H was less than 11 %, except when De Bruin's similarity function was used. The overall results demonstrate that the LAS system can detect the magnitude and variability of the turbulent heat exchange at the coastal site with high temporal resolution, suggesting its usefulness for estimating Q_H in the coastal maritime environment.

  14. Comparative oceanography of coastal lagoons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kjerfve, Bjorn

    1986-01-01

    The hypothesis that physical lagoon characteristics and variability depend on the channel connecting the lagoon to the adjacent coastal ocean is evaluated. The geographical, hydrological, and oceanographic characteristics of 10 lagoon systems are described and analyzed; these oceanographic features are utilized to classify the lagoon systems. Choked lagoons (Laguna Joyuda, Coorong, Lake St.Lucia, Gippsland Lakes, Lake Songkla/Thale Luang/Thale Noi, and Lagoa dos Patos) are prevalent on coasts with high wave energy and low tidal range; restricted lagoons (Lake Pontchartrain and Laguna de Terminos) are located on low/medium wave energy coasts with a low tidal range; and leaky lagoons (Mississippi Sound and Belize Lagoon/Chetumal Bay) are connected to the ocean by wide tidal passes that transmit oceanic effects into the lagoon with a minimum of resistance. The data support the hypothesis that the nature of the connecting channel controls system functions.

  15. Refraction of coastal ocean waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shuchman, R. A.; Kasischke, E. S.

    1981-01-01

    Refraction of gravity waves in the coastal area off Cape Hatteras, NC as documented by synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery from Seasat orbit 974 (collected on September 3, 1978) is discussed. An analysis of optical Fourier transforms (OFTs) from more than 70 geographical positions yields estimates of wavelength and wave direction for each position. In addition, independent estimates of the same two quantities are calculated using two simple theoretical wave-refraction models. The OFT results are then compared with the theoretical results. A statistical analysis shows a significant degree of linear correlation between the data sets. This is considered to indicate that the Seasat SAR produces imagery whose clarity is sufficient to show the refraction of gravity waves in shallow water.

  16. Hurricane Sandy science plan: coastal impact assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stronko, Jakob M.

    2013-01-01

    Hurricane Sandy devastated some of the most heavily populated eastern coastal areas of the Nation. With a storm surge peaking at more than 19 feet, the powerful landscape-altering destruction of Hurricane Sandy is a stark reminder of why the Nation must become more resilient to coastal hazards. In response to this natural disaster, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) received a total of $41.2 million in supplemental appropriations from the Department of the Interior (DOI) to support response, recovery, and rebuilding efforts. These funds support a science plan that will provide critical scientific information necessary to inform management decisions for recovery of coastal communities, and aid in preparation for future natural hazards. This science plan is designed to coordinate continuing USGS activities with stakeholders and other agencies to improve data collection and analysis that will guide recovery and restoration efforts. The science plan is split into five distinct themes: coastal topography and bathymetry, impacts to coastal beaches and barriers, impacts of storm surge, including disturbed estuarine and bay hydrology, impacts on environmental quality and persisting contaminant exposures, impacts to coastal ecosystems, habitats, and fish and wildlife. This fact sheet focuses assessing impacts to coastal beaches and barriers.

  17. Understanding and Predicting Decadal Coastal Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicholls, Robert J.

    2016-04-01

    Coastal management requires understanding and prognosis of decadal coastal evolution. This evolution is sensitive to climate change among other drivers. The iCOASST project has developed new and improved methods to understand and predict such changes with application to coastal erosion and flood risk management as the application. The project is based on an integrated framework that links several components to develop a system-level understanding of this change as follows: (1) new methods for system-level analysis and mapping of coast, estuary and inner shelf landform behaviour; (2) well validated 'bottom-up' hydrodynamic and sediment transport shelf models that can be applied at shelf scales to investigate inner shelf-coastal interactions; and (3) compositions of existing or new 'reduced complexity models' of selected coastal landforms and processes. The ability to link models and the availability of the data is also fundamental. The ultimate goal is multiple simulations of coastal evolution to explore uncertainties in future decadal-scale coastal response, including the effects of climate change and management choices. This paper reviews the achievements of this project, the lessons learnt and the next step research steps.

  18. Atmospheric Corrections in Coastal Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonita, Maria; Kumar, Raj

    2012-07-01

    The range measurements from the altimeter are associated with a large number of geophysical corrections which needs special attention near coasts and the shallow water regions. The corrections due to ionosphere, dry and wet troposphere and that due to sea state are of primary importance in altimetry. Water vapor dominates the wet tropospheric corrections by several factors which is more complex with higher spatio-temporal variations and thus needs a careful attention near coasts. In addition to this rain is one of the major atmospheric phenomena which attenuate the backscatter altimeter measurements which in turn affect the altimeter derived wind and wave measurements. Thus during rain events utmost care should be taken while deriving the altimeter wind speeds and wave heights. The first objective of the present study involves the comparison of the water vapor corrections estimated from radiosonde measurements near the coastal regions with the model estimated corrections applied in the altimeter range measurements. Analysis has been performed for the Coastal Altimeter products provided by the PISTACH to observe these corrections. The second objective is to estimate the rain rate using altimeter backscatter measurements. The differential attenuation of KU band over C band due to rain has been utilized to identify the rain events and to estimate the amount of rain fall. JASON-2 altimeter data during two tropical cyclonic events over Bay of Bengal have been used for this purpose. An attempt is made to compare the estimated rain rate from altimeter measurements with the other available collocated satellite observations like KALPANA and TRMM-TMI. The results are encouraging and can be used to provide valid rain flags in the altimeter products in addition to the radiometer rain flags.

  19. Coastal erosion problem, modelling and protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yılmaz, Nihal; Balas, Lale; İnan, Asu

    2015-09-01

    Göksu Delta, located in the south of Silifke County of Mersin on the coastal plain formed by Göksu River, is one of the Specially Protected Areas in Turkey. Along the coastal area of the Delta, coastline changes at significant rates are observed, concentrating especially at four regions; headland of İncekum, coast of Paradeniz Lagoon, river mouth of Göksu and coast of Altınkum. The coast of Paradeniz Lagoon is suffering significantly from erosion and the consequent coastal retreating problem. Therefore, the narrow barrier beach which separates Paradeniz Lagoon from the Mediterranean Sea is getting narrower, creating a risk of uniting with the sea, thus causing the disappearance of the Lagoon. The aim of this study was to understand the coastal transport processes along the coastal area of Göksu Delta to determine the coastal sediment transport rates, and accordingly, to propose solutions to prevent the loss of coastal lands in the Delta. To this end, field measurements of currents and sediment grain sizes were carried out, and wind climate, wave climate, circulation patterns and longshore sediment transport rates were numerically modeled by HYDROTAM-3D, which is a three dimensional hydrodynamic transport model. Finally, considering its special importance as an environmentally protected region, some coastal structures of gabions were proposed as solutions against the coastal erosion problems of the Delta. The effects of proposed structures on future coastline changes were also modeled, and the coastlines predicted for the year 2017 are presented and discussed in the paper.

  20. Hygroscopic properties of ultrafine particles in coastal and forest environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hämeri, K.; Väkevä, M.

    2000-08-01

    The hygroscopic properties of recently produced ultrafine particles were measured in forestal and coastal environments using an Ultrafine Tandem Differential Mobility Analyser. The size range of the ambient aerosol particles that was investigated ranged from 8 nm to 30 nm in dry diameter. The measurements in a boreal forest site (SMEAR II station, Hyytiälä, Finland) showed that the growth factors during the days with production of ultrafine particles have a clear diurnal behavior. The minimum growth factor was ca. 1.12-1.13 and was obtained during nighttime. The maximum values were obtained between 13:00 and 16:00. The median values for the maximum growth factor for 10 nm dry diameter particles was 1.26 and for 20 nm dry size 1.28. The measurements in a coastal site (Mace Head station, Carna, Ireland) showed that the new particles produced during nucleation bursts were non- or slightly hygroscopic, with growth factor ca. 1.0-1.1 for 8 nm and 10 nm particles. The background ultrafine particles that were not connected with nucleation bursts were found to be more hygroscopic.

  1. Coastal wetlands and global change: overview

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guntenspergen, G.R.; Vairin, B.; Burkett, V.R.

    1997-01-01

    The potential impacts of climate change are of great practical concern to those interested in coastal wetland resources. Among the areas of greatest risk in the United States are low-lying coastal habitats with easily eroded substrates which occur along the northern Gulf of Mexico and southeast Atlantic coasts. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) have identified coastal wetlands as ecosystems most vulnerable to direct, large-scale impacts of climate change, primarily because of their sensitivity to increases in sea-level rise.

  2. 49 CFR 1105.9 - Coastal Zone Management Act requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Coastal Zone Management Act requirements. 1105.9... ENVIRONMENTAL LAWS § 1105.9 Coastal Zone Management Act requirements. (a) If the proposed action affects land or water uses within a State coastal zone designated pursuant to the Coastal Zone Management Act (16...

  3. High-resolution subsurface imaging of coastal barriers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buynevich, Ilya V.

    2003-01-01

    Coastal barriers and tidal inlets are among the most dynamic coastal environments. Understanding the processes that reshape our beaches and that are responsible for coastal erosion and formation of new inlets, particularly uring intense storms, will provide the necessary framework for forecasting coastal behavior.

  4. 32 CFR 643.33 - Policy-Coastal zone management.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Policy-Coastal zone management. 643.33 Section... PROPERTY REAL ESTATE Policy § 643.33 Policy—Coastal zone management. (a) The Coastal Zone Management Act of... affecting the coastal zone of a state, to conduct or support those activities in a manner which is, to...

  5. Coastal applications of the ERTS-1 satellite imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magoon, O. T. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. Samples are given of the possible applications of ERTS-1 imagery to coastal and nearshore studies. Briefly discussed are: (1) obtaining regional views of extended coastal areas; (2) distribution of sediments; (3) coastal configurations and changes; (4) barrier islands; (5) underwater penetration, and (6) coastal waves.

  6. Temporal and spatial diversity of bacterial communities in coastal waters of the South china sea.

    PubMed

    Du, Jikun; Xiao, Kai; Li, Li; Ding, Xian; Liu, Helu; Lu, Yongjun; Zhou, Shining

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria are recognized as important drivers of biogeochemical processes in all aquatic ecosystems. Temporal and geographical patterns in ocean bacterial communities have been observed in many studies, but the temporal and spatial patterns in the bacterial communities from the South China Sea remained unexplored. To determine the spatiotemporal patterns, we generated 16S rRNA datasets for 15 samples collected from the five regularly distributed sites of the South China Sea in three seasons (spring, summer, winter). A total of 491 representative sequences were analyzed by MOTHUR, yielding 282 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) grouped at 97% stringency. Significant temporal variations of bacterial diversity were observed. Richness and diversity indices indicated that summer samples were the most diverse. The main bacterial group in spring and summer samples was Alphaproteobacteria, followed by Cyanobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria, whereas Cyanobacteria dominated the winter samples. Spatial patterns in the samples were observed that samples collected from the coastal (D151, D221) waters and offshore (D157, D1512, D224) waters clustered separately, the coastal samples harbored more diverse bacterial communities. However, the temporal pattern of the coastal site D151 was contrary to that of the coastal site D221. The LIBSHUFF statistics revealed noticeable differences among the spring, summer and winter libraries collected at five sites. The UPGMA tree showed there were temporal and spatial heterogeneity of bacterial community composition in coastal waters of the South China Sea. The water salinity (P=0.001) contributed significantly to the bacteria-environment relationship. Our results revealed that bacterial community structures were influenced by environmental factors and community-level changes in 16S-based diversity were better explained by spatial patterns than by temporal patterns.

  7. Use of optical scattering to discriminate particle types in coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, James M; Twardowski, Michael S; Donaghay, Percy L; Freeman, Scott A

    2005-03-20

    The particulate scattering characteristics of coastal waters were examined at nine locations around the United States, including near-shore sites in the Gulf of Mexico and the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. The scattering measurements were used in conjunction with inversion models to estimate particle size distributions and bulk refractive indices of the suspended particles. The relationships between various scattering properties and chlorophyll concentration were also investigated and compared with previous relationships described for case I waters. Although the general patterns of scattering and particle characteristics in coastal waters were fairly consistent, fine-scale variability within the water column was substantial. Combining optical measurements with inversion techniques provided a more informative view of the environment and a better understanding of the nature of particle populations in the coastal ocean.

  8. On the importance of coastal areas in the survival of Neanderthal populations during the Late Pleistocene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finlayson, Clive

    2008-11-01

    This paper examines the distribution of Neanderthal populations across Europe and the Middle East. Key geographical variables are used to identify major population strongholds. Four are identified: southern Iberia, Atlantic Europe, Black Sea-Aegean and coastal Italy. Neanderthal site density in each stronghold was found to correspond closely with the predicted suitability of each area. A strong correlation was found between area suitability and last Neanderthal dates and the process of population fragmentation and extinction was found to affect continental areas first and coastal ones last. Oceanic influence, inter-area connectivity and proximity to coasts were found to be key variables in the Neanderthal extinction process. The functional ecological significance of coastal areas to Neanderthals is discussed.

  9. Long term (>100 years) Carbon Sequestration in California Coastal Salt Marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, L. N.; MacDonald, G. M.; Holmquist, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal salt marsh ecosystems rank as one of the ecosystems which sequester the most carbon (C) in the world (Chmura, 2003; Mcleod et al., 2011). California hosts multiple small marsh ecosystems outside of the San Francisco Bay that are limited in geographic extent but still contribute significantly to global soil C. This study evaluates 11 marsh sites along the California coast for annual soil C sequestration rates using 14C, 137Cs, and 210Pb chronologies. Estimates of carbon sequestration for California over the past 100 years from this study average at 49 g C m-2 yr-1. Long term estimates of soil C generally are lower because of natural decomposition of organic C, but this study indicates a persistence of high C storage capacity for coastal marsh systems. These estimates provide valuable insight into the long term capacity for coastal salt marshes to mitigate climate change through sequestration of C.

  10. The Coastal Ocean Prediction Systems program: Understanding and managing our coastal ocean

    SciTech Connect

    Eden, H.F.; Mooers, C.N.K.

    1990-06-01

    The goal of COPS is to couple a program of regular observations to numerical models, through techniques of data assimilation, in order to provide a predictive capability for the US coastal ocean including the Great Lakes, estuaries, and the entire Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). The objectives of the program include: determining the predictability of the coastal ocean and the processes that govern the predictability; developing efficient prediction systems for the coastal ocean based on the assimilation of real-time observations into numerical models; and coupling the predictive systems for the physical behavior of the coastal ocean to predictive systems for biological, chemical, and geological processes to achieve an interdisciplinary capability. COPS will provide the basis for effective monitoring and prediction of coastal ocean conditions by optimizing the use of increased scientific understanding, improved observations, advanced computer models, and computer graphics to make the best possible estimates of sea level, currents, temperatures, salinities, and other properties of entire coastal regions.

  11. A comparison of avian hematozoan epizootiology in two California coastal scrub communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Super, Paul E.; van Riper, Charles, III

    1995-01-01

    Passerine birds within two California (USA) coastal scrub ecosystems, an island and a mainland site, were examined for hematozoa from 1984 to 1990. Island birds had a significantly lower hematozoan prevalence than mainland birds. This prevalence difference can be related to a lack of appropriate hematozoan vectors on the island. Haemoproteus spp. and Leucocytozoon spp. were the most commonly encountered hematozoa; four new species of Leucocytozoon spp. and one new Haemoproteus sp. were found in five host families. No transmission of hematozoan parasites was detected at the island site during the study. At the mainland coastal scrub site, Leucocytozoon spp. was transmitted each year while Plasmodium spp. and Haemoproteus spp. transmission varied between years. There was evidence that some species of birds acquired infections outside of their breeding season. Results of this study lend further support to the prediction of decreased disease on remote island ecosystems.

  12. Evaluation of NYC's Coastal Vulnerability and Potential Adaptation Strategies in the Wake of Hurricane Sandy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S. M.; Foti, R.; Montalto, F. A.

    2015-12-01

    New York City's coastlines are a mosaic of remnant natural habitat, man-made wetlands, manicured parkland, public beaches, housing, and industrial centers, all of which are extremely vulnerable to flooding, storm surge, and damaging wave action. Risks are projected to increase overtime as sea levels rise, population grows, and the frequency and severity of extreme events increases. In order to protect its citizens and infrastructure, New York City is planning to invest 20 billion into a coastal protection plan, including 200 million towards wetlands creation and restoration. Focusing on the role of wetlands and parkland in reducing damages during Hurricane Sandy, our study seeks to identify the primary causes of coastal vulnerability and to provide guidelines for the design of coastal protection measures. Our findings show that most of the small, fragmented NYC's wetlands did not provide significant protection from the violence of the hurricane. Large stretches of wetlands and parkland, on the other hand, were found to exacerbate storm surge along the coast, but did reduce surge penetration further inland. Much of the protection provided by wetlands and coastal green sites was in the form of cost avoidance. Wetlands existed in the most heavily hit areas and so averted damages that would have occurred if those areas had been developed. Our results suggest that, when positioned in the highest risk areas, coastal green infrastructure such as wetlands and parklands can reduce coastal flood risks associated with extreme events like Hurricane Sandy. Policy would ideally prioritize conservation, restoration, and enhancement of large contiguous areas of wetlands in the lowest elevation areas of the city. Where low-lying coastal development cannot be relocated, the risk of damage from storm surges is best reduced by elevating critical infrastructure.

  13. Geologic Map of the Santa Barbara Coastal Plain Area, Santa Barbara County, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Minor, Scott A.; Kellogg, Karl S.; Stanley, Richard G.; Gurrola, Larry D.; Keller, Edward A.; Brandt, Theodore R.

    2009-01-01

    This report presents a newly revised and expanded digital geologic map of the Santa Barbara coastal plain area at a compilation scale of 1:24,000 (one inch on the map to 2,000 feet on the ground)1 and with a horizontal positional accuracy of at least 20 m. The map depicts the distribution of bedrock units and surficial deposits and associated deformation underlying and adjacent to the coastal plain within the contiguous Dos Pueblos Canyon, Goleta, Santa Barbara, and Carpinteria 7.5' quadrangles. The new map supersedes an earlier preliminary geologic map of the central part of the coastal plain (Minor and others, 2002; revised 2006) that provided coastal coverage only within the Goleta and Santa Barbara quadrangles. In addition to new mapping to the west and east, geologic mapping in parts of the central map area has been significantly revised from the preliminary map compilation - especially north of downtown Santa Barbara in the Mission Ridge area - based on new structural interpretations supplemented by new biostratigraphic data. All surficial and bedrock map units, including several new units recognized in the areas of expanded mapping, are described in detail in the accompanying pamphlet. Abundant new biostratigraphic and biochronologic data based on microfossil identifications are presented in expanded unit descriptions of the marine Neogene Monterey and Sisquoc Formations. Site-specific fault kinematic observations embedded in the digital map database are more complete owing to the addition of slip-sense determinations. Finally, the pamphlet accompanying the present report includes an expanded and refined summary of stratigraphic and structural observations and interpretations that are based on the composite geologic data contained in the new map compilation. The Santa Barbara coastal plain is located in the western Transverse Ranges physiographic province along an east-west-trending segment of the southern California coastline about 100 km (62 mi) northwest

  14. The Civitavecchia Coastal Environment Monitoring System (C-CEMS): a new tool to analyze the conflicts between coastal pressures and sensitivity areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonamano, S.; Piermattei, V.; Madonia, A.; Paladini de Mendoza, F.; Pierattini, A.; Martellucci, R.; Stefanì, C.; Zappalà, G.; Caruso, G.; Marcelli, M.

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of the coastal environment is fundamental for efficiently and effectively facing the pollution phenomena as expected by the Marine Strategy Framework Directive, and for limiting the conflicts between anthropic activities and sensitivity areas, as stated by Maritime Spatial Planning Directive. To address this, the Laboratory of Experimental Oceanology and Marine Ecology developed a multi-platform observing network that has been in operation since 2005 in the coastal marine area of Civitavecchia (Latium, Italy) where multiple uses and high ecological values closely coexist. The Civitavecchia Coastal Environment Monitoring System (C-CEMS), implemented in the current configuration, includes various components allowing one to analyze the coastal conflicts by an ecosystem-based approach. The long-term observations acquired by the fixed stations are integrated with in situ data collected for the analysis of the physical, chemical and biological parameters of the water column, sea bottom and pollution sources detected along the coast. The in situ data, integrated with satellite observations (e.g., temperature, chlorophyll a and TSM), are used to feed and validate the numerical models, which allow the analysis and forecasting of the dynamics of pollutant dispersion under different conditions. To test the potential capabilities of C-CEMS, two case studies are reported here: (1) the analysis of fecal bacteria dispersion for bathing water quality assessment, and (2) the evaluation of the effects of the dredged activities on Posidonia meadows, which make up most of the two sites of community importance located along the Civitavecchia coastal zone. The simulation outputs are overlapped by the thematic maps showing bathing areas and Posidonia oceanica distribution, thus giving a first practical tool that could improve the resolution of the conflicts between coastal uses (in terms of stress produced by anthropic activities) and sensitivity areas.

  15. The Study of Coastal Buffer Zone in Taiwan for Conception of Coastal Environment Recovery and Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yi-Ting; Lan, Yuan-Jyh; Hsu, Tai-Wen

    2010-05-01

    The coastal environment is sensitive in terms of ecology, geology and natural hazards. The coastal zone is also an area of multiple uses which competing with each other for specific purpose or benefit. In order to achieve the goal of sustainable development and minimize the potential conflicts among various uses in the coastal areas, the concept on "coastal buffer zone" has been proposed and discussed as a major theme at numerous international forums. During the process of recent economic development in Taiwan, population increases and activities expanded from the narrow coastal region to the ocean's edge. Watson (2000) reported one such scenario at Jimmy's beach in Port Stephen, New South Wales, Australia, in which part of the foreshore had been subjected to chronic erosion caused by land development too close to the edge of an inland sea without pretesting stability of the coast. Based on the coastal hydrodynamics, this paper presents a technical method for establishing the coastal buffer zone. Howmeiliao Coast is an illustrative example for present study. An experimental run-up formula and the SBEACH model are performed to determine the onshore and offshore demarcations, respectively. Using present technical method together with conditions of 50-year recurrence period of typhoon waves and average maximum tides, variation of coastal profiles are calculated. Dynamic simulations for various coastal profiles and analysis of physical quantities related to beach changes, together with calculations from run-up model, the coastal buffer zone on ocean and land interfacial area are then determined. Finally, we focus the subject of management of coastal disaster and mitigation by technical, planning and management policy. It is necessary to achieve the balance between economic development and environmental conservation in order to carry out the target of sustainable development of coastal buffer zone.

  16. Extended Shared Socioeconomic Pathways for Coastal Impact Assessment: Spatial Coastal Population Scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkens, Jan-Ludolf; Reimann, Lena; Hinkel, Jochen; Vafeidis, Athanasios T.

    2016-04-01

    This work extends the Shared Socioeconomic Pathways (SSPs) by developing spatial projections of global coastal population distribution for the five basic SSPs. Based on a series of coastal migration drivers, which were identified from existing literature, we develop coastal narratives for the five basic SSPs (SSP1-5). These narratives account for differences in coastal versus inland population development in urban and rural areas. To spatially distribute population we use the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA) national population and urbanisation projections and employ country-specific growth rates which differ for coastal and inland as well as for urban and rural regions. These rates are derived from spatial analysis of historical population data. We then adjust these rates for each SSP based on the coastal narratives. The resulting global population grids depict the projected distribution of coastal population for each SSP, until the end of the 21st century, at a spatial resolution of 30 arc seconds. These grids exhibit a three- to four-fold increase in coastal population compared to the basic SSPs. Across all SSPs, except for SSP3, coastal population peaks by the middle of the 21st century and declines afterwards. In SSP3 the coastal population grows continuously until 2100. Compared to the base year 2000 the coastal population increases considerably in all SSPs. The extended SSPs are intended to be utilised in Impact, Adaptation and Vulnerability (IAV) assessments as they allow for improved analysis of exposure to sea-level rise and coastal flooding under different physical and socioeconomic scenarios.

  17. Spatial segregation of spawning habitat limits hybridization between sympatric native Steelhead and Coastal Cutthroat Trout

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buehrens, T.W.; Glasgow, J.; Ostberg, Carl O.; Quinn, T.P.

    2013-01-01

    Native Coastal Cutthroat Trout Oncorhynchus clarkii clarkii and Coastal Steelhead O. mykiss irideus hybridize naturally in watersheds of the Pacific Northwest yet maintain species integrity. Partial reproductive isolation due to differences in spawning habitat may limit hybridization between these species, but this process is poorly understood. We used a riverscape approach to determine the spatial distribution of spawning habitats used by native Coastal Cutthroat Trout and Steelhead as evidenced by the distribution of recently emerged fry. Molecular genetic markers were used to classify individuals as pure species or hybrids, and individuals were assigned to age-classes based on length. Fish and physical habitat data were collected in a spatially continuous framework to assess the relationship between habitat and watershed features and the spatial distribution of parental species and hybrids. Sampling occurred in 35 reaches from tidewaters to headwaters in a small (20 km2) coastal watershed in Washington State. Cutthroat, Steelhead, and hybrid trout accounted for 35%, 42%, and 23% of the fish collected, respectively. Strong segregation of spawning areas between Coastal Cutthroat Trout and Steelhead was evidenced by the distribution of age-0 trout. Cutthroat Trout were located farther upstream and in smaller tributaries than Steelhead were. The best predictor of species occurrence at a site was the drainage area of the watershed that contributed to the site. This area was positively correlated with the occurrence of age-0 Steelhead and negatively with the presence of Cutthroat Trout, whereas hybrids were found in areas occupied by both parental species. A similar pattern was observed in older juveniles of both species but overlap was greater, suggesting substantial dispersal of trout after emergence. Our results offer support for spatial reproductive segregation as a factor limiting hybridization between Steelhead and Coastal Cutthroat Trout.

  18. Going Coastal: Shared Evolutionary History between Coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska Wolves (Canis lupus)

    PubMed Central

    Weckworth, Byron V.; Dawson, Natalie G.; Talbot, Sandra L.; Flamme, Melanie J.; Cook, Joseph A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest. Methodology/Principal Findings By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves. Conclusions/Significance We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species. PMID:21573241

  19. Going coastal: Shared evolutionary history between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves (canis lupus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weckworth, B.V.; Dawson, N.G.; Talbot, S.L.; Flamme, M.J.; Cook, J.A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Many coastal species occupying the temperate rainforests of the Pacific Northwest in North America comprise endemic populations genetically and ecologically distinct from interior continental conspecifics. Morphological variation previously identified among wolf populations resulted in recognition of multiple subspecies of wolves in the Pacific Northwest. Recently, separate genetic studies have identified diverged populations of wolves in coastal British Columbia and coastal Southeast Alaska, providing support for hypotheses of distinct coastal subspecies. These two regions are geographically and ecologically contiguous, however, there is no comprehensive analysis across all wolf populations in this coastal rainforest. Methodology/Principal Findings: By combining mitochondrial DNA datasets from throughout the Pacific Northwest, we examined the genetic relationship between coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolf populations and compared them with adjacent continental populations. Phylogenetic analysis indicates complete overlap in the genetic diversity of coastal British Columbia and Southeast Alaska wolves, but these populations are distinct from interior continental wolves. Analyses of molecular variation support the separation of all coastal wolves in a group divergent from continental populations, as predicted based on hypothesized subspecies designations. Two novel haplotypes also were uncovered in a newly assayed continental population of interior Alaska wolves. Conclusions/Significance: We found evidence that coastal wolves endemic to these temperate rainforests are diverged from neighbouring, interior continental wolves; a finding that necessitates new international strategies associated with the management of this species. ?? 2011 This is an open-access article.

  20. Submarine Groundwater Discharge and Coastal Water Quality on the Kona Coast: The Land Use Connection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knee, K. L.; Street, J. H.; Grossman, E. G.; Boehm, A. B.; Paytan, A.

    2008-12-01

    For several decades, the Kona, or western, coast of the island of Hawai'i (Hawai'i, USA) has been recognized as a region of exceptionally high submarine groundwater discharge (SGD). Maintaining good water quality on the Kona coast is important for the local coral reef ecosystems and tourism-based economy. However, rapid development in the recent past and planned development in the near future may pose a threat to coastal waters. In this study, we quantified SGD-related fluxes of freshwater, nutrients and trace metals into the coastal ocean at 12 sites on the Kona coast. Radium-224 activity, silica concentration, and salinity were used as groundwater tracers, and a mass-balance approach was used to estimate fluxes. The relation between fresh groundwater quality and land use was also investigated. Fresh SGD was pervasive along the Kona coast, occurring to a measurable extent at 11 of 12 study sites. However, the volume percent of fresh groundwater at coastal ocean sites varied considerably, from 0-47%, indicating that SGD affects some sites much more than others. Inverse, linear relationships between salinity and concentrations of nitrate+nitrite, phosphate, and silica in the coastal ocean indicated conservative behavior and suggested that nutrients are diluted or advected away from shore faster than they can be used biologically. Neither the population density nor the percentage of urbanized, agricultural, forested or bare land in the vicinity of the study sites influenced groundwater nutrient concentrations; however, sites closest to golf courses had significantly higher concentrations of nitrate+nitrite. Relations between land use and trace metal concentrations in groundwater were also investigated.

  1. Keeping Food on the Table: Human Responses and Changing Coastal Fisheries in Solomon Islands

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Globally the majority of commercial fisheries have experienced dramatic declines in stock and catch. Likewise, projections for many subsistence fisheries in the tropics indicate a dramatic decline is looming in the coming decades. In the Pacific Islands coastal fisheries provide basic subsistence needs for millions of people. A decline in fish catch would therefore have profound impacts on the health and livelihoods of these coastal communities. Given the decrease in local catch rates reported for many coastal communities in the Pacific, it is important to understand if fishers have responded to ecological change (either by expanding their fishing range and/or increasing their fishing effort), and if so, to evaluate the costs or benefits of these responses. We compare data from fish catches in 1995 and 2011 from a rural coastal community in Solomon Islands to examine the potentially changing coastal reef fishery at these time points. In particular we found changes in preferred fishing locations, fishing methodology and catch composition between these data sets. The results indicate that despite changes in catch rates (catch per unit effort) between data collected in 2011 and 16 years previously, the study community was able to increase gross catches through visiting fishing sites further away, diversifying fishing methods and targeting pelagic species through trolling. Such insight into local-scale responses to changing resources and/or fisheries development will help scientists and policy makers throughout the Pacific region in managing the region’s fisheries in the future. PMID:26158694

  2. Keeping Food on the Table: Human Responses and Changing Coastal Fisheries in Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Albert, Simon; Aswani, Shankar; Fisher, Paul L; Albert, Joelle

    2015-01-01

    Globally the majority of commercial fisheries have experienced dramatic declines in stock and catch. Likewise, projections for many subsistence fisheries in the tropics indicate a dramatic decline is looming in the coming decades. In the Pacific Islands coastal fisheries provide basic subsistence needs for millions of people. A decline in fish catch would therefore have profound impacts on the health and livelihoods of these coastal communities. Given the decrease in local catch rates reported for many coastal communities in the Pacific, it is important to understand if fishers have responded to ecological change (either by expanding their fishing range and/or increasing their fishing effort), and if so, to evaluate the costs or benefits of these responses. We compare data from fish catches in 1995 and 2011 from a rural coastal community in Solomon Islands to examine the potentially changing coastal reef fishery at these time points. In particular we found changes in preferred fishing locations, fishing methodology and catch composition between these data sets. The results indicate that despite changes in catch rates (catch per unit effort) between data collected in 2011 and 16 years previously, the study community was able to increase gross catches through visiting fishing sites further away, diversifying fishing methods and targeting pelagic species through trolling. Such insight into local-scale responses to changing resources and/or fisheries development will help scientists and policy makers throughout the Pacific region in managing the region's fisheries in the future. PMID:26158694

  3. Salinity Is an Agent of Divergent Selection Driving Local Adaptation of Arabidopsis to Coastal Habitats.

    PubMed

    Busoms, Silvia; Teres, Joana; Huang, Xin-Yuan; Bomblies, Kirsten; Danku, John; Douglas, Alex; Weigel, Detlef; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Salt, David E

    2015-07-01

    Understanding the molecular mechanism of adaptive evolution in plants provides insights into the selective forces driving adaptation and the genetic basis of adaptive traits with agricultural value. The genomic resources available for Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) make it well suited to the rapid molecular dissection of adaptive processes. Although numerous potentially adaptive loci have been identified in Arabidopsis, the consequences of divergent selection and migration (both important aspects of the process of local adaptation) for Arabidopsis are not well understood. Here, we use a multiyear field-based reciprocal transplant experiment to detect local populations of Arabidopsis composed of multiple small stands of plants (demes) that are locally adapted to the coast and adjacent inland habitats in northeastern Spain. We identify fitness tradeoffs between plants from these different habitats when grown together in inland and coastal common gardens and also, under controlled conditions in soil excavated from coastal and inland sites. Plants from the coastal habitat also outperform those from inland when grown under high salinity, indicating local adaptation to soil salinity. Sodium can be toxic to plants, and we find its concentration to be elevated in soil and plants sampled at the coast. We conclude that the local adaptation that we observe between adjacent coastal and inland populations is caused by ongoing divergent selection driven by the differential salinity between coastal and inland soils.

  4. The influence of submarine groundwater discharge on greenhouse gas evasion from coastal waters (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, I. R.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal waters are thought to play a major role on global carbon budgets but we still lack a quantitative understanding about some mechanisms driving greenhouse gas cycling in coastal waters. Very little is known about the role of submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) in delivering carbon to rivers, estuaries and coastal waters even though the concentrations of most carbon species in groundwater are often much higher than those in surface waters. I hypothesize that SGD plays a significant role in coastal carbon and greenhouse gas budgets even if the volumetric SGD contribution is small. I will report new, detailed observations of radon (a natural groundwater tracer) and carbon dioxide and methane concentrations and stable isotopes in tidal rivers, estuaries, coastal wetlands, mangroves and coral reef lagoons. Groundwater exchange at these contrasting sites was driven by a wide range of processes, including terrestrial hydraulic gradients, tidal pumping, and convection. In all systems, SGD was an important source of carbon dioxide, DIC, and methane to surface waters. In some cases, groundwater seepage alone could account for 100% of carbon dioxide evasion from surface waters to the atmosphere. Combining high precision in situ radon and greenhouse gas concentration and stable isotope observations allows for an effective, unambiguous assessment of how groundwater seepage drives carbon dynamics in surface waters.

  5. Keeping Food on the Table: Human Responses and Changing Coastal Fisheries in Solomon Islands.

    PubMed

    Albert, Simon; Aswani, Shankar; Fisher, Paul L; Albert, Joelle

    2015-01-01

    Globally the majority of commercial fisheries have experienced dramatic declines in stock and catch. Likewise, projections for many subsistence fisheries in the tropics indicate a dramatic decline is looming in the coming decades. In the Pacific Islands coastal fisheries provide basic subsistence needs for millions of people. A decline in fish catch would therefore have profound impacts on the health and livelihoods of these coastal communities. Given the decrease in local catch rates reported for many coastal communities in the Pacific, it is important to understand if fishers have responded to ecological change (either by expanding their fishing range and/or increasing their fishing effort), and if so, to evaluate the costs or benefits of these responses. We compare data from fish catches in 1995 and 2011 from a rural coastal community in Solomon Islands to examine the potentially changing coastal reef fishery at these time points. In particular we found changes in preferred fishing locations, fishing methodology and catch composition between these data sets. The results indicate that despite changes in catch rates (catch per unit effort) between data collected in 2011 and 16 years previously, the study community was able to increase gross catches through visiting fishing sites further away, diversifying fishing methods and targeting pelagic species through trolling. Such insight into local-scale responses to changing resources and/or fisheries development will help scientists and policy makers throughout the Pacific region in managing the region's fisheries in the future.

  6. Coastal Water Protection the Navy Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hura, Myron; And Others

    1976-01-01

    This article describes procedures taken by the U.S. Navy to minimize the environmental import and pollution in harbors and coastal areas resulting from ships, aircraft and shore-based Navel operations. (SL)

  7. Methane flux from coastal salt marshes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, K. B.; Harriss, R. C.; Sebacher, D. I.

    1985-06-01

    It is thought that biological methanogenesis in natural and agricultural wetlands and enteric fermentation in animals are the dominant sources of global tropospheric methane. It is pointed out that the anaerobic soils and sediments, where methanogenesis occurs, predominate in coastal marine wetlands. Coastal marine wetlands are generally believed to be approximately equal in area to freshwater wetlands. For this reason, coastal marine wetlands may be a globally significant source of atmospheric methane. The present investigation is concerned with the results of a study of direct measurements of methane fluxes to the atmosphere from salt marsh soils and of indirect determinations of fluxes from tidal creek waters. In addition, measurements of methane distributions in coastal marine wetland sediments and water are presented. The results of the investigation suggest that marine wetlands provide only a minor contribution to atmospheric methane on a global scale.

  8. Methane flux from coastal salt marshes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, K. B.; Harriss, R. C.; Sebacher, D. I.

    1985-01-01

    It is thought that biological methanogenesis in natural and agricultural wetlands and enteric fermentation in animals are the dominant sources of global tropospheric methane. It is pointed out that the anaerobic soils and sediments, where methanogenesis occurs, predominate in coastal marine wetlands. Coastal marine wetlands are generally believed to be approximately equal in area to freshwater wetlands. For this reason, coastal marine wetlands may be a globally significant source of atmospheric methane. The present investigation is concerned with the results of a study of direct measurements of methane fluxes to the atmosphere from salt marsh soils and of indirect determinations of fluxes from tidal creek waters. In addition, measurements of methane distributions in coastal marine wetland sediments and water are presented. The results of the investigation suggest that marine wetlands provide only a minor contribution to atmospheric methane on a global scale.

  9. ANALYTICAL ELEMENT MODELING OF COASTAL AQUIFERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Four topics were studied concerning the modeling of groundwater flow in coastal aquifers with analytic elements: (1) practical experience was obtained by constructing a groundwater model of the shallow aquifers below the Delmarva Peninsula USA using the commercial program MVAEM; ...

  10. Soil respiration flux in northern coastal temperate rainforest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amore, D. V.; Nay, S. M.; Edwards, R.; Valentine, D. W.; Hood, E. W.

    2009-12-01

    Forest carbon budgets are of increasing concern because of their linkages with changing climate. The potential source strength of northern forested ecosystems is of great interest due to the large carbon stock of these systems, especially the extensive peatlands. Where very few long-term measurements of soil carbon cycles have been made, such as the North Pacific coastal temperate margin, peatlands have potentially large but largely unknown source strengths, particularly through soil respiration. The easily and widely measured factors that influence the metabolism of plants and microorganisms in soils, such as temperature, moisture and substrate quality, must be coupled with a network of plot-scale measurements of soil respiration fluxes in this region in order to produce reasonable models of soil respiration flux across gradients of climate, vegetation and soil types. We designed a study to address this issue and measured soil respiration across a hydrologic gradient to quantify the influence of soil temperature and moisture on the magnitude and seasonality of carbon fluxes in the coastal temperate rainforest biome. Replicated study sites were established in three common ecosystem types (peatlands, forested wetlands, and upland forest) within three coastal watersheds. In total, nine sites of the three ecosystem types were measured at monthly intervals during the snow-free period between May and November for two years. Soil respiration fluxes during the six-month measurement period were used to construct a respiration flux model for each landscape type. Soil respiration fluxes followed the seasonal temperature pattern in all ecosystem types and also varied with soil saturation as well in uplands. Temperature dependent models of soil respiration flux were best fit to intermediate drainage conditions in forested wetlands and explained up to 85% of the variation in this ecosystem type. Modeled soil respiration estimates were better at low temperatures with high water

  11. Soil respiration flux in northern coastal temperate rainforest ecosystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amore, David; Nay, S. Mark; Edwards, Richard; Valentine, David; Hood, Eran

    2010-05-01

    Forest carbon budgets are of increasing concern because of their linkages with changing climate. The potential source strength of northern forested ecosystems is of great interest due to the large carbon stock of these systems, especially the extensive peatlands. Where very few long-term measurements of soil carbon cycles have been made, such as the North Pacific coastal temperate margin, peatlands have potentially large but largely unknown source strengths, particularly through soil respiration. The easily and widely measured factors that influence the metabolism of plants and microorganisms in soils, such as temperature, moisture and substrate quality, must be coupled with a network of plot-scale measurements of soil respiration fluxes in this region in order to produce reasonable models of soil respiration flux across gradients of climate, vegetation and soil types. We designed a study to address this issue and measured soil respiration across a hydrologic gradient to quantify the influence of soil temperature and moisture on the magnitude and seasonality of carbon fluxes in the coastal temperate rainforest biome. Replicated study sites were established in three common ecosystem types (peatlands, forested wetlands, and upland forest) within three coastal watersheds. In total, nine sites of the three ecosystem types were measured at monthly intervals during the snow-free period between May and November for two years. Soil respiration fluxes during the six-month measurement period were used to construct a respiration flux model for each landscape type. Soil respiration fluxes followed the seasonal temperature pattern in all ecosystem types and also varied with soil saturation as well in uplands. Temperature dependent models of soil respiration flux were best fit to intermediate drainage conditions in forested wetlands and explained up to 85% of the variation in this ecosystem type. Modeled soil respiration estimates were better at low temperatures with high water

  12. Methane flux from coastal salt marshes

    SciTech Connect

    Bartlett, K.B.; Harriss, R.C.; Sebacher, D.I.

    1985-06-20

    The seasonal flux of methane to the atmosphere from salt marsh soils was examined in three different vegetation zones within a single marsh near Yorktown, Virginia. A total of 100 measurements were made over a 2-year period, with maximum rates occurring during summer and fall. Spatial and temporal variability in fluxes was high; rates ranged from -2.4 to 21.3 x 10/sup -3/ g CH/sub 4//m/sup 2//d. Estimates of annual methane losses to the atmosphere were 0.43 g CH/sub 4//m/sup 2/ for a salt meadow zone, 1.3 g CH/sub 4//m/sup 2/ for short Spartina alterniflora, and 1.2 g CH/sub 4//m/sup 2/ for tall creek-bank S. alterniflora. A total of 63 flux measurements, made in a variety of other coastal salt marshes along the east coast of the US, suggest that the Virginia site may be fairly typical for this region. In addition to diffusional losses across the air-soil interface, methane can be lost from the marsh system to the atmosphere through the lateral movement of pore waters supersaturated with methane into tidal creeks, with subsequent degassing across the water-air interface. Estimates of the magnitude of methane input to the atmosphere by this mechanism indicate it may be as important as diffusional losses across the air-soil interface. These data suggest that salt marshes of this type make only a minor contribution to global atmospheric methane.

  13. Oceanic sharks clean at coastal seamount.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Simon P; Hussey, Nigel E; Turner, John R; Beckett, Alison J

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) and cleaner wrasse were investigated at a seamount in the Philippines. Cleaning associations between sharks and teleosts are poorly understood, but the observable interactions seen at this site may explain why these mainly oceanic sharks regularly venture into shallow coastal waters where they are vulnerable to disturbance from human activity. From 1,230 hours of observations recorded by remote video camera between July 2005 and December 2009, 97 cleaner-thresher shark events were analyzed, 19 of which were interrupted. Observations of pelagic thresher sharks interacting with cleaners at the seamount were recorded at all times of day but their frequency declined gradually from morning until evening. Cleaners showed preferences for foraging on specific areas of a thresher shark's body. For all events combined, cleaners were observed to conduct 2,757 inspections, of which 33.9% took place on the shark's pelvis, 23.3% on the pectoral fins, 22.3% on the caudal fin, 8.6% on the body, 8.3% on the head, 2.1% on the dorsal fin, and 1.5% on the gills respectively. Cleaners did not preferentially inspect thresher sharks by time of day or by shark sex, but there was a direct correlation between the amount of time a thresher shark spent at a cleaning station and the number of inspections it received. Thresher shark clients modified their behavior by "circular-stance-swimming," presumably to facilitate cleaner inspections. The cleaner-thresher shark association reflected some of the known behavioral trends in the cleaner-reef teleost system since cleaners appeared to forage selectively on shark clients. Evidence is mounting that in addition to acting as social refuges and foraging grounds for large visiting marine predators, seamounts may also support pelagic ecology by functioning as cleaning stations for oceanic sharks and rays. PMID:21423796

  14. Oceanic sharks clean at coastal seamount.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Simon P; Hussey, Nigel E; Turner, John R; Beckett, Alison J

    2011-03-14

    Interactions between pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) and cleaner wrasse were investigated at a seamount in the Philippines. Cleaning associations between sharks and teleosts are poorly understood, but the observable interactions seen at this site may explain why these mainly oceanic sharks regularly venture into shallow coastal waters where they are vulnerable to disturbance from human activity. From 1,230 hours of observations recorded by remote video camera between July 2005 and December 2009, 97 cleaner-thresher shark events were analyzed, 19 of which were interrupted. Observations of pelagic thresher sharks interacting with cleaners at the seamount were recorded at all times of day but their frequency declined gradually from morning until evening. Cleaners showed preferences for foraging on specific areas of a thresher shark's body. For all events combined, cleaners were observed to conduct 2,757 inspections, of which 33.9% took place on the shark's pelvis, 23.3% on the pectoral fins, 22.3% on the caudal fin, 8.6% on the body, 8.3% on the head, 2.1% on the dorsal fin, and 1.5% on the gills respectively. Cleaners did not preferentially inspect thresher sharks by time of day or by shark sex, but there was a direct correlation between the amount of time a thresher shark spent at a cleaning station and the number of inspections it received. Thresher shark clients modified their behavior by "circular-stance-swimming," presumably to facilitate cleaner inspections. The cleaner-thresher shark association reflected some of the known behavioral trends in the cleaner-reef teleost system since cleaners appeared to forage selectively on shark clients. Evidence is mounting that in addition to acting as social refuges and foraging grounds for large visiting marine predators, seamounts may also support pelagic ecology by functioning as cleaning stations for oceanic sharks and rays.

  15. Oceanic Sharks Clean at Coastal Seamount

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Simon P.; Hussey, Nigel E.; Turner, John R.; Beckett, Alison J.

    2011-01-01

    Interactions between pelagic thresher sharks (Alopias pelagicus) and cleaner wrasse were investigated at a seamount in the Philippines. Cleaning associations between sharks and teleosts are poorly understood, but the observable interactions seen at this site may explain why these mainly oceanic sharks regularly venture into shallow coastal waters where they are vulnerable to disturbance from human activity. From 1,230 hours of observations recorded by remote video camera between July 2005 and December 2009, 97 cleaner-thresher shark events were analyzed, 19 of which were interrupted. Observations of pelagic thresher sharks interacting with cleaners at the seamount were recorded at all times of day but their frequency declined gradually from morning until evening. Cleaners showed preferences for foraging on specific areas of a thresher shark's body. For all events combined, cleaners were observed to conduct 2,757 inspections, of which 33.9% took place on the shark's pelvis, 23.3% on the pectoral fins, 22.3% on the caudal fin, 8.6% on the body, 8.3% on the head, 2.1% on the dorsal fin, and 1.5% on the gills respectively. Cleaners did not preferentially inspect thresher sharks by time of day or by shark sex, but there was a direct correlation between the amount of time a thresher shark spent at a cleaning station and the number of inspections it received. Thresher shark clients modified their behavior by “circular-stance-swimming,” presumably to facilitate cleaner inspections. The cleaner-thresher shark association reflected some of the known behavioral trends in the cleaner-reef teleost system since cleaners appeared to forage selectively on shark clients. Evidence is mounting that in addition to acting as social refuges and foraging grounds for large visiting marine predators, seamounts may also support pelagic ecology by functioning as cleaning stations for oceanic sharks and rays. PMID:21423796

  16. Coastal zone management programme in Kerala, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallik, Tapas K.

    1987-06-01

    The physiographic setting of Kerala State, India, is unique. A narrow strip of the state contains a chain of lagoons and estuaries with a very high population density. The strip is subjected to severe coastal erosion during the monsoon season. A number of other problems are also associated with the coastal zone of Kerala, such as irregular dredging of black sands from the beaches, coastal flooding, hazards due to developmental activities, etc. A Coastal Zone Management Programme was developed and administered by the Centre for Earth Science Studies, Trivandrum, to provide efficient coastal management and solve some of these problems. Various programmes included under the Coastal Zone Management are the following: (1) Sedimentological, bathymetric, and geochemical studies of lagoons and estuaries; (2) monitoring of planimetric changes of beaches by profiling beaches during different seasons all along the coast; (3) studies of the nature, distribution, and provenance of black sand deposits from beaches; (4) studies of the peculiar occurrence of patchy, calm, turbid areas of water in the offshore containing high suspended sediment concentrate known as mud banks; (5) wave studies involving continuous monitoring of wave data all along the coast in order to understand wave climate and erosion; (6) sediment movement studies using fluorescent tracer to aid in the development of ports and harbors; (7) studies on various aspects of offshore. The outlines of the various programmes discussed in this article will help other states and countries to develop a coastal zone management programme according to the needs of the state or country and the nature of the problem occurring in the coastal zone.

  17. Modeling Coastal Vulnerability through Space and Time

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems experience a wide range of stressors including wave forces, storm surge, sea-level rise, and anthropogenic modification and are thus vulnerable to erosion. Urban coastal ecosystems are especially important due to the large populations these limited ecosystems serve. However, few studies have addressed the issue of urban coastal vulnerability at the landscape scale with spatial data that are finely resolved. The purpose of this study was to model and map coastal vulnerability and the role of natural habitats in reducing vulnerability in Jamaica Bay, New York, in terms of nine coastal vulnerability metrics (relief, wave exposure, geomorphology, natural habitats, exposure, exposure with no habitat, habitat role, erodible shoreline, and surge) under past (1609), current (2015), and future (2080) scenarios using InVEST 3.2.0. We analyzed vulnerability results both spatially and across all time periods, by stakeholder (ownership) and by distance to damage from Hurricane Sandy. We found significant differences in vulnerability metrics between past, current and future scenarios for all nine metrics except relief and wave exposure. The marsh islands in the center of the bay are currently vulnerable. In the future, these islands will likely be inundated, placing additional areas of the shoreline increasingly at risk. Significant differences in vulnerability exist between stakeholders; the Breezy Point Cooperative and Gateway National Recreation Area had the largest erodible shoreline segments. Significant correlations exist for all vulnerability (exposure/surge) and storm damage combinations except for exposure and distance to artificial debris. Coastal protective features, ranging from storm surge barriers and levees to natural features (e.g. wetlands), have been promoted to decrease future flood risk to communities in coastal areas around the world. Our methods of combining coastal vulnerability results with additional data and across multiple time

  18. Understanding Broadscale Drivers of Coastal Wetland Extent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braswell, A. E.; Heffernan, J. B.

    2014-12-01

    Coastal wetlands provide valuable ecosystem services, but are threatened by sea level rise, anthropogenic disturbance, and changing sediment supply. Watershed characteristics, such as watershed area and upland land use, can mediate suspended sediment concentration; while estuarine characteristics, such as fetch, can determine the wave energy and erosion in a coastal area. These combined effects are mediated by local biogeomorphic feedbacks within wetlands to determine wetland extent. There has been little empirical or theoretical study of how broad-scale features of estuaries and watersheds influence wetland formation, persistence, and loss. As such, we cannot predict how wetland extent and resilience to sea level rise will respond to land use change and other human alterations. In this study, we ask, what factors control the broad-scale distribution of coastal wetlands? We examined relationships between coastal wetland extent and watershed/estuarine characteristics at multiple scales along the Eastern and Gulf coasts of the United States. Using existing GIS resources, we delineated the absolute and relative extents of coastal wetlands, and generated watershed and estuarine characteristics to serve as proxies of sediment input, the estuarine energy environment, and local wetland alteration. We found that present coastal wetland distributions reflect interactions across a wide range of spatial scales, ranging from local biogeomorphic processes, to estuarine-scale morphology that governs hydrodynamics, and to past and present watershed processes that influence sediment delivery. Coastal wetland extent scales with estuary size to the half power and the residuals reflect a bimodal distribution. The wetland extent distribution also displays multiple clusters, possibly signaling that local feedbacks drive wetland extent at some scales. When the results are broken up by region, this pattern is stronger in Northeastern United States. Using continental-scale variation in

  19. Coastal Zone Management program in Kerala, India

    SciTech Connect

    Mallik, T.K. )

    1987-01-01

    The physiographic setting of Kerala State, India, is unique. A narrow strip of the state contains a chain of lagoons and estuaries with a very high population density. The strip is subjected to severe coastal erosion during the monsoon season. A number of other problems are also associated with the coastal zone of Kerala, such as irregular dredging of black sands from the beaches, coastal flooding, hazards due to developmental activities, etc. A Coastal Zone Management Program was developed and administered by the Centre for Earth Science Studies, Trivandrum, to provide efficient coastal management and solve some of these problems. Various programs included under the Coastal Zone Management are the following: (1) Sedimentological, bathymetric, and geochemical studies of lagoons and estuaries; (2) monitoring of planimetric changes of beaches by profiling beaches during different seasons all along the coast; (3) studies of the nature, distribution, and provenance of black sand deposits from beaches; (4) studies of the peculiar occurrence of patchy, calm, turbid areas of water in the offshore containing high suspended sediment concentrate known as mud banks; (5) wave studies involving continuous monitoring of wave data all along the coast in order to understand wave climate and erosion; (6) sediment movement studies using fluorescent tracer to aid in the development of ports and harbors; (7) studies on various aspects of offshore. The outlines of the various programs discussed in this article will help other states and countries to develop a coastal zone management program according to the needs of the state or country and the nature of the problem occurring in the coastal zone.

  20. Changes in soil organic carbon fractions after remediation of a coastal floodplain soil.

    PubMed

    Wong, V N L; McNaughton, C; Pearson, A

    2016-03-01

    Coastal floodplain soils and wetland sediments can store large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC). These environments are also commonly underlain by sulfidic sediments which can oxidise to form coastal acid sulfate soils (CASS) and contain high concentrations of acidity and trace metals. CASS are found on every continent globally except Antarctica. When sulfidic sediments are oxidised, scalds can form, which are large bare patches without vegetation. However, SOC stocks and fractions have not been quantified in these coastal floodplain environments. We studied the changes in soil geochemistry and SOC stocks and fractions three years after remediation of a CASS scald. Remediation treatments included raising water levels, and addition of either lime (LO) or lime and mulch (LM) relative to a control (C) site. We found SOC concentrations in the remediated sites (LO and LM) were more than double than that found at site C, reflected in the higher SOC stocks to a depth of 1.6 m (426 Mg C/ha, 478 Mg C/ha and 473 Mg C/ha at sites C, LO and LM, respectively). The particulate organic C (POC) fraction was higher at sites LO and LM due to increased vegetation and biomass inputs, compared to site C. Reformation of acid volatile sulfide (AVS) occurred throughout the profile at site LM, whereas only limited AVS reformation occurred at sites LO and C. Higher AVS at site LM may be linked to the additional source of organic matter provided by the mulch. POC can also potentially contribute to decreasing acidity as a labile SOC source for Fe(3+) and SO4(2-) reduction. Therefore, coastal floodplains and wetlands are a large store of SOC and can potentially increase SOC following remediation due to i) reduced decomposition rates with higher water levels and waterlogging, and ii) high C inputs due to rapid revegetation of scalded areas and high rates of biomass production. These results highlight the importance of maintaining vegetation cover in coastal floodplains and wetlands for

  1. Changes in soil organic carbon fractions after remediation of a coastal floodplain soil.

    PubMed

    Wong, V N L; McNaughton, C; Pearson, A

    2016-03-01

    Coastal floodplain soils and wetland sediments can store large amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC). These environments are also commonly underlain by sulfidic sediments which can oxidise to form coastal acid sulfate soils (CASS) and contain high concentrations of acidity and trace metals. CASS are found on every continent globally except Antarctica. When sulfidic sediments are oxidised, scalds can form, which are large bare patches without vegetation. However, SOC stocks and fractions have not been quantified in these coastal floodplain environments. We studied the changes in soil geochemistry and SOC stocks and fractions three years after remediation of a CASS scald. Remediation treatments included raising water levels, and addition of either lime (LO) or lime and mulch (LM) relative to a control (C) site. We found SOC concentrations in the remediated sites (LO and LM) were more than double than that found at site C, reflected in the higher SOC stocks to a depth of 1.6 m (426 Mg C/ha, 478 Mg C/ha and 473 Mg C/ha at sites C, LO and LM, respectively). The particulate organic C (POC) fraction was higher at sites LO and LM due to increased vegetation and biomass inputs, compared to site C. Reformation of acid volatile sulfide (AVS) occurred throughout the profile at site LM, whereas only limited AVS reformation occurred at sites LO and C. Higher AVS at site LM may be linked to the additional source of organic matter provided by the mulch. POC can also potentially contribute to decreasing acidity as a labile SOC source for Fe(3+) and SO4(2-) reduction. Therefore, coastal floodplains and wetlands are a large store of SOC and can potentially increase SOC following remediation due to i) reduced decomposition rates with higher water levels and waterlogging, and ii) high C inputs due to rapid revegetation of scalded areas and high rates of biomass production. These results highlight the importance of maintaining vegetation cover in coastal floodplains and wetlands for

  2. Coastal evolution -- Late Quaternary shoreline morphodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, R.W.G.; Woodroffe, C.D.

    1994-12-31

    This book is a product of International Geological Correlation Programme (IGCP) Project 274. It contains a collection of summary papers representing the latest concepts and knowledge of how coasts respond to changing climate and sea level. The chapters are organized by general topic (introduction, morphodynamics), coastal types (deltas, wave-dominated coasts, macrotidal estuaries, lagoons and microtidal coasts, coral atolls, shelf reef systems, and paraglacial coasts), or coastal setting (Arctic shores, tectonic shores, developed coasts). As indicated by this list, most but not all types of coasts are covered in the book. Some obvious omissions are mangrove swamps and other wetland coasts, sabkahs, and coastal deserts (aeolian dominated). Despite the international reputation of the authors, several chapters are limited in geographic scope and numerous case studies presented are from Australia and Canada. Coastal evolution encompasses a broad range of temporal and spatial scales and in this regard the subject receives some uneven treatment. A few chapters focus on short-term coastal changes driven by oceanographic conditions, whereas others attempt to address much longer periods of eustatic fluctuation and the resultant changes in coastal morphology.

  3. Elevation uncertainty in coastal inundation hazard assessments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gesch, Dean B.; Cheval, Sorin

    2012-01-01

    Coastal inundation has been identified as an important natural hazard that affects densely populated and built-up areas (Subcommittee on Disaster Reduction, 2008). Inundation, or coastal flooding, can result from various physical processes, including storm surges, tsunamis, intense precipitation events, and extreme high tides. Such events cause quickly rising water levels. When rapidly rising water levels overwhelm flood defenses, especially in heavily populated areas, the potential of the hazard is realized and a natural disaster results. Two noteworthy recent examples of such natural disasters resulting from coastal inundation are the Hurricane Katrina storm surge in 2005 along the Gulf of Mexico coast in the United States, and the tsunami in northern Japan in 2011. Longer term, slowly varying processes such as land subsidence (Committee on Floodplain Mapping Technologies, 2007) and sea-level rise also can result in coastal inundation, although such conditions do not have the rapid water level rise associated with other flooding events. Geospatial data are a critical resource for conducting assessments of the potential impacts of coastal inundation, and geospatial representations of the topography in the form of elevation measurements are a primary source of information for identifying the natural and human components of the landscape that are at risk. Recently, the quantity and quality of elevation data available for the coastal zone have increased markedly, and this availability facilitates more detailed and comprehensive hazard impact assessments.

  4. Estuaries and coastal waters need help

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, H.

    1987-11-01

    For years, our marine environments-estuaries, coastal waters, and the open ocean-have been used extensively by coastal communities and industries for the disposal of various wastes. Historically, marine waste disposal has been relatively cheap and has solved some short-term waste-management problems; however, its consequences include a general trend toward environmental degradation, particularly in estuaries and coastal waters. Thus, without protective measures, the next few decades will witness degradation in many estuaries and some coastal waters around the country. The extent of current degradation varies greatly around the country. Although it is difficult to ascertain cause and effect relationships, enough evidence exists to conclude that the pollutants in question include disease-causing microorganisms, oxygen-demanding substances, particulate material, metals, and organic chemicals. Two statutes form the basis of most federal regulatory efforts to combat marine pollution: the Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA) and the Clean Water Act (CWA). The MPRSA regulates the dumping of wastes in coastal and open-ocean waters, whereas the CWA has jurisdiction over pipeline discharges in all marine waters, wastes dumped in estuaries, and runoff. Many people consider that the passage and implementation of these two acts and their ensuing amendments established a statutory structure sufficient to protect the nation's waters from pollution. However, these provisions have not protected some estuaries and coastal waters from degradation.

  5. Intensified coastal development behind nourished beaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, Scott; Lazarus, Eli; Limber, Patrick; Goldstein, Evan; Thorpe, Curtis; Ballinger, Rhoda

    2016-04-01

    Population density, housing development, and property values in coastal counties along the U.S. Atlantic and Gulf Coasts continue to rise despite increasing hazard from storm impacts. Since the 1970s, beach nourishment, which involves importing sand to deliberately widen an eroding beach, has been the main strategy in the U.S. for protecting coastal properties from erosion and flooding hazards. Paradoxically, investment in hazard protection may intensify development. Here, we examine the housing stock of all existing shorefront single-family homes in Florida - a microcosm of U.S. coastal hazards and development - to quantitatively compare development in nourishing and non-nourishing towns. We find that nourishing towns now account for more than half of Florida's coastline, and that houses in nourishing towns are larger and more numerous. Even as the mean size of single-family homes nationwide has grown steadily since 1970, Florida's shorefront stock has exceeded the national average by 34%, and in nourishing towns by 45%. This emergent disparity between nourishing and non-nourishing towns in Florida demonstrates a pattern of intensifying coastal risk, and is likely representative of a dominant trend in coastal development more generally. These data lend empirical support to the hypothesis that US coastal development and hazard mitigation through beach nourishment have become dynamically coupled.

  6. National Coastal Geology Program: a plan of geologic research on coastal erosion, coastal wetlands, polluted sediments, and coastal hard-mineral resources

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1990-01-01

    More than 50 percent of the U.S. population currently live within 50 miles of an ocean, Great Lake, or major estuary. According to forecasts, the concentration of people along our coastlines will continue to increase into the 21st century. In addition to residential and commercial buildings and facilities worth tens of billions of dollars, the coasts and associated wetlands are natural resources of tremendous value, with estimates in excess of $13 billion per year for commercial and recreational fisheries alone. Human activities and natural processes are stressing the coastal environment. * Each of the coastal states and island territories is suffering problems related to coastal erosion. * Deterioration of wetlands is widespread and of great public concern. * Pollutants carried by rivers or runoff are discharged directly into coastal waters and accumulate in the sediments on the sea floor, in some areas causing damage to living resources and presenting a threat to public health. * Onshore sources for hard-mineral resources, such as sand and gravel used for construction purposes, are becoming increasingly difficult to find. New sources are being sought in coastal waters. Coastal issues will become even more important into the next century if sea level is significantly influenced by climate change and other factors.

  7. Observed 1970-2005 cooling of summer daytime temperatures in coastal California

    SciTech Connect

    Lebassi, B.; Gonzalez, J.; Fabris, D.; Maurer, E.; Miller, N.; Milesi, C.; Bornstein, R.

    2009-05-15

    The study evaluated 1948-2004 summer (JJA) mean monthly air temperatures for two California air basins: SoCAB and SFBA. The study focuses on the more rapid post-1970 warming period, and its daily T{sub min} and T{sub max} values were used to produce average monthly values and spatial distributions of trends for each air basins. Additional analyses included T{sub D} values at two NWS sites, SSTs, NCEP reanalysis sea-level pressures, and GCM T{sub ave}-values. Results for all California COOP sites together showed increased JJA T{sub ave}-values; asymmetric warming, as T{sub min}-values increase faster than T{sub max}-values; and thus decreased DTR values. The spatial distribution of observed SoCAB and SFBA T{sub max} values exhibited a complex pattern, with cooling in low-elevation coastal-areas open to marine air penetration and warming at inland areas. Results also showed that decreased DTR values in the valleys arose from small increases at 'inland' sites combined with large decreases at 'coastal' sites. Previous studies suggest that cooling JJA T{sub max}-values in coastal California were due to increased irrigation, coastal upwelling, or cloud cover, while the current hypothesis is that they arises from GHG-induced global-warming of 'inland' areas, which results in increased sea breeze flow activity. Sea level pressure trends showed increases in the oceanic Pacific High and decreases in the central-California Thermal Low. The corresponding gradient thus showed a trend of 0.02 hPa 100-km{sup -1} decade{sup -1}, supportive of the hypothesis of increased sea breeze activity. Trends in T{sub D} values showed a larger value at coastal SFO than at inland SEC, which indicative of increased sea breeze activity; calculated SST trends (0.15 C decade{sup -1}) could also have increase T{sub D}-values. GCM model Tave-values showed warming that decreases from 0.13 C decade{sup -1} at inland California to 0.08 C decade{sup -1} at coastal areas. Significant societal impacts may

  8. Image Interpretation of Coastal Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazaridou, M. A.

    2012-07-01

    Coasts were formed with the overall shape of earth's surface. Τhey represent a landform, as determined by the science of geomorphology. Being the boundary between land and sea, they present important features - particularities such as water currents, waves, winds, estuaries, drainage network, pollution etc. Coasts are examined at various levels: continents - oceans, states - large seas, as for example Mediterranean Sea. Greece, because of its horizontal and vertical partitioning, presents great extent and variety of coasts as mainland, peninsulas and islands. Depending on geomorphology, geology, soils, hydrology, land use of the inland and the coasts themselves, these are very diverse. Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing (defined by Statute II of ISPRS) is the art, science, and technology of obtaining reliable information from non-contact imaging and other sensor systems about the Earth and its environment, and other physical objects and of processes through recording, measuring, analyzing and representation. This paper concerns critical considerations on the above. It also includes the case of Thessaloniki coasts in Greece, particularly river estuaries areas (river delta). The study of coastal areas of the wide surroundings of Thessaloniki city includes visual image interpretation - digital image processing techniques on satellite data of high spatial resolution.

  9. Technical Appendix for Development for Modified Streamflows 1928-1989 : Columbia River & Coastal Basin.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration; A.G. Crook Company

    1993-06-01

    The report ``Adjusted Streamflow and Storage 1928-1989`` contains listings of historical flows for the sites in the Columbia River and Coastal Basins. This section of the Technical Appendix provides for the site specific procedures used to determine those historical flows. The study purpose, authority, and definitions are given in the main report. The purpose of this section of the Technical Appendix is to document the computational procedures used at each of the project sites to develop historical flows for the period July 1928--September 1989.

  10. Molecular detection of atrazine catabolism gene atzA in coastal waters of Georgia, Puerto Rico and Trinidad.

    PubMed

    Sherchan, Samendra P; Bachoon, D S; Otero, Ernesto; Ramsubhag, Adesh

    2013-04-15

    In this study, quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting the atrazine catabolism gene, atzA, was used to detect the presence of atrazine degrading bacteria as an indicator of atrazine contamination in 11 sites in Georgia, nine coastal sites in Puerto Rico and 11 coastal sites in Trinidad. The atzA gene was detected in five stations in Georgia (Oak Grove Island entrance, Blythe Island Recreation Park, Jekyll Island., Village Creek Landing and Dunbar Creek Sea Island Rd Bridge). In Puerto Rico gene was detected in five sites (Boquilla, Oro Creek, Fishers Association, Ceiba Creek and Sabalos Creek) while seven sites in Trinidad (Carli Bay, Las Cuevas Bay, Quinam Bay, Salybia River, Salybia Bay, Maracas River and Maracas Bay) showed the presence of atzA.

  11. Evaluation and Numerical Simulation of Tsunami for Coastal Nuclear Power Plants of India

    SciTech Connect

    Sharma, Pavan K.; Singh, R.K.; Ghosh, A.K.; Kushwaha, H.S.

    2006-07-01

    Recent tsunami generated on December 26, 2004 due to Sumatra earthquake of magnitude 9.3 resulted in inundation at the various coastal sites of India. The site selection and design of Indian nuclear power plants demand the evaluation of run up and the structural barriers for the coastal plants: Besides it is also desirable to evaluate the early warning system for tsunami-genic earthquakes. The tsunamis originate from submarine faults, underwater volcanic activities, sub-aerial landslides impinging on the sea and submarine landslides. In case of a submarine earthquake-induced tsunami the wave is generated in the fluid domain due to displacement of the seabed. There are three phases of tsunami: generation, propagation, and run-up. Reactor Safety Division (RSD) of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay has initiated computational simulation for all the three phases of tsunami source generation, its propagation and finally run up evaluation for the protection of public life, property and various industrial infrastructures located on the coastal regions of India. These studies could be effectively utilized for design and implementation of early warning system for coastal region of the country apart from catering to the needs of Indian nuclear installations. This paper presents some results of tsunami waves based on different analytical/numerical approaches with shallow water wave theory. (authors)

  12. Impact of coastal processes on resource development with an example from Icy Bay, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Molnia, Bruce F.

    1978-01-01

    The coastline of Alaska is dynamic and continually readjusting to changes in the many processes that operate in the coastal zone. Because of this dynamic nature, special consideration must be made in planning for development, and. caution must be exercised in site selection for facilities to be emplaced in the coastal zone. All types of coastal processes from continuously active normal processes to the low frequency-high intensity rare event must be considered. Site-specific evaluation-s considering the broad range of possible processes must precede initiation of development. An example of the relation between coastal processes and a proposed resource treatment facility is presented for Icy Bay, Alaska. Icy Bay is the only sheltered bay near many of the offshore tracts leased for petroleum exploration in the 1976 northern Gulf of Alaska OCS (Outer Continental Shelf) lease sale. Consequently, it has been selected as a primary onshore staging site for the support of offshore exploration and development. The environment of Icy Bay has many potentially hazardous features, including a submarine moraine at the bay mouth and actively calving glaciers at the bay's head which produce many icebergs. But most significant from the point of view of locating onshore facilities and pipeline corridors are the high rates of shoreline erosion and sediment deposition. If pipelines or any onshore staging facilities are to be placed in the coastal areas of Icy Bay, then the dynamic changes in shoreline position must be considered so that man-made structures will not be eroded away or be silted in before the completion of development.

  13. Value siting

    SciTech Connect

    Ferrar, T.A.; Howes, J.A.

    1995-02-01

    Finding an appropriate site is becoming an increasing challenge in building new power projects. One of the first orders of business in project development is identifying a site that offers the maximum spread between the cost of fuel and net power price. The collection of sites that exhibit an adequate spread - presenting a first-order, acceptable economic expectation - must now be subjected to an ever increasing number of political, societal, technical, and economic exclusion screens. The barriers can include cooling water constraints, community resistance, visual incompatibility, archaeological concerns and endangered species preservation issues. Most power siting difficulties can be substantially mitigated by gaining access to developed, but under-used sites, whose current owners are bound by circumstances - political or financial - that prevent them from using such locations. There are two such categories of sites: Utilities that have sites on which depreciated power production assets rest; and, The federal government, with numerous sites throughout the country, particularly military bases subject to closure under the Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) proceedings. It is in the interests of developers, as well as consumers, investors and taxpayers, ti undertake a thorough examination of these overlooked pearls of opportunities and develop their potential.

  14. An assessment of seabird influence on Arctic coastal benthic communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zmudczyńska-Skarbek, Katarzyna; Balazy, Piotr; Kuklinski, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    It is well recognized that seabirds, particularly those nesting in coastal colonies, can provide significant nutrient enrichment to Arctic terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about the fate of bird-derived nutrients that return to the marine environment and potentially concentrate below the colonies. To attempt to assess the influence of this potential nutrient enrichment of the coastal benthic community, samples of macroalgae, sea urchins (mainly algivores), and hermit crabs (scavengers) were collected at two Arctic localities (Spitsbergen), (1) below a mixed colony of guillemots and kittiwakes, and (2) in an adjacent geomorphologically similar location not influenced by the seabird colony. A much higher nitrogen stable isotope ratio (δ15N) and total nitrogen content were found in terrestrial plants sampled below the colony than away from it. In benthic macroalgae, however, there were no δ15N differences. This might result from the timing of an intensive growth period in macroalgae in late winter/early spring, when there is little or no runoff from the land, and/or ornithogenic nutrients being directly incorporated by phytoplankton. Sea urchins showed higher δ15N and total N in the control site comparing to the colony-influenced area, suggesting differential food sources in their diet and a role of scavenging/carnivory on higher trophic levels there. Opportunistically feeding hermit crabs showed δ15N and total N enrichment below the seabird colony, suggesting dependence on detritus derived from food chains originating from pelagic producers. Our results indicate that seabirds in the Arctic may fertilize coastal benthic communities through pelagic-benthic coupling, while having no direct impact on bottom primary production.

  15. Retention of crab larvae in a coastal null zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilburg, Charles E.; Dittel, Ana I.; Epifanio, Charles E.

    2007-05-01

    Alongshelf transport in the southern Middle Atlantic Bight is forced by buoyancy-driven currents originating in three large estuaries along the bight. These currents are strongest in the coastal ocean near the southern terminus of each estuary, while the analogous region on the northern side is characterized by weak subtidal flow. We used a combination of field observations and numerical modeling to test the hypothesis that these regions of weak subtidal flow are coastal null zones that serve as retention areas for larvae. The field study consisted of a four-day, shipboard investigation of the distribution of blue crab larvae ( Callinectes sapidus) near the mouth of Delaware Bay (˜39°N, 75°W) in late summer, 2004. Hydrographic surveys of the study site were conducted with a hull-mounted, surface-measuring system. Results showed a sharp boundary between the null zone and the buoyancy-driven current to the south. Blue crab larvae were collected in surface plankton tows along a 30-km transect that encompassed these two areas. Stations with higher densities of larvae were clustered in the null zone during both ebb and flood tides. A numerical model was used to examine the physical mechanisms responsible for the observed distribution. Model results agreed with the field survey and showed that simulated larvae are aggregated in the null zone. The simulations also demonstrated that larvae spawned within the null zone have a much greater probability of settling in juvenile nursery habitat within the bay. The close agreement between field and model results provides consistent support for the hypothesis that coastal null zones associated with the buoyancy-driven circulation of large estuaries may allow retention of larvae in the vicinity of the natal spawning population.

  16. Domoic acid production near California coastal upwelling zones, June 1998

    SciTech Connect

    Trainer, V L.; Adams, Nicolaus G.; Bill, Brian D.; Stehr, Carla M.; Wekell, John C.; Moeller, Peter; Busman, Mark; Woodruff, Dana L. )

    2000-01-01

    Sea lion mortalities in central California during May and June 1998 were traced to their ingestion of sardines and anchovies that had accumulated the neurotoxin domoic acid. The detection of toxin in urine, feces, and stomach contents of several sea lions represents the first proven occurrence of domoic acid transfer through the food chain to a marine mammal. The pennate diatoms, Pseudo-nitzschia multiseries and P. australis, were the dominant, toxin-producing phytoplankton constituting algal blooms near Monterey Bay, Half Moon Bay, and Oceano Dunes, areas where sea lions with neurological symptoms stranded. Toxic Pseudo-nitzschia were also found near Morrow Bay, Point Conception, Point Arguello, and Santa Barbara, demonstrating that these species were widespread along the central California coast in June 1998. Measurements of domoic acid during three cruises in early June showed the highest cellular toxin levels in P. multiseries near Point A?o Nuevo and in P. australis from Morro w Bay. Maximum cellular domoic acid levels were observed within 20 km of the coast between 0 and 5 m depth, although toxin was also measured to depths of 40 m. Hydrographic data indicated that the highest toxin levels and greatest numbers of toxic cells were positioned in water masses associated with upwelling zones near coastal headlands. Nutrient levels at these sites were less than those typically measured during periods of active upwelling, due to the 1998 El Ni?o event. The flow of cells and/or nutrients from coastal headlands into embayments where cells can multiply in a stratified environment is a possible mechanism of bloom development along the central California coast. This coupling of toxic Pseudo-nitzschia growth near upwelling zones with physical processes involved in cell transport will be understood only when long-term measurements are made at several key coastal locations, aiding in our capability to predict domoic-acid producing algal blooms.

  17. Use of oysters to mitigate eutrophication in coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kellogg, M. Lisa; Smyth, Ashley R.; Luckenbach, Mark W.; Carmichael, Ruth H.; Brown, Bonnie L.; Cornwell, Jeffrey C.; Piehler, Michael F.; Owens, Michael S.; Dalrymple, D. Joseph; Higgins, Colleen B.

    2014-12-01

    Enhancing populations of suspension feeding bivalves, particularly the eastern oyster, Crassostrea virginica, has been proposed as a means of mitigating eutrophication in coastal waters. Review of studies evaluating the effects of C. virginica on nitrogen (N) cycling found that oysters can have effects on water quality that vary by orders of magnitude among sites, seasons, and growing condition (e.g., oyster reefs, aquaculture). Nitrogen contained in phytoplankton consumed by oysters may be returned to the water column, assimilated into oyster tissue and shell, buried in the sediments, or returned to the atmosphere as dinitrogen gas, primarily via denitrification. Accurately quantifying oyster-related N removal requires detailed knowledge of these primary fates of N in coastal waters. A review of existing data demonstrated that the current state of knowledge is incomplete in many respects. Nitrogen assimilated into oyster tissue and shell per gram of dry weight was generally similar across sites and in oysters growing on reefs compared to aquaculture. Data on long-term burial of N associated with oyster reefs or aquaculture are lacking. When compared to suitable reference sites, denitrification rates were not consistently enhanced. Depending on environmental and oyster growing conditions, changes in denitrification rates varied by orders of magnitude among studies and did not always occur. Oyster aquaculture rarely enhanced denitrification. Unharvested oyster reefs frequently enhanced denitrification rates. Incorporating oysters into nutrient reduction strategies will require filling gaps in existing data to determine the extent to which relationships between N removal and environmental and/or growing conditions can be generalized.

  18. Organic carbon sources to SE Asian coastal sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, H.; Gacia, E.; Kennedy, D. P.; Papadimitriou, S.; Duarte, C. M.

    2004-05-01

    The carbon, nitrogen and the stable carbon isotopic composition, δ13C, of organic matter has been used to elucidate the source(s) of this material to coastal sediments. Sediments were collected at 15 coastal locations in the Philippines and Vietnam, which broadly represented different depositional environments ranging from seagrass meadows, through seagrass meadows located near mangroves and to mangrove stands. In addition, short-term sediment traps were deployed at 12 of the sites where seagrass was present. Mean sediment organic carbon concentration and C/N increased and δ13C of organic matter decreased from seagrass to mangrove dominated settings. The organic carbon flux measured by the sediment trap deployments was very variable (32±3 to ˜700 mmol m -2 d -1) and represented only a small fraction of the total particle flux. The importance of seagrass as a source of organic matter to the sediments was assessed by using a simple mixing model and the average δ13C values for seagrass, their epiphytic community and surface water particulate matter (seston). A positive correlation between seagrass leaf biomass and sediment δ13C in seagrass dominated settings suggests that these macrophytes do significantly influence the composition of sedimentary organic matter. Seagrass was however rarely found to be the dominant source of organic matter to the underlying sediments. Both sediment trap and sediment data suggest that material of planktonic origin was the dominant source of sedimentary organic matter in these settings. At the sites dominated by mangroves the concentration of organic matter ( ˜1-13 ×10 3 mmol g-1) in the sediment is generally higher than at seagrass dominated sites due to the outwelling of organic matter from the mangrove stands. Mangrove organic matter often dominates the sedimentary input but other sources of organic matter must contribute to cause the observed range in sediment δ13C.

  19. Predictive occurrence models for coastal wetland plant communities: delineating hydrologic response surfaces with multinomial logistic regression

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snedden, Gregg A.; Steyer, Gregory D.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding plant community zonation along estuarine stress gradients is critical for effective conservation and restoration of coastal wetland ecosystems. We related the presence of plant community types to estuarine hydrology at 173 sites across coastal Louisiana. Percent relative cover by species was assessed at each site near the end of the growing season in 2008, and hourly water level and salinity were recorded at each site Oct 2007–Sep 2008. Nine plant community types were delineated with k-means clustering, and indicator species were identified for each of the community types with indicator species analysis. An inverse relation between salinity and species diversity was observed. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) effectively segregated the sites across ordination space by community type, and indicated that salinity and tidal amplitude were both important drivers of vegetation composition. Multinomial logistic regression (MLR) and Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC) were used to predict the probability of occurrence of the nine vegetation communities as a function of salinity and tidal amplitude, and probability surfaces obtained from the MLR model corroborated the CCA results. The weighted kappa statistic, calculated from the confusion matrix of predicted versus actual community types, was 0.7 and indicated good agreement between observed community types and model predictions. Our results suggest that models based on a few key hydrologic variables can be valuable tools for predicting vegetation community development when restoring and managing coastal wetlands.

  20. Do ENSO and Coastal Development Enhance Coastal Burial of Terrestrial Carbon?

    PubMed

    Macreadie, Peter I; Rolph, Timothy C; Boyd, Ron; Schröder-Adams, Claudia J; Skilbeck, Charles G

    2015-01-01

    Carbon cycling on the east coast of Australia has the potential to be strongly affected by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) intensification and coastal development (industrialization and urbanization). We performed paleoreconstructions of estuarine sediments from a seagrass-dominated estuary on the east coast of Australia (Tuggerah Lake, New South Wales) to test the hypothesis that millennial-scale ENSO intensification and European settlement in Australia have increased the transfer of organic carbon from land into coastal waters. Our data show that carbon accumulation rates within coastal sediments increased significantly during periods of maximum millennial-scale ENSO intensity ("super-ENSO") and coastal development. We suggest that ENSO and coastal development destabilize and liberate terrestrial soil carbon, which, during rainfall events (e.g., La Niña), washes into estuaries and becomes trapped and buried by coastal vegetation (seagrass in this case). Indeed, periods of high carbon burial were generally characterized as having rapid sedimentation rates, higher content of fine-grained sediments, and increased content of wood and charcoal fragments. These results, though preliminary, suggest that coastal development and ENSO intensification--both of which are predicted to increase over the coming century--can enhance capture and burial of terrestrial carbon by coastal ecosystems. These findings have important relevance for current efforts to build an understanding of terrestrial-marine carbon connectivity into global carbon budgets. PMID:26691557

  1. Do ENSO and Coastal Development Enhance Coastal Burial of Terrestrial Carbon?

    PubMed Central

    Macreadie, Peter I.; Rolph, Timothy C.; Boyd, Ron; Schröder-Adams, Claudia J.; Skilbeck, Charles G.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon cycling on the east coast of Australia has the potential to be strongly affected by El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) intensification and coastal development (industrialization and urbanization). We performed paleoreconstructions of estuarine sediments from a seagrass-dominated estuary on the east coast of Australia (Tuggerah Lake, New South Wales) to test the hypothesis that millennial-scale ENSO intensification and European settlement in Australia have increased the transfer of organic carbon from land into coastal waters. Our data show that carbon accumulation rates within coastal sediments increased significantly during periods of maximum millennial-scale ENSO intensity (“super-ENSO”) and coastal development. We suggest that ENSO and coastal development destabilize and liberate terrestrial soil carbon, which, during rainfall events (e.g., La Niña), washes into estuaries and becomes trapped and buried by coastal vegetation (seagrass in this case). Indeed, periods of high carbon burial were generally characterized as having rapid sedimentation rates, higher content of fine-grained sediments, and increased content of wood and charcoal fragments. These results, though preliminary, suggest that coastal development and ENSO intensification—both of which are predicted to increase over the coming century—can enhance capture and burial of terrestrial carbon by coastal ecosystems. These findings have important relevance for current efforts to build an understanding of terrestrial-marine carbon connectivity into global carbon budgets. PMID:26691557

  2. 75 FR 22103 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-27

    ... Register (75 FR 9158, March 1, 2010). NMFS received one comment in response to that notice. The comment... Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... Atlantic Coastal Sharks (Plan) and that the measures New Jersey has failed to implement and enforce...

  3. 75 FR 44938 - Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... on April 27, 2010 (75 FR 22103), and are not repeated here. Activities Pursuant to the Atlantic... Management Act Provisions; Atlantic Coastal Shark Fishery AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS... coastal sharks in the State waters of New Jersey. NMFS canceled the moratorium, as required by...

  4. The Effectiveness, Costs and Coastal Protection Benefits of Natural and Nature-Based Defences.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Siddharth; Beck, Michael W; Reguero, Borja G; Losada, Iñigo J; van Wesenbeeck, Bregje; Pontee, Nigel; Sanchirico, James N; Ingram, Jane Carter; Lange, Glenn-Marie; Burks-Copes, Kelly A

    2016-01-01

    There is great interest in the restoration and conservation of coastal habitats for protection from flooding and erosion. This is evidenced by the growing number of analyses and reviews of the effectiveness of habitats as natural defences and increasing funding world-wide for nature-based defences-i.e. restoration projects aimed at coastal protection; yet, there is no synthetic information on what kinds of projects are effective and cost effective for this purpose. This paper addresses two issues critical for designing restoration projects for coastal protection: (i) a synthesis of the costs and benefits of projects designed for coastal protection (nature-based defences) and (ii) analyses of the effectiveness of coastal habitats (natural defences) in reducing wave heights and the biophysical parameters that influence this effectiveness. We (i) analyse data from sixty-nine field measurements in coastal habitats globally and examine measures of effectiveness of mangroves, salt-marshes, coral reefs and seagrass/kelp beds for wave height reduction; (ii) synthesise the costs and coastal protection benefits of fifty-two nature-based defence projects and; (iii) estimate the benefits of each restoration project by combining information on restoration costs with data from nearby field measurements. The analyses of field measurements show that coastal habitats have significant potential for reducing wave heights that varies by habitat and site. In general, coral reefs and salt-marshes have the highest overall potential. Habitat effectiveness is influenced by: a) the ratios of wave height-to-water depth and habitat width-to-wavelength in coral reefs; and b) the ratio of vegetation height-to-water depth in salt-marshes. The comparison of costs of nature-based defence projects and engineering structures show that salt-marshes and mangroves can be two to five times cheaper than a submerged breakwater for wave heights up to half a metre and, within their limits, become more cost

  5. Small copepods structuring mesozooplankton community dynamics in a tropical estuary-coastal system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rakhesh, M.; Raman, A. V.; Ganesh, T.; Chandramohan, P.; Dehairs, F.

    2013-07-01

    It is important to know the ultimate role of small copepods in structuring mesozooplankton community pattern and diversity on an estuary-coastal gradient. Here multivariate analyses were used to elucidate this in the Godavari estuary, on the east coast of India. During May 2002, corresponding to the spring intermonsoon, mesozooplankton were sampled from 4 GPS fixed stations in the estuarine reaches of River Godavari and 19 in the coastal waters where Godavari enters the Bay of Bengal. There were 91 mesozooplankton taxa represented by 23 divergent groups. Copepods were by far the most prominent in terms of species richness, numerical abundance, and widespread distribution followed by appendicularians. Small copepods of families Paracalanidae, Acartiidae, Oithonidae, Corycaeidae, Oncaeidae, and Euterpinidae dominated. There were differing regional mesozooplankton/copepod communities, that segregated the estuary-coastal sites into different biotic assemblages: Group-I representing the estuary proper, Group-II estuary mouth and near shore, Group-III the intermediate coastal stations and Group-IV the coastal-offshore waters. Alpha (SRp, H', J', Δ*) and beta diversity (MVDISP, β, β-dissimilarity) measures varied noticeably across these assemblages/areas. The significant correlation of small copepod abundance with total mesozooplankton abundance and biomass (mgDM.m-3) in the estuarine (r: 0.40) and coastal (r: 0.46-0.83) waters together with a regression analysis of diversity measures have revealed the importance of small copepods in the overall mesozooplankton/copepod community structure. There were 'characterizing' and 'discriminating' species, responsible for the observed assemblage patterns. Mesozooplankton/copepod community structure and the size-spectra observed during this study indicate an estuarine-coastal gradient in plankton tropho-dynamics that may shift between a microbial dominated system inside the estuary and mixotrophy in the coastal waters. The

  6. The Effectiveness, Costs and Coastal Protection Benefits of Natural and Nature-Based Defences.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Siddharth; Beck, Michael W; Reguero, Borja G; Losada, Iñigo J; van Wesenbeeck, Bregje; Pontee, Nigel; Sanchirico, James N; Ingram, Jane Carter; Lange, Glenn-Marie; Burks-Copes, Kelly A

    2016-01-01

    There is great interest in the restoration and conservation of coastal habitats for protection from flooding and erosion. This is evidenced by the growing number of analyses and reviews of the effectiveness of habitats as natural defences and increasing funding world-wide for nature-based defences-i.e. restoration projects aimed at coastal protection; yet, there is no synthetic information on what kinds of projects are effective and cost effective for this purpose. This paper addresses two issues critical for designing restoration projects for coastal protection: (i) a synthesis of the costs and benefits of projects designed fo